Book Title: Jaina Bibliography Part 2
Author(s): A N Upadhye
Publisher: Veer Seva Mandir Trust
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Page #1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHHOTELAL JAIN'S JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Page #2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Chhotelal Jain's JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Page #3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jaina Bibliography An Encyclopaedic work of Jain References in World Literature IN TWO VOLUMES Planned and Compiled by Babu Chhote Lal Jain Revised & Edited by Dr. A.N. Upadhye M.A., D. Litt. Eminent Indologist VIR SEWA MANDIR 21 DARYAGANJ New Delhi-110 002 (India) Page #5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Published by: VIR SEWA MANDIR, 21, Daryaganj, New Delhi-110 002. (India) Second revised edition, 1982 Price: Rs 300,00 Printed at: Emerson Press, Delhi-110 006 Page #6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Dedicated to the propitious memory of Pandit Jugal Kishoreji Mukhtar. The illustrious Founder of Vir Sewa Mandir and A great exponent of Acharya Samant Bhadra. . Page #7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ A word from the Publisher After publication of the First Edition of Jaina Bibliography in 1945, Babu Chhote Lal Jain continued to collect material for the Second Edition, visualising a modified plan of arrangement. By 1966 he had covered new material published till 1960, bringing the total reference items to about 3,000 or so. He had classified them according to his new plan which visualised publication of three volumes, the third. one being the Index. His premature death in 1966 inflicted grievous blow to the progress of the scheme, particularly the making of the collection as upto-date as possible. This revised edition is being published by Vir Sewa Mandir, a Research. Institute and Study Centre founded by the late Pandit Jugal Kishore Mukhtar, whose memory we still profoundly cherish. This edition is a treasure house of Jain references found in books and periodicals published possibly the world over during the last 160 years or so. Had Babu Chhote Lal Jain been living he would have mentioned this figure as 180 years, enriching the Bibliography with at-least 20 more years of new survey. Babu Chhote Lal Jain's attempt has been to name all the books (including those mentioned in A. Guerinot's three French books-Essal de Bibliographic Jaina, Repertorie d' Epigraphic Jaina Inscriptions, and Notes de Bibliographic Jaina, published between 1906 and 1909) which deal with Jainism, in whole or in part, or refer to whatever topic concerning Jainism, directly or incidentally. A brief outline of the content of the reference is also given so that the scholar or the reader becomes aware of the nature of the subject matter dealt with in the book under reference. The reader can then decide whether it would be worthwhile to obtain the original book for study or not. This in itself constitutes a great help. To facilitate research studies in a practical way, the Bibliography has been divided into two volumes and in ten sections. Books in each section have been arranged chronologically so that some idea of the successive nature of the studies or expansion of the subject-matter is obtained. Babu Chhote Lal Jain's vision, labours and spade-work have been the foundations on which the edifice of the Bibliography is built. So much of the contributory labour and editorial expertise in its making and its preliminary shape in print have Page #9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ VIII A WORD FROM THE PUBLISHER been of that great Indologist, one of the modern pioneers of Jain studies in a scientific way, late Dr. A.N. Upadhye who worked hard till his last days also to edit the index cards and check up proofs mostly himself and through Shri Gokul Prasad Jain. It is the third volume, containing Index, that will actually complete the work as planned by the author. Management of Vir Sewa Mandir hopes that the third volume will be made available soon. It is sad to reflect that Babu Nand Lal Jain, elder brother of Babu Chhote Lal Jain, is also no longer amongst us to receive this second edition of the Bibliography. It was he who kept the project alive through all the vicissitudes. We remember with gratitude, late Sahu Shanti Prasad Jain, whose patronage was a great support for Vir Sewa Mandir. We are thankful to his worthy and dynamic son, Shri Ashok Kumar Jain, Managing Trustee, Bharatiya Jnanpith, who is also our President, for his guidance and help towards fruition of the Bibliography Project. It is our earnest desire and hope that Bibliography will receive wide acclaim at the hands of scholars, enlightened readers and library managements, for the unparalleled source material that it offers in a field of rare scholarly interest. SUBHASH JAIN GENERAL SECRETARY Vir Sewa MANDIR Page #10 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ A Note (By the first publisher) The Bharati Jaina Parisat presents before the scholarly world this volume of "Jaina Bibliography" by Mr. Chhote Lal Jain as the first number of its Jaina Bibliography Series. The vast field of Jaina Literature, Art and Archaeology, Philosophy and Religion is still mostly unexplored. The scholars of the East and the West have already made valuable researches into the Vedic and Buddhistic Literature, but unfortunately the Jaina Literature which covers a wide field of Indological studies has not been properly appreciated. This is to a great extent due to the apathy of the Jaina Community who did not care to bring the religio-cultural heritage of their forebears within the easy reach of the modern scholars. It is a happy sign nowadays that some patrons of the Jaina Culture are trying to organise cultural institutions for Jaina Studies, and there are some Jaina scholars trained in scientific methods who have already made valuable contributions to this branch of knowledge. But a research scholar should have as his constant companion a bibliography of the subject he is interested in. There are the Vedic Bibliography, the Bibliographie Bouddique and similar bibliographies. For the benefit of the Jaina scholars, Dr. A. Guerinot, a French sa vant compiled a Jaina Bibliography, but his book covered researches upto the period of 1906. Mr. Jain has tried to supplement the treatise of Guerniot and this book covers researches till 1925. He intends to make it uptodate in another volume. S.C. SEAL Dated 25th July, 1945 Calcutta Page #11 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #12 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Foreword (First Edition) About half a century ago the celebrated French Orientalist, Dr. A. Guerinot, Docteur es Letters of the University of Paris, undertook the first systematic survey of all the available printed books and articles on Jainism published in European languages. Incidentally he gave valuable information with regard to the published as well as unpublished manuscript materials on Jaina religion and philosophy available in India and abroad. His (i) Bibliographie Jaina and (ii) his Repertoire d' Epigraphie Jaina were published between 1906-1908. Since then many valuable articles and books on Jainism have been published, to mention among others, the surveys of Jaina thought and culture by two German scholars: Dr. Glasenapp and Dr. Schubring; but those books were not easily accessible to our Indian scholars. Indian periodicals and journals have continued to publish various studies on Jainism; such studies are growing in number and still remain scattered. To help the general public as well as students of Jainism to follow the main trends of Jaina studies in recent years was the laudable aspiration of Mr. Chhote Lal Jain, the Honorary General Secretary of the Vira Sasana Samgha. In spite of his multifarious duties and obligations, and even in the midst of a serious break-down in his health owing to overwork, Mr. Jain with his characteristic devotion to the sacred cause, has completed the printing of his admirable work, Jaina Bibliography, Vol. I, which brings the survey down to the end of 1925. The material for the second volume covering the last 20 years between 19251944 is also ready and will be published in due time. Meanwhile, Mr. Chhote Lal Jain had the satisfaction of developing the plan of a centre of Jaina Culture on the occasion of the grand celebration in Calcutta commemorating the 2500th anniversary of the First Sermon delivered by Lord Mahavira. That celebration was attended not only by the Jaina community of North and Central India including Rajputana and by a few Jaina delegates from South India, but also by the leaders of Brahmanical and Buddhist religions representing the progressive thought of the majority communities of India. The spiritual legacies of Jainism should not be confined to the Jaina community alone, but should be made available to entire humanity, especially in this age of crisis Page #13 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ xti FOREWORD when violence threatens to ruin the entire fabric of human civilisation. The deathless principle of non-violence (ahimsa) is the noblest heritage of Jainism for which the whole mankind should ever be grateful. Even if we fail at present to draw the precise chronological relations of the earlier Tirthamkaras (promulgators of the Sacred Law), we are now definite that in the age of Lord Sri Krisna of the Mahābhārata epoch his cousin, Ariştanemi exemplified in his own life the sublime principle of ahiinsă by renouncing the world on the very eve of his wedding, when he saw that hundreds of innocent animals were about to be slaughtered simply for the entertainment of the guests at that royal wedding. That was the starting point of the realisation by Man of his kinship with the dumb animal world, differing from man only in linguistic expression, but animated by the same urge of life. So it was Jainism which for the first time bridged over the gulf between human life and animal life, and preached the basic truth of one common life pervading the whole Society. From such a profound realisation was born that creative compassion which made man look upon the dumb cattle as “Poems of Pity" in the inimitable words of Mahātmi Gāndhi, who, as we know, comes from Kathiawad-Gujarat, the home-land of Lord Nemināth (C. 1200 B.C.) and which part of India even to-day is the stronghold of Jaina religion and culture. Then came another great spiritual leader but the first systematizer of the Jaina Philosophy based on the Chatur. Yama or the four-fold principles, which were amplified by Lord Mahavir (C. 600 B.C.), a senior contemporary of Gautama Buddha. Buddhism, no doubt, derived from Jainism its main inspiration as well as the principle of the church organization (Samgha) and the fundamental doctrine of Ahimsā or non-violence. Buddhism simply applied to the life of the individual and of the nation as well as on international plane, the primordial historical truth of Ahimsā which Jainism for the first time discovered like the law of gravitation of the living universe. If we want to keep intact the countless cultural heritages of man and if we want to develop the creative possibilities of mankind to its fullest extent we must discard the inhumane, nay, canniballistic path of war and violence as preached by the immortal preceptors of Jainism. Such a cause deserves the support and collaboration not only of all men and women of about 20 lacs of Jains scattered all over India, but also of all serious workers in the cause of human welfare, in fact, all servants of humanity in the East as well as in the West. The dream of my esteemed friend, Mr. Chhote Lal Jain, and his colleagues, is to develop such an up-to-date centre of studies on Jaina religion and culture as would be able to give all facilities for research to men and women of all nations irrespective of caste, creed or colour. We know that some western ladies actually joined the order of Jain Nuns and the catholicity of Jainism is remarkable even in this age. Moreover, we can count upon the deepseated instinct of philanthropy which is ingrained in the Jaina community; and so we hope that the idea of developing a world centre of research or non-violence in the projected seat of Jain culture would soon mate Page #14 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ FOREWORD xiii rialise and that all organisations in the East and the West that are striving to make World Peace a reality would come forward to help my esteemed friend, Mr. Chhote Lal Jain and his colleagues. His first volume of Bibliography will, I am sure, rouse the attention of many scholars to this much-neglected field of research, and, I am sure, the publications by the Vira Sasana Samgha that will follow will sustain the interest thus aroused. Though the work of Mr. Jain is a preliminary work of compilation, he has spared no pains to make the book as useful and attractive to the general readers as possible. I wish him all success in his noble mission. KALIDAS NAG 11th July, 1945 Calcutta Page #15 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #16 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ The contributions of the Jains to the Indian Culture and sciences have been so vast that the history of India will be incomplete without a reference to them. But, of the three great religions of India-Jainism, Buddhism and Brahmanism, Jainism has been least studied and most misunderstood for want of proper knowledge of the available literature. But still it is a matter of great pleasure and encouragement that the great French scholar, Dr. A. Guerinot supplied the want to some extent by publishing his valuable volumes "Essai De Bibliographie Jaina" in 1906 and "Repertoire d'Epigraphie Jaina" in 1908. These books have been of great help to scholars and students interested in the study of Jainism. Preface (First edition) Much has been done in the field of Jaina study and many books have been published and numerous articles have appeared in the Indian and foreign journals, since the days of Dr. Guerinot. So it was my long desire to follow the foot-steps of the great French savant and supplement his works by bringing out two more volumes. containing all available information about Jainism from 1906. With that aim in view I went on taking down notes of references to Jains and Jainism from works on various subjects. As an humble student I had the privilege of working at the (Royal) Asiatic Society of Bengal for a number of years and this gave me the facility of using the books of the society. I have also referred to the collections of the Imperial Library and some other libraries. In the volume which is now published, I have excluded almost all the references found in Guerinot's books mentioned above and I have taken care to bring in all references not found in his works and all those published between 1906 and 1925. Bibliography of the books, publithed since 1925 up-to-date will appear in another volume which is now under preparation. I have to point out here, the departure I have made from the lines of Guerinot. While he has issued a separate volume for Jaina Epigraphy, I have included it under a separate section in this work. Almost all the references given in this book relate to the books written in English and other European languages. Calcutta, 25 July, 1945 Sravan Krsna Pratipada Vir Sambat 2471 Chhote Lal Jain Page #17 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #18 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Ex-General Secretary, Vir Shasan Sangh, Calcutta. Siddhantacharya, Babu Chhote Lal Jain Indologist, Writer and Author, Author of Jaina Bibliography, Vol. I. Ex-Honorary Member, Royal Asiatic Society. Ex-Vice President of All India Human League, Agra. Ex-Vice President of All India Music Conference, Calcutta. Ex-Treasurer of Indian Association of Mental Hygeine. Ex-Member, Bengal After-Care Association. Ex-Member, Executive Committee of All India Digamber Jain Parishad. Philanthropist, Savant and Social Reformer. Author of 1. Udaigiri-Khandgiri 2. Jain Murti-Yantra Sangrah Page #19 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1. A word from the Publisher 2. A Note by the first publisher 3. Foreword (to the first edition) by Dr Kalidas Nag 4. Preface (first edition) by Shri Chhote Lal Jain 5. Table of Contents 6. List of Abbreviations Section I. i) Encyclopaedia ii) Dictionaries iii) Bibliography iv) Catalogue v) Gazetteers vi) Census Reports vii) Guides viii) Temples Section II. i) Archaeology ii) Art iii) Epigraphy a) Palacography iv) Numismatics v) Iconography vi) Architecture Contents VOLUME ONE (PP. 1-1044) Books of General Reference (NOS. 1-6) (NOS. 7-29) (NOS. 30-41) (NOS. 42-144) (NOS. 145-208) (NOS. 209-233) (NOS. 234-261) (NOS. 262-359) Art, Archaeology and Epigraphy (NOS. 360-562) (NOS. 563-632) (NOS. 633-854) (NOS. 855-858) (NOS. 859-856) (NOS. 867-939) (NOS. 940-956) Pages 1-2 2-12 12-23 24-125 126-242 243-263 263-280 281-342 343-676 677-708 709-1006 1006-1007 1007-1009 1009-1037 1037-1044 Page #21 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ XX Section III. i) History ii) Chronology Section IV. i) Geography ii) Travels Section V. i) Biography Section VI. i) Religion Section VII. i) Philosophy and Logic Section VIII. i) Sociology ii) Ethnology iii) Educational Statistics Section IX. i) Language ii) Literature Section X. i) General Works VOLUME TWO (PP. 1045-1916) History and Chronology (NOS. 957-1464) (NOS. 1465-1509) Geography and Travels (NOS. 1510-1562) (NOS. 1563-1574) Biography (NOS. 1575-1635) Religion (NOS. 1636-1820) Philosophy and Logic (NOS. 1821-1940) Sociology and Education (NOS. 1941-1959) (NOS. 1960-1995) (NOS. 1996-2000) Language and Literature (NOS. 2001-2125) (NOS. 2126-2526) General Works (NOS. 2527-2910) 1045-1367 1368-1391 1392-1407 1408-1410 1411-1430 1431-1499 1500-1562 1563-1572 1573-1586 1587-1589 1590-1624 1625-1781 1782-1916 CONTENTS Page #22 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Abbreviations ABAW ABI AJ BA BAIS BDG = Abhandlungen der Bayeri- EIM = Epigraphia Indo Moslemischen Akademie der ca, Calcutta. Wissenschaften, Miinchen. GSAI = Giornale della Societa Asia= Annals of the Bhandarkar tica Italiana, Firenze Institute, Poona HOS = Harvard Oriental Series, The Asiatic Journal and Cambridge, Mass. Monthly Register for Bri- HS = The Hakluyt Society, Lontish and Foreign India, don. China and Australia, Lon- IA = The Indian Antiquary, don. Bombay. = Baessler Archiv, Berlin, JA = Journal Asiatique, Paris. Leipzig. JAOS == Journal of the American = Bulletin de l' Academic Oriental Society, Boston, Imperial des Sciences, St. New Haven. Petersburg. J. Anth, SB= The Journal of the An= Bengal District Gazetteer, thropological Society of Calcutta. Bombay, Bombay. = Bulletin of the Museum of JBBRAS = The Journal of the Bombay Fine Arts, Boston, Mass. Branch of the Royal Asia= Bihar and Orissa District tic Society, Bombay. Gazetteer, Patna. JBORS = The Journal of the Bihar = The Central India State Orissa Research Society, Gazetteer, Bombay, Cal Patna. cutta. JBTS Journal (and Text) of the = Central Provinces District Buddhist Text Society of Gazetteers, Allahabad, India, Calcutta. Bombay. JCBRAS = Journal of the Ceylon = Calcutta Review, Calcutta. Branch of the Royal Asia= The Dawn and Dawn So tic Society, Colombo. ciety's Magazine, Calcutta. JDL = Journal of the Department = Epigraphia Indica, Cal of Letters, University of cutta. Calcutta, Calcutta. BMFA BODG CISC CPDG CR DSM EI Page #23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ XXII ABBREVIATIONS JHAS JIH JMBS JPASB JRAS MDG = The Journal of the Hydera- PDG = Punjab District (States) bad Archaeological Society, Gazetteers, Lahore. Hyderabad, Deccan. QJMS = The Quarterly Journal of = Journal of Indian History, the Mythic Society, BangaOxford. lore. = The Journal of the Maha- RDG, RG=Rajputana District Gazetbodhi Society, Calcutta. teer, Ajmer. = Journal and Proceedings of RSO = Rivista deghi Studi Orienthe Asiatic Society of Ben tali, Roma. gal, Calcutta. SAW Sitzungsberichee der Aka= Journal of the Royal Asia demie der Wissenschajter, tic Society of Great Britain Wien. and Ireland, London. Si. = Serial. - Madras District Gazetteer, SBJ = Sacred Books of the Jains, Madras. Arrah, India. The Madras Journal of SIR - The South Indian ResearLiterature and Science, ch, Vepery, Madras. Nungumbakum, Madras, TAS = Travancore Archaeological London. Series, Trivandrum. = The Modern Review, Cal- TLSB Transactions of the Litecutta. rary Society of Bombay, = Note. London. = Page. VOJ = Vienna Oriental Journal, = Proceedings of the Asiatic Vienna. Society of Bengal, Calcutta. ZDMG = Zeitschrift der Deutschen = Prabuddha Bharata or Morgenliandischen GesellAwakened India, Almora. schaft, Leipzig MJ MR PASB JB Page #24 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY VOLUME II Page #25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #26 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jaina Bibliography VOLUME-II Section III 1 HISTORY 957 VALENTINE Chirol - India, Old and New, London, 1821. Pp. 27, 43, 53, 54. Jainism and Jain school of architecture. 958 W. ERSKINE--Observations on the Remarks of the Buddhists in India, (TLSB, iii, 1823, Pp. 494-537). General-Comparative antiquity of the Buddhists, Jains, and Brahmanas. Tests by which the excavations of the Buddhists, Jains and Brahmanas may be distinguished. 959 J. TOD-Comments on an Inscription upon marble, at Madhūcarghar, (Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. I Pp. 207-229). London, 1827. Remark on the era of Mahāvīra. Reviews and historical notes on the Bhojacaritra and the Kumārapālacaritra. Additional notes of OLEBROOKE. 960 James Forbes-Oriental Memories. Vol. I. London, 1834. P. 197. Gigantic image of Gommateśvara at Kurkul (Karkal); Gommateśvara at Sravana Belgo!a. Pp. 529-31. Cruelty on the Jains-Three classes of Yatis. Plate Vol. Plate No. 33. Sculpture in a subterraneous Hindoo temple Cambay. The Shawuck PagodaImage of Pārisnaut. Page #27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1046 961 W. TAYLOR-Oriental Historical Manucripts. 2 Vols. Madras, 1835. Vol. 1, P. 184. Sambandar and his controversies with the Jains-Naladiyar and its origin. Vol. ii, P. 83. The Ellora sculptures are in part the work of the Jains. Vol. ii, P. 86. Jain religion in the South of India above the Chauts. 962 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY J. Dowson. On the geographical Limits, History, and Chronology of the Chera Kingdom of ancient India (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (Old Series), Vol. VIII, Pp. 1-29). London, 1846. Historical reviews relating to the Jains. The king Govindaraya made a gift of land in favour of a Jaina temple in 82 A.D. A Jain of the name of Naganandin, was minister of Govindaraya and of his two predecessors Krisṇaraya and Kāla Vallabhāraya. Tiruvikramadeva, son of Caturbhuja Kanaradeva, was converted from the Jainism to the Sivaism (178 A. D.). In 878 A.D. under the reign of Malladeva II, a donation was made to the Jains at Ani. An Inscription of the dynasty of the Chalukyas, dated of 1071 A.D., relates to the destruction of the Jain temples of Laksmeswar by the Cholas. 963 J. BIRD-Historical Researches on the Origin and Principles of the Bauddha and Jain Religions-Bombay, 1847. This work treats specially of the Buddhism. Incidentally however it deals with. the Jainism. It serves to point out, among others, the following points: Resemblances and differences between the Buddhism and the Jainism. Description of the grottos of Elura. The Digambaras and the Svetämbaras. The ascetics and the laic disciples. Jaina doctrines in general. Philosophical principles; the deliverance. Cosmology. (An analysis of this work has given in the Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society Vol. II, Pp. 71-108). Page #28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 964 Histoire de la Vie de Hiouen-Thsang et de ses voyages dane I 'Inde, par HOEL-LI et YEN-Thsong, traduite du chinois par Stanislas Julien. Paris, 1853. P. 224. Customs of the Nirgranthas. "They leave their bodies naked and make it a virtue to remove their hairs. Their skin is all cleft and their feet are hard and cracked; one would say of these rotten trees which are near the rivers". Pp. 228-229. The predictions of the Nirgrantha Vajra in the subject of the return of Hiouen-Thsang to China. 965 J STEVENSON-The Tithyas or Tirthakaras of the Buddhists, and the Gymnosophists of Greeks, Digambar Jains, (Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. V, Pp. 401-407). Bombay, 1854. 1047 Reviews on Vrsabha and Pärivanatha. Mahavira (died in 569 B.c) and his disciple Gautma Indrabhuti, destined to become the Bauddha. The Tirthakaras in the Buddhistic writings. The description which is given of these ascetics permits. to consider them as Digambara Jains. The same remark is applied to the Gymnosophists of the Greeks. 966 A. K. FORBES-Ras Mālā. 2 volumes. London, 1856. Volume I Pages. 6-18. The Satruñjaya and the Jaina temples. Jaina legends relating to the Śatrunjaya. 36-40. Jaina relations concerning Vanaraja, founder of the Capotkata dynasty or Cavada of Anahilväd. 52-55. Quotations from the Duyairaya of Hemacandra, in the matter of Mularāja Ist, of the dynasty Caulukya of Anahilväd. 68-72. Camundaräja, son and successor of Mülaraja Ist; quatations from the Duyaraya, from the Prabandhacintamani and from the Bhojacaritra. Page #29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1048 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pages 82-84. Bhimadeva Ist according to the Duyaśraya. 100-101. Legend from the Prabandhacintamani relating to Mülarāja Ist. 106. Karṇadeva Ist in the Jaina legends. 115. Hemacandra at the court of Jayasimha Siddharāja. 157-158. Girnār and the Jaina temples. 171-174. Siddharāja. The Jainism and the Jaina controversy at the time of Jayasimha 176-178. Relations of Merutunga on Jayasimha Siddharaja. 180-204. Advent of Kumārapāla ; his conversion to the Jainism. Kumārapāla according to the Jaina chronicles. Hemacandra and Kumārapāla. 205-206. The Jaina ideas concerning Ajayapăla. 207-208. Reviews of Merutunga on Mularāja II and Bhimadeva II. 237-238-Chronological and critical ideas on the Duyaśraya and the Prabandhacintamani. 245-246. The Jains under the Caulukyas of Anhilvād. 249-250. Description of Anhilvād according to the Kumārapalacaritra. 263-264. The Jaina ministers Tejahpāla and Vastupāla. 264-273. The mount--Ābū. 369. The Jaina sanctuary of Taranga. Volume II 236-237. The Banyās. General customs of the Jainas. 259-261. Morals of the Banyās. 312. Generalities on the Jaina priests. 331-332. The fasting and the suicide by inanition to the Jains, Page #30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1049 967 Memories sur les contress occidentales. par Hiouen-Thsang, traduits du chinois par Stanislas Julien. 2. Volumes. Paris, 1857-1858. In some passages, Hiouen-Thsang speaks of the heretic monks who go naked, that is to say of the Jains. These passages are the following: Volume I Pages 41. In the realm of Kapisa, one finds some heretics who go naked. 69. Among the heretics of India, there are some who have no clothes at all and remain entirely naked. 163-164. At 40 or 50 leagues to the south-east of Simhapura (Panjab) "one sees the place where the founder of the heretic sect who wears some white clothes... commenced to explain the law. Today, one sees there an inscription. Near this place, one has constructed a temple..." Hiouen-Thsang describes afterwards some customs of the Jains. 354. In the realm of Vārānāsi, some heretics "preserve a tuft of hairs on the top of the head, go naked and have not any kind of dress". 384. The heretics who go naked "have a large crowd of partisans at Vaiśāli." Volume II 27. Many of the naked heretics inhabit the Mount Vipula and given themselves up to the most hard austerities. 42. A naked heretic resided in the neighbourhood of Rājagriha who excelled in the art of divination. At last Hiouen-Thsang gives the description of numerous naked heretics in the following realms : 75. Pundravardhana ; 82. Samatata; 93. Kalinga ; 116. Culya. 119. Drāvida. 121. Malakūta. Page #31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1050 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 968 J. PRINSEP--Essays on Indian Antiquities, with useful tables. Edited by E. THOMAS. 2 volumes-London, 1858. Volume II. Useful Tables. Pp. 165-166. Note on the era of Mahāvira (569 B.C., before the era of Vikra. māditya), used by the Jains in some countries of India. Mention of an era of Pārsvanātha, moreover doubtful. 969 MAX MULLER- A history of ancient Sanskrit Literature. Second edition. London, 1860. The Jaina canon written towards the beginning of the 5th P. 261. century A.D. The legend of Mahāvira. 970 Rajendralāla MITRA-Vestiges of the kings of Gwalior, (Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. XXXI, Pp. 391.424). Calcutta, 1863. The reviews devoted to these ancient kings and drawn from some epigraphical sources. Among the 19 inscriptions studied, and most of which are reproduced in facsimile, of them 5 Jains, namely : N. 5. Samvāt 1013; the king Mahendrachandra, son of Mādhava. N. 6. 1034 ; the Kacchapaghata, Vajradāman. N. 16. 1467 ; mutilated inscription, but very probably Jain. N. 18. 1497 ; the Jomara Dungarendra Deva. N. 19. 1510; -do- -do The inscription N. 7, of Samvat 1150, that Rājendralāla MITRA considered as Jain, is Vishņuite (cf. F. KIELHORN, Indian Antiquary, vol. XV, P. 33). Page #32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1051 971 Henry Beveridge-A Comprehensive History of India, Civil Military and Social etc. 3 Vol. London, 1865. Vol. 2, Pp. 80-83. Worship by the Jains. Their practice as to caste. Their partial respect for the Vedas. Their Moral system. Vol. 2, P. 148. Jain temples on Mt. Ābü. 972 M. ELPHINSTONE-The history of India. Fifth edition. London, 1866, Pp. 116-119. Resemblance of the Jainism with the Buddhism and with the Brahmanism. Characteristic of the Jainism. The Tirthankaras. The Jain priests, the temples and the sacred writings. Pp. 122-123. Some historical notions on the development of the Jainism. The principal regions of India where the Jainism is predominent. 973 Mark Wilks---Historical Sketches of the South of India in an attempt to trace the History of Mysore, Second Edition, Vol. I. Madras, 1869. P. 26. n. Conversion of Vişnuvardhana, of the Ballal or Hoysāļā dynasty, from Jainism to Vaisnavism in 1133 under the influence of Rāmānuja, an apostle of the Vişnuite sect. Demolition of 101 Jain temples at Calaswadi by Timmanna a Vaisnava in 1454. 974 W. W. HUNTER--Orissa-London, 1872. P. 181. Mention of a Jain temple on the top of the Western Khandagiri Hill. P. 220. The southern Yavanas originally Jains. P. 220 (n). Southern Yavanas curiously intermingled with the Ballala or Jain dynasties who spread from Visianagarar to Mysore, if not identical with them (of Mr. CARMICHALLI's Vizagapatam, Madras, 1869), Page #33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 228. Yavanas-typical Buddhists but became Jains when Buddhism marged into Jainism. Yavanas dissaminated Buddhism, especially in its later form of 1052 Jainism. P. 282. Buddhism's compromise with Vishnu-worship which composite creed took the form of Jainism in strong Aryan Provinces-Mt Abu-the richest effort of devotion. P. 284. Jainism one of the successors of Buddhism in Orissa. P. 302. Jainism springs up frequently wherever Hinduism subjugates the wild tribes. Plates P. 178. Serpent cave and Rock cells 300-150 B.C. P. 181. Tiger cave, Udayagiri Cira 300 B.c. Bhau DAJI-Merutunga's Theravali; or Genealogical and Succession Tables, by Merulunga, a Jain Pundit, (Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. IX, Pp. 147-157). Bombay, 1872. Brief review on Merutunga and his works. Analysis of the Theravali' which records the historical events that happened since the death of Mahavira upto the year Samvat 1371. The Jaina history occupies naturally the first place in this pattavalt. Remarks and comparative chronological table according to the Prabandhacintamant of Merutunga, the Kumarapalaprabandha of Jinamandanopadhyaya and an anonymous paṭṭāvali. 975 Bhau DAJI-The Inroads of the Scythians into India, and the Story of Kalakacharya, (Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. IX, Pp. 139-146). Bombay, 1872. 2. History of Kalakācārya according to: 1. the Kalakacāryakatha; 3. 976 a commentary of Subhastlagani; a guzerati manuscript; Page #34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1053 4. a Marwari manuscript ; 5. another Marwari Manuscript by Jinarangasüri ; 6. the Paryaşanaśataka, with commentary ; 7. some commentaries on the Kalpasūtra. 977 H. KERN-Over senige Tijdstippen der indische Geschie-denis. Amsterdam, 1873. P. 24 Sqq. Some historical ideas, in particular according to the Satruñjayamahatmya and the Kalpasūtra. 978 J. Muir-On the Era of Buddha and the Asoka Inscriptions, (Indian Antiquary, vol. III, Pp. 77-81). Bombay, 1874. The Buddhists and the Jains seems to have formed only a single sect. The legend of Buddha and that of Mahāvira offer great resemblances. Mahāvīra would have died in 388 B.C. This date would be equally that of the death of Buddha. The edicts of Asoke relating to the respect for animal life are rather confermable to the doctrines of the Jains than to those of the Buddhists. 979 J. T. WHEELER-The history of India, Hindu, Buddhist and BrahmanicalLondon, 1874. Pp. 361-362. Principle of the Jainism-Its agreement with the Buddhism and particularly with the doctrines of the Small vehicle. The Tirthankaras-Monks and the laity. Jain temples: the most eminent among them. The Jainism is especially flourishing in the Western India. 980 F KITTEL-Old Kanarese Literature, (Indian Antiquary, vol. IV, Pp. 15-21). Bombay, 1875. Jaina Literature. Review on the following Jaina works, written in old Canara : 1. Chando' mbudhi, treatise of prosody, relating all-together to the Sanskrit and Canara meters by Nāgavarman, Page #35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1054 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 2. Kavyāvalokana, of the same author ; treatise of poetical rules. 3. Nighantu, of the same author ; vocabulary according to Vararuci, Halayudha, Bhāguri and the Amarakośa. 4. Rasaratnākara, treatise on the poetry and the dramatical composition, by Salva. 5. Śabdamanidarpana, grammar of the Canara language by Keśava or Keśirāja. 6. Nanartharatnakara, collection of Sanskrit words having several significations, by Devottama. 7. Finamunitanaya, of Nagacandra, explained, in 102 stanzas, some virtuous actions according to the Jaina doctrine. explained some Jaina doctrine and refutation of the 8. Sastrasāra, Brahmanism. 9. Dharmaparıkşe, of Vrittaviläsa. 10. Commentary on the Amarakośa. 11. Commentary on the dictionary of Halāyudha. 981 (i) G. Bühler-On the Age of the Naishadha-Charita of Sriharsha. (Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. X, Pp. 31-37). Bombay, 1875. Review on the Prabandhakośa of Rājasekhara. According to the references on Sriharşa contained in this work, the Nvişadhiya might have been written between 1163 and 1174 A. D. 981 (ii) G. BÜHLER--Additional Remarks on the Age of the Naishadhiya, (Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. XI, Pp. 279-287).-Bombay, 1876 BÜHLER discusses again the theme of the Prabandhakośa of Rājasekhara relating to Sriharşa, and upholds his conclusions according to which this author might have lived at the end of the 12th century. Page #36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1876. 982 E. BURNOUF-Introduction a l' histoire du Buddhisme indien. Second edition.-Paris. P. 263. Signification of the word 'arhat' to the Jains. P. 279. Notes on the Jaina statues which are ordinarilly naked. 1879. 983 E. THOMAS-The Early Faith of Asoka, (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, New Service, Vol. IX, Pp. 155-234).-London, 1877. Importance of the discovery of Mathura for the history of the Jainism. Opinion of COLEBROOKE according to which the Buddhism derived from the Jainism. Proofs in favour of this thesis, according to the Buddhistic documents. List of the 24 Tirthankaras with their symbols and colours. The conclusions of STEVENSONS analogous to those of COLEBROOKE relating to the chronological reports of the Buddhism and Jainism, Several other opinions or accounts, in particular that of the Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hien. 1055 Brahmanism and Jainism. The doctrine of the castes Asoka. The Brahmanism and Jainism. The doctrine of the castes Asoka. The there periods of his religious evolution. Chronological study of the edicts from this point of view. It is in the last period only, after the 27th year of his reign that Asoka was converted to the Buddhism. Researches on the term 'Devanampiya", which must have been a conventional title about, the Jains. Study of the Indo-Scythian coins. Information about some archaeological relics of Mathura: statues and inscriptions. The Jaina religion was flourishing at Mathura in the period of Indo-Scythian King Kaniska. 984 MONIER, M. Williams-Modern India and the Indians. Third Edition. London, Pp. 159-160. Jainism is now the only representative of Buddhistic ideas in India proper. Jain system earlier than Buddhism from an independent source. Page #37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1056 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Characteristics of two sects of the Jains. Jainism, also lays stress on doctrine of transmigration. Jains although dissenting from the Veda regard themselves as Hindus. Pp. 515-518 (Appendix No. 5). The Jain doctrine. 985 J. ALWIS--The six Tirtaka (Indian Antiquary, vol. VIII, Pp. 311-314).Bombay, 1879. Account, after different Buddhistic works, on the six Tirthakas, who bear the following names : 1. Kaśyapa, surnamed Purna. 2. Makkhaligosāla. 3. Nigaạtha Nātaputta. 4. Ajita Kesakambala. 5. Sanjayabellance. 6. Kakudha Kätyāyana. 986 Max DUNCKER- The History of Antiquity, (From the German by Evelyn Abbott), vol. 4, London, 1880. Book VI. Chapter III. The Kingdom of Magadha and the settlement in the south. Chapter VI; Chandragupta and Magadha. 987 Shoshee Chunder DutT--India, Past and Present. London, 1880. P. 144. Jainism superior to the general religion of the country. The Jains also repudiate the Vedas. Like the Vaisnavas and unlike the Buddhists, they adhere to caste. They explain Nirvana more fully by distinctly assigning to the liberated souls a spiritual life for ever and ever. Of the saints worshipped by them Ādinatha, Pārsvanātha and Mabāvīra are the most important. Page #38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1057 988 T. W. Rhys Davids--Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as illustrated by some points in the History of Indian Buddhism-London, 1881. P. 27. Remarks on the origin of the Philosophical theories of the Buddhism and of the Jainism, and particularly of the doctrine of Buddha. Resemblances with the ancient Hindu Pbilosophical schools. 989 Rajendralál MITRA-Indo-Aryans. 2 vols. Calcutta. London, 1881. Vol. 1, pp. 16, 36, 63. Jain temples. Vol. 2, Pp. 355, 369, Jain temples. Vol. 2, Pp. 357, 417, 418, Jainism of Asoka. 990 H. JACOBI-Ueber Kalacoka-Udayin, (Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, vol. XXXV, Pp. 667-674). Leipzig, 1881. Critical study of the Jaina ideas relating to Udayin, it admits to identify with Kālāšoka. Text of the Parisistaparvan, VI, 22—40 and 175-252, in which there is talk of Udayin. 991 (Indian Antiquary, J. KIATT-Extracts from the historical records of the Jains. vol. XI, Pp. 245-256). Bombay, 1882. A very important work of great interest for the history of the Jaina schools, The matter is of the pastavalis of the Kharatara and Tapa sects, established according to the unpublished works, in particular the Gurvavalisutra of Dharmasāgara. Page #39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1058 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY The essential elements of these chronological lists are given in the following lists: 1. Pattāvali of the Kharatara Gaccha. Names Period Works Diverse notes 1. Mahāvira Mahāvīra had eleven disciples, the first of which was Gautama, still called Indrabhuti, and the fifth Sudharman. The first schism had taken place 14 years after the death of Mahāvira, with Jamali, and the second, two years later, with Tisyagupta (Prādesika). 2. Sudharman 3. Jambu Died 20 years after Mahāvira. 64 years after Mahāvira. -do-do 75 4. Prabhava . 5. Sayyambhava Dašavikalikasutra. 6. Yaśobhadra 148 7. Sambhutivijaya 156 8. Bhadrabāhu 170 -do-do-do Upasargaha. rastotra ; Kalpasūtra ; Niryuktis on 10 canonical treatises. 9. Sthulabhadra 219 -do Was the last who knew the 14 Purvas. The 3rd, 4th and 5th schisms had taken place respectively 214, 220 and 228 years after the death of Mahavira. Page #40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1059 Name Period Works Diverse notes 10. Mahagiri 249 years after Mahāvīra. 265 -do313 -do 11. Suhastin 12. Susthita The Kotika sect took birth with him. 13. Indradinna 14. Dinna 15. Simhagiri, 16. Vajra 584 years after Mahāvira. Founder of the Vajraśākhā. In 544 after the death of Mahāvīra, Rohagupta provoked the 6th schism. The 7th schism had taken place in 584 after the death of Mahavira. In 609, origin of the Digambaras. 17. Vajrasena. 18. Candra. 19. Samanta bhadra. 20. Deva (Vrid dhadeva). 21. Pradyotana 22, Mānadeva 23. Mānatunga śāntistava Bhaktāmarastotra ; Bhayaharastotra. 24, Vira In 980 after Mahavira, translation of the Siddhanta with Devarddhigani. 25. Jayadeva 26. Devānanda. Page #41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1060 Names 27. Vikrama. 28. Narasimha. 29. Samudra. 30. Manadeva. 31. Vibudhaprabha. 32. Jayananda. 33. Raviprabha. 34. Yaśobhadra. 35, Vimalacandra, 36. Deva. 37. Nemicandra. 38. Uddyotana. 39. Vardhamana. 40. Jinesvara. 41. Jinacandra. 42. Abhayadeva. 43. Jinavallabha. 44. Jinadatta. Period Works Samvat 11321211. Samvegarangasalaprakarana taka; Sadasiti etc, JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY etc. Diverse notes Founder of the Suvihita paksa sect. Died in in Samvat Pindavisuddhivi Foundation of the Madhu1167. prakarana Ga- kharatara śäkha. nadharasardhasa ; They were its disciples who created the 84 gacchas still existing. The first Suri particular to the Kharatara sect. The famous commentator of the Angas. Samdehadolávali, In Samvat 1204, Rudrappalliyakharatara śākhā was founded by Jinasekharācārya. the Page #42 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Name 45. Jinacandra. 46. Jinapati. 47. Jinesvara. 48. Jinaprabodha. 49. Jinacandra. 50. Jinakusala. 51. Jinapadma. 52. Jinalabdhi. 53. Jinacandra. 54. Jinodaya. 55. Jinaraja. 56. Jinabhadra. 57. Jinacandra. 58. Jinasamudra. 59. Jinahamsa. 60. Jinamanikya. Period Samvat 1197-1223. Samvat 1210-1277. Samvat 1245-1331. Samvat 1285-1381. Durgaprabo dhayakhya. Samvat 1326-1376. Samvat 1337-1389. Died in Samvat 1400. Died in Samvat 1406. Died in Samvat 1415. Samvat 1375-1432. Died in Samvat 1461. Died in Samvat 1514. Samvat 1487-1530. Samvat 1506-1555. Samvat 1524-1582. Works 1549-1612. Diverse notes 1061 In Samvat 1331, foundation of the Laghukharatara säkha by Jinasimha suri. In Samvat 1422, Dharmavallabhagani founded the Vegadakharatara śākhā. Jinavardhanastiri founded the Pippalakakharatara säkhä in Samvat 1474. In Samvat 1564, foundation of the Acaryiyakharatara śākha by Säntisagara, Page #43 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1062 Name 61. Jinacandra. 62. Jinasimha. 63. Jinaraja. 64. Jinaratna. 65. Jinacandra. 66. Jinabhakti. 67. Jinabhakti. 68. Jinalabha. 69. Jinacandra. 70. Jinaharsa. Period Samaat 1595-1670. Samvat 1615-1674. Died in Samvat 1711. Died in Samvat 1763. Samvat 1739-1780. Samvat 1647-1699. Jinarajt, com- Jinasagarasuri founded in mentary on the Samvat 1586 the LaghNaisadhiya. vacaryiyakharatara śākhā; and Rangavijayagani the Rangavijayakharatara śākhā in Samvat 1700. From this last sect comes of the Srisariyakharatara śäkhā. Samvat 1770-1804. Samvat 1784-1834. Samvat 1809-1856. Works Named Suri in Samvat 1856. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Diverse notes It is said he converted the emperor Akbar to the Jaina religion. In Samvat 1621, Bhavahareopadhyaya founded the Bhavaharsiyakharatara säkhā. Page #44 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY II. Pattavali of the Tapagaccha. Besides some little differences, the list of the Tapa sect is similar to the previous upto Uddyotana inclusively. Then the series of Jaina masters continue thus - Names 36. Sarvadeva 37. Deva (Rüpair) 38. Sarvadeva. 39. Yasobhadra & Nemicandra. 40. Municandra 41. Ajitadeva 42. Somaprabha & Maniratna. 43. Vijayasimba 44. Jagacandra 45. Devendra. 46. Dharmaghosa 47. Somaprabha Period Died in Samvat 1327. Died in Samvat 1357. Samvat 1310-1373 Work Author of several com mentaries. Author of diverse stavas & stotras. 1063 Diverse notes Samvat 1029, Dhanapäla composed his dictionary. Samvat 1096, death of Santi sūri. Samvat 1135, death of Abhayadeva the famous com mentator. Municandra had as disciple Devasüri (Samvat 1143-1226), author of Syadvadaratnakara, Hemacandra lived in the same period (Samvat 11451229). Founder of the Tapa gaccha. Page #45 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1064 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Names Period Works Diverse notes 48. Somatilaka Samvat 1355-1424. 49. Devasundara Born in Samvat 1405. 50. Somasundara Samvat 1430-1499. 51. Munisundara Samvat 1436-1503. Upadeśaratna - kara, etc. 52. Ratnasekhara Samvat 1457-1517 Acarapradipa In Samvat 1508, origin of and several the Lumkā or Lumpaka sect. commentaries. 53. Laksmisägara 54. Sumatisādhu Born in Samvat 1464. 55. Hemavimala 56. Anandavimala Samvat 1547-1596. 57. Vijayadana Samvat 1553-1622. 58. Hiravijaya Samvat 1583-1652. 59. Vijayasena Samvat 1604-1671. 60. Vijayadeva Samvat 1634-1713. 61. Vijayaprabha Born in Samvat 992 H. DHRUVA-Prasastis of Nanaka, a Court Poet of King Viśāladeva of Gujarat, (Indian Antiquary, vol. XI, Pp. 98-108.-Bombay, 1882. Historical and literary ideas relating to the kings Viradhavala and Viśāladeva of the Vaghela dynasty of Dholka and to the ministers Vastupala and Tejahpāla. These information are taken from some Jaina sources, in particular from Vastupalacarita of Harsagani and Prabandhakośa of Rajasekhara. Page #46 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 993 K.B. PATHAK-The date of Mahavira's Nirvana, as determined in Saka 1175 (Indian Antiquary, vol. XII, Pp. 21-22).-Bombay, 1883. Study of a passage from the Śravakacars, equally called Maghanandiśvāvakācāra, because Maghanandin wrote its first chapter. According to this passage, the Saka era commenced 605 years after the death of Mahavira. This had, then, taken place in 527 B.C. It is exactly the same date that the Svetämbaras of the north admit, 1065 994 Lewis RIC-Early Kannada Authors, (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, New Series, vol. XV, Pp. 295-314). London, 1883. The ancient Canara literature is of Jain origin. It counts a very great number of representatives, of which the following are important: Samantabhadra 650 A.D. (?), to whom are attributed the Devagamastotra the Nyayaniscayavarttikalankara, the Uktyanušasana, the Bhaşamañjari, the Cintamanitippani and the Astasahasratippani, Kaviparimeşthin, 670 A.D. (?) Pajyapada, towards 690 A.D. known as grammarian and author of the Jainendravyakaraṇa, of the Paninisabdavatara, of the Kärikävritti, of the Surasasangraha and of the Sarvarthosiddhi. Akalankacandra, native of Śravana-Belgola; in 788 A.D., in presence of Hemasitala, king of Kanci, he held up a controversy against the Buddhists and provoked their banishment. His works are the Devagamastotranyasa and the Pramanaratnapradipa. Pampa or Hampa born in 902 A.D., of a brahmanical family converted to the Jainism. Author of the Adipurana and of the Pampa Bharata. Jinacandra. towards 950 A.D., author of the Pujyapadacarita. Poona or Honna, towards 950 A.D. converted from the Brahmanism to the Jainism. Ranna, author of the Ajitatirthakarapusäṇa, born in 949 A.D. Nemichandra, towards 990 A.D., author of the Lilavati. Gunabhadra, author of the Uttarapuraṇa. Page #47 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1066 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Gunacandra, towards 1070 A.D., author of Parivabhyudaya and of the Maghan andisvara. Gunavarman, who constructed probably the famous Jaina temple of the Gangas at Laksmeswar. He lived likewise towards 1070 A.D. He composed the Puspadantapurana and the Devacandraprabhastotra. Nayasena, 1115 A.D., author of the Dharmamṛtha. Nagavarman, surnamed Kaviraja about 1070-1120. His works are: the Kanyavalakana, the Chando'mbudhi, the Karnatakabhasabhaṣaṇa, the Vastukosa and a translation in Canara of the Kadambart. Balacandra, towards 1120, author of the Tallvarlanadipika and of the Parabhrtakatravaryakhyana. Näagacandra, surnamed Abhinava Pampa, towards 1170, author of the Pampa-Ramayana, of the Mallinathapurana, and of a short treaties of Ethics entitled Jinamunitanava. Aggala. Digambara of the Desi gana. Pustaka gaccha and Kundakunda anvaya; he finished his Candraprabhapurana in Saka 1111. Kefiraja about 1160-1200, author of the Sabdamanidarpana. Kamalabhava, author of Santisvarapurana, towards 1200. Karnaparya, towards 1200, author of the Neminathapurana. Salva, towards 1300, author of the Resaratnakara. From the outset of 1300, the Jaina writers are supplanted by the Lingayats, until towards 1508, period to which preponderance commences to belong to the brahmanical works. 995 A. CUNNINGHAM-Book of Indian Eras.-Calcutta, 1883, P. 5. The era of Mahavira must have been in usage among the Jains in an ancient period, probably at the time of Asoka. P. 37. The death of Mahavira had taken place, according to the Digambaras, 605 years before Vikrama, and according to the Svetambaras, 470 years before the same Vikrama. This last date, may be 527 B.C., is most generally admitted. P. 49. The ideas of the Jaina books relating to the era Vikrama. 996 K. B. PATHAK-The date of Trivikrama, (Indian Antiquary, vol. XII, P. 150). Bombay, 1883. According to the Adipurana, Uttarapurana and the grammar of Trivikrama, the latter would have been contemporary of the emperor Räṣṭrakūta Ammoghavarşa Ist. Page #48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1067 997 Robert SWELL-A sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India. Madras, 1883. P. 17. The Cholas destroyed a number of Jain temples at Puligere or Laksmeśvara in the reign of Someśvara I of the Western Chālukyas. P. 39. The Kadambas of Palāśikā or Halsi in Belgaum, were Jaina and of the Manavya gotra, ‘sons of Hariti'. P. 49. A Jain named Nāganandi was minister to the Kongu or Ganga Kings Kalavallabha Rāya Govinda Rāya, and his successor Kamāradeva. P. 50. A forged inscription dated A.D. 178 mentions that Kongu King Tiru Vikramādeva was converted from the Jain to the Saiva faith by Sankaracharaya, P. 72. At the time when Yuan Chwang visited Kanchi in A.D. 610 there were numerous Jains. P. 73 In A.D. 788 the Buddhists were finally expelled froin the neighbourhood of Kanchi to Ceylon by Prince Hemašitala who became a Jaina. P. 94. The Ratta Mahāmandalesvaras, at first feudatories of the Rästrakūtas, were Jains. P. 95. The Santara kings in Maisur, feudatories of the Chālukyas, were Jains. P. 105. Endowment of some Jain temples by Harihara I. P. 118. Amoghavarsa I, who was surnamed "Atisayadhavala” and Nộpatunga I, he defeated the Chālukyas, and built the city of Mānyakheta. He came to the throne in A D. 814-15 or 815-16 and enjoyed a long reign. 998 Kirtikaumudi by Somessvaradeva, editted by A.V. KATHAVATA. (Bombay Sanskrit Series, n.XXV)-Bombay, 1883. Introduction. Review on Someśvara. He was the priest of Bhimadeva II, king of Anahilvād-Pāțan and of Lavaņaprasāda, prince of Dholka. Resemblance of Someśvara with the Jain Harihara, according to the ‘Praban. dhakośa'. of Rajasekhara (Samvat 1405). Analysis of the Kittikaumudi'. This is a history of the kings of Anahilvãd, and particular of Vastupala, the celebrated Jaina minister of the princes Lavaņaprasāda and Viradhavala. But the account of Someśvara stops at the time of the Zenith of Vastupāla. Last years of Vastupāla, Page #49 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 068 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Biography of Vastupāla according to the Jaina sources, principally the Vastupālacarita' of Harsagani and the 'Prabandhakośa'. Text of the 'Kirtikaumudi'. Notes. Index of the names of persons and of localities. Appendices A and B. Text of two inscriptions in the temple of Tejahpāla on the mount Ābū. The first of these two inscriptions has been translated. Appendix C. Aphorism of the doctrine of the Syadvāda. Text and translation. 999 W. W. ROCKHILL—The life of the Buddha and the early history of his Order-London, 1884 The first appendix consists in a translation, by M.E. LEUMANN, of extracts from the Bhagavati XV, concerning the resemblances of Mahävira with Gosāla. 1000 (i) H. KERN-Geschiedenis van het Buddhisme in Indie. 2 volumes-Haarlem, 18821884. 1000 (ii) H. KERN--Der Buddhismus und seine Geschichte in Indien. Uebersetzung von Jacobi. 2 volumes--Leipzig, 1882-1884. H. 1000 (iii) H. KERN-Historiredu Bouddhisme dans l'Inde. Traduite du neerlandais par G. Huet. 2 volumes (Annales du Musee Guimet. Bibliotheque d'etudes, vols. X and XI). Paris, 1901-1903. Volume I Information relating to the Jains. Pages Edition of the-- French Netherlands. German 12 16-17 15-16 The Jains have been mentioned in the most ancient Buddhistic writings. The Jains and the Buddhists presented only a few exter Page #50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1069 17-18 nal differences. Mahāvīra was the contemporary a little anterior to Buddha. In note, references to COLEBROOKE and to M. JACOBI. Additional note of M. JACOBI : (1) In the introduction to his edition of the Kalpasülra, he has furnished the proof that Buddha and Mahavira were contemporaries. (2) In the article "On Mahāvira and his Predecessors”, he has sought to demonstrate that Mahāvīra was not the founder of Jainism, but the reformer of an already existing sect. Note with respect to the Digambaras. Episode of Višākhā. Note on the domination of Gymnosophists applied probably to the Jains by the Greek authors. The Nirganthas having at their head Jñatặputra (Nātaputta), constitute one of the six sects hereticals in comparison with the Buddhism. 120 142 111 113 119 121 144 143 181 151 182 429430 546547 460461. 442 561 474 The Jain partisans of the doctrine of the salvation by the works : episode of Simha, adept of the Jainism at Vaiśāli. The sentiment of the universal compassion characterise the Jainism and the Buddhism. Note relating to intolerance and to the hatred of the Buddhists in comparison with the Jains. 445 565 477 Page #51 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1070 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 445 566 478 Note on the characters common to the Jainism and to the Buddhism. Volume II 6-7 6-7 66-67 76 161 201 175 192 240 The Jains signalised by Asoke by the side of the Buddhists : dangerous rivals of the Buddhists after the most ancient books of the latter. Sharp rivalry of the Jains with regard to the Buddhists at Vaiśāli. Additional note of M. JACOBI on the importance of Vaiśāli as Jain Centre. History of the king Udayana who got the statue of Mahāvīra sculptured. The statues of Mahāvira at Mathura. Note on the sanctuary of Khandagiri founded by the Jains of the marathi country. Schematic representations of the sacred tree on the Jain inscriptions of Khandagiri. The symbol of the bull to the Jains. Institutions of Asoke in favour of the Jains. Historical ideas on the Jain monastery of Abhayagiri, at Ceylon. Predominance of the Jainism at Mathura from 83 to 360 A.D. after the votive inscriptions uncovered in this place. Persistence of the Jainism in India, inspite of persecutions. 194 242 211 245 213 196 310 386 337 338339 422423 368369 427 534 465 438 548 477 Page #52 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1001 Robert BROWN-The people of the World. Vol. 4. London, 1885. Pp. 82-83. Jainism-A secession from Buddhism-Home of this faith-Mysterious character----Number of Believers-Tenets---Temples. SI-YU-KI.Buddhist Records of the Western World. Translated from the Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang by S. BEAL. 2 volumes-Boston, 1885. Here is, as regards the passages relating to the Jains, the agreement between the translation of St. JULIEN and that of S. BEAL. Page Page Pages Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page St. JULIEN. Vol. I. 41 69 163-164 354 384 Vol. II. 225 27 42 Vol. II. 82 93 116 1002 119 121 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ S. BEAL Vol. I. 55 76 144-145 Vol. II. 45 77595 66 158 168 Vol. II. 1071 199 208 227 229 231 Besides, in the vol. 1 of his translation S. BEAL has devoted a note to the Svetambaras, P. 144, and another to the Digambaras, P. 145. Page #53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1072 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1003 L. FEER.-Tirthikas et Bouddhistes ; Polemique entre Nigantha et Gautama, (Actes du VI. Congres international des Orientalistes, III Partie, Section II, Pp. 69-80).Leide, 1885. Summary of the Paragraphs 1. Charges directed against Buddha. Texts relating to the question. 2. The ten probibited actions and their tripartite division. 3. Reproach addressed to Buddha for considering the actions of the body as immaterial. 4. Who made this reproach to Buddha ? Was this an error or a calumny ? 5. Respective opinions of Nigantha and of Buddha on the actions of the body and those of the mind. 6. Reasoning of Buddha against Nigantha. 7. Subordination, according to Buddha, of the actions of the body to those of the mind. 8. Conclusion : Superiority of the system of Buddha. 1004 Th. Foulkes-The Pallavas, (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, New Series, vol. XVII. Pp. 183-220).-London, 1885. Date A.D. Events interesting to the History of the Jainism. about 777 Erection of a temple to the north of Sripura, by Kundawe, daughter of a king Pallava. about 788 Hemnaśitala established an important Jaina colony at Kanchi. He was converted to the Jainism. 1064 Adondai, of the Chola dynasty, transform the Jaina temples into Hindu temples, with the exception of five. 1005 K. B. PATHAK - Passage in the Jain Harivamsa relating to the Guptas, (Indian Antiquary, vol. XV, Pp. 141-143).--Bombay, 1886. The Harivamsa was composed in Saka 705 by Jinasena. Citation of the Colophon. Page #54 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Text and translation of the passage LX. 83-88, according to which the Guptas must have commenced reign 720 years after the death of Mahavira, may be towards 193-194 A.D. Note of M. FLEET. If one admits that the Gupta era my have commenced in 319-320 A.D., the calculation of Jinasena gives the date of 401-400 B.c. for the nirvana of Mahāvira. 1006 J. F. FLEET.-Two Passages from the Acharatika, (Indian Antiquary, vol. XV, P. 188) Bombay, 1886, 1073 Citation of two passages of the Acaratika (comentary on the Acarängasūtra), according to which the author, Silanka, considers as identicals the Gupta era and the Śaka era. 1007 Shyamal DAS-The Antiquity, Authenticity, and Genuineness of the Epic called "The Prithvi Raj Rasa', (Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. LV. Pp. 5-65).Calcutta, 1886. This article contains three inscriptions in Sanskrit which interest the history of Jainism. I. Inscription issuing from Bijoli in Mewar. Gift of a village in favour of a temple of Pārsvanatha, by the Cahamana Someśvaradeva; Samvat 1226-1169 A.D.-Analysis, Pp. 14-15; translation, Pp. 28-32; text Pp. 40-46. III. Inscription issuing from Chitor, dated Samvat 1324-1267 A.D. Dedication of a temple (?) by Ratnaprabhasüri and Hemaprabhasūri, of the Caitra gana-Text, Pp. 46-67. V. Other inscriptions issuing from Chitor; Samvat 1335-1278 A.D. Gift of land, by the prince Guhila Samarasimha, in favour of a temple of Pärvanatha which his mother Jaitalladevi had constructed.-Analysis, p. 18; text, Pp. 48. 1007 (1) The Gaudaraho, a historical Poem in Prakrit, by Vakpati. Edited by Shankar Pandurang Pandit (Bombay Sanskrit Series, n. XXXIV). Bombay, 1887. The critical review from the commencement contains some information on a commentary of the 'Gaudavaho' by Haripäla, son of Upendra. It is not absolutely certain that this Haripala may be a Jaina. However his style is Jain. Page #55 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1074 INTRODUCTION Remarks on the importance of the Jain literature. P. CXXXV-CLXI.-Note II. Jaina accounts on Vakpati and the prince Yasovarman of Kanauj, according to the following works: Bappabhattisuricarita; Prabandhakosa of Rajasekharasûri; Prabhavakacarita, composed by Prabhäcandrasuri and reviewed by Pradyumnasûri; Tirthakalpa of Jinaprabhasûri; Gathasahasri of Samayasundara; Vicarasaraprakarana of Pradyumnasuri. Patavali drawn up in Samvat 1739 by Ravivardhanagani. Criticism of these documents. 1008 O, T. BETTANY--The World's Inhabitants or Mankinds, Animals and Plants. New York, 1888. are P. 307. The Jains temples and pilgrimage. Their holy inen of the past admitted as true deities. One half the mercantile wealth of India passes through their hands. 1. Sudharman 2. Jambu 3. Prabhava 4. Sayyambhava 5. Yasobhadra JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1009 J. KLATT. Fine apokryaphe Pattavalt der Jainas. (Festgruss an Otto Von Bohtlingk, Pp. 54-59).-Stuttgart, 1888, his master, Analytical or critical study of the Yugapradhanasvarupa' a short work in 88 Prakrit stanzas, on which Kalyana wrote a Sanskrit commentary in Samvat 1685. The 'Yugapradhanasvarupa' contains some chronological data on 141 Jalna patriarcho. But 49 (or 48) only among them belong to the history. The others. are only indicated to prophetic title. Here is a list of the first : Names. 98 148 Date of the Nirvana. 20 years after the nirvana of Mahavira. 64 -do 75 -do -do -do -do -do -do -do Page #56 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1075 Names. Date of the Nirvana. -do do 6. Sambhutivijaya 156 years after the nirvana of Mahāvira. 7. Bhadrabāhu 170 -do -do8. Sthūlabhadra 215 -do9. Mahāgiri 245 -do -do10. Suhastin 291 -do -do11. Gunasundara 335 -do12. Syāmārya (Kālakācārya) 376 -do -do13. Skandila 414 -do -do14. Revatimitra 450 -do -do 15. Aryadharma 24 Samvat. (In this period lived Kalakacharya, the conqueror of Gardabhilla). 16. Bhadragupta 63 Saiņvat. 17. Árigupta -do18. Vajra, the last dasapuram -do19. Aryarakṣita 127 -do20. Durbalikapusyamitra. 147 -do21. Vajrasena 150 22. Năgahastin 219 -do23. Revatimitra 278 -do24. Simha 356 -do25. Nāgārjuna 434 -do26. Bhutadinna 513 -do27. Külakācārya 524 -do28. Satyamitra 531 -do29. Harillasüri -do30. Jinabhadragani 645 -do31. Umāsvāti 720 -do 114 .do 585 Page #57 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1076 JAINA BIBI IOGRAPHY Names. Date of the Nirvāna 32. Puśyamitra 780 Samvat 33. Sambhūtisūri 829 -do 34. Mādharasambhūti 889 -do 35. Sridharmasvāmin 929 -do 36. Jyeșthāngasūri 1000 -do 37. Phalgumitra 1049 -do 38. Dharmaghosa 1127 -do 39. Vinayamitra 1213 -do 40. Śılamitra 1292 -do 41. Revatimitra 1370 -do 42. Sumanimitra 1448 -do 43. Arihamitra 1493 -do 44. Pādivayasūri 1502 -do 45. Visnumitra 1547 1597 46. Harimitra -do 47. Sandilasvamin 1627 -do 48. Jinapatisvāmin 1667 -do 49. Jinacandrasūri, 1010 ATMARAMAJI ANANDAVIJAYAJI--Genealogical Tree illustrating the Chronology of the Jain Religion, and all its divisions and subdivisions. This chronological table in colours has been communicated byM. HOERNLE to the Asiatic Society of Bengal in February, 1889. (See-proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 1889, p. 131). Page #58 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1077 1011 J. F. HEWITT- Notes on the early History of Northern India, Part II, (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, New Series, Vol. XXI, Pp. 187-359).--London, 1889. Pp. 258-262. The Jainism and the country of the Suvarņas. The three great Jaina sanctuaries of West India, Satrunjaya, Girnār and the Mount Ābū. The Jainas of West India are in general tradesmen.--The Jaina doctrine based on some brahmanical rules. The Licchavis were probably adepets of the Jaina religion before being converted to the Buddhism. 1012 R. Ch. DUTT-A History of Civilization in Ancient India. London, 1889-1890. 3 volumes-Calcutta Vol. II. Pp. 315-327. Review on the Jainism, Diverse opinions on the antiquity of the Jainism : Lassen, WEBER, BÜHLER, M. M. BArth and JACOBI.-- Life of Mahāvīra. Origin of the Svetāmbaras and of the Digambaras, the separation of which would be accomplished in 79 or 82 A.D. Council of Valabhi in 454 or 467 A.D. ; ultimate drawing up of the Jain canon. Discussion on the age of the Jainism. Resemblance between the Buddhism and the Jainism. The canonical writings. Translation of extracts from the Acārāngasūtra relating to Mahavira, Rapid analysis of the Upāsakadasă; episodes relating to Anand. Volume III Pp. 84-85 Account of Hiouen Thsang on the Jains. Pp. 344-372. Review on the Jain architecture in the different rigions of India. 1013 L. de MILLOUE- Histoire des religions de l'Inde, (Annales du Musee Guimet. Bibliotheque de vulgarisation, vol. II).- Paris, 1890. CHAPTER III--Jainism. Origin of the Jainism. According to the author, the Jainism is more ancient than the Buddhism. Dogmas of the Jains. Creation of the world. Cosmogony. Immortality of the soul. Transmigration. The mukti. Divinities and demons, Page #59 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1078 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY The Tirthakaras or Jinas. Vṛṣabha, Nemi, Pārsvanatha, Mahavira. The Arhats, the tramavas, the yatis and the ravakas. Religious duties of the priests and of the laity. Dharma and karma. The ahimsa. Pious readings, Meditation. Abstinence, Ablutions. Confession and absolution. Sacrified and festivals. Pilgrimages. Temples and images. Funeral ceremonies. Sects. The Digambaras and the SvetämThe actual state of the Jainism. Its importance. Pp. 328-329. Short bibliographical index. 1014 SOMESVARADEVA--Kirtikaumudi. Ubersetzt von. A. Haack-Breslau, 1892. German translation, preceded by an introduction. 1015 A.F.R. HOERNLE-The Paṭṭavali or Lists of Pontiffs of the Upakesa-Gachchha. (Indian Antiquary, vol. XIX, Pp. 233-242).-Bombay, 1890. This pattavalt is borrowed from the "Ajanatimirabhaskara", a Hindi work on the Jainism, by Atmārāmaji Anandavijayaji, pontiff of the Vijaya lakha, founded from Tapa gaccha by Vijayasimhasūri. The laic adherents of the Upakeśa gaccha call themselves Oswals. They constitute one of the principal commercial casts of Rajputana. It is said that they drew their name from the town of Osanagari, in Marwar, where is found an ancient temple of Mahāvīra. The list of the pontiffs established by the paṭṭāvali goes back to Parivanätha and comprises the following names : 1. Subhadatta, disciple of Parsvanatha. 2. Haridatta. 3. Aryasamudra. 4. The ganadhara Kesin. 5. Svayamprabhastiri. Summary of the legend in this matter. 6. Ratnaprabhasûri, who died 84 years after Mahavira. 7. Yakṣadeva. Page #60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1079 8.32. Succession, repeated five times, of: Kakkasūri, Devaguptasūri, Siddhasūri, Ratnaprabhasūri, and Yaksadevasūri. Among which, the 17th master, a Yaksadevasûri, died 585 years after Mahāvíra. 33-74. Succession, repeated 14 times, of: Kakkasūri, Devaguptasūri, and Siddhasūri. In this list, the following masters are specially mentioned : 40. Devagupta, Samvat 885. 42. Kakkasūri, author of the Pancapramāņa. 43. Devagupta, Samvat 1072, composed the Navapadaprakarana. 49. Devagupta, Samvat 1108. 51. Kakkasūri Do. 1154. 54. Do. Do. 1252. 65. Siddhasūri Do. 1330. 66. Kakkasūri Do. 1371, author of the "Macchaprabandha". 67. Devagupta Do. 1409. 68. Siddhasūri Do. 1475. 69. Kakkasūri Do. 1498. 70. Devagupta Do. 1528. 71. Siddhasūri Do. 1565. 72. Kakkasūri Do. 1595. 73. Devagupta Do. 1631. 74. Siddhasüri Do. 1655. Page #61 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1080 Lewis RICE-Early History of Kannada Literature, (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland for 1890, Pp. 245-262).-London, 1890. 1016 The Canara language and its different forms. Quotations from the Subhasita or Nitikanda, an ancient Jaina work and from the Rajavalikathe, of Devacandra. The ancient Canara literature. The most ancient poets: Samantabhadra, Kaviparimeşthin and Pujyapāda. Samantabhadra must be placed in the 2nd century A.D. He was born at Utkalikagrāma and was an active promoter of the Jaina religion. Pujyapada, of his real name Devanandin, is the author of the Jainendriyakarana. He lived towards the middle of the 5th century. Other authors worthy of interest are: Śrivardhadeva (about 6th century), Ravikirti (7th century), the king Amoghavarsa Ist, who reigned from 814 to 867 and composed the Kavirajamargālamkara, precious work for the literary in formation it contains. J. KLATT-The data of the post Magha, (Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. IV, Pp. 61-71).-Wien, 1890. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1017 Study of the Jaina Prabhavakacarita. I. Magha might have been born at Srimāla, in the Guzerat, and might have been the cousin of Siddharși, according to the following genealogy: Suprabhadeva (minister of the king Carmalata). 1 1 Dattaka 1 Magha I Subhamkara 1 Siddharsi II. Biography of Siddharsi. Period of Siddharși: he composed the Upamitabhavaprapañcakatha in Samvat 962-906 a.d. IV. Magha might have then lived towards 906 A.D. But according to the references of several authors, he should have been placed to a period more ancient. Page #62 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1081 V. Attempt of conciliation. 1. Māgha was probably a little older than Siddharşi, because his father was the eldest of the two brothers. 2. Siddharşi was undoubtedly an old man when he finished the Upamitabhavaprapañcăkatha. 3. Mägha could be considered as the contemporary of the king Bhoja of Kanauj (862 and 876 A.D.). 4. Perhaps he composed his poem early, that which was worth his renown since his youth. 1018 H. JACOBI.- Anandavardhana and the date of Măgha, (Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. IV, Pp. 236-244).-Wien, 1890. Criticism of the authority of the Jaina Prabhāvakacaritra relatively to the period of Māgha : the tradition which recalls this work is legendary. As regards Māgha, two principal facts are to he pointed out : 1. The poet is mentioned by Anandavardhana, who, according to the Rajatarangini, became famous under the reign of Avantivarman of Kashmir (855-884 A.D.). 2. He was imitated by Ratnakara, the poet of the king Bälabrihaspati of Kashmir (835-847 A.D.). It follows from this, that Mägha must have lived towards the beginning of the 9th century, and even previously. 1019 A.F.R. HOERNLE-Two Patļāvalts of the Sarasvati Gachchha of the Digambara Jains, (Indian Antiquary, vol. XX, Pp. 341-361)..Bombay, 1891. INTRODUCTION Study of the manuscripts containing these Pattavalis. The manuscript A begins by an introduction in verse recalling the ancient pontiffs from Mahāvīra to Bhadrabahu II. It gives afterwards the list of the pontiffs of the Sarasvati sect up to the 108th, Bhuvanakirti (Samvat 1840). Page #63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1082 AINA BIBLIOGRAPHY The patļāvali of the manuscript B stops at the 102nd pontiff, Mahendrakīrti (Samvat 1938). The two manuscripts have a common list upto 87th pontiff (Samvat 15721581). Afterwards a gives the series of the masters belonging to the line of Nagar, and B that of the masters of the section of Chitor. The Sarasvati gaccha is still known by the name of Kundakunda arvaya. However, the founder of it was not Kundakunda, but Māghanandin. It is why the sect is called also Nandi gaccha or Nandi amnāya. At last, it is equally designated by the terms of Balātkāra gana and of Pārijāta gaccha. It is a branch of the Mūlasangha, that is to say of the community founded by Mahāvīra himself (Digambaras). Information about other Digambara Patļāvalis. Text and translation of the introduction to the Pattavalt A. List of the masters of the Sarasvati sect. This list includes: 1. The series common to the two Patļāvalis; 2. The section of Nāgar; 3. The section of Chitor. In each of these three parts, the name of the different masters is accompanied by detailed and precise chronological data and by varied remarks. Index of the names of pontiffs. NOTES 1 Chronology-Critical study of the chronological data contained in the introduction to the Patļāvali A. 2. History of Vikrama.-According to the same introduction, Vikrama was born in 470 of the era of Mahavira and ascended to the throne at the age of 24 years. 3. On the title of Bhattāraka. This title must have been conferred to the pontiff Padmanandin in Samvat 1375. 1020 A.F.R. HOERNLE-Three further Patļāvalis of the Digambaras, (Indian Antiquary, vol. XXI, Pp. 57-84).-Bombay, 1892. Page #64 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION These three new pattavalis designated by the letters C, D, E, are of the same kind as the two precedents A & B, published by M. HOERNLE. The comparison between them of these five documents proves that there were two distinct traditions among the Digambaras, relating to the succession of their pontiffs. Indeed, the pattavalis differ between them on several points. 1. The period of 683 years which followed the death of Mahavira is subdivided in a diverse manner following one or the other of the traditions. The paṭṭāvalts A and C representing one of these traditions, and the pattavalt E the second. 1083 2. The tradition, to which A & C testify, appeared to be the only authentic. It results from it that before Bhadrabahu I, the Jaina community must have been undivided. The division between the Digambaras and the Svetämbaras as brought about towards Samvat 136 or 139. Afterwards, with Maghanandin, the Digambaras were divided into four sects. Another important difference consists in the varied designation of the residences of the Digambara pontiffs. A list indicates these diverse residence accor⚫ ding to the pattavalis A, B & D of one part, E of another part, and at last C. 4. The succession of the pontiffs is narrated in two ways: by A, B & D of one side, and by C & E of other side. 5. At last, one ascertains a difference in the dates in comparing the recensions. A and D with the recension C. Pattavali C. This pattavali commences by an introduction relating to the Jaina masters before the constitution of the Sarasvati sect. The chronological list, that it includes extends from Bhadrabahu II (Samvat 4) of to Subhacandra (Samvat 1450). Text and translation of the introduction to this paṭṭāvali. Table of the succession of the pontiffs of the Sarasvati gaccha according to this pallavali Pattavali D. Indication of the principal differences between this pattavalt and the others. List of the succession of the pontiffs following this pattavalt, but only according to the passages where it differs from A and E. Page #65 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1084 Pattavali E. Text and translation of the introduction. General list of the pontiffs, from Bhadrabahu III (Samvat 104), upto Prabhacandra (Samvat 1571). Appendix. 1. Review on a manuscript of the Vikramaprabandha. This work is identical with the Pancadandachattraprabandha published by WEBER. Note on the Nitisära and the author of this work, Indranandin, who must have lived between 1524 and 1565 a.d. 1021 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY William Wilson HUNTER-The Indian Empire: Its peoples, history and products. New and Revised Edition. London, 1892. Pp. 205-208. The Jains-Jain doctrines. Jain temple cities. Relation of Jainism to Buddhism. Jains earlier than Buddhists. Antiquity of the Jains. JACOBI'S investigation of the question. Jainism older than Buddhism-Date of Jain Scriptures. Jains an independent sect. Modern Jainism, etc. 1022 G. T. BETTANY-The World's Inhabitants; or, Mankind, Animals, and Plants. Third Edition. London etc., 1892. Pp. 307-308. Representation of Buddhism in India by the Jains. Their difference from Buddhism. Their belief in a sort of pantheism. Their wealth and influence. Their tenderness to animal life. Their temples and pilgrimages. 1023 Gustav OPPERT-On the Original Inhabitants of Bharatavarsa or India. Westminster and Leipzig, 1893. P. 62. Influence of the Jains strongest in towns where the artisan classes form an important and powerful portion of the population, while the Brahmans appealed to the land-owning and the agricultural classes, whom they won by entreaties or by threats. Page #66 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1085 P. 67, Tiru Vallava Nayanar, author of the Tamil work, the Kural, showed in his writings a knowledge of, and tendency towards, Jainism. The Jains use the title Nayanar as an honorific appellation. P. 100. Buddhist and Jain missionaries the first preachers and religious teachers devoted to the indigenous population. This is, perhaps, why a temple, more particularly of Buddhistic and Jain, is called a palli. P. 236. Adoption of the Jain faith by the Kurumbas who became bigoted adherents of this sect. Compaign of Ananda Chola to crush the supremacy of Jainism. Ascendancy of Saivism, the result. Jainism by no means extinct among Kurumbas. P. 245. Success of a Jain priest to convert a great number of the Kurumbas to Jainism. Erection of a Jain basti by the king of Pulal. Destruction of Jain sculptures found in rice-fields. Many Kurumbas resemble in their present manners and customs e.g., marraige ceremonies, the Jains of former times. P. 248. Existence of a Jain basti dedicated to Aditirthankara in the village Pulal. 1024 John STRACHEY--India. London, 1894. P. 245. Jain doctrines, similar to the more orthodox forms of Buddhism-a tendency for Jainism to become virtually a sect of Brahmanism. "In the north and west of India the Jains are still a cultivated class, mostly engaged in commerce, whilst in the south they are, as a rule, agriculturists." 1025 J. KLATT---Samachärı-Satakam of Samayasundra and Pattāvalis of the AnchalaGachchha and other Gachchhas. Revised with additions by E. Leumann, (Indian Antiquary, vol. XXIII, Pp. 169-183).--Bombay, 1894. I. The Samāchāri Šļakam. The “Samācārisataka” was composed in Samvat 1672, by Samayasundavagani, disciple of Sakalacandra, himself disciple of Jinacandrasūri (Samvat 1612-1670) of the Brihatkharatara gaccha. The work is divided into 5 prakaśas and 100 chapters. It is still designated under the name of 'Praśnottarasata'. A very large number of chapters bear a title. One of the most important chapters relates to the discussion happened in Page #67 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1086 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Samvat 1617, between Jinachandrasüri and Dharmasāgara, at Anhilvād-Pātan. This chapter recalls a series of gacchas and of Jaina masters, and enumerate 17 pattāvalis. The other chapters mention equally some authors and some works, the list of which has been given by KLATT following the alphabetical order. II. Pattāvali of the Anchala-Gachchha. This pattāvalí agrees with those of the Tapā and Kharatara sect up to the 35th pontiff, Uddyotanasūri. The 36th and 37th Pontiffs were Sarvadevasüri and Padmadevasūri, both disciples of Uddyotana. The list continues afterwards upto the 83rd pontiff, Vivekasāgarasūri (Samvat 1940A.D. 1884). III. Pattāvali of the Goyaraksha-Sākhā. After Bhavasāgara (Samvat (15601583), 61st (62nd) pontiff of the Ancala gaccha, the Goyaraksa sect commences with Sumatisāgara (63rd) to continue up to Gulabasāgara (75th). IV. Pattāvalt of the Tapā. Gachchha. List of the different pattāvalis of this sect, namela ; 1. Gurvāvali of Munisundarasūri, Samvat 1466. 2. Last chapter of the 'Kriyāratnasmuccaya' of Gunaratnasūri, Samvat 1466. 3. Gurvavalisutra of Dharmasāgara, Samvat 1629. 4. The same work revised by order of Hiravijayasuri, Samvat 1648. 5. The pattavalt contained in the Hiravijayacaritra (Sarga IV) of Devavimala 6. Gurvāvali of Jayavijayagani, Samvat 1680. 7. Pattavalisāroddhara of Ravivardhanagaņi, Samvat 1739-1749. V. Pattāvali of the Vijayānanda-Gachchha. Vijayasena (died in Samvat 1971). 59th pontiff of the Tapä sect is given as successor. Vijayatilakasūri, under which three subordinate new sects took birth : the Poravāda gaccha, the Osavāla gaccha and the Sāgara mātā. The Poravāda gaccha, from Vijayananda (died in Samvat 1717) to Surendrasūri (Samvat 1908), counts eleven masters. VI. Pattūvali of the Vijaya-śākhā. After Vijayadeva, 60th sūri of the Tapā sect, eight masters have been cited, up to Vijayasuri (Samvat 1940). VII. Pattāvali of the Vimala-Gachchha. The sect took birth with Hemavimala, 55th pontiff of the Tapā gaccha. It was followed by Saubhagyahargasuri (Samvat 1583), who had himself six successors. Page #68 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1087 VIII. Pattāvali of the Pārsvachandra-Gachchha. The pattāvali of this sect, still called Nagapuriya-Tapā, is analogous to that of the Tapā Gaccha up to the 40th pontiff, Municandra. A Municandra succeeded Devasuri (Samvat 1143-1226), then 26 other sūris. IX. Notes on an inscribed Statue of Pārsvanātha. Text and translation of an inscription dated Samvat 1503 and recalling the dedication of a statue in bronze of Pārsvanātha by Udayacandrasūri, disciple of Salibhadrasūri, of the Jirapalli gaccha. This sect Jirapalli or Jiraula was founded by Sarvadevasūri in Samvat 994 or 1109. 1026 R. G. BHANDARKAR---Early History of the Dekkan. Second editions.--Bombay, 1895. Pages : 1. The Jaina literature contains some information relating to the history of Guzerat and Rajputana. III. Principal works of the Digambaras utilised as sources for the history of the Deccan : Harivamsapurāņa, Uttarapurāna, rašastilaka, Praśnottararatnāmālika, etc. 59. The princes of the first Cālukya dynasty were some devoted protectors of the Jainism. The latter was specially flourishing in the south Maratha. 65. The Harivamsapurāṇa was composed by Jinasena in Saka 705, under the reign of Vallabha (Govinda II, Rāştrakūta ?). 68-69 Amoghavarşa Ist, prince of the Rāstrakūta dynasty (above Śaka 760). was a fervent adept of the Jainism. There is a talk of him in the Uttarapurana of Gunabhadra, in the Pārsvabhyudaya of Jinasena (author of the Adipurāna and preceptor of Guņabhadra), in a philosophical treatise entitled Jayadhavala and in the Sarasamgraha, mathematical treatise of Virācārya. At last the Digambaras attribute to him the Praśnottaratnamälika the author of which should be Vimalachandra for the Svetämbaras and Sankaracharya for the Brahmins. A Tibetan translation of the Praśnotara-ratnamälika consider equally Amoghavarşa Ist, as the author of this work. 69. Under the reign of Akālavarşa, or Krişņa II, son and successor of Amog. havarsa Ist, several Jaina temples were constructed. 69-70. In Saka 820, consecration of the Uttarapurāņa by Lokasena disciple of Guņabhadra. Page #69 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1088 Pages: 75. The Yakastilaka, of Somadeva, finished in Śaka 881. 76. Under the Rästrakūtas, the Jainism, and particularly the Digambara community, continued its progress. 79-80. The Jaina Bharata, composed in Saka 863, by the Canara poet Pampa, furnished a genealogy of the Calukyas of the posterior dynasty. 93 & 95. Narration of a Jaina work entitled Vijjalarayacarita concerning the reign of Bijjala (Vijjala, Vijjana), of the dynasty of the Kalacuris. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 96. Under the second dynasty of the Calukyas and that of the Kalacuris (973-1188 A.D.), the Jainism was attacked vehemently by the sect of the Lingayat. 103. Different donations made to a Jaina temple in Šaka 1063 by a Yadava prince. 123-124. The Silähäras of Kolhapur gave proof of great religious tolerance and patronised the Jainas several times. 133-134. Historical table in which are recalled some dates of Jaina events. 1027 R. CHALMERS-The Jains, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland for 1895, Pp. 665-666).-London, 1895. Translation from the commencement of the Sutra 104 of the Majjhimanikaya. The question is of the position of the Nirgranthas immediately after the death of Mahavira. 1028 V. R. GANDHI-History and Religion of the Jains, (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland for 1895, Pp. 679-680)-London, 1895. The opinion that made Jainism a sect of Buddhism is abandoned to-day. The identification between Nigantha Nataputta and Mahavira is legitimate. Considerations on the word Nigantha.-Among the Jain gacchas, one bore the name of Nigantha, which was afterwards changed in Kotika The Jain doctrines; comparison with the doctrines of the Vedantists and of the Buddhists. The moral doctrines: the formula of universal pardon. Page #70 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1029 Hon. P. COOMARSWAMY-Gleanings from Ancient Tamil Literature. (JCBRAS, xiv, 1895-96, Pp. 17-40). 1089 P. 20. Pandya king's conversion from Jainism to Hinduism by Jñana Sambandar. E.S.W. Senathi Raja's remarks on Jainism and Buddhism, and the overthrow of Jainism by Sambandar. 1030 Sylvain LEVI-Les donations religieuses des rois de Valabhi. (Bibliotheque de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes. Vol. VII. Etudes de critique et d'histoire, Deuxieme Serie, Pp. 75-101). Paris, 1896. The princes of Valabhi in the Jaina tradition. The king Śiläditya Ist and the restoration of the Jainism. The lecture from the Kalpasitra before Dhruvasena Ist and his court. Devarddhigani and the council of Valabhi. 1031 G. BÜHLER-A Jaina account of the End of the Vaghelas of Gujarat, (Indian Antiquary, vol. XXVI, Pp. 194-195).-Bombay, 1897. Text and translation of a passage from the Tirthakalpa or Kalpapradipa of Jinaprabha. According to the last verses of the section entitled Satrunjayakalpa, this part of the Tirthakalpa was composed in Samvat 1384. 1032 (a) The Raghuvansa of Kalidasa, Edited by G. R. NANDARGIKAR, Third edition.Bombay, 1897. The preface of this edition contains reviews on some Jaina commentators of the "Raghuvamia", namely: Pages. 15-20 Caritravardhana, of great renown among his co-religionists; his commentary bears the name of "Šijuhitaişini". An anonymous person, disciple of Vijayanandasūri, and who lived after Caritravardhana, towards 1385 A.D. Page #71 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1090 Pages. 23-24 Vijayagani, disciple of Rāmavijaya of the Tapă sect, the comment which he composed is called "Subodhika". 24-25 Sumativijaya, author of the Sugamanvaya; it is a modern commentary. 25-26 Dharmameru, another modern commentator, wrote a "Raghutika". 1032 (b) E. W. HOPKINS-Notes from India. (Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. XIX, Pp. 29-41). New Haven, Connecticut, 1898. P. 38. Notes on the arrangement of the hair on some Jain statues of Elura. P. 39. Description of a veiled Jain statue at Badami (see-Vol. XX. P. 223, a slight correction to this review.). 1033 Friedrich RATZEL-The History of Mankind. (Tr. from the Second German Edition by A. J. Butler). Vol. 3. London, 1898. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 524. The religion of the Jains is a development from Brahmanism resembling the old Buddhism, but tending more to the worship of saints. 1034 Abdul KARIM-The Students' History of India. Calcutta, 1899. P. 28. Jainism-Its history and chronology. 1035 A. M. BOYER-L'epoque de Kaniska, (Journal Asiatique, IXth Serie, Tome XV, Pp. 526-579).--Paris, 1900. The fourth part of this treatise is devoted to the study from graphic point of view, of some Jaina inscriptions of Mathura. This examination, being added to the indications furnished by the Chinese and the numismatic documents, permits to the author to conclude that Kanişka commenced reign towards the end of the Ist century of the Christian era. Page #72 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1091 1036 J. F. FLEET-Notes on Indian History and Geography-The Places mentioned in the spurious Altem grant, (Indian Antiquary, vol. XXIX, Pp. 273-278). --Bombay, 1900. Study of a Jaina document recalling some gift made by Pulikesin Ist, of the dynasty of the Chalukyas of the West. It contains, moreover, the following information: Construction of a temple at Alaktakanagar (Altem), in Saka 411. Mention of Jaina masters: Siddhanandin, Citakāchārya, Nāgadeva, Jinanandin. It is to this last that the gifts attributed to the temple were made and which consisted of villages and lands. The study has the object to identify these different villages. 1037 A. WEBER---On the history of religion in India ; a brief review. Translated by G. A. GRIERSON, (Indian Antiquary, vol. XXX, Pp. 268-288).--Bombay, 1901. P. 280. Review on the Jainism. 1038 H. L. FANSHAWE --Delhi Past and Present. London, 1902. P. 67. About 200 yards to the northwest from Jumma mosque is the Jain temple or Sarawogi temple of Dehli, the elegant decorator of the porch of which is specially commended by Mr. FERGUSSON. 1039 R. G. BHANDARKAR--A Peep into thn early History of India from the foundation of the Maurya Dynasty to the fall of the Imperial Gupta Dynasty-B.C. 322-circa 500 A.D. (Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. XX, Pp. 356408).-Bombay, Pp. 395-396. One possesses only three Jaina inscriptions dating from the commencement of the 5th century A.D. 1. Udayagiri, 424 A.D. ; 2. Kahaun, 459 A.D. ; 3. Mathura, 113 of the Gupta era=431 A.D. Page #73 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1092 JAINA BIBLIOCRAPHY 1040 V. A. SMITH.-The Kushān, or Indo. Scythian, Period of Indian, History, B.C. 165 to A.D. 320. (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland for 1903, Pp. 1-64).- London, 1903. This treatise contains the complete list of the inscriptions of the Indo-scythian kings. Here is the series of the Jaina Inscriptions : Annee King Locality. Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Kaniska Mathura Mathura Kaniska Kaniska Mathura Mathura Ramnagar Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Huviška Mathura -do Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Page #74 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1093 Annee King Locality. Mathura Huvişaka -do-do Mathura Mathura -do Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Huviska Mathura Mathura Mathura Rāmanagar Mathura Vasudeva Mathura Mathura Vasudeva Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Vāsudeva Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Mathura Vasudeva -do- (?) Mathura Page #75 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY According to the author, the date of these inscriptions should be fixed accor ding to the Laukika era, or the common era. One must have thus, the following agreement: 1094 Inscriptions 4 98 Laukika (32)04 (32)98 1041 Kaliyuga 3229 3328 Thus, the advent of Kanişka must have taken place towards the year 125 A.D. A complimentary note to this article is given by the author in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1905. Pp. 151-152. A.D. 1043 128-129 T. W. RHYS DAVIDS.-Buddhist India. Second Impression. London, 1903, P. 143. Jains an organised community all through the history of India from before the rise of Buddhism down to the present time. 222-223. P. 163. The Buddhist and Jain records about the philosophic ideas current at the time of the Buddha and the Mahavira. P. 285. Illustration of the Jain temple at Khajuraho. P. 318. Three-fourths or more of the persons named, and objects of donation specified in all the inscriptions throughout India, from Asoka's time to Kaniska's, are Buddhists, and the majority of the remainder are Jain. 1042 P. D. CHANTEPLE de la Saussaye-Manuel d'Histoire des Religions. Traduction. fransaise sous la direction de H. Hubert etc. I. Levy.--Paris, 1905. Pp. 363-67. Devoted to the Jainism. H. F. HELMOLT.-The World's History. Vol. 2. London, 1904. Pp. 402-404. Jainism and its tenets. Pp. 405-406. The kingdom of Magadha; Chandragupta and Aśoka. Page #76 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1095 1044 V. A. SMITH-The early history of India.–Oxford, 1904. Pages 8. The Jaina books contains some historical information of considerable value. 24. Short review on Mahāvira, born at Vaiśāli and died at Pawa. 27-28. Mahāvīra preached the Jainism in Magadha during the reign of Bimbisara. 39-40. Mahāvira and Gautama Buddha were contemporaries. They both died in the reign of Ajätasatru, Mahāvīra, few years before the Buddha. Discussion on the date of the death of Mahāvīra; cf. particularly the note I of the page 40. 41. Chronological table in which the death of Mahāvīra is referred to the year about 490 B.C., and that of the Buddha to the year 487. 145, 148, 158.--The Ajivikas presented close analogies with the Jains. 163, N. 2. The Hospital for animals, called "Banyan" at Surat was the common work of the Jains and of the Vişnuites. 176, N. 2. Khāravela, king of Orissa towards 157 before the Christian era, was a Jaina prince, but had the greatest toleration in respect of other religions. 264. The Jaina cult in the beginning of the Christian era. Mathura was one of its principal centres. 291. The Jains cult in the 7th century is specially flourishing at Vaiśāli and in the East Bengal. 326-328. During the two centuries of reign of the ancient dynasty of the Calukyas of Vātāpi, the Jainism made considerable progress; he was particularly popular in the southern Marathā. Amoghavarşa Ist (815-877 A.D.) was a very generous king with respect to the Jainas, specially with respect to the Digambaras, whose coinmunity made a rapid extension in the 9th and 10th centuries, with some pontiffs such as Jinasena and Guņabhadra. 330-331. Decline of the Chālukya dynasty (1156-1190 A.D.). Reign of Bijjala (Kalacuri), who professed the Jaina religion. Formation of the sect of the Lingāyats who thwarted in a large measure the scope of the Jainism. Page #77 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1096 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 331. In the province of Mysore, under the reign of Vişnuvardhana, of the Hoysala dynasty (1117 A.D.), the Jainism enjoyed a great favour. Thanks to the minister Gangarāja, the temples destroyed by the Cholas were repaired. 334. Note on the development of the Jainism in South India. 338 & 355. The Jainism counted numerous followers in the Southern India when Hiouen-Thsang visited this country in 640 A.D. 339. Persecution of the Jainism by the Choļas in the 11th century. 1045 (i) J. F. Fleer-Notes Indian history and Geography-Amoghavarsha I, as a patron of literature, (Indian Antiquary, vol. XXXIII, Pp. 197-200).-Bombay, 1904. It is probable that the author called by the name of Nripatunga is identical with the prince Amoghavarşa Ist, of the Rāstrakūta dpnasty and who reigned from about 814-815 to 877-878 A,D. 1045 (ii) J. F. FLEET-Notes on Indian History and Geograpy.--Kaviśvara's Kavirajamārga, (Indian Antiquary, vol. XXXIII, Pp. 258-280).-Bombay, 1904. Study on the author and the composition of Kavirajamärga. This work would have been due to the king Amoghavarşa Ist, but it would have been written under the patronage of this prince by a certain Kaviśvara. 1046 D. R. BHANDARKAR-Gurjaras. (Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. XXI, Pp. 413-433). Bombay, 1904. Pp. 425-426. To what period the province of Guzerat took this name? Jaina ideas in this matter according to some inscriptions and pattāvalis. 1047 R. HOERNLE-Some Problems of ancient Indian History.--II. The Gurjara Empire. (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland for 1994, Pp. 639-662)-London, 1904. P. 644. The theme of Harivams apurana of Jinasena, about the history of Guzerat. Page #78 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1048 R. HOERNLE and A. STARTK-A History of India.Cuttack, 1905. Pp. 26-28. Origin of the Buddhism and of the Jainism. Life of Mahavira. Pp. 34-35. The language and the Jaina literature. Pp. 75-76. Religious state of Indian towards 800-1000 A.D. The Hinduism. 1049 Purna Ch. MAJUMDAR-The Musnud of Murshidabad, (704-1904), Murshidabad, 1097 1905. P. 276. Azimgunj is the home of the Jains, whose ancestors emigrated from Bikanir in the latter half of the 18th cent. 1050 R. SHAMASASTRI-Chanakya's Law and Revenue Policy. (IA, xxxiv, 1905, Pp. 5-10). P. 5. Hemachandra's account of Chanakya in his Sthaviravalicharita, though legendary agrees with Visnupurana in making him the destroyer of Nanda and supporter of Chandragupta. In the Nandisutra, a Jain religious work, Chanakya is extolled for the success which he achieved as Finance Minister to Chandragupta, 1051 (i) R. C. DUTT-Early Hindu Civilisation, B.C. 2000 to 320. Calcutta, 1906, Pp. 381-390. History of Jainism. 1051 (ii) R. C. DUTT-Later Hindu Civilisation, в.c. 320 to A.D. 800. Calcutta, 1906. Pp. 93-95. Religious toleration of the emperor Harṣavardhana. The Jains in his court. Pp. 127-128. Manatunga. The legend relating to the composition of the Bhaktamarastotra. The other poems of Manatunga. Pp. 226-227, 232. Jain Architecture, its special characteristics. 1052 M. L. ETTINGHAUSEN-Harsa Vardhana empereur et poete de l'Inde septentrionale (606-648 A.D.).-Londres-Paris, 1906. Pp. 93-95. Religious toleration of the emperor Harşavardhana. The Jains in his court. Pp. 127-128. Manatunga. The legend relating to the composition of the Bhaktamarastotra. The other poems of Manatunga. P. 131. Review on the poet Ravikirti and on the Satruhjayamahatmya. Page #79 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1098 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1053 William CROOKE-Things Indian, London, 1906. 270. Colossal images are common both to Buddhists and Jains. The largest Jain figure at Gwalior is 57 ft. high, while that at Śravana Be!goļa in Mysore, the colossal statue of Gommatesvara, cut out of a single rock, is 60 ft. Pp. 283-286. Vardhamāna of Mahāvīra, born in about 599 B.C., the founder of Jainism-Absolute nudity was one of his chief rules-Difference between Jainism and Buddhism-Jainism remarkable for the magnificence and profuse ornamentation of its shrines. Jain temples at Palitana, Girnar, Mt. Ābū, Pārasnātha and Khajūrāho-Two kinds of Jain temples bastis and bettus. Jainism not a separate religion, but rather a sect of Hinduism. P. 397. Disturbances between Jains and orthodox Hindus in connection with Jain processions. 1054 C.V. VAIDYA--Epic India; or, India as described in the Mahābhārate and the Rāmāyaṇa. Bombay, 1907. P. 347. Idol worship the outcome of Buddhism and Jainism. P. 359. Jainism borrowed two planks from the orthodox religion of India, viz., fasting and abstention from slaughter. P. 369. The only philosophical discourses in the Rāmāyana throws light on the state of orthodox feeling towards Jainism and Buddhism, about Ist cent. B.C. P. 377. The Rāmāyana refutes the doctrines of Jainism and Buddhism not by argument but by down-right condemnation. P. 447. Buddhism and Jainism followed by a resuscitation of the Karmakända and Vedic sacrifices. P. 505. The ahimsa doctrine was a part and parcel of Hinduism long before it was taken up by the Jains and the Buddhists. 1055 C. W. WHISH-India. London, 1907. P. 15. Rise of Buddhism and Jainism may be dated in about 500-450 B.C. Page #80 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1099 1056 Alfred MEEBOLD--Indien (India). Munchen, 1908. The work, written in German, in eight chapters, describes India in all its different aspects, religious, philosophical and even topographical. Contains Pp. 1-322, and is illustrated. Pp. 71, 75, 80, 106, 107, 109, 117. About Jains and Jainism. 1057 V. VENKAYYA- Ancient History af the Nellore District. (L.A., xxxvii, 1908, Pp. 199-210). P. 201 n. Jain buildings at Patalipuram replaced by a Saiva temple. 1058 R. D. BANARJI-The Scythian Period of Indian History. (IA, xxxviii, 1908, Pp. 25-75). P. 52. The Jain recods of the Kuśāņa period form an unique series of Indian epigraphs showing very advanced forms of characters, the parallel of which has not yet been found in India. 1059 C.E. LEWARD and Kiştanāth Krishņa LELE---The Paramāras of Dhar and Malwa. Bombay, 1908. A treatise giving an account of the Paramāra rulers of Malwa. 1060 V. A. SMITH-The Early History of India', second edition revised and enlarged. Oxford 1908. P. 9. The Taina books contain some historcal information of considerable value. P. 26. Brief review on Mahāvira. preached Jainism P. 30. Mahāvīra Bimbis ra. in Magadha during the reign of Page #81 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1100 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 41-42. Mahāvira and Gautama Buddha were contemporaries. They both died in the reign of Ajätaśatru, Mahāvira a few years before the Buddha, Discussion on the date of death of Mahävira; see particularly the not 1 of page 42. Pp. 137. n. 3. Jaina legend (spurious) on the subject of Chandragupta. Pp. 156, 167. The Ājivikas presented close analogies with the Jains. P. 172. The hospital for animals, said "Banyan", at Surat, was the common work of the Jains and the Vishnuites. P. 181. Jain legends relating to Samprati, grandson of Aśoke. P. 187. n. 2. Khāravela, King of Orissa towards 157 B.c. was an initiate of the Jainism, but with the great tolerance with regard to other religions. P, 191, n. 1. Note on some persecutions directed against the Jains. P. 285. The Jain cult, at the beginning of the Christian era. Mathura was one of the principal centres of it. P. 319. The Jainism in the 7th century is specially flourishing at Vaiśāli and in the east of Bengal. Pp. 386-388. The Jainism in the Deccan. It made considerable progress under the Chalukyas of Vätāpi; it was particularly popular in the southern Marathā. Amoghavarşa lst (815-877 A D.) was a king very liberal with regard to the Jains, especially with regard to the Digambaras, the community of which took a rapid extension in the 9th and 10th centuries, with the pontiffs such as Jinasena and Gunabhadra. P. 391. The prince Bijjala (Kalacuri) professed the Jain faith. Formatiom of the sect of the Lingayats which hindered in a large measure, the scope of Jainism. P. 392. In the province of Mysore, under the reign of Hoysala Visnuvardhana, Jainism enjoyed a great favour. Thanks to the minister Gangarāja, the temples destroyed by the Choļas were restored. P. 398. Jainism in the south of India. Pp. 409, 417. Jainism counted numerous adherents in the Southern India, where Hiouen-Thsang visited that country in 640 A.D. P. 410, Persecution of Jainism by the Cholas in the 11th century. P. 429. Jainism. The Pallava Kings showed themselves very tolerant with regard to Page #82 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1101 1061 R. D. BANERJI.-'The Scythian period of Indian History' (Indian Antiquary, vol. EXXXVII, Pp. 25-75). Bombay, 1908. Pp. 33-34. Critical study of the Jaina inscription found at Mathura and dated of the year 299 (era?). Text and facsimile of this inscription. Pp. 35-39. List of the inscriptions in Brahmi writing relating to Indo-Scythian Kings. Critical observations. P. 49. Remarks on the inscription of Mathura, undated (G. BÜHLER. 'Epigraphia Indica, vol. I. p. 396, No. 33), where the question is of Gotiputra, 'a black serpent for the Pothyas and the Sakas'. Pp. 51-52. General characters of the Jaina inscriptions belonging to the IndoScythian period. P. 63. Remarks on the Jain inscription found at Mathura and dated of the year 72 (era?) under the satrap Sodasa. 1062 Vincent, A. SMITH-The Gujaras of Rajputana and Kanauj. (JRAS, 1909, Pp. 247-281). Pp. 253-255. Sakeşvabhas ateşu..... varāhe "vati". This passage of the Jain Harivamsa is of exceptional value on account of the firm chronological standpoint it affords. P. 274. A Jain tradition of about the year 953 A.D. records that about 18,000 inhabitants migrated from Bhilmal (Bhinamala), the ancient capital of Rajputana. 1063 V. D. BARODIA--History and Literature of Jainism. Bombay, 1909. 1064 V. A. SMITH--The Buddhist Emperor of India-Oxford 1909 (2nd Edi.) P. 58. Regard for the sanctity of animal life, practised more strictly by the Jains, Page #83 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1102 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 60-62. Minor Rock Edict I, the earliest in date records his (Asoka's) impartial consideration for all denominations, including Jaina and Ājivika he did honour in various ways to Jains and Brahmanical Hindus as well as to Buddhists; cave-dwellings for the Ajīvika naked ascetics, liberal benefactions were bestowed on the Jains and Brahamanas. P. 70. Asoka's grandson Samprati, an eminent patron of Jainism-in fact, a Jain Asoka, according to Jain traditions. P. 193. Edict. VIII, I have employed my censors of the Law of Piety among the Jains also. 1065 C. S. SRINIVASCHARI-History of Madras and Ananda Ranga Pillai— The 'Pepys' of French India-Madras. Mylapore-San Thome-There appears to have been an early Jain temple dedicated to Neminātha which was later on sallowed up by the encroaching sea. Mylapore served as a port for the Pallava Kingdom of Kanchi. 1066 R. SLATER-The ruins of Vijayanagara. (QJMS., ii, 1911, Pp. 49-56). P. 55. Hanpi : That Jains formed a large community is evident from the group of Jain bastis overlooking the Pampapati temple. 1067 R. NARASIMHACHARI--The Chalukya Genealogy according to the Kannada poet Ranna, (IA, xi., 1911, Pp. 41-45). Jain religion and the Poet Ranna. 1068 S. KRISTINASWANI AIYNGAR ---Ancient India. London, Madras, 1911. P. 32. Abode of the deities of the Jains. P. 34. Great patrons of the Jains and Buddhists. P. 77. lain tradition that Chandragupta retired from the world and spent the evening of life in contemplation at Sravaņa Belgoļa. Page #84 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 219. Persecution of the Jains ascribed to Visnuvardhana is hardly supported by facts. Pp. 208, 258. In Bitti Deva's presence Rämänuja had a whole body of Jain ascetics and laymen ground in an oil mill. P. 255. The Ganga rulers appear to have been Jains. P. 260. Jainism versus Vaisnavism. 1069 A. M. TABARD-Talkad, the buried city. (QJMS, ii, 1911, Pp. 131-140). P. 133. The religion of almost all the rulers of Talkad, a city buried under the sands of the Cavary, Mysore Prov., was Jainism. 1911. 1103 1070 C. Gopalan NAIR-Wynad, its Peoples and Traditions. (Malbar Series). Madras, Pp. 50-51. Under the head predial slaves the author includes Jain or Then Kurumbers. P. 53. The Jains consisting of Gowdas and Taragans migrated from purposes of trade. Adoption of the title Taragan in Wynad by those Jains who settled here. under "Tarakun", (Royal mandate) of the Kottayam Raja. P. 144. At Sultan's Battery in the Wynad taluq stands a viati temple, a magnificent and an interesting relic of a Jain colony now extinct. 1071 A. Govindacharya SVAMIN-A Note on Ajivikas. (IA, xli, 1912, p. 296)Ajivikas are neither Buddhist Bhiktus nor Jain, but they form a distinct sect. 1072 D. R. BHANDARKAR-Ajtvikas. (IA, xli, 1912, Pp. 286-290). Ajivika, According to Utpala, does not signify Narayan-asrita, Kesava Bhakta or Bhagavata, as Prof. KERN, supposes. The theory Prof. KERN, supported by BÜHLER, that the Ajtvikas are Vaishnavas, is baseless. Page #85 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1104 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1073 N. N. LAW-The Law of Contract in Chandragupta's time. (MR, May, August and December, 1912). Pp. 507. (Vol. XI); 124-128, 586-588. (Vol. XII). Sale and Pre-emption Loans. 1074 W. Bell-The Oxford India Reader, Oxford, 1912. Pp. 62, 63. Jainism-The religion. P. 97. Jain images and sculptures. P. 112. Jain temples in Kanara. 1075 K. B. PATHAK--The Ajivikas, a sect of Buddhist Bhikshus, (IA, xli, 1912, Pp. 88-90). Ājivikas were well-known to the Jain authors of the later-Chālukya and Yadava periods as a sect of Buddhist Bhiksus who lived solely or chiefly on Kamji. P. 8. Jainism an offshoot of Brahmanism, population 1,333,320. Pp. 33-34. The Srimāli, Porväl and Osvāl are of the Jain religion a creed which seems to have commended itself to the mercantile community at a comparatively early period. In the present day, except in Delhi, the Mahesri, or Brahmanic section of the Rajput caste, inter-marries with the Srävaka of Jain, and the latter, in turn, employ for their caste and domestic ministration, the Bhojak, or Sevak, a subdivisions of Brahmanas not in high repute among the priestly orders. 1076 A. Vovindachārya SVAMIN-Brahmana Immigration into Southern India. (IA, xli, 1912, Pp. 227-232). Jainism to make the first southward march bringing down more "Aryan's of the north into the Carnatic and Tamil lands. The traditions of twelve years' famine in Hindusthan in the 3rd century B.C. is attested by the Jain inscriptions at Sravan Belgoļa. 1077 K. B. PATHAK--On the age of the Sanskrit poet Kavirāja. (JBBRAS, xxii, 1913, Pp. 11-16). P. 11. From the mention of the Jain Rāghavapāņdaviya in the Pamparāmāyana and in the Sravana Belgola inscription it may be inferred that there was only one Rāghavapāņdaviya known to Pampa's contemporaries. Page #86 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1105 1078 Rustomji Nasarvanji MUNSHI-An Inquiry as to how a Bell in the Portuguese church at Barivli came to be transferred to a Hindu temple at Nasik. (JBBRAS, xxiii, 1914, Pp. 328-348). P. 339. Mosque of Kulub-ud-din at Delhi built out of the ruins of some Jain temples among other Hindu ones. According to CUNNINGHAM, the great temple of Sāsbahu or the great Jain temple of Gwalior, was not available for Hindu worship during the time of its Mahomedan occupation (13th and 14th cents). P. 340. Thr Jain temple of Chintaman finished in about 1638 A.D. at a cost of Rs. 9,00,000 by śāntidās, a rich Bania merchant, was turned into a mosque by Aurangzeb. 1079 V. A. SMITH-The Early History of India from 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan conquest. Third Edition, Oxford, 1914. P. 10, and n. 2. Jain books—Leading Jain texts-Publications relating to Jainism. P. 29. Jainism and Buddhism. P. 33. Death of Mahāvira and Buddha. P. 35. n. 1. Ajātaśatru and his buildings at Bhagalpur Pp. 42-43. Rise of Chandragupta Maurya 322 B.C.-Accession of Chandragupta. P. 46, and n. 2. Traditional dates of Mahavira and Gautama-Death of Mahāvira 470 years before Vikrama, whose era begins in 58 B.C.-Merutunga, a Jain author. P 77. Worship at altars by Chandragupta. Pp. 115-153. Chandragupta and Bindusära, from 221 B.c. to 272 B.C. P. 181, and n. 3. Conversion of Kumārpāla, King of Gujarat, to Jainism in A.D. 1159-Jain monk Hemachandra. P. 193. Jain traditions about Samprati, a grandson of Asoka, Pp. 196-197. Chandragupta Maurya met Alexander in B.C. 326 or 325. His accession in B.c. 325-27, his victory over Selukos in B.c. 303. Page #87 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1106 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Asoka dedicated cave-dwellings at Barabar for the use of the Ājivikas, B.C. 257 and another about B.c. 250. Dasaratha dedicated Nagarjuni caves to the Ajivikas, B.c. 232. P. 203, n. 1. Persecution of Jainism in Southern India in the 7th century-- Ajayadeva's (A.D. 1174-6) persecution of the Jains. P. 301. Jain cult related to the Buddhist at Mathura. Pp. 345-346. Jainism in Vaiśāli and Eastern Bengal. Pp. 373-398. Paundravardhana and Jainism. Pp. 427-428. Jainism in the Deccan, under Jinasena and P. 429. Amoghavarşa and Jainism-Progress of Jainism Gunabhadra. P. 433. Decay of Jainism and Buddhism-The Hoysala dynasty, Mysore Gangarāja, a Jain minister of Bittideva or Bittiga, 1111-1141 AD. (first prince) of the Hoysala dynasty. Pp. 453-455, 463, 473. Jain religion. Pp. 472, 476. Mahendravarman I, a Pallava king. (A.D. 600-625), a Jain in early life-His destruction of the large Jain monastery at Pataliputtiram in South Arcot. 1080 Umrao Simha TANK-Jain Historical studies. Delhi, 1914. Contains an account of the life of prominent Jains and famous events of Jain history. 1081 (a) Jarl CHARPENTIER-Tho Date of Mahavira. (IA, xliii, 1914, Pp. 118-123, 125133, 167-178). The Jain chronology and its foundation-Buddhist relations concerning Mahavira and the Jains-The date of Buddha's death-The Jain tradition according to Hemachandra and the real date of Mahāvira. Page #88 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1107 1081 (b) V. RANGACHARI—The History of the Naik kingdom of Madura. (IA, xliii, 1914, Pp. 153-158). P. 158. A remarkable proclamation of Deva Raya in the 14th cent. declares the unity of the Jain and Vaisnava religions, and the consequent necessity on the part of the adherents of the two religions to the two religions to abstain from conflicts. 1082 K. B. PATHAK-Jain Sakatāyana, contemporary with Amoghavarsha I. (IA, xliii, 1914, Pp. 205-212). This Jain author lived in the time of [Amoghavarsa I., wrote in about Saka 789, the work Amoghavritti, so named in honour of the Rāștrakūta king. 1083 E. HULTZCH—Die Digambaras von Mysore. (The Digambaras of Mysore). (ZDMG, Ixviii, 1914, Pp. 695—700). The article traces the history of the establishment of the Digambara Sect of Jainism at Mysore. 1084 Nundolal Dey-Notes on Ancient Anga or the District of Bhagalpur. (JPASB, X, 1914, Pp. 317-347 Pp. 320-321. Chandană or Chandravala, daughter of Dadhivāhana, governed Anga during 7th-6th B.c., was the first female to embrace Jainism shortly after Mahāvīra's attainment of Kevaliship, and afterwards became the head of thirty-six thousand nuns. P. 322. According to the Jain authorities Konika (Ajātaśatru) made Champa his capital after the death of his father-Udayin was the son of Ajātaśatru according to the Buddhist and Jain works. The influence of Mahāvira after he attained the Kevaliship extended over Videha, Magadha and Anga, as the ruler of these kingdoms were his relatives. P. 323. The religion of Mahāvira had spread over Vaiśāli, Rājagriha and Champa, but the genius of Buddhism prevailed over the doctrines of Jainism. P. 329. The Jain work Champakaśreşthi-katha mentions the name of Samanta Pāla as king of Champa. Page #89 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1108 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 334. Mahavira, on becoming Kevalin, passed three rainy sections at Champa and its suburbs, and made many converts, Champa-a stronghold of Jainism. Champapuri is held very sacred by the Jains as Väsupujya, the 12th Tirthankara, lived and died here. A temple at Nathnagar marks the site of his birth and consecration. Väsupujya was the son of Vasupūjya and Jaya, and his symbol is the buffalo. In Champa existed a temple called Chaitya Punnabhadda where Mahävira resided and where Sudharmana, one of the Mahavira's disciples recited the Urasagadasao. Väsupujya's temple belongs to the Digambara sect. At Champa another the Svetambaras. P. 336. The Ubbai Sutta, a Jain work, professes to give a description of Champa at the time of Küņika or Ajataśatru. The Champaka-Sresthi-Katha, another Jain work, contains enumerations of the castes and trades of the town. Pp. 336-337. Svayambhava, the fifth Patriarch of the Jain church who succeeded Prabhava, lived at Champa where he composed for his son Manaka the Daśavaikālika Sutra containing in ten lecutres all the essence of the sacred doctrines of Jainism in the 4th cent. B.C. 1085 L. RICE-The Hoysalla King Bitti-Deva Visnuvardhana. (JRAS, 1915, Pp. 527 531). P. 430. Under the influence of Rāmānuja, who demolished 720 Jain temples, Bitti-Deva exchanged his Jain religion for that of Visnu. His first queen was Santala Devi, a strenuous Jain. 1086 K. P. JAYASWAL-The Saisunaka and Maurya chronology and the date of Buddha's Nirana, (JBORS, i, 1915, Pp. 67-116). P. 101. Jain chronology. 1087 R, D. BANARJI-The Palas of Bengal. (Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta: 1915, Pp. 43-113). P. 48. The Jain Harivamsapuraṇa has a reference to a king named Indrarāja, a contemporary of Vatsaraja and living in the year 705 of the Saka era, i.e., 783 A.D. P. 50. The Jain Harivambapuräna states that in S. 705 Indrayudha was ruling in the North. Sri-Vallabha in the South, the Lord of Avanti in the East, and Vatsaraja in the West. Page #90 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1109 1088 F. E. PARGITER-The Telling of Time in Ancient India. (JRAS, 1915, Pp. 710713). The Jain names of the muhurtas are set out in the Süryaprajñapti (SurapannattiSūtra) as noticed by Weber in his "Sacred Literature of the Jains" in his "Indische Studien”. The list constitutes pāhura X, (sub-) pähura 13. Day-Muhurtas-fifteen in number-Rodda, seta etc. Night-Muhurtas-fifteen in number--Adamda, Vijaa etc. 1089 K.B. PATHAK- The Nyāsakāra and the Jain Sakatāyana. (IA, xliv, 1915, Pp. 275. 279 : xlv, 1916. Pp. 25-27). Information about the Jain grammarian. 1090 S. Krishnaswami AIYANGAR--Social Legislation under Hindu Governments. (QJMS, vi, 1916, Pp. 47-57). Pp. 51-52. Under Bukka (A.D. 1336-1376), the founder of Vijayanagar Empire, came up a dispute between the Jains and the Vaisnavas in a Vaisnava centre, in the State of Mysore. It was decreed that the five big drums and the Kalas will continue to be used. If to the Jain Darsana any injury on the part of the Vaisnava should arise, it will be protected in the same manner as if injury to the Vaisnavas had arisen. By consent of both the Vaisnavas and the Jains, the duty of protection of the Jains was entrusted to the particular Tātāchārya (leading Vaisnava) of Tripati. 1091 J. F. FLEET-Salivahana and the Saka era. (JRAS, 1916, Pp. 809-820). Pp. 819-820. Jinaprabha Sūri's Kalpapradipa (about A.D. 1300) describes apointment of Sātavāhana as king at Pratișthăņa and his conversion to Jainism. (JBBRAS, X, Pp. 131 ff.). Page #91 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1110 1092 M. RUTHANASWAMI-Dabhoi or the city of the Darbha Grass (MR, Jany-June, Pp. 539-545). P. 543. Jain brothers Tej-pala and Vastupala and their work as builders of temples. 1093 E. J. RAPSON Ancient India. Cambridge, 1916. Pp. 64-77. The rise of Jainism and Buddhism-Their founders-Their Sanskrit epics-The Puranas-Genealogies-The Päli epics-The sutras. 1094 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY F. J. RICHARDS-Side Lights on the "Dravidian Problem" (QJMS, vi, 1916, Pp. 155-202). OPPERT (Original Inhabitants of India, p. 61) traces the feud to a struggle between Jains and Brahmanas, the former representing urban interests and the latter the interest of the landed properties. Mr. M. Srinivasa AIYANGAR would ascribe it to a military organization of Chola Emperors. 1095 S. V. VENKATESWARA-The Date of Vordhamana. (JRAS, 1917, Pp. 122-130). The date of Vardhamana, the founder of modern Jainism, is one of the carliest landmarks in the chronology of ancient India. 1096 K. P. JAYASWAL-The Historical Position of Kalki and His Indentification with Yasodharman. (IA, xlvi, 1917, Pp. 145-153). Pp. 146-147. Confirmation of Puranic date of Kalki by Jain data. Pp. 151-152. The two Jain chronologies. Page #92 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1111 1097 A. VENKATA SUBBIAH-A Twelfth Century University in Mysore. (QJMS, 1917, Pp. 157-196). Pp. 192-196. Buddhist and Jain Institutions differed markedly from the Brahmanical ones in that there was no caste system recognised by them. In the 11th century the Jains at Belgame seem to have been fairly active. 1098 S. SRIKANTAIYA-The Hoysala Empire (QJMS, vii, 1917, Pp. 292-309). Pp. 304-309. Visnuvardhana's (12th Cent. A.D.) minister Ganga Rāja was a staunch Jain and restored several Jain temples and bastis. Punisa Rāja one of Vişnu's famous generals, utilized all his wealth in raising Jain structures. Santaladevi, one of Vişnu's queens gave grants to Jain temples. Influence of Jainism in the early years of Vişnuvardhana's reign. He built a number of Jain bastis at Dorasamudra. Bittideva became Vişnuvardhana after his conversion to Vaişnavism-Its causes-Story of his persecution of the Jains, in the Sthalapurāna his discontinuing or abolition of the Jains, inams, destruction of bastis and his setting up of Narayaņa temples. In the reign of Narasimha I, his minister Hulla, a devout Jain, erected the Bhandara basti at Sravana Belgoļa. Throughout the existence of the Hoysala empire, Jainism more or less a living religion---Hoysala kings, whatever their religion, continued to patronise the Jains. Narasimha III had a Jain guru who was called Rāja Guru. 1099 S. K. AIYANGAR-The Beginning of South India History. Madras, 1918. P. 144. Toleration enjoyed by Jains, Buddhists and Brahmans in the South India in the Beginning of christian Era. 1100 K. B. PATHAK-New light on Gupta era and Mihirakula. (IA, xlvii, 1918, Pp. 16-22). ! P. 18. According to Jain authorities the early Gupta kings were immediately succeeded by the great tyrant Chaturmukha-Kalkin, or Kalkirāja. The Jain nirgranthas are allowed by the rules of their religion to take their meal at noon once a day. Page #93 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ int2 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1101 E, H. C. WALSH-The Annual Address. (JBORS, iv, 1918, Pp. 1-13). Pp. 2-3. Importance of the Hāthi-Gumphā inscription of Khāravela from the point of view of the chronology of pre-Mauryan times and the history of Jainism. 1102 Vincent A, SMITH-New Light on Ancient India, (JRAS, 1918, Pp. 543-547). P. 546. Position of high honour given to the Jain religion in the days of the Nandas and in those of Khāravela. The Nandas were Jains. 1103 K. G. Sankara AIYAR--The Age of the third Tamil Sangam. (QJMS, viii, 1918 Pp. 34-60). P. 39. Establishment of a Jain Dravida Sangam in 470 A,c. according to the Digambara Darsana. P. 53. Mr. Svamikannu Pillai has shown that Jivakachintamani was composed in about 813 A.C. 1104 S. SRIKANTAIYA--The Hoysala Empire. (QJMS, viii, 1918, Pp. 61-76). P. 69. In the reign of Vira-Ballala though Jainism was patronised as before and Srivaişnavism claimed its own adherents, Saivism was becoming more and more popular. Ballala was himself Saivite and known as Siva Ballala. 1105 S. SRIKANTAIYA--Life in the Hoysala Period. (QJMS viii, 1918, Pp. 97-117). P. 98. A Jain ascetic putting the Hoysalas in possession of power. Pp. 106-107. A Jain teacher instructing four female disciples-Exemption of teachers from taxation-Jain priests discoursed on religion in public. Pp. 108-109, "Jain Arithmetic" shows how questions should be set and how they should be answered. For Private & Personal use only Page #94 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1113 Jataka-tilaka, a poetical work on astrology written in 1049 A.D., by a Jain Siddhāchārya in the time of Ahavamalla, and Aryabhatta is mentioned as his predecessor in this work. Nāgachandra or Abhinavapampa was a well known Jain poet, he was a disciple of Balachandramuni. He buit Mallinātha Jinālaya, the name of a famous tirthankara in Vijayapura, probably Bijapur, his supposed birthplace. His date is 1105. P. 110. Karnāțakakalyana Karaka, a medical work ( 12th Cent.) written by a Jain, Somanatha. Pp. 115-116. The Jains resorted to a peculiar mode of self-destruction consistently with their chief tenet. It was death by starvation or sallekhana. For days on end without food or water, men and women devoted themselves to the contemplation of the divinity till death was brought about. 1106 D. R. BHANDARKAR-Lectures on the Ancient History of India on the period from 650 to 325 B.C. Calcutta, 1919 (The Carmichael Lectures, 1918). P. 78. The Jain Nirayāvali-Sutra informs us that Ajātaśatru fixed a quarrel on Chetaka, a Lichchhavi Chief of Vesali. Pp. 146-147. Ayaramga-Sutta, a well-known Jain Canonical work, names such countries as a-raya (i.e., where there is no ruler), juvarāya (where the ruler is a youngester), do-rajja (Government by two), and also gana-raya (where Oana is the ruling authority), which the Jain religious Brotherhood is ordained to avoid. 1107 H. B. BHIDE--Is Kalkirāja an Historical Personage? (IA, xlviii, 1919, Pp. 123-130). Pp. 123, 128. Unreality of Jain writers regarding Kalkirāja. Pp. 128-130. Hemchandra's account of Kalkirāja. 1108 Haraprasad SASTRI—Contributions of Bengal to Hindu Civilization. (JBORS, 1919, Pp. 307-324). Pp. 314-316. Jainism, Buddhism, Ājivakism and all the religions receiving from the Buddhism the appellation of "Tairthikias" or the Heretical systems were founded upon the customs, usages, morals and religious opinions prevalent in ancient times in Bengal and Magadha and among the people known as the Chera. Page #95 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1114 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1109 V. A. SMITH- The Oxford History of India, Oxford, 1919. Pp. 47-56. Ajātasatru and Jainism-Jainism and Buddhism-Career of Mahavira. Jainism and Buddhism contrasted - Jain doctrines-Success of Jainism. P. 75. Chandragupta Maurya and Jainism. P. 178. Non-existence of Jainism in Kashmir or Assam, P. 188. Jain images in Bundelkhand. P. 199. Jainism patronised by the Gangas of the tenth century. Execution of the statue of Gommateśvara at Sravaņa Beļgoļa in about A.D. 983 to the order of Chāmundarāya. Pp. 201-203. Jainism in southern Maratha country, Mysore and the DeccanKing Amoghavarşa (C. 815.77) and Jainism. Bittideva or Bittiga Vişnuvardhana) and Jainism. P. 210, Mahendra's destruction of Pataliputtiram, a Jain monastery in south Arcot. Pp. 214-215. Persecution of the Jains at the hands of the king variously called Kuna, Sundara or Nedumaran Pāndya. P. 369. Akbar taught by Jains. P. 388, Jahangir's severe orders against the Jains of Gujarat. 1110 T. Rajagopala Rao.Sālivāhana : Who is he? (The South Indian Research. Vepery, Madras, 1919, i, Pp. 225-247). Jina Prabha Süri who lived in the 15th century recorded in his Kalpapradi pa that Sātavähana became a Jain and built Jain Chaityas or temples. Fifty of his viras (or sirdārs) erected Jain temples after their respective names-Evidences to show that sālivāhana is Sātavāhana. 1111 Ramaprasad. CHAND.—Date of Khāravela. (IA, xlviii, 1919, pp. 214-216). Accession of Khāravela may be put down to about 79 B.c. and that of Satakarni II a few years earlier. Page #96 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1115 1112 G. Jouvenau DUBREUIL. - Ancient History of the Deccan. (Translated from the French by V.S. Swaminadha Dikshitar). Pondicherry, 1920. P. 12. Khāravela of Kalinga, Pp. 104-110. The Gangas. 1113 B. M. BARUA.— The Ājivikas. (JDL, v. ii, 1920, Pp. 1-80). 1. Pre-Makkhali period : The rise of a religious order of wandering mendicants called the Ajivika from a Vanaprastha or Vaikhanasa order of the hermits. 2. Makkhali period : Elevation of Ajīvika religion into a philosephy of life at the hands of Makkhali Gosāla. 3. Post-Makkhali period : The further development of Ajivika religion, absorption of the Ajīvika into the Digambara Jaina, the Sivaite and others; the influence of Ājivika religion and philosophy on Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism. 1114 B. M. BARUA-The Ajivikas : History of their religion and philosophy, pt. 1; Historical summary. Calcutta, 1920. Ajivikas and Jainism. 1115 (322 B.C.-circa R.G. BHANDARKAR-A Peep into the Early History of India. 500 A.C.) Bombay. 1920. P. 56. The Jains : Two inscriptions recording installation of images in 424 A.D, and 459 A.D. at Udayagiri and Kahaum respectively. Another inscription of Kumārgupta dated 431 A.D. records setting up of an image at Mathura. Facts proving that at the time there were not many adherents of the religion. Page #97 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1116 1116 D. R. BHANDARKAR.-Dekkan af the Satavahan Period. (Ind. Anti. Vol. XLIX1920, Bombay). P. 30. The inscription of Kharavela speaks of a king called Satakarni, who has been identified with the Third King of the Satavahana dynasty. Its date is 165th year (C. 157 B.C.) of the Mourya era. It is questioned whether Kharavela's inscription contains any date at all. (J.R.A.S. 1910, 242 Pp. and 824 pp.). LUDERS, emphatically declares that it contains no date at all (List of Brahmi Inscriptions, No. 1345). According to K. P. JAYASWAL and R.D. BANERJEE, the inscription contains a date (JBORS-1917, 449 ff. and 488 ff.). But see also R.C. MAJUMDAR'S criticism on it, Ante, 1918, 223-4). BÜHLER says that the Nanaghat and Sanchi inscriptions of the Satakarni and the Häthigumpha inscription of Khåravela are exactly of the same period; he assigned these records to 200-150 B.C. Subsequently, RHLER changed his mind and declared that Gautamiputra Satakarni flourished about A,D. 124. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1117 V. A. SMITH-Asoka. P. 34. Jain attitude akin to Buddhist. P. 58. Regard for sanctity of animal life practised very strictly by the Jains. Third Edition. Oxford, 1920. P. 38. Kumarapala's conversion to Jainism offers the best possible commentary on the history of Asoka. P. 41. Kankäli Tila, Mathura, a Buddhist as well as a Jain site. P. 61. Buddhism and Jainism both originally mere sects of Hinduism, Asoka's honour in various ways to Jains and Brahmanical Hindus as well as to Buddhists. P. 62. Asoka's expenditure in hewing out of hard gneiss spacious cavedewllings for the Ajivika naked ascetics. His liberal benefactions on the Jains and Brahmanas. P. 70. The Jain literary tradition of Western India about grandson of Asoka, named Samprati, who is represented as an eminent patron of Jainism, in fact a Jain Asoka. Pp. 72-74. Chronology of the Maurya period. P. 210. Employment of Asoka's censors among the Brahmanas and Jains. Page #98 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1117 1118 Akshoy Kumar MAJUMDAR-The Hindu History, B. C. 3000 to 12000 A.D. Second Edition. Dacca, 1920. - Book II, Chapter IIA: India in Vedic Age till 2500 B.C., Rise of JainismJainism has been sometimes called Syād-vāda. Jainism is still a living religionJains accept the caste system. They agree with the Buddhists in denying the existence or at least the activity and providence of God. 1118 (a) Haraprasad SASTRI-To Eternal Cities in the Province of Bihar and Orissa, (JBORS, vi, 1020, Pp. 23-39). P. 25. Transference of the chief seat of Jainism from Vaiśāli to Pāțaliputra. At Pāțaliputra was made the first collection of Jain scriptures in the fourth century B.C. One great man of this period was Sthūlabhadra. P. 26. Sthūlabhadra was born and bred at a spot in the city of Patna near the Gulzārbagh station-Bhadrabahu the latter with Chandragupta and others settled at Śravaņa Belgoļa at a time when Pătalipura was stricken by a continuous famine for twelve years. P. 29. Composition of the Tattvārthādhigamasūtra by Umāsvāti Vāchaka in the fifth century A.D. at Pāțaliputra. P. 33. Moving over to Odantapura of all respectable people from Pāțaliputra, on the former being made the provincial Capital. Consecration at Patna of several Jain images in the fifth and sixth centuries. Identity of Pātņa with Pāțaliputra, among the Jains. 1119 Edward GAIT-The Annual Presidential Address. (JBORS, vi, 1920, Pp. 455. 469). Pp. 462-463. First collection of the Jain scriptures made at Patalipura, in the 4th century B.C. Pāțaliputra, a stronghold of Jainism down to the 18th century. Page #99 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1118 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1120 Jainath Pati— The Different Royal Genealogies of Ancient India. (JBORS, vi, 1920, Pp. 205-229). Pp. 208-209. Genealogies in the Jain Harivamsa and its source of inspiration. Pp. 220-221. Jain element in the Mahabharata, and the Ramāyaṇa. According to the Jain Harivamša, Kuśādya deśa appears to be another name of Saurastra. 1121 Hermann JACOBI-Einteilung des Tage's Zeitmassung alten Indien. Division of diurnal measure of time in Ancient India. (ZDMG, Ixxiv, 1920, Pp. 247-263). Information about the measurement of time by the Jains. 1122 SITARAM-History of Sirohi Raj from the Earliest times to the Present Day. Allaha, bad, 1920. Pp. 30-75. Sirohi : 12 Jain temples called the Deva Sari near the palace. Of these, the most important is that of Chaumukhiji built in v.E, 1634 (A.D. 1577). Bamanwarji : Four miles north-West of Pindwara stands the Jain temple of Bamanwarji (Banwarji) dedicated to Mahāvīra. An inscription is in a temple near Bänwar dated in V.E. 1519 (A.D. 1462). Tharoli : An old village to the north-West of Pindwara contains temple of śāntināth. Inscription bearing date 1251 v.E. on a stone slab affixed to the wall, shows that it was originally dedicated to Mahävira Svämi. Pindwara : In the temple of Lakshminārāyaṇa are two inscriptions of the time of Parmar Raja Dhara warsh, one bearing date v.e. 1234 (1177) affixed to a wall of the Jain temple of Mahāvīra Svämi. Ajari : Temple of Mahāvira Svāmi, near Gopālji's temple. The Jain temple contains an inscription dated 1262 V.E. (1212) on the seat of the image of Sarasvati. Vasantgarh: To the east stands a Jain temple of the Afteenth century in which there is an image with an inscription telling us that it was installed at Vasantpur in 1507 v.e. (1451) during the reign of Kumbhakarna. Several finds of this place presented by the Maharao to the Jains of Pindwara, who placed them in Page #100 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1119 the temple of Mahāvira there. Most of the images are undoubtedly old, that of Risabhanāth, having an inscription dated 744 v.E. (687). Nandia : To the north of the village a big Jain temple containing an inscription dated 1130 V E. (1073), in which the temple itself is called Mandeśvara Chaitya. Kojra : This village contains a Jain temple of Sambhavanātha, but an inscription dated 1224 v.E. (1167) on a column inside calls it a temple of Pārsvanātha. Vasa : A peculiar feature of Saiva temple of Jagdish is that it has ā Jain image on the top. A parallel case may be cited of a Saiva temple in Santpur which remained without an idol for many years, after which a Jain image was installed. Vasa containing There was a village named Kalagra about two miles from a Jain temple of Pārsvanātha. Kayadran : In the middle of the village a Jain temple. There existed an old Jain temple here, the stone of which were removed to Rohera for the construction of the new temple. Ora : Common gate to the three temples near the Vaishnava temple surmounted by a Jain image which shows that it originally belonged to a Jain temple. There is also a Jain temple of Sārnāth in the village containing an inscription dated 1240 v.E. (1383), in which the temple is styled Mahāvīra Chaitya. Mungthala : Here is a large Jain temple, the oldest inscription on which bears date 1216 v.E. (1159). Girwar : The village contains ruins of an old temple. The marble gate to the Vaisnava temple of Pattanārāyaṇa appears to have belonged to some Jain temple of Chandravati, as a Jain image is engraved in it. Datani: Here is a Jain temple. Barman: There is a Jain temple in the village, in a wall of which an image of the Sun.God is inlaid. Anadra : In this village there exists a Jain temple. Sanpur : Restoration of a Jain temple built in about the twelfth century. Page #101 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1120 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Abū Mount Abu contains shrines of the Jain Tirthankaras-Dilwara temples are Jain-The temple of Vimala Sah, known as the Vimalvasahi, is sacred to Adinatha and was completed in 1088 v.E. (1031)-The other temple is that of Vastupala and Tejapāla built in 1287 v.8. (1231) and is dedicated to Neminatha-In addition to these there are several other temples of Śvetambara Jains, such as three storied temple of Chaumukhji, the temple of Santinätha and a temple of Digambara Jains. Achalgarh: The brothers Vastupala and Tejpala were Jains, yet there is evidence to show that they restored several Śiva temples. Temple of Santinatha near the mausoleum of Raja Man of Sirohi. It was built by Solanki Rāja Kumārpāla and contains three images, one of which bears an inscription dated 1302 V.E. (1245)On the hill the shrine of Kunthunatha and temple of Pärsvanatha, Neminatha and Adinatha. A Jain temple of Mahāvtra Svämi stands in this village. P. 51 n. The inscription of the Palri Jain temple dated 1239 v.E. (1182), the inscription in the Jain temple of Bagingaon dated 1359 v.E. (1302) and another show that even during the ascendency of the Parmars the part of the country north of the Sirohi town was in the possession of Chauhans. An inscription dated 1289 V.E. (1232) has also been found in the temple of Santinātha in Sewara; this is of the time of Deora Bijai Singh. 1123 B. PUTTAIYA-Maharaja Chikkadevaraj Wodeyar of Mysore. (QJMS, xi, 1921, Pp. 97-112). Pp. 99-100. Vishalaksha Pandit of Yelandur, a Jain, was a tutor of Chikkadevaraja when he came to the throne, the Jain Pandit became his chief ministerStory that the king met a number of Lingayat leaders the massacre of Lingayat and destruction of their Mutts which is attributed to the Jain Pandit who was subsequently murdered. 1124 C. V. VAIDYA-History of Mediaeval Hindu India. Vol. I. (Circa 600-800 a.d.). Poona, 1921. P. 66. The Brahmins were the leaders of thought both among the Hindus and the Buddhists and the Jains. P. 91. Use of yellow coloured cloth by Jain recluses. Page #102 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1121 P. 100. In the time of Harşa. Buddhism and Hinduism flourished side by side as also Jainism. Lay Buddhists and Jains observed castes as much as the Hindus. The recluses or monks alone of Buddhism or Jainism throwing away caste, Jainism not a prominent religion. P. 109. Yuan-Chwang's account of Jainism-The Jain recluses are men learned in the philosophies of their doctrines. P. 111. Bāna's Harşacharita refers to the assemblage in aśrama of Divakaramitra, of Arhats (Jains), Sveta patas (Svetämbara Jains), Jains (Buddhists), and others. P. 235. The Jains used and still use in Kathiawad and in Gujarat the Maharastri for their sacred writings. Pp. 273-274. Stress in Jainism on non-sacrifice--Spread of Jainism in the South-Intelligence of Jain Pandits-Gradual spread of Jainism in the days of the early Chalukyas. 1125 R. Sharma SHASTRY.-Malanad chiefs : Q.J. M. S. Vol. xll, No. 1, Bangalore. 1921. P. 47. Bhairavavodier of Garasoppa was a Jain king. P. 48. Sivappanayaka subjugated the Jain king of Chandragutti. 1126 M. S. COMMISSARIAT, A Brief History of the Gujrat Saltanat. (JBBRAS, vol. xxvi, 1921-22, Pp. 99-157). Pp. 137-145. Pārsi and Jain missions from Gujarat to the court of Akbar. Mission of Hiravijaya Sūri to Akbar's Court. Stüpa on the spot where Hiravijaya was cremated at Una in Kathiawad. 1127 Otto Stein.-Megasthenes und Kautilya (Megasthenes and Kautilya). (Sitzungsber. d. Phil. hist. KI., Akad d. Wiss. in Wien, 191 Bd. 5 Abu.). Wien, 1922. Pp. 290-297. Buddhist and Jain Religion. Page #103 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1122 1128 B. C. LAW.-Historical Gleanings. Calcutta and Simla, 1922. Pp. 21-42. Influence of the five heretical teachers on Jainism and Buddhism (see No. 417). JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 76-95. Buddha and Niganthas: Introduction-Stha, a disciple of Nigantha Nathaputta and the Buddha-Sachchaka and the Buddha Sirigupta and Garahadinna-The Buddha and Dighatäpassi, a Jain, Buddha and Upali-Abhavarajakumära and the Buddha Visakhā. 1129 M. S. Ramaswamy AYYANGAR and B. SESHAGIRI.-Studies in South Indian Jainism. Madras, 1922. Jain influence in the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries-Rise of saiva Nayanars and the conversions of Kuna Pandya and of the Pallava king led to the decline of the Jains in the Tamil land in about A.D. 750-Persecution of the Jains at the hands of the Vaisnava Alvars and the beginning of their fall by the end of the 10th century. Jainism in the Andhra and Karnata districts of the Madras Presidency-Jainism probably pre-Mauryan-Jainism as embodied in Andhra-Karnata literary tradition. 1130 E. J. RAPSON-The Cambridge History of India, Vol. I: Ancient India. Cambridge, 1922. P. 22. The summit of Abu bears some famous ruins of Jain temples. P. 57. The scriptures of the Jains have been preserved in various forms of Magadhi, Sauraseni and Maharastri. Pp. 150-170. The History of the Jains: Jainism, its relation to Brahmanism and Buddhism. The Tirthankaras or "prophets"; Päriva Mahävira-Jains and Buddhists-Mahavira's rivals, Gosala and Jamali-The Jain churn after the death of Mahavira-The great schism: Svetambaras and Digambaras-Settlements in Western India-Organisation of the religious and lay communities-Blanks in Jain ecclesiastical history. Pp. 467-473. Chandragupta, the founder of the Maurya Empire: Characteristics of the Maurya period and authorities for its history-N.W. India before and after Alexander-Agrammes, Xandrames-Dhana-Nanda-Nanda and Chandragupta, Date of the overthrow of Nanda. Plot of Mudräräktasa-Chandragupta and Seleucus. Megasthenes-Rule of Chandragupta and the extent of his dominions. Page #104 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Asoka's early faith was rather that of Jainism. P. 512. Samprati is mentioned in the Jain tradition as a convert of their patriarch Suhastin. P. 526. Mathura was a stronghold both of the worship of Krisna and of Jainism. P. 532. The Jain story of Kalaka. Pp. 534-637. Caves for the use of the Jain ascetics of Udaygiri-Hathigumpha and Kharavela. Pp. 697-703. Chronology. B.C. 540-468. Vardhamana Nätaputra, Mahavira. 1123 Traditional date 600-528 B.C. Parsva, the predecessor of Mahavira as Tirthankara, is said to have died 250 years before him. B.C. 321-184. The Maurya dynasty. B.C. 321-296. Chandragupta. The Jain authorities give the year of his accession as 313 (312) B.C. a date at which the canon of the Jain scriptures was fixed. Megasthenes at the court of Chandragupta. C. 300 B.c. Bindusära or Amitrochates, successor of Chandragupta: his reign variously stated as of 25, 27 or 28 years. 1131 K. V. Subrahmanya AYYAR-Notes on Kalinga History. (QJMS, xii, 1922, Pp. 247-260). Pp. 258-259. In the 13th year of his reign, Kharavela erected pillars etc., on the Kumāriparvata (i.e. Khandagiri) and improved the tomb shrine (Nisidhika) of certain Jain monks (Arhats)-A cave for the Jain monks of Kalinga established by his chief queen. 1132 Harit Krisna DEB-Vikramaditya and his era. (Zeitschrift fur Indologie und Iranistik, Leipzig. i, Pp. 250-402, 1922). Pp. 299-301. Jain chronology and the evidence of inscriptions. Page #105 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1124 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1133 F. E. PARGITIER - Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. London, 1922. P. 37. Description of the Arhats (Jains and Buddhists). P. 68. Mythological story about the Buddhists and Jains. Their struggle with Brahmanism. P. 291. Buddhists and Jains treated as asuras and daityas (terms of hatred, etc.) by the Hindus. P. 334. Buddhism and Jainism challenging the supremacy of the Brahmanas about the beginning of the seventh century B.C. 1134 Shyam Narayan SINGH-History of Tirhut, etc. Calcutta, 1922. Pp. vii-viii. Mahāvira, the Jain leader and taken as a Ksatriya, was related to the Lichchhavis. Pp. 41-42. Mithila and Vaiśāli closely associated with the names of Buddha and of Mahāvīra Vardhamāna, a native of Vaiśāli and therefore called the Vaisaliya or Nātaputta His father Siddhartha married a daughter of Cetaka, king of Vaiśāli. Mahāvíra born in or about 599 B.C.-His spiritual career at the age of 30, gathered a considerable following monks, known at the Nirgranthas-They came to be known as Jains after Mahāvfra's death about 527 B.C. -Mahāvīra's followers visited Vaišāli where the Lichchhavis used regularly to carry on dicussions on high problems of life. The Jains said to have been valiant disputants. Illumination at Vaiśāli when Mahāvira died, signifying the enlightenment of human souls under Mahāvira's teachings-Date of Mahävira's death. P. 52. Vaiśāli, according to Yuan Chwang, was inhabited by a large number of Jains, and by the Hindus and Buddhists. 1135 R. Sham SASTRI—Malnad Chiefs. History of Sagar. (QJMS, xii, 1922, Pp. 45-57). P. 47. Bhairava was a Jain king. After slaying him Virabhadra carried off his wife Channammaji and added Garasoppa to his own territory. P. 48. Subjugation of Ammaji, the queen of Sodi and the Jain king of Chandragutti, by Sivappanayaka, the famous systematiser in the valuation of land revenue. Page #106 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1125 1136 S. Krishnaswami AryANGAR- The origin and early history of the Pallavas of Kanchi. (Journal of Indian History, Oxford, vol. ii. 1922, Pp. 20-66). P. 27. Tevaram hymner Appar, first a Jain and afterwards a Saiva. Pp. 48.52. The Pallavas and the Gangas. Pp. 55-60. The chronological datum in the Lokavibhāga, a Jain work composed in the fifth century in Cuddalore. P. 61. Mahendra, first a Jain. Converted to Saivism by the saint Appar. Pp. 63-64. Influence of the Gupta culture. 1137 R. C. MAJUMDAR - Corporate Life in Ancient India. Second Edition, Calcutta, 1922. P. 232. Illumination on the night of Mahāvira's death. Confinement of Jainism to a very limited section of the Lichchhavi community. P. 327. The Jain fraternity similar to the type of the Buddhist fraternity. 1138 M. S. R. AYYANGAR and B. S. RAO.-Studies in South India in Jainism. Madras, 1922. I. Early Jain history-Jain migration to the south-Jains in Tamil land and the Deccan-Jainism and Tamil literature. II. Jainism in Andhra and Karnataka literary tradition. 1139 A. Rangasvami SARASVATI-The founder of the Vikrama Era. (Q.M. S. J. Vol. XIII–1922-23). Pp. 506-510. The Vikramāditya, the founder of the Vikrama Era, was the historical king Sūdraka who ruled over Ujjain, set aside the ruling Andra Dynasty, destroyed the power of the Śaka invaders and was great patron of letters and himself a great poet..................Jain literature has got several references to a Vikramaditya of Ujjain who founded the Samvat era. Page #107 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ .1126 P. 509.Prabhavakacharita or the lives of Jain saints by Pradyumnsûri gives a long account of the Jain Acharya Kalakasuri-According to this work when Satavahana was ruling from Pratisthana and Murunda at Pataliputra, a King called Gardabhila was ruling at Ujjain in Malava. The Šakas are said to have conquered Ujjain and replaced its king Gardabhila. These Šakas were driven out of Ujjain by the king Vikrama who founded the era after his name. The invasion of the Saka to Ujjain was brought about by Kalakasûri who invited them to conquor the Kingdom to wreak vengeance against the king Gardabhila who tried to outrage his sister. The above account proves beyond all doubt that there was a Vikramaditya at 56 B.C. ruling over Ujjain but all the stories narrated in it have not got the same degree of credibility. 1140 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY G. RAMADAS-Samapa: or the Asokan Kalinga. (IA, lii, 1923, Pp. 66-70 and 80-91). P. 67. The Kalingas were Jains, building Arhats with very little art decoration. P. 68. The Jain king Khāravela-His chief seat near the 'Udayagiri HillsThe town of Kalinganagara strengthened in the first year of his reign. P. 37. Brahmans who advised the conquest of Kalinga, and not the Jains or Buddhists. 1141 M. Raghava IYENGAR-Mandalapurusha and his age. (QJMS, xiii, 1923, Pp. 487-493). P. 492. Yatidharma Śrāvakadharman, written by a Jain author, deals with the history and traditions of the Jain community in the southern country. It is stated in the work that the Jain Brahmanas used to do Archaka service during the reign of Visnudevaraya of the royal dynasty at the time of Gunabhadracharya. P. 493. Use of the affix "Thiru" by Jains. Page #108 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1127 1142 R. Shama SASTRI- Jain teachers and their contemporary kings. (Prabhavaka Charita), (QJMS, xiii, 1923, Pp, 499-505 and 563-572). The era of Vikramāditya and the Dynasty of Gardabhilas and of Murundas. Haribhadra Sūri Mallavādi-Bappabhatti-Sriharsa and Mänatunga--Siddharsi Srivira (Vikram. 938-991)-Sānti sūri-Mahendra sūri-Surāchārya--Abhayadeva-Vira sūri-Deva süri-Hemachandra sūri. 1143 S. Krishnaswani AIYANGAR--Some contributions of South India to Indian Culture, Calcutta, 1923. P. 145. Tevaram hymner Appar first, a Jain and afterwards a Saiva--conversion of Pallava Mahendravarman to Saivism. Pp. 193-194. Chronological datum in the Lokavibhāga, a Digambara Jain work treating cosmography. P. 203. Lokavibhāga composed in Cuddalore in the fifth century, P. 204. Mahendra, a Jain, converted to Saivism by saint Appar. P. 220. Appar was born a Saiva, became a Jain, and later on returned to Śaivism. He was instrumental in converting Mahendravarman from Jainism to Saivism. Pp. 233-234. Jainism in the South. P. 237. Appar, once leader of the Jain settlement at Pāțali (now the new town of Cuddalore). Mahendravarman and Matta-Vilasa Prahasana, a burlesque ascribed to the Pallava king. P. 238. Sambandar, Jainism and Saivism-Jains in Madura impaled at the instigation of Sambandar-Stories about a Jain king of Kanchi, Rāmānuja and Jains. P. 248. The Kālachurya usurper Bijjala,. a Jain. Followers of Basava, a Brahmin and their conflict with the Jains. P. 253. Bijjala-Rāya-Charitam, the Jain version of the story of Bijjala. Pp. 254-255. Ekāntada Rāmayya, a Brahman, and Jainismi, Page #109 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1128 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 287-291. Rastrakütas, the patrons of the Jains-conflict with the Saivas of the days of Sambandar and Appar-General persecutions of the Jains--Persecution of the Bauddhas under a king named Himaśitala at the instance of a Jain Achārya Akalanka-Rāmānuja and persecution of the Jains-Vişnuvardhana of Jainism-The Cholas and destruction of Jain monasteries and temples - The Chalukyas, the Hoysalas and the progress of Jainism. P. 312. The Jains, a flourishing community in the Tulunad, the country between the Western Ghauts and Sea--Irugappa, a general of Harihara II, a JainComposition of Nanārtharatnamāla at his instance-His credit in erecting the Jain temple by name Ganigitti. P. 315. The Vaisnava holy place Tirunarayanapuram known among the Jains as Vardhamanapuram. 1144 A. Rangaswamy SARASVATI-The Founder of the Vikrama Era. (QJMS, xiii, 1923, Pp. 506-510). P. 507. Several reference in Jain literature to a Vikramāditya of Ujjain who founded the Samvat era. P. 508, Text and translation of some Prakrit gathas quoted in a very large number of Jain commentaries and chronological works; these give the adjustment between the eras of Vira nd Vikrama and form the basis of the earliar Jain chronology. P. 509. References in ancient Jain literature that a king of Ujjain called Vikramāditya founded the era after his name after the expiry of 470 years after the Jain Tirthankara Mahävira's nirvana. P. 509. Prabhavakacharita or the lives of Jain saints by Pradyumna sūri, gives an account of the life of the Jain Acharya Kälaka sūri and of the politics of India at the period when Vikrama is said to have founded the Samvat era, and thus proves beyond all doubt that there was a Vikramāditya at 56 B.C. ruling over Ujjain. It makes Nāgārjuna, the famous Buddha Scholiast and founder of the Mahāyāna, a Jain. The account it gives of king Krişna of Mānakheta seems merely to be a reminiscence of the account of one of the kings of that name who ruled much later at Manyakheta (Malkhed) and who were Jains. It might be true that Vikrama patronized Jainism, but not likely that he became a Jain. In spite of doubts it appears to be certain that Kālaka süri the Jain teacher and author, and Vikramāditya, the king of Ujjain, were historical persons. Page #110 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1129 1145 H. C. RAYCHAUDHURY-Political History of India from the accession of Pariīkshit to the Coronation of Bimbisāra, [JDL, ix, (Pt. 2) 1923, Pp. 1-96). P. 46. Sixteen Mahājanapadas given in the Jain Bhagavati Sutra : 1. Anga, 2. Banga, 3. Magaha (Magadha), 4. Malaya, 5. Malava, 6. Achchha, 7. Vachchha (Vatsa), 8. Kochchha (Kachchha?), 9. Padha (Pandya?), 10. Lādha (Rādha), 11. Bajji (Vajji), 12. Moli, 13. Kasi, 14. Kosala, 15. Avaha, 16. Sambhuttara (Sumhottara ?). P. 47. The Jains afford testimony to the greatness of Kāsi, and represent Asvasena, king of Benares, as the father of their Tirthankara Pärśva who is said to have died 250 years before Mahāvīra i.e., in 777 B.C. P. 55. Mention of Dadhivähana, one of the early kings of Anga, in the Jain tradition. (Beginning of the 6th century B.c.). His daughter Chandanā or Chandravālā was the first female to embrace Jainism shortly after Mahāvria's attainment of Kevaliship. P. 57. Mention by Jain writers of the two early kings of Rajagriha named Samudravijaya and his son Gaya, who is said to have reached perfection which has been taught by the Jains. P. 59. The Jñatrikas were the clan of Siddhartha and his son Mahavira, the Jina. Pp. 62-63. Family connection of Mahāvira. P. 65. Reference in the Jain Kalpa sutra to nine Mallakis as having formed a league with nine Lichchhavis, and the eighteen Ganarajas of Kasi-Kosala. P. 69. Mention in the Uttaradhyayana Sutra of a king Isukara ruling at the town called Isukara in the Kuru country. Pp. 70-71. The Uttaradhyayana Sutra mentions a king of Kampilya named Sanjaya who gave up his kingly power and adopted the faith of the Jains. 1146 R. NARASIMHACHARYA-Sravana Belgola. (QJMS, xiii, 1923, Pp. 430-447). Information about the colossal image of Gommateśvara. Account of Gommata given in inscription No. 234, of about 1180. Description of Gommata in the Page #111 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY inscription. The statue of Gommata made by Chamundaraya who, according to inscription No. 345, of about 1159, was the minister of Ganga king Rajamalla whose reign began in 974 and ended in about 984. Different estimates of the height of Gommata. The anointment ceremony of Gommaṭeśvara in March, 1922. Tradition regarding the visit to Śravana Belgola of Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta. 1130 1147 R. NARASIMHACHARYA-The Western Gangas of Talkad. (QJMS, xiv, 1923. Pp. 10-22). P. 11. Foundation of the Ganga kingdom attributed to the agency of the Jain teacher named Simhanandi. Pp. 11-12. Chämundaraya, minister of Rachamalla, author of Trişaşțilaksana mahāpurāṇa, popularly known as Chamundaraya-purana, written in 978; it gives an account of the twenty-four Tirthankaras. P. 13. The Ganga plates register a grant in 963 A.D. by the Ganga king Marasimha to a Jain teacher named Munjärya, having the title Vädighanghalabhaṭṭa. P 17. King Madhava of the Ganga family obtained greatness by following the Jain doctrine-The Jain teacher Simhanandi helped him in severing a stone Pillar The Ganga dynasty owed its greatness to Simhanandi-Prosperity of the family through the blessing of this sage stated in an old commentary on the Jain. work Gommatasära. P. 17, note. Karma is primarily of two kinds according to the Jains; each is again subdivided into four classes. 1148 A. R. BANERJI-(Speech delivered at) The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Mythic Society, Bangalore, 1923. (QJMS. xiv, 1923. Pp. 5-9). The great Emperor Chandragupta, a Jain-Abdicated his throne when Buddhism was pressing Jainism hard in the north-Accompanied his spiritual teacher to Sravana Belgola about the close of the 3rd cent. B.a.-Mysore, a stronghold of Jainism for many years-Ramanujacharya, put an end to Jainism in the 12th cent. Page #112 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1149 Walter HUTCHINSON.-History of the Nations, 4 Vols. Vol. I, p. 121. An Illustration of "exhortation by Mahavira". The prominent points in the Jain philosophy on the extreme sanctity of life, the endowment of everything observable with a living soul, and the asecetic. simplicity, even to the extent of being entirely naked. P. 128. Stretch of the Aryan territories in India at the time of Mahavira's birth, 599 B.C. 1131 P. 139. In 82 A.D. the Jains split into halves-The Digambaras and the Svetämbarar. P. 143. In 454 the canons of the Svetämbaras were completed. P. 155. (Jainism): Its comparative purity of precepts and practice gave it that hold on the thoughtful mercantile classes which it has never since (6th century) lost. P. 156. Bijjala, a Jain Kalachuri, his minister, Basava bitterly persecuted the Jains. Pp. 158-59, Tiruvallava, his Kural-Under the Pallava rule, Jainism gave way before Hinduism in the further south, epcept in Mysore, the Tamil literature greatly enriched by remarkable series of hymns, some of which were Jain. P. 160. Persecution of the Jains after Kulattunga Chola. 1150 K. P. Padmanabha MENON.-History of Kerala. Cochin, 1924. Pp. 46-7. Nirgranthas and Jains-a discussion as to their inter-relation. Pp. 461-3. The question of the conversion of Cherumal Perumal, king of Kerala, to Jainism-not trustworthy-by the 5th century A.D.-Jainism penetrated to the far south; in the 7th century Jains the dominant sect in the Dekkan. 1151 R. C. TEMPLE.-A sketch of South Indian Culture. (From the Lectures of Krishnaswami AIYANGAR). (Ind. Anti. Vol. LIII, 1924. Bombay). P. 14. Tamil Sangam is Sanskrit Sangha, an Assembly-a body or academy of scholars and critics, whose imprimatur was necessary for the publication of any Page #113 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1132 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY work of literature in Tamil. The Sangam is referable to the earlier centuries of the Christian Era. P. 25. Bhakti arose as the answer to the agnostic cults of Buddhism and Jainism. Kural of Tiruvalluvar-the term 'Kural' means 'short' and the work is so called bacause it consists of aphoristic couplets of four and three feet each.-As an ethico-religious work the Kural is intended as a guide for conduct in life. It deals. with three only of the "four objects of life" are righteousness (dharma) wealth (artha), love (Kama) and salvation (moksha). "If the first three objects of life are attained by adopting a moral life, the other follows inevitably in consequence. Hence the omis sion of the fourth in this work. P. 27. The early Pallava history and its chronology; A Digambra Jain work, Lokavibhaga-Simha Varman II began to rule in A.D. 436. During the whole history of the Pallavas from about A.D. 200 to nearly A.D. 900. Their power centered round Kanchi. The culture, they introduced, was Northern, and Sanskrit literature. was encouraged; they were great patrons of religion and art. H. A. SHAH.-Pusyamitra-who is he? (A.I.O.C., Session III; 1924). P. 382. "Pulaka established on throne his son (in Avanti) who ruled for 23 years and who was succeeded by Palaka". It therefore means that since the Bharat war, 848 (825 & 23) had gone when Palaka ascended. The year of Palaka is known well from the Jain Gathas. See. I.A. Vol XV, p. 141 ff. I.A. Vol. II, p. 362. 1152 The year of Palaka is O.A.M. therefore the Mahabharat war must have taken place about 848 years before Mahavir entered Nirvana.. The date of Chandra Gupta according to Hemachandra (Paribista Parva VIII, 339) is 155 A.M. The result is Pushyamitra is an older contemporary of Chandragupta Maurya. Page #114 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1133 1153 (A.I.O.C., Session III; R. C. MAJUMDAR :- Indian Colonisation in the Far East. 1924). P. 341. Jain and Buddhist stories about the voyage of merchants from Campa to Suvannabhūmi...... ...... In the fifth century A.D. a king of Campa called Gangarāja abdicated the throne and went over to India in order to spend his last days on the banks of the Ganges. 1154 R Shama SHASTRY.--The Epoch of Kuna Pānd ya, Tirujnanasambandhar and Tirumanghayalvar-(A.I.O.C., Session III; 1924). P. 223. Kunapāndya became Jain in his youth and disregarded Saivism of his ancestors, Jinsen, referred to fix the date of the king Jinasena completed his Harivamsa in a.d. 783... Guņabhadra was the student of Jinasena. The statement niade in the Rājaválikatha that Jinasena, Gunabhadra and Govinda were contemporaries is also corroborated by the Prabhāvakacharita... Bhattākālanka referred to by Jainasena (Mahapurāna Parva I. 53) "The merits of Bhattakālanka, Śripal, and Pātrakesari (Vidyananda) prove when kept at heart of necklace of pearls". 1155 III; S. V. VENKATESWARA.-India in the Second Century B.C. (A.I.O.C., Session 1924). P. 407 ff. At the dawn of the Second century B.C. we have the undoubted face of the decline of the Maurya empire... Western Hindustan was the stronghold of Jainism... After Asoka we hear only of Samprati whom Jain traditions agree in considering as ruler of Western Hindustan and of Dasarath who dedicated caves to the Ājivikas as known from three inscriptions on the Nāgārjun Hill. ...List of Western Emperors can be thus made up. Samprati's rules at Ujjain is proved by Jain traditions preserved in inscriptions of later ages. Page #115 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1134 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1156 R. C. TEMPLE.--Book Notice-The History And Institutions of the Pallavas by C.S. Srinivasachari. (Ind. Ant. Vol. LIV-1925 - Bombay). P. 39. Mahendravarman "at first a Jain and later converted to Śaivism." 1157 A. S. ALTEKAR.-A History of Important Ancient Towns and Cities--In Gujarat and Kathiawad (from the earliest times down to the Moslem conquest). (Ind. Ant. Vol. LIV–1925, Bombay). P. 11. History of the cities selected : Ankuleśwara : Modern Ankleswar (Broach dist.)-Akrureśwara its original name, Arikuleswara being a popular corruption. Pp. 12-13. Anarilapattana--Modern Pattan or Pātan, 60 miles north of Ahmedabad. Under the Solanki rulers a centre of Jain activities, numerous Tain images found among the ruins. P. 16. Asapalli (including Karnavati). Modern Ahamadabad occupies the sites of old Asapalli and Karnavati, Karnavati became a centre of Jain worship temple of Arishtanemi; Devasűri was residing here; Kumudachandra had to go to Karnavati to see Devasüri. Rajanagara of the Jains is the same as Karnavati or modern Ahmadabad. Pp. 20-22. Girinagara : Originally the name of the city of Junagad (Yavanagada), Girinagara or Girnär has now become the name of the hill adjacent to it. To Hindus, Jains and Buddhists alike Girinagara is a tartha'. The Jainas regard the hill as a holy place, their 22nd Tirthankara Arishtanemi or Neminātha a cousin of Sri Krishna, died here. Hence the Digambara sect considers the place as particularly holy P. 25. Dwaravati or Dwarka, a city of hoary antiquity. Jain authors occasionally mention and utilise the legend of the original site of Dwaravati being engulfed in an occanic inundation. P. 26. Dhandhuka an old town-its existence in the 11th century, Hemachandra born here. P. 38. Vardhamāna : Same as Wadhawăn (northern Kathiawad), In ancient India Vardhamāna was a common name of towns-Vardhamāna in (JAS Bengal, 1883); Vardhamānakoti in Dinajpur Dist; Vardhamāna situated Page #116 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1135 between Allahabad and Benaras (Kathasaritsägar, 24/25); Vardhamana in Malwa (JAS Bengal, 1883). The town is named after Vardhamäna Swämin the 24th Tirthankara, who is said to have relieved it from the ravages of a cannibal Yaksha but whether he flourished here is extremely doubtful. Pp. 39-40. Valabhi-modern Vata, 18 miles west by north of Bhavanagar. Hiuen Tsiang records that there were temples of Jains. P. 42. Śatrunjaya (in Kathiawad) situated on a hill about 35 miles southwest of Bhavanagar. At present two temples on the hill-one of Adinatha and the other of Neminātha. 1158 Nripendra Kumar DUTT-The Aryanisation of India, Calcutta, 1925. Pp. 91, 93-94. In Eastern India there were powerful non-Aryan communities. Eastern India was imperfectly Aryanised partly accounts for the rise of the two great protestant religions, Jainism and Buddhism. The protests against the Brahmanical hierarchy and rituals so boldly preached by Mahavira and Gautama Buddha in Behar a reaction against the imposition of Brahmanical belief and institutions upon a not very willing people. Chandragupta Maurya in his later life. dissociated himself from Brahmanism and became a convert to Jainism. P. 98. Free from Aryan influences was the Tamil country. As late as the times of the Marayas the ordinary religion of the Tamillians was a form of demonworship, and Brahminism had not made much headway among them. The First great Aryan influence came with the spread of Buddhism and Jainism together with their literature from Northern India. P. 99. In other parts of India the authors were mostly Brahmins; most of the compositions in classical Tamil literature were the works of Sudras. 1159 K. Ramavarma RAJA-The Age of the First Manu (Swayambhuva) or the Antiquiry of the Heretical (Pakhanda) Schools. (QJMS, vol. 16 No. 1, 1925), Bangalore. Bhagwata Purana Skhandhas iii-v. P. 28. Priyavrata, the other son of Manu Svayambhuva was the ancestor of a different line of rulers among whom Rishabhadeva, 'Bharat', and 'Sumati" deserve special notice of these, the first was recognised as Vishnu himself incarnate and born as a son to king Nabhi and his wife, 'Merudevi. He was from the very be ginning, free from all worldly cares and illusions, and, yet lived and ruled to teach Page #117 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1136 JANA BIBLIOGRAPHY the people, by his own example, how real liberation from the material entanglements should be sought and obtained; then, renounced his throne and kingdom in favour of 'Bharata’ the eldest of his one hundred sons, and went out wandering as a naked, indifferent and idiot-looking saint, in course of which he visited various places, including among others Konka (Konkan), Venka (probably the country dominated by the Venkatagiri hill, Tirupathi) and Kotaku (Coorg) in the southern Karnatic country, and was at last consumed in a big wide-spread forest fire here. But before this holy life ended in fire, his teachings had spread far and wide. His son, Bharata, was also a king of saintly character and struggled for liberation of his soul after renouncement. It was after him that this country (India) was called Bhārata Varsha. 1160 F.J. MONAHAN--The Early History of Bengal. Milford, 1925. P. 185. Asoka is also mentioned in Purāṇas and Jain literature. P. 200. Pillar edicts record that Asoka has ordered that superintendents of the Sacred Law (Dhamma-mahamatta) should be occupied with the affairs of the Sangha, with the Ājivakas, Brahmanas, with Niganthas and numerous other creeds. 1161 V. P. BOKIL-The History of Education in India, Part-I. Bombay, 1925. P. 5. Rationalism prevailed in India from about 1000 B.C. to the Ist century A.D.--Buddhist and Jain religion reached their zenith at that time. P. 12. Buddhist and Jain works mark the waves of independent thought and show the formation of the Prakrit taking place of Sanskrit as a spoken language in the beginning and later on even in writing. P. 200. Mention of Jains taking part in tournaments for the test of learning with the followers of other faiths. Pp. 217-220. Jainism-its origin and development discussed. Jainism an offshoot of Buddhism referred to by Houen Tsang---7th century A.D. Jain scriptures-committed to writing only in the 5th century A.D.-Jainism slight difference with Buddhism-discussed Jains-rejection of the authority of the Vedas.-Jain agamas falling into seven divisions-Vows of Mahāvrata and Anuvrata i.e. the higher and lower doctrinaries for Jain asceticism respectively-fully discussed, · P. 225. Prakrit the language of the majority of Jain works. Page #118 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1162 Narendra Nath LAW-Studies in Indian History and Culture, London, 1925. Pp. 260-61. Jain writers on the science of Arthaśastra-Hemachandra, author of Arhan-niti, and Somadeva Süri, author of Nitivakyamṛta-their contents. 1163 B. C. MAZUMDAR-Orissa in the making, Calcutta 1925, P. 35. Settlement of Jain ascetics in "Khandagiri" and "Udayagiri" but difficult to say wheather it was prior to Asoka's conquest of Kalinga-Ascetics used their own languages-few disciples learnt the language of Mid-India. 1137 P. 40. Mention of Satakarnis as the rulers of Magadha in Tamil work Manimekhalai and Silappathikaram. Pp. 48-49. Hathigumpha inscriptions of Kharavela-its great historical value in the date of its record. P. 96. Khäravela-his using of the language and script of the Jainas. Khāravela a Jain-confering of the epithet Aira or Bhadanta on the Jain and Buddhist persons of high rank. P. 132. Creation of a culture centre in the Mayurbhanj forest either by the Buddhists or by the Jains prior to the time of Birbhadra the founder of the Bhanja dynasty. P. 133. Places of Jain activities reduced to Saiva influence in Orissa the Central Provinces. 1164 T. S. RAJAGOPALAN-Ancient India-Madras, 1925. P. 11. The Jains and Baudha even before Mahavira and Buddha dissuaded the people from their brutal sacrifice. P. 12. Rishaba the Ist Tirthankara of the Jains referred to be in 2,000 .c. (Puranas). Page #119 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1138 i165 A. L. KHAN-A short History of India. (Hindu period), 1926. P. 22. Mahavira-founder of Jainism a contemporary of Buddha-a Khatriya prince becomes saint at the age of thirty. Mahävira's rejection of the Vedasbelieved in the transmigration of soul and doctrine of Karma;-observes caste distinction and worships many Hindu gods. Kindness towards animals of the Jains, greater than the Buddhists. camp. 1166 Radhakumud MOOKERJI-Harsha, London, 1926. P. 46. Harsha was attended to by all people, including Jainas. P. 76. Nirgranthas received Harsha at Kanauj when he returned from the JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 80. In Prayaga, Nirgranthas were invited and given royal gifts. P. 121. Yuan Chwang says that there were Digambaras in India (Watters, I, 123). P. 121. Bana mentions Jain monks among his friend. P. 122. Yuan Chwang says, "The Nirgranthas go without clothing". (Watters. p. 161). P. 133. In Harsha's time, there were different sects of Jains, the Arhatas (Digambara) and Svetapatas (Śvetāmbaras). A Digambara Jain (Kṣapanaka) was a faithfully friend of Bana. 1167 K. De B. CODRINGTON-Ancient India. London, 1926. P. 42. Almost all of the Gupta, the 5th, 6th century and later medieval and also some earlier sculptures of Mathura are Jain. They belong to the Kankali Mound. P. 44. A description of the seated Jain Adinath in the Mathura Museum, which is inscribed in the 84th year of Vasudeva. Page #120 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1139 P. 45. Most of the āyāgapatas of Mathura are Jain--a description of the earliest of these. Plate No. LII. A. Courtyard of the Indra Sabhā (Jain) Cave Temple. Ellora, Nizam's Dominions. 8th century. Plate No. LXIX, A. Nemināth (Jain) temple. Khajuraho, Chhatarpur State, 10th eentury. 1168 K. R. SUBRAHMANIAN–The early religious history of Kalings, (R.J.A.H.R.S. vol. 1, no. I) Rajahmundry, 1926. Pp. 49-50. "Men of different sects in Kalinga" mentioned in the Asokan inscriptions, include Jains also; Nandas were Jains, their Jain remains found in Nandapur in Jaypore; Khāravela inscription at Udayagiri gives a vivid picture of Kalinga; his inclination to Jainism but impartial; first seven centuries of the Christian era, a period of Bauddha culture, succeeded by Jain culture: caves on the Udayagiri-Khandagiri hills belong to the early Buddhist period; about the 7th century. Buddhism declined and Jainism lodged itself in some of the Buddhist buildings, P. 51. Rāmatirtham sacred to Buddhists, Jains and Hindus; Gurabhaktakonda- its ruins of a Buddhist Vihāra-ururped by Jain images. P. 52. References in the eastern Chalukyan inscriptions to Jains and their temples and not to Buddhists prove that Buddhism declined first. Hieuntsang remarks about more Nirgranthas temples than those of the Buddhists. 1169 RAWIINSON, H. G.-Intercourse between India and the Western World Cambridge, 1926. 2nd ed. P. 60. Mention of Jains in the records of Megasthenes. P. 157. The Ahimsā doctrine of Buddhism ahared also by Brahmins and Jains. 1170 K. G. Sesha AIYAR.--A problem of Ancient South Indian History. (QJMS, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1926, Bangalore). P. 147. Nedu Māran was converted to Saivism by Jñānasambhanda, and at the instance of the latter became one of the most cruel persecutors of the Jains, of whom it is said he impaled 8,000 in Madura. Page #121 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1140 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 148. The middle of the 7th century coincides with the date of Jñānasambanda and Appar, and their royal disciples Ninrasir-Nedu Maran and Mahendra Varman. Those were the days when the Jains were most mercilessly persecuted both in the Pandya and the Pallava countries. The flame of passion and prejudice against the Jains was fanned with equal vigour by the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaishnava Alwars; and by the time of Sri Sankar (8th century) the Jains had ceased to be an important factor in the Tamil country. Every body conversant with Sangam literature knows to what great extent we are indebted to the Jains in that respect. The Sangam age was pre-eminently the period of the predominance of the Jains in Tamil letters. The author of Chilappatikaram was a Jain; while his brother, the Chera King i.e. Chen Kuttuvan, was Saivite. There was then perfect religious toleration. P. 153. 171 A. G. will thoroughly satisfy the condition in the text for the great fire that consumed Madura (Date of Chilappatikaram by K.G. Sesh AiyarMadras Christian College Magazine 1917). P. 156. The King of Ceylon, Gajabahu attended the consecration of the image of Patni-devi. He was reigning between 173 and 191 A.C. The date of the fire at Madura 171 A.C. 11711 K. R. SUBRAMANYAM--Relation between Tamilkam and Kalingam. (Q.J.A.M.R.S Vol. 1. pt. 4)—Rajahmundry, 1927. P. 197. Kalinga held in contempt as the land of the Vrātyas; the art of scooping out caves and temples in rocks seen in the Khandagiri of Udayagiri hills, transmitted by Kalinga from the north to the Andhras and the Pallavas. The Buddhist and Jain cultures which flourished in the Tamil land in the early Pallava period, was essentially a Northern culture. 1172 B. M, BARUA.--Maskari as an Epithet on Gosala. (H.Q. Vol. III. 1927). P. 235. Gosāla's place in Ājivikas history discussed. P. 236. Cause of the Jains retaining Ardha-Magadhi-explained. P. 239. Why Gosāla, called a Maskari fully explained. Pp. 245-61. Ājivikas-no identification with Parivarjakas-fully explained. Page #122 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1141 1173 A. S. ALTEKAR.- A history of Village Communities in Western India. (Oxford University Press, 1927). P. 2. Village administration as evident from two Mathura Jain inscriptions (E.I. Vol. I, p. 387) of the 1st century A.D. P. 67. Evidence of taxation in the Anjaneri Jain inscription of the Yadava king Senuchandra III (I.A., XII, p. 127). P. 118. Influence of progress of Jainism in Gujrat and Kathiawar under late Chālukyas on village worship. 1174 A. A. MACDONELL.--India's Past. Oxford, 1927. Pp. 64-67. Rise of Jainism-doctrines-Jain canons-Agama, sūtras, Kalpa sūtra - commentaries of Bhadrabāhu, śāntisūri (died 1040 A.D.) and Devendraganiadoption of legends from, Brahmanism-Katha-Koşa-Hemachandra (born 1089) -Jinasena's Parsvabhyudaya, a poetical biography of Pārsvanātha, composed about 800 A.D.- Uvasagya-harastotra, the oldest Jain religious lyric--the Uvaesa-mala; a book of moral instructions, by Dharmadāsa-Hemachandra's Yoga-śāstras the best didactic Jain poem--Haribhadra's Şaddarśana-samuccaya-some peculiarities of Jain architecture, P. 140. Hemachandra's Prākrit grammar. Pp. 143-4. Between 1123 and 1140 A.D. a Digambara Jain named Dhananjaya wrote a lexicon entitled Namamala or Garland of Nouns. Hemachandra's Abhidhānacintamani, a lexicon of synonyms, the Nighanțušesa, a botanical glossary, the Anekārtha-samgraha, a dictionary of homonyms, and the Desi-nāma-māla, or Glossary of provincial words. P. 153. The Yoga system prevalent among Jains. P. 156. Hemachandra's Pramāņa-mimamsā, a work on logic written in the sutra style, Buddhist and Jain contribuiion to development of Nyāya and Vaiśeshika systems-close affinity between the Vaišeshika and Jain philosophy. P. 171. Somadevasūri, a Jain author, composed in Kashmir his Nitivakyāmsta, or Nectar of political doctrines—its similarity with the Arthaśāstra but a Jain touch apparent. Page #123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1142 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 172. Hemachandra's Laghavarhan-nitiśāstra or Brief Manual on politics for Jains-a book dealing mainly with civil and criminal law. P. 182. An extensive astronomical upanga of the Jains, the Suriyapannati, or instruction regarding the sun belongs to the earlier post vedic period. P. 218. Jains claimed that the Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar, author of the Kurral was a Jain. P. 219. The Tamil author of the Naladiyar was probably a Jain. P. 220. The Tamil epics Sindamani and its imitation Sutamani composed by Jains. P. 226. Jain literature written in the Gujarati dialect rich, but yet little known. 1175 (a) Rev. Henry Heras-The Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara. Madras, 1927. P. 536. Jainism was the prevailing religion in the old Karnataka country. A Śravana-Belgola inscription (Q IMS. III, Pp. 23-8) ays that Jains came to Mysore from Ujjain, under Bhadrabāhu. Statue of Jain saint Bliujabalin erected between 977 and 984 a.d. by Chamundaräja. P. 538. The royal decree (E.C.L.A. Ma, 18) of Bukka Rāya deciding the dispute between the Jains and the Bhaktas (Vaishnavas) in 1368. P. 539. Influence of Jainism-Baichappa, a Jain, was minister of Bukka and Harihara II (Hultzsch, SII, I, p. 111) other prominent Jains mentioned in inscription of 1387-8 (EI, VII, Pp. 115-16) 1422 (Ibid, VIII, p. 22), 1426 (Hultzsch, SII, p. 162). A Jain temple was built in Vijayanagara. P. 549. The Nayaka family of Ikeri converted many Jains to the Saiva creed (Burnell, IA, II, p. 353). P. 550. Jaina influence in Kanarese Viceroyalty-statue of Jain saint Bhujabalin set up at Enura (Venur) in 1603-4. Jain priest Chārukirti was the pontiff of Be!gola (Śravana-belgola) Kanarese prince Kinniga Bhüpāla granted money to maintain a Jain temple, in 1591. In 1586, Kārakala chief Bhairava II built a Jain temple at Kārakala, with images of three Tirthankaras, Ara, Malli and Munisuvrata ---temple of the three jewels (E.I. VIII, Pp. 124-5). Page #124 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1175 (b) T. BHATTACHARYYA,-Hand Book of Ancient Indian History, Patna, 1927. 6) P. 9. The Jain chronicles of Guzrat and the Jain Sutras supply valuable historical truth. P. 35. Mahavira a Kshatriya. P. 36. The doctrine of Ahimsa-the principal one with the Jains. P. 37. Jainism rejects in theory, the caste system, but in practice, the system exists among them. The doctrine of Ahimsa-not so strict with the Buddhists as with the Jains. P. 38. Jainism and Buddhism compared. Pp. 38-39. Jainism compared with Hinduism, P. 85. Mention of Asoka's didication of serveral caves to the Ajivikas, a Jain sect. 1927. 1176 1143 R. C. MAJUMDAR.-Outline of Ancient Indian History and Civilisation. Calcutta, P. 11. Jaina chronicles-a source of Indian History. Buddhism and Jainism-important cults for centuries. Pp. 215-222. Jainism Mahavira the last Tirthankara genealogy of Mahavira and Päráva-Mahavira born in 540 B.c. at Kundagrama near Vaiśäli-his wanderings and death (c 468 B.c.) Buddhism and Jainism compared. Spread of Jainism in India-patronised by Chandragupta Maurya. Pilgrimage of Chandragupta and Bhadrabahu to the south leaving Sthulabhadra in charge of the Magadha Jains-Sthalabhadra versed in 14 Purras (i.e old texts)-Convocation of a Council at Pataliputra and the rearrangement of 14 Purvas in 12 Angas. 12th Anga lost. Division of Sects to Digambaras and Svetämbaras. Digambara refusal to accept 12 Angas. P. 297. Mention of Ananda the fabulous rich householder converted to Jainism-cited in Jain canonical works. Page #125 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1144 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 303. Stupas---erection of the Buddhists and Jains to commemorate a noted event or a sacred spot or deposit some relics of Buddha. Mahāvira or other religious saints. P. 312. Indian art cannot be vivisected completely to the different Buddhist, Jain or Brahmanical styles. P. 341. Harsha's Assembly at Kanauj attended by 3,000 Jains and orthodox Brahmanas, P. 368. Kadambas although Brahmans-were patrons of Jainism. P. 496. Numerous inscriptions of the Pre-gupta period refer to non-Brahmanical religions like Buddhism and Jainism whereas majority of the inscriptions of the Gupta period refer to Brahmanical religion. P. 497. During the time of Hiuentsang (629-645 A.D.) Buddhism was carving a death struggle with Jainism and Hinduism. Pp. 501-2. Jainism-patronised by Early Chalukyas and the Rashtrakütas -- Bijjala-the Kalachuri chief of Jain--Hoysalas-Jains, though converted to Vaishnavism protected Jainism. Jains persecuted by Choļas and Pandyas, mention of impaling 8,000 Jains by Sundara the Pandya king, pictured in Madura temple. P. 510. Rishabha the 1st Tirthan kara and Buddha looked upon as Avatāras of Vishņu. 1177 R. C. MAZUMDAR.-Outline of Ancient Indian History and Civilization. Calcutta, 1927, P. 11. Jaina chronicles a source of Indian history, P. 195. The growth of heterodox religions like Buddhism and Jainismimportant momentous changes in ancient India history. P. 196. Jainism-its prominence on the role of Indian history. Pp. 215-222. Jainism-Mahāvira--and Pārsva the gist of their lives--Vardhamana born in Kundagrāma in 540 B.C. --father Siddhārtha a Kshatriya of Jnātrika clan and mother Trišalā sister of Chețaka ruler of Vaišali-His renunciation and asceticsm discussed --commandments of Päráva and Mahāvira discussed. Jainism compared and contrasted with Buddhism. Page #126 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1145 Jainism under the royal patronage of Chandra Gupta-Thera Bhadrabāhu the chief of the Jain community when Chandra Gupta was the king of Magadha. Their pilgrimage to South-Sthūlabhadra Jain teacher versed in 14 pūrvas (i.e. old texts). His convocation of the Jain council at Pāķaliputra and the codification of 14 Purvas to 12 Angas in 5th century A.D.-Rejected by the followers of Bhadrabāhu when returned from the south and finally leading to the rise of two schools of Jainas, Svetāmbaras and Digambaras. P. 297. Mention of a fabulously rich Jain merchant named Ananda. P. 303. Stūpas- erected by Buddhas and Jainas either to commemorate a a noted event or a sacred spot or to deposit some relics of Buddha, Mahāvīra or other religious saints. P. 341. Harsha's assembly at Kanauj attended by 300 Jains. P. 368. Kadambas-great patrons of Jainism. P. 496. Inscriptions of the pre-Gupta period with only a few exceptions refer to non-Brahmanical religious sects like Buddhists and Jains but majority of the inscriptions of the Gupta period refer to Brahmanical religion. Pp. 501-502. Jainism-Early Chälukyas & Rashtrakütas patrons of JainismProgress of Jainism in the Deccan under their patronage-superceded by Saivism century A.D. Bijjala the Kalachur chief a Jain-Hoysalas, Jains though converted to Vaishnavism protected Jains. Mention of 8,000 Jains being tortured by Pāņdya king Sundara. P. 570. Rishabha, the 1st Tirthankara of the Jains, looked upon as incarnation of Vishņu. 1178 S. Srikantha SASTRI-Deva Rāya II. (Ind. Ant. Vol. LVII-1928, Bombay). P. 77. The greatest Emperor of the first dynasty of Vijayanagara, Deva Rāya II, son of Vijaya Rāya (or Bukka III). Deva Rāya had the good fortune to possess some of the greatest ministers. P. 80. Irugappa Dandanātha, the revered minister of Bukka II and Hari Hara II, seems to have been still living, as in A.D. 1422 he made a grant at Śrāvana Belgoļa to the great Jaina scholar Panditārya Śruta Muni (Sr. Bel. 253 (82), Ep. Car. Vol. II). Page #127 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1146 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Deva Rāya later in the reign became more eclectic. His Jaina minister, Irugappa dandanatha, patronised Jaina scholars, while the fact that an epigraph at Srāvana Belgo!a be wails his death is a proof of his good will towards Jainas, also (Sr. Bel. 328 (125), Ep. Car. Vol. II). P. 83. This period was of great literary activity. Sanskrit, Telugu and Kannada scholars of every sect-including Jains, produced a vast literature, secular as well as religious. A list of Poets who flourished under the patronage of Deva Rāya P. 84. given. 1179 R. G. BHANDARKAR-Early History of the Dekkan, Calcutta, 1928. P. 102. Jain influence in the time of early Chālukyas-Ravikīrti the Jain composer of Aihole inscription--a poet--patronized by Pulakesi II-grant of a village for a Jain temple by Vijayāditya to Udayadevapandita or Niravadyapandita, the pupil of Sripüjyapäda of the Devagaña sect of Mülasamgha. Niravadya pandita-- a spiritual adviser of Vijayapandita (7th century). P. 118. Sarasmgrala, a Jain mathematical work by Viracharya.-mention of Amoghavarsha as a follower of Jain doctrine (Syādväda) a great patron of Digambara Jains. P. 120. Mention of grant of land to a Jain temple by Prithvirama to be constructed at Saundatti in 797 Saka year. Mention of a Jain temple built by a Vaisya named Chikarya at Mulgunda, Dharvad dist. in 824 Saka year. Consecration of Jain Puräna in S. 820. P. 137. Granting of a village to a Jain temple by Govinda III Bharata, a Jain work by Pampa in Kanarese of the year 863 S. P. 139. Granting of a piece of land by a feudatory chief of Tailapа to a Jain temple to be constructed at Saundatti in Belgaum dist. in 980 A.D. P. 163. Mention of the death of Vijjana according to Jain account. P. 166. Decay of Jainism during the period 973-1188 A.D. effectual check given by the rise of Lingayata sect. P. 181. Grant of land to a Jain temple by Seunadeva in 1063 S. P. 214. Erection of a Jain temple in the village Ajarem in Kolhapur dist. . by Gandarāditya-Excavation of a tank image of Jinas placed on the banks charities given to Jainas. Page #128 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1147 1180 K. R, PISHAROTI --Religion and Philosophy in Kerala. (L.H.Q. Vol. IV. 1928). P. 713. Buddhism and Jainism-flourishing religions in Kerala in the early centuries of Christian era. 1181 J. SEN - Asoka's Mission to Ceylon. (I.H.Q Vol. IV, 19 8). P. 671. Jainism in South India-older than the Buddhism of Asoka by at least half a century. Mention of Samprati sending missionaries to the Andhras and the Dramilas and bringing the uncivilized nations under the influence of Jainism referred to in Hemachandra's Parisista pravan (XI 89-102). 1182 Plates of Silara Rattarāja, Śaka Samvat 932 H.C. CHAKLADAR-Valipattana (I.H.Q. Vol iv 1928). Pp. 207-209 Slackening of faith over Brahmanism of Rattarāja under the influence of Jainism-Jains carrying a great influence over southern India referred to in the kharepalan plates of Rattarāja of Saka Samvat 930. Rāştraküța Amoghavarsa a patron of the Jainas. Cālukya Jayasimha II (11th century A.D.) converted from Jainism to Saivism by his wife Suggaladevi-Jains having treat influence at the court of the collateral branch of the Silaras reigning at Kolhapur. Influence of Jainism in South Maratha lands upto present day since the time of Rattarāja. P. 208(n). Mention of Rāstrakūta Mānyakheta dying at Sravana Belgola in 982 a.c. by Sallekhanā. 1183 R. Gopalan–History of the Pallavas of Kanchi, Madras, 1928. P. 42. The date of the Digambara Jain work known as Lokavibhāga---A'D. 458 (Saka 380) -a source of Pallava history. P. 90. According to tradition the Pallava king Mahendravarman I was a Tain-but later embraced Saivism due to tortures committed by Jains on Appar, a Saiva saint. Page #129 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1148 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 92. Three Jain figures in Pallava paintings in Pudukkotta state, Madras. P. 95. Decay of Buddhism and Jainism in the reign of Mahendravarman I. P. 103. About A.D. 652 Hiuen Tsang saw numerous Jain temples and many Digambara adherents in the Pallava capital. 1184 N. Der-Radha or the Ancient Ganga—Rāstra. I.H.Q. Vol. IV. 1928. P. 45. Mānbhum-a corruption of Mānya-bhūmi meaning venerable country and evidently derived from Mahävira the "Venerable Ascetic Mahävira" on the attainment of Kevaliship in this district-a scene of Nirvāņa of no less than twenty Tīrthankaras including Pārsvanātha-contains the cenotaphs of the Jinas? or Samadhi-mandira, for which the Hall (Pārsvanāth hill) is called by the Jains Samet-Sikhara a corruption of Samadhisekhara. Singbhum-derivation of its name from Mahāvira who is compared to Lion (n. Kalpa sütra). Bhadra bāhu.the author of Kalpa--sutra flourished during Maurya rule and died in 357 B.C. says on the day called Suvrata, in the Muhurtta called Vijaya outside the Town of Jrmbhikagrāma on the bank of Rjupālika", Mahāvīra performed asceticism and became a Kevalin. P. 46 “Mahāvīra stayed in the place not very far from the Pārasanāth hills called Jrm bhikagrāma" which was also called Jrmbhila (Mrs. Stevenson). 1185 ISHWARI PRASAD--History of Medieval India. Allahabad, 1928. P. 26. Conflict between Hinduism and Jainism, under the Rajput. P. 28. Jain temple at Ābū of the 19th century. P. 39, Amoghavarsa Rāshtrakūta was a Jain -a Jain work called Uttarapurāņa by Gunabhadra, represents Amoghavarşa as a disciple of the Jain saint Jainasena. P. 40. Great progress of Digarnbara form of Jainism under the Rashtrakūtas. 1186 S. Krishnaswami AIYANGAR-The Bappa Bhatti Carita and the early history of the Gurjar Empire. (J.B.B.R.A.S., 1928, vol. III, Pp. 100-133). The life of Bappa Bhatti which is included in the Prabhāvakacarita of Chandraprabha sūri, considered from a historical standpoint. Page #130 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1187 Radhakumud MOOKERJI-Asoka. London, 1228. P. 7. Some Buddhist works say that a king of a locality set a price upon the head of some Nirganthas. P. 13. Chandragupta was a Jain. P. 31. Dharma-mahāmātras were appointed governing different sects, Jains, Ajivikas, etc. P. 60. A theory that Asoka was a Jain. P. 66. Asoka's toleration of Jainism. P. 71. Jainism mentions 18 kinds of papa and 42 kinds of asrava. The Jaina work Praśnavyakarana Sutra, 1.7, mentions 5 kinds of asrava. Asoka has followed the Jaina rather than the Buddhist view of the asravas. Asoka included the Sara of Jainism in his Dharma. 1149 P. 86. Vaisali, modern Basarh, was famous in ancient times as the birthplace of Mahavira. P. 206. Khäravela of Orissa was a Jain. 1188 BENI PRASAD-The state in Ancient India-Allahabad, 1928. P. 7. Mention of Kharavela the Jaina King. P. 10. The Buddhist Samgha-represented the maximum of organisation in Hinduism -The Jain orders were more loose. P. 13. Shaking of the political position of Brahmanas by the rise of Buddhism and Jainism. P. 116. Mention of Mahavira preaching in Prakrit. Reference of Takṣaśila and its Jain edifices in Jaina literature. Buddhist and Jain records mentioned as the most important informations of the Mauryan empire. P. 154(n). Jain Kalpa-Sutra and Acaranga-sutra deal with the lief of Mahivira. Pärsvanatha-founder of Jainism. (JACOBI-S.B.E. vol. xlv, p. 122). Page #131 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1.150 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 155(n). Mention of 6th century B.C. clanoligarchies in Jain Kalpa-Sutra. (JACOBI, p. 65). P. 156. Some regions in pre-Mauryan period ruled by Gaņas, two kings etc. referred to in the Jain Acārānga-Sūtra-no instance of dual Kingship in Jain literature, P. 158. No mention of any organic connection between the procedure of the monastic order and the political assembly in Jain literature in pre Maurvan India. P. 163, Both Bimbisāra or Śrenika and Ajātaśatru or Künika are claimed by Jains and Buddhists as followers of their religions. P. 193(n). Mention of Jain tradition of Chandragupta's abdication, migration to the south and death under Jain rites. P. 216. Mention of Samprati's conversion to Jainism. P. 218. Jain King Khāravela's invasion of North in 165 B.C. and 161 B.C. Federal feudalism described in Chandraprabha Sūri's Prabhārakacarita--mention of Anuyogadva rasūtram inculcation loyality to government. Gadyacințāmaņi written by Vadibhasimhasüri (8th century A.D.) mention of Satyabhadra's abdication and the regain of the throne by his son from the hands of an intriguing minister. Kșatracūdamaņi of Vadībhasimhasūri relates to the functions of kings and subjects. Haribhadra's Dharmavindu (9th century A.D.)-a work of less importance for the study of regal functions. Nuivakyāmritam of Somadevasüri (10th century A.D.)--Nectar of political sayings' in Sutra form--sources of the work mentioned. Functions of King fully described Yaśastilakacampu a work of Som deva-containing some political touches. P. 507. Jainas always define Dharma so as to include the law of inanimate matter. P. 509. Buddhist and Jain Kings reduced political significance of castes. Jain traditions records king Bharat created Jain Brahmans out of Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sūdras, Page #132 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1189 S. V. VENKATESWARA-Indian culture through ages, vol. I. 1928. P. 112. Mention of talented ladies converted to Jainism-Nanda wife of Bimbisära and twelve other queens-beautified mentioned in Antagada-Dasão. sutras. P. 129. Mention of Jain Nirgranthas giving up the world. P. 135. Mention of mischievious students compared to bad bullocks in Jain. 1151 P. 138. The Jain Uttaradhyayana enjoins the devotee to study and meditate himself, Mahavira's addition of the virtue of Brahmacharya to other existing virtues. P. 139. Jainas condemnation of luxury goods as a temptators towards sensuality. P. 144(n). Mahavira-described as Smarana (reminding) Varana (guarding from profanity) and Dharana (holding or retaining). P. 148. The introduction of Vernacular by Buddhism and Jainism in the methods of teaching. P. 160. Jain sutras enjoin reverence to Brahmana as well as Śramana. P. 163. The Hindu, Buddhist and Jain-regard of this life but as a link in the endless chain of eternity. P. 169. The life story of the Buddha and Mahavira show the Kalas (Arts) the subjects of training in the schools of the time. P. 192. Mention of Bitter hate of Asvaghosha towards Jainism. P. 217. Mention of the Ranna and Nemichandra honoured in the court of Chalukyas. P. 251. Mention of the Jain monasteries at Kaveripattanam, Uraiyur and Madura preaching religion and Philosophy. P. 259. Mention of Bhattavṛtti (grant of land to learned men), to Nirgranthas during early Chola period. Page #133 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1152 1190 N. C. MEHTA-Jaina record on Toramana, J.B.O.R.; xlv, 1928. Pp. 28 ff. Kuvalayamala of Udyotanasüri alias Däkṣinyachihna; king Toraraya identity of this name with the celebrated Huna monarch Toramina (circa 499-510 A.D.). 1191 Oswald SPENGLER-The Decline of the West. Translated by Charles Francis. ATKINSON, London, (1928). Vol. II. P 307, Gotama Buddha and his contemporary Mahavira, the founder of Jainism-both of whom came from the political world of the lower Ganges, east of the old Brahmanic Culture-field-recognized, neither the idea of God nor myth and cults. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1192 B. M. BARUA-Kharavela's Personal History-(A.I.O.C., Session V; 1928). Pp. 364-385. King Kharavela flourished before the beginning of Christian era-caves on the Udayagiri and Khandagiri hills near Bhuvaneswar in Orissa still stand forth as pious dedications from Khāravela and his royal family and servants for rendering shelters to resident Jain saints and recluses-Hathi-Gumpha inscription informs his history, activities, and achievements-epigraph of 17 linescontains a sketch of the autobiography of Kharavela : (1) Kharavela's army-the traditional four divisions of an Indian Army. (2) Kharavela's Administrative Policy and Method-traditional method of his forefathers-Fxcavation of the caves for the Jain Saints and recluses on the Kumāri Hill. (3) Kharavela's Religion & Religious Policy. P. 377. Invocation formula of Hathi-Gumpha-Namo arahantanam namo sovvasidhanam-clearly proves that Jainism was the religious faith of King Kharavela and inser. of Kharavela's chief queen-arahanta-Pasādānam kalinganam samanǎnam-& so on. Jainism was state religion long before Khäravela-he brought the Throne of Jina defeating the King Nanda Nandarajanita Kalinga-Jinäsana-caves on the Kumari Hills--resting places of the Jain saints-Kumaripavate arahato parinviasalo hi kaya-nisidiyaya. Page #134 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1153 Jain recluses specifically mentioned--Hāthi-Gumpha record (1.9) with regard to feasting in Mathura and to that in Kalinga-even Mathura proved to be up till the reign of Khāravela an impenetrable region for Buddhism, although this faith was destined to thrive there together with Jainism during the reign of the Kuśāna Kings. Conclusion: King Khāravela was a Jain from his very birth. King Asoka was not born in a Buddhist family-he was converted to Buddhism. Patriotic spirit not inspired by Jainism-He was a Hindu so far as this world was concerned, and Jain so far as the other world was concerned--religious toleration of the nature of Hinduism. 1193 the Andhras mentioned in the Mahabhārat. R. SUBRAO GARU : Kalinga & (A.1.0.C., Session V; 1928). P. 494, Animism, Buddhism and Jainism were accepted as the religions by the masses. P. 495. The spread of Jainism in Kalinga-in the early centuries of Christian era. P. 517. Jain Kings Padmanäbh and his two sons Dadiga & Mahadeva. Greek geographer Ptolemy and Latin writers like Virgil and Gurtius refer to 'Gangaridae'. Pliny writes of Gangaridae Calingae or the Ganges of Kalinga-- Influence in the Eastern India-we find that even Chandragupta who owed his throne to the Brahmin Chāņakya accepted the discipleship of the Jain saint Bhadrabāhu. (vide f.n.s. p. 255 fn. 10, 11, 12). 1194 Hira Nand SHASTRI–Nalanda in Ancient Literature. (A.I.O.C. Session V; 1928) P. 387. Sutrakrtānga mentions the name-Jain work Purvadesa caitya-paripatiby Hamsasoma in the year 1565 of the Vikram era and others-mention Jainas visiting this place. Mahāvīr spent fourteen chaturmasas in Nālandā. Aupapātika sutra, S.I. quoted. P. 392. Jain works. Page #135 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1154 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1195 H. HERAS-Viragal of the time of Harihara II of Vijayanagar. (Qjms, vol. 19, No. 1, 1928, Bangalore). P. 25. History of Goa under Bijayanagara : In 1380 the Musoulmans were finally expelled from the Konakan and the city of Goa was captured. Onc Baichappa, a general, is said to have distinguished himself in the Konkan war and to have 'sent may of the Konkanigas to destruction'. He is said by his conduct to have gained the heavenly world and attained to the feet of the Jina' (Ep. Carn. VIII ; SB. 152 ; 153). 1196 (a) P.T.S, IYENGAR- History of the Tamils-Madras, 1929. Pp. 143-5. Chandragupta's death by Sallekhana deciphering of the inscriptions left by Jain ascetics throws light on the Tamil literary history. Difficulty in ascertaining as to the use of caves either of Jains or Buddhists in ancient Pandya and sera countries (in 5th 1st century A.D.). Jain tenets discussed--Philosophy of Mahāvira described. P. 246. Sangam-Tamil form of Sanskrit Sangha first popularised by the Tains meaning the organized body of the followers of Mahāvīra composed of the Bhikhu, the Bhikkhuni the Srävaka and Śrāvikā. Bhikkhu and Bhikkhun--followers of strict, codes ending in Sallekhanā and Śrävaka & Srāvikā-candidates for asceticism, Migration of Jain ascetics to the south from 4th century B.c.- lived in mountain caves till 5th century A.D. P. 247. First mention of the Jains in the Tamil works Pattinappalai and Maduraikkanji- First establishment of Jain Sangha at Madura 470 A.D. In Digambara Darsanasära lately obtained from Anhilwad Pattan, Devasena giving his own date as 909 ricords that Vajranandi the pupil of Sri Pūjyapāda founded the Dravida Sangha in Mathura of the Deccan in 525 after the death of Vikrama. P. 247 (n) 2. The transliteration of the above inscription. P. 248. Saiva cult's competition with Jain in Tamil land in 4th century A. D. Page #136 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 527. Jaina cult practised in the outskirts of Madura in the time of Nedunjeliyan. Jain sangha established in the city 470 A.D. P. 534. Mention of Mahendra Vikrama Pallava building stone temples to Jina. Šiva, Visnu and to the Trimurti. Mention of Kopperinjolan-the Sola king of 6th century dying of Sallekhana, 1155 P. 613. The Buddha and the Jain cults when they first appeared in India depended for their popularity on the personal devotion of their adherants to their human founders Siddhantta and Jina 1196 (b) K.A N. SASTRI The Pandyan Kingdom-Trichinopoly, 1929. P. 16. Influence of Buddhism and Jainism in the Pandyan Kingdom in second and third century B.C.-Less inclination of the rulers towards Buddhism and Jainism rather than Brahmanism. P. 19. A mark of hatred towards Jains and Buddhists marked in the Sangam work Silappadikaram. Southern life Aryanized by the influx of Brahmanism, Buddhism and Jainism from the north. P. 32. Prevelance of Jainism in the south referred to in the Silappadikaram and the Manimekalai along with Buddhism. P. 61 (n). A shrine for Narasimha the Brahman lion god excavated in the Anamalai hill the Jain Elephant hill by Maran Eyinan (8th century A.D.) perhaps intended to symbolize that the lion of Brahmanism put down the elephant Jainism. P. 94. Influence of Jainism in Tamil land in the Sangam age. P. 95. Prosperity of Jainism and decay of Buddhism in south as recorded by Yuanchwang-7th century A.D. Mention of the discovery of a Jain figure at Eravadi in the Tinnevelly district with an inscription in Vatteluttu characters written below which reads. work of Ajjanandi 8th century A.D.) Ajjanandi-Jain teacher referred to in the Joakacintamani. Another inscription in the same place of the same period records the grant of land to a Jain temple. Page #137 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1156 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Two inscriptions of Maranjadayan from the Ramnad district (430 and 431 of 1914) mentions Tirukkattampalli which seems to have been a Jaina temple at Kurandai a Jain centre in Venbunadu. The Aivar malai record A.D. 870 records the renewal of the images of PārsvaBhatārar and the Yakṣis at Tiruvayirai by one śāntiviraguravar the pupil of Gunavirakkuravadigal. Endowments given by Rājasinha II, the Pandya king to Jain temples mentioned. Jainism less effected by the rise of Saivism in the Tamil land. P. 236. Greater importance to Jainism than Buddhism in the middle ages, Tamil land in A record (No. 358 of 1908) from Mangadu (Chingleput) contains a gift of land as Palliccandam to a certain Palli-a Jain temple (acc. A.D. 1251). An inscription from Puddukkottah (No. 367 of 1904-Ammasattram) mentions Dharmadeva Ācārya as the pupil of Kanakacandrapāņdita, a Jain Acārya. 1197 J. Sen-The Coronation of Chandragupta Maurya. (I.H.Q. Vol. V. 1929). P. 7. Jaina works absolutely silent on Alexander's invasion. 1198 K. P. JAN.- Was Nahapāna a Jaina ? I.H.Q. Vol. V. 1929. P. 356. Jain tradition holding that a king named Nahavāņa or Naravähana became a Jaina muni and known as muni Bhutabali, Dharasenācārya his preceptor. Naravāhana of Vibudha Sridhara's Srutāvatārakatha named as Nahavana in an ancient Jain Patļāvali and his name bears resemblence to Nahapana. Nahapāna and Naravāhana identical persons. Ksatrapa Rudyasimha a Jain, referred to in Junagadh inscription. Bava Pyara's Matha at Junagadh and caves of Upperkot-belonged to Jains, and Dharasenācārya lived in these caves. Page #138 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1157 1199 R. P. CHANDA.---Pusgamitra and the Sunga Empire, (I.H.Q. Vol. V, 1929). P. 589. Contradictory criticism relating to Jain Häthigumphä inscription cited. 1200 Sylvain Levi, Jean PrzyLUZKI and Jules BLOCH --Pre-Aryan and pre-Dravidian in India. Translated by P. C. Bagecar, Calcutta, 1929. P. 64. Tosaliputra, a Jain Acārya, the teacher of Arya Raksita or Raksitasvāmin, P. 73. For the Jains, Anga a holy land; campa, its capital the residence of holy persons of Jain legend and history. P. 166. Dantapura of Kalinga fomous among the Jains. P. 220. Mention activities. of the Jain king Khāravela's catholic and charitable P. 252 (n). Mention of the Jain author Somadeva Sūri borrowing the materials of his Nitivakyamțita from Kautalya (10th century) Abhidhānacintamani work of Hemacandra calls Dramila as the author of Arthasāstra-Mention of Dramilas identification with vātsyāna by Hemacandra. P. -76. The presence of the Jains in the court of Harșa. Mentioned by Bāņa--3,000 Brahmans and Nirgranthas attended the Kanauj assembly of Harsa. P. 391-4. The Jain Adipurana--composed by Jinasena continued after his death by Guņabhadrācārya in 8th and 9th century A.D.--conceived of the paternal and patriarchal form of government-its sermons on the kings not to accept Brahmanical gifts. The coronation of Rişabha conducted in Brahmanic style fully described. Bharat, son and successor of Risabha and Bahubali as Yuvarāja after Risabha. Legends of Jayakumära, Vijayakumāra, Atibala mentioned in Adipuràņa. Mention of political institutions in Adipurāņa. Facts of feudalism described in the Uttarapurāņa of Guņabhadrācārya mention of Rāma, Krişna (painted as Jain worthies) Śreņika Jivandhara-Jain heroes-mention of feudatories in Jain Padma Page #139 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Purana-and Harivashia Purana-construction of Jain temples by Purana and Harivamsa Purana-construction of Jain temples by Śrenika followed by Samantas men tioned in Harivatha Purana. 1158 P. 391 (n). Mss. of Adipurana-preserved in Jain temples. The Vardhamana Purana and Jinendragunastuti written by Jinasena-not yet recovered. Pp. 395-398. Sriprašnavyākarāngam of Sudharamasvamigana bhritha-mention of Mandalika as feudatory and other references of body politic. 1201 V. RANGACHARYA.-History of pre-Musalman India. Vol. I. Madras, 1929. P. 227. Mention of Jainism and Bhagavatism as pre-Buddhistic cults. ?? Vol. 2-9 ? 1202 D. R. BHANDARKAR.-Some Aspects of Ancient Hindu Policy. Benares, 1929. P. 24. Niivakyamṛita of Somadevasüri (950 A.D.). Commentaries of Med hatithi, Hemachandra and Mallinatha-containing quotations of Kautilya. P. 28. Mention of Mallinatha commenting on some verses from the RaghuDamia and Kumarasambhava. P. 29. Concepts in works of Policy after Kautilya whether Brahmanical or Jain borrowed from Kautilya. Mahaviracharita-written by Bhavabhuti (8th century). P. 95. Jaina Kalpasutra-Mention of Trisala's fourteen dreams relating to Mahāvira. P. 105. The founder of Jainism, a kshatriya of Vaisali, Capital of the Lichchhavi Gana. Mention of Jain Samgha split up into number of Ganas, the Ganas. into Kulas, Kulas into Säkhäs and Säkhas into Sambhogas. P. 107. Sachchaka, a Jain monk having discussion with Buddha. mentioned in Majjhima Nikaya. 9 Lichchhavi Kings in Vaiśäli mentioned in Jain Kalpa sutra. P. 197. Mention of Vishnu being called as Tirthankara in Mahabharata-Tirthakara or Tirthankaras of the Jain scripture means Arhats, Page #140 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1159 1203 J. Sen.- The Riddle of the Pradyota Dynasty. (I.H.Q. Vol. VI. 1930). P. 688-90. Jain literature silent about Pradyota and his dynasty. Verses of Merutungas Theravali and Vicāraśreni; the death of Mahāvira is made to synchronise with the death of Candapradyota of Avanti and the accession of Pālaka. 1204 A. VENKATASUBBIAH.-When was ihe Gommata Image at Sravana Belgola set up? (I.H.Q. Vol. VI, 1930). Pp. 290-292. Gommata, Bahubali or Bhujabali according to Jain tradition, son of first Tirthankara, Rşabha. Gommata becoming a Kevalin, Emperor Bharata setting up at Paudanapura statue of him measuring 525 bow lengths in height--came to be known as Kukkuteśvara or Kukkuta-jineśvara owing to the fact that the region around it became infested with Kukkutasarpas or cockatrices. Jain image-(1) at Kärkala S, Kanara dist., Madras presidency set up by Virapāndya in 1432 A.D.-41 ft. high; (2) at Yenur set up by Timmaräja of Cāmunda family in 1604 A.D.-35 ft. high, Gommata image at Sravaņa belgola 57 ft. high with undated inscription relating to the date of its construction. Munivamśābhyudaya of Cidānanda (c 1680 A.D.) and Rajāvali-kathe of Devacandra (Kannada work written in A.D. 1838) mention Gommata image to have been brought from Lanka by Rāma and Sitā. According to Bhujabali carita (a Kannda poem of Pancabana in c 1614 A.D) the God Gommata, beging pleased with the devotion of Cāmundarāya, minifested himself in the form of the stone image on the stone image on the larger hill at Śravaņa Belgo!a. Sthala purāņa of Sravana Be!go!a and the Bhujabalisataka of Doddayya (Sans. poem 1550 A.D.) say nothing about Rāma and Sitā's bringing the image but mention that Gommata image was standing at Sravaņa-Belgola and Cāmundaräya got it touched up by sculptors and consecrated it in Ky 600 Vibhava Caitra-su 5, Sunday. Pp. 292-309. Controversial dates regarding the construction of the Gommata image--critically discussed. Image concluded to have been constructed in 380 A.D. Page #141 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1160 1205 K. B. PATHAK. On the Date of Sakalayana-Cintamani. (J.B.B.R.S. Vol. VI, 1930, London and Bombay, 1930). Pp 239-240. Hemachandra taking Cintamani of Yokşavarmā as a model for his Laghuvritti. Relation between between Śākaṭāyana's Amoghavritti and Yaksavarma's Cintamani is same as that existing between Hemachandra's Brhedoritti and his Laghurtti. Amoghavṛtti containing: (1) the Ganapatha, (2) the Dhatupäṭha, (3) the Ringanusasana, (4) the Unädi-patha in addition to Sütras. Unädi sütras of Jain Sākaṭāyanas as found in Amoghavṛlti-different to those in Appendix to Panini's grammar. Silence of Hemachandra as regards the difference between his to books Bṛhadoriti and Laghurtti. Jainendra (in 1, 4, 113-118) of Pujyapada containing neuter-tat-purusa compounds like those of Panini but not in Sakatayan, Yakşavarman and Hema chandra. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Amoghavṛiti and Cintamani-laid under contribution by Hemachandra for the material of his two grammatical works. So Yakṣavarma lived before 12 century A. D. 1206 K. T. SHAH.-The splendour that was 'Ind. Bombay, 1930. P. 88. Somadeva, Jain writer, author of Yasastilaka. Pp. 89-90. Contribution of the Jains to the southern vernacular literature the Naladiar, a poem in Tamil-firuvalluvar, auther of Kurral in Tamil. Pp. 98-9. Jain doctrines-Jain Samgha and scriptures. Cultivation of the science of dialectics by the Jains. P. 106. Prakrit grammar written by Hemachandra (12th century A.D.). P. 109. The Suryapannati (Instruction regarding the Sun), a Jain contribution to astronomy. Pp. 155-8. Jain temples-style of temple-Building. P. 162. Oldest mosque in India, Qutubuddin's mosque at Delhi, Originally a Jain temple. Page #142 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1207 R. D. BANERJI.-History of Orissa. Calcutta, 1930 Vol. I. P. 46. Khāravela and Kudepasiri-called Airas which is equivalent of Aila. 1161 P. 60. Mention of Kharavelas conquest to the North Western frontier in the 12th year of his reign-His conquest of Magadha and the bringing back of the image of Jaina taken once by Nandarăja. Orissaa Jain stronghold from the very beginning-Mahävira, Vardhamana's preachings in Kalinga recorded in Jain Harivamsopurana. Haribhadriyavetti a Jain work mentions king of Kalinga as the friend of Mahavira's fatherŚtalanatha referred to as the Kalinga-Jina-Bhadalpur probably same as Bhadrachalam or Bhadrapuram the birth place of Sitalanatha. Pp. 71-90. Rock inscription in Udayagiri hill of King Kharavela the only record of India recording the history of events of a particular monarch in chronological order-a Jain inscription Khäravela a Jain-Khāravela belonged to the Cheti or the Chedi dynasty-Kharavela and Kudepasiri called Aira in Häthigumphǎ and Manchapuri cave inscriptions-Kharavela-installed king in 24th year-Khāravela's conquest over Satakarni-his conquests over Rashtrikas and the Bhojakas.-his performance of Rajasuya ceremony-his victories at Vajirakara and Chakra-Koṭṭa his conquests of Magadha and the defeat of the Greek king Demetrios-His certain exemptions on the Brahmana caste. Kharavela's conquest over Musalas, destruction of Pithunda, his entry into Sunga empire mentioned in Mudra Rakshasa.-his bringing back of the image of the Jina of Kalinga taken by one of Nanda kings. The Jina probably the 16th Tirthankara Sitalanatha. born at Bhadalpur-distribution of white clothes to Jain monks-his conquest of Anga and Magadha-his excavation of the Rani Nur or Raninavara Gumphã caves. Subjugation of the Pandyas of extreme south of India. Convocation of the Jain council in the 13th. year of his reign-compilation of Sevenfold Angas of the sixty-four mystic letters. mentioned in Jain literary works. Khāravela mentioned in Svargapuri inscription close to the Hathigumphä. Pp. 91-92. Chronology of Khäravela's life. P. 96. Absence of Jain throughout farther India and Indonesia is extremely significant in view of the fact that the province of their origin, Orissa, was a stronghold of Jainism, the people of Kalinga were the pioneers of Indian colonisation in farther India and the Indian Archipelago. Not a single Jain image has been discovered in any province of Burma, Malaya, Siam, Annam or Cambodia, Page #143 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1162 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 138. No mention of Jain temples and relics at Puri in the account of Yuan Chwang. Existence of serveral Jain images in the Jagamohana of the Temple at Puri. P. 140. Mention of more than ten thousand Jain temples in Gauda by Yuan Chwang P. 141. No mention of the Nirgranthas or Jains in Chwang. Kalinga by Yuan P. 157. Mention of Achārya Kulachandra's disciple Subhachandra visiting Navamuni cave in the 18th year of the regin of Uddyotakesari. P. 291. No other king except Khāravela succeeded in ruling over such a wide stretch of coast land. List of Plates : P. 73. Map 2-Invasion of Khäravela. P. 77. General view of the Svargapuri and Manchapuri caves Udayagiri, Puri district. P. 81. Portion of the frieze-Corridor of the Manchapuri cave Udaygiri, Puri district. P. 85. Corner of the Manchapuri-figures of Dvara-palas Udaygiri, Puri dist. P. 89. Front facade of the Ananta Gumphā Khandagiri, Puri dist. of arch-Sri or Gaja Lakshmi Ananta P. 124. Doorway of tympanum Gumphā--Khaņdagiri, Puri dist. P. 132. Fragment of tympanum of arch and part of frieze the four horsed chariot of the sungod Ananta Gumpha-Khaņdagiri, Puri Dist, P. 140. Fragment of tympanum of arch and part of frieze - The king elephant- Ananta Gumphā Khaņdagirl, Puri dist. P. 148. Doorway and tympanum of arch-worship of the sacred treeAnanta Gumpha Khandagiri, Puri dist. P. 156. Rani Nur Gumpha--general view--left portion of central wing, Udayagiri. Page #144 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1163 P. 164. Rani Nur Gumphä-right half of the central wing and the right wing Udaygiri. P. 172. Rani Nur Gumphā, Udaygiri. P. 180. Rani Nur Gumphā, Udaygiri, P. 188. Rani Nur Gumpha-Left half of the Upper Storey, Udaygiri. P. 196. Small shrine in right hand corner of the ground floor, Rani Nur gumpha. P. 204. General view of the Corridor--upper storey of the central wingRani Nur Gumphā-Udaygiri. P. 212. Details of Corner, East Wing-Rani Gumphā, Udaygiri. P. 220. Frieze in the Corridor of the upper storey of the Rani Nur Gumphā: (a) from the left, male bearing offerings, female fighting with elephants in lotus pool. corridor--Rani Nur Gumphā : (b) P. 228. Frieze in the upper storey Rescue of females by males. P. 236. Frieze in the upper storey corridor - Rani Nur gumphā : (c) Rescued before house and abduction of female, after fight between male and female. P. 244. Frieze in the corridor of the upper storey of the Rani Nur Gumphā : (d) Royal hunting scene, King shooting winged deer, and meeting nymph seated on a tree. P. 252. Frieze in the Corridor of the upper storey of the Rani Nur Gumphā(e) king seated in a dancing hall. P. 260. Lion-rider, so-called Yavana and Dvărapāla -upper storey--right wing -Udaygiri, Puri district. P. 258. Portion of the frieze with doorway consisting of round arch supported by Indo-Persepolitan pilasters-lower storey--ruined corridor---Rani Nur Gumphā-Udaygiri, Puri dist. P. 276. Frieze in ruined corridor of lower storey-Rani Nur GumphaUdaygiri, Puri District, dancing hall-female dancing with female musicians. Page #145 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 284. Portion of the Frieze-Royal devotees-a king, two queens, with two females attendants-corridor of the lower storey-Rani Nur Gumphä-Udaygiri, Puri Dist. 1164 P. 300. P. 308. Puri district. Front facade of the Ganeshgumphä-Udaygiri, Puri Dist. View of the corridor Ganeshgumpha-Udaygiri, Puri District. Portion of the frieze-corridor of the Ganesh Gumphã, Udaygiri, P. 316. Chhota Häthigumpha and other caves near it-Udaygiri, Puri Dist. P. 324. Double storeyed cave-Udaygiri, Puri dist. P. 332. Baghgumpha-Udaygiri, Puri dist. P. 340. Sarpagumpha-Udaygiri, Puri dist. P. 348. Jambeiwaragumpha-Udaygiri, Puri dist. 1208 R. D. BANERJEE-History of Orissa, Calcutta 1931. Vol. II. P. 340. None of the earlier group of Khandagiri and Udaygiri caves temples or shrines proper. P. 369. Lotus carvings on the floor of Raja Rani temple, a common in Hindu & Jain temples. P. 371. Mention of Jain images discovered on the right jamb of the Jagamohana in 1910 and 1911. P. 394. Mention of the image of Rishabhanatha in the cave now called Lalatendu Kesari-mention of the sculptures of 24 Tirthankaras in the Barabhuji cave arranged in a row with Lanchhana Vriksha of each and Sasana devi. P. 401. Stupa or the tree in railing was a device common both to Buddhism and Jainism. Plates : XII. The 24 Tirthankars and their Sasana Devis, Barabhuji cave. Khandagiri, Puri dist. P. 184. General view of the Twin temple on the top of Khandagiri Hill, Bhuvanesvara, Puri dist. P. 424. Rock-cut image of Rishava, the first Keshari's cave-Khandagiri, Puri dist. Tirthankara Lalatendu Page #146 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1165 1209 K. N. S. PILLAI-Agastya in the Tamil land. Madras, (1930?) P. 22. Buddhists and Jains preceded Hindu Aryans in their arrival in the Tamil land in first two centuries B.C. P. 23. Buddhists and Jinas--propagandists of their faith unlike Brahmans, P. 24. The Tamil people-treated to stories of social, religious and spiritual kingship and were thus brought over to view the Jain and Buddhistic sectaries. P. 26. Advent of Nayanars and the Alvars-powerful means of stamping out Buddhism and Jainsim from the Tamil land. P. 43. Influence of Tolkappiyam a Jain work over Tamil literature. P. 43 (n). Tolkappiyam-a 4th centuay A.D. Jain work. P. 44. Theological conceptions and cosmogonic legends of the Jains show a family linkness to those of the orthodox Hindus except in a few abstract doctrinal points. P. 44 (n). Early Kanarese and Tamil literature and civilization highly influenced by the works of the Jain monks. P 45 (n). The age of Tirujnānasambandha and Tirunavukkarasu (about the beginning of 7th century A.D.)--a dividing line marking earlier and later periods of the Jain History in Tamilagam. 1210 R. D. BANERJI ---History of Orissa. (From the earliest Times to the British Period). Vol. I Calcutta, 1930. Pp. 59-61. Orissa under the Nandas and the Mauryas. References in the Hāthigumphā) inscription of Khāravela about the Nandas (Nandarāja). Khāravela brought back the image of Kalinga Jina from Magadha. Orissa a Jaina stronghold from the very beginning. Identification of Kalinga. Jina with the tenth Tirthankara, Sitalanātha, who was born at Bhadalpur, which is same as Bhadrāchalam or Bhadrapuram in the Kalinga country. This Bhadrachalam is in the Godavari district of the Madras presidency. Page #147 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1166 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 71-92. P. 71, Chapter VI : Khāravela and the empire of Kalinga. The Great rock inscription of king Khāravela on Udayagiri hill near Bhuvaneswara; it supplies an account of the first 13 years of the reign of Khāravela and benefactions conferred by him on the Jains at the same place; it is the only record of India, the object of which is to record the history of events of the reign of a monarch in chronological order. Khāravela was a Jaina; he belonged to the Cheti or the Chedi dynasty; his titles, Mahārāja and Mahāmeghavähana. P. 72. Khāravela also called Aira; Aira is equal to Aida Aila and means a descendant of Iļa or Iļā; the Chetis or Chedis are Ailas. Pp. 72-73. After his 15th year Khāravela was trained in State correspondence (Lekha), current accountancy (Ganana), civil law (Vava hāra), religious law (Vidhi), currency (Rūpa). The Hāthigumphā inscription is the only record which provides with some information regarding a king's childhood and early training. Pp. 74-77. Khāravela annointed king in his 24th year and the record of his reign begins from this date : In the first year he repaired the damages to the city of Kalinga cau.ed by a cyclone; in the second year he sent a complete army con-isting of the infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants, to the west and caused terror to the city of the Mushikas; the Kalinga army reached the home country of the Sātavāhanas (Šri Šātakarni) in the Bellary district. Pp. 77-79. In the third year of his reign there were great rejoicings in the capital of Kalinga. The record of the fourth year is partly damaged, it opens with a reference to a city, regarded as the abode of Vidyadharas, reference to Rāshtrikas and Bhojakas, who were compelled to submit to Khāravela. In the fifth year an old canal was extended as far as the capital city of Kalinga. In the 6th year Khāravela performed Rājasūya ceremony and remitted taxes and customs duties and other concessions granted to the people. In the 7th year a son was born to Khāravela of his queen who was a princess of Vajira-ghara (old name of Wairagadha in the Chanda district of the Central Provinces). In the 8th year Kharavela invaded Magadha after conquering the hill fortesses of Goradhagiri (modern Barabar hills in the Gaya district) and Rājagriha (modern Rajgir in the Patna district of Bihar); the Greek king Demetros had to fall back on Mathura, on hearing of the approach of Khāravela. In the 9th year Khāravela gave away elephants, chariots, horses etc. and conferred certain exemptions on the Brahmana caste, a palace (Maha-vijaya) was built. Pp. 80-82. In the 10th year Khāravela undertook the second campaign in Northern India and at the same time broke the power of the Musalas or the Telugu country. In the 11th year he destroyed the city of Pithunda, the capital of the Page #148 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1167 Musulas and at the same time he broke a league of the kings of the Tamil country. In the 12th year of his reign Khäravela harrassed the kings of the North. Western frontiers and then he entered the capital of the Sunga Empire, Pataliputra, and compelled Brihaspatimitra to submit to him; during this campaign he brought away an image of the Jina of Kalinga, which had been taken away from the country by one of the Nanda kings. Finally in the 13th year he did some pious acts on the Kumari hill (Udayagiri) where the Jina Mahavira had preached his religion; in this year king Kharavela devoted himself entirely to religious meditation and work. He caused to be compiled the text of the sevenfold Angas of the sixty-four letters. Pp. 83-90. Rani Nur Gumphã, Svargapuri and Manchapuri caves, Ganesa Gumpha, Alkapuri and Jayavijaya caves, and other caves described. Pp. 91-92. Sequence of events of Khäravela's life given. P. 142. In the case of Kalinga, Yuan Chwang does not mention the Nirgranthas or Jainas. Pp. 156-57, King Uddyotakesari, his earliest inscription discovered in a ruined cave assigned to the mythical Lalatendukesari, on Khandagiri; according to this inscription in the 5th year of the reign of Uddyotakesari the old temples and well on the Kumara hill were repaired. The ancient names of Khandagiri and Udayagiri were, Kumara and Kumări. In the Navamuni cave on the same hill there is another pilgrim's record belonging to the reign of Uddyotakesari; it states that in the year 18 of his reign the Acharya Kulachandra's disciple Subhachandra came to this shrine. Pp. ix-xii. List of illustrations: Map 2. Invasion of Kharavela p. 73. General view of the Svargapuri and Manchapuri cave-Udayagiri. p. 77. Portion of the frieze-Corridor of the Manchapuri cave-Udayagiri p. 81. Corner of the Manchapuri-figures of Dvarapalas-Udayagiri, p. 85. Front facade of the Ananta Gumpha-Khandagiri, 89. Map. 3. Overseas Empire of Kalinga, p. 93. Indo-Persepolitan pilaster-Ananta Gumpha, Khandagiri, p. 117. Doorway of tympanum of arch-Śri or Gaja Lakshmi-Ananta Gumphal, Khandagiri, p. 124. Page #149 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1168 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Fragment of tympanum of arch and part of frieze--the four-horsed chariot of the Sun-God-Ananta Gumpha-Khandagiri, p. 140. Tree-Ananta Doorway and tympanum of arch-Worship of the Sacred Gumphā, Khandagiri, p. 148. Rani Nur Gumphā-General Views-Left portion of the central Wing, Udayagiri, p. 156. Rani Nur Gumphā-right half of the central wing and the right wing--Udayagiri, p. 164. Rani Nur Gumphā, Udayagiri, p. 172. Rani Nur Gumphā, Udayagiri, p. 180. Rani Nur Gumphā--Left half of the upper storey–Udayagiri, p. 188. Small shrine in the right hand corner of the ground floor, Rani Nur Gumphä, P. 196. General view of the Corridor-upper storey of the Central wing-Rani Nur Gumphā, Udayagiri, p. 204. Details of the corner, East wing-Rani Nur Gumpha, p. 212. Frieze in the corridor of the upper storey of the Rani Nur Gumphā—(a) from the left, male bearing offerings, female fighting with elephants in lotus pool, p. 220. corridor-Rani Nur Gumpha-(b) Rescue of Frieze in the upper storey females by males, p. 228. Frieze in the upper storey corridor-Rani Nur Gumphā-(c) Rescuer before house and abduction of female, after fight between a male and a female, p. 236. Frieze in the corridor of the upper storey of the Rani Nur Gumpha-(d) Royal hunting scene, King shooting winged deer, and meeting numph seated on a a tree, p. 244, Frieze in the corridor of the upper storey of the Rani Nur Gumpha-(e) King seated in a dancing hall, p. 252. Lion-rider, so-called Yavana and Dvărapăla-upper storey--right wingUdayagiri, p. 260. Page #150 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1169 Portion of the Frieze with door-way, consisting of round arch supported by Indo-Persepolitan pilasters--lower story---ruined corridor-Rani Nur Gumphā, Udayagiri, p. 268. Frieze in ruined corridor of lower storey--Rani Nur Gumphā, Udayagiri, and dancing hall-female dancing with female musicians, p. 276. Portion of the Frieze-Royal devotees - a king, two queens, with two female attendants-corridor of the lower storey-Rani Nur Gumphā, Udayagiri, p. 284. Front facade of the Ganesh Gumphā-Udayagiri, p. 292. View of the corridor-Ganesh Gumphā-Udayagiri, p. 300. Portion of the frieze--corridor of the Ganesh Gumpha, Udayagiri, p. 308. Chhota Hāthi Gumpha and other caves near it--Udayagiri, p. 316. Double storeyed cave-Udayagiri, p. 324. Hathi Gumphā--Udayagiri, p. 332. Sarpa Gumphả-Udayagiri, p. 340. Jambeswara Gumphā, Udayagiri, p. 348. 1211 C.E A.W.O. Book Notice - The Origin of Saivism and its History in the Tamil Land by K.R. Subramcnian, Madras, 1929. (Ind. Ant. Vol. LIX-1930, Bombay). P. 94. Part II devoted to the traces and influences of Buddhism and Jainism in the Tamil Country; Part III to the Tamil Temples, and Part IV to the growth of sectarianism. 1212 F.J. RICHARDS-Periods in Indian History. (Ind. Ant. Vol. LIX-1930, Bombay). P. 33. Dynastic period : The period 600-300 B.C. In N. India it covers the rise of Buddhism and Jainism and the gradual consolidation in the Lower Gangetic Plain of the Saisunage kingdom of Magadha, culminating in c. 320 B. c. in the establishment of the Mauryan Empire.. P. 37. Cultural Period: Language-Prākrit was the language in which the Buddha and Mahāvīra preached, the Buddhist and Jain canon were compiled and Asoka's edicts engraved. Sanskrit, presumably, was the language of the learned few, and it is not till about 150 A.D. that it appears in public documents. Page #151 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1170 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 61. Literature: The partial eclipseh of Sanskrit literature is of political origin; the political dominance which the priestly caste had achieved in the Upper Gangetic Plain by 600 B.C. was not acceptable to the laity of Bihar, and the east ward drift of Brahmanic culture provoked a revolt. in Bihar the Kshatriyas asserted themselves as defacto rulers of society, Buddhism and Jainism are Kshatriya movements; their literature is Prākrit and the older parts of the Epics are Kshatriya documents; 500-150 B.C. the Kshatriya period. P. 62. Religion: The Pantheistic Philosophy of the Upanishads which elaborated : (1) the so-called 'Brahman--Atman' (worldsoul) metaphysics and (2) the doctrine of transmigration, the foundation on which Buddhism and Jainism built. The period 600-300 B.C. covers both the formative period of these two religions and also the pericd of their systemization in the form of condensed aphorisms (Suttas, Sütras), affected alike by Buddhists and Jains and Brahmans, by the close of this period the greater part of Buddhist and Jain cannons was probably in being. In the Deccan Jainism, the state religion of Chālukyas and Rāshtraküțas, was dethroned by a double reformation; (1) that of Rāmānuja who developed and improved on the tradition of the Alvārs. P. 63. Architecture : The Early Cave Period-three main groups : (1) Magadha (of Mauryan date), (2) Orissa (all Jain of about 1 B.C.-Cambridge. Hist. India, I, 638-42), and (3) Western India. 1213 R. SHAMSASHTRI---Dravidian culture--(ABORI. Vol. XI; 1930, P. 339). the course of about a thousand years......there occured a schism among the Aryans. First the Jainas and then the Buddhists revolted against the animal sacrifices and succeeded in converting to their new faiths. 1214 K. Ramavarma RAJA-Epochs of the History of Kerala. (Malabar) (QJMS, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1930; Bangalore). P. 212. Malabar : The Hindus, the Jains and the Buddhists and the man of the east and west lived side by side following their respective vocations with no hitch or friction. The authors of some of the Tamil classics were the Jains. Page #152 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1171 P. 218. Religious persecution of the Jains as well as of the Buddhists started in the 7th century at the instigation of the Saiva Saints and ardent Vaishṇava devotees. The Brahmanical revival of the 9th century was equally, if not more, revolutionary in consequences. After a violent and merciless suppression of the rival Buddhistic and Jaina faiths existing in the land, it naturally advanced towards the extreme goal of exclusive orthodoxy and rigorous enforcement of the Varnaśmu amadharma'. 1215 D. R BHANDARKAR-Aryan Imigration into Eastern India. (ABORI. Vol. XII; 1930-31). Pp. 106-7 and 110. Māhavir and his disciples-their tour for propagation of Jainism sufferings of them-spread of Jainism in N. Bengal. 1216 R. SHAMASASHTRI--- Forms of Government in the Ancient India--Jain ascetic Padalipta during the regin of Šukas. (ABORI Vol. XII; 1930-31, Pp. 8-9). Vidy ananda, Bhattākalanka, Jinasena in the reign of Śri Vallabha--- mentioned. 1217 V. RAGHAVENDRA RAO-The Kadambas of Banavase. (QjMS Vol. 21 No. 4, 1931. Bangalore). P. 321. The domestic life of Mrigesa (C. 420-445 A.D.) affords a striking example of religious teleration and feminine independence rare in the annals of any country but India, whose motto through all the centuries has been unity in diversity. Queen Prabhāvati was an ardent devotee of Brahmins while her royal consort leaned towards Jainism (I.A.VII p 35). Indeed this Catholic spirit of the King has been responsible for the assertion that all the early Kadambas were followers of the Vedic faith (Epi. Ind. XIV. pp. 161-166). If Mrigesa was not a Jain, his construction of a Jain temple in memory of his dead father is impossible to explain Indeed, memorials for the dead is a sure index to the religion of the departed no less than of the living. P. 32. Harivarma (500-525 A.D.) in his early life, the son of Ravi was a follower of the Mahavira as is evident from all his grants to Jains ascetics. But he changed his faith and embraced Brahmanism between the 5th and 8th year of Page #153 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1172 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY his reign. The writer in the Epi. Ind. XIV. p. 165 denies in toto that the Kadambas were ever Jains at all. Had these kings been true Hindus, memorials for the dead would not have been dedicated to Jain ascetics, as they were by Mrigesa, nor would they have ever faild to celebrate the aśvamedha sacrifice as the junior Kings of Palasika boast of having done (Ep. Car, V. p. 121 BL; Epi Car. VI p. 162 Kd.). 1218 V. RAGHAVENDRA Rao-The Kadambas of Banavase (QJMS Vol. 22, No. 1, 1931, Bangalore). P. 61. The earliest inhabitants of Mysore were a race of Naga worshippers; on this were imposed, successively the three religions of Jainism, Buddhism and Saivism. Jainisny was introduced into the south by Chandragupta Maurya. After the Nāga worship. Jainism claimed the largest number of votaries. Jainism became the dominant religion in Eastern Mysore under the Gangas. The Kadan bas whose family God was the Jayanti Madhukeśvara were unablio resit the onset of Jainism, as they had to bow to the supreme Arhats'. Numerous sec s Jaina priests, such as the Yāpaniya, the Nirgantbas, and the Kürchakas, are found living at Palasika in. Ant VII, Pp. 36-37. Svetapatas and Aharāshtı are also mentioned (Vol. VII, Pp. 36, 37). Banavase and Palasika were crowded centres of powerful Jain monks. This dominance received a check in the days of Harivarma. In the days of the Jain supremacy the Vedic religion was not persecuted. 1219 KG. SANKAR.-The date of Manikyavācaka (close of the 7th century A.C.) QJMS. Vol. 22 No. 1, 1931 Bangalore). P. 53. King Vallabh.deva. Vallabha a title of Nedumaran. It has been hitherto thought that two other Pāndyas had this title, Jatila Parāntaka and Sri Māra, son of Varaguna I. But this is a mistake. The only reason for thinking that Jatila Parāntaka had the title is that Jinasena (783 A.C.) refers to a Sri Vallabha of the south as his contemporary in a verse (Harivamśa-Colophon 51). This verse has not been properly understood till now, at least by V.A. Smith and R. Shama Sastri. It means that in Śaka 705-783 A.C. Indrāyudha protected the North (Kanauj), (Dhruva) Srivallabh (a common Rashtrakūta title), son of Krishna (I), protected the South (Dekhan), Vatsarāja of Avanti protected the East (Malva) and Jayavaraha protected the West-- Soramandala (Surashtra). The Vallabha of this verse was therefore, a Rashtrakūta and not a Pandya at all. Page #154 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1173 1220 J. C. Ghose.--Early Capital of Gurjara Pratihāras of Mahodaya. (I.H.Q. Vol. VII. 1931). P. 754. Jain Harivansa regarded as strengthening the inference that the Pratihäras were established at Ujjain and not Bhilmal before they transferred their capital to Kanauj. 1221 B. C. LAW.--Buddhistic Studies, Calcutta & Simla, 1931. P. 7. Tamil works datable with certainty to the 7th century & others presumably datable before that makes references to Buddhism and Jainism in such a way, as to justify inferences to these latter occupying a comparatively high position; & exercising a degree of influence to merit the attaks of Hindu saints and sages. P. 8. Seven monumnets (in S. India) bearing inscriptions in Brahmi characters existed in the time of Hiuentsang belonging to Jainas and Buddhists. Jainism referred to in the Tamil classical literatures. P. 15. Mani mekhalai dealing with two sections of Jains viz. Ājivakas and Nirgranthas. Later Tamil literature frequetly mentions Ājivakas. P. 73. Intercourse between Mahāvira and Gosāla referred to in Jaina Bhagavati and in the Chinese version of Samannaphala Sutta. P. 74. Jaina Angas mentioning the names of Makkhaligosalaputta and Nigantha Nāthaputta. P. 75. Jains agreeing with Buddhists in grouping Kassapa's docrtine under Akriyāvāda. P. 76. Jain Bhagavati admitting Gosāla attaining Jinahood. P. 80. Division of Karma into act, word and thought play an important part in Jains and Buddhist thought. P. 81. Mahāvīra and Buddha---describing the main contents of Ajita's doctrine of non-action (Akriyāvāda). P. 83. Śilanka--a Jain commentator identifies the doctrine of Pakudha with the system of Bhagavat Gita, the Sänkhyam and some of the Saiva systems. P. 85. Rejection of Kaccayana's identification of thought with being by Mahāvira and Buddha. Negative infțuence of Kaccayana over Jainism, Ayan . . Page #155 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1174 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 86. Mahavira's death prior to Buddha's mentioned in Sama gama Sutta, and Pațikasutta (also mentioned in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics). P. 87. Mahāvira and Gosāia the sophists of the time according to Buddhist writings the founders of Niganthas (Jainas) and Ājivikas or Maskarins respectively. P. 88. Mention of fourfold self restraints (cātuyāma samvara) of Mahavirafully described. P. 113. Lord Rşabha the first of the Tīrthankaras showing men the right path testified in Hindu Purānas. Iksaku-Vamsiya Ksatriya Nāthas or P. 114. Mahāvīra a descendent from Jñātris ancestors of Mahāvīra. P. 114 (n.) Thought and true knowledge a great necessity for the Jainas. P. 115. Kundanagāra a suburb of Vaiśäli--the birth place of Mahāvira, P. 115 (n). The denial by Digambaras of Mahāvīra's marriage with Yaśodharā. Prevelence of Jainism before Mahāvira----Four kinds of samaņas : (1) Arahat Jina, (2) Nirgrantha Acārya, (3) Nirg. Upadhyāya and (4) Nirg. Sadhu existence of Jainism before Buddhism. P. 116. Mahāvira born with 3 kinds of knowledge viz. mati, śruta, and avadhi. P. 118. Buddha a Jain muni at a certain stage of his ascetic life. Buddha a disciple of the learned Jaina saint Pihitashrawa who ordained him as Buddhakirti in the Sangha of Sri Pārsva at the town of Palasa. Pp. 119-124. Jain Ācāryas, prescribed nudity as an essential step towards goal. The philosophy of wearing clothes and utter nakedness of the Jains fully discussed. Pp. 125-136. Mahāvira's early life, renunciation, his preachings described, compared to Buddhistic philosophy. Pp. 136-138. Controversial opinions as to the year of Mahāvīras' death-545 B.C. as the authoritative year of Mahavira's Nirvana. Pp. 138-144. Mahāvīra's Dharma, Nirvāna, influence of Brahmanical doctrines over Jainism compared to Buddhistic tenets fully discussed. Page #156 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jaina BIBLIOGRAPHY 1175 P. 149. Comparison of Samsāra-paravāha of Buddhism to that of Jaina Philosophy mentioned. Pp. 150-162. Karma theory of Mahāvīra & Buddha fully described, P. 163. Mahavira's 'Ratna-Traya' the three-fold path of Right belief, Right knowledge and Right conduct discussed. P. 171. Mahavratas of Jaina Muni and Anuvrates of a lay Jaina mentioned. P. 172. Arhatship of the Jains fully discussed. P. 334. Mahāvira's opinion on doubt and faith agreed upon by Buddha. P. 729. Ardhamagadhi or Arşa the language of the Jaina Canon. 1222 H. C. RAY--The Dynastic History of Northern India. Vol. I. Calcutta, 1931. P. 10. Destruction of Valabhi by Arabs mentioned in Jain works. probable identification with P. 285. Mention of Indrarāja's (of Kanauj) Indrāyudha of the Jain Harivarsa. P. 355. Mention of 7 Jain teachers with names ending in Sena in the Dharwar district (Bombay) (Prof. R.C. MOJUMDAR PTCC Cal., 1922). Pp. 560-61. Bijapur stone inscription of Dhavala found in the Jain temple 2 miles off from Bijapur village in the Bali (Godwar) district of the Jodhpur state records the granting of gifts to Jains by Vidhagdharāja in $ 973. Mention of Süri Sāntibhadra the pupil of Vasudeva-states that the Gosthi of Hastikundi renovated the temple of the first Tirthankara (Rşabhanāth)-image of Tirthankara within-Inscription composed by Sūryācārya and engraved by Satayogeśvara, 1223 C. E. PARSONS-A town in the Mysore State. 1931. P. 15. Mention of Rāmānujachārya taking shelter in the court of the Jain King Bitti Deva-12th century-Seventeen days public disputation between Rāmāunjāchārpa and Jain Pandits at Tonnur-conversion of the Jain King Bitti Deva to Vaishnavism. P. 16. Mention of Bittideva's dissatisfaction over the Jain priests-mutiliation of Bitti deva's figure by the Delhi emperor in order to discredit him with his Jain officials. Page #157 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1156 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 17. Defeat of Jain exponents in the debate with Rāmānujachārya--a legendary statement of the Jains being crushed to death in oil mills --Sravana Belgola inscriptions record Vishnuvardhana perse--cutting the Jains for a time, but endowed and built bastis at Śravaņa Belgoļa. P. 18. Mention of 12,000 infuriated Jains meeting Rāmānujācharya, legendary tradition of the demolition of 700 Jain bastis for building 700 maths. P. 19. Queen Santala Devi-wife of Vishnuvardhan- a Jain. Her mother queen Machikabbe-a Jain-making of grants specially to Śravanabelgoļa by Santala Devi-her death by Sallekhana in 1131 A. D. Lakshmi-wife of Ganga Rāja a Jain. P, 20. The monument of Shah Salar Masaud Ghazi, Tonnur was enlarged and endowed with the spoils which the Brahmins had torn from the Priests of Jaina. P. 59. Sravana Belgola-Sravana (meaning the Jain Ascetic). Belgola (the white pond)-a chief seat of the Jains in S. India-Chandragupta's pilgrimage to Sravana Belgo!a with Bhadrabāhu--their death by sanyasans (Samadhi or Sallekhanā). Records of self-inflicted deaths in the lower hill-the higher hill crowned by the largest stone statue of the image of Gaomateśvara. Pp. 60-74. Chandra-giri hill-Twelve bastis, Facing p. 6. Photo of Chandragiri (Plate). P. 61. Its sanctity begins from the pilgrimage of Chandragupta and Bhadr. abāhu. According to Dr. R. S. SASTRI (in Mysore Archaeological report for 1923) : (1) the image of Gomata was set up in 1028 A.D., (2) Chandragupta's, (ii) pilgrimage with Bhadrabāhu, (iii) for Sravana Belgola ruled by Kakutsthavarma. Pilgrimage in 429 A.D. (from an inscription discovered on a stone pillar in Mathura 1928) Chandragupta's dreams interpreted by Bhadrabāhu-his pilgrimage with Bhadrabāhu and 12,000 disciples. Bhadrabāhu's death by Sallekhana-Chandragupta's death by Sallekhana in 298 B.c. in a cave South-West of the hill. The death recorded in Pārsvanātha basti inscriptions of 650 A.D.---mention of Sāntisenamuni. Inscription (E C., VIII No. 1) records the death of 700 rishis by Samadhi in 600 A D.--Existence of 900 legible inscriptions on the hills-record of men and womens' sanyasana-Nandisena-his Sanyasana. Page #158 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1177 Bastis at Sravaņa Belgoļa are of the Dravidian type. Oldest probably built in the middle of 8th century A.D. The Părśvanātha basti-earlier than 1129 A.D.-dedicated to Pārsvanāthaelaborately decorated-15ft. high image of Pārsvanātha-Manstambha in front4 Jain figures in the pavillion and 4 Jain deities sculptured on the base--erected by Puttaiya, a merchant of the time of Chikka Deva Rāja Wadiyar. An inscription of 600 A.D. on a rock to the south of the basti records Bhadrabāhu's prophesy of calamity in Ujjain. The Katlalebasti or the Dark temple-largest on Chandragiri raised by the general of Ganga Rāja in memory of his mother Pochavve had a tower formerly. A tiny temple nearby (19' x 15'). The Chandragupta Basti-dedicated to the eighth Tirthankara attended by Yaksha Syama and Yakshi Jvālālāmālins-built in 790-800 A.D. The Chamunda Rāya Basti built by the minister Chāmunda Rāya about 982 A.D.-image of Neminātha-an inscription on the base records its setting up in a temple, now vanished, which was the gift in 1138 of Echana, the son of General Ganga Rāya. Upper storey added by Chāmunda Rāya's son Jinadevana 995 A.D. and dedicated to Pārsvanātha-An inscription on the second pillar of the mantapa south of the basti records Kondakura being able to fly and to levitate (E. C. VII, 117). The Eradu Katte Basti, or the temple of the two buildings to Ādinātha-built by Laksmi devi, wife of Ganga Rāja in 1118 A.D.--epitaphs on a pillar noting the death of a woman Lakavve in 1121 A.D.-and of Demati, wife of the merchant Chamunda by Samadhi. Another epitaph of a guru named Meghachandramuni epitaph of Sri Isarayya who died in 900 A.D. P. 67. Photo Chandragupta Basti. P. 69(n). Syādvāda-a highly technical term, used to describe the Jain philosophy. It may be rendered the affirmation of alternative possibilities (Hist. of Kannavse literature p. 23). P. 72(n). Mention of Marasinga's death by Sallekhanā. The Gandhavarana Basti-dedicated to Santinātha---a glowing panegyric of the queen Santala devi, wife of Vishņubardhan. Inscription on the third pillar of the second mantapa records the grief of Marasingha, the father and Machikabbe. the mother of Santala devi at her death by Sallekhana in 1131 A.D. Mention of Machikabbe's death by sanyasana. Page #159 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1178 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY The statue of Bharateśvara-a 9 ft. high statue representing Gomata's step brother, carved only from the Knees up-of 600 A.D. (E.C. VII, 61)-caused to be made by a Jain guru Arittha Nemi. The Kuge Brahma-deva pillar of 10th century. Pp. 75-85. Vindbyagiri Sravana Belgola-Tyagada Brahmadeva pillar or the pillar of the Gifts--inscription on either of the hill recounting the exploits of Chămunda Rāya-Original inscriptions defaced by Hergude Kanna and a Yaksha carved on the south base by Hergude Kanna--A beautiful plate in E.C. II, p. 41'peculiarly Jains'--FERGUSSON. Brahmadeva stambhas crowned by seated figure of that God and Manastambhas bearing small pavillions in which Jina figures stand. Image of Bāhubali to the right and Bharata on the left of the Stairway. Siddha's Bonlder with numerous inscriptions and rows of sculptured Jain SaintsAbhisheka of Gomata by Chamunda Rāya 1028 A.D. (3rd March). The story of Gullakayajji's offering of milk to Gomata-narrated --image of Gullakayi--inscription on the pillar behind her speaks of her as Yakshi devotee-inscription dated 1300 A.D. discovered on the rock records the death of Mallisetti, a merchant's daughter, by sallekhanā--seated figure of the Tirthankaras in the courtyard, image of Gomata and Kushmandiñi of 1200 A.D. P. 80. Photo Statue of Gomata-Statue of Gomata attended by Chauri bearers, raksha and Yakshini to the left of the Yaksha--a round basin called Lake of Lalita. Genealogy of Gomata --Legendry record of Bharata setting up an image of Gomata 2,000 ft. high in the forest of Pandanapura. Gomata image.-its legendry set up by Chāmunda Rāya in 1028 A.D.---mention of Chāmunda Rāya's Rock bearing figures and names of Jain gurus-grant of villages valued at close by the image recording the original dates--image fully described-shortened finger in the left hand mutiliated by Rämänujachārya-Refashioned later on. Height of the image-- 60' 3" recorded by Duke of Wellington (1800). 70' 3" recorded by Dr. Buchanan about the same time. 71' O" recorded by Mr. J.D. Legge of the P.W.D. 57' 0" recorded by Mr. Bowrig, 1st Jan., 1865. 58' 0" recorded by Mr. Lewis Rice. measurement of different limbs of the image given. Page #160 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1179 Mention of Boppana, a Jain writing a short poem (1180 A.D.) describing Gomata-The creepers which twins round Gomata's arms is said by the Jains to be the Mādhavi. P. 86. Mention of the settlement of disputes of the Jains and Vaishnavas by king Bukka Rāya, 1355 A.D. Bhandari Basti-Śravanabe!go!a--so called because built by Hulta, the bhandari or treasurer of Narasimha l-erected in 1165 A.D. a huge temple dedicated to Tirthankaras-now in decay and neglected. The Jain math, Śravanabelgo!a--carving resembling those of the bastis at Halebid--numerous images of Tirthankaras within-old paintings on the walls depicting Jain scenes ----Leśyā; is that which the soul is tinted by merit or demeritTwo interesting images now in possession of the head of the Sanskrit College near the math. These images were given by Ladies Malabbe and Kannabekanti to one of the Bastis in Kalastavadi 800 years ago Mention of the demolition of 101 temples to furnish materials to enlarge the Ranganatha Svāmi temple in 12th century. Mention of small Dravidian temples. Akkana Basli of Hoysala style of architecture-dedicated to Pārsvanātha--fully described--a seated Jina figure-Erected in 1181 A.D. by lady Achiyakka ---Akkana a shortened form of her name--a seated Jina on the Top inside. The Terina Basti-dedicated to Bāhubali or Gomata-built by Marudevi, mother of Poysala setti and by Santikabbe mother of Nemi Setti 52-images of Jinas--supposed to represent the heavenly Mount Meru (In Terina Basti) is supposed to represent the heavenly Mt. Meru. The mahānavami mantapa erected in memory of Nayakirti-muni a Jain teacher who died in 1176 A.D._fully described. Mention of bastis in ruins particularly in Hale Belgola and Sanehalli. Jinanāthāpura founded by general Ganga Rāja about 1117 A.D. of Hoysala style and dedicated to Sāntinātha. Basli described. P. 104. Wall inscriptions (Belur 58) and copper plate (Belur 71) inside the Keshava temple, records commentary to Vishnuvardhan's conversion from Jainism to Śri Vaishnavism, in 1117 A.D. Sthala-Purāņa at Śravana Belgoļa gives the reason for the earthquake which visited during the building of Keshava temple for the Kings Vishsuvardhana's persecution of Jains and his abandonment of the Faith, Page #161 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 105. Restoration of all the Jain grants by Vishnuvardhan for the cessasion of the frequent earthquakes. 1180 Pp. 142-146. Halebid-The Jain bastis in ruins-mèntion of 720 bastis dotted near the country side-three Jain bastis were built after Vishnuvardhana's rancour against Jains have died down. Largest built in 1133 A.D. by Boppa in memory of his father general Ganga Rāja-Bore at first the name Drohaghattajinalaya- change of name to Vijaya Pärśvanatha under the direction of the king VishnuvardhanaImage of Pärsvanatha in the innermost shrine-14ft. high-fully described-face resembling the great Gomatesvara at Sravana Belgola-Dharanendra and Padmavati on either side of the image. Dr. Buchanan's description of the temple. Sarvähnayaksha and Kushmandini on the doorway. Inscription (Belur 128) states a Lingait official stamping a linga on the pillars of this basti in 1638. Other two bastis similar in design-middle one dedicated to Adinatha in 1138 A.D. by Heggade Mallimayya-Santinätha Basti built 66 year later a 14 ft. high figure of Santesvara. A tall and slender manstambha in front of the temple bearing. bas-relief figures of Gomatesvara. Pp. 224-26. Appendix V. The Jains, Tirthankaras, Nirvana-described Division into sects-Digambaras and Svetämbaras-image worship by-Jain vow of Sallekhana, Sanyasana or Samadhi discussed. 1224 George M. MORAES.-The Kadamba Kula. Bombay, 1931. P. 3. Chandragupta Maurya and Bhadrabähu. P. 7. Origin of the Kadamba family according to the Jains. P. 34 There grants of Mrigesavaramma to the Jains-i.e. to the Kürchakas (naked mendicants), Svetapata and Nirgrantha. Jainism-popular religion in the Kadamba empire. P. 49. Ravivarmma-his Halsi inscription records provision for the celebration of the eight days festival (Kärttika) of the god Jinendra. The second Halsi record mention a grant made by him to the god Jinendra. Harivarma-his grant to the temple of the Śramanas. P. 85. The Prakasti of the Uttarapurana (Ś. 820) says that Bankapura, the greatest of cities was founded by Bankeyarasa. Page #162 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1181 P. 85. Jakkiyabbe, the widow of Sattarasa Nagarjjuna the nalgavunda was entrusted with the office of her husband by Krishna II. She died by performance of the Jain vow. P. 111. Kirtivarmma in one of his records it is stated that he founded agraharas (seats of learning) where lived Brahman and Jain scholars; one of such agrahāras was the famous agrahāra of Kuppatur, and the tolerant spirit prevailing there'is expressed in the Kuppatur grant of Kirttivarmma. "By that consecrating priest Padmanandi-Siddhāntideva the crowned queen Malala Devi having had the Kuppatur Pārsvadeva-chaityālya well consecrated--she worshipped in the prescribed manner all the Brahmanas......of the immemorial agrahāra Kuppatur, and having the name of Brahma-Fainalaya given to it by them. Pp. 115-116. Chāmunda Rāya Belagami inscriptions: One of his grants to the Basadi of the Balagāra.gaña connected with Jayahuti śāntinātha, it is dated A.D. 1048. The other grant (A.D. 1048) also to the same basadi of Balarar. This Jain congregation of Balagāra was held in high veneration for its au icerity--Kesavanandi an ascetic and disciple of Meghanandibhattāraka of the same gana, made this grant. P. 119. Lakshmana's minister and chief treasurer śāntinātha, a distinguished Jain poet had the title of Sarasvatimukhamukura and was author of Sukumāracharita. He persuaded Lakshmaņa to build the wooden basadi of Mallikamoda Śāntinātha in Baligrama (Belagami). P. 249. The Kadamba Kings were of a very tolerant disposition. This toleration is evidenced by the numerous grants they made to the Jains, which led Dr.J. F. Fleet, Mr. K. P. PATHAK and others to suppose that the Kadambas were of the Jain persuation. The error was however corrected by Dr. FLEET in the second edition of his Dynasties of the Kanarese Districts. The religion of the Kadambas was Brahmanism and not Jainism during the Kadamba rule. P. 252. Jainism had always been a stumbling block in the path of progress of the Saiva religion. King Kākusthavarmma granted the village of Kheta to Śrutakirti. Mrigeśa and other kings made grants to the Jains Inscriptions refering to the Jaina ascetics such as Sveta pațas, Yāpaniyas, Kūrchakas and the Nirgathas (FLEET, Sanskrit and old Kanarese inscriptions I A. vii, p. 38; p. 34; King Ravivarmma used to cansult Kumāradatta. Jainism grew unchecked during the supremacy of the Kadambas and received fresh stimulus in the time of the Page #163 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1182 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Rashtrakūtas. Jain gurus Virasena and Jivasena. Jayadhavala, Vijayadhavala, Atidhavala and Mahādhavala the four scholarly works. Jaina Mathas were established in all parts of Karnataka. P. 253. Queen Malala-Devi partonised the Jain monastery at Kuppatur. Jaina monasteries at Bhandavapura & Belagami. Growth of Jainism brought about the decay of the Saiva worship. P. 257. Jain ceremonies, the eight rites of the Jaina temples, self-destruction by starvation. Jakkiabbe who was holding the office of nalgaunda of the Nāgarkhanda seventy expired in performance of the Jain vow of fasting. P. 265. No. 26-Photo of Jain Basti at Halsi. P. 288. No. 31. - Photo of Jain Basti at Yalavatti. Pp. 291. and 294. Students of different races and creeds and from all quarters flocked to agrahāras to acquire knowledge at the feet of the Savanta-the agrahāras of Kuppatur and Belagami were famous in the Kadamba dominions, Pp. 296.297. An epigraph at Chikkamagadi in the Shikarpur Taluqua tells that the Kadamba king Boppadeva made a gift to the Jaina matha at Magadi where a Jain temple was built by Sankara-Samanta, the general of Boppa-deva. Pp. 297-98. That most important of the mathas in the Kadamba dominions were those of Belagami, Kuppatur and Bandhavapura. The professors in these monasteries were very learned, the second acharya of the temple at Bandhavapura was a great scholar who published commentaries and was a grammarian, logician. poet and dramatist and the acharyas of the Jaina monastery at Kuppatur were also distinguished for their learning. P. 301. Literature --Sāntinātha the finance minister of Lakshmaņa of 1068 compiled the Sukumaracharita, his preceptor was Vardhamana. His titles were Dandanātha Pravara, Para mjina Matambhojini Rājahamsa, Saraswatimukhamukura, Sahajakavi, Chaturkavi and Nissahāyakavi. P. 309. The earliest of the Kadamba temples did not radically differ from the Andhrabharitya structures. The oldest monuments seem to be at Halsi, the old ciiy of Palasika, (Pl. 26. p. 265) there is a Jain basti at this place, which was built by the Kadamba king Mrigesvarmma (5th century a.v.); its description. Page #164 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1183 P. 311. The Jain basti at Yalavatti (Pl. 31. p. 288) is important as it marks a further stage in the envolution of the Kadamba power; description given. Names of places identified. P. 326, Abbalur--chief town of the Kod Taluqua, Dharwar dist. There was a Jain temple. P. 240. Kalavanga-identified with Kadaroli village in the SampgaonTaloqua, Belgaum dist. This village was divided into three parts, which were given, one to the god, one to the ascetics of the Svetapatas, and one to the Nirgrantha sect. Unpublished inscriptions Pp. 418-427. No. 6. Mangundi Dharwar Taluqua, inscription of Jayakesi III, mentions-Ekaviryachāryā of Yāpaniya sangha his son, Bāhubali of Kameyagana, this great sage was known as Bahubalisiddha Siddhantikanta Tippogonda in the Kāņuga line. 1225 A.Y. ALI.-Medieval India. London, 1932. P. 26. Raja Shekhara though a Shaiva honoured the Jains. 1226 P. C. Sen.-Some Janapadas of Ancieni Radha, I.H.Q. Vol, 1932. P. 521. Rādha, one of the sixteen great Janapadas of India referred to in Jain Anga called the Bhagavati Lädha. In the fourth Jaina Upānga, the Pannavanā, also Lādha is mentioned as one of the Ariya Janapadas or countries of India with Kodivarisam as its chief city. 1227 K. R. SUBRAMANIAN.-Buddhist Remains in Andhra. Madras, 1932. P. 28. Jainism--a popular religion in the ceded districts of Andhra-mention in the accounts of Hiuentsang. P. 30. Mention of Jain asceticism. P. 32. Mention of Jain Sanjäsi. Page #165 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1184 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 33. Popularity of Jainism in Karnataka and Dravida-mention of Buddhist Rāmatirtham being usurped by Jains. (n) a number of Jain images exist in Godavari dist.-Jain remains in ceded districts--a few Jaina traces in Drākshärāma temple. P. 04. Destruction of Jainism in the approach of Kumărila Bhatt, Sui Sankarächärya and the Bhakti cult. P. 125. Re-establishment of Brahmanical religion by the devotees of Kokarneśvara over Buddhism and Jainism in Andhra. 1228 H. C. RAYCHOUDHURY-Studies in Indian Antiquities. Calcutta, 1932. The lack of authori P. 6. Rigveda held older than Pārsva (by Winternits). tative works on Parsva lessens confidence of the statement. 1229 RENE Grousset-The Civilizations of the East (India). Vol. II, Translated from the French by C. A. PHILIPS. London, 1932. Pp. 131-2. Similarity of style between the Buddha and Jain statues at Mathura-FOUCHER's theory that they are an Indian adaptation of Gandhara art. Pp. 226-8. Jain architecture-features of a Jain monastery. Pp. 345.6. Indebtedness of Indo-Moslem to Jain architecture--mosque at Aimere inspired by Vimala Sha temple at Mt. Abü; Qutbal-Islam of Delhi built on site and with materials of a Jain temple; Indo-Moslem decoration or delicate lacework in stone recalls Jain decoration, P. 356. Fusion of Jain and Persian art under the Moguls. 1230 Chimanlal l. SHAH. Jainism in Northern India. 800 B. c. 0.A. D. 526. 1932. 1. Jainism before Mahāvīra. II. Mahāvira and his times--Jain philosophy, history of the Jain churchdifferent sects. Page #166 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1185 III, Jainism in royal families-Vidhehans, Lichchhavis, Jñātrikas Vajjis, Mallakins, Ganarājas of Kasi-Kosala-Saisunagas, Nandas, Mauryas. IV. Jainism in Kalinga-desam-Khāravela and the Häthigumphā inscriptionthe Khandagiri, Udaygiri, and other caves. V. Mathura inscriptions and Jainism, VI. Jainism during the Gupta period. VII. Jaina literature of the North--the Siddhānta-Pūrvas, Angas, Upangas, Prakirņas, Chedasūtras, Mülasütras--commentatorial works called Nijjuttis. VIII. Jain art in the North. 1231 N. Subha Rao.-Two centuries of Wadeyar Rule in Mysore. (1565-1761) (QJMS. Vol. 23, No. 2, 1932, Bangalore). Pp. 175-76. The Council - In the administration of the country, the King was assisted by a council. Of these Councillors some interesting details are found in Ananta Kavi, Belagolada Gommațeśvara Charitre MS. K.A. 202, in the Mysore Oriental Library, Pp. 100-09). Councillor Viśālāksha Pandit, an expert in all sciences and in Jain philosophy and religion, the foremost minister of Chikkadevarāja (1673-1704). In 1679 the Mastakapūja to Dorbali at Śravanabeļgola was performed under his guidance. In a grant [E.C. III, (I) Nj 41] he is referred to as Dodda Pandita of Yelavandur. His death was brought about by his enemies on sectarian grounds. P. 185. Under Chikkadevarāja, Anniah, son of Javana Setti, a Jaina, was the Officer in charge of the mint and Treasury He was favoured by his master being allowed to construct a pond in Sravanabelgoļa. He remained in Office as late as the reign of Krishnarāja I. 1232 B. A. SALETOR.-Harshavardhana in the Karnatak. (Q.JMS, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1932, Bangalore). Pp. 313-317. Aihole inscription of Saka 556 (A.D. 634). It is an eulogy by Ravikitti who during the reign of the Chālukya Polekesi Satyāśraya (i.e. the Western Page #167 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1186 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Chalukya Pulakesi II) founded the temple of the Jinendra (KIELHORN, Ep. Ind. VI, p. 2). The conclusion is that (a) The Aihole inscription of 634 A.D. is not the earliest record of Pulakesi's victories and especially of his victory over Harsa; (b) That the geographical and chronological order of conquests as given in it cannot be relied upon; and (c) That it is more or less a general resume of the conquests of Pulakesi written by his court poet. 1233 S. C. CHAKRAVORTY.-Some Points Regarding the Origin af the Licchavis of Vaišali. I.H.Q. Vol. IX, 1933. P. 441. The Jains make Trišala, the mother of Mahavira. P. 444. Jainism and Buddhism found favour with the Licchavis so soon pro. bably owing to the absence of any religion based on philosophy and reason. Mahavira's parents-worshippers of Parsva referred to in Acârängasütra. Mahavira's austerities-no counterparts in the Vedas. 1234 E. J. THOMAS.-The History of Buddhist Thought. New York, 1933. P. 1. Niganthas-a sect of Jains, rival school of Buddhism. P. 6. Bhagavati Sûtra a Jain book which gives the names of 16 ancient king. doms of India viz. Angas, Magadhas, Kasis, Kosalas, Vajjis, Mallas, Cheties, Vamsas, Kurus, Panchalas, Macchas, Surasenas, Assakas, Avantis Gandharas, and Kambojas. P. 12. The Jains and Buddhists held that escape from rebirth could be obtained by knowledge of a special way of life. P. 16 (n). Buddhaghosa and Sarvästivädins interpretation of päräjika as "Suffering defeat" is the same word as the Jain paramciya. P. 73. The Jain doctrine of Kiriyavada the doctrine of action fully described in Buddhist literature. Page #168 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1187 P. 115. The Buddhist and Jain contradictory dictions of Karma fully described. According to JACOBI the original Niganthas followers of Pārśva and Mahāvíra probably borrowed the rigid rules from the Achelakas or Ājivikas. P. 117. An act of killing even if unintentional, involved retribution is rejected in Kathavatthu xx, 1. The Jains are charged with holding Abbk., iv, 73; if Jaina Sūtras. P. 119. The doctrine of Nirvāna is compared with Jain austerities. The conception of mukti or moksha in Buddhism and Jainism fully P. 122. explained. P. 123. Jainism an older faith than Buddhism. Buddhists' probable borrowing of the idea of annihilation from Jain tenets. P. 147. Pārsva-historical personage. P. 151. Bhagavat, “Lord” a common term used by Hindus, Buddhists and Jains. Jain title 'conqueror' of their leaders possesses a distinctive feature, to themselves. P. 247. Survival of Jainism for monastic systems. Jainism-"the creed of a cultivated class from which the masses are excluded". 1235 R. D. BANERJI.-- The Age of the Imperial Guptas. Benares, 1933. P. 103. No Jain inscription of the reigns of Samudragupta or Chandragupta II-discovered-earliest known Jain inscription of Gupta period-in 432-3 A.D. a Jain image dedicated at Mathura by a Jain lady named Sāmāļhyā. P. 104. Inscription on stone pillar at Kahaun in Gorakhpur district, recording the erection of five Tirthankara images. P. 107. Jainism declining in Gupta period. P. 108. Vata-Gohali inscription of 478-9 A.D., Pahārpur (Rajshahi district) - Yuan Chwang mentions Jaina medicants in North Bengal-hardly any evidence of existence of Jainism in Bengal during Päla period. P. 140. Jain temples (Bastis) in North and South Kanara districts. Page #169 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1188 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1236 K. P. JAYASWAL.--History of India, 150 A.D. to 350 A.D. Lahore, 1933. Pp. 44-5. Apsarā and Gaja-Lakshmi of Jain structural monuments-borrowed from the Hindus. 1237 N. C. BANERJEE.-Indian History. Calcutta, 1933. P. 46. Mention of Mahavira--his preachings over masses irrespective of caste, creed, sex or age. Pp. 51-53.-Jainism-Mahāvira--a religious teacher--penance for 12 years-- becomes a Jina and Kevali, Mahāvīra--not an originator of Jainism-Tirthankara-- religious priests of the Jains. Mention of Pārsvanātha as the last Tirthankara. Tenets of Jainism--described-outward similiarities of Buddhism and Jainism discussed-mention of Svetāmbara and Digambara sects. 1238 H. Heras. -Studies in Pallava History. Madras, 1933. A Jain temple at Tiruparuttikkunram of the later Pallava period P. 90. mentioned. 1239 D. C. SIRCAR.---Maharaja Chandavarman af Komarti Plates. (I.HQ. Vol. X. 1934). P. 781. Khāravela belonged to the Ceta dynasty. 1240 S. R. 'Das.-The Faina Calendar. (1.H.Q. Vol. X. 1934). P. 332. In Jaina astronomy yuga consists of five years and begins with Abhijit-Jain lunar and solar years fully described. Pp. 333-36. Řtu-Samvatsara i.e., the year of 360 days and nights together with Karma Samvatsara and Sāvana Samvatsara fully explained, Page #170 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1189 1241 M. V. KRISHNA RAO.----Jainism in Gangavadi. (Q. J. M. S. Vol. 24, No. 1, 1933, Bangalore). Pp. 48-59 ff. Jainism once most prevalent in Kannada and Tamil territories of southern India. Bhadrabāhu legend (Vienna Ori. Journal VII, p. 382); Mülasangha or the Original Congregation. Gangavādi, Kundakunda and Samantabhadra, proselytising on an extensive scale; by the 4th century A.D. Jainism had come to dominate the life and thought of the people of the Pandya, Chola and Chera Kingdoms, Kundakunda, author of Kurral, llangovadigal, younger brother of a Chera King and contemporary of Gajabāhu of Ceylon, author of Silappadikaram; Jain colonies at Kāveripattanam and Madura. Gangavādi-occupied by Mysorean dynasty of the Gangas, later by the Hoysalas. Ikşvāku dynasty, ruled north of the river Krsnā in the Andhradeśa in about 225 and 340 A.D. Gangas belonged to this dynasty. Simhanandi laid the foundations of the Ganga dynasty about the middle of the 4th century (350 A.D.). The Gangas always ruled under the protecting and wakeful eye of Jinendra. The Gangas from the time of Srivikrama adhered more steadily to the Jain religion. Talavanapura or modern Talkad, the capital of the Gangas for about 8 centuries--once a mighty city, submerged in the sand by the Käveri. Jain Acharyas and their work : P. 52. Digambara Jainism supreme in the south till the 9th century A.D. Kundakunda occupied the pontifical chair about 8 B.C. He probably lived in Pataliputra, the seat of Dravida Sangha (I.A., XX, XXI; Digambara Pattāvalis pp. 60, 61) and an important town in Tondaimandalam, He wrote in Prakrit, then the court language of the Pallavas, for the benefit of the royal disciple Sivakumāra Mahārāja. Samantabhadra, 3rd century A.D.; the most remarkable teacher ; his story. Simhanandi, another celebrated teacher, helped Madhava Konganivarma in founding his dynasty ; Gangavādi was then predominantly Jain. Simhanandi's successors Vakragrīva, Vajranandi author of Navastotra, and Pätrakesari refuter of the Trilaksana theory of utpada, uyaya and dhrauvya ; Sumatideva, author of Sumatisaptaka ; Kumārasena, and Chintāmaņi were the immediate predecessors of reputed Srivardhadeva (Tumbulāchārya and the author of Chūdamani). A contemporary of Śrivardha was Pūjyapāda (Devanandi) preceptor of Durvinita. Pūjyapāda followed by Acārya Maheśvara, Page #171 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1190 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY The Gangas, the Pallavas of Kanchi and Rāṣṭrakūtas of Malkhed were staunch Jainas. Western Chalukya Kings Pulakesin II, Vijayaditya and Vikramaditya II, favoured the Jain faith. Dravida Sangha founded at Madura by Vajranandi, a disciple of Pujyapada. Akalanka of Belgola, educated in the Buddha College at Ponnatanagara (Trivatur). Sandusena, Indusena, Kanakasena, were some of the reputed teachers at Annamalai. 9th Century: The Tamil country too produced some well-known Jain teachers as Mandalapuruşa Ajjanandi referred to in Jaka Chintamani, Kurandi Aristanemi. After their persecution by Appar and Sambandar, the Jains probably migrated in large numbers to Gangavaḍi and settled at Sravanabelgola. Mulasangha produced remarkable Acharyas-Prabhachandra (who predeceased Jinasena) Gunabhadra, Ajitasena, Dayapala, Vadirāja, Śrīvijaya. Arhadbali divided the Mulasangha of Saravati Gaccha into Sena, Nandi, Deva, Simha Sanghas (L.A. XXI, P. 73). 1242 K. R. SUBRAMANIAN-Some Noble families of the Eastern Chalukyan Period 615-1070 A.D. (A.I.O.C. VIIth Session, 1933). Paṭṭavardhini family was... ancient... have served successive sovereigns. We do not hear of the Pattavardhini after the reign of Amma II (945-970) who pays the family the compliment of hereditary officials of the Chameka of this family became a Jain nun. 1243 Y. K. DESHPANDE: Conclusion-several remains of Jain Antiquity of Vidarbha dating from the 2nd or 3rd century. (A.I.O.C. VIIth Session, 1933). P 828. Historically it can be shown the province was in touch with the Jain king as far back as 170 B.C..... Like the statues of the Vedic faith the statues of Jain faith are also being unearthed. 1244 Radhagovinda BASAK-The History of North-Eastern India. Calcutta, 1934. Pp. 57-8. Cave-temple inscription of 425-26 A.D. discovered in Udayagiri, recording installation of the image of Pariva, by a disciple of acharya Gosarman, of the lineage of acharya Bhadra (Fleet, C. II, III, No. 61) Installation of Jain image at Mathura, mentioned in an inscription dated 432-33 A.D. (E,I. Vol. II, 210). Page #172 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ TAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1191 P. 71. The Kahaum stone pillar inscription (Fleet, C.I.I. Vol. III, No. 15) records installation of five Tirthankara images, P. 155. Toleration of Jainism in the 7th century. P. 201. Yuan Chwang saw numerous Digambara Nirgranthas in Samatata (Eastern Bengal). P. 231. Jains invited to Harsha's assembly. Vihāra at Vatagohali mentioned in Paharpur inscription P. 304. Jain (Rajshāhi). 1245 Bhasker Anand SALETORE-Social and Political Life in the Vijayanagara Empire. 2 vols. Madras, 1934. Vol. 1: Persecution of Jains in Southern India in the first quarter of the 14th P. 13. century. P. 40. Exodus of Bhadrabahu to the South. P. 73. Five Jain Chaityas existed and Jain men lived in Gerasoppe. P. 74. Bharangi was a Jain centre. Pp. 79-80. Mailapur wholly inhabited by Jains temple of Ādi Tirthankara. Pp. 103-4. The famous Jain--Śrīvaishnava controversy and its settlement by Bukka I. Jain temples in the capital Vijayanagara. P. 372. Disputes between Vaishnavas and Jains. Vol. II : P. 24. About B,C, 850 Arishtha Nemi attained perfection, Existence of four castes among Jains proved by an inscription of the middle of the 10th century A.D. (My. Ar. Re. 1912-13, p. 31). P. 42. The Kurumbars are said to be Jains (Taylor, Catalogue Raisonce, III, Pp. 399-400). Page #173 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1192 P. 54. The Pantacurhis were originally Jains. P. 70. Jains and Vaishnavas were called Valangai and Idangai classes. P. 195. Two Jain kshatriyas settled in Mamgarasa and Changalaraya. Pp. 242-4. Cruel mode of death by burying in the ground prevalent among Jains-prevalent in the 13th and the latter half of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. P. 339. Endowment for Jain temple at kolgana in 1173 A.D. P. 355. Harmony between Jains and followers of other religians. Pp. 358-9. Generosity shown by people to Jains. P. 407. Gomatabhiseka festival at Śravana Belgola and Karkala. 1246 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Oursel MASSON, P. WILLMAN, Grab OWSKA, H. D. and STERN, P.-Ancient India and Indian civilization. Translated from the French by M. R. DOBIE. London, 1934. P. 24. Date of Mahavira. P. 27. Jain literature as a source of history. P. 37. Chandragupta Maurya was a Jain. P. 39. Aśoka's tolerance of Jainism. P. 58. Harsha's tolerance of Jainism, Pp. 137-8, 144-7. Rise and growth af Jainism; Digambaras and Svetambaras. Pp. 138-44, 150-2. Jain philosophy. P. 140. Jain attitude to caste. Pp. 148-50, 218, 248. Jain canons and other literature. P. 168, 178. Influence of Jainism on Brahmanism. P. 169. Brahmanic reaction. P. 196. Jain logic. Page #174 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1193 P. 203. Jain philosophy at the height of its expansion. P. 208. Jain atomism. P. 334. Jainism and Arabian Nights. P. 356. Jain temples with domed halls. P. 370. Jain religious art -- pictures of Tirthankaras of one same conventional. type. 1247 J. ALLAN--Cambridge shorter history of India. Cambridge, 1934. P. 14. Northern India divided into sixteen larger states-Mahajanapadas in 7th and 6th century B.c mentioned in Buddhist & Jainic writtings. P. 15. Jñātrikas, a clan in which Mahāvira was born. P. 16. Purāṇas supplemented by Jain and Buddhist literature which is a source of Indian history specially of Magadha. Mahāvira, son of the sister of Chetaka, king of Vaiśāli, and aunt of Bimbis ära of Magadha, Bimbisāra known as Śreņika by the Jains. P. 17. Ajātaśatru--the Kūņika of the Jains. P. 19. Jain tradition records Nanda as the son of a barber. P. 34. Chandragupta, a Jain according to Jain tradition. P. 96. A Jain inscription dated G. E. 141 (A.D. 460-1) records Skandagupta's reign as peaceful one. P. 126. Mūlarāja the greatest figure of the dynasty Historians. according to Jain P. 128. Kumārapāla-a great patron of the Jains. P. 131. The Jain Harivamsa was finished in A.D. 783-4. P. 143. Probable identification of Indraraja with Indrāyudha of the Jain Harivamsa. P. 165. Legends suggest Hoysalas originally Jain and later became Vaishnava, Page #175 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1194 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 365. Jains of both houses Sveta mbaras and Digambaras mentioned as taking part in the religious debate in the House of worship of Akbar. 361. Annexation of Mt. Abū by Akbar in 1576 A.D. P. 369. Din-i Ilahi of Akbar, creed based largely on Jainism Zorobastrianism and Hinduism. 1248 A. S. ALTEKAR.-The Rashtrakūtas and their times. Poona, 1934. P. 88. Amoghavarsha--his leanings towards Jainism-Jainasena preceptor of Amoghavarsha. Amoghavarsha follower of Syadvāda referred to in the Jain Mathematical work Ganitasārasaṁgraha of Mahāviráchārya. P. 99. Krishna II a Jain-Gunabhadra the famous author of the last five chapters of Adipurāna - preceptor of Krishna. The adherance of Amoghavarsh and Krishna II to Jainism is not causative of the military decline of the Rāstrakūtas. P. 272. Revival of Hinduism ineffective of the decline of Jainism in the Deccan under the royal patronage of early Kadambas Chalukyas and the Western Gangas. Rāstrakūta kings and viceroys influenced by Jains because of the existence of Jain scholars viz.-Samantabhadra, Akalankadeva, Vidyananda, Manikyananda, Prabhāchandra, Jinasena Gunachandra, and Pampa. Mention of the sufference of Jains in the hands of Saiva fanatics. Pp. 273-74. Mention of Kộishnavarma of Kadamba performer of Aśvamedha sacrifice giving munificient gift for a Jain establishment. Mention of Karka Sauvarnavarsha a staunch Saiva of Gujarat giving a field for a Jaina Vihara. Amoghavarsha-a Jain an ardent admirer of Mahalakshmi. Mention of the gift of a field to Jain monastery by Brahmanas of Ballal family at Mulgund in 902 A.D. erection of a Jain temple by Mahāsāmanta Prthvirāma a contemporary of Křshna II in C 875 A.D.--Building of a Jain temple by ŚrisenaBelur inscription 1022 A.D. mentions Akkadevi as practising the rituals of Jina, Buddha and Ananta. Dambal stone inscription of Dharwar of 11th century records its grant by Balanju, a Saiva but opening it with a salutation to Jain munindras. Pp. 307-308. Defeat of the Buddhists in the religious discussion at Śravaņa Belgoļa in the presence of Hemasitala of Kanchi by Akalanka in C. 780. Page #176 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.195 Pp. 309-317. Jainism ---set back for the rise of Lingāyat sect, great relics of Jain educational formulas-left in the entire Hindu society. Jains-patronised by Kadambas Chālukyas, Gangas. Rāchamalla's creation of Jain establishment in Coorg. Rāya Rachamalla vasati, Ganga-Permadi-chaityalaya and Ganga-Kandarpa-chaityamandira-Jain edifices. Mārasimha II, a staunch Jain disciple of Ajitasena. Mention of Mārasimha's death by Sallekhanā Chamund apurāņa work of Mārasimha's minister Chāmundrāya, the erector of the Gommateśvara image at Śravana Belgola, Ganga Rāja and Hulla. Hoysala minister were Jains. Jinasena preceptor of Amoghavarasha mentioned in former's Pārsvabhyudaya and Sarasangraha, a Jain mathematical work. Amoghavarsha's offering of a finger to Mahālakshmi for the extrication of his kingdom from an epidemic. His practice of the vow of akinchanala. Krshņa II, Indra III were Jains. Death of Indra IV by Sallekhana. Ruttas of Saundatti, Bankeya the governor of Amoghavarsha I, Jains. Lekaditya Bankeya's son, Srivijaya, a general of India III were Jains. Lekaditya Bankeya's son, Srivijaya, a general of India III, were Jains. JAINS mistaken for Buddhists in the moslem records of Alberuni and Al Idrisi. Life in Jain Mathas-fully described. Krishnavarma a Kadamba king, a Jain but having the title of Ranapriya. Mention of Amoghavarsha offering dreadful feast to the god of death on the battlefield of Vingavalli.Jain Kings not enthusiastic in warfares. Jainisin and Buddhism -- not responsible for the military emasculation of the population that let to the fall of Hindu India. Pp. 409-410. Considerable contribution of the Jains to the Indian literature. Aptamimänsä, work of Samantabhadra containing the exposition of the Syadvada. Ashtasati of Akalankadeva written in early Rästrakūta period. Sravan abelgola inscription no. 67 mentions Akalankadeva describing his own greatness Sāhasatunga who probably was Dantidurga-Tradition of Akalankadeva being the son of Krishna I. lacking evidence. Ashta---sahasri of Vidyānanda-a Jain work. Parīkshāmukhasūtra. Jain work of logic by Mānikyanandin and commented upon by Prabhāchandra. Pramey.zkamalamārtanda and Nyayakumudachandrodaya Jain works of Prabhachandra. . Page #177 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1196 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Mallavädin, a Jain writer on logic-founder of Digambara monastery at Naosari. His commentry viz., Dharmottaratippanaka on the Nyayabindulika of Dharmottaracharya. Jinasena's Harivamia finished in 783 A.D. His Adipuräna completed by his disciple Gunachandra. In Parivabhyudays of Jinasena utilizes the lines of Meghaduta in narrating the life of Parsva Amoghavṛtti of a Jain work of Sakaṭāyana a treatise on grammar. Ganitasarasangraha of Viracharya, a work on mathematics composed during the reign of Amoghavarsha. P. 411. Karnatak-a stronghold of Jainism-Pampa, a Canarese Jain author of 10th century A.D. Adipurana of Pampa, a Jain work, finished in 941 A.D. Vikramarjunavijaya, a historical treatise of Pampa which glorifies his prtron Arikesarin II as Arjuna. Santipurana, a work of Ponna (10th century). Chamundapurana a Jain work of Chamundaraya (10th century) Ajitatirthankarapurana of Ranna, Jain work finished in 993 A.D. Rastrakutas-tolerant of Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism. 1249 PAUL Masson-Oursel, HELENA De Willman-Grabowska, Philippe STERNAncient India and Indian Civilization, London, 1934. P. 24. Rise of Jainism.-There was some connection between the development of Buddhism and Jainism and the Iranian reformation of Zaroaster. The date of the beginning of Jainism cannot be fixed. Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, died in 528 8.c., according to European scholars the date is 477 or 467. P. 25. Bimbisära or Śrenika, the fifth king of Sisunaga line is claimed by both Jains and Buddhists as one of their sect. Jainism favoured by kings P. 37. Chandragupta Maurya-died at the age of fifty (298 B.c.) No truth in the Jain tradition of Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta. Pp. 38-39. Asoka's fight against sufferings of all kinds bears the stamp of Buddhism and Jainism. Himself a convert to Buddhism, heaped favours on the Brahmans and gave such help to the Jains that he came to be regarded as one of them. P. 58. Harsha or Siläditya summoned a council at Prayäga, where he heaped presents upon. Brahmans, Jains and Buddhists alike. Page #178 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1197 Pp. 137-143. Early Jainism and Buddhism, their common conditions; transmigration; disregard Vedic gods; Karman; the aspiration to deliverance; the influence of the Yoga and the Sophists. Pp. 144-152. Jainism; the Nirgranthas; Jina; the community; the Canons; Archaism and Realisation; the Substance; the soul and its salvation. P. 153. Buddhism a younger brother of Jainism. Pp. 168, 169, 174, 178. Influence of Jainism on Brahmanism. P. 196. Logic. P. 203. Philosophy- Jainism--later development. Siddhasena Divākara opposed Kunda Kunda, whose teaching was continued in the following century by Samantabhadra. P. 208. Atomism, P. 218. Jain Prākrit, the language of the Jain canon, is distinguished from Jain Mahārāshtri, the language of the commentaries and secular works of the sect. P. 334. Arabian Nights-the prototype of the containing narratives, is found in a Jain commentary (Jarl CHARPENTIER, Paccekabuddhageschichten, Upsala. 1908). P. 356. Jain temples. P. 370. Sculpture-Tirthankaras of one same conventional type. 1250 K. P. JAYASWAL- The Murunda Dynasty and the Dale of Padalipta. Malaviya Commemoration Volume : Reviewed by Niharranjan Roy. (ABORI. Vol. XV; 1934), Pp. 118-119, 122. The Murundas, according to the Purānic calculation, were in power as long as the middle of the 3rd century A.D. He incidentally fixes the time of the Jaina teacher Padalipta whose religious instructions to the Murunda of Pāțaliputra are noted in several Jain texts including the Prabhāvakacarita. This time, he says, is the same as that of Kaniska or his predecessors, which is further corroborated by Padaliptas' controversy with Nāgārjuna who is associated with Kaniska, Page #179 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1198 1251 N. Subba RAU-Two centuries of Wadeyar Rule in Mysore (1565-71) (QJMS. Vol. 24, No. 3, 1934, Bangalore. P. 245. Jainism-it is significant to not that Chikkadevaraja Wadey ar while equally solicitous for its welfare as well, never brought himself under the influence of that religion as has been alleged (Wilks, Mysore, I, Ch. IV, Pp. 107, 220-222-New Edition). He supported his Jain minister Vishäläksha Pandia; Mastakapaja to Gommatesvara in 1679 his mint master Anniah (E.C. 11, SB 365). He made a grant of lands for Vimalanatha Chaityalaya [E.C. IV (2), Ng. 43]. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 246. Krishnaraja I, in 1723 made a grant to the Jinadharma of Belgola. for the worship and festivals of Gommatesvara (E.C. II, SB. 249). 1252 C. S. K. RAO SAHIB-Sri Gupta. (QJMS, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1934, Bangalore). Pp. 219-21. I-Tsing, the Chinese pilgrim (671-695 A.D.) mentions a great king, Sri Gupta, Jainasena in his Harivamia (783 A.D.) refers to the Guptas as having begun their rule 720 years after Mahavira's nirvana, i.e. according to Jinasena 720and he is nearly a century later than I-Tsing. How could two inde pendent traditions one a century later than the other-refer to a king who ruled exactly in the same year 192 A.D. We may believe the accuracy of the Buddhist and Jain. 1253 Hiralal JAIN.-Some fresh light on the Dharasiva Caves and the Origin of the Silahar Dynasty. (ABORI. Vol. XVI, 1934-85) Pp. 1-11. Darasiva is the headquarters of a District in the Hyderabad Dist.-named today-Osmanabad-Of the seven caves, the four on the north side of the ravine are decidedly Jaina excavation. Mr. BURGESS tentatively assigned them to about 650 A.D. adding that perhaps they belong to a somewhat earlier date. (Arch. Sur. of West India. Vol. III). 1254 Cambridge History of India. Vol. I. 1935. P. 22. The Summit of Abu bears some famous ruins of Jain temples. P. 55. Buddhism has been gradually absorted into Brahmin caste system, which has also, though in a less degree, influenced the followers of other faithsJains, Mahammadans, Sikhs and even native Christians. Page #180 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1199 P. 57. The Scriptures of the Jains have been preserved in various forms of Magadhi, the dialect of Behar, Sauraseni, the dialect of Muttra, and Maharastri, the dialect of Maratha country. P. 58. Literature controlled by Brahmanas or by Jain and Buddhist monks must necessarily represent the system of faith rater than nationality. They must deal with thoughts rather than actions, with ideas rather than events. P. 150. History of the Jains. Pp. 151-2. Pp. 153-4. Date of Parsvanath. P. 155. Traditional date of Mahavira. Relation between Brahmans and Jains. Pp. 156-58. Sketch of the life of Mahavira. Pp. 159-60. Nirvana of Mahavira. Pp. 161-62. Relation between Jains and Buddhists. Pp. 163-64. Schisms in Jain church. Pp. 165-66. An Account of Śvetämbaras and Digambaras. Pp. 167-68. Western settlements of the Jains, Pp. 169-70. Conservation of the Jains. P. 275. Unorthodox warrior spirit produced the work of Bhagavatas and that the Bhagavadgita emanates from an un-Brahmanical source is based upon the supposition that the Bhagavadgua and its underlying system of Sänkhya philosophy is an exponent of the free eastern anti-Brahmincal and un-Brahmanical life which produced great heresies of that region, Buddhism and Jainism. P. 423. Mouthless Indians as noticed by Greek writers Scylax, Hecataous and Etesias are perhaps a sect like Jains who abstained from all animal food and kept their mouth covered lest he should breathe in minute insects. P. 485. At the time of Megasthenes the Jains were probably still mostly to be found in Bihar and Ujjain. P. 484. Greek writers combine with the Buddhists and Jain books and the edicts of Asoka in testifying to the uniquity of the Pravrajitas or Śramaņas. Page #181 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1200 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 504. It is contended that even that Asoka's early faith which lays such a special stress upon the doctrine of benevolence, was rather that of Jainism. P. 509. Asoka's religious officer Dharma-mahämäntra who superintended the bounties of his own household, those of his queens and sons; organised the activity of the counmittees and councils (Parişad) at the head of the Buddhists, Jains, Ajivakas and other sects. P. 512. Samprati is mentioned in the Jain tradition as a convert of their Patriarch Subastin. P. 526. The Sacred city of Mathura (Bolemy vii, i, 50) was a stronghold both of the worship of Krishna and Jainism. P. 532. The Saka element in Indian Politics is possibly preserved in the Jain story of Kälaka. P. 534. Udayagiri hill inscriptions (No. 1345-50) was to preserve the memory of pious benefactors-two kings, queen, a prince and other persons who had provided caves for the use of Jaina ascetics of Udayagiri. 1255 K. A. SASTRI NILAKANTA–The Colas. Vol. I, Madras, 1935. P. 19 Tamil literature, the main source of information on the early Colas; the rapparungalam and rapparungalak-Karikai (10th century A.D.) are works on one branch of grammer prosody, by a Jain writer, Amitasāgara of somewhat earlier date ; these works possess glosses slightly later than the original texts; they provide fresh information, and confirm and elucidate, date drawn from the inscriptions. P. 114. Jainism had a vogue in the Tamil country from very early times. P. 117. In all important centres in the Tamil country there were Jain temples in which Jaina monks lived and preached their tenets (see S. V. Arugan and Puttan in the Indexes to the Silappadikaram and Manimekalai ; and Maduraikkanji II, 475-87. P. 129. There were adherents of Jainism among the Pandya and Pallava rulers. Page #182 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jaina BIBLIOGRAPHY 1201 P. 228. In the district of North Arcot, the Ilādaraya (Lāta) chieftains were ruling the region round Pañcapāņdavamalai continuously from the days of Parantaka I ; in the eighth year of Räjaräja, Udiyar Virasolar, remitted, at the request of his queen, some taxes in favour of a Jain temple (E.I. IV. P. 139), 19 of 1890. P. 311. Pandya-Cola, the mahapätak (great sinner) Tamilian devastated the Beļvola country, burned several temples including finalayas erected by Gangaperumanadi; he was killed by Somesvara I. P. 436. Year 38 (Parantaka I). Anandamangalam (Chingleput)Madiraikonda. Five Kaļañju of gold for feeding one devotee (adiyar) in the Jinagirlpalli by Vardhamanap-periyadigal, a disciple of Vinaiyābha-sura-kuravadigal. 430 of 1922 (This inscription is engraved on a boulder with three groups of Jain a figures-Annual Report on Epigraphy. Madras, 1923 II. 113). P. 438. Year 38 (Parantaka I). Viļāppākkām (North Arcot)-Madiraikonda. The sinking of a well, by a female disciple of Aristanemi-pidaran of Tiruppanmalai. The 'twenty-four of the ür to protect the charity, a penpalli ; 53 of 1900 ; South Ind. Ins. VII. 56. note-- Tiruppanmalai--Another name for Pancapāņdavamalai, a Jaina centre from the Pallava period to that of Räjarāja (Annual Rep. on Epi. Madras. 1900, para 16). P. 506. The year 21 (Rājakesari Rājarāja I)-Dädāpuram (South Arcot) Tirumalgal-pola. Vessels and ornaments of gold, silver and pearls presented amongst others to Kundavai-jinālaya built by Paräntakan Kundavaip-piraţtiyār, daughter of Ponmāļigaittuñjinadevar, in the city of Rājaräjapuram in Nallur-nadu, 8 of 1919. This Jain shrine exists no longer (Annual Rep Epi Madras, 1919 II, II.). P. 554. The year 13 (Parakesari Rajendra I) Tirūmalai (North Arcot). Tiru mani valara to teripunarkangaiyum. Twenty Kāsu for lamp and ten Kāsu for tiruvamidu to Sri-Kundavai-jinālayadeva of Tirumalai by Camundappai, the wife of Nandappayyan, a merchat of Perumbāņappadik-karaivali-Malliyur. 80 of 1887 ; South Ind. Ins. i, 67, E. I. IX. Pp. 229-33. 1256 D. C. GANCOLY-Eastern Calukyas. (I.H.Q. Vol. XI. 1935). P. 40. The Kalacumbarru grant (EL. Vol. VII p. 177), registers that the king (Amma II) at the request of the lady named Camekamba of the Pattavardhini family, made a gift of the village of Kāļacumbarru in the Attilinăndu vişaya Page #183 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1202 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY for meeting the expenses of the repair of a Jain temple called SarvalokāśrayaJinavallabha. Village granted was bounded by Aruvilli, Korukolanu, Yidiyüru Yullikodamaṇḍiu (Note-Attilinandu is identical with Attili in Tanuka Taluq, Dist. Godavari, Kalacumbarru is modern Kunsamwhoo 3 miles S.W. of Attili.) 1257 V. V. MIRASHI-The Birth place of Bhavabhuti. (I.H.Q. Vol. XI, 1935). P. 294. (facing) plate-image of Pārsvanatha (Nagpur Museum). 1258 K. V. Rangaswamy AIYANGAR-Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Polity. 2nd Ed. Madras, 1935. P. 40. No direct reference to Jainism in the work of Kautilya. (Note)Jivaka, a mendicant, Hindu, Buddhist or Jain. P. 41. Reference of Suicide (even religious) as anti-Jain in Kautilya. (n) Santhara (religious suicide) a meritorious act of Jains ordinary suicidean inexpirable sin among Jains. P. 42. Jainism-not a serious rival of Brahmanism in the time of Kautilya. P. 183. Jain Sûtras-Jain work. 1258(a) Purushottam Lal BHARGAVA.-Chandragupta Maurya, Lucknow, 1935. Pp. 43-4. Retirement of Chandragupta and Bhadrabahu to Śravaṇa Belgola. P. 76. Worship of images begun by Jains and Buddhists. Pp. 92-3. Bhadrabahu, the disciple of Yasobhadra, author of the Kalpasülra. Pp. 111-19. Jain legends regarding Chandragupta as described in Hemachandra's Parisisht aparvan (VIII, 33-39). Page #184 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1203 1259 A. SOMAYAJULU.-The Ancient History of India. Madras, 1935. (IX) Introduction-Jain tradition stating Mahāvira born as king Nandana in his previous life son of Nandivardhana, king of Svetatapatra. P. 53. Mention of Rishabha having 100 sons, Bharata beting eldest. P. 104. Mahāvīra (599-528 B.C.) --Jainism founded by Rishabhadeva. Mahavīra a contemporary of Kumärila Bhatta-Kumärila Bhatta's association with Mahāvīra to learn the Secrets of Jainism. 1260 W. DURANT.-The story of Civilization. New York, 1935. Pp. 419-422. Mahāvira-a short description of his life work--Jain creed discussed-Atheistic polytheism and asceticism narrated-division into sects Shwetāmbara and Digambara four subsects of the Digambaras and 84 of the Shwetāmbaras --Jain population 13,00,000. Gandhi influenced by Jain sect. P. 422. Jainism and Buddhism--religious reactions against hedonistic creed of an emancipated' and worldly leisure class. P. 445. Chandragupta's abdication and his Jain asceticism. p. 471. Influence of Jainism on Akbar's religion which recommended abstenance from meat. ???P. 478. (Plates) The Naga-King Facade relief on Ajanta cave temple xix (Nude image hooded by 7 cobras and two attendants). P. 508. Non-adoration of the Trimurti by Jains. P. 520. Buddhism Hindustan and Jainism-put an end to animal sacrifice in P. 529. Jains--nearly approximated to Democritus in physical atomic theories. P. 534. Nästika--a system chiefly of the Chārvakas, Buddhists and Jains. P. 542-43. fig. 54, Interior of dome of the Tejahpala temple at Mt. Ābū. Fig. 55. Temple of Vimala Sah at Mt. Ābü, Page #185 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1204 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Fig. 56. Cave xix Ajanţā. P. 555. Prakrita language of Buddhists and Jains--5th century B.C. ?? P. 574. Fig. 57. Jain image-Elephantã caves. Bombay. P. 598. Jain temples of 11th and 12th century---first in India. Jains following Buddhist, Vishnu and Shiva type of temples in lines. Mention of 6,499 Jain figures (FERGUSSON) of Satrunjaya group of temples. Jain temple at Alihole-of Greek style-temple of Pārswanātha-perfect in Khujurāho temples The Vimala and Tejahpāla temples on Mt. Ābū-greatest achievement of the Jains in art. 1260 (a) Nagendranāth Ghosh.-Early History of Kausambi-Allahabad, 1935. (Allahabad Archaeological Society). P. 59. According to Dr. BÜHLER, "Kässyapiya Arhats" of Pabhosa rock inscription may mean pupils of Vardhamāna, who was a kaśyapa by gotra (E.I. II, p. 242-3) Jain temple at Pabhosa. Jain Dharmaśāla at Pabhosa where an inscription recording the building of a Jain temple has been found (JRAS, IV, 1927). P. 111. Stone sculptures of Kausambi—Jina heads-Jain Tirthankaras in sitting postures-sculpture of Candraprabhu Tirthankara bearing a crescent below the feet--figures of caturmukharudra and Ekhamukha Rudra-railing pieces of Kushana period and four pieces of stone with images of Tirthankaras a large stone containing carved images of 24 Tirthankaras-head of every single image chopped off. 1261 M. Somasekhara SARMA--Jainism in Andhra : Some traditions. (Triveni, a Journal; Vol. VIII, No. 2, Sept. Oct. 1935. Madras). Pp. 173-183. Dharmamrita, a Kannada kāvya, (Saka 1037) by Nayasenadeva, a native of Mulugonda (Dharwar Dist.) The eleventh chapter of this work gives interesting information regarding Jainism in the Telugu country : Yasodhara, an Ikshvāku king of Anga started on a military campaign and came to the country of Vengi and founded there a city named Pratipalapura and made it his capital. In his old age he, along with his two eldest sons, Anantavīrya and Sridhara, made penance on the mountain of Jatasikhara Yaśodhara and Anāntavīrya attained nirvāṇa. Sridharācharya, his second, otherwise known as Akalanka was making rigorous penance on the mountain named Rishiniväsa. Yasodhara's third son, Priyabala, who was ruling at Pratipālapura died of snake bite ; he had no sons. His minister Indraprabha, approached Sridhara on the mourtain of Rishinivāsa and prevailed upon him to rule the country of Vengi till a son was born to him, Page #186 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1205 In course of time he has a son who was named Yasodhara after his own father. Śridhara appointed his son to the kingdom and went away to his former abode on the mountain of Rishiniväsa and again performing vratas, attained nirvāṇa. The mountain Rishinivāsa got the name of 'Sriparvata' because of Sridhara's stay there for a long time and his attainment of Siddhi. Because he attained mukti under a banyān tree to the south of Sriparvata, that place was called 'Siddhavața'. The place where the four kinds of deva groups assembled to perform jñānabpājā to Śrīdhara came to be known as “Amaravati', and the place where Khecharas worshipped with mallika flowers while Sridhara was doing penance under the arjuna tree, became renowned as Mallikarjunam. The place at which vriddhas or elders of the State were said to have been saying, got the name of ‘Vriddhagiri'. Yaśodhara (son of Sridhara) was nicknamed Mundiyasuta or son of the shaven monk and hence his lineage came to be known as Mundiyavamsa. In the lineage of these Ikshvakus was born a king called Dhanda (a Jain). He ruled the country of Vengi with Pratipālapur as his capital. One day while 'Charanarishis' who were flying in the air, king Dhanda showed them to Sanghasri, his father-in-law, Dhandapura alias Chandavolu is very near Bhattiprolu; Pratipālapura the capital of Dhanda may be identical with Bhattiprolu. Sanskrit lexicons give the name 'Kubera' as another name for Dhanda. The Komatis, lords of the Penugonda, of the Telugu country were described in inscriptions as the descendants of Kubera, Dhanda or Vittesa. What is the meaning of Komati? No interpretation for the Telugu term 'Komati' seems sound except the one suggested by Mr. CHICKURI Virabhadrarão--these Komatis were originally the devotees of Gommateswara, the Jain divinity. Dhanda or Kubera, the ancestor of the Komatis, also was a Jain. It is but natural that the descendants of Dhanda, the Komatis, should also be Jains. The story in the Dharmāmrita contains some historical facts suggesting that Jainism was introduced into the Telugu country and patronised by the Ikshvakus, who were lains to start with. Traditions embodied in the epigraphs confirms the emigration of the Ikshvakus to the South and their adherence to the Jainism. Jainism was flourishing in the Andhra Empire of the Sātavāhanas. From the time of the reign of Khäravela, the king of Kalinga, onwards we can trace the progress of Jainism in the Telugu country on the basis of epigraphical evidence, although it is meagre. 1262 V. Ramachandra DIKSHITAR -Early History of Jainism in South India. (A.I.O.C., Session VIII ; 1935) P. 78. Page #187 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1206 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1263 Nagendranath Ghosh-Early History of Kausambi-mistakes pointed K. (ABORI. Vol. XVII; 1935-36) P. 417. K, writes...both (the author and the prefator) have neglected the most important new source available to them, the Jain tradition. The sole religious building of any importance that survives on the ruins of a far vaster edifice at Kosam is Jain, the temples at Pabhosa are Jain ; the images, which by scattered in 1930 on the path from the Asoka Pillar to the riverside--perhaps a by-product of Dayaram Sahni's work in excavating the base and restoring the Pillar-and which (according to pages 110-111) now grace the Allahabad Museum are mostly Jain... . 1264 D. C. GANGULY--The Eastern Calukyas. I.H.Q. vol. XII. 1936. P. 47. Rāmatirtham inscription (of Vimaladitya (1011-1012 A.D.) not mentioned in the inscription) on the wall of the Durgapanca cave in the hill at the village of Ramatirtham in the Vizagapatam District states that it belongs to Sarvalokāśraya Vishnuvardhana-Mahārāja who had the epithet of Rājamartanda and Mummadi Bhima-Inscription badly damaged-it reports that the Muni Trikālayogi, Siddhāntadeva, a teacher of Desigana school of Jainism and a spiritual teacher of the King Visnuvardhana paid his reverence to the holy place of Rāmakonda (which is identical with Rāmatirtham). 1265 (a) Hem Chandra RAYACHAUDHURI-Materials for the study of the early history of the Vaishnava sect. Calcutta, 1936. P. 64. Jain tradition makes Arishtanemi or Neminātha a contemporary of Krishna. P. 65. The Uttaradhyayana Sutra mentions Krishna. P. 67. Jain tradition attributes the lectures of the Uttarādhyayana sūtra to Mahāvíra-its commentary is ascribed to Bhadrabāhu (4th century B.c.) in the Vritti of the Rishimandala sūtra. P. 95. The Anguttara Nikāyaa mentions Ājivikas and Niganthas. Page #188 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1207 Pp. 121-3. Bhagavatism and Jainism-mention of Vasudeva and Bala Rama in Jain books-Jain faith deeply permeated with Hindu influences. P. 170. In Bāņa's Harshacharit Harsa is represented as meeting with Jains. P. 175. The Bhägavata Purāna includes Rishabha, the first Tirthankara in the list of the Avatāras. 1265 (b) G. DUNBAR--History of India, London, 1936. Pp. 24-27. Mahāvira---born at Videha about 540 B.C.-his parents followers of Pārśva (8th century B.C,)---mention of five vows of the Jains, external and internal austerities discussed--Gosāla-a rival teacher of Mahāvira. Mahāvīra's death 468 B.c. at Pāwā near Giribbajja. Jain literature--Agama mixture of prose and verses--preserved orally until 454 A.D. Language used partly Prākrit, Jain Mahārāştri and partly SanskritJains honour 24 Tirthankaras and Venerate the three Jain jewels of right Faith, Right action and Right Morals. Jainism-its foot in Eastern India at about 300 B.C. and its migration to Ajmer and Marwar-mention of Jain sects Śwetāmbaras and Digambaras. the Earliest Jain architecture found in the caves of Orissa dating from middle of 1st century B.C. Jains---their contribution to Sanskrit and influence on Tamil, Kanarese and Telugu languages. Buddhism and Jainism compared. 1266 W. H. MORELAND and Atul Chandra CHATTERJEE-A short history of India. London, 1936. Pp. 40-3. Rise of Jainism. P. 109. Persecution of Jains in the 7th century A.D. by a Pandya king. Pp. 121-2. Decay of Jainism in the 10th century. Page #189 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1208 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1267 Bhasker Anand SALETORE-History of Tuluva. Poona, 1936. Pp. 216-7. Defeat and punishment of 18,000 Jains by Pille Nāyanār and conversion of many Jains to Saivism. P. 273. The Santara chief Jagadeva (1104 A.D.) renounced Jainism. P. 298. Jainas were powerful in the time of Lokāditya Mayuryavarmakanakavarma ruled in Banavasi like a devout Jaina. P. 344. Jainism in Barakura--advent of Jainism in Tuluva in 9th century A.D. the Grāmapaddhati, a work of Tuluva tradition, refers to a Jaina ruler Jinendra and disputes between Brahmans and Jains. P. 353. The aliya Santana kattu (law of inheritance through females) not universal among Jains. P. 382. Jains used the term Sambukallu Bhattāraka for rulers and priests. P. 384. Preponderence of Jainism over Buddhism in Tuluva. Pp. 404-415. Jainism in Tuluva-date and main centres. Pp. 467-8. Condition of Jains-poor people, Settis, Ballāļas-account of the manner of building of the statues of Gomata at Kārkala and Venuru (1.A. XXV, p. 216 ff). 1268 Radhakumud MOOKERJI-Hindu civilization. 1936. P. 21. Antiquity of Jainism -a suggestion, inferred from the similarity of figures of standing deities on some six Mahenjodaro seals with Jaina Yoga posture, that Jainism may be one of the oldest religions of Chalcolithic origins. P. 55. Number of Jains in India. P. 187. Hemachandra and the Uttaradhyayana Sutra (XX, 58) claim king Bimbisāra was a Jaina. that P. 202. The association of the Jñātrikas with Jainism, Pp. 227-239. Pārśva and Mahāvīra. Pp. 239-41. Jainism as a system of discipline. Pp. 241-3. Jainism aster Mahavira. Page #190 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1209 P. 247. The Jain author Devasenacharya of the 8th century A.D. in his Darsansära says that Buddha probably first tried Brahmanical and Jain systems of self-realization, and then developed his own. P. 262. Jainism, about a generation older than Buddhism, anticipated it in some of its features. P. 277. Nanda kings of Magadha had Jaina ministers. The tradition of the Jainas about their influence on the Nandas is recognised in the later drama Mudra-Rakshasa. Pp. 296, 300. Jaina texts like the Achāranga, Uttarādhyayana and other Sūtras furnish allusions to social and economic conditions. 1269 M. V. KRISHNA Rao.-The Gangas of Talkad. Madras, 1936. Frontispiecephoto-Gomateśvara. Pp. 5-7. Mention of Jain Acharya Simhanandi meeting two princes Didiga and Mädhava of the 1-kshvaku dynasty-his acquisition of gift from Padmavati for the princes and a sword-made a crown from the patels of Karnikara for them provided them with an army. His sermons for them not to descend from the Jains śāsana-a considerable Jain element in the population of Gangavādi --Simhanandi's influence over them. Gangavādi Kingdom found by Simhanandi. Pp. 12-13. Achārya Simhanandi mentioned with Elāchārya Padmanandinpersonal or religious name of Kundakunda was Padmanandin. Kundakunda referred to by BHANDARKAR and WEBER as one of the earliest Digambāra teachers, a poet and author. Gajadharala Jain (in Kundakunda Samaya-Sara) concludes with doubt the age of Kondakunda to be middle of 3rd century A.D. Samantabhadra and Akalanka two great Digambara teachers of 3rd century A.D. Simhanandi mentioned next to Samantabhadra (E.C.U. 255, 285, 289, 363, 596 etc.). P. (13) (n). Vidyabhuşana in the introduction to his 'History of Medieval school of Indian logic' assigns Samantabhadra to 600 A.D. (XV). P. 19. Mention of a grant to Jain temple in Sudi Plates of Butuga dated Ś. 860. P. 20. Inscriptions at Śravaņa Belgoļa records Mārasimha's death by Sallekhana in 974 A.D. Page #191 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1210 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 33-34. Making of large grants to Jain temples by Avinita (500-540 A.D.) Avinita brought up under Vijayakirti--number of grants made by him 10 Jain bastis in Punnad. P. 40. Durvinita (550 600 A.D.)--his kindness towards Jains. P. 41. Mokkara Vasati, a Jain ganga temple built by Muskear (655-660 A.D.). P. 59. Sree Purusha (726-776 A.D.)-a Jain--his magnificient grants to Jain temples. P. 65. Sivamāra the bulwark of Jain Dharma (780-812 A.D.). Erection of Jain temple at Kummadavada and basadi at Sravanabe!go!a. P. 70. Dindiga or Prithivipati, a patron of Jainism witnessed the Nirvāna of the Jain Acharya Aristanemi on the Katvapra hill at Sravana be!go!a. P. 86. Making of grants to Jains by Rājamalla-granting of 12 villages on the Peddovagere to a Jain priest for Satyavākya Jain temple on the Panne Kadanga in Coorg. P. 98. Buguga (937-960 A.D.) versed in Jain philosophy. P. 107. Mārasimha--his death by Sallekhana in 974 A.D. Indra---son-in-law of Mārsimha--his death by Sallekhana at Sravana belgola in 982 A.D. Pp. 113-114. Chaundaraya Purana account of 24 Tirthankaras of Chaundarāya, Chaundārāya---a Jain Ajitasena his guru. His son Jinadevana a disciple of Ajitasena-erection of a temple at Sravana belgo!a by Jinadevana. Chauņdarāya Basti at Śravaņa Belgoļa and the image of Gomateśvara built by Chauņdarāya in 983 A.D. P. 115. Rakkasa Ganga-his devotion to Jain religion--construction of a Jain temple in the capital. P. 182. Spread of Brahminism in S. India before Buddhism or Jainism. P. 185. Grants to Jain temples by Mādhava II. patronised by Ganga kings though they were of Jaina P. 188. Brahminism persuation. Page #192 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1211 Pp. 191-205. Jainism-its supremacy unchallenged upto 9th century in S. India-its penetration to S. India as early as 300 B.C.--Era begins by Bhadrabāhu and Chandragupta's pilgrimage to south-death of Bhadrabāhu and Chandragupta by Sallekhana-complete absence of Svetāmbaras in Bhadrabāhu's legend-migration of Digambaras from Bhadalpur (Pataliputra) or Tirupapuliyam (modern Cuddalore) to Delhi and Jaipur for religious propagation by 4th century Pandya, Choļa and Chera kingdoms came under Jain influence-Tamil classical literature prospered under Jain auspices. Illangovadigul author of Silappadikaram, a Jain-Kundakunda of Dravidian origin belonging to Dravida Sangha wrote Pañchästikāya, Dvādaśamukha, Pravachanasāra and Samayasāra in Prakrit-His propagation of Jainism. Samantabhadra, a Jain teacher of 3rd century A.D. his conversion of Sivakoți of Kānchi to Jainism-Sivakoti known as Sivakotācharya, a celebrated scholar in Jain history for his commentary on Tatvarthasāra. Simhanandi, a Jain teacher-his patronage to Madhava Konganivarma in founding a dynasty-Vakragriva, Vajranandin author of Navastotra (and Patrakesari-immediate Successor of Simhanandin author of Navastotra and Patrakesari-immediate Successor of Simhanandi). Smatideve, author of Sumatisaptaka mention of Kumārasena and Chintāmani and srivardadeva author of Chudamani. Pujyapäda, a Jain muni of 7th century. Digambara Darsana mentions a Dravida Sangha founded at Madura by Vajranandi, a disciple of Pujyapāda. Gangas, Pallayas of Kanchi and Rāstrakutas of Malked--staunch Jains, Vijayāditya and Vikramāditya II-their favour towards Jainism. Buddhists' defeat at Kānchi by Akalanka-conversion of the price to Jainism and banishment of the Buddhas to Ceylon. Mention of Sandusena, Indusena and Kanakanandi -- Jain teacher. Pushpasena, Vimalachandra and Indranandi-contemporaries of Akalanka. Toranācharya and his disciples --Pushpanandi-gurus of Sivamāra Aryavada another Jain missionary observed vow of Kayotsarga on a small hill at Sravanabelgo!a--Chārukirti and Karmaprakurti-his contemporaries Sripāla Deva, a Trividyācharya mention of Matisena and Hemasena--their challenge to Buddhist disputants in the court of Rāstrakūta kings. Elachary belonged to Desigana and Pushtakagaccha guru of Ereyappa disciple of Sridharāchārya, and His death by Samadhi. Sambandar mentioned as bringing downfall to Jainisin while Appar for the expulsion of the Jains from Pallava country. Mandala purusha author of Tamil metrical dictionery disciple of Guņabhadra. Prabhāchandra predecessor of Jina, the guru of Amogha. varsha and author of Adipurāņa-Jinadharmadīpikastaka, work of Amoghavarsha. Gunabhadra, a disciple of Jinasena, author of Uttarapurāna. Ajitasena, author Alankara Chūdāmani and Maniprakasa--a disciple of Gunabhadra and guru of Mārasimha and Chaundarāya. Mārsimha's death by Sallekhand at the feet of Ajitasena. Chaundarāya and his son Page #193 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1212 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Jinadevana disciples of Ajitasena dedicated a temple to him at Śravana belgoļa. Composition of Hitarūpasiddhi by Dayapāla, a disciple of Matisāgara and student in the capital of Chalukyan king Jayasimba. Srivijaya, a contemporary of Vădirāja. . Mention of Arhadbali--his division of Mulasangha of Saraswati Gaccha into four Sanghas Sena, Nandi, Deva, Simha--a disciple of Guņabhadra. Gangavati-a Jain centre under the Gangas. Rāstrakūța's favour to Jainism. Pp. 296-209. Jaina Practices. Ascetism of Digambara Jains discussed. Pp. 210-214. Doctrine of Jainism-influx of Brahminism-Suppression of Jains under Choļas-Anti-Jainic Western Chālukyas. Kalachuris though Jains could not check Saivism and Lingāyat Schism. Jainism-its prosperity in Mysore. The fall of the Rāshtrakūta, a calamity to Jainism-Gangavādi a Jain centreChola persecution--in Gangavāļi hence decay to Jainism. P. 215. Development of figure and animal sculpture was largely the result of the earlier attempts which the Jains had made in embellishing their temples and Samavasarana structures with sculptures of gods and goddesses. Pp. 222-226. An independent Jain style of architecture embodied in temples --- style of the temples closely allied by the Buddhist. The Jain stupas of the Asokan period-memorials of the dead and not symbols of any religious cult. Existence of Vesara style in Jain temples-fully discussed Chalurmukha or chaumukhas in Jain temples--fully described. The collonaded portico with pointed dome a distinctive Jaina style--creation of 3 celled temples for Tirthankaras rakshas and Yakshinis,The structural planning of the Chālukyas, Kadambas and the Hoysalas-inspired by their Jain faith. Jain style--pressed northword as far as Ellora (in 7th & 8th century) taking Dravidian elements-Indrasabhä and Jagannātha sabhā cave temples : an extension of Jain style in the north. List specimens of early. Jain architecture. Pp. 226-229. Mention of Basadi of wood built by Mādhava on Mandali hill. Avinita and Durvinita patrons of Jainism-Srivijaya his erection of temple. Jain temple constructed at Gudalur by Kandachehi the chief characteristics of a Jain temple--fully described. P. 234. Later Jain temples of the Gangas-followed Dravidian style-geneology and style, fully described. P. 236. Photo--Chauņdarāya Basti. Page #194 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1213 P. 238. Manstambhas-style described portion at the top containing a standing Jina figure. Photo Mānastambha at Śravaņa Beļgoļa. P. 239. Brahmadeva Pillar. P. 241. Betta (literally hills) monuments of the Gangas containing image of G matešvara, the unfinished statue of Bharatešvara (10th century) Colossal statues of Gomata on the Doddabetta-remarkable sepcimen of Ganga sculpture-Jain works found at Karkala and Enur in S. Canara -Kārkala image about 41'5" high erected by Virapāndya on the advice of his guru of Lalitakīrti of Hanasoge. Timmaraja (in 1604) A.D. built Enur statue 35 ft. high under the advice of his guru Chārukirti. Pp. 242-247. Gomata image of Chãmundarāya (10th century) the legendry episode, image fully described. Larger than any of the statues of Rameses in Egypt attended by Yakshas, chauri bearers-dvārapalaka within the enclosureimage of Lakshmi on the doorway figures of Indra and Asta Dikpālakas in the ceiling of the hall-erected by Bala Deva (12th century). P. 252. Children of ordinary men, whether Jain or Brahmin, probably went through a course of secular studies before they parted ways in metaphysics. P. 258. Early Jain Mathas--attempted the dissemination of their religious doctrines among masses-- Jain monastery at Patalika existing in flourishing condition in 7th century, at Perur, Mannie and Talkad were of this type-a medium of education and ethics. P. 271. Präkrit generally adopted by Jains and Brahmins for literary purposes-Jain Achäryas--greatest cultivators of Sanskrit. Jain Sanskrit scholars Samantabhadra and Pajyapāda mentioned. Sabdavatāra-a sanskrit grammar. Sarvärthasiddi, a philosophical work, fainabhişékha a treatise on poetics and prosody and Samadhisataka--works attributed to Pūjyapäda. Aşgasakii-a work of Akalanka and commentary on Samantabhadra's Āpta Mimamsa-Uttara Purana work of Gunabhadra and Kalyāņa Kāraka, a work on medicine by Ugraditya. Pp. 278-79. Ranna the Kannada poet-disciple of Ajitasenāchārya Nemichandra-writer and poet, a disciple of Ajitasenāchārya. Pp. 284-85. Decline of Jainism in south marked the revival of rituals, sacrifices and animal food. P. 290. Jainism-its insistence upon Seela and Vinaya, mention of women taking shelter at the feet of Jinas, Page #195 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1214 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 293. Colourful decorations upon palm leaf, manuscripts a speciality of the Jains. P. 294. Mention of inter-marriage between Brahmins and Jains, mention of the observance of 16 ceremonials by Jains. 1270 H. C. RAY—The Dynastic History of Northern India. Vol. II, Cal , 1936. P. 683. The temple of Jinanāth built during the reign of Dhanga. An inscription of the year 1011 records a number of gifts by a Jain devotee. P. 685. Khajrāho Jain temple inscription carved on the left doorjamb of the temple of Jinanātha at Khajrāho in Sanskrit of v, s. 1011 records a number of gifts made by a Jain named Pahilla. The gift mainly consist of gardens (Vaţikā) mention of Mahārājaguru Vāsavacandra. P. 707. Khajrāho Jain image inscription refers to the sons of the Śresthin Panidhara of the Grahapati family (anvaya)-of (v) s. 1205. P. 707(n) JRAS 1898 pp. 101-02. Horniman Jain image inscription; dedication of the image by Śresthin maula of the Grahapati family of Mandilapur in V.S. 1208. Pp. 707-8. Mahoba Jain image incised on the pedestal of an image of Nemināth of (V) Sam. 1211 in the reign of Madanavarmadeva records the dedication of the image which was made by rūpakara Lakhana. P. 708. Khajrāho Jain image inscription consists of a single line divided into two parts by a bore of (V) S. 1215 of Madanavarma deva - image set up by Sādhu Salhe, the son of Pahilla who was the son of Sreśthin Dedu of Grahapati family adds that the sons of Salhe Mahājana and others always bow down to Sambhavanatha-ends with the name of the engraver Rāmadeva' P. 708. Mahoba Jain image inscription-records the dedication of the image in (V) S. 1220 in the reign of-Madana-Varuna deva. P. 714. Mahoba Jain image inscription--incised on the pedestal of a broken Jaina statue-records the dedication of the image in (V) S. 1214 of Paramardideva. P. 780. Mention of Hemachandra axtolling the Chālukyan king Bhima I of Anahillwäd for having conquered Karna in battle. Page #196 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1215 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 792. Mention of Ramachandra Consoling Chālukyan Kumārapāla. P. 832. Dubkund stone inscription dated v.s. 1135-discovered at Dubkund, 76 miles S.W. of Gwalior. Records the invocation of the Tirthankaras ķşabha--- Svāmin, Säntinātha, Chandraprabha, the Jain (Mahāvira) Gotama and the goddess of scripture (Śru'adevata)-mention Rși and Dahada, two Jain traders on whom Vikram simha conferred the rank of śreșthins in the town Cadobha. Sreșthin Jasuka, their grand father hailed from Jayasapura-account of some Jain sages of Latavagata-gana---inscription composed by Vijaya Kirti. Mention of Sāntisena, father of Vajayakirti holding a sabhà before the king Bhojadeva and defeated the assailants of Ambarasena. Mention of grants made by Vikrama-simba to temples and holymen. P. 363. Kolaven plates to Yasovarman discovered in the village near Kalvan in N.W. of Nasik Dist., Bombay, records that in Muktapali in the Audrahādi Vişaya, the Samanta, the illustrious Ranaka Amma of the Ganga family, convinced by the Svetāmbara ācārya Ammadeva, gave some land at Mahisabuddhika at the holy Tirtha of Kälakaleśvara. Mention of grants to the Jain temple in Svetapada by Vakaigala and other merchants-Repaired and dedicated to Suvr. atadeva-grant written by Sandhivigrahika Jogeśvara--not dated. P. 869. Death of Bhoja in the joint attack on Dhara by Bhima I (Chālukya) and Karna (of Dahala) mentioned in Jain Chronicles. P. 902. The Jain scholar Ašādhara survived Devapāla and finished his Sagara dharmāmsta in v.s. 1296 and his Ana gāra---dharmästa in v. s. 1300. P. 903. Modi stone inscription found in a Jain temple at Modi. Indore, C. I.-fragmentary records of S' 1314 refers to the reign of Jayavarmadeva, P. 923. Mention of Arthuna inscription of 1102 A.D. discovered in a Jain temple. P. 973. Mention of attempts of Hemachandra and other Jain chronoicles to show Jayasimha as a Jain. P. 974. Jain scholars honoured by Jayasimha. P. 976. Mention of Hemachandra's prophesy about Kumārapala's installation as a king. Kumārapāla's accession aided by powerful Jain party in Gujrat. P. 982. Jalor stone inscription incised on a lintel in the 2nd storey of an old mosque at Jalor in Jodhpur state records the construction of a Jain Vihāra containing an image of Pārsvanātha on the fort of Kancanagiri belonging to Jabalipur Page #197 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1216 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY (mo Jalor) in v.s. 1221 by Kumarapala at the request of Hema sūri. Known as Kuvara (Kumāra) Vihāra. P. 982(note). The record belongs to the Naddula (Cahamana) Samarasimaha who effected some repairs to the temple v.s. 1242. P. 993. Jain chronicles assertion of Kumārapāla's adherance to Jainism under the influence of Hemachandra. Pp. 994-999. Description of the Jain teachings given to Kumārapāla by Hemachandra mentioned in Kumārapal-pratibudha of Somaprabha, effect of Jainism on Kumārapāla compelled the latter to withdraw the right of the state to confiscate property of those who died childless. Mention of Kumārapäla's daily activities in the above book allegorical drama Moharaj-parājaya of Yashapāla (c. 1174-77 A.D.) mentioning Kumārapāla's conversion to Jainism - king's activities. Kumārapāla being a Jain did not give up his śavite faith altogether. Mention of Jain chronicles recording stories of Brahman hostility to the influence of Hemachandra at the court-Brahmans often saved from the wrath (f the king by Hemachandra. Rāsomāla-recording story of Saiva saint Sankara Svāmi bringing death of Hemachandra and induces Kumärapäia to massacre Jain monks.--King's inclin. ation towards Jainism probably due to the inquisition of the support of the wealthy Jains. Hemachandra-a Modha Benia by caste and Udayana prime-minister a rich merchant of Srimala Vamša. King's discussion with Hemachandra the question of succession before his death mentioned in Kumārapala-carita of Jayasimha. Hem.achandra's death followed by the revival of the Brahmanical forces in the royal policy. Amrabhata, son of the Jain Prime-minister Udayana--the death in a short civil war. P. 1002. Destruction of the Jain temples by Ajayapāladeva and execution of minister Kapardin by casting him in cauldron, and or the Jain scholar Rāmachandra by placing on a heated plate of copper-mentioned by Merutunga. Civil strife of Udayana the Jain Prime-minister with Ajayapāla mentioned. P. 1014. Abū stone inscriptions--records Tejapāla building the temple of Neminātha on Arbuda-built of white marble having 52 shrines for the Jinas. P. 1016. Mention of the persecution of Jain monks by Bhima II. P. 1020. The account of Jayasimha painted with the well known bias of Jain authors. P. 1027. Mention of the Jain writers after investing Viradhavala and his father Lavaņaprasada with royal titles. Page #198 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1217 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 1028. The Jain authors are at pains to assert that the transference of power from the time of Bhima to Vaghelas was peaceful. Mention of the Jain authors' intention to conceal the usurpation of Viradhavala and his father. Acquisition of Jain patrons in the line of Vyaghrapalla after the violent measures of Ajayapäła. P. 1029. Viradhavala assisted by two Jain ministers Vastupāla and Tejahpāla in consolidating his powers. Vastupäla Tejahpäla at first ministers of Bhima, ministers belonging to Pragvata family. (1-30) Abü stone--inscriptions engraved in the temple of Neminätha at Ābū containing dates 1287 v.s. --records belong to Tejahpäla. P. 1030-(31). Girnar stone inscription on the west doors of the temple of Vastupāla and Tejahpala on Mt. Girnar of v.s. 1288-mentions invocation to Nemi-Jina, the charitable activities of Vastupāla and Tejahpāla and their genealogy (32-36)Girnar-inscriptions in temple No. 31 dated v. s. 1288---records the charitable activities of Vastupāla and Tejahpāla--composed by maladhāri Naracandra Somesvara, Maladhari Narendra, Maladhāri Saracandra and Udayaprabha. P. 1031. (37). Girner stone-inscription of v, s. 1289 incised on the rock to the east of Rajala and Vajela caves and west of the road to Gaumukha records the erection of four Jain temples for the benefit of the donors. Mention of Jain authors leaving acconnts of Vastupāla and Tejahāla viz. : P. 1031(n3). Koti-Kaumudi by Someśvara. Suksta-Samkirtana of Arisimha. Vasanta-viläsa of Balacandra Rammira made mardana of Jayasimha Vastupala-Tejahpala- prasast' by Jayasimha. Sukrta-Kirti-krllobini by Udayaprabha. Vastupala - prabandha Rājasekhara and Narāyaṇānda by Vastupala. P. 1032. Mention of Vastupāla's victory over Cahamana ruler of Lata named Sankhu who is referred by Jain writers. Jain tradition relating Viśāladeva's poisoning his father. P, 1036. Jain writers mention Vastupāla as instrumental in securing the crown for Viśāladeva. Page #199 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1218 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 1039(3). Girnar stone inscription found at the entrance of the mandapa of Ganadhara to the west of the temple of Neminath at (Girnar Hill in Kathiawad) of v.s. 1330-in Sanskrit of the time of Arjunadeva records the grant of the right of engraving inscriptions in the temple of Neminatha and other sacred places on the hill of Girnar to Sutradhara Haripāla, son of Goga of Mevada community by Udayaprabha, other Jina priests and the Pancakula headed by Dhandhå. P. 1081. Bijolia rock-inscription found in the village of Bijolia in Mewar about 100 miles from Udaipur-appear to be a Jain record. Mention of Pärsvanatha and other Jain divinities. Mention of the grant of village Rewa for Pārsvanatha by the last ruler of the Cahamanas viz. Someśvara-of 1170 A.D. P. 1109. Sevadi stone inscription incised on the lintel of Mahavira temple at Sevadi-lines containing the invocation of Tirthankaras Säntinātha, making of annual grant of 8 drammas (v.s. 1172) to Jain Thallaka of Shanderaka-gaccha for the worship of Santinatha in the Khattaka of Baladhipa Yaśodeva by Katakarāja. P. 1112. (1) Nadlai stone inscription engraved on the lintel of two pillars in Sabha mandapa of a Jain temple of Adinatha at Nadlai 8 miles to the N.W. of Desuri in Godwar of v.s. 1189 records a grant of oil made by Rudrapäla and Amṛtapala, sons of M. Rayapala to the (Jain) ascetics in and outside of Naduladagika. (2) Nadlai stone inscription engraved on a pillar in the temple of Neminatha at Nadlai of v,s. 1195-records gifts by the Guhila Thakura Rajadeva for the wor ship of Neminatha. P 1114. Mention of Mahavira temple at Sevadi. P. 1116. Nadol grant (i) found at Nadol of v. Sam. 1218 registers grants to Jain temple by Mahārāja Alhanadeva of Naddula composed by Sridhara. Nadol grant, (ii) found at Nadol States Brahman, Sridhara (Vişnu), and Sankara always free from passioon are famous as Jinas. P. 1131. Jain writers' indication of Udayasimha having a daughter who was married to Virama. Mention of Jain writers' Rajasekhara and Harsa Gani assertion of Dholka Caulukya Viradhavala being prevented from his accession by the intrigue of Vastupala. P. 1169. Mention of Bharpuriya one of Jaina gaccha. P. 1171. Mention of Amra defeating the disputants of Syadvāda (Jaina). P. 1173. Mention of a Jain temple at Ar(Ahar) near Udaipur. Page #200 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1219 P. 1181. Mention of a Jain temple of Mahāvīra at Sanderava about 10 miles NW. of Bali. P. 1193. (3) Chitore stone inscription (ii) engraved on a lintel of a Jain temple records construction of a temple of a śyāma-Pārsvanātha by Jayatalladevi queen of Tejasimha in (v) s. 1335 records a grant of land by Mahārājakula Samarasimhadeva for the construction of a monastery for Pradyamma Sūri. P. 1195. Tirthakalpa work of Jinaprabha records Samarasimha's (Citrakūța) treaty with Ulugh Khan (c. 1299 A.D.). 1271 Benoy Kumar SARKAR-Somadeva, the Jaina political philosopher of the tenth century. Indian culture, vol. ii, Cal., 1936. Pp. 801-804. Somadeva (c. 950) his Nitivakyāmrita--a fine specimen of tenth century Hindu Culture in the realm of social philosophy; he commences his work with solutation to Ganesa in the orthodox Brahmanical manner; his contribution of extraordinary value in the history of human thought----the doctrine of etatisme ; doctrine of ahimsā (non-injury). 1272 B. A. SALETORE-Ancient Karnataka, Vol. I. Poona, 1936. P. 6. Jains not indulging in Korida-juju or cock fight. P. 49. Mention of a record found in Nemišvara basti Varanga the identity of Pandya Pattigadeva Alupa of 11th century. P. 100. Transliteration of the above record cited. P. 119. Mention of an inscription on a stone slab in front of the Nemisvara basti in Varanga giving informations of Alupendra I. P. 121. Mention of grant made to Pārsvanātha recorded in the defaced inscription of the Ganri temple of Prantya in Mudubidre. Pandya chakravartin Kavi Kulasekhara Alupendra---a patron of Jaina. P. 122. Pandita Pāņdya and the Jain priests Maladhārideva, Mādhavacandra, and Prabhācandra mentioned in the damaged stone inscription of the Nemisvara basti in Varanga in the Karkala taluqa. Page #201 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1220 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 138. The 6th stone inscription of the Nemiśvara bastiat Varanga falls within the reign of Soyideva Alupendra but he is not the donor. P. 143. An inscription Ammanavaru basti in Mudubidre records the gift by Alupa to a Jain basti--mention of Jain guru Cărukirti divya. P. 146. Mention of Alupendra deva making some grants to Pārsvanatha of Bidire. P. 153. Stone inscription in the Anantanātha basti at Nelli-Karu in the Kārkala talug mention Sankara-devi, sister of Devannavasa making gifts to the (Anantanātha) basti at Kiyaruvara. Dated $. 1447. P. 154. Sanskrit and Kannada inscription of Anantanātha basti at Nellikaru the hall (mandira) of the caitya (i.e. the Jain basti) caused to be built by Manjana Komna Bhupa. P. 182. An inscription found in Guru basti at Mudubidre dated 1281 A.D. refers to the reign of Hoysala viraballals. P. 216 (n). Kun Pāņdya called Sundara Pāņdya on his being converted from Jainism to śaivism. P. 217 (n). Kun Pandya a contemporary of Jinasenācārya the author of Brhadharivamśa of Ś. 705. P. 223 (n). Mention of a grant made by Rāstrakūta Govinda III to Arakirti disciple of Yijakirti referred to in the copper Arakirti disciple of Vijayakirti referred to in the copper plate grant found at Radaba issued from Mayurakhandi of 812 A.D. P. 236. Mention of Viśvanātha -a Jain guru. Pp. 240-41. Jain inscription at Gurugala basti Hiriyangad inear Karkala, Dated ś. 1256-records a gift of land to the Sāntināthadeva basti in Karekala built by Kumudacandra Bhattāraka Deva, disciple of Bhanukirti Maladhärideva by Vasa Siddala devi queen of Srimatu Bommi Devarasa, and by the elder sister of Lokanātha Devarasa by name Bommala Devi and Somala Devi in the presence of Allappa Adhikāri and other citizens. P. 242. Mention of Vira Jagadevarasa disciple of Viśvanātha Deva and of the Pailana-bali (?), Lokanāthrāja disciple of Cārukirti Panditadeva whose title was Ballala-tāya-citta-camatkāra. Page #202 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1221 P. 243. The Koraga inscription of Vira Bhairava Kşamāpāla records the grant of land at the instance of Vasanta kirti Raula of the Balātkāragaņa for Pārsvanātha in the basti of Bara Kuru built by the king at Coliyakeri in that city. Pp. 282-83. The Mudubidre Guru basti stone inscription records the reign of Vira Balläla Deva III. P. 298. Mention of Rși Mārkandeya instructing Lokāditya Mayūravarma to win the sympathy of the Jains. Kanakavarma-a devout Jain. referred to in Gramapaddhati (10th 344. Jains-a majority in Barakuru century). P. 344 (n) (2). Dispute of the Jains and Brahmins in Barakuru referred to in Gramapanddhati and Ahicchatra Paddhati. Mention of Jain rulers - Arhat and Jinendra in the Puttige version of the former work. P. 353 (n). Aliya santāna. Kuttu (law of inheritance through the females) prevelant among big Jain land owners of the mediaeval times-prevelence of makkaļa santān among other Jains i.e.--Jain Jäti. P. 382 (n). Jain interpretation of Bhattāraka-ruler or priest-inflex of Jainism in Taluva in 9th century A.D. P. 384. Crushing defeat of the Buddhists disputants at the hands of the Jains in Kanchi-7th century A.D. P. 384 (n). Kadirika Buddhist temple-originally a Jain one. Pp. 405-415. Jainism in Taluva--its penetration corroborated in Hindu and Jain traditions fully described, Mudubidre and Karkala two Jain strongholds in Taluva-Their traditional records signify its penetration in 9th century A.D.-existence of Hinduism before Jainism.-Halavaravarga near Mudubidre earliest colony of the Jains of the place. Settlement of the Jains as traders-conversion of the ruler from Hinduism to Jainism. Cautars of Mudabidri are Jains-originally Hindus-Traditional coming of Jains from Arabia mentioned. Humçcha ruler Jinadatta first Jain ruler of Karkala. Page #203 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1222 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Mention of the destruction of 108 Jain bastis by Ballala Raya-Abhinava Cārukirti Pandita title of the Jain pontiffs at Sravana Beļgo!a. Cărukirti Pandita Deva disciple of Municandra Traividya Bhattāraka mentioned in a record dated 1096 A.D.--Another Cärukirti Pandita Deva disciple of Abhaya candra SiddhāntaCārukirti Deva curing Ballala's diseases ---Jainism patronized Taluva rulers fully described-The stone inscriptions at Nalluru Ś. 1218 Ammanavaru basti at Mudubidre 1384 A.D. Somnātha vara temple at Manigarukari in Bara kuru S. 1314, the Koraga record s. 1331, and Barakuru Jain basti inscription of Ś. 1421 - historical milestones of Jain influence in Taluva. P. 406 (n). bhakasi. Jain bastis at Hattiangadi-nearly six miles north of Kum P. 415 (n). Śrikīrti Bhattāraka--Jain teacher represented on the bottom rows of the panel in the Dharmadhikar basti at Karkala. They are given in the following order (1) Kumudacandra Bhattāraka. (2) Hemacandra Bhattāraka. (3) Sri Cārukirti Pandita Deva (4) Srutamuni. (5) Dharmabhūşaņa Bhattāraka (6) Pūjyapādasvāmi. (7) Vimala Süri Bhattāraka. (8) Sri Kirti Bhattāraka. (9) Siddhānta Deva. (10) Cărukirti Pandita Deva. (11) Mahäkirti Deva Ravula and Narendra Kīrti Deva. P. 465. Jains occupying high position in Taluva society. P. 467. Jains----settis or the heads of the trade guilds of Taluva. 1273 Jaina Svetāmbara Sabhā.-- A short History of the Terapanthi sect Svetämbar Jains and its Tenets. Calcutta, 1937. A history of the Terapanthi sect. 1274 Arthur R. Slater-Departed Glory. London, 1937. P. 38. The Tower of Fame in Chitor, a Jain monument, dating from the 9th century A.D. P. 42. Rock-hewn figure of Ādinātha in Gwalior 60 feet high. P. 45. Destruction of 720 Jain temple by Bitti Deva, a Hoysala ruler of Mysore. Page #204 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1223 1275 R. S. SATYASRAY.--Studies in Rajput History. Vol. I. Calcutta, 1937. P. 17. Old Rajput kings not Hindus many devoted to Buddhism and Jainism, Kumārapāla a renowned Jaina -mention of royal patronage over Jain monks-- Jain kings showing toleration to Hindu gods and temples. P. 19. Palțavalivachana-a Jain work mentioned as a source of tracing the origin of the Chālukyas. P. 78. When the Chalukyas came out of the Jain influence, the priestly class probably named their gotra according to the family of their 'Guru'. P. 99. Jainism--rose to prominence during the rise of Chālukyas-10th century. P. 107. Kumārapäla-having regard to Siva mentioned in the Prabandha Chintamani of Merutunga. P. 110. Seizure of Lala by Chālukyas referred to in Prabandha Chintāmaņi of Merutunga, Kirtikaumudi of Someśvara and Sukrita-Sankarttana, a poem by Jain chronider Arasimha. P. 118. Granting of a village to a Jain sage for the use of a Jaina temple by Govinda III, the Rāstrakuta king at the request of Chakirāja of the Ganga family, the maternal uncle of Vimalāditya mentioned in a Mysore inscription (e.f. BHANDARKAR R. G. Early History of the Dekkan p. 137). P. 124. Kumārapāla not loved by Siddharāja because of the former's Jain inclinations. P. 125. Kumārapala favoured the Jains probably more out of policy than out of devotion P. 126. Artificiality of devotion of Bhima towards the Jains Vaghelas though Saivas utilized the Jain wealthy merchants.-- Vastupāla and Tejahpäla two able Jain ministers of Bhima Deva's court. P. 133. Conflict of Viśāladeva with Virama for the throne of Dholakapuri in Jaina chronicles. Heinous Jaina tradition of Viśāladeva poisoning his father and brother with the help of Vastupāla---unfounded. Page #205 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1224 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1276 H. G. RAWLINSON.-India-a short cultural History. London, 1937. Plates. facing page. 218. Jain temple Mt. Ābū. Illustration page-161. Colossal statue of Gomateśvara Sravaņa Belgola, Mysore. Pp. 42-45. Mahāvira born in Sänkhya atmosphere-Jainism more extreme than Buddhism-consideration of suicide under certain circumstances justifiable by Jains---All nature animate to Jains-Jainism under royal patronage rose to importance. Mahāvira born in 599 B.C. His mother of Lichchhavi clan. Kinsfolk worshipping Pārsva-Mahāvīra's renunciation and the preachings of new doctrineries-- hindered by Gosāla, death in 527 B.C. at Pāwā near Rājagriha-Division of Jain church into Svetämbara and Digambaras-Prākrit the language of the Jain scriptures-regorous nature of Jain tenents prevented it from being a mass religion-Jains a wealthy community-- Jains regard themselves as reformed Hindu sect. Employment of Brahmins for the performance of their domestic ceremonies. P. 43 (n). Particles of earth, fire, water and air, having life mentioned in the Jain Achāranga Sutta. P. 59. Mention of Alexander coming over a number of Digambara Jain ascetics. One whom the Greeks called Kalanos (Kalyāņa) persuaded to accompany Alexander to Babylon. P. 65. Ajātaśatru--patron of Jain sect. P. 72. No specific mention of Buddhists or Jains in the records of Megasthenes. P. 75. Chandragupta's conversion to Jainism and his death at Sravanabelgoļa in Mysore. P. 77. Asoka a patron of Jains. Dedication of Barabar hill caves to Ajivikas sect founded by Gosala, the rival of Mahāvīra. P. 120. Nirgranthas-recipients of royal gifts recorded in Hiuentsang. P. 123. Jainism though prospered under royal patronage--was never a religion of the masses. P. 160. Gangas zealous patrons of Jainism--colossal image of Gomateśvara, Sravanabe!goļa -erected by a minister of Ganga king in 984 A.D). P. 164. Hoysalas-Originally Jains--their change of faith to orthodox Hinduism-extermination of Jainism by Hinduism. Page #206 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1225 P. 171. Cave xxxi Ellora i.e. Indrasabha and Jagannatha Sabhä, a group of Jain shrines with nude figures of Pārsvanātha and Mahāvira. The Jain missioneries finding their way to S. India during the P. 178. Pāņdyan rule. P. 180. Mention of the inclusion of a Jain or Buddhist monk named Sarmanochegas (Šramaņāchārya) in the Pāndyan embassy to the emperor. Augustus in 25 B.C. Mention of the existence of several Jain temples during Hiuen Tsang's visit to Pāndya king. Conversion of a jain king Nedumaran to Saivism and his persecution of 8,000 Jains. 7th century A.D. P. 181. Mention of the temple of Nirgrantha (Jain) heretics in the Chola kingdom -recorded in Hiuen Tsang's accounts. P. 189. Influence of Jainism in the early Tamil poetry. Jainism reached south in 4th century B.C. Rise of Sankara Acharya and the expulsion of Jainism in the south in 9th century A.D. P. 189 (n) Sravana Belgoļa, Mysore seat of Jain Pontiff of southern India. P. 194. Mahendravarman (A.D. 600-625) a Jain turned himself to Hinduism -- conversion of a Jain temple to Siva by Mahendra Verman-Existence of Jain, Buddhist and Hindu sects in south-7th century A.D. Pp. 203-4. Anhilvād old capital of Gujrat chronicled in Jain chroniclesmention of Jain temples at Anhilvād-Siddharāja (1094-1143) of Gujrat a patron of Jain-presence of Hemachandra Jain scholar, royal pandit and annalist in the court of Siddharāja. Jainism popular among modern merchant class of Gujrat. P. 215. No mention of Jainism in Al-Biruni. Pp. 217-218. Jain temples of Mt. Abū Girnar and Satruñjaya highest expression of mediaeval Hindu architecture. Temples of Dilwara constructed in 1032-1232 A.D. Pendant of the centre dome defies description---satruñjaya-fully described. P. 309. Invitation of Jains to the theological discussions of Akbar. P. 315. Observances of Din Ilahi of Akbar chiefly borrowed from Jainism and Hinduism. Page #207 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1226 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1277 K. A. Nilakanta Sastri.--The Colas--Vol. II (Part I). Madras, 1937. P. 156. The Ganga Chieftain of Kolar, Amarābharana Siyaganga (Süra Nāyaka), a feudatory of Kulottunga III (A.D. 1163-1216), was the patron of the Tamil grammarian Pavanandi, a Jain writer, whose Nannul has practically displaced all other manuals of Tamil granmar. : P. 167. The ancient line of Adigaimans of Tagadur--the Samantan Adiyaman; an inscription from Tirumalai says that he renovated the images of a Yakşa and Yakşi near the Jain settlement on the Tirumalai hill originally set up by the Cera king Elini, one of his ancestors (S.I.I.I, 75, E.I.VI, Pp. 331-3). P. 231. Rajendra I was a Saiva; he destroyed richly endowed Jain bastis in the enemy country (Calukya). The amount of booty that fell into the hands of the Colas as a result of foreign war must have been enormous. P. 259 & 532. Sekkilar, a Saiva, in his purāņa aimed to please and entertain the contemporary Cola monarch better than the vulgar works of heretical Jains. P. 279. About A.D. 1227, the village of Sattamangalam had two assemblies, one of them made up of the residents of the Hindu devadana part of the village, and the other of persons in the Jaina Palliccandam; both assemblies were called ür and they cooperated in setting apart some of the village land for projects of public utility (tank, garden, etc.)-466 of 1912. P. 338. From a record of the time of Räjarāja I, from Tiruppanmalai in the North Arcot Dist. (19 of 1890. E.I. IV. Pp. 137-140), it appears that the village Kurakampadi was an iraiyili-pallic-candam in the enjoyment (bhogam) of the Jaina temple in Tiruppanamalai. The Iļāda Chieftains ruling in the area, turned the Karpūravilai from the temple, and as a result the temple did not have enough for its expenses; the wife of the Ilada Chieftain Vira Sola drew his attention to this fact when they went together to worship in the temple, and he agreed thenceforth to cease collecting the Karpura-vilai, and another cess, called anniyayavaya-danda-irai, of which the exact nature is by no means certain. P. 464. The mathas, the Jains pallis and the vihara were centres of learning which often owned large libraries of manuscript literature which increased in volume and diversified from generation to generation. Page #208 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1227 P. 482. As a religious institution, the South Indian Temple reaches back to a remote antiquity, and the existence of numerous temples (Kottamas) of Brahmanical, Buddhist and Jain deities is fully attested by the Sangam literature. Pp. 485-86. The religious temper of the period, particularly in the first half of it, was by no means narrow or sectarian. Not only did the kings as a rule tolerate religions and sects other than their own, but they often patronised all persuations in equal measure. Rājarāja's sister Kundavai built three temples, one to Vişnu, another to Śiva and a third to Jaina, all in the same place (Dadapuram and her gifts to all these shrines are found recorded in the same inscription (8 of 1919). P. 489. Kāñci. The unique position of Kāñcīpuram; one of the capital cities of the Coļa empire is very instructive in regard to the mutual relations of the rival religious systems which were competing for the royal patronage and popular favour. This city seems to have comprised three principal sections, each consecrated to a particular faith and the institutions ministering to it.---Jina-Kāñchi, popuJarly known as Tirupparuttikkunram, undoubtedly larger and more prosperous and in more direct and frequent communication with Kāñcipuram proper in the days of the Coļa empire than at the present day. Pp. 505-508. Jainism. By the side of Hinduism, Jainism had a fair following and enjoyed the patronage of the princes and people. The pallicandam, the land of the palli (Jain temple), was a recognised category of tax-free land known to the revenue accounts of the time. Tamil literature was greatly enriched by the Jain authors. Sivakasindamani, a secular Kavya in Tamil by a Jaina author. Vestiges of Jainism in the Travancore country of the tenth to the thirteenth centuries (TAS, ii, Pp. 125 ff.). Jain centres in the Tamil districts. Paļļicandam village Kadaikkottur in the reign of Parāntaka (SUI. ii, 76, vv. 27-8). A large Jain monastery at Veļāl (N. Arcot SII. iii, 92) in about A). 885. At Sirramur (S. Arcot) temple of Pārsvanātha (201 of 1902). Tirakkol (N. Arcot, 277 of 1916); Sendalai (7 of 1899) Jinagiripalli and Anandamangalam, Chingleput dist. (430 of 1922, A. D. 945). Tiruppanmalai and Viläppäkkam (53 of 1900 of A.D. 945) Tirunarungondai, South Arcot (385 of 1929); Tirumalai near Polur, N. Arcot, and Tirumalavādi in Trichinopoly dist. (S.T.I. i, 67 and 68); Tirupparuttikkunram (Kanchipuram - 43 of 1890 and 381-382 of 1929); Kuhar, Tanjore, 288 of 1917; Maruttụvakkudi, Tanjore, 392 of 1907; all these places had Jain temples. P. 509. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, Buddhism was less popular in the Tamil country than Jainism and in the religious controversies of the precedingt age, Buddhism suffered more damage and lost its hold on the people of the country more completely than Jainism. Many similarities in the worship of the three sects. Page #209 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 515. Perungadai or Udayanan Kadai-an important Tamil version of the Bṛhatkatha by Kongu velir, the vel (chieftain) of Kongu, a native of Mangai (Vijayamangalam in the Erode Taluq of the Coimbatore dist.), composed in the third. century A.D. or earlier (J.R.A.S.; 1906 pp. 689-92) the peom rightly takes a high rank among the literary classics of the Tamil world. 1228 Pp. 516-18. Sindamani-The Sivakalindamani of the Jain poet Tiruttakkadeva counted as the greatest among the Mahakaryas of Tamil literature; composed about the tenth century. Life story of Jivaka. P. 527. Kambam Ramayana-the greatest epic in Tamil literature was influenced by Sivaka-Sindāmaṇī. Pp. 543-45. The Yapparungalam and Yapparungalakkarigai of Amitasågar, a Jain ascetic, composed towards the close of the tenth century; he was disciple of Gunasagara. The Karigai of Amitasågar attained great celebrity and the place where the work was composed came to be known as Karigai-Kulattur (534 and 535 of 1921; E.I. XVIII, No. 8). Yapparungalam is a treatise on prosody of which the Karigai is an abridgement. P. 547. The Neminadam of Guṇavirapandita, treating of the orthographs and parts of speech of the Tamil language-it takes its name from the Tirthankara Neminatha of South Mylapore; author and pupil of Vaccanandi (Vajranandi) of Kalandai, another work Kalandai; of Gunavira on prosody is Venbäppattiyal also Vaccanandi-malai, the garland of Vaccanandi, after his guru composed in the reign of Kulottunga III. P. 548. Nannul-by Pavanandi a Jain author; a grammar, composed in the reign of Kulottunga III. 1278 D. C. GANGULY.-The Eastern Calukyas, Benaras, 1937. P. 35. (v). The Musinikunda plates, Saka 684.-register the grant of the village Musinikunda in the Tonka-Natavādi-Visaya, to the Jain temple Naḍumbivasti at Bijavada (built by?) Ayyana-Mahadevi, queen of Kubja-Visnuvardhana (III)-Mahārāja. The executor of the grant was the queen herself The inscription was issued by Visnuvardhana Mahārāja, son of Mangi-Yuvaraja, in Saka 684-762 A.D. Bejvada is the modern Bejwada. Nätavadi corresponds to the modern Nandigama, in the Kistna district, Page #210 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1229 Pp. 83-84. Amma II, Vijayaditya VI, Rājamahendra, Tribhuvanāñkusa, Samastabhuvanarāya (A.D. 945-970). (vii) The inscription registers that the king at the request of the lady named Camekamba of the Pattavardhini family, made a gift of the village of Kalacumbarru, in the Attilinadu-Visaya, for meeting the expenses of the repair of a Jain temple called Sarvalokāśraya-Jinavallabha. The village, granted, was bounded by Aruvilli, Kuyrukolanu, Yidiyūru, Yullikodamandru. Here Attilinandu is identical with the modern town of Attili in the Tanuka tāluq of the Godavari district. Kalacumbarru is the modern Kunsamurroo, three miles south-west from Attili. Aruvilli is the modern village of Etdooroo, one and a half mile west-north-west from Kunsamurroo. (viii) The Maliyāpūndi grant (E.I. Vol. IX. P. 47). The plates were discovered in the Rāmalingeśvarasvāmi temple at Madanur, a village, about ten miles from Ongole, in the Nellore district, it records that the king, at the request of his subordinate Durgarāja, made a gift of the village of Maliyapundi, in the Kammanandu-Visaya, for the maintenance of a Jain temple on the south of Dharmapuri. The boundaries of the hamlet are Manjunyuri, Yinimiti, Kalvakuru, and Dharmavuramu. It also refers to the villages of Malkaparru and Kalvakuru. Dharmaurramu, is the Telegu form of Dharmapuri. This and Kalvakuru are now in the Addanki Division of the Ongole taluq. This part of Ongole taluq was anciently known as Karmarāstra Visaya. P. 86.(xii) The Masulipatam grant (South Indian Epi. 1909, p. 109). The inscription registers that the king made a gift of some Jain temples at Vijayavatika i.e. Bezwada. P. 95. Vimalāditya (1011-1018 A.D.). (ii) Ramatirtham inscription (South Ind. Epi. 1918, p. 133). The inscription is on the wall of the Durgapanca cave in the hill at the village of Rāmatirtham, in the Vizagapatam district. It reports that Muni Trikālayogi Siddhāntadeva, a teacher of Desigana school of Jainism, and a spiritual teacher of the king Vişnuvardhana (Vimalāditya), paid his reverence to the holy place of Rāmakonda, Ramakonda is identical with Rāmatirtham. Pp. 167-68-Religion. During 616-1170 A.D. period, all the three religions Brahmanism, Jainism and Buddhism flourished in the kingdom Vengi. The Eastern Calukya Kings were patrons of Jainism. Ayyana-Mahadevi, the queen of Kubja-Vişnuvardhana, granted a village to the Jain temple Nadumbi-Vasti at Bezwada through the Jain teacher Kalibhadrācārya of the Kāvururi-gana and the Sanghānvaya (South Ind. Ep. 1917, P. 116). Amma II, made some grants to two Page #211 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Jain temples at Bezwada (Inscriptions of the Madras Presidency, Kistna, 54). He granted a village for meeting the expenses of the repair of a dining hall of a Jain temple called Sarvalokasrya Jinabhavana At that time the superintendent of the temple was Arahanandin of the Valaharigana and Adḍakali gaccha. Arahanandin was the disciple of Ayyapati, who was the disciple of Sakalacandrasiddhänta, who was well versed in Siddhanta writings (Epi. Ind. Vol. VII. p. 191). Jinnandin was the earliest known member of another line of Jain teachers. He belonged to the Nandigaccha, and was the chief lord of the Kotimaduva (?) gana, attached to Yapaniya-Samgha. His disciple was Divākara. Diväkara's disciple was Śrimandiradeva, was the superintendent of the Katakabharaṇa-Jinälaya, to the south of Dharmapuri, modern Dharmavaram, in the Ongole taluk of the Guntur district. This temple of Jina was built by Durgaraja of the Pattavardhini family, an officer under Amma II. Durgaraja was a contemporary of Srimandiradeva. Amma II, at the request of Durgaraja, granted a village for the maintenance of temple (E.I. Vol. IX. P. 56). The king Vimaladitya embraced Jainism, Trikalayogi-Siddhantadeva called also Trikalayogi-Munindra, an acarya of the Desigana school, was his guru (South Ind. Epi. 1918, p. 133). 1230 Literature P. 174. Jain teacher Mahaviracārya's mathematical treatise in Sanskrit was versified into Telugu by Pavaluri Mallanna, a Niyogi Brahman (A D. 1060-1070) (History of Telugu literature, by P. Chenchiah and Raja N. Bhujanga Rao Bahadur). Architecture.-Durgaraja, an officer under Amma II, built a temple of Jina named Katakabharana to the south of Dharmapuri (Ep. Ind. Vol. IX. P. 56). 1279 D. B. DISKALKAR-Reference to Kushan Period (from Circa 1st century to the 3rd. cent. A.D.)-Large majority of sculptures pertain to Buddhism and Jainism (ABORI. Vol. XVIII; 1937) P. 169. 1280 B. A. SALETORE-Internal Security in the Vijayanagar Empire, (Ind. Cul. Vol. IV. 1937-38 Calcutta). P. 472. Riots and local risings; An inscription at Udri dated A.D. 1380 refers to the reign of King Harihara Raya II, when Mädhava Raya was placed over the Konkana Country as viceroy, and riot there-the bravest person who quelled the rising was Baicapa (a Jain official) one of the most celebrated men in the City of Uddhare. Page #212 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1231 P. 474. The City of Banavase, the scene of a serious affray in A.D. 1442 when the great Jain General Irugappa Odeyar was ruling over Gove, as the minister of the emperor Deva Rāya II. 1281 in South India. (Ind. Cui. Vol. IV. K. P. JAIN—The Antiquity of Jainism 1937-38) Calcutta Pp. 512-16. Miscellaneous : Jainism reached south India long before Bhadrabāhu. It is wrong to assume and begin the history of South Indian Jainism with the great Jain migration of Mauryan period. 1282 Bata Krishna Guosh - The Cultural Heritage of India. (Ramkrishna Centenary Memorial Vols. 1-III, Calcutta, 1937) Ind. Cul. Vol. IV. 1937-38, Calcutta. P. 378. A Review --Jainism represented by two articles by Appaswami CHAKRAVARTY and Hiralal Jain respectively. 1283 B. A. SALETORE. --Mediaeval Jainism, with special reference to the Vijayanagara Empire. 426 Pp. Bombay, 1938. Taking the events that led to the rise and spread of Jainism in early days in Southern and Western India as his background, points out the share of Jains in the Upbuilding and continuance of the Vijayanagar culture. 1284 Stein KONOW-Dr. Banerji on Sakas and Kusans. (Ins. His. Qu. vol. xiv. Calcutta, 1938). P. 138. Nahapāna's son-in-law Rşabhadatta--from this supposed náme it is inferred that he was a Jain ; the inference not supported by inscriptions. P. 142. Second Saka conquest mentioned in the Kalakācārya-kathanaka and establishment of the era in Vikrama years 135 elapsed. P. 143. Nahpāna (i.e. Naravāhana in Jinasena's Harivamsapurana) and his date. Page #213 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1232 TAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1285 H. N. SINGHA-Sovereignity in Ancient Indian Polity'. London, 1938. P. 81. Buddhism and Jainism born out of Samkhya. P. 84. Denial of the authority of Vedas in Buddhism and Jainism. P. 86. Rise of Buddhism and Jainism-a challenge to Brahmanism. P. 88. Buddha and Mahāvira's sought the adherence of kings to their course. P. 122. Buddhism and Jainism--helped to facilitate the work of monarchy to rise as a dominant institution of the society. P. 135. Royal patronage received by Jainism and Buddhism-an expression of gaining grounds against rival creeds. Pp. 200-202. Position of Jains in the Asokan rule fully described. P. 229. A fair portion of the people of Kalinga was Jains during Khāravela's time--Jains-given not a praise-worthy descent in Mahabharata. P. 272. In Kalinga the various sects were numerous, the majority being Nirgranthas--Hiuentsang, P. 275. Existence of affinity between Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism in ancient India, 1286 M.S. COMMISSARIAT -- A history of Gujarat Vol. I. Calcutta, 1938. P. Lvl. Duyāshraya written by Hemachandra and completed by another Jain monk in 1256 A.D.--narrates the history of the dynasty of Mālrāj Chālukya Solanki. Prabandha-Cintamani completed at Vardhamānapural (Wadhwan) in A.D1305 by Merutunga. P. LXII. Vimalasha--general of Bhimdev I and dandapati or governor of Ābū, erected in 1032, the Delwara marble shrine on Ābü, Page #214 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1233 P. LXVIII. Religious controversies between the Brahman and the Jains in the reign of Siddharaj of Gujarat (1094-1143), and also between the Digambara and Svetämbars in 1124; Kumud Chandra a Jain Acharya of Karnatak championed the cause of the Digambaras-he was supposed by Hemachandra. Digambaras defeated and expelled from the city (Prabandha-chintamani, Pp. 97-104) Siddharaj like his ancestors was a Shaiva though the Jains try to show him as a Jain; the opening verses of all the works written by Hemachandra during the reign of Siddharaj contain no special praise of Jain deities. Moreover, the order by which Siddharaj forbade the use of banners on Jain temples shows the reverse of a leaning to Jainism. Siddharaj patronised men of letters and was tolerant towards the Jains. P. LXX. Kumärpäl (1143-74) was persecuted by Siddharaj but was helped by Hemachandra Acharya-Udayana, the great minister and general of Kumārpāl; Udayana's son Amrabhata built stone steps up the west face of Mount Girnar in Kathiawar, in A.D 1166. P. LXXIII. Kumarpal rebuilt the temple of Somnath under the advice of Hemachandra. Inscription commemorating this restoration in 1169 A.D. the temple of Bhadrakali at Prabhas Paṭan. P. LXXV. Career of Hemachandra the Acharya-his parents were Modh Vania and lived at Dhandhuka-Devächärya brought him to the Jain convent at Karnavati-author of many Sanskrit and Prakrit works Kumarpal converted to Jain faith by him-the royal proselyte prohibited throughout the eighteen regions of Gujrat the destruction of life in any form whatever-Hemacharya died in 1172 in his eighty fourth year. P. LXXVIII. During the reign of Virdhaval Vaghela (the ruler of Dholka) his ministers the two brothers Vastupal and Tejpal, employed their fabulous wealth. in adorning the summits of Abu, Girnar and Shatruñjaya with magnificent temples in the thirteenth century A.D. Photo (plate) of Marble ceiling in the temple of Neminath built in 1231 by Tejpal at Abů (from the glories of Hindustan by Dr. Alfred NAVRATH). Pp. Lxxlx-Lxxxi. The Delvada temples at Abu (4,000 feet above the platun's level) a master plece of the sculpture's art surpassing almost every other building in India in the richness and delicacy of its carving. A Kinloch FORBES on these temples-in his Rasmala, Col. James Tid's impressions in his Travel in Western India. Plates-Jain temples in the fort of Mount Girnar near Junagadh (from Col. Tod's travels in India. Page #215 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1234 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. LXXXI. The temple of Vastupāl and Tejpāl at Girnar, 1232-contains an inscription by the poet Someshwar, the author of Kirtimanmudi and priest of Virdhawal Vaghela, stating how it was built. The number of Jain temples erected on Girnar and palitana prior to the fifteenth century is extremely small, great majority built after that period in their zeal to 'restore and to beautify the temples dating from the thirteenth century or earlier, the Jains have inadvertently resorted to measures little short of Vandalism--the old tripple temple at Girnar has been painted in hideous colours, destroying the beauty of its sculptured ceilings, domes renovated externally with a coating of broken china, and the inscription slabs covered with white wash. Pp. Lxxxii-Lxxxlv. Shatrunjaya - the hill (2,000 ft. above the level of the plains) of Palitana-covered with palatial temples-A. K. FORBES's account in his Rasmala. Influence of the Jain style on the later architecture of Gujarat. Pp. 54 and 85. The small structure which stands on the crest of one of the two highest peaks of Idargadh is still known as Ranmal's Choki or guardroom--this was originally an elegant little Jain temple and of great antiquity which was perhaps used for military purposes by the Rajput rulers of Idar in the fourteenth and subsequent centuries. Idar is about 64 miles north-east of Ahmedabad. There are views all round the central chamber for the Tirthankaras of the Jain pantheon. P. 61. Ahmedabad styled Shrinagar and Räjnagar in Hindu and Jain writings and inscriptions. Karnavati, like modern Ahmedabad, was also a great centre of Jain worship-Devasüri resided here ; Kumudchandra had to go to Karnavati when he went to see Devasūri. Karnavati and Ahmedabad situated on adjoining sites on the banks of the Sabarmati. P. 66. Jain mosque of Broach on the Narhada, buiit on the site of the Jain shrines-the marble door leading from the portico into the court of the mosque is evidently bodily introduced from some Jain temples, P. 86. The temples of the Digambar and Svetāmbar Jains on the hill both well represented in the population of the Idar town-two beautiful ancient temples on the plateau of the hill Shambhavanātha's (3rd Tirthankar) temple belongs to the Digambaras-Shāntinātha's temple of Svetāmbaras; Pilgrims passing through Idar on their way to the Jain tirtha at Kesarianāth to Udaipur, after devotion at these Jain temples on the hill of Idargarh. P. 107. The oldest Muhammadan monument in Ahmedabad is Ahmad Shah's mosque (A.D. 1414)--most of its building materials borrowed from some Hindu or Jain temples. Page #216 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1235 .: P. 110. The Jain Masjid of Ahmedabad-at the threshold of the central entrance of it, there is embedded in the floor a large slab of black marble--an inverted plinth of a Jain image imported from some Jain temple (Jas. BURGESS - The Muhammadan Architecture of Ahmedabad, Pl. I, Pp. 30-35). P. 113. From the time when Vimal Sha, the Jain minister of the Solanki Rāja Bhim Deva I, erected his separate temple on Abū in 1032 to the final conquest of Gujarat by the Muslims at the end of the thirteenth century, the wealthy Jain community exercised a powerful influence on the architecture of Western Indiathe Saracen architecture of Ahmedabad is essentially derived from the Jain forms which it replaced. P. 114. Spoilation of Hindu cities and temples for materials--the spoilation which began under the Nazims of the Delhi Sultans during the fourteenth century continued apace. When Ahmad Shah established his new capital near the city of Asawal he found in the old Hindu towns of North Gujarat sufficient material for his purpose. In the Jain masjid, in the Sultan's private mosque in the Bhadra, and in several of the earlier masjids of the city (Ah nedabad) pillars and ceilings are to be found that have been transferred bodily from the Jain temples, and many a delicately sculptured work of art scornfully cast into walls and foundations, has been brought to light during the last fifty years. P. 169. The city of Junagadh is dominated at its northern angle by the ancient fortification know as Uparkot (or Citadel)-the large mosque which stands on the crest of the Uparkot--the large number of free-standing columns in this mosque were obtained by the spoilation of same of the beautiful Jain temples of old which adorned the brow of the sacred Girnar. P. 191. Pavagadh (Pavakgadh or the fire-hill) in Gujrāt-a hill fortressamong other antiquities on the ‘Mauliya' plateau, on the east are some small but finely carved Jain temples of considerable antiquity. P. 243. During 1411-1514. A period of growth and evolution, the style of architecture assumed two distinct forms; the one a combination of Jain' and Sarcenic elements; the other almost wholly Jain' made up a constructive form 'invented specially for the arch-heating Hindus'--the minarets and arched windows being successfully combined with the flat Hindu aisles. Stage in the evolution of Ahmedabad architecture 1411-1514. P. 255. Durate BARBOSA's (a Portuguese who arrived in Gujarat about 1515) account of Gujarat-his account of the manners and custorns of the Jains-Jain doctrine of ahimsā-Jains do not eat anything subject to death--they slay nothing, they are not willing to see the slaughter of any animal. If the king or governor of the land Page #217 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1236 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY has any man condemned to death, for any crime which he has committed, they (Jains) gather themselves together and buy him from justice, if they are willing to see him, that he may not die. (The book of Duarti BARBOSA, ed. by M. Longworth Dames, Haklyt Society I. 111-12). P. 264. The old town of Rander on the north bank of the river Tapti, was in the first quarter in the 16th century the principal commercial centre south of Broach-according to tradition, some time during the thirteenth century (about 1225) the Navayats (Araha from Kupa) succeeded in overpowering the Jain population of Rander and became its rulers. The term navayats is explained as meaning new comers, from the Sanskrit nava-āyat.). P. 333. Chitor Fort (capital of Rajput rulers of Mewar till 1567 when the seat of Government was around to Udaipur). One of the most ancient buildings in the fort is the Kirli Stambh, or 'tower of fame' erected in the twelfth or thirteenth century and dedicated to Ādināth, the first of the Jain Tirthankaras. 1287 V. R. Ramachandra DIKSHITAR-Origin and Early History of Caityas, (I.H.Q. Vol. XIV, Calcutta, 1938). P. 448. The Caityas are a pre-Buddhist institution. Cailyas were known also as devakula or devāyatana, and devavāsa. From that of the shrine the application of caitya was extended to a bimba or deity in the shrine (Pampa's, Adipuräņam, X. St. 241 vacana) (Mysore Oriental Library). The caitya was adopted as the name of their sacred shrines, whether they contained the images of the Buddha or Jina or their relics. 1288 (a) Political Theories. Narayan Ch.BANERJEE-Development of Hindu Polity and Calcutta, 1938. Book V. Pp. 249-50. Information of Licchavis. Curious Government of the Licchavis can be traced in Jaina book Niryāvali-sutta ; on the death of Mahāvira, eighteen confederate kings of Kāsi and Kosala honoured him. Page #218 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1288 (b) M. S. COMMISSARIAT-A History of Gujrat. London, 1938. Plates-Lxxix. Carved marble ceiling in the temple of Neminath built by Tejpal at Mt Abů. 1237 P. Lxxxi. Jain temples in the fort of Mt. Girnar near Junagadh. ! P. LVI. Diyashraya-a work of Hemachandra-of 12th century A.D.-The book intended to teach the construction of Sanskrit language and to narrate the dynastic history of Mulraj. P. Lxiv. Jain Acharya Hemachandra of Shrimodh parentage. P. Lxviii. Religious controversies between Brahmans and Jains. An impor tant feature during the reign of Siddharaj-mention of conferences held for the decisions of factions of Svetambara and Digambara Jains. Mention of Siddharaj presiding over such a conference to which Kumudachandra a Jain Acharya from Karnatak championed the cause of Digambaras, 1124 A.D.-Kumuda chandra opposed by Hemachandra and Logician Acharya Devasuri of Karnavati-Defeat of the Digambaras and their expulsion from the city. Siddhraj-a Shaiva but patronised Jains. P. Lxx. Kumarapala frequently befriended by Jain Acharya Hemachandra. P. Lxxiii-Kumarapala rebuilding the Shaivite temple of Somänäth under the advice of Acharya Hemachandra, referred to in Prabandha-Chintamani. 12 P. lxxxi. Temple of Neminatha at Mt. Girnar, Kathiawar erected in A D. 1232. Contains an inscription by the poet Someshwar the author of Ktrti-Kaumudi and family priest of Virdhawala Vaghela stating how the temple was built. Jain temples located at Girnar and Palitana before 16th century are extremely small and that the great majority of those to be seen today have been built after that period many being of comparatively modern date. Jains have inadvertently resorted to measures which have been characterised by ardent antiquarians as little short of Vandalism e.g. the Triple temple of Vastupal Tejpal on Mt. Girnar has been painted all over in hideous colours destroying the beauty of its sculptured ceilings while its domes have been renovated externally with a coating of broken china and the ancient inscription slabs covered the whitewash-The citadal of Junagadh and the hill of Girnar important views of historical and archaeological interest. A Page #219 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1258 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 61. Ahmedabad generally been styled Shrinagar and Rājnagar in Hindu and Jain writings and inscriptions-Karnavati-an important Jain centre-residence of Jain Achārya Devasūri. Mention of Kumudachandra meeting Devasūri at Karnavati. Hemachandra-Jain scholar brought up in the house of the minister of local governor Udayana of the city. Pp. 85-86. Ruined Jain temple at Idargarh-nichas all around the central chamber for Tirthankaras--Two beautiful Jain temples of very ancient period erected on the plateau of the hill near Idar town. Smaller belonged to the Digambaras and dedicated to Shambhavanāthji, the 3rd Tirthankara. Other dedicated to Shantināthji-temples fully described. Mention of Jain tirtha at Kesharināth in Udaipur, P. 113. Jains having powerful influence over architecture in Western India since 11th century A.D. Hence it is that in the history of Indian Art the monuments of this early period in Gujrat are sometimes designated as belonging to the Jain or the western Hindu style. Pp. 255-57. Jain doctrine of Ahimsā as referred to in the account of Duarte BARBOSA mentioned. 1289 Ramesh Chandra MAJUMDAR- A Brief history of India. Dacca, 1938. Pp. 17-19. Pārsvanātha and Mahāvīra-resemblances and differences between Buddhism and Jainism—their later history. P. 48. Three thousand Jains attended king Harsha's assembly. P. 49. King Harsha's charity towards the Jains. 1290 H. G. RAWLISON- A concise History of the Indian People. Oxford, 1938. Pp. 27-30. Rise and teachings of Jainism. P. 77. King Harsha's toleration of Jainism. P. 91. Ahimsa preached by Jains and Buddhists a cause of Mohammadan success, Page #220 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1239 P. 101. Jains numerous in Kanarese district of Southern Deccan-Ganga dynasty was Jaina-Gomata statue at Sravana Belgola (Mysore). P. 104. Bittiga Hoysala a Jain. P. 108. Hemachandra and Siddharäja of Gujrat. P. 110. Bhadrabahu's exodus to Mysore about 309 B.C. P. 113. Pallavas were Jains at first. P. 118. Decay of Jainism in south India. 1291 (i) B. A SALETORE- Mediaeval Jainism. (With special reference to the Vijayanagara empire Bombay). 1938. Introduction of Jainism in Southern and Western India. II. Royal patronage of Jainism under the Gangas, Kadambas, Rāshtrakūtas, Western Chālukyas and Hoysalas. III. Patronage of noblemen-Ganga and Räshțrakūta feudatories, Santara lords, the Silhāras, Rattas, nobles of Nagarakhanda and kuci Rāja, a Yadava noble. IV. Jain men of action--Câmunda Rāya, Ganga Rāja, Punisa, the generals and minister of the Hoysala kings Visnuvardhana, Narasimha I, Ballava II and Vira Ballala III. V. Women as defenders of the Faith-women in Karnataka history-ladies of the Nirgunda family-examples of austere Jain ladies-Kadamba queens Nagarakhanda ladies-Hoysala queen Santaladevi-wives of Feudatories, officials and citizens VI. Popular support-policy of Jain leaders—importance of commercial classes-harmonious relations between Jains and non-Jains, prominent Jain centres. VII. Jainism in the 8th and 9th centuries--stages in the spread of Jainism identity of the Ājivikas with the Jains disproved-establishment of Dravida Sangha-Jain centres in Tamil land, Travancore, Andhradesa and Karnataka from early times to the rise of Vijayanagara-contributions of Jains to culture-causes of decline of Jainism in the South. Page #221 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1240 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY VIII. Vijayanagara's pledge--the history of toleration in Karnataka-political significance of the royal decisions of great cases in 1363 and 1368 A.D. IX. State aid to Jainism-Vijayanagara monarchs and queens as defenders of the faith. X. Jainism at provincial courts. the 14th to the XI. Jainism in different cities of Vijayanagara Empire from 17th centuries. XII. Jaina architecture-Jain contribution to Sanskrit, Prākrit and Kannada literature. 1291 (ii) B. A. SALETORE--Mediaval Jainism. Bombay, 1938. Frontispiece-Description of the Karnataka, the abode of Jina Dharma as found in Kuppatur stone inscription. P. 1. Introduction of Jainism into south and west India. P. 2. Jainism claimed great antiquity in certain parts of southern India and Karnataka as its home. P. 3. Advent of Jainism into Karnataka is connected with the immigration of Jainas under the celebrated leader Bhadrabāhu the last of the great Sruta Kevalins with the company of Candragupta Maurya. Pp. 6-86. Royal patronage under the Gangas; the kingdom a creation of the Jain sage Sinha nandi-- the story in connection with that sage and Madhava kongunivarma I described and examined; Avinita I, Durvinita-Sivamāra I-Śri purusa muttarasa Pșthvikonjunivarma II - Sivamāra II-Saigottar-Prince Duggamāra; Niti märga I ---Mārsingha guttiya Ganga-Nīti mārga, Rāma calla III, Rakkasaganga. Rācarnalla IV; The Kadamba patronage; Kākutsthavarma--Mrgesa varma-Ravi. varma-Harivarma; Deva Varma; Rāştraküța Patronage; Dantidurga; Khadagavaloka, Gavinda III, Prabhatavarşa Kambho Krşņa, Ranavaloka, Amogha Varsa L. Nrpatunga, Krşņa II-Krşna, III-Indra IV. Western Calukya patrons; Tailapadeva II -Jayasimha III; the Great men in the age os this ruler; Vădirāja-an account of Vădirāja-his rival Vadi Rudragana Lakulisa Pandita; other great Jaina teachers of this period identified; Patronage by Calukya monarchs continued; Someśvara I. Trailokyamalla-a great Jaina teacher Page #222 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1241 of his time; Vadibhasingha Ajitasena-Vikramăditya Iv, Hoysala patrons; the Hoysala kingdom another Jaina creations; Relation between the Hoysala and their predecessors the Western Cālukyas; Jainism as the connected link between the Hoysala and the Vijayanagar kingdom--the birth place of the Haysalas a centre of Jainism--the story of the Jaina Guru Sudatta who helped Sala to build a kingdom critically examined; identification of Sudatta with the help of a contemporary stone epigraph. Early history of the Hoysala family-Vinayaditya II and his Jain Guru Santideva-Ereyanga and the sage Gopananda--Ballala I-Vişnuvardhana-Narasimha I - Ballăla II -Narasimha III-Rāmanātha. Pp. 87-100. Introduction of Jainism into South and West India. Ganga fudatories of the Pasindi family, The Nirgundu Rāja—the Rāştrakūta fudatory Cakiraja; The Cellapataka nobleman Lokāditya; the Santara lords, the Kongalvas, the Cangalvas, Gollācārya, the Silahāras of Karhad, the Rattas of Saundatti, the nobles of nagarakhanda, Kucirāja, a Yadava noble. Pp. 101-153. Jain men of action. Cāmundarāja, his lineage, military achievements, literary works. Benevolence as a Jain. Sāntināth-a poet general. Gangarāja lineage, military victories; work as a Jain Boppa Puntsa; lineage, conquests. Policy, work as a Jaina-Bala-devanna-the brothers Mariyana and Bharata--Eca,-Vişnu Bittimaya the boy General, Devarāja, Hulla, Santiyanna--ministers Sivarāja and Somaya. General Recimayya The brothers Bharata and Bahubali - Minister Kammata Macayya--General Amsta. Pp. 154-17). Women as defenders of faith. women in Karnataka history; Ladies of the Nirgunda family as champions of Jaina Dharma-a woman administrator --- Attimabbe; other examples of austere Jaina Ladies-Their devotion and Charity examplified Kadamba queens-Nagarakhanda ladies-wives of Generals---Hoysala queen Santaladevi-Wives of feudatories, officials and citizens. Pp. 172-215. popular support. The policy of the Jain leaders explained. The importance of the commercial classes called Vira Banajigas, Harmonious relations between the Jainas and non-jainas-Examples of devotion among citizens. Prominent Jaina centres enumerated. Sravana Belgola, Paudanpura, Kopana; identification of Konkinapulo with Kapana, Cikkahonasoge, Pombucca, Kallengare Balligame, Kuppatur, Uddhare, Heggare, Sringeri, Kolhapur, Bandanike, Dürasamudra, Arasiyakere, the Jainas as town Planners. . Page #223 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ $1242 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 216-282. Critical times for the Jainas; importance of the 8th and 9th century in Jain history-the identity of the Ajivakas with the Jains disproved; Stages in the spread of Jainism. The age of Samantabhadra, Akalanka Vijayanandi; the establishment of the Dravidasangha; other gurus who spread Jainism. Kanakanandi and Gunasena, Eläcarya; Jain centres in the Tamil land and Travancore; the Andhradesa and Karnataka from early times till the time of Vijayanagar; contribution of Jainism to the history and culture of the Tamil land; the Andhradesa and Karnataka literature; Grammar, mathematics, Astrology, medicine, arts and Architecture; contribution to the culture of India-the four gifts; ahimsa, toleration; General causes of the decline of Jainism in the Tamil and Telugu lands and Karnataka; the work of Saiva and Vaisnava Saints in the Tamil land. Pp. 283-297. Jainism and Hindu Dharma; a sketch of the history of toleration in Karnataka. Vijayanagar marking history by deciding great cases in 1363 and 1368 A. D. Political significance of the Royal decision of 1368, examples to prove the permanent effect of the Royal decree of 1368 from cases throughout the history of the Vijayanagar Empire. Pp. 298-310. Vijayanagar monarchs defenders of all faiths; their attitude. towards Jainism work by queen Bhimadevi; King Devaraja I, King Deva Raja II. Emperor Krishna Deva Raya. Position of Jainism in the capital. Work of General Irugappa. Examples of nobles who helped the cause of Jainism. Pp. 311-365. Jainism at the Provincial court; causes which made Jainism prominent at the provincial courts. The cangalvas and their work. The gangstapura rulers and their ministers and enemy of Jainism-Examples of noble ladies. who were patrons of Jainism. Pp. 366-387. Jaina celebraties in the Vijayanagar Empire; features of lain. architecture; Jain contribution to Sanskrit, Präkrit and Kannada literature. Examples of Jaina writers ranging from the early fourteenth till the middle of the 17th. century. 1292 C. R. JAIN-The Origin of the Swetambara sect. (Jain Ant. Vol. III; No. IV; Arrah; 1938, Pp. 93-102.) According to Svetämbara Sect Mahavira was married while the Digambaras disagree to it. The Swetambaras claim that he had a daughter married to Jamali Page #224 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1243 who led a separatist movement against him. This is not corroborated by historical or literary sources. In the Samavāyanga Sutra of the Swetāmbaras, it is mentioned that out of the 24 Tirthankaras 19 were married meaning Shri Mahāvira; Pārsva, Nemi, Mallinātha and Bāspūjya were unmarried. According to the Digambaras the Śwetāmbara sect arose during a famine which occurred during the reign of Chandra Gupta Mourya. The Swetambaras admit that Mahāvira disrobed himself completely but the King of Devas nevertheless threw over his shoulders a kind of celestial mantle which went trailing behind the Divine saint for several months. The Cautam-kesi discourse is an attempt by the Śwetāmbaras to prove their priority of origin which is untenable logically. The author's view is that the Digambaras were prior to the Śwetāmbaras. 1293 AMRITLAL MAGANLAL --Sripras' asti samgraha. Ahmedabad, 1938. 163 Pp. XXVIII. 119 18 326 56 plate 1. A cllection of colophones from palm leaf and 1276 paper Mss. 1294 Pramode Lal PAUL-The early history of Bengal. Calcutta, 1939. P. I. In the fourth Jain Upanga, the Pannavană (IHQ 1932, Pp. 521 ff), Támraiipi (l'āmluk) is included in Vanga, and Kodivarsa (Kotivarsa, in modern Dinajpur) is inentioned as the chief city of Ladha (Radha)-reference to a very early period. P. III. The lexicographer identifies Vanga with Harivela. P. 86. Similarity of the names of Sena kings or Bengal and Jain teachers of Dharwar--a suggestion of their interconnection. 1295 John CUMMING— Revealing India's Past. London, 1939. P. 45. Caves at Khaņdagiri and Udayagiri. P. 55. Temples at Mt. Abū--best specimen of Jain architecture in Western India. Page #225 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1244 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 149. Jain sculptural remains at Mathura. Pp. 273-74. Temple at Vasai (Baroda State). P. 292. Jain remains in Gwalior state from 9th or 10th century A.D. P. 300. Images of Tirthankaras belonging to 9th century A.D. in Travancore State. b. P: 304. Jain temple at the Tiruchanat Malai (Travancore State). P. 307. Jaina temple in Bairat (Jaipur State) containing inscription of 1587 A.D.-Hiraivijaya Sūri and his influence on Akbar's policy of restricting animal slaughter P. 312. Pillars in a temple at Dungri Hill (Jaipur State) adorned with figures of the first 95 Jaina pontiffs from Bhadrabāhu. P. 342. Śravanabelgola an important Jaina centre-Chandragupta Maurya retired here. 1296 B. N. PURI— India as described by early Greek writers. (Allahabad, 1939). P. 125. Failure of Greek historians to distinguish Brahmanism, Buddhism Jainism, Herodotas first to mention certain Jain rituals. Greek sources testify - ing the priority of Jainism to Buddhism (i.e. in the 5th Cen. B.C.). 1297 D. C. SIRKAR-The Successor of the Sal avāhanas, 1939. P. 262. Mrgeśavarman of the Kadambas made a gift of vil lage called Kalavanga a portion of which was given to Arhats of Purva mahaccala, Sveta Pata, mahāśramaņas and the Nirgrantha mahāśramaņas. P. 263. That Mrgeśa Varman is a Jaina is doubtful. P. 264. The same king erected a finālaya at Palasika, and gave thirty-three nivartanas of land between the river Matrisarit and Ingini samgama for benefit of Yāpanīyas, Nirganthas and the Kürcakas who are apparently sects of Jaina asectes. Page #226 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 265. Bhojaka is the name of officiating priests in Jaina temples. P. 266. Mrgesavarman and Ravivarman favoured Jainism but is not definitely known whether they were Jains themselves. 1245 P. 271. The Halsigrant of Indian Antiquary-VI, Pp. 25-26 records Lord Ravivarman's ordinance that learned ascetics of Yapaniya Sangha of which Kumardatta was the chief should enjoy all material substance during the four months of the rainy season and that worship of Jinendra should be perpetually performed. P. 276. The temple of Arhat Vardhamana, the last and the most celebrated Arhat of the age is said to have been built by Mrgesa, son of the General Sinha who belonged to the Bharadvaja Gotra, as quoted by Halsigrant (ibid. 30-31). P. 277. Halsi Grant of king Harivarman shows that king and his forefathers. showed favours to Jainas and absence of Jaina adoration or mangalas proves that it might have been written by a non-Jaina. P. 277. That Kakusthavarman and Santivarman were also favourable to Śaivism, as they were to Jainism, is proved by Talgunda inscription. P. 278. Early Kadambas of the main line were Śaivas and were exceptionally tolerant towards Jainism. Many officials of the Kadamba kings were Jainas. A General named Śrutakirti who was a Jain saved the life of Kakustha-varman. P. 287. Devagiri grant of Yuvaraja Devavarman records that a piece of land called Siddhakedara in Triparvata division was granted to the Yapanlyasangha for the performance of worship at the caityalaya of the holy Arhat. P. 313. Ramayana (ii, 67.7, 68,22) tells that capital of Kekayas was Rajagrha or Sirivraja. There are three Rajagrhas, one is modern Girjak or Jalalpur on the Jhelum. Another is the ancient capital of Magadha. Situated in Bihar between Patna and Gaya. P. 314. The third Rajgrha is menioned by Yuan Chwang as a city of Polou i.e. Balkha. Jaina writers mention a Kekaya city called Setaviva and that one half of the Kekaya kingdom as Aryas. Page #227 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1246 1939. 1298 D. C. SIRCAR-The successors of the Satavahanas in Lower Deccan, Calcutta, Banarasi grant (Ind. Ant. VII p. 37-38) of Sri Vijaya Siva Mrgesavarman records the gift of the village Kalavanga-village divided in three parts. and each part of (1) given the Arkat and Jinendra residing in the Purva-mahaochala, (2) Svetambara Jaina, (3) Digambara Jain. P. 264. Yapantyas, Nirgranthas and Kurcakas-sects of Jain ascetics. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 265. The Hitnahebbagilu grant (E.C.IV. p. 130) begins not with adoration to Jinendra but with Lord Brahman; grant made not in favour of any Jain; grant made by Sri-Vijaya-Šiva Mrgeśavarman. P. 268. Mulgati-eastern boundary of the village called Badaneguppe granted to Jinalaya of Talavananaguru referred to in Merkera plate of the Ganga King Kongani-Mahadhiraja. P. 272 Erection of Jinälaya at the city of Palasika and the gift of 33 nivartanas of land between the Matrsarit and the Ingini confluence to Arhat by the king Ravivarman referred to in his Halsi grant. P. 277. The Halsi grant of king Harivarman records the gift of a village to a caityalaya the property of sect of Sramanas called Aharisti-Dharmanandin the head of the Caityalaya Śramana-Jain or Buddhist ascetic. 1299 R. N. MEHTA-Pre-Buddhist India. Bombay 1939. Preface-Buddhist and Jain literatures yield a clear picture of ancient India. P. XIV. Mention of Jain works viz.-Acaranga Sutra, Kalpa sutra, Uttaradhyayana sutra, Sütra-kṛtanga, Anpapatika sutra, Uvasagadasão, Antagadada-sao, Bhagavati, and Nayadhammakaha. P. 5. Mention of Selaa (or Sailaka) a Rajarși, sage king, mentioned in Jaina Nayadhammakahā. Page #228 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1247 P. 23. Krşņa Vāsudeva of the Jain Uttaradhyayana sūtra is one and the same person mentioned in Upanişad Chandogya, the Aşçadhyāi, the Indika, Ghala Jataka, Mahābhās ya, Mahābhārata and Purāņa. (c.f. RAYCHAUDHURY The Early History of the Vaisnava sect). P. 41. Uttaradhyayana sūtra-giving more correct interpretation of Brahmadatta. P. 58. Trișașțišalakapurusacarita--work of Hemachandra giving the identity of Dandaka. P. 59. Mention of Dandaka making a lascivious attempt on a Brahmin girl attested by Jain Trişasțišala Kapuruşacarila. P. 63. Mention of Dadhivāhana in Jaina Literature, P. 68 (n). Hāthigumphā inscription of Khāravela mentions Pithudaga as the capital of Kalinga before the advent of king Nanda of Anga Magadha P. 106 N. Khāravela-Consecrated in his 24th year. P. 308 (n). Mention of sixteen diseases in the Jaina Acārānga sutra. P. 331. Uddalanka Aruni, the originator of the Sophistic movement before Mahāvīra and Buddha. P. 425. Rājaguha surrounded by five hills mentioned in Jain tradition. P. 427. Vamsa-a kingdom with kosambi identical with Vaccha of the Jains. 1300 Rule (N.I.A. Vol, I, 1938-39), Kamta Prasad JAIN-Jainism under the Muslim Pp. 516-521. P. 517. Mohamedans first attacked Sind, the people whom they first encountered were Jainas (Samans). Sultan Mohammad Chori entertained the Chief of Digambaras (nude saints). King Allauddin Muhammad Shah Khilji bent his head before Ācārya Mahasena's profound learning and aceticism, P. 518. During the Tughlaq reign--the two Jaina Chiefs Sūra and Vira were the ministers of Ghyasuddin Tughalaq. Sultan Mahammed or Mohammada (1325-1351 A.D.) entertained the Karnataka Jain Guru Simhakirti (Padmāvati Basti stone inscription of Humsa, Mysore). Page #229 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1248 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 519. The Jain poet Ratnasekhara was honoured by Sultan Firozshah Tughlaq. Among the Sūra kings, Sikandara Sultan (A.D. 1554), honoured the Jain guru Višālakirti of Karnataka. P. 520. Akbar issued Firmans to the Jainas for stopping cruelty and killing of animals at many a sacred Jain place. Emperor Jahangir also honoured Jainācāryas. Poet Benarasidas was favoured by Shah Jehan. Aurangazeb also entertained and honoured Jain Saints. P. 521. Hyder Ali granted villages to the Jain temples. 1301 S. Srikantha SASTRI--- Viraballala II--(N.I.A. Vol.I, 1938-39). P. 410. Viraballāla (crowned in 1172 A.D.) P. 421-22. The 12th century in the history of Karnataka ---Jainism with its centre in Śravana Belgoļa. Vira Ballāla gave equal patronage and protection to the followers of all faiths. He visited Sravana Belgola personally and confirmed all the grants previously made to Gommata (Epi. Car. II). His minister Sachivottama Récharasa built Sahasra kuța jina Bimbalaya at Arasiyakere (AK. 77 Epi. Car. V) and the śāntināthalaya at Śravana Bego!a. In 1176 A.D. the merchant Devi Setti built Vira Ballala Jinalaya named after the king (My Ar. Rep. 1923, pp. 3639). Again Vira Ballāla Pattanasvāmi Nāgarasa made a grant to Gommata and built a dancer's hall to Pārsvanātha at Sravaņa Belgola (Sri Bel. 240, Epi. Car. II). The minister Chandramauli and his wife Achambika made grants to Adhyatmi Balachandra (Sr. Bel. 124, Epi. Car. II). Kammata Malli Setti who ruled Bandanikke under the suzarainly of Vira Balläla and Amātya Surya Dandanāyaka who were devotees of Nārāyana made a grant to Santinātha Basti at Bandanikke (Shik. 225-235) Epi. Car. VII). The four brothers Amrta, Masanayya, Kallayya and Basava not only built the Amstesvara Temple but also the Ekkoti Jinālaya at Vakkalagere (TR. 45, KD. 30, Epi. Car. VI). Adigavunda built not only a temple to Adi Mallikārjuna but also a Basadi (BI, 137 ; 138, Epi. Car. V). Inscriptions mention that the Chatussamayas of Jina, Buddha, Hari and Hara were equally patronised and there was little communal animosity. P. 423. Of the Jaina Gurus who figure in the epigraphs of the reign, the chief are : (1) of the Mūlasangha, Designa and Vakragachha, Balachandra, Rāmachandra, Kulachandra, Kanakanandi, śrutakïrti Traividya, Nayakirti, Abhayachandra, Viramandi, Māghanandi, Vardhamana, Devachandra, Ramanandi Page #230 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1249 Traididya, Nemichandra, Śrutakirti Bhattāraka, Vinayendu, Bālachandra, Padmasena, Jayakīrtti, Māghanandi Siddhānti, Jayakirti, Bālachandra Pandita, Prabhāchandra, Srutakirti, Māghanandi Pandita, the guru of Kamalabhava--author of Şantipurāņa. (2) of the Pustaka gachha of the Müla Sangha :-Gunachandra, Nayakirti, Pandita, Chandra Siddhānti, Nayakinti, Adhyatmi Bālachandra. (3) Of the Tintriņigachha of the Kranurgama :-Padmanandi, Rāmanandi, Munichandra, Sakalabūshana Traividiya, Sakalachandra, Subhachandra Pandita, Sakalachandra Bhattāraka, Bhanukirti Mālādhikäri, Hemanandi-vādībha-Vajrāmkusa. (4) Of the Dramila Samgha established by Pujyapāda :--Sripāla Traividya, Vāsupūjya Siddhänti, Vajranandi to whom Vira Ballāla himself gava a grant on December 25th, 1192 A.D. Besides, there were (5) Srutakirti of Sangitapura, the guru of Aggala, (6) Gaņdavimukta Ramchandra, the guru of Janna (7) Munichandra the Guru of Guņavarana, (8) Nandiyogiśvara the Guru of Achanna. Of the Architecture of the time we have numerous examples : Sahasrakūta Jinalaya at Arasiyakere built by Recharasa ; Säntinātha Basadi and dancing hall at Sravana Belagoļa. P. 423. Education in the vernacular was especially encouraged by Vira Ballāla, There were centres of higher learning of the Jainas at Sravana Belgola. P. 424. Literature: The twelfth century is of outstanding importance in the history of Kanada language and Literature ; Champu style in vogue amongst the Jaina poets. Numerous poets. Chief mentioned. The intense religious feeling that underlay the new literary activity could not but be reflected in the works themselves. Thus other faiths came to be criticised rather ruthlessly by the Virasaivas and in their turn by Jaina poets like Brahmaśiva and Vșttavilāsa. But this animosity was rather an exception than a rule. Vira Ballāla patronised all poets without any distinction of caste or creed. Chandramauli who was a Jaina and made grants to Gommateśvara yet patronised the Brahmana poet Rudrabhatta, the author of Jagannatha Vijaya. P. 425. A characteristic of the literature of the period was a general attempt at purity and simplicity of diction. Nayasena in his Dhasmāmsta condemns the indiscriminate use of Sanskrit and compares it to a mixture of oil and ghee, How er, a Jaina and Brahmana poets usually follow the old Champu style but manage at the same time to maintain a rimarkable lucidity of thought and ease of expression. Page #231 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1250 1302 A. N. UPADHYE-A review of Mediaeval Jainism by B.A. SALETORE-Bombay 1938. Pp. XII plus 426. (N I.A. Vol. 2, 1939-40) Pp. 128-134. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Dr. SALETORE in his preface says-'far from being a bundle of metaphysical beliefs, Jainism was a faith that added in a large measure to the material prosperity of the land'. Jainism in the South rose to unrivalled brilliance not only in the fields of letters, arts and religion but in the domain of politics as well. The Ganga dynasty was established under Jain auspices in the 2nd century A.D. especially through the efforts of Acarya Simhanandi. Many of the later Ganga princes were fervent Jainas. By the time the Ganga power bagan to diminish, Jainism came under the aegis of two royal families, Rástrakūtas and Kadambas. Jainism received a good deal of patronage from the Western Cälukyas; the Hoysala Kingdom itself was a second supreme creation of Jain wisdom. The various Jaina centres of the south, possessed some of the most superbe intellectual prodigies India had ever produced. Jainism, especially under the Hoysala patronage added a good deal of the architectural and artistic splendour of India. Provincial heads from the families of the Santaras, Kongalvas, Cangalvas etc. were patrons of Jainism. The greatest claim of Jainism at the hands of posterity is that it gave to India men who turned it into a philosophy of action, and clearly showed the importance of the fact that ahimsa, which was the keynote of their great faith, instead of being an obstacle in the path of their country's liberation, was really an adjunct without which no freedom could be effected either in the field of religion or in that of politics. Many eminent ladies came forth as the defenders of the faith. The instance of the four gifts of learning, food, medicine and shelter-the primary needs of humanity-on the part of the richer sections of the people must have had the inevitable effect of drawing to the Jain fold the larger sections of the populace among whom Jainism had made rapid stridies from the ninth onward till the fourteenth century A.D. Various cultural centres in and around KarnaReferences to Jainism are detected in Tamil works of the Sangham age; establishment of the Dravida Sangha. In the Andhra territory Jainism can be traced back to the pre-Mauryan days. One of the best claims of Jainism at the hands of posterity is that it contributed to the literatures of all the three provincesKarnataka, the Tamil land, and Andhradesa. The Jainas fostered the principle of toleration more sincerely and at the same time successfully than any other community in India. Saivas and Vaisnavas, especially in the Tamil land ill-treated. the Jainas and the claimax of this ill-treatment was reached in the days of Tiruj ñanasambandhar. Jainism suffered a set back in the Deccan almost on the eve of the foundation of the Empire of Vijayanagara. Queen Bhimadevi of Vijayanagara, Page #232 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY .1251 General Irugappa, General Baicappa, Cangalva King, General Madgarasa were Jains. Strongholds of Jainism at this period. Even in the Vijayanagara Empire the Jainas contributed to the culture of the land. Some conspicuous errors of facts in this book painted out. 1303 B. A. SALETORE-The Authenticity of the Mudhol Firmans (N.I.A. Vol. 2, 1939-40). P. 6. Antiquity of Mudhol Mudhol no creation of Maratha intellect or valour. It was a Karnataka centre. It was called Mudhuvollal. Here was born in A.D. 949 the famous Kannada Jaina poet Ranna, the author of Ajitapuraṇa, Sahasabhimavijaja or Gadayuddha, and a lexicon called Ranna-Kanda. His patron was the famous Ganga General Cămunda Raya (Kavicarita by R. NARASIMHACARYA I p. 62). 1304 H. C. SETH-Identification of Udayan of Kausambi with Udayin of Mogadha (A.I.O.C. Session X. 1940). P. 469f. Jain & Buddhist traditions discussed (Historical). 1305 Kalipada MITRA-Jain influence at Mughal Court. (Pro. Ind. Mist. Cong. Third Session, Calcutta, 1939; Calcutta, 1940). Pp 1961-72. Hiravijaya Sūri went to the Mughal Court in 1582, persuaded Akbar to issue various commands in accordance with Jain doctrine. 1306 S. R. SHARMA -Jainism and Karnataka Culture, Dharwar, 1940. Pp. 20, 214. Jainism in Karnataka; its contributions to Karnataka culture; vicissitudes of Jainism under different dynasties; contribution of Jainism to literature, Art and Architecture of Karnataka; causes of its decline; rise of the Lingayat sect. Page #233 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1252 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1307 G. N. SALETORE-The Southern Asmakas. (Jain Ant. Vol. VI ; No. II ; Arrah, 1940 ; Pp. 51-66). The Asmakas were an ancient community having settlements both in the Uttaräpatha and the Dakşināpatha. It is more or less certain that their capitals in both these territories were named Podanapura. The Southern Asmaka. Khāravel invaded Asokanagara, The Sapädalaksa country was no other than the southern Asmaka. Podana was the capital of Asmaka. Aśmaka, Sapädalaksa and Barleasa were different names of Aśmaka. Podana has been immortalised in the annals of the Jains. Podan has been identified with modern Bodhan a village lying in Lat. 18 40' and Long. 77 53, in the Nizamabad district of H.E. 4 the Nizam's Dominions. 1308 C. D. CHATTERJEE-A historical character in the reign of Asoka Maurya. (D.R. BHANDARKAR Volume, Ind. Res. Ins. Calcutta, 1940). Pp. 330 and 332 ff. Natthikadiţthi (Non-existence of consequence) also contains the elements of the Samsārasuddhi of Makkhali Ghosāla who according to the Jaina Bhagavati Sutra (XV.I) was for many years a disciple of Mahävira, but ultimately quarrelled with him and renounced his spiritual leadership, Gosāla was undoubtedly an Ajivika. 1309 A. B. Kerra-The Greek kingdoms and Indian Literature. (D.R. BHANDARKAR Volume, Ind. Res. Ins., Calcutta, 1940). Pp. 219 and 226. An interesting light has been cast by Dr. Tarn in his treatise on the Greeks in Bactria and India. According to JUSTIN the Jains have a tradition which makes the accession of Candragupta 312 or 313 B.c. The source of JUSTIN was some Greek in India who read Jain literature, unless indeed he could read Sanskrit and Prākrit for himself. JUSTIN may have been not a Greek of Parthia who lived for a time in India, but rather a Greek of India settling in a Parthian city. It must be pointed out that this alleged knowledge of Jain literature rests on the most insufficient evidence; one does not need be able to read Sanskrit or Prākrit to know that the Jain had a certain date for Candragupta, Page #234 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1253 1310 in Orissa. Calcutta, Prabhat MUKHERJEE-The history of Medieval Vaişnavism 1940. P. 5. Khāravela, a Jain observed Brahmanical customs and compared himself to Krishna in Hāthigumphā inscription. 1311 (i) S. R. SHARMA--Jainism and Karnataka Culture, Dharwar, 1940. Historical survey--Jainism under Kadambas, Gangas and Chālukyas-Rāshtrakūtas and Kalachuris, a period of conflict Hoysala, Vijayanagara and Mysore rulers-other minor rulers-writers of Karnataka---art-transition of Jainism-influence of Jainism-disintegration --Ahimsa--the Jaina ideal. 1311 (ii) S. R. SHARMA--Jainism and Karnataka Culture. Dharwar, 1940. Pp. xix 213, with 15 illustrations. This book constitutes a review of the Karnataka history of Jainism for over a thousand years from the century of the Christian era onwards. Contents : I. Historical Survey (antiquity)-The Kadambas and the Gangas; patronage of Jainism under the Chālukyas. Răstrakūtas and the Kalacuris; A period of conflicts; Jainism under the Hoysala, Vijayanagar and Mysore Rulers; Jainism under Minor Rulers. II. Contributions : Literature, Art and ArchitectureJaina writers of Karnataka --Jaina art in Karnataka --Jainisin as it was-Jainism as it came to be. III. Conclusion. IV. Karnataka Culture. V. Appendices. List of Illustration : Peculiar type of Jaina India, showing places of interest in Jaina History (Map). 1312 Tribhubandas, L. SHAH.- Ancient India, 4 vols. Baroda, 1938-41. Vol. I-Pp. 5-6. Division and Characterisation of time according to Jainism. P. 25. Between 900 and 600 B.C. Indians were either followers of Jainism or of the Vedic religion. P. 31. Death of Jain ascetic Manaka in 450 B.C. P. 32. King Ajātsatru was a Jain. Page #235 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 42. King Bimbisāra was a Jain. Bimbisara inspired by Mahavira, regulated social conditions and guilds. 1254 P. 74. Twenty Tirthankaras attained salvation on Mount Sametsikhara, now called Parsvanatha Hill. P. 80. King Prasenjit of Kosala became a Jain. P. 94. According to Jain books Pärśvanätha was the son of king Asvasena of Käsi. P. 121. King Chetaka of Vaisali promised not to marry his daughter with a non-Jaina. P. 159. According to the tenets of Jainism, a monk should stay in the same. place from the 14th day of Ashadh to the 14th day of Kartika, i.e. four months. Pp. 166-7. Karkandu, the founder of the Chedi dynasty, the son of Padmavati, a Jain nun, was a devout Jain-his setting up of a gold idol of Pärsvanatha in his capital Kanchanpur-the first example in Jainism of setting up an idol--Vijayanandasūri states that at Bhadresvar in Cutch an idol was set up in Pārsvanatha Era 23. P. 191. Poet Samaya-sunder who lived during Akbar's reign gives in a poem list of Jain centres of pilgrimage. P. 215. King Udayin of Avanti, a Jain, built a Jain temple and placed idols in it. P. 265. In Jain books (Antagaddasäng Part VII, Ch. 13) it is stated that thirteen queens of Bimbisära became Jain nuns. Vol. II: P. 3. The lay element in Jaina community formed an integral part of the community and received due recognition, unlike in Buddhism. Pp. 46-51. The sign of Pärśvanatha is the serpent, that of Mehāvira the lion. Swastika-its meaning-"Tree without railing" signs-kept in a banner on wooden. horse-back in religious processions of Jains. The wheel-one of the eight Pratihäryas-proceeds a Tirthankar wherever he goes. The "Moon"-the place of salvation (siddha bila) according to Jainism. Rshabhadev was born in Kosala. Kulind (Hastinapur?) the birth place of Santinath, the sixteenth Tirthankar. P. 165. Chandragupta Maurya was a Jain-some Jain books claim Chaṇakya was Jain-the Parisistha Parva of Hemachandra describes Chanakya's birth. Page #236 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1255 P. 174. Jain books say Ratnaprabhasūri, the sixth disciple of Pārsvanāth, flourished eighty years after Mahävira's death-Jains converted by him lived in a place called Osia-a sect of Jains still known as Osvals. Vol. III: P. 42. Jainism claims Krişna to have been one of its followers like his first cousin Neminátha. P. 64. Muni Kalyānavijay-one of few Jain monks who took interest in his tory. P. 75. Persecution of Jainism by the Sunga monarchs. P. 140. Jain books say of Harsapur (Which was situated between Ajmer and Puskar) that the city had three hundred Jain temples. P. 144. The Kshatrapa king Nahapan became a Jain in after life. P. 195. Jains have their Vedas --Sansārdarśan Veda, Sansthapana, Parāmarsan Veda, Tattvävabodha Veda, and Vidyaprabodh Veda ; (vide Jainatattvādarsa by Vijayanandsūri). Vol. IV: Pp. 128-56. Khāravela and his inscriptions. 1313 P. C. Divanji-Ancient Indian History and Research Work. N.I.A. Vol. 3, 1940-41. P. 138. In the post-epic period down to about 650 B.C. there were 16 States in Northern India according to the Buddhist works in Pali and Jain works in Ardhamagadhi. P. 139. With the assistance of the chronicles of the Brahmans, Jains, and Buddhists a rough chronological frame work has been established from about 600** B.C. downwards. P. 142. The historical facts that can be gathered from Purānic works can be scientifically tested by comparison with similar facts relating to the same period Page #237 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1256 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY gathered from another independent source, e.g. the Jain Purāṇas in the case of the Mahābhārata period 2* and those which pass that test can be safely pressed into the service of secural history. P. 161. Duel with Jarasadha : The Jain account agrees with that of Mahābhārata. The Jain Puräņas give a different version of the way in which Jarasandha had met his death. The two sources agree that Jarasandha was a contemporary and a foe of Krşna (Trişaşthisalakāpuruşacarita, by Hemacandra, VIII, 8 p. 126 and Harivamsa Purana by Jinasenācārya p. 537). P. 164. For the history of the Age of Krşa, the Jain Purāņas too might prove to be of considerable, assistance. P. 165. The Probable date of the foundation of the Saisunga dynasty in Magadha, some of the old Purānas and the Jain Purāņas contain ample materials for that purpose. P. 167, The Bhagavatas and the Jains share some common traditions (WINTERNITZ H.I.L. I, Pp. 320, 407 etc. III, seq. Pp. 113-14, 484 etc. seq.). P. 168. The age of Ramacandra : The Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmiki, Rāmopākhyāna in the Mahābhārata, the Paumäcäriya of Vimala Süri and some of the Buddhist Tales can serve as the source from which the history of this age can be reconst. ructed. 1314 Baij Nath Puri-Jain Religious orders in the Kushana Period. (Journal of Indian History XX, Pt. I, pp. 85-92, Madras, 1941). Points out that in the Kushāna Period, a number of Jain religious orders where flourishing side by side in Mathura. These schools were popularly known as ganas and were divided on the lines of teachers who were known through their respective Kulas. The teachers grouped into a Kula were branched off into Sakhas or branches. The study is based on epigraphic records. *2. Foot note-The history of the Indian religion contains clear evidence of the Jain and Bhagavat sects being the off shoots of a single sect started by way of protest against the doctrine that the highest goal of man was to secure happiness in this world and in the Swarga ruled over by Indra by the performance of animal sacrifices. It is therefore desirable for the Hindu writers to shake off their prejudice that the Jain accounts are only perverted versions of stories borrowed from the Hindu literature, Page #238 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1257 1315 JINAVIJAYAJI MUNI--Kuvalayamālā, (Journal of the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan) Pt. I. P. 8, 1939, II, Pt. 2, pp. 211-219--Bombay, 1941. the Prasasti Discusses some of the historically important facts gleaned from given in Part I. 1316 S. R. SHARMA--Jainism and Karnataka Culture. (Karn. Hist. Re. Soc. Silver Jubilee Pub. Series No. 1), Dharwar, 1941. Pp. 20 214. 15 illus. History of Jainism in Karnataka; its contribution to Karnataka culture; vicissitudes of Jains under different dynasties; decline of Jainism in Karnataka. 1317 Kamata Prasad JAINA-Some Historical faina Kings and Heroes. Delhi, 1941. . Pp. 11, 109. It gives the life of the following kings and Heroes contents: Vardhamāna-Shrenika Bimbisāra -- Chandragupta and other Mauryas-Maha. meghavāhana Khāravela-Kongrimvarma and other Ganga Heroes-Mrgeshavarma and Ravivarma-the Rāshtrakūta Monarches-the Rattas and their Generals the Chalukyan kings-king Billala the Hoysala kings of Dorasamudra-the Chandana and other Rajput class-Jaioa sages as Heroes--the Jain Generals-The Jaina Heroines-conclusion. 1318 H. R. KAPADIA.-A History of the Canonical Literature of the Jains. Preface; Analysis, Genesis of the Jaina scriptures. Classification of the Āgamas. 1941, Reduction of the Jaina canon; the extinct Āgamas of the Jainas, the canonicali comparison and Evaluation. 1319 P. V, Kane. History of Dharma Šāstra. Vol II, Part I. Poona, 1941. Pp. 169. and 665. Brahmanda purāņa says that on touching Bauddhas, Pāśupatas Jainas etc.. one should enter water with clothes (touching of them entailed bath as expiation). Page #239 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1258 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 722. Bịhat i amhita of Varāhamihir records naked ascetic worshippers in the temple of Jains. P. 725. Gaņeśa came to be worshipped even by the Jains. P. 927. Jains sanction religious suicide by Sallekhana. P. 928. Kalandri inscription records the suicide of a Jaina congregate by fasting. 1320 Bimala Churn LAW--India as described in the early texts of Buddhism and Jainism, London, 1941. P. 59. Acaranga Sūtra speaks of Lādha (West Bengal). Pp. 199-200. Hierarchy of gods as conceived in early Jainism. Pp. 208-9. Eight mangalas or auspicious symbols of the Jains (Aupapatika sülra, sec.49) and other mangalas (ibid. Sec. 53, 55). P. 210. Jainas, though opposed to caste system, were champions for purity of blood. Pp. 211-12. Jainas in sympathy with democratic constitution--difference between Jaina and Buddhist orders. P. 215. The Uttaradhyayana Sūtra mentions royal Jaina hermits. Pp. 227-8. Practices of Jaina Samaņas. P. 233. Praises attributed to Mahāvira by ascetics. P. 240. Mahāvira's early wanderings in Lādha described in Acāranga Sūtras (i 8. 3-4). P. 268. Kalpasūtra preserved the Vinaya of followers of Pārsva-Acaranga sutra represents Vinaya works of Nirgantha sect of Sramaņas- later works of some class within Jaina Agama--the Upāsakadaśānga represents oldest text of the Jaina Grhivinaya. Pp. 273.4. Literary qualities and the importance of the Jaina Agama (Svetambara canon). Page #240 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 286. Compilation of text called Nayadhammakaha for preachings. P. 287. Jain system of education system of education as described in Anuyogadvara Sutra (II, p. 575 ff.). 1321 R. N. BANDEKAR-A History of the Guptas. Poona, 1941. P. 96. A Tirthankara image dedicated at Mathura in 432 A.D. P. 110. Sculptures of five standing naked figures at Kahaum in Gorakhpur District, (U.P.) probably Jain. P. 120. Skanda Gupta tolerated Jainism. P. 192. Jain inscriptions of Gupta period-two inscriptions record installation of Tirthankara images in 424 A.D. and 459 A.D. at Udayagiri and Kahaun-Kumāragupta's inscription-Jainism in Mathura decaying. 1322 1259 S. Krishnasvami AIYANGAR-Ancient India and South Indian History and Culture, 2 Vols. Ponna, 1941, Vol. I: P. 8. In the sixth century B.C. two great men have contributed very much to bring about a mighty transformation in religion-these two great sons of India are Mahavira Vardhamana, the founder of the religion of the Jina and the Gautam Šakyamuni, the Buddha, Pp. 237-38. Course of education for princes, as described in the Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela. Pp. 345-387. Life of Bappa Bhatti, a Jain saint, as given in the Prabhavakacarita of Candraprabha Suci, and its historical value. A special datum for the Śaka year 705 or A.D. 783 from the Jain Harivamia of Jinasena. Pp. 401-2. Military exploits of Kharavela. P. 575. Lokavibhaga, a Digambar work on cosmography translation by Rishi Simhasüri-the copy dated Šaka 380. P. 584. Mahendravarman (Mahendravishnu) Pallava, probably was a Jain when he composed the Matta-viläsaprahasana. P. 703. Cholas tolerated Jainism, though the Jains had to pay a tax. Page #241 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 736-739. Jainism and Śaiva and Vaishnava cults face to face in Mysore in Vishnuvardhana's time-his renunciation of Jainism; then Jainism was in the ascendency; Mysore remained generally Jain; Ganga rulers were Jains; about A.D. 1000 there was fresh vigour in in religious development, the struggle against the Jains has become keener. 1260 Pp. 740-3. Vishnuvardhana's toleration of Jainism-description in a Śravanbelgola inscription of 1128 A.D. of the defeat of the Buddhists of Kanchi in religious discourse by the Jain teacher Akalanka. The oil mill incident an establishment-Vishnuvardhana received holy food presented by the Jains, and directed the image of the Finalaya at Halebid to be named Vijaya Pärsvanatha in honour of his victory. He honoured Śrī Pala Trividya Deva and appointed him tutor to his children. Vira Śaiva (Lingayat) comes into prominence; Jainism subjected to the simultaneous attacks of the Vaishnavas from the South and the Vira Saivas from the north. The manner in which the Hoysala rulers and ministers dealt with these rival sects is a supreme instance of their religious policy. Vol. 11: P. 193. Penugonda (Vijayanagara), famous as one of the eighteen Jain centres of reputation. Chikka Devaraja, king of Mysore, 1672-1704, had a Jain ministerassasination of the Jain minister after he introduced administrative reforms. P. 776. Destruction of Buddhist heresy by Akalanka, a Jain teacher at Kanchi (E.I, Vol. III, Pp. 186, 189). P. 784. Description of the Nirgrantha (Nikanda system of philosophy in the Tamil Kavya Manimekhalai. Pp. 788-9. Differentiation between Ajivakas and Nirgranthas in the Manimekhalai, 1323 K. GOPALACHARI-Early History of the Andhra Country. Madras, 1941. P. 16. Kalakacarya Katha corroborates the evidence that early Satavahana did not rule over Andhradesa. A Paithana Satavahana and Nahavana are the names for Bharukaccha, Naraväha in Harivamsa purana is a variation of Nahapana. P. 30. Jina Prabhasüri's derivation of the word Satavahana. Page #242 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1261 P. 31. According to Jaina tradition King Sātavāhana (Simuka) built Jaina temples and cetiyas. P. 41. Memacandra in his Deśīnāmamālā and Abhidhāna cintāmaņi considers Hāla as a variation of Sālāhana and Sātavāhana. P. 42. Rajasekhara calls Hāla as Sātavāhana. From inscription it is known that official language under the Sätavāhana was Prākrit and encouraged the use of Prākrit in literature. The inscriptions of Usavadata at Nasika and Kārlā have a mixture of Sanskrit with Prākrit. But the official records of Gotamiputa and his son Pulumavi II at Nasika and Kārla are in pure Prākrit. Gatha Saptašati is in Maharastri Prākrit. P. 43. Merutunga in his Prabandha-cintamani tells that Sātavāhana devoted to the collection of composition of great poet and Sātavāhana bought four gathas for forty million gold pieces. P. 7. Khāravela, king of Kalinga contemporary of the third or fifth king in the Sata-vāhana line. He is said to have destroyed the city of Pithumda, and the confederacy of the Tamira (Tamila) countries. P. 9. Early Sātavāhanas were not reaching on the land of their birth in the third or second century B. c. Khāravela i.e. the third member of the Cedi dynasty of Kalinga. P. 37, Khāravela in his second year sent an army to the west disregarding Satakarni. Synchronism of Khāravela and Sātakaņi is as probable as that of Khāravela and Sätakaại I. P. 76. Of Khāravela Inscription what is more striking is that the maharăthis are as much associated with the Mahābhojas as the Ratthikas with the Bhojas. the P. 104. The traditional four-fold division of the army is mentioned in Hätigumphā inscription of Khāravela, P. 158 fn. King Khāravela of Kalinga beseiged the city of Pithumda. P. 159. The Pithumda of Hāthigumphā inscription of Khāravela was located by D.C. SARKAR in Pityndra mentioned by Ptolemy as the Metropolis of the Moisolia region. P. 148. Subodhika, commentary of Kalpasūtra show that Talavara which is mentioned with eighteen Gangarajas was an official title. Page #243 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1262 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1324 K. GOPALACHARI.-—-Early History of the Andhra Country. Madras, 1941. P. 16. Jain Literature-a source of Sātavāhana history-Nahavāna-corrupted into Naravana in Jinasena's Harivaṁsa Purāņa. H. P. 19 (n). Problematical reference of Śri Vikrama composer of Sūtras as contemporary of Hemachadra 12th century. P. 23 (n). Sālāhana and Sālavähana-variations of Sātavāhanas. legend. Referred by P. 27. Paithan capital of first Sātavāhana king-Jain Hemachandra. . P. 30. Jinaprabhasüri-a Jain monk of 14th century A.D. P. 30 (n). Kathāsaritsägara work of Somadeva --reference of Building of Jain temples and cetiyas by Simuka. P. 31. Sātavāhanas. P. 41. Abhidhanacintamani and Desinämamala-works of Hemacandra-record Otala as a variation of Sālāhana and Sātavāhana. P. 59. Jinasena's Harivamsa assign a period of 40 and 42 years to Naravāhana (or Nahapāna). P. 87 (n). Aira-an official-Hemachandra's Deśikośa. P. 181. Vallabha means Adhyaksa-Hemacandra. 1325 5. B. M. SRIKANTIA- The Kannada Movement. (QJMS.) Vol. 31, Nos. 3 & 4, 1941, Bangalore). P. 297. The missionary efforts of the Jains led to a great cultivation of the Kannada language and the first great outburst of poetry on classical lines began with Amoghavarşa Nripatunga in the 9th century and within a century of this, our first great poet, one of our greatest appeared in Pampā (941); a brilliant period of Jain writers followed till about the middle of the 12th century, when the great outburst occured, inspired the Vira Saiva Reformer Vasava. The Jains continued to write, but the future was with followers of the new religion. Page #244 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY S. SRIKANTAYA-Sri Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV. (QJMS. Vol. 31 Nos. 3 & 4, 1941, Bangalore). Pp. 220-222. Mastakabhisekha of Sri Gomatesvara March 1925, the Mahārāja on the antiquities and the relics of this important State-land of pilgrimage to the Jains. Gomata, the younger brother of Bharat, the enonymous Emperor of Bharatvarsha; Jainism inspired some of the noblest master pieces of Kannada literature in its early history: Jainism-ahiṁsā, anekāntavāda; the political view of every religious community in India, should be that of India as a whole, when purely social and religious questions invade plitics, vast difficulties arise and retard the progress of the country. 1932 1933 P. K. GODE-Twenty five years of Historical Research (i. e. 1916-41). Poona, 1941. Years Serial Nos. 1934 1934 49 1935 34 1935 38 1934 54 52 64 67 1935 70 1326 1936 101 1327 1263 Date of Sumativijaya's commentary on the Raghuvamia (Latter half of 17th centry). A quotation from the Hanuman nataka in the commentary on Meghaduta by Mahimahamsagani composed in S. 1693. Reference to Durghataviti in Caritravardhana's commentary on Raghuvarla. A commentary on the Kumarasambhava by Jinasamudraśuri and its probable date last quarter of the 15th century. Date of Caritravardhana, commentator of Kumarasambhava and other Kavyas between A. D. 1172 and 1385. A commentary on the Ṛtusamhāra of Kalidasa by Amarakirti suri and its probable date (16th cent.) A commentary on Vagbhaṭālamkara by Rajahamsopadhyaya and its probable date about 2nd half of 14th century A. D. BÜHLER's mistaken Identity of Vidyadhara the author of the Sahityavidyahari (Commentary on the Naifadhiyacarita). Date of Vivalocanakosa of Sridharasena Karnataka Historical Review III, 15-20. Page #245 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1264 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1937 104 Exact Date of Amarakirti, the author of a commentary on the Raghuvamśa of Kālidāsa A .D. 1593. 1938 140 Date of Vaidika-Vaişnava Sadacāra of Harikrsna Misra between 1713 & 1744 A. D. 1938 144 A commentary on the Vagbhatalamkara by Jñanapramodagaại composed in 1625 A. D. 1938 145 before 1431 Date of Națakalakaşnaratnakośa of Sagaranandin A. D. Mammta and Hemacandra-The Journal of the Sarasvati Mahal Library, Tanjore, 1939, vol. I, No. I Pp9--13. 1939 159 Date of Grammarian Bhimasena-before 600 A, D. (New Indian Antiquity 11 May, 1939, Pp. 108-110). 1940 188 Identification of Kubulakhan mentioned by Jinaprava sūri in his Vividha-Tirthakalpa. The Bhagavadgita in pre-Samkarācārya Jain source. 1940 187 1940 189 Date of Malayagiri Sūri--Between 1100-1175 A. D. 1328 K. G. SANKAR—The Hun Invasion of Hindusthan. (N. I. A. Vol. 4, 1941-42). Pp. 39-40. In the Jain Harivamsa Purana of Jinasena (783 A. c.) Ch. 66. St. 52, the Guptas are said to have ruled for 221 years; thereafter Kalkirāja ruled for 42 years, he in turn was succeeded by Ajitanjaya, who ruled from Indrapurā (Indore). ibid Chap. 60 St. 491-492. Gunabhadra in his Uttarpurānas (898 A. C.) Ch. 77 St. 35 says Kalkirāja appeared in the year 1000 after Vira Nirvana, in Pataliputra, as the son of King Siśupäla; he was also known as Caturmukha; he ruled for 40 years; his son was Ajitanjaya (ibid. ch. 76. St. 397-401 & 428). Jinasena places Kalkirāja in 528 B, C. (Hari, Ch, 60 st. 551) Toramane identified with Kalkirāja, who was the son of Siśupāla. The Jain chronicles would not have failed to allude to his Hun origin, if he had been a Hun. P. 40. Kalirāja is said to have oppressed the people, but the only instance of his oppression, given by Guņabhadra Uttarapuräņa (Ch. 77 St. 35, Ch. 76 St. 397401 & 428), in his refusal to exempt Jain monks from taxes. Page #246 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1265 1329 T. G. ARAVAMUTHAN—Some Survivals of the Harappa Culture. (N.I.A. Vol. 4. 1941-42). Pp. 298-99. Cult-object between Adorants : The formula relates to the iconic presentation of an object that has been adopted as the centre of a cult. The cult-object--be it a divinity or an object such as a tree, or a symbol such as a wheel, is prominently placed in the middle of a composition and it is flanked on either side by a beast or a man rendering veneration to it. A fine pannel (fig. 10) from an early Jain monument is an excellent illustration of this formula, which may be called that of 'cult-object between adorants. The goddess Sri or Lakshmi, stands as the central figure in a composition in which lotus buds and blossoms, elephants raising well-filled vessels with their trunks and emptying on the Goddess, and birds plucking at lotus buds, are presented in pairs but disposed symmetrically on either side of the Goddess. P. 331. Nandipada over Circle : The Nandipada is repeated four times around a circle (fg. 16: 10). The repetition connotes a 'strengthening' or an emphasising of the notion for which the Circle stands. It has been shown that the Circle is a substitute for the lotus or the wheel and that either of them may represent Brahman, the Buddha, the Jina- whatever name the sectaries may employ. We may therefore expect a representation of one of these to replace the circle or to occur enclosed in it. The expectation is fulfilled, in a place of Jain sculpture four nandipadas surrounded a circle (Fig. 16 : 13) in which is depicted the Jina. P. 335. The deity on the Head : Jain iconography knows of a few images which carry smaller images on the head, -the smaller ones being invariably seated. Ambika-devī, the Yaksi, or the Sāsana.Devata of Neminātha, the twenty second Tirthamkara, is represented both in the standing and the sitting postures and a seated Jina is poised on her head, or is suspended just alone. 1330 S. Srikantha SASTRI— Narasimha II. (N.I.A. Vol. 4. 1941-42). 365 During the reign of Narasimha (1220-1231 A.D.) in Kannada, the Chief poet was Jaina who had obtained the title Kavicakravarti from Ballāla II (the father of Narasimha). He composed incriptions (Ch. R. Patna 179, S. 1119 and TK. 45 of S. 1119) and his raíodharacarite was completed in 1209 A.D. in the reign of Vira Ballala. His other work Anantanātha Purana was finished in . A.D. It was published at the Säntiśvara basadi in front of the Vijaya Pārśva basadi at Sarasamudra. Its first verse commenced at Anantanātha basadi at Gandarādityana Polal. In the court of Narasimha, Janna was a dandanāyaka, a mantrin as well as a poet. Page #247 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1266 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1331 DS. TrivedA-The Sheet Anchor of Indian History. Megasthenes accounts discussed -[ABORI. (S.J.V.) Vol. XXII ; 1917-42]. P. 588. Chandragupta Maurya, his age etc. discussed--Śramanes ard Brachmanesreferred by Megasthenes - The Sramanas are called Germanes by Strabo and Samanaeans by Porphyrius. They may have belonged to the sect of lina. 1332 B.A. SALETORE-Historical Notices of the Lokāyatas-[ABORI. (SIV) Vol. XXIII; 1917-42], Pp. 386-397. Sen, Schools and Sects in Jain Literature References--(1) Amulyacaran Pp. 22-23. (2) See f. n. 4-reference to Nandisutra, according to R. S. Sharma SHASTRY, it was 'composed somewhere about the first century A.D.' (Mysore Arch. Report for 1927. P. 27). etc.--In A. D. 1415 P. 392 Gangadharaya-a councillor to Somnath the learned Jain teacher Abhaya Siddhāntadeva-etc. P. 395. Ep. Car. Vol. VII. Sh. 57, p. 22 ; Jain guru Gunachandradeva was referred to in the Epigraph, dated A.D. 1115---Indeed it was an age of great Jaina gurus. It seems certain that, far from being a secret society of profane thinkers, the Lokāyatas were a most vigorous body of philosophers respected both by Hindus and the Jains for more than five centuries. 1333 S. MUTHUSWAMY-Jain Rulers in India, Pp. 49.64, Madras. 1942). Jour : Madras Uni. XIV. Pt. I, Jainism in the south under the patronage of several royal families-- a brief review of the principal dynasties known to have professed that creed. Page #248 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1334 R. S. PANCHAMUKHI-Jainism in Karnataka and Bhatkal Finds. (Kar. Hist. Review, VI, Parts 1-2. Pp. 14-31, 3 plates 1939, Dharwar, 1942. Jainism in South India, and the Antiquity and evolution of image worship among the Jains. 1335 1267 R. S. PANCHAMUK-Jainism in Karnataka and Bhaikal finds. Karnataka Historical review, VI, Dharwar, 1942. Pp. 14-31. A survey of Bhatkal (in North Kanara) and its surroundings has resulted in a rich find of lithic records and bronze and stone images of the Jaina pantheon. The paper gives an account of the state of Jainism from these data. 1336 Muhammad SHAHIDULLAH-Jainism in Andhradesa, Journal of the Andhra Historical research society XIII, Rajahmundry 1942, Pp. 185-196. 1337 Kālipada MITRA-Historical references in Jaina poems. Indian Historical Quarterly, Calcutta, 1942. Pp. 101-109. Incidental references to historical personages in the collection of Jain poems named Aithihasik Jain Kanyasangraha composed in Apabhramsa, Rajasthani and Hindi. 1338 S. MUTHUSWAMI-Jain Rulers in India'. Journal of the Madras University XIV, Madras, 1942. Pp. 49-64. A brief review of the principal Jaina dynasties from the days of Mahavira to Bhairava of the family of Tuluva rulers in the 15th century with a view to prove that Jainism had no emasculating effects on the rulers professing that faith. 1339 K. Madhava Krishna SARMA-Date of Asaga's Vardhamanacarita, New Indian Antiquary, lv, Bombay, 1942. Karnatak Publishing House. Pp. 395-96. Is clearly given as Śaka 9:0. The author is said to have belonged to Dharala in Coladesa had written eight works. Page #249 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1268 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1340 H. C. SETH-Kharavela and Gardhabhila, Nagpur University Journal No. 8, Nagpur, 1942. Pp. 4-11. Khāravela belongs to the early part of the first century B.C. and is identified with Gardhabhila of the Jaina and Purānic traditions. 1341 Rama Shankar TRIPATHI-History of Ancient India. Benares, 1942. Po. 97-99. Career of Mahāvīra-main doctrines of Jainism. Pp. 103-4. Relation between Buddhism and Jainism. P. 159. Chandragupta's exodus to Mysore with Bhadrabāhu and starvation to death, P. 165. Asoka'a toleration of Jainism. P. 263. The Kahaum inscription (C. I. I., III, Pp. 65-68) records erection of five Tirthankara images by one Madra, during the Gupta period. P. 311. Jainism in Harsha's empire not popular except in Vaiśāli, Paundravardhana and Somatata, where Digambaras were numerous. P. 389. Hemacandra and Kumārapāla of Gujrat. P. 402. Prosperity of Jainism in the Dekkan during ascendancy of Vatapi Chalukyas-Ravikirti, the Jain author of Aihole inscription, a favourite of Pulakesin II-granting of villages to Jain pandits. P. 416. Jainism patronised by Rashtraküța kings. P. 455. Mahendravarman I Pallava was originally a Jain. P. 480. Toleration of Jainism by the Cho!as. 1342 B. V. KRISHNA RAO-Early Dynasties of Andhradesh. Madras, 1942. P. 43. The term Talavara a Telugu word occurs in the Ardhamagadhi literature of the Jainas. Page #250 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1269 P. 122. Dharmamṛta, a Kannada Kavya, a Jain work by Nayasena gives interesting materials regarding Jainism and the antiquity of the Ikšākus in the Andhradesh. During the period of Väsupujya Yasodhara king of Ikṣāku reigned in Campapura, the capital of Anga. Then follows the account of the family of the king. P. 125. Mahāvīra is said to have spent the retreat of caturmasya vrata in Campapur, Matsya purana contains an account of Campapur where Vasupujya, the 12th Tirthankara was born. P. 126. The story of Dharmamṛla suggests that the first Jainism and later Buddhism gained hold in Andhradeśa. When the Andhras became Buddhists, the Jains out of spite would have given the appellation Andhaka to the land and people as well. The story of the book might have a connection with the account in the Aitareya Brahmana, P. 174. The religious literature of the Jainas furnish a synchronism and help. us to determine the genealogical succession and to reconstruct the political history of the dynasty. P. 565. Mahendra Varman I, a Pallava king was at first Jaina but he became later on a convert to the cult of Mahesvara. P. 566. Some of the early Pallava kings were either Jainas or Buddhists. P. 570. The Gangas of Punnata-Pannata country claimed descent in the Ränvayana golra and were Jainas by religion. 1343 S.K. DE-Early History of the Vaisnava Faith and Movement in Bengal. Calcutta, 1942. P. 434. In Kavi Karnapuri's drama dealing with Caitanya's life, it is noted that Bhakti is superior to Viräga which is the central theme of the Buddhas, Jains and other systems of philosophy. 1344 G. C. GANGOLI-Some Evidences for the Early History of Indian Drama. (N.I.A. Vol. 5, 1942-43). Pp. 69-70. The itinerant picture Showmen was the precursor of the Dramatic form. The class of picture Showmen referred to under the term mankha in old Page #251 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1270 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Jaina Literature. In the Uvasaga-dasão (end of the 4th or the beginning of the 3rd cent. B.c.), the doctrine of Gosāla Mankha-putta is referred to (Lecture VI and 166). Gosāla's father was mankha (Citra-phalaka vyagraviksu višeşah) i.e. a kind of mendicant that tries to extract clms by showing these pictures of deities, which he carries about with him. 1345 P. K. GODE-A Review of H. R. Kapadia's - A History of the Canonical Literature of the Jainas --Surat, 1941 (N.I.A. vol. 5 of 1942-43). Pp. 255-256. Besides Preface and 'Analysis', the author gives in seven chapters valuable material dealing with-(1) the Genesis of the Jaina scriptures, (2) the classifications of the Agamas, (3) Redaction of the Jaina Canon, (4) Extinct Agamas of the Jainas, (5) Extant Agamas of the Jainas, (6) Canonical exegetical literature and (7) Comparison and Evaluation. 1346 JAGAN NATH-The Hūnas in India. (N.I.A. Vol. 5, 1942-43). P. 252. Different scholars have identified Kalki with different historical persons. Dr. K. P. JAYASWAL attempted on the authority of Jain accounts to identify Kalki with Yasodharman (I.A. 1917. p. 145), Mr. PATHAK identified him with Mihirakula (1.A. 1918 P. 9) and Mr. K. G. SANKAR wants us to believe that Kalki is none else but Toramana (New Indian Antiquary IV, Pp. 36-42). The Jain tradition about Kalki is self contradictory and untrustworthy (I.H.B BHIDEI.A. Vol. 48 (1919) Pp. 123-128). 1347 Dhirendra Nath MOOKHERJEE -The KỊla Era, (N.I.A. Vol. 5, 1942-43). Pp. 230 & 232. According to Jaina tradition Mahāvīra attained Nirvāna, three years and sɔme mont'ı3 before the close of the fourth age called Dussamā Susamă in the great period called Avasarpini. As Mahävira attained Nirvāna in 528 B.C., the Dussama Susama period ended in 525 B.c. from which date the Dussama age began From Ganabhadra's Uttarapurāņa (The age of the early Guptas by Dr. SyaMASASTRI--An Rep. of My. As. Dept. 1923) we know that when one thousand years of the Dussama age had elapsed there was born a Kalki in Pataliputra in a Mahämägha year. Now a thousand years from 525 B.C. leads us to A.D. 475. Page #252 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1271 The previous year A.D. 474 was a Mahāmāgha year. Now a Kalki was born according to Jaina tradition 1000 years earlier in (1000-473, or) 527 B c. imme. diately after Mahāvīra's Nirvana. As Kalki lived upto 457 or 455 B.C. evidently he introduced the Kyta era about 458 s.c. and then departed from this world. Thus Jaina tradition also supports the epoch of the Ksla era introduced by Kalki to be about 458 BC. 1348 BIMALA CHARAN--India as described in early texts of Buddhism (ABORI. Vol. XXIV ; 1943) P. 117. Review.. and Jainism. 1349 Radhakumud MoOKHERJEE---Chandragupta Maurya and his Times, Madras, 1943. P. 23. Jain tradition about Chandragupta. P. 24. Both Jain and Buddhist traditions, are at one in declaring for him a noble birth. P. 32. Buddhist tradition does not impute any base origin to the Nandas and thus runs counter to the Brahmanical and Jaina traditions. P. 57. Hāthigumphā inscription of Khāravela mention, Nandrāja as being associated with an old aqeduct and having carried away to Magadha as Trophy the statue or foot-print of the first Jina and the treasures of the Royal House. P. 67, fn. A note on Fleet's and HOERNLE's observation about Jain patļāvali. D P. 393. According to Kautilya Arthasastra mund and jațila (probably Buddhists and Jainas) had access to the harem. 1349 (a) Rajaram Narayana SALETORE-Life in the Gupta Age. Bombay, 1943, P. 103. Meeting with a Digambara Jain thought inauspicous (Bana's Harşa carita, P. 134). P. 275. Jaina Vihāras were under the supervision of the Ācārya, an ecclesiastic officer. P. 439. Gupta type of flat roof in the 16th century in Tuluva, and monoliths in the Gupta period became a feature of Jaina art. Page #253 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1212 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY in P. 442. Paucity of Jain imagery a consequence of the decay of Jainism the Gupta empire. Kahumn stone inscription of A.D. 460-1 containing five standing nude figures (FLEET, C. I. I., III, (15) Pp. 67-8). Image of Mahāvīra dated A.D. 432. P. 469. Kșapaņaka (Sidhasena), a contemporary of Kalidāsa. P. 470. Haricandra's (Bhattāra Haricandra) compositions, according to Bāņa, stand out as a Sovereign. Pp. 485-8. Jain logicians and grammarians of the Gupta age, Digambara and Svetāmbaras-Devardhi Gani (A.D. 453). Siddhasena Diväkara (A.D. 533) author of Nyāyāvatāra, Sammatitarka sutra, Siddhasena Gani, author of Tattvärthaţika. Samantabhadra (A.D), 600), author of Gandhahasti Mahabhāşya, Yuktya-nušāsana, Ratnakarandaka, Svayambhu Stotra, CaturvimšatiFinastuti, Akalanka Deva (A. D. 750), author of Aștā-sati, Nyāya-Viniscaya, Akalanka-Stotra Svarūpa-Sambhodana Prāyaścitta. Vidyānanda (A, D, 827), author of Aştasahasri. Haribhadrasüri, author of Samarāicca kaha. P. 489. In the age of the Guptas, Jainism fell on evil days. Pp. 493-4. Survey of Jainism in pre-Gupta times. Pp. 531-3. Features of early Jainism-Jain inscriptions of the reign of Kumara Gupta I ; from Mathura of A.D. 432 ; Udayagiri Cave inscription of A.D. 425; inscriptions of the reign of Skanda Gupta-Kahaum inscription of A.D. 460. Pp. 533-5. Characteristics of later Jainism-during the reign of Harshavardhana- from Dašakumara-carita of Dandin. Pp. 535-7. Jainism in the 8th century. Pp. 556-8. Jain religious institutions-pre-Gupta Jain orders. Different ganas, Sakhas and Kulas, according to Kalpasūtra. Pp. 558-64. Jain orders and institutions of Gupta times --centres of Jainism, Udayagiri, Mathura, Kahaum (Kakubha), Vatagohali (Pundravardhana). Grants of the reigns of Kākusthavarma and Mrgeśvarma. Features of Jain Vihāra life. Page #254 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1273 1350 R. C. MAJUMDAR-The History of Bengal. Vol. I, Hindu Period, Dacca, 1943. P. 9. Description of the land Lādhas (Radha) in Western Bengal in the Achārānga Sūtra (1.8, 3) and one Upānga (I.A. 1891, p. 375) - Tāmalitti (Tamluk) and Kodivarisa (Bangarh). P. 11. Ptolemy mentions Tamalites (i.e. Tamralipti). P. 17. Hemachandra identifies Harikeli with Vanga. P. 22. Tamralipti formed part of Vanga in the times of the Jaina Prajñ āpanā. P. 36. Early Jain tradition records that Mahāvīra travelled through Western Bengal, but was not warmly received. P. 207. Some epigraphic records refer to Jain teachers of the Sena' family, settled in Karnataka. Perhaps the Senas of Bengal belonged to this Karnataka family of Jaina teachers. P. 293. Earliest mention of Sumha (Subbhabhumi) in Āyāranga Sutta; no early Jaina record discovered in Bengal proper. P. 294. Hiuen Tsang refers to Jaina ascetics (Watters, II, 184-91). Pp. 409-11. Jainism in Bengal. P. 410. A set of Jain traditions show that Jainism spread in North Bengal and in portions of lower Bengal already before the 2nd century B.C. Erection of images of Pārsva and other Tirthankaras is spoken of in some Gupta inscriptions (C.I. I, III, 68, 259). Paharpur copper-plate of the year 159 (478-9 A.D.) testify to the existence of a Jaina Vihāra at Vața-Gohali. It was established in the 4th century A.D. at Paharpur. P. 411. Nirgranthas formed a large sect in Northern, Southern and Eastern Bengal in the 7th century A.D. They disappeared in the subsequent period. Immigrants from Western India established Jainism in parts of North Bengal during the Mohammedan period. P. 425. Decline of Jainism in Bengal during the 7th century A.D. P. 426. No Jain king of Bengal is known. Page #255 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1274 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 464-5. Jain images in Bengal--those of Tirthankaras, their attendants, Yakshas and Yakshinis most important images found at Dinajpur, Midnapore, Bankura. Collections in VSP and Rajshahi Meseums. P. 490. Plan of the earlier Jain Vihara. P. 507. A four-faced (chaturmukha) Jaina temple existed at Paharpur. Some temples at Pagan in Burma are an adaptation of the chaturmukha shrines of the Jainas. P. 533. A characteristic of the art of Bengal in the Pala-Sena period-Buddhist Jains or Brahmanical dieties have well established iconographic types which are never transformed, except in minor details. 1351 George DUNBAR--History of India, Vol. I. London, 1943. P. 24. A note on the Tirthankara Mahāvira and Jaina doctrine taught by Pārsvanāth and Mahāvira. P. 25. Karma doctrine, Mahāvira's life; Jaina literature. Later Jain history. P. 26. Arts and sciences of the Jainas. Superficial points of resemblance between Buddhism and Jainism. 1352 of India, Narendra Krishna SINHA and Anil Chandra BANERJI-History Calcutta, 1944, Pp. 71-6. Career of Mahävira-Doctrine and early history of Jainismsacred and non-canonical literature of the Jains. 1353 A. C. BANERJEE--Rajput studies-Calcutta, 1944. P. 54. Tirthakalpa-a Jain manuscript of Jinaprabha, mention of conflict between Samarsingha and Sultan of Delhi referred to in the above ms. Page #256 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1275 1354 MORELAND and CHATTERJEE --A short History of India, 1944. P. 41. Disciples gathered round Mahāvīra who was welcomed at the court of Magadha and elsewhere but Jainism never became an important factor in Political history. P. 42. In early period the significance of Jainism as of Buddhism is religious rāther than political. The success of Mahāvīra and of Buddha was due in their first instance to their personal quality and later to the qualities of their disciples.: P. 43. It is not improbable that a long struggle existed between the priests and the kings which marked the period before Mahavira and the Buddha became ascetics and denied the authority of the Brahmanas and thus separated themselves definitely from the priestly tradition. P. 109. Jains in the far South were persecuted by Pāndya king who had been converted from the Jaina faith to the worship of Siva. 1355 Moti CHANDRA-The history of Indian costume from the 3rd century A.D. to the end of the 7th century A.D. (Journal of the Indian society of Oriental Art, Vol. XIII, Benares, 1944). P. 5. Practice of importing foreign slaves corroborated by Jain sources dated before the Gupta period-list of foreign slaves in the Antagadadasão. Pp. 26 40. Information about Indian costumes and textile materials from the Jain canon-Chedasūtras ; monastic as well as laymen's costumes ; leather used in making shoes, Jain monks allowed to wear shoes for certain purposes. Pp. 94 95. Literary sources of the costumes Bịhat-Kalpa-sūtra by Jinadāsa Gani Kșamāśramaņa (Gupta period). 1356 A.P. KARMARKAR -Cultural Aspect nf Medieval Karnataka. (QJMS. Vol. 34, No. 2 & 3, 1944, Bangalore). P. 142. The Gangas of Talkad : C. 4th Cent. A.D. to 10th cent. A.D. The Gangas belonged to the Kānvāyana Gotra and the decendant of the Ikşvāku dynasty and of Solar descent. The foundation stone of the empire was Page #257 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1276 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY laid in about the 4th century A.D. mainly at the initiation of the Jain Acharya Simhanandi (E.C. VIII, No. 35; II S.B. 54; I.A. XII, P. 20; S.I.I. II, pp. 33, 87 of 2nd Ori. Con. Pro. P. 301). 436 A.D. (?) Vişnugopa-He set aside the Jain faith and replaced that of Vişnu. 450-500 A. D. Tadangala Nadhava-a worshipper of Tryambaka; he endowed many grants to the Jain temples 520-540 A.D. Avinita-He was brought up as a Jain. His preceptor's name is Vijayakirti (E C.X. Mr. 727). P. 143. 510-600 A.D. Durvinita - One of the most remarkable monarchs. His preceptor was Pujyapäda, the famous grammarian (E.C. XII; Tm, 23). In his later years he worshipped Vişņu (E.C. IX, Di. 68) Musakera (Sri Vikrama) - It was since his reign that Jainism attained the status of a state religion, P. 143. 853-869. Erayanga Nittimargga-The later Gangas since Butuga came under the influence of the Rāstra Kūtas (i.e. Butuga, onwards). During the reign of Rāchamalla Satyavākya, the influence of Jainism was reviewed. 985 A.D. The collosal statue of Gommataräya was built in 985 A.D. by the famous General Cāmundarāya. 1357 K. M. MUNSHI --The Glory That Was Gurjaradesa: Part III. The Imperial Gurjaras. Bombay, 1944. P. 9. Gurjaradesa according to Jinasena's Harivamsa (783-84 A. c.) P. 20. The Chälukyas of Patana were the only rulers in India who gave an honoured place to the Svetāmbara Jain Sadhus. One of the great Imperial Gurjaras, Kumārapāla, had for his guide, philosopher and friend one of the greatest Sadhus, Hemachandra, in his court. P. 46. Buddhism and Jainism, with their deep sympathy for the masses, had greater appeal for the Vaisyas. The Sadhus drawn from all sections of society, by their learning and piety provided a cultural force which stood away from Brahminical influence, though at the top the Sadhus shared the higher cultural heritage of Dharma. This was no where more apparent than in Gurjaradesa, Saurāṣtra, Anarta and Lāta. and Jainism, as Popular forces brought P. 48, Pāśupata cult, Buddhism millions within the fold. Page #258 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1277 P. 56. In 783 Ac Jinasena in his Harivamsa Purāņa says : Indrāyudha protects the north, Srivallabha, the son of Krşņa, the south ; Vatsarāja, the lord of Avanti, the east and Varāha or Jayavarāha the West. Five years later Udyotana Sūri in his Kuvalayamālā states that Vatsarāja ruled at Jhalor. Pp. 67-69. Fall of Pañcāsara in North Gujrat (in 696 A.C.) according to Prabandha-cintāmani Merutunga and foundation of Anahilavāda in 765 A.C. according to Jinaprabha and Haribhadrasūri ; Ancestry of Mülarāja 942 AC. the Cālukya king according to Jayasimhasūri's Kumära-pāla carita. P. 80. Merutnga wrongly mentions Bhoja, the Parámara, it must be Bhoja the Pratihāra. P. 114. King Munja, his adventures according to Merutuñga and Hemachandra. P. 131. Durlabharāja (1009 to 1022 A.C.) was the first Cālukya who admitted Jain Sadhus to his court at Anahilavāda. P. 136. Two references of the sack of Somanātha in Jain works--one by Dhanapāla and the other by Jinaprabha Sūri in his Vividha-tirtha-kalpa (1308 A.c.). P. 152. The Paramara king Bhoja the magnificent, cherished Dhanapāla a fantic Jain as a treasure. Pp. 159-160. Hemacandra's impressions of king Jayasimha are found in the Duyasraya, Siddha-Haima, Deś inamamála and Chandonuśāsana ; Jayasimha holds an assembly in 1125 AC, in which the Svetāmbara Sadhu Devasūri according to Prabhāvaka-carita. P. 176. Siddharāja (Jayasimha Siddharaja--1096 to 1143 A.C.) inspired Hemachandra to write the grammar Duyāśraya-mahākāvya, which when completed, was duly honoured by being taken out in a procession on the back of the elephant with the royal insignia of Chatra and Camara. P. 191-192. Kumārapāla embraced Jainism in 1160 A.C. under the advice of Hemacandra and assumed the title of Paramārhat ; he prohibited taking of animal life in his empire ; he erected 14,140 Jain temples. 1358 Buddha PRAKASH-The Rise of Maurya Imperialism. (P. O. Vol. X ; 1945). P. 45. Some references to Jainism. Page #259 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1278 1359 K. A. Nilakanta SASTRI-An Episode in the history of Buddhism in South India (B.C. Law Volume Part-I, Calcutta, 1945). P. 36. Appar's (7th century A.D.) references to Jainas; in: JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) Hymn on Tirutturutti (iv. 42) in V.9; "Have no regard for the faith of the ignorant Kunda Jainas who take account only of what they see". (2) In the hymn on Tirunagai-Käräṇam (vi. 22) v. 10 "6 intelligent mind, do not take for truth the falsehood of the hardy Jainas who have abandoned their homes or the falsehood of the boastful minded Kundar". P. 37. The word Samaṇar, Amanar and Kundar in Tamil are used to denote Jainas (saints). Nambi Andar Nambi (end of 10th century A.D.) in whose works (Aludaiya Pillaiyar Tirukkalampakam, V. 8 and Tiruvandadi V. 28) are found frequent references to the Kundar. Jñanasambandar (7th century A.D.) in the hymn on Kilait Tirukkäṭṭup-palli (T, 5, 10) refers to Kundar as those who cover their bodies with clothes coloured with bright red ochre and eat their meal in the forenoon. P. 38. Sundaramürtti in V. 10 in the Devaram on Tiru-välkoliputtär says, "the Jains (Samanas) eat their meal standing". P. 39. Attitude of intense hostility to the Jainas is proved from Sundarmurtti's hymn called Namakkaḍigal-ägiya adigal, verse 9, which says; our Lord God to be touched by reproaches from these Jainas who are lost to all sense of shame, viz. Namaṇanandi, Karumavira, Darumasena and the rest of them, who stand erect with no clothes on their bodies like some foul smelling bullock, and mutter (unmeaning formulae sounding like) namana-nanana-nananonam? Pp. 33-42. Jains also in their turn reciprocated the hatred directed towards them-Sambandar refers to the Jain's intolerance of Saivas in rather strong terms; in III 108, V. 8 (Madura) he says-the Jains who would not ever stand in the direction of the wind that has touched the bodies of persons wearing the holy ashes (Śaivas). Sambandar defeated the Jains in the court of the Pandyan ruler of Madura on the banks of the Vaigai river (see-Sakkiya's Sambandar Puranam V. 901-103)Appar was a Jain and turned Saiva. Page #260 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JUNA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1279 P. 39n. For references to the Jains in Sambandar's hymns see Balasubramania Mudaliyar's Saiva Siddhānta Mahasamajam edition of Sambandar's Devaram (1937) Pp. 60-66. P. 49. Jñānasambandar upheld the cause of saivisms not only against the Jainas of the Pandyan country, but as well against the Buddhists of the Coļa-räjya. 1360 V. R. Ramachandra DIKSHITAR.--Presidential Address: Ancient India. (Ind. Hist. Cong. 9th Sess. Annamalainagar, 1945). P. 176. The efforts of the Tamil saints (Appar, Sambandar, Manikkavasagar, Sankara etc.) led to the final disappearance of Buddhism in the south and for the matter of that in the Indian Horizon. But in the case of Jainism though decay set in, it died hard. Some of the fine monuments of the Jainas still preserved e.g., Indra Sabhā and Jayamalla Sabhä at Ellora, under the Chālukya's patronage, the splendid monolithic temple at Kalugamalai in the Pandyan kingdom. The inscriptions at Lakkundi mention the name of Dāna Chintamani Attiyabbe, a daughter of Mallapa or Mallapayya, the general of Taila II; she flooded the Western Chalukya territory with 1,500 Jain temples; the Ajita Purāna in Kannada of Ranna was composed at her instance. P. 79. With the Kalachuri usurpation of the province of Telingana (1162-82) emerged the Vira Saivism; its leader was Basava, the minister of Bijjala, the usurper; it started as a fanatic sect aiming at the destruction of the Jains. Tamil but also in Kan P. 80. The Jains produced literature not only in nada. P. 82. The Karnata Jains took part in the northern expedition of the Chālukyas of Kalyāni during the reign of Vigrahapāla III. 1361 Anil Chandra BANERJEE-Sidelights on the History of Medieval Mewar. (Ind. Hist. Cong. 9th Sess. Annamalainagar, 1945). P. 147. An inscription of Naravāhana (v.s. 1028, A.D.971) in the temple of Natha near Udaipur describes the guru of the composer of the inscription as the “medicine for the disease of the Syädväd (Jainism), implying hostility to Jainism. Page #261 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1280 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY N-2. Tod says that Mewar afforded refuse to the Jaina and some of the Rāņās gave them special privileges. Inspite of their numerical weakness the Jains occupied very important place in the commercial and political life of Rajputana in Tod's days. P. 148. An inscription (v.s. 1494, A.D. 1438) at Nagada refers to the construction of a Jain temple there. P. 149. An inscription (v.s. 1496, A.D. 1440) at Ranpur in Marwar, tells that Rāņā Kumbha's favourite was 'Samghapati Dharanaka, a Jaina who had repaired and constructed Jain temples. This pious Jain made pilgrimages with the farman of Ahammada, the Sultan (Ahmad Shah of Gujarat--1411, 1441 A.D.). An inscription (v.s. 1654, A.D. 1598) at Sadadi in Marwar refers to the construction of a Jain temple in Raņa Amar Simha's reign. 1362 D. G. MANAJAN.--Historical References to Jainism in Lanka Dwip, The Ancient Ceylon in Buddhist Scriptures. (Ind. Hist, Cong. 9th Sess. Annamalainagar, 1945). Pp. 425-31. From the references in Dipavansa and Mahävansa, the ancient works of Ceylon we can identify the ruins and relics as belonging to Jainism. The Mahāvansa indicates the existence of Jainism in Ceylon before the advent of Buddhism in that country. King Udayan (496 B.C.) probably founded the city of Anuradhāpur. Udayan, a Sisunag, was a Jain, built several Jain temples and Stupa in Anuradhapur. A house for Nigantha Jotyia ; the Nigantha Giri; a Chapel for the Nigantha Kumbandha. King Pandukabhaya rendered great services for the cause of Niganthas ; he founded the city of Anurādhāpur and made it his capital in 437 B.a. King Abhaya built the Mahävihar (Abhayagiri Vihar) on the place of the Arama of Nigantha Giri. To the west of Abhayagiri Stupa at a distance of two or three furlongs, there are two stone idols in Padmāsan ; the bigger idol is nude; the other has one or two slight lines on the chest possibly carved afterwards to make it a Buddhist idol. The Veddas, the aboriginis of Ceylon identified with the Vidyadharas of the Jains. 1363 Suniti Kumar CHATTERJI -Buddhist Survivals in Bengal. (B.C. Law Volume, Pt. I. Calcutta, 1945). P. 75. Both in Upper India and Bengal a comingling of cults among Purānic Brahmanism, Buddhism and Jainism. Page #262 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1281 P. 80. Against Vedism and non-Aryan religions developed Jainism and Buddhism : these themselves did not escape the influence of the Vedic priests and the Brahmans at least in the ordinary religious life of their followers. 1364 C. D. CHATTERJEE-Early Life of Chandragupta Maurya. (From Jaina sources) -- B.C. Law volume, Pt. I. Calcutta, 1945. Pp. 590-610. Life of Chanakya, a Jaina- life of Chandragupta also a Jaina. 1365 V. R. Ramachandra DIKSHITAR-Buddhism in Andhradesa. (B.C. Law volume, Part I, Cal, 1945). P. 346. Buddhism, like Jainism was on all India movement in the centuries preceding and succeeding the Christian era ; whether Buddhism was the earlier movement of Jainism in Andhradesa, is a disputed question. Buddhism in Andhradesa traced from the third century B. C. 1366 A. B. KEITH-The age of the Arthaśāstra. (B.C. Law Volume, Part I. Cal. 1945). The Nandisutra and the Anuyogadvārasūtra of the Jain canon mention the KautiJiya. The language of the Jain canon is far later than the time of the Nandas and if the language could be changed, then the content also was far from secure. Jain tradition also reveals early losses and therefore we have no right to hold that in substance or in detail our present canon goes back to the fourth century B.C. There e views of Jacobi that redaction of the Jain canon and of the Kautiliya fell together cannot be accepted. 1367 K, A. Milkanta SASTRI-An episode in the history of Buddhism in South India. (B. C. Law volume, Part 1, Calcutta, 1945, Pp. 35-49). Pp. 36, 37. Identification of a sect called Kundar, mentioned by the Tamil author Appar, with the Jaina laity-with the Jainas who wore robes as opposed to those who did not. P. 39. Ill-feeling between Jainas and Saivas-Sambandar refers to the Jains' intolerance of the Saivas in strong terms. P. Sambandar has been known to legend and history as an opponent of Jainism. Page #263 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1282 1368 C. D. CHATTERJI-Early life of Chandragupta Maurya. (B. C. Law vol. Part I, Calcutta, 1945. Pp. 590-610). An essay based on Jaina sources, mainly the Sukhabodha of Devendragani a commentary on the Uttarajjhayana, the first of the four Mülasuttas of the Svetämbara Siddhanta. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 590. Birth of Chanakya, and prediction by the Jain saints, that the baby would be a king. P. 590. Chanakya's father Chanaka was Brahman by birth but Jaina by faith. P. 591. The fourteen Vijjāṭhānas (branches of knowledge) according to the Jains. In Jain literatue the term Parivajaka is applied to Brahman and nonBrahman ascetics. P. 595. Non-Brahman Parivajakas, such as Ajvakas, Nirgranthas, etc. lived in organised religious communities. There were codes of discipline for each of the classes of ascetics, such as, the Ayaranga for the Jains, etc. Pp. 595-8. Jain tradition regarding Chandragupta's ancestry. Pp. 606-7. Date of Mahavira's death. P. 609. The date of the Paingas-about 100 B.c. at the latest. P. 609. Representation of Chanakya as a Jain monk Bhattaparinna. (V, 162 Samthara, vv. 73-75). P. 609. Umåsvämin, disciple of Kunndakunda, belonged to the earlier part of the Ist century A.D. 1369 N. C. BANERJEE-Text Book of Indian History. Calcutta. P. 44. Mahavira-a sixth century B.c. religious teacher. Pp. 49-50. Mahavira born of Kshatriya of Kshatriya family of Kundagrāma near Vaisali (c 540 n.c.). Early life and renunciation discussed. Page #264 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Jainas-followers of Mahavira-Parśvanatha last but one of the 24 Tirthankaras of the Jainas. Pärśvanätha evolved the doctrines and the rules of Jainism and Mahavira consolidated it. Tenets of Jainism-materially different from that of Brahmanical systems. Doctrine of Karma discussed. Jainism silent about a personal god and creator-believes in penance and mortification. Compared with Buddhism. Rajputana and Gujrat present day Jain centres-Jains-observance of casteDivided into two sects Svetämbaras and Digambaras. P. 51. Jain traditions, a source of Indian History of 6th century B.C. 1370 B. C. Law -The Kosalas in Ancient India. Calcutta. P. 149. Jain Literature a source of Kosala history-mention of illumination on the Posada instituted by 18 confederate kings of Kasi and Košala, 9 Mallakis and 91 Licchavis on the death of Mahavira referred to in Jain Kalpasitra. "According to Jains the Licchavis and the Mallakis were the chiefs of Kasi and Kośala-succeeded the Aiksväkas who ruled in the time of Rāmāyana" (Jacobi). 1283 1371 T. BHATTACHARYYA-Hand Book of Ancient Indian History, Calcutta, P. 9. Jain chronicles of Guzerat and Jaina sutras, sources of Indian History. P. 36. Jainism-doctrine of Ahinsa, denial of supreme deity, doctrine of Karma, theoritical rejection of caste system mentioned. P. 38. Buddhism and Jainism compared-idea of God, monks of the Jains and Samghas of the Buddhas, caste systems in the two, doctrine of Ahimsa, austerity of them-discussed. Pp. 38-39. Jainism. Buddhism and Hinduism-compared. P. 65. Mahavira-Mongolian by birth according to SMITH. P. 85. Mention of Asoka's dedication of some Barabar Hill caves to Ajtvikas-a Jaina Sect. P. 98. Khāravela-his invasion of Magadha twice and defeat of Pushyamitra who is mentioned in Khäravela's inscription as Brihaspati-mitra. Page #265 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1284 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 113. Buddhist and Jaina art-attainment of advanced stage 225 B.C. - 230 A.D. P. 211. Penetration of Jainism to south dates from Chandra Gupta's ttmesSravana Beļgoļa in Mysore a Jain settlement whence Jainism spread in the south. P. 215. Mention of a Pandya king persecuting Jains. 1372 Kamta Prasad JAIN-The ancestors of Khāravela. (Jain. Ant. Vol. XII, No. I) Ariah, 1946. Pp. 33 to 39. A Jain work “Chitrasena Padmavati Charitra” narrates the story of Chitrasena. King Citrasena of Vasantapura was a ruling chief in the country of Kalinga. He can be identified with Cheta or Chaitra Rāja of the Hathi-Gumphā inscription. Facts and points to identify Chitrasena of Jaina tradition with Chetarāja, or Chaitrarāja the ancestor of Khāravela given and discussed. 1373 K.B. VYASA-The Vikramaditya Problem ; A Fresh Approach—(ABORI. Vol. XXVII; 1946) Pp. 209-236. P. 211. Vikramaditya ruling in Avanti in the middle of the 1st century B.C.according to Jaina Prabandhas. Franklin EDGERTON aptly points out that we do not yet know enough of the history of the period to reject categorically the evidence of Jain tradition-(Harward Oriental Series, Vol. XXVI, 1926, Lxiv). P. 218. see, P. 218-Jain works cited., 1374 Sibendra Nath GHOSAL-The Puranic and Historical references in the Apabhramsa stanzas of Hemacandra. (Jain. Ant., Arrah, 1946). Vol. XI, No. II, Pp. 35 to 40. The Apabhramșa stanzas of the Prākrit grammer of Hemacandra contain numerous references to the characters and incidents of the Rāmāyaṇa, Mahabharata, Purānas and the other ancient literary works of the Hindus. There were frequent interchanges of thoughts and ideas between the different sects and like the Page #266 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Buddhists, the Jainas too, fell back occasionally upon the heritage of Hindu religion and culture. The Puranic characters and incidents discussed in the historical in light. Vol. XII, No. I, Pp. 16 to 26. Text referring to Yamaloka and Yamaṛghini, Laksmi, the Goddess of fortune; Kama, the god of love, Rāhu, Śiva, Gown, Rudra, Brahman, Prajapati quoted and discussed. The Brahma-vaivarta Purana and mentions Jinabara' along with these gods and goddessess. 1375 1285 Benimadhava BARUA-Aśoka and his Inscription. Calcutta, 1946. P. 10. Asoka's gift to Ajivakas, the Nirgranthas and others. P. 56. Jaina author Jinaprabhasüri claims Samprati, son of Kunala, as a great king of Pataliputra as an emperor of India founded Viharas for the Jaina Śramanas even in non-Aryan countries. P. 57. Samprati, the son of Kunala, is described by Jaina and Buddhist writers as the immediate successor of Ashoka. P. 64. Asoka's grand son and successor Samprati came to be claimed in Jaina traditions to have been the Lord of Bharata with three divisions (trikhanda Bharatadhipati). P. 66. The cruel persecution of the Nirgranthas and Ajivaka's attributed to Asoka was against the spirit of the Maurya emperor. P. 85. The eighteen forest kingdoms of Khoh copper plate inscription of Samkshobha may be taken to correspond to the eighteen Vidhyadhara settlements with this sixty towns, associated in the Jaina Jambudvipapannalli with the Vindhya or Vindhya range. P. 108. Beyond the Sringavan (Tienshan) range is the country called Karna varsa or Uttarakuru with the ocean as its northern boundary. P. 109. The Jain work Jambudvipapannatti devides the Himalayas into two ranges namely the greater (Mahāhimvanta) and the lesser (cullahimavanta). P. 130. Description of Jambudvipa according to Jambudvipapannati, Page #267 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1286 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1376 Jawaharlal NEHRU-The discovery of India. Calcutta, 1946. P. 73. Buddhism and Jainism were certainly not Hinduism or even the Vedic Dharma. Yet they are integral parts of Indian life culture and philosophy. P. 83. Jainism emphasised the abstention from life and in certain periods of Indian history there was a running away from life on a big scale. P. 97. The ideology of the Upanişad did not permit to any marked extent to the masses. This led to new movements of materialistic philosophy, Agnosticism and atheism. Out of this grew Buddhism and Jainism and at the period of Rāmāyana Mahābhārata an attempt was made to bring out a synthesis of the rival creeds. P. 127. A little later than the Upanişadic period a strong current of materialism out of which Jainism and Buddhism arose where again an attempt was made to synthesise the various forms of belief in the Bhagavad Gita. P. 128. Both Jainism and Buddhism were breakway from the Vedic religion and its offshoots, though in a sense they had grown out of it. it was tolerant to caste P. 129. Jainism in many way utterly different from and adapted itsef to it. P. 168. Ascetic aspect of life was to grow more important under the influence of Jainism and Buddhism, but it did not change materially the background of life. P. 189. The age which gave birth to Buddha was of tremendous mental ferment and Philosophic enquiry in India. It gave rise to materialism, to Bhagavadgila to Buddhism and Jainism and other current thoughts which were subsequently to consolidate themselves in various systems of Indian Philosophy. P. 197. The idea of non-violence, already present in the Vedas and Upanişadas, was emphasised by Buddhism and even more so by Jainism. P. 198. India was influenced by Jainism which was most other worldly and life negating of all the doctrines and philosophies. P. 199. The emphasis of Jainism on non-violence led to the killing of the soul being considered as lowly occupation for it often resulted in the destruction of animal life. Page #268 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1377 NEHRU, Jawaharlal--The discovery of India, 2nd Edi. Calcutta, 1946. P. 53. Arya Dharma includes all the faiths that originated in India; it was used by Jains also. Sanatana dharma, meaning the ancient religion, could be applied to any of the ancient faiths (including Buddhism aud Jainism), but the expression being monopolized by the Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism were certainly not Hinduism or even the Vedic Dharma. Yet they arose in India and were integral parts of Indian life, culture and philosophy. A Jain in India is a hundred percent product of Indian thought and culture, yet it is not a Hindu faith. 1287 P. 60. Buddhism and Jainism employed the abstention from life, and in certain periods Indian history there was a running away from life on a big scale. P. 71. The ideology of the Upanishads did not permeate to marked extent to the masses and the intellectual separation between the creative minority and the majority became more marked. In course of time this led to new movements-a powerful wave of materialistic philosophy, agnosticism, atheism but of this again grew Buddhism and Jainism. Pp. 92-94. Mahavira and Buddha: Caste-Both Jainism and Buddhism were break-aways from the Vedic religion and its offshoots, though in a they had grown out of it. They deny the authority of the Vedas and, most fundamental of all matters, they deny or say nothing about the existence of a first cause. Both lay emphasis on non-violence and build up organization of celibate monks and priests. There is certain realism and rationalism in their approach; One of the fundamental dectrines of Jainism is that truth is relative to our standpoints. It is a rigorous ethical and non-transcendental system laying a special emphasis on ascetic aspect of life and thought. Mahavira, a Kshatriya (warrior class) was the founder of Jainism, a rebel against the parent religion and in many ways utterly different from it, was tolerant to caste and adopted itself to it; and so it survives and continues in India, almost as an offshoot of Hinduism. P. 122. There was an ascetic aspect of life in India, as there was later in Greece; that aspect was to grow more important under the influence of Jainism and Buddhism, but even so it did not change materially the background of life. Page #269 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1288 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPH Y Pp. 143-44. The idea of non-violence, already present in the Vedas and Upanishads, was emphasized by Buddhism and even more so by Jainism. There was a new respect for life and a kindness to animals. And always behind all this was the endeavour to lead the good life, the higher life. Effect of Buddha's teaching being pessimism towards life, so was the view of Jainism, National background of each country moulded the religion according to each shape--for instance, India was influenced by Jainism which was the most otherworldly and life- negating of all doctrines and philosophies. The emphasis of Jainism and Buddhism on non-violence led to the tilling of the soil being considered a lowly occupation, for it often resulted in the destruction of animal life; Unconsciously this led to the degradation of vast numbers of tillers of the soil--but something inherent in the caste system was responsible for this degradation. P. 168. India, a country of many religions, Jainism and Buddhism had largely faded away and been absorbed by Hinduism. 1378 L. B. KING-The Vratyas and their reference in Brahmanical and Buddhist literatures. (Proc. Ind, Hist. Congress, 9th Session) Allahabad, 1946. P. 109. Vratyas cannot be considered as Magadhas, though some of the Magadhas may be styled as 'Vratyas'. According to JAYASWAL the term Vratya indicated those who had the tradition of the Jains and Buddhas amongst them even before the sixth century B.C. Buddha and Jina (J.B.O.R.S. XIV–P. 26). 1379 M. L. Roy CHOUDHURY--Hindu-Muslim relation during the Mughal period 15211707 A.D. (Proc. Ind. Hist. Congress, 9th Session) Allahabad, 1946. Pp. 288-89. Jain idols were destroyed by a Mughal Governor in Gujrat against Akbar's orders. Akbar removed the restrictions on building of places of public worship and immediately afterwards numerous such places of Worship were constructed. Jain temples were built at Śatruñjaya and Ujjain. Page #270 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1289 1380 R. C. MAJUMDAR and A.S. ALTEKAR- A new History of the Indian people— Lahore, 1946. Vol. vl-- The Vakataka--Gupta Age. Pp. 365-66. During 550 to 900 A.D. the Buddhists, the Jains, the Saivas and the Vaishṇavas suffered from mutual persecution in South India but during the Vakataka-Gupta period (200 to 550 A.D.) the relations of these sects were fairly cordial in the whole country. Drahman Nathasarman and his wife Rami of Pundra Vardhana (in Bengal) were pious Hindus but made grants for the worship of Jain Arhats. Kadamba kings Krishņa Varman and Mrigesavarman made grants to a Jain establishment. The Jains used to respect the Hindus and their teachers. The Guptas were orthodox Hindus but the Jainas paid best tribute to their administration. Pp. 390-394. Jainism. Svetāmbaras convoked two councils at Mathura & Valabhi to settle the correct texts of the sacred writings (313 A.D.), and the settled texts later committed to writing (453 A.D.). During this period the Jains gave up their prediction for Prākrit and began to write in Sanskrit. Mathura and Valabhi strongholds of the Svetāmbaras and pundravardhana (N. Bengal) of the Digambaras. Jain establishments existed at Kahaum in Gorakhpur district and Udayagiri in Central India. Karnataka and Myrore strongholds of the Digambaras & patronised by the Kadamba and Ganga rulers, Jainism gained firm footing in Tamil country since the early centuries of the Christian era, Naladiyar, Palmoli Nauru and Jivakachintamani-important Tamil Jain works. 392. In 470 A.D. Jains command a special sangam at Madura under the presidency of Vajranandi. Lokavibhaga was composed by Muni Sarvanandi in 458 A.D. in the famous Jain monastry in Patalika (S. Arcot). Kānchi, a famous Jain centre and some of the Pallava and Pandya rulers were Jains. Rivalry between Jainism and Saivism but no mutual persecution during this period. Ritual of Jain worship. Jain procession in the month of Kārtika. The rich patronage to the religion introduced laxity in a section of the Jain monks. P. 393. According to the Digambaras the only surviving portion of the twelve Angas have been preserved in the Shatkhandāgama, Kashāyapāhuda and Mahabandha-composed towards the end of the 2nd or the beginning of the 3rd Page #271 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1290 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY century A D., they deal with the doctrine of Karman and the causes of bondage which tie down the soul to Saṁsāra. P. 393. Jain religion and philosophy are conservative. Umasvāti composed (in c 200 A.D.) Tattvārthadhigamasutra. During this period (Vakatak-gupta) Jain philosophers for the first time began to offer rational explanations fur their religious dogmas and tenets. Siddhasena Divākara (5th century A.D) father of Jain logic, he wrote Sanmati-larka and Nyāyāvatāra. vāsa) in P. 467. Paintings in the cave temple Sittannavasal (Siddhanam Puddukkotai state executed in the time of Pallava Mahendra-varman. 1381 A. GHOSH-The Pottery of Ahichchhatra, District Barully, U.P. (Ancient India, No. I. Delhi, 1946). P. 37. Ahichchhatra, the capital of the Kingdom of North Pāñchāla. The ruins of Ahichchhatra are situated about half a mile to the north-east of the village of Rämnagar which is even now known to the Jainas as Achchchhatra. 1382 H. G. RAWLINSON- A concise History of the Indian People, 1946. Pp. 29-30. Jain and Buddhist teachings. P. 79. Buddhism left India having signed a mark on the Buddhism whereas Jainism survived. P. 91. Causes of Mohammadan success-Buddhism and Jainism by their doctrine of Ahimsa had made bulk of the people peace loving and unwarlike. P. 101. Decline of Buddhism under Cālukya dynasty and replacement by Brahmanism and Jainism. Ganga dynasty of Mysore patronised the Jainas. P. 104. Vira Saivas or lingayātas were founded by Vasava, a Brahmin minister of uprising Rāja named Bijjala as a revolt against Brahmin priesthood and heretical doctrines of Jainism. Another version is that Vijjala, a, Jain, persecuted Lingayatas and was assassinated. Lingāyatas reject Brahmanism and the authority of the Veda. Hoysalas were Jains. But their successor Vişnuvaradhana was a convert Vaişnavism by Rāmänuja. P. 110. Jain migration to South in Mysore, about 309 B.C. P. 117. Religious reformers Sankara and Rāmānuja overthrew the heretical sects of Jainism and Buddhism by their teaching. Page #272 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1291 1383 V. RANGACHARYA-The Play of Imperialism in Kannada History & some of its cultural effects. (Journal of Indian History Vol. XXV. Part I, No. 73-Trivandrum April, 1947). P. 12. Making of a grant to Jains, and instituting an eight-day-Jinendra festival by Ravivarman Kadamba. P. 16. Mention of the excavation of a Jain cave near Badami by Manga lisa. P. 17. Pulakesin II patronised the Jain scholar, Niravadya Udayadeva, a pupil of Pujyapāda, the probable author of Jainendravyākarana and gave him a village. P. 24. Mention of Attiyabbe, widow of Nāgadeva, installing 1,500 Jain images, endowing lands to a finalaya and to a Jain scholar Nāgadeva Pandita. P. 27. Contributions of Hoysalas were immense towards Vaišnavism Jainism (1141.1218 A.D.). and 1384 Dasharatha SHARMA--Kumärapala Chalukya's war with Arnaraja of Sakambhari (Bharata-Kaumudi, Part II, Allahabad, 1947). Pp. 875.886. Jaina emperor Kumārapāla defeated Anna, Anaka, or Arnorāja Sākambhari ; Heniachandra, the author of Doyaśrayamahakāvya is the earliest writer on this war; other writers-Abhayatilakagani, Merutunga, Jayasimha Sūri, Jinamandaņa and Charitra-sundara, Prabhāchandra. 1385 Pr. Hirananda Sastri--A new source of Indian history ; The Vijñaplipatras (BharataKaumudi- Part II, Allahabad, 1947. Pp. 765-768. Kshamāpanā or Vijñaptipatras are letters of solicitation and invitation sent by the Jains to their gurus especially on their new years day (concluding day of the Paryushana ) - they may be addressed by individuals to friends or by one Jainasangha or community to another; in these mention is made of the ruler of the country, of his capital and chief exploits ; contain illustrations of the Bazara, streets, mansions, act; they allude to historical, religious, social matters, invariably written in the form of a scroll (see ancient Vijñaptipatras, by Dr. H. SASTRI, Baroda State, 1942, pp. 1-80, Plates l-xv III). Page #273 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1292 JAINA BIBLIOCRAPHY 1386 H. C. SETH--Mahavira Nirvana and some other important dates in ancient Indian History (Maratha Kaumudi --Part II, Allahabad, 1947). Pp. 817-838. Traditional chronology of the Svetāmbara sect puts Mahāvīra Nirvana 470 years before the Vikrama era i.e. 528 B.C.; CHARPENTIER (Cambridge History of India, vol. I, p 155 and JA, vol. XLIII, pp. 118 ff puts it in 468 B.C. The Digambaras record, that 605 years elapsed between Mahāvira Nirvana and the Saka king. Gardabhila may be identical with Khāravela of the Häthigumphā inscription and Vakradeva of Khāravela's dynasty may be the famous Vikramaditya. Mahāvira's Nirvana should be in 488 B.C. 1387 Sikendra Nath GhosAl-The Purānic and historical references in the Apabhramsa stanzas of Hemacandra. (Jain. Ant. Vol. XII, No. II), Arrah, Pp. 76 to 87. There is only one historical character called Munja who is more well known by the name Vākpatirāja Paramāra (970-973). The sentiments of the Rajput women studied. 1388 (Jain. Ant., Vol. XII Kamta Prasad JAIN-Some Jaina kings and ministers. No. II), Arrah, 1947 Pp. 53 to 58. Narrations of a few Jaina kings and ministers requiring investigation and compilation. Minister Krsnäditya and others (1257 A.D.). Seats of Chauhān Rajputs was at the flourishing town of Chanda wār or Chandawāda in the district of Agra. The members of a house of Lambakanchuka Jainas of Chandwära held the office of minister of these kings. Kļşņāditya belonged to this very house of Lamedru Jainas. King Aharamalla fought out victorious battle against the Muhammadan invaders with the aid of his minister Krsnāditya. Minister Subhata (1277 A.D.) Mahā Rāwal Sri Chachiga was the ruler of the whole territory of Srimala country. (Kathiawada) during the thirteenth century. A worthy ruler Subhata was devout Jain. Minister Vāsādhara (1398 A.D.) descendants of minister Krsņāditya lost the the patronage of the kings of Chandawāra and they were replaced as ministers by another house of Jaiswala Jainas of that town. Vāsādhara was renowned for his pity and devotion to Lord Jinendra. Page #274 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Minister Punja (1505 A.D.) flourished at Mandir near Dhar in Central India when King Nasiruddin was ruling. He succeeded the Muslim minister Mallik Mafar. Upheld by the Hindu and Musalmans alike he was a devout follower of Jainism. Raja Bharamalla (1605 A.D.) was the ruling chief of Kaccha and he adopted the vows of Jaina layman. 1293 Rājā Bharamalla of Nagaura, a contemporary of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, belonged to the Śrimäla sect of Rakyani gotra. He was devout Jain belonging to Japagachcha of Nagaura. Diwana Tarachanda (1672 A.D.), a minister of Sardara Alaphakhana ruling at Fatehpur, observed the rules and vows of a Jaina layman. Raghava and Raghunatha (1778 A.D.). Ministers of king Sawanta Singh ruling at Deogarh in the Malava country in the 18th century A.D. They were seious of the Hirmada Jainas. of Deogarh. 1389 D. KUMAR "The Rise and Progress of Jainism". (Jain. Ant., Vol. XIII, No. I), Arrah, 1947. Pp. 32 to 41. The end of the sixth and the beginning of the fifth century B.C. was a period of great religious activity in Northern India. A number of monastic orders sprang up prominent among them being Jainism, Buddhism and the Ajtvakas. For nearly five centuries after the death of Mahavira, Jainism was making rapid progress in Northern India. Bhadrabahu led the Jain Migration to the South. End of the 5th century A.D. and the opening of the 6th is the period of the Kalabhra invasion and occupation of the Pandyan Kingdom of the South. Dravidians in origin the Kalabhras embraced Jainism from the moment they came to this country. The Kalabhras were invited by the Jainism from the moment they came to this country. The Kalabhras were invited by the Jains into the Chela, Chora and Pandya kingdoms to establish Jainism firmly. The period beginning from the 6th century A.D. is marked by a revival of Brahmanism affecting greatly Buddhism and Jainism women stalwarts to the cause of Jainism mentioned. 1390 R. MAJUMDAR. CHOWDHURY and DATTA-An Advanced History of India. London, 1943. P. 59. Both Vardhamana and Buddha preached their doctrines during the reign of Bimbisära. Page #275 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1294 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 62. The total duration of Nauda line was 155 years according to Jain texts. P. 70. For North-East India the most useful information is to be found in early Pāli canan and the sacred books of the Jainas. P. 73. Jain writers refer to the use made by Ajātasatru of Mahāśila Kantaga and Rathamussala. P. 74. About republic some details are given by works on policy as well as the sacred literature of the Jains. P. 75. Jain texts seems to limit the title af Rāja to nine persons only. P. 82. The idea of Kalpa vskṣa occurs prominently in the Indian literature including that of the Jainas. P. 408. Literary conditions under Turks-Afghans, marked by literary production of Jaina literature secular as well as religious. 1391 A. N. UPADHYE-A Pattavali of Senagana. (J.A., XIII 2, Pp. 1-9, Arrah, 1948). This paper presents with a few critical introductory remarks an unpublished Pațțavali of the Senagana in Sanskrit from a single Ms. ; and it is accompanied by an Index of proper Names. 1392 A. N. UPADHYE-Kings and Dynasties mentioned in the Tiloyapannatti (Jubilee Number of the J. of the Asiatic Society of Bombay: In Press). This paper discusses the various references, to kings and dynasties mentioned in the Tiloyapannatti which is assigned to a period between A.D. 473 and 609. 1393: M. Somasekhara SARMA--History of the Reddi Kingdoms. (Circa 1325 A.D. to Circa 1448 A.D.), Waltair, 1948). P. 460. Education : From time immemorial the brahman, agrahāras, mathas, and temples, the Jain basadis and the Buddhist Monasteries, had been the acknowledged national educational institutions for imparting knowledge to the pupils of the respective religious persuations. Page #276 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1394 R. D. BANERJEE-Prehistoric Ancient and Hindu India. Calcutta, 1948-(Reprinted). Pp. 51-57. Jainism its origin and development. Päriva the predecessor of Mahavira lived in the eighth century B.C. He taught the four supreme commands: (1) not to injure life, (2) not to tell lies, (3) not to steal, and (4) not to possess any property. 1295 Mahavira added a fifth, chastity. Päráva allowed robes but Mahävira enjoined complete nudity. P. 54. Family of Vardhamana; legends about his birth; mendicant life of Vardhamana. P. 55. Vardhamäna as teacher; relation between Jainism and Buddhism; rivalaries between the Ajivikas and the Jains. P. 56. Nandas were Jains; Udayin the last king of the Saisunaga dynasty was a staunch Jain. Buddhism failed to become a popular religion till its advocacy by Asoka. The Maurya emperors were Jains; cause of the Schism-the Digambaras and the Svetämbaras. P. 57. Samprati, a grandson of Asoka, a patron of Jain The Svetämbara sect confined to Rajputana and Western India while Bengal, South Bihar, Chotanagpur, and the whole of central India, Maharashtra, and southern India contained thousands of the Digambaras; Jain Sarākas (Śravakas) in Orissa. P. 62. Buddha's teaching simpler than Jaina's. Bimbisara married Chellana, the daughter of the Lichchhavi prince Chetaka and first cousin of Mahavira Vardhamana. P. 69. Even after the formation of New Rajagriha, the holy places inside. the old Rajagriha continued to be visited by pilgrims both Jain and Buddhist, upto the twelfth century A.D. P. 72. Reference of the Nands in the Hathigumphä inscription of Khâravela -excavation of a canal by a Nanda King in the year one hundred and three of the era of the Nandas; who also brought away an image of a Jina from Kalinga. P. 90. Chandragupta Maurya was a Jain, died after a reign of twenty-four years, C. 297 B.C. Page #277 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1296 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 91-92. Kalinga a Dravidian Kingdom, where the Jain religion flourished-its conquest by Asoka; Buddhism a path of minor importance (259 B.C.) and its adoption as a state religion gave offence to the Jains the Brahmanas. P. 93. In the 13th and 20th year after his coronation Asoka excavated cave dwellings in the Barabar hills of the Gaya Dist. for the Ajivikas. P. 97. The introduction of the new religion (Buddhism) diverted to his propagation a good deal of revenue which, before that date, (3rd century B.c.) appears to have been spent on the Jain and the Brahmanical religions. P. 103. Samprati, son and successor of Daśaratha (Maurya) is famous in Jain tradition as a Jain and the dedicator of thousands of Jain images. P. 106. Khārvela's invasion of Magadha : Khāravela defeated the army of Pushyamitra at Gorathagiri or Barbar Hill, and raided the old capital, Rājagriha, Khāravela invaded Magadha once more and defeated Bahasatimitra (Pushyamitra). The repeated incursion of Khāravela in Magadha weakened the Sungas. Pp. 115-117. The Chetis of Kalinga-extent of Kalinga--Hāthigumphā inscription of Khāravela-khāravela's accession-Khāravela's training-invasion of the Deccan, Public works--First campaign in Magadha- Invasion of Northern India (Bhāratavarsha)-fall of Pătaliputra. P. 130. In Mathura the Jain religion flourished during the reign of Kanishka I, and many Jain images were made by local artists. Pp. 134-35. In the last centuries before the birth of Christ Jainism does not appear to have succeeded in making any fresh converts. The large number of Jain records discovered in Mathura during the first century B.C. or A.D. contain hardly any names of Scythism or Greek converts : Jain religion declined on account of it, conservatism. P. 141. In the works of the Mathura School of the Saka period (1st century A.D.) tendency towards schematic treatment is apparent, but it appears to have affected the Jain sculpture more than the Buddhist. P. 143. The Mathura school flourished exceedingly during the reign of the Kushans. Numerous Jain images and Jain stupas were dedicated and built. The inscriptions on them enable to fix their chronology with greater percision than in the case of the products of any other school. Page #278 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1297 No complete building of the Mathura school has survived. The Kankāli Tilā Mound at Mathura yielded the remains of an immense Jain stupa. Jain stupas uncommon in medieval and modern shrines, but very common in Northern India in the first century B. c. in form they were exactly like the great Buddhist stupas of Sanchi, Mankiala, or Bharhut, being huge hemispheres decorated on the exterior and surrounded by railings with lofty gateways on the cardinal points. The stupas at Mathura were destroyed by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018 A.D. and the great iconoclast was very forcibly struck by the beauty of the sacred and profoband edifices. Pp. 155-157. Cave Temple of the Jain family of Kalinga. Earliest examples of southern art and architecture are caves excavated by Kharavela, King of Kalinga, and by his relations in the Udayagiri Hill in the Puri Dist. of Orissa, which are also the earliest known examples of Jain temple architecture. The biggest cave at Udayagiri excavated in the second century .c. for the residence of Jain monks. Views of Sir John MARSHALL on the Udayagiri caves (Cambridge History of India, Vol. I, Pp. 641-642)-referred to. The Ananta cave. The later caves on the Udayagiri and the Khandagiri Hills. Artistic inscription of Orissa. P. 174. During the reign of Kumaragupta I, Indian sculpture attained the height of its excellence. The Jain image from Mathura of 114 G.E., i c. 433-the best known example of this period. P. 202. Harshavardhana held quinquennial assemblies. at Prayaga or Allahabad, and Yuan Chewang was present at one held in 643. Buddhists, Brahmanas and the Jains received gifts during these assemblies. P. 205. Mahendravarman I (Pallava), a Jain first converted to Saivism by saint Appăr. Pp. 210-11. The early Chalukyas. In 730 Vijayaditya granted a village. called Kardama to a Jain teacher named Nirvadaya-Udayadeva, who belonged to the Devagana of the Mülasamgha and was a pupil of Pujyapada, the author of the Jainendra-yakarana. The early Chalukyas of Badami were orthodox Hindus, so the Brahmanical religion revived and Buddhism declined in the Deccan. The Digambara Jainism, however, became the favourite faith of the masses. Pp. 214-215. Amoghavarsha I, the greatest king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty turned Jain and became one of the most liberal patrons of the Digambara sect. He was the disciple of ascetic Jinasena, the author of Parivablyudaya. Jayadhavala Page #279 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1298 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY was composed in 837. In the Jain mathematical work Sarasamgraha of Viracharya, Amoghavarsha I, is called a follower of the Syadvada doctrine. He himself composed the Ratnamalika, which exists in a Tibetan translation. He reigned for sixtythree years and was succeeded by his son Krishnaraja II. P. 222. The temples of Aihole and Pattadkal. The Jain temple near the temple of Virupaksha resembles Dharmaraja's rath at Mamallapuram. P. 222. Ellora. The extreme left of the Ellora Hill is occupied by Jain caves. These are full of decorative details which tire the eye. P. 241. An image of Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara, was dedicated, during the reign of Madanavarman Chandella twelfth century, in the Jain temple at Khajuraho and is still worshipped. P. 247. Ardhamāgadhi a literary dialect used by the Jains in their sacred books. P. 250. Hemachandra Suri was the adviser of Siddharaja Jayasingha and Kumārapāla. Hemachandra was born at Dhandhuka in 1088 and died in 1172. He wrote a large number of works. Ajayapăla distrusted the Jain ministers of Kumārapāla. P. 251. Vastupala was the minister of Viradhavala and his son Visaladeva. He and his brother Tejahpala built a magnificent temple at Delvada (Dilwara), near Mount Abû, in 1230. In 1232 they built another temple of the Tirthankara, Neminatha on Satruñjaya Hill, and a third on the Girnår Mount. P. 272. The Lingayats. Vasava founded the Lingayata sect who practise a new variety of the Saiva religion, they do not recognize Brahmanas or caste. Jayasimha II (10th century-Western Chalukyа King), was converted from Jainism to this new sect. P. 288. The Hoysala Vishnuvardhana's queen Santaladevi erected a Jain temple at Śravana Belgola. Hulla, a minister of Narasimha I (son of Vishnuvardhana), was a great patron of Jainism, and the Hoysalas have left splendid buildings at Belur and Sravana Belgola. 1395 Nalinaksha DUTT--Presidential Address, Eleventh Session, Delhi of The Indian History Congress, 1948. P. 40. Nandas and Chandragupta: If the Jain tradition about the retirement of Chandragupta to the South can be accepted (Advanced History of India, Page #280 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1299 by R.C. MAZUMDAR), then no harm in relying on the statement of Manjusrimulakalpa that Mahäpadma Nanda's leaning towards Buddhism made him unpopular. Pp. 44-46. Jainism : Jainism occupies important place in the studies of our cultural history; lack of good translations of Agamas and lesser interest taken by European scholars, are the main reasons for our inadequate attention to the religion; the Agamas and their commentaries were recast and revised about the sixth century A. C. but they contain materials of a much early date; traditionally there were three recensions of the Agamas but so far no attempt is made to separate the strata chronologically. Jaina Myths and legends derived from the Indian traditions and hence a comparative study of the Buddhist, Jain and Brahmanic versions is likely to throw light on the social, political and cultural life of the Indians of the early Christian eras. Jainism did not spread beyond Kausambi, Thaneswara and Saket till the days or Samprati, the grandson of Asoka, when it spread to Sindhu-Sauvira, Surashtra in the west, and to Andhra and Dravida in the south; but never outside the borders of India. Jainism developed a lay-society of its owo; our University should create an interest amongst our students, towards Jain literature. 1396 N. N. GHOSH-On the Chronological Pusition of Khāravela. (Ind. Hist. Cong. 11th, Session, Delhi, 1948). Pp. 58.64. JAYASWAL puts Khäravela in the first quarter of the second century B. C., taking him to be a contemporary of Pushyamitra Sunga. He identifies Bahasatimita as Brihaspatimitra; his argumrnt not convincing (R. B. CHANDA, I. H. D. 1929, p. 595 f. 5a. 26). Khāravela, a contemporary of Satakarņi I, who appears in the Nanaghat and Sānchi inscriptions, both of the first century B. c. The Nandarāja of the inscription identified with Mahāpadma Nanda and not Nandivardhana. Tentative chronology of Khāravela : Birth 29 plus 14 Yauvarājya 43-16 Accession 43-24 C. 43 B. c. C. 27 B. c. C. 19 B. C. 1397 G. B.' Seetharam-Queen Santaladtvi. Bangalore). (Q.JMs, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1948, Pp. 139-143. The qeen-consort of Vişnuvardhana, the great Hoysala Emperor. Santala Devi a flower of Karnataka Culture. Page #281 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1300 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1398 L. A. PHALTANE---New Light on Antiquity of Jainism. (Jain. Ant., vol. XIV, No-I), Arrah, 1948. Pp. 21 to 27. Magga (way) and Maggaphal (fruit of the way) are the two things mentioned in Jainism according to Achārya Kunkunda. Magga means a remedy for liberation and its fruit is complete contentment. The ancient name of Jainism was Marga. The word 'Magga', (Sanskrit Marga) appears to have been in use in several countries of the Asiatic continent. In Persian language 'Maga' used in the sense of a priest. In Canarese also the word is used. Monk (Christian Catholic priest) and Manga are its two different forms. The Saraswat Brahmanas of India name their god of worship as Mangesha. The Burmans use the word Manga in the sense of brother. Makala in Dravidian language means children. According to the Bhavisya Purānā Bhojakas and Magas were one and had many practices of the Jain saints. Makalastill an advanced community in the Dravidian province has been described as ordinary men and followers of Jainism by Jain Rāmāyaṇa. Mongi-Tungi -'Mongi' means sacred or belonging to the sacred religion ‘Magga' and 'Tungi' means a mount or mountain. The joint word 'Mongi Tungi' would mean a sacred mount of the Jains. According to the Jains Rāmachandra attained liberation from this mount. In view of the facts Marge was the name by which Jainism was pre-eminently known until at least the time of Shri Rāmachandra. 1399 (Jain. Ant., R. S. ALTEKAR-Jainism in the Deccan under the Rāstrakūļas. Vol. XV, No. I), Arrah, 1949. Pp. 24 to 31. The period of the Rāshțraküțas was probably the most flourishing period in the history of Jainism in the Deccan. Soon after it Jainism received a set-back owing to rapid spread of the new lingāyat sect. The literary activity of the Jains was also remarkable in this age, and they seem to have taken an active part in the education of the masses. Before the beginning of the alphabet proper the children in the Deccan recite the Jain formula on namassiddhebhyah. Grants were made to the Jains by the Kadambas, the Chālukyas, the Gangas and the Rāstrakūtas who were patrons of Jainism. Many of the feudataries and officers of the Rāshțrakūtas were also Jains. Jain Literature of the period discussed. Page #282 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1301 1400 Harisatya BHATTACHARYYA--Heroes of the Jaina Legends. (Jain. Ant., Vol. XV, No. I), Arrah, 1949. Pp. 14 to 23. Kulakaras -are said to have been the most enlightened men of their times and great friend philosophers and guides of the human society. Parallel to the Vedic conception of the fourteen 'Manu's the Jaina legends give the descriptions of fourteen Kulakaras. Various stages of the progress of the early human race traced with the help of the successive Kulakaras. The Jain account presents the human society in its most primitive state concievable, viz., in the stage when it scarcely distinguishable from a heard of beasts. 1401 K. K. HANDIQUI-Yaśastilaka and Indian Culture. Sholapur, 1949. Pp. viii—540. It deals with some aspects of Jainism and Indian thought and culture in the tenth century A.D. based on Somadeva's Yaśastilaka, a masterpiece of literature. It gives the pathetic story of Prince Yośodhara in a realistic manner based on a domestic tragedy, around which is woven a story of moral and religious edification. Contents Somadeva and his age (959 A.D.), Synopsis of raśastilaka and its sources ; Yaša stilaka—as a Prose Romance, as a Socio-Political record, as a Religious Romance, as an Anthology of Sanskrit verse ; Philosophical doctrines and schools of thought. Jaina Dogmatics and Moral and spiritual discipline; the Anuprekşas (ponderings) and Jaina Religious Poetry ; a controversial dialogue on the subject of animal sacrifice; Jainism and other faiths; Jaina criticism of vedic sacrifices ; Non-Jaina cults, customs and Beliefs ; Jaina religious and moral stories; Myths and legends : Quotations and references. Appendix Somadeva and the Pratihāra court of Kanauj ; the verses on the courtezan's corpse and a Buddhist legend ; Saiva temples and their geographical distribution ; the Kalamukha sect; geographical names ; General index. Page #283 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1302 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1402 .. V. S. AGRAWALA-A review of life in Ancient India as depicted in the Jain canons by Dr. Jagdish Chandra Jain, (J.U.P.H.S. Vol. 22, 1949) Allahabad, 1949. Pp. 228-233. A digest of the varied cultural data that lie embedded in the extensive Jain religious texts, relating to Geography, social organisation, economic conditions, arts, sciences, religion and philosophy. Kinds of cloth ; marriage gifts ; musical instruments architectural terms, dance dramas. 1403 J. E. VAN LOHUIZEN-De Leeuw.-The "Scythian" Period. Leiden, 1949. Pp. 1-72. Chap. I-The eras ; the Amohini tablet (āyāgapata) dated in the year 72. Maurya era counted from the coronation of Chandragupta in or about B.C. 321. Chap. II. The art of north-west India. P. 137. Indra and Brahma with the Buddhists as well as with the Jains at Mathura and in early India in general were relegated to an inferior position about the same as that of Yakşas. The Jains who have retained the old names of these acolytes of the Jina as Brahma and Indra also call them rakşas (Sumangalavilasini, I, p. 264). Chap. III. The Buddha and Jina image in the Kuşāņa art of Mathura. Pp. 147-49. In the earliest times, Jainism and Buddhism did not use images for worship. The first proof of the existence of Jainism (at Mathura) is the inscription .. on the āyāgapța of the women Amohini (fig. 29). These āyāgapatas wire relief plaques made of stone, decorating a stūpa all round. A number of these have been found again by Vincent SMITH at Kankāli Tilā near Mathura, together with many other Jainistic relics (Ar. Sur. Ind. N. Im. Se. vol. xx, 1901). Several of these : ayagapaļas bear a votary inscription mentioning the name of the donor. The āyāgapața dedicated by Amohini is the only dated āyāgapata known uptil now. It shows a female figure, accompanied by some servants. According to BACHHOFER (Die fruhindische Plastik, vol. II, pl. 74 and the description there) she represents the goddess Aryavati. Aryavati a shorter from for ärya (ga) vali; aryavati, a word for the stone slabs put up around a slūpa a parallel to āyägapata. Aryavati āyapata-āyāgapata. This āyāgapața proves the existence of Jain stūpa before the middle of the 1st century B.c. Other āyāgapațas show a decorative design built up of several holy symbols; At Mathura the community of Jains was larger Page #284 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY than Buddhists, the Chinese version of the Kalpanamandiņkā tells us about Kanişka's journey from the Basin of the Ganges back to the North-West India, viz. that the great emperor went through a wide flat country where he saw a beautiful caitya of the Jains, to which he paid homage as the thought it to be a Buddhist stupa. KoNow supposed that this caitya was possibly the same as the one of which the remains have been found at Kankali Tilā. Pp. 149, n. Kalpanamanḍitika by Kumaralāta, translated by Kumarajiva, English translation Ind. Ant. Vol. 32, 1903, p. 385 and in the edition by E. HOUBER, Paris, 1908, Pp. 158--63. 1303: Pp. 150-52. Buddhism and Jainism go together in their expression of art. Both had similar symbols, stupas, decorations, architecture, artistic motives-because both drew on the national art of India and employed the same artists (Ep. Ind. vol. 2, 1894. Pp. 311-23). P. 153. Existence of a prospering Jain community about 57 n.c.; oldest Jina images also originate from about that time. Buddhism strongly influenced by Jainism (B. LAUFER, Chitralaksana, Leipzig, Pp. 17-18. P. 155. In the second half of the 1st century B.c. the Jina was depicted side by side with the symbols which formally substituted him. Pp. 158-59. A relief (text-fig. 10) found by FUHRER at Kankali Tila- accor ding to FUHRER it shows Vardhamäna holding a devotional conversation with a king; it is not Jainistic; it represents meeting of Buddha with king Suddhodana. P. 158. Jina images always completely naked with (often) the Srivatsasymbol on the chest. P. 167. Neither the oldest Jina figures on the ayagapatas show the unisa, nor do the images of the Kusana period, have it; before the Guptas the unisa disting uishes the Buddha from the Jina. P. 219. Dhyana-mudra usual for Jina images. P. 221. In the centre of the space between the two lions (on the base) a scene is represented, showing a number of adorants on either side of a small column carrying the Cakra symbol-this is a special characteristic of Jainistic images. Generally Jainism more tenacious to tradition, becaue it has not been exposed to foreign and strange influences it remained conservative and therefore did not acquire the numerous followers among foreign nations that could have made it a Page #285 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1304 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY world religion--a vicious circle in reverse ; Jainism remained a typical Indian religion, and it maintained some archaic characteristics which Buddhism lacks. Pp. 237-62. Chapter 4. The Post-Kusāna period at Mathura. Various inscriptions on the Jina images and the bust, head and other parts of the images discussed ; after the 100 of the Kanişka era the number for 100 was frequently omitted in the dates. Chapt. 5. Pp. 263---300. The Brahmi inscriptions of the post-Kuşāna period. Several Jain inscriptions discussed. P. 310. Upright Jainistic images of the post-Kuşana period often have a little adorant on either side of the large image, mostly standing on a lower level. P. 330. The story of Kālaka. List of illustrations : Frontispiece. Ajāgapata found at Kankāli Tilā, Lucknow Pro. Museum. 28. Detail of an Ayāgapața (see frontispiece). 29. Ayāgapața dedicated by Amohini. 45. Seated Jina dated in the year 80. 46. Two Jinas, both dated in the year 83. 47. Fragment of a Jina image dated in the year 84. 48. Seated Jina dated in the year 84. 49. Seated Jina dated in the year 98. 52. Fragment of a Jina image dated in the year 62. 55. Seated Jina dated in the year 57. 56. Seated Jina dated in the year 12. 57. Fragment of a Jina, 3rd century A.D. 58. Jina head, 2nd century A.D. 59. Sarasvati image dated in the year 54. 60. Seated Jina, dated in the year 35 or 39. 61. Seated Jina, 3rd century A.D. Page #286 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 62. Seated Jina, 3rd century A.D. 63. Image of Aristanemi dated in the year 18. 64. Standing Jina dated in the year 9. 66. Fragment of a Kušana pedestal dated in the year 47 of Kaniska. Text figures: 22. Jina image dedicated by Kumāramitā and dated in the year 15. 23. Jina dedicated by Sthira and from about the same time as text fig. 22. 24. Jina image found at Kankali Tila. 1404 S. K. AIYANGAR-A History of Tirupati. Vol. I, Madras, 19:0. P. 86. Current popular worship towards Buddhism and Jainism during the time of Alvars of Tirupati. 1405 Amritlal Maganlal SHAH-Prasasti Samgraha (Sanskrit text), Ahemdabad. Contains Pralastis, collected from about 1,500 Jain Mss. 1305 1406 Adris BANERJI-Traces of Jainism in Bengal. (J.U.P.H.S. Vol. 23, 1950) Lucknow, 1950. No. 164-168. Pp. 164-65. Eastern India, the Prachyadesa of the Purāņas, Kikața equivalent to later Magadha. The people of Prachyadeśa were Aryanised by Jains (An. Bh. Ori. R. Inst. Vol. XII, p. 110). Bihar was devided into Anga, Magadha and Kosala; these included districts of Monghyr, Bhagalpur, Patna, Gorakhpur, Gonda, Deoriya and Balliya; with portions of Ghazipur. The term Bengal includes, West Bengal, Eastern Pakistan with the exception of modern Cooch-Behar, and HillTippera. In ancient days they were known as Pundra Radha, Suhma and Vanga. Modern Assam, Chittagong, Cooch-Bihar and Hill Tippera were probably the Kirata-deśa. The district of Tippera and Commila were known as Samatata. The country now known as Orissa was originally included in the three countries known as Udra, Utkala, and Kalinga. Page #287 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1306 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 165. 20 Tirthankaras attained Nirvāṇa on the Samet-Sikhara Pärsvanātha Hill. The name Burdawan in W. Bengal which was included in Uttara Rādha division was derived from Vardhamāna Mahävira, its ancient name being Vardhamāna-bhuktin Rādha. Pundravardhana, now ruins of Mahasthanagarh, in the Bogra district. Kotivarsha, name of a Vishaya in Gupta Times; now a part of Faridapur District, (E. Pakistan). Taralipta a famous port of Sumha country. Pundranagara was the fort of Jainism in the centuries before the birth of Christ-evident from the story of Sumagadha, daughter of Anathapindika, found in the Sumagadhāvadāna in the Bodhi-Sattāvadāna-Kalpalata and the tradition recorded in the Divyāvadāna, that Asoke put to death Nigantha ascetics (Cowell Div. P. 427). Hieun Tsang mentions their existence at Pundranagar (Vol. II, P. 184). P. 166. Pahārpur Copper plate of 159 G.E.-a Mathura inscription of the Year 62, mentions a monk of Rārā (Rādhā). P. 167. According to R.D. BANERJEE, “the Zone of influence extended from the Southern bank of the Ganges and Western Bank of the Bhagirathi right upto the northern frontier of the jungle country, where wild Gonds live and which is the province of Gondawana proper (Eastern India School of Medieval Sculpture). P. 167. Bahulara Bankura Dist. brick temple, image of Pārsvanātha. In the extreme south eastern corner of the Bankura Dist.--Pārsvanātha. Also at Daulb. hirra. P. 168. Dulmi or Dyapur Dulmi is a village 50 miles from Purulia. Deoli another village, about 12 miles from Dulmi, contained Jain temples, sculptureArvanātha. A mile and a half north of Deoli is Suissa, there is a Digambara image of Pārsvanātha. At Pakvirra, 23 miles south-west of Purulia--are fragments of Jain figures, the biggest being of Padma-prabha, Rishabhanātha and a Pratimasarvato-bhadrika-Mahāvir, Sāntinātha, Rishabh, and Kunthunātha. Ambika as Agnila 1407 N. VENKATARAMANAYYA- The Eastern Calukyas of Vengi. Madras, 1950. P. 4. Pampa's Vikramärjuna throws some light on certain aspects of the E. Cālukya history. . Pp. 63-64. Ayyana Mahādevi, Queen of Visnuvardhana I, (Kubja-Vişnuvardhana-624-642 A D.) and mother of Jayasimha Vallabha I and Indrabhattā. Page #288 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1307 raka ; she favoured Jaina monks of Kavururi Gana with a shrine called Nadumbivasti at Bejavādā i.e, Bezwādā (copper-plate Grant 9 of 1916-17). It is not known whether she was herself a follower of Jainism, or built a temple for them; the Vaisnava faith of Kubja Vişnu did not exclude worship of non-Vaisnava deities, Pp. 116 n.1. Pāliketana or the Pālidhavaja banner, the insignia of royalty ; Description of this banner given by Jinasena in his Pūrvapurana (Chap. XXII, vv. 219-38. Indian Antiqury XIV. 1045). Jaina is said to have adopted this banner to symbolise his undivided lordship over the three worlds. Ity=ame ketavo-moha-nir-jjay=Oparjjitā babhuh vibhas=tribhuvan esitvam samsamto=nannya-gocaram (V. 237). P. 163. Amina I (Rajamahendra-922 A...), founded the city of Rājamahendravarama i.e., the present Rajahmundry on the eastern bank of the Godavari to remove his capital from Vengai. P. 190. Durgarāja, brother of Pandaranga II (Supreme commander of the müla-varga or the permanent hereditary forces), figures in the Maliyampundi. Grant of Amma II (A.D. 945-970), as the founder of a Jinalaya at Dharmapuri, for the maintenance of which Aima II, granted the village of Miliyampundi (Epi. Indica. IX, Pp. 55-6). P. 195. Though Ammas (II), personal faith cannot be deducted from his records, he dealt with all the faiths in an impartial manner. The Hindu shrines as well as the Jain basadis were benefited by his magnificient patronage. The Jaina ascetics of Nandi and Addakali-gacchas flourished in his dominions. P. 216. Vimaladitya (A.D. 1011-18), a colourless prince ; the only facts known about him are his conversion to Jainism during his last years and his marriage with two princesses of the Coļa family. P. 283. The population of Vengi as well as other parts of the coastal Telugu country was heterogenous in character. Society was based on caste and even the Jains who originally disregarded it came gradually under its influence and adopted it with certain modifications to suit their needs. Pp 287-89. At the time of the Calukyan conquest three important religions, Buddhism Jainism and Hinduism prevailed in the east coast of the Telugu country. The Tain monks were very active and made a serious attempt to bring the whole country under the influence of Jainism. Deserted images in the ruined village sites all over the country show that Jain settlements were numerous, and an appreciable section of the people paid homage to the Arhats and Tirthankaras as corraborated by the evidence of epigraphy. Several inscriptions of the Eastern Page #289 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1308 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Cālukya monarchs and their subjects record the construction of basadis and temples and register the gift of lands and money for their maintenance. Jainism never a state religion. Some of the Eastern Cālukya kings, especially, Amma II, Rājamahendra, showed considerable favour to the Jaina monks ; but none, with the possible exception of Vimalāditya, became a śrāvaka and embraced the faith of Mahāvīra. P. 291. There were several Jain monastic establishments in the country. The Sarvaiokāśraya-Finālaya, and the Kaļakābharaṇa-finalaya, both built during the reign of Amma II (Ep. Ind. IX, p. 49) were the most important Jaina monasteries ; the former belonged to Addakali-gaccha of Valahärigana, and in the sattralaya attached to it arrangements were made for feeding the śramanas of all the four castes. The latter was built for the benefit of the monks of the Yapaniya Sangha to enable the members of the community to practise their vows undisturbed. P. 293. Literature: Three great Kannada writers, Ponna, Pampa and Nāgavarma I, closely associated with Kamma-nadu which was situated in the neighbourhood of the Rastrakuta dominions ; the first composed his sāntipurāna at the instance of two brahman noblemen Ponnamayya and Mallapayya of Punganur and dedicated to their common guru, Jinendra Candra. The other two were laina brahmins born in Vengipalu ie, Vangipuram in the Narasaraopet Tälug in the present Guntur district. Pampa was the author of Vikramārjuna-Vijaya and Adipurāna, the greatest poems in the Kannada language. Nāgavarma composed Chandombudhi, a treatise on Kannada prosody, and Kadambari an adaptation in Kannada of Bana's great Sanskrit romance. Though these authors wrote in Kannada, their works, especially those of Pampa, exercised considerable influence over the early Telugu writers and stimulated them to essay poezical compositions in their own language. 1408 L. A. PHALTANE--Do. Ancient fain books shed any light on ancient history? (Jain Ant. Vol. XVI, No. II), Arrah, 1920. Pp. 41 to 45. The Tatvārthasitra is the first work written in Sanskrit among the Jains in which all the Jain tenets nre enumerated in Sūtra form. The Naraka beings described in the Third chapter of the Tatvārtha sūtra are no others than the people who dwelt in lands which spread far and wide at one time in the Arabian Sea and which were known as sea lands or Narakas, Page #290 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1309 1409 James Top-Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan or the Central and Western Rajput States of India. Raprinted (Two volumes in one), London, 1950. (First published in two volumes 1829-1832). Popular Edition (two volumes), published 1914. Reprinted 1923. Pp. 18. and 20n. Mt. Soomer is claimed by the Brahmins as the abode of Mahādeva and by the Jains that of Ādinātha, the first Jineswara. Adinātha, the patriarch of mankind. He taught the agriculture. P. 49. The Boodha religion was modified into its present mild form, the Jain. P. 54. The era of last Boodha or Mahāvira is 477 years before Vicrama, or 533 years before Christ. The twenty-second Boodha, Nemināth, a contemporary of Crishņa. P. 76. and n. The symbol of the twenty-third Boodha, Pārswa is the serpent. Dates of Neminātha, Pārswanātha and Mahāvīra are A.c. 1120 A.C. 650 and A.C. 533 respectively. P. 84. Mundawar (classically Mundodari), five miles northward of Jodhapur, preserves sculptures and Jain temples. P. 187. The religion of Balabhi, before it was sacked was the Jain. P. 275. Bhama Sah, the minister of Pertap, was the saviour of Mewar. P. 284. Satruñjaya, one of the five sacred mounts of the Jains. Pp. 413 and 428 n. More than half of the mercantile wealth of India passes through the hands of the Jains. Rājasthān and Saurashtra are the craddles of the Buddhist or Jain faith, and three out of their five sacred mounts-Ābū, Palithana and Girnar are in these countries. The strict Jain does not maintain a lamp in the rainy season, lest it should attract moths to their destruction. Mewar, a refuge to the followers of the Jain faith. P. 414. The necrological records of the Jains bear witness to their having occupied a distinguished place in Rajpoot society. The first law of the Jains like that of the ancient Athenian lawgiver Triptolemns, is 'Thou shalt not kill.' P. 425. Faith of the Hindus suffered much from the Jains. The Jains were hostile and Sancara Āchārya destroyed them, Page #291 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1310 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 426. The Jains, the chief sect of the Buddhists. P. 466. On the 5th day of Asoj the lives of some victims (buffalos and rams) are spared at the intercession of the Nuggur-Seth, a Jain. Pp. 531-532 and 611.-Sumpriti, the fourth prince in descent from Chandragupta, was of Jaina faith and tradition ascribes to him the most ancient monuments of this faith, yet existing in Rajasthan and Saurashtra. The Jain temple at Komuluner may have been designed by Grecian artist. Description given. Pp. 550-551. The temple of Mahāvīra at Nadole, its architecture and sculpture discussed. The Jain faith was once predominant, and their arts like their religion, were of a character quite distinct from those of Siva. Śreņika, a Jain Nadolaye, Balli, Daisoon, Sadri, all ancient seats of the Jains. P. 571. The numerical extent of the followers of Jainism-seven out of the ten and a half nyals or tribes profess it. Pp. 572 n and 613. The symbolic emblems of the twenty-four Jain apostles on ancient coins and medals of Oojein P. 579. Peekar-a town of 1,500 houses, one third of which are inhabted by Oswāl Jains. Pp. 609-612. Ajmer-ancient Jain temple-Urai din ca jhopra--Its architecture analysed and plan discussed. The Toork dilapidated it. a Pp. 620-621. Ahar; an ancient city still possesses some Jaina shrines and Jain inscription. A copper plate at Nadole beginning with a obeisance to Jina P. 630. Mahāvīra. P. 127. Commercial Marts-Bhilawara, Bikaner Malpoora and Palli--commercial men and banners of India-natives of Maroodes and followers of the Jain faith, P. 211. Swroop Sing-minister of Moolrāj-was a Jain. P. 240. Bal-Pol, to the north-west of Jhalore contains a Pārswanāth. shrine of Page #292 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1311 P 297. Sowae Jay Sing laid the foundation of Jaipoor in S. 1784 (A.D. 1728). Vidhyadhur who planned the city was a Jain. Pp. 438 and 439. The humane Jain merchant says, 'to hoard up grain, for the purpose of taking advantage of human misery, may bring riches, but never profit. P. 478. Bharteswar boasts a high antiquity having 750 temples, chiefly of the Jain faith according to local tradition. P. 545. The Bhagairwal Mahajins claim descent from Raja Bheem. The Bhagairwal is one of the "twelve and a half (säri bärä nyal) castes of Mahajins," or mercantile tribes; the greater portion of whom profess the Jain creed. A temple of Pärśwanath at Kuraira with inscriptions dated 1300 to 1350. Description given. P. 550. An inscription at Mawolee dated S. 1737 records an ordinance in favour of the Jains, that "the oil mill of Mawolee should not work on the four rainy months"; in order to lessen the destruction of animal life." Pp. 579-81. Dhoomnar cave. Some of its columns are named after the sacred mounts of the Jains. Entrance adorned with Jain Tirthankaras. Numerous square cells of the Sräwaks or Jain laity and temples dedicated to Thirncars. Pp. 584 and 588. A Jain temple at Jhalra Patun dedicated to the sixteenth Thirncara. An inscription dated the 3rd Jeyt S. 1103 (A.D. 1047) in a Jain temple. Inscriptions dated in the 3rd of Magh, S. 1066 (A.D. 1010), in S. 1180 and on the Thursday, the Mool nakshatra of S. 1289 on funeral memorials (nisea) of the Jain. P. 595. Five Digambara Jain temples bearing inscriptions at Morakuro, about half a mile east of Bijolli. Cheetore-A square pillar called the Khowasin sthambha. 75 feet and a half in height, 30 feet in diameter at the base, and 15 feet at the top dated in S. 952 (A.D. 896) Dysak (sudi) the 30th, Guruwar, dedicated to Adinath and covered with Jain figures. Jain inscriptions in the temple of Shantinatha. Page #293 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1312 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1410 A. L. BASHAM-History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas, London, 1951. Foreword by Dr. L.D. BARNET-Dissent from the Vedic systems of sacrifice and Brahmanic retualism arose and created new preachers. Among the aristocratic clans of the North two noblemen created great churches; they were Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, and Mahāvira Vardhamāna, whom the Jains revere as their twenty-fourth Tirthankara. Besides these the Ājivikas also played a part of some importance. Preface-refutation of HOERNLE's theory of taking Ājivika as Digambara Jain. P. 4. The Ājivikas asceticism often terminated, like that of the Jainas, in death by starvation. P. 6. The three heterodox sects, Buddhism, Jainism and Ajīvikism had much in common, all three rejected the sacrificial polytheism of the Aryans and the monistic theories of the Upanisadic mystics; they represent a recognition of the rule of natural law in the universe like that of their approximate contemporaries, the natural philosophers of Gonia. The system of the Ājivikas was based on the principle of Niyati as the only determining factor in the universe. P. 8. Makhali Gosāla, before his association with Mahāvira, was a mankha (a bard). Pp. 11, 16. Nigantha Nätaputta and his doctrine as contained in the Sâmaññaphala sutta of the Digha Nikāya : "A nigantha is surrounded by the barrier of fourfold restraint How is he surrounded? He practises restraint with regard to water, he avoids all sin, by avoiding sin his sins are washed away, and he is filled with the sense of all sins avoided-So surrounded by the barrier of fourfold restraint his mind is perfected, controlled, and firm. P. 17. The teaching ascribed to Nigantha Nātaputta is very obscure, but as JACOBI has pointed out, while it is not an accurate description of the Jaina creed it contains nothing alien to it. Nigantha identified with Vardhamana Mahävira, the twenty-fourth Tirthankara of Jainism. P. 18. According to Mahābodhi Jataka (V), King Brahmadatta of Benares had among others a Khattavijjavädi (Nigantha) Councillor; Nigantha, in fact the apostle of ahimsa, is here the teacher of a Macchivellian doctrine, resembling the antinomianism of Purana as described in the Sutta passage (quoted above). Page #294 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1313 P, 21. In the Tibetan version of the Samañña-phala Sutta, quoted by RockHILL (the life of Buddha) 'Nirgrantha, son of Djnati' retains his authentic teaching of Karma wiped out by penance. P. 22. ROCKHILL also quotes two Chinese versions of the Sutta. In the first of these, the translation of which is dated A.D. 412-13, we find the Nirgrantha Jñātriputra claims omniscience, as did the historical Mahāvira. The second translation is a little earlier A.D. 381-395. Here Nirgrantha maintains that all is the effect of Karma. P. 27. Makkhali Gosāla considered himself to be the twenty-fourth Tirtbankara. Ascetics referred to as Ājivikas existed before their greatest leader, Makkhali Gosāla. P. 31. Gosāla and Mahāvīra-their collaboration in asceticism and parting for sixteen years. P. 34. The most valuable source for the reconstruction of the story of the life of Gosāla Mankhaliputta and his works is the Jaina Bhagavati Sūtra and Dr. BASHAM has quoted extensively from it. Pp. 35-37. Birth of Makkhali Gosāla according to the Bhagavati Sūlra. Pp. 39-41. Meeting of Gosāla with Mahavira. Pp. 41-47. Peregrinations of the two Ascetics (Mahāvīra and Gosāla). P. 52. Gosāla abondoned speech; Gosala's silence is confirmed by the Tamil text Nilakeci, which states that the defied Markali (Makkhali) never speaks for fear of injuring living creatures. P. 57. Saccaka Niganthaputta converted by Buddha. P. 66. Gosāla lived as an ascetic for twenty-four years, the first six of which were spent with Mahāvira and the last sixteen as a pseudjina at Savatthi. P. 74. Buddha died C. 483 B.C., Gosāla in 484 B.c. and Mahāvīra in 468-67 B.C., according to JACOBI, CHARPENTIER and BASHAM. Pp. 77-79. Svetāmbara tradition places the date of Mahāvīra's nirvāṇa in the year 470 before Vikram, or 528 B.C., while the Digambara traditional date is 605 before Vikram. Pāli scriptures record the death of Mahāvira of Nigantha Nātaputta Page #295 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1314 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY taking place at Pāvā during the Buddha's life time. HOERNLE suggests 484 B.c. for the death of Mahāvira & 482 B.c, for the Buddha. Gosāla called himself Tisthankara, Jina, Arhant, Kevalin and Aptan. P. 80. Samyutta Nikāya (i, p. 66) mentions Niganthu ; the Jaina Tamil poem Nilakeci mentions Pūraņa, the leader of the Ajivikas. P. 83. Purana, like Makkhali, was habitually naked and in the Diuyāvadana (Ed. Cowell & Niel p. 165) ; he is described as a nirgrantha, clothed in the garment of righteousness (dharma-sala-praticchanna) ; the phrase is obviously an euphemism for a state of total nudity. P. 84. Pūrana & Makkhali taught the same doctrine. P. 87. Divyāeadana (p. 865) mentions Nirgrantha. P. 88. Death by ritual suicide was the common end of the Jaina ascetic and similar suicides by Ajivikas. Pp. 96-97. In Sutta-nipata (381), Ajivikas are clearly distinguished from Niganthas but the Sandaka Sutta (Majjh, i, P. 513) seems to embrance all six of the heretical teachers, including the great leader of the Niganthas, Nigantha Nātaputta or Mahāvīra in the general category of Ajīvikas. In the Dhammapada Commentary Buddha-ghoșa describes the ascetic with unsettled mind, who may start as an acelaka, than become an Ajīvika, than a Nigantha and finally a Tāpasa. The Divya-vadāna, in the story of Asoka, seems to use the terms Ajivaka & Nirgrantha synonymously. P. 101. Wandering Sophists and ascetics played the biggest part in the development of heretical sanghas of Buddhism, Jainism, and Ajivikism. P. 106. The early Ājivikas, like the Jainas, extracted the hair by the roots. P. 107. The ascetics called, Ājivika appear usually to have lived in a state of nakedness; Representations of naked ascetics occur occasionally in Buddhist art, but in most cases there is no evidence that these are Ājivikas and not members of the Digambara Jaina order. A figure in one of the Ajantā frescos has been identified by FOUCHER, as Pūrana Kassapa (L'Art Greco-Bouddhique, Vol. II, p. 264 also Journal Asiatic 1909, Pp. 21—3) and this is completely naked. Certain sculptures of the Gāndhāra school, depicting the Buddha's parinirvana, also show a naked ascetic, who seems to be the Ajivika in the act of informing the bhikkus Mahākassapa of the great event (Plate III) - Foucher, L'Art Greco-Bouddhique, Vol. i. Page #296 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1315 Pp. 108-109. Mahāvīra founded his order upon a looser group of ascetics, wearing clothing and by no means strict in their chastity, who looked back to the Shadomy Pāršva Natha, the 23rd Tirthakara. Jainism in its later form, was but a development of the older proto-Jainism of Pārśva. The early Jaina monk, although called acela, was not normally completely nude, but wore a loin.cloth (Acāranga Sutra i, 7, 7, i). The Ājivika seems to have gone further in his nudity than the early Jaina. Neither Mahāvīra nor Gosāla was the originator of the cult of nudity, which must have existed before either reformer commenced his ministry. The typical Ajivika of the early period was completely naked and armed with a bamboo staff. P. iii. Naccinārkkiņiyar, the fourteenth century commentator on the early Tamil grammar Tolakappiyam, quotes as an example an unidentified verse which mentions the existence of ascetics who perform penances in tāli or funerary urns. Dr. KR. SRINIVASAN, who has noticed this reference, states categorically that these ascetics were Ajivikas, who were identical with Jainas (Ancient India ii, p. 9). P. 112. Chinese and Japanese Buddhist literature classes the Ashibikas (i.e. Ajivikas) with the Nikendabtras or Nirgrānthas as practising severe penance. (SUGIURA, Hindu Logic as pre erved in China and Japan, p. 16, quoting Hyaku-rom So, i, 22. The passage has been noticed by HOERNLE (ERE, i, p. 269). Who identifies the Ashibikas with the Digambara Jains). Pp. 118-119. Detailed description of the begging customs of naked mendicants in the Mahāsaccaka Sutta of the Majjihima Nikäyu-in it the Buddha asks the Nigantba Saccaka Aggivesana how the Ajivikas maintain themselves; he replies-- giving full details (CHAlmer's translation, i, p. 238). See also pre-Buddhist Indian Philosophy pp. 167-8 by BARUA. In another passage of the Majjihima (i. p. 77) the same words are put into the mouth of the Buddha himself, when he describes his own ascetic conduct before his enlightenment ; the description of ascetic begging practice as given here, applies to the nude class of accelakas, or naked ascetic which included Ajīvikas & Nirgranthas or Jainas. P. 123. The Ājivikas, like the Buddhists and Jainas were believers in Ahimsā and usually vegetarians; both the Buddha and Mahavira are said to have eaten meat at least once in the course of their careers as religious leaders. (Mahāvira recovered from his illness, after eating the flesh of a cockeral killed by a catBhagawati Sutra XV. Su. 557, fols. 985-6). Page #297 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1316 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 126. The proto-Jainas who followed Päriva, took, no vows of chastity (HORNLE ERE. i, p. 264 being his view on Uttaradhyayana Sutra XXIII, II ff). Their monks were not always strict in maintaining chastity (Satra Kritanga iv, 2 and JAINLife in Ancient India According to the Jaina Canon Pp. 199-202). P. 132. Buddhaghosa's Dhammapad-attha-katha, i, pp. 390 ff. mentions naggasamana, accelaka and ajtika ascetics, Pp. 138-141. Relations between Ajtvikas and Jainas; Ajivikas and Jainas. were originally on good terms and indeed closely related; the near relationship of the two sects is confirmed by the Buddhist tradition. The frequent confusion of terms Nirgrantha and Ajwika in the Buddhist texts also points in the same direction; similarities in the practice and doctrine. Pp. 158-59. The hill of Barabar, called Khalatika in the Asokan inscription was known in the time of Anantavarman as Pravaragiri. It also had another name Gorathagiri and Goradhagiri. Dr. A. BANERJI SASTRI (JBORS, Xii; p. 60) suggests that Kharavela an earnest Jaina, was responsible for the expulsion of the AjIvikas from these caves (Barabar), the mutilation of the inscriptions of Asoka and Dasaratha, and the carving of the facade of the Lomas Rși cave. P. 159. JAYASWAL places Kharavela in the first half of the second century n.c.; the latter half of the first century B.C. is the date now usually favoured for the Kharavela inscription. P. 160. In the third century A.D. Jainism was widespread. P. 163. Description of nagna ascetic (Nirgranthas) in the Vayu Purāṇa p. 78, verse 30. P. 165 Lalita Vistara (ed. LEPMANN, Vol. I, p. 380) mentions Nirgranthas. P. 167. The Digambara Jaina ascetic also carried a staff; Kṣapaṇakas-Jaina ascetics in Pañcatantra. P. 168. Mention of nagnataka or naked ascetic (Digambara) Jain monk in the Hartacarita. Varähamihira's Brahajjataka (for astrological purpose) mentions seven types of ascetics, with the heavenly bodies under whose influence they are born-6th is defined by Utpala or Bhattopala (the tenth century commentator) as-Nirgranthas -the member of whom is a naked ascetic without a robe, etc., (Nagnaḥ Kepanakah pravaran' adi-rahitaḥ). Utpala quotes Kalakacharya of the fifth century--ascetic Kṣapanaka born under Saturn. Page #298 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 175-76. Śilanka, the ninth century commentator to the Sutrakritanga, associates the Ajtvikas with the Digambara Jaina (Botika) & with the lesser Jaina Schism of the Trairäsikas (a schism of the Jaina comunity). P. 177. Trairāśikas sect is said to have been founded in the city of Antarinjika by the monk Rohagupta in A.D. 18. 1317 P. 179. The Catuskanayikas were a small sub-sect of the Jainas, with a some. what unorthodox epistemology. P. 180. The last Dristicada represents a stage in the history of Jainism when sectarian animosity was by no means as it later became. P. 181. Nemichandra on the Ajivikas; Pravacanasär-oddhara (twelfth century work) contains classifications of ascetics including the Ajivikas. P. 184. The Jaina commentator Mallisena whose Syādvādamañjarī was written as late A.D. 1292, knew of the Ajtvikas of the Tamil country. P. 196. There is evidence that Jainism was sometimes severely persecuted by Pandyan Kings (SMITH, Early History of India Pp. 474-5). Pp. 198-201. The most valuable reference to Ajtvikas in Tamil literature is that contained in the anonymous Jaina poem Nilakeci. This poem is a step nearer to the fully developed study of various philosophical systems than the Buddhist Manimekalai. It was possibly composed in the 7th or 8th century A. D. Its commentator, Vamanamuni, lived about the end of the thirteenth century. According to Prof. CHAKRAVARTI (Neelakesi) it was written in the first century A.D. P. 202. Anekantavāda, doctrine of Epistemological relativity. P. 203. Civanana-cittiyar a Tamil Šaivite text composed about the thirteenth century outlines the opposing system of Jainism and others. In this work of the Ajivikas are described as naked ascetics, Actvakan amaṇarkal (Skt. 'Sramaņa), the usual Tamil word for Jaina ascetics-the author (Arunandi) considered the Ajivikas akin to the Jainas. He further states that the Ajivikas practice severe penance and pull the hairs from their heads. Apparently Arunandi had met Ajtvikas who had moved far in the direction of Jainism. Pp. 203-4. Canarese references collected by Dr. K. B. PATHAK (I.A. XLI), Acarasara of Viranandi a Digambara work in Sanskrit of the twelfth century; this states that the Ajivikas will attain the heaven of Sahasrara Kalpa. Vaṭṭakera's Malacara states that non-Jaina ascetics can rise no higher than Sahasrara. Page #299 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1318 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Madhavacandra (a Southern Digambara) commentator to Namicandra's Trilokasāra, disagrees with Viranandi and Vattakera, and, like the Aupapātika Sūtra, forecasts an even more exalted destiny for Ajivika ascetics--i.e. they will reach Acyutakalpa, the last stage before Nirvāņa. This statement is confirmed by the Canarese commentator Padmaprabha Traividya. These passages show that the Ājivika was persona grata to the Digambara Jaina. He is promised a very high place in the Jaina Heavens. This surely indicates that the Jaina theologicians recognised him as akin to themselves and paid him qualified respect. It is also evident that some Ājivikas were being absorbed into Jainism during the middle ages. P. 507. Jainas have never shown marked hostility to the Hindu gods or to the use of ikons in religious cermonies. Pp. 214-215. Plagiarism, is an indication of the close connection of Ajīvikism and Jainism in origin. The Ājivikas had something in common with the earliest scriptures of the Jainas. P. 217. Samayutta Nikāya contains a verse in praise of Nigantha Nātaputta. Pp. 218-219. Comparison between the expression of Ajivika views in Buddhist and Jain texts shows notable similarities--examples given. P. 229. Jaina criticisms of Ajivika determinism are based both on logic and common sense. P. 230. The Jaina commentators give us a better impression than do the Buddhist and Jaina Prākrit texts of the Niyativadin's powers of logical argument. P. 243. Ajivika cosmology. The Ajivikas divided humanity into six groups, classified according to their psychic colour. No. 3 is Red (lohita), Niganthas, who wear a single garment, it probably applies to all monks of a Jaina type. P. 245. The Ajīvika abhijatis have much in common with the Jaina lesyās. Description of the six lesyäs. The Ajivika system of spiritual colours is a general classification of humanity according to creed or occupation, while that of the Jainas classified man's psychic development and virtue; the two doctrines are connected. P. 266. The Ajrvika classification of the elements is nearer to the six Jaina categories of soul, matter, space, time, dharma and adharma. ARUNANDI, the author of Civanana-citiyar (Saivite) looks upon the Ajivikas as on unorthodox branch of Jainism. Page #300 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIPLIOGRAPHY 1319 P. 267. With the Jainas the atom (paramänu) is not differentiated according to elements; it is permanent and unchanging in its substance, but liable to change in its qualities. Atoms are susceptible to taste, smell colour, and touch and combine into aggregates or molecules (skandha). The alom is the minutest seperable portion of the ultimate undifferentiated classification by elements is not fundamental (JACOBI, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, ii, Pp, 199-200; SCHUBRING, Die Lehre der Jainas, pp. 88ff.). Both Dharma and Karma are atomic! jiva, the soul, is not paudgalika or material; Jiva is amurta and arūpa. P. 273. Pūraṇabhadra and Manibhadra are well-known yakşas, popular divinities of the period (Mahāvīra, Buddha) in the Ganges Valley (Northern India). In Jainism they are chiefs of the demigods, Pūraṇabhadra of the Southern horde of Yakşas and Maņibhadra of the Northern. Jainism accepted the reality of the chief Hindu deities, P. 274. The evidence of the Jaina commentators shows that the Ajivikas had their own epistemology and logic, which had much in common with that of the Jaina sect of Trairāśikas. P. 277. One branch of the small Ajivika community was in the fourteenth century merging with the Jainas. This is the substratum of truth in HORENLE's theory, that the Ajivikas and Digambaras were identical, and is the basis of the belief of such Tamil scholars as Schomerus, who quoting POPE, believed that the Ajīvika atomic doctrines expressed in Civanana-cittiyar were the product of an heretical Jaina sect (Der Saiva-siddhanta, Pp. 104-05). P. 278. Gosāla was one time closely associated with Mahāvīra, the Jain Tirthankara, but that later their partnership was broken. P. 284. The doctrines of the Jainas and the Ajïvikas show stronger traces of the animist heritage. P. 285. Buddhism, Jainism and Ajīvikism were a reflection of the changes in the social and economic pattern of the times. 1411 Jyoti Prasad Jain--Remaking of Jaina History. (Jain Ant. Vol. XVII, No. II), Arrah, 1951 ; Pp. 52 to 58. • Jainism was summarily dubbed as a schismatic sect and a branch of later Buddhism. Formerly it was believed to be an off shoot of Buddhism. Hiuen Tsang surmised that, "It was here at Simhapura (Punjab) that the original teacher Page #301 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1320 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY of these white-robed heretics reached enlightenment and first preached the law he had discovered". HORACE Wilson was the first to propound that Jainism was an offshoot of Buddhism and originated in the 7th century A.D. According to ELPHINSTONE, Jainism originated in the 7th century, spread during the 8th, 9th and 10th, reached its zenith in the 11th and declined since the 12th century. Albrecht WELCER fixed the derivation in the 4th century B.C. MAX MULLER and OLDENBERG, admitted that Mahavira and Mätaputta were one and the same person, and that he was contemporary of the Buddha. A. GUERINOT emphasised five great points of difference between Vardhamana Mahavira and Goutama' Buddha. Dr. RADHAKRISNAN says that "The Indian tradition looks upon Jainism and Buddhism as two distinct faiths. Hermaun JACOBI gave a death below to the Buddhist derivation theory once for all. Editors of the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics show how the Buddhists have borrowed from Jainism. The Vrätyas and Kshatrabandhus of the later Vedic literature were the Jain śramanas according to many. Jainism prevailed even before Mahävira and Pārswanatha. Now it is commonly held that Jainism is a very ancient religious system of India which had been coexistent with Vedic religion since the latter's advent into India. 1412 BUDDHA PRAKASH --Poros--(ABORI, Vol. XXXII, 1951). P. 204. In the North-West Gandhara king Nagnajitor Naggaji as an important king (bull of kings) who ranked with Dvimukha (Dhummukha) of Pancala, Nami of Videha, Karakandu of Kalinga and Bhima of Vidarbha (Jataka Vol. III, p. 377) and adopted the faith of the Jainas. In the middle of the sixth Century B.C., Pukkusāti was the king of the king of Gandhara. P. 230. Jain works which refer to the colleague of Chandragupta mentioned. 1413 Y. V. RAMANA RAO-The Expansion of Satavahana Kingdom from Eastern Deccan (QJMS-Vol. 42. No. 4. 1951-52, Bangalore). P. 139. On account of frequent and violent social, religious and political revolutions, the early Telugu literature promoted by the influence of the Jains and Buddhists, irretrievably perished. There is indisputable evidence that emigrant scholars from Vengi promoted the early Kanarese literature. Nannyya, the poet laureate of the famous Cālukyan monarch, Rājarāja (1025-1060) is the reputed author of the first extant advanced Telugu grammar. He is credited with the title of the standardiser of Telugu language. Page #302 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1321 1414 D. R. PATIL --The Cultural Heritage of Madhya Bharat, Gwalior, (1952). P. 9. Peoples and Languages -1,00,234 Jains. The Jains though a little more than one per cent have throughout history played proportionately a far more important role in the life of this territory especially in the fields of industries, trades and commerce. Arts and Architectures : P. 32. Sacred Architecture- 4th/6th centuries A.D. Udayagiri sacred to the Hindu and Jain faiths. The Gupta or earliest temple was an unassuming structure except for its finest sculptural material. It was a simple one room tenement for the residence of the deity. Such temples have not survived in Madhya Bharat exeept the "false cave” No. I at Udayagiri which gives the idea what the earliest temple was like. Religious history as told by monuments : P. 61. Jainism : 89 Jain shrines or temples, so far recorded to exist in Madhya Bharat, the earliest are the rock-cut caves Nos. 1 and 20, at Udayagiri in Bhilsa district. At this a Jain temple existed at Besnagar. In the medieval age of 8th to 12th centuries. Jainism gained considerable following. This is amply reflected in the numerous temple remains at Badoh, Gyaraspur, Bhilsa, Buddhi Chanderi, Narwar, Padhavli, Bithola, Rakhetra, Suhania, Dubkund. Gandhaval etc. Besides these, rock-cut images of Tirthankaras and divinities are also found at Chanderi, Barvani, and other places. Abundance evidence in litera. ture indicating popularity of Jainism in the hay day of the Paramar rule in Malwa. it continued to flourish in later centuries in northern Madhya Bharat as is evident from the numerous and colossal rock-cut images carved on the face of the hill-foot of Gwalior and from the colossal images at Barai, 14 miles away to the north, all of them of 15th century A.D. Brief Directory of important places of Archaeological interest in Madhya Bharat : P. 76. Gwalior-Gigantic Jain Sculptures, 24 Tïcthankaras-one of 57' high. 15th century, when Torman princes were ruling over Gwalior. Pp. 85-86. Padhavli--Mitaoli-ruins of Jain temples ; to the west of the village on the western face of a hill and on its top ruins of Jain shrines with sculptures; other Jain shrines and images around the village. Page #303 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1322 P. 88. Narwar-Jain temples; about a hundred images. in Central India. images. Bhilsa (ancient Vidisha), a prosperous centre of Jainism and Hinduism P.100. Udayagiri- Nos. 1 and 20 are Jain caves. P.106. Gyaraspur - Rajra Matha - All three shrines occupied by Jain idols. Maldevi Temple-The shrine room and the hall, now shelter a number of Jain JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 108. Badoh-Pathari-Jain Temple. Gadarmal Temple-made up from the ruins of different Hindu and Jain Temples. P. 110. Jain Temple-25 shrines-9th to the 12th century A.D. Images of 24 Tirthankaras, Sanskrit inscriptions in cells- 11th century AD. Mandu : P. 117. Loose antiquities on the hill of the Jain Temples. P. 132. Un - Hindu and Jain temples : Chaubara Dera-the Jain images in the hall belong to some other contempo rary shrine and where removed to here. Jain temples at Un-Chambara Dera. II. a good specimen of the Paramara style of architecture. Gwaleshvara Jain temple-3 Digambara images-inscriptions on pedestal -13th century A.D. Archeoogical Map of Madhya Bharat. The text of inscription in cave No. 20 (Udayagiri) : From [D. R. Patil - [The cultural Heritage of Madhya Bharat]. The text of the inscription in cave No. 20 (Udayagiri) : १. नमः सिद्धेभ्य ( 11 ) श्री संयुतानां गुणतोयधीनां गुप्तान्वयानां नृपसत्तमानां २. राज्ये कुलस्वामि विवर्धमाने ष‌मिष्यते वर्षशतेवमासे ( 11 ) सुकार्तिके बहुलदिनेश पंचमें ३. गुहामुखे स्फुटविकटोत्कटामिमां जिनद्विषो जिनवर पाश्र्वसंज्ञिकां जिनाकृतिदभवान ४. चीकर (11) प्राचार्य भद्राग्वय भूषणस्य शिष्यो व्यसावाच्छु रचदेगतस्य प्राचार्यगोश ५. मं मुनेरसुतस्तु पद्मावतावस्यते पर्टस्य ( 11 ) परंरणं चस्यरिपुघ्नमानिनस्य संधि ६. लस्येन्यमि विश्रुतो भुविस्य संज्ञया शंकर नामशब्दनो विधानयुक्त पतिमा ७. - गंमस्थितः ( 11 ) स उत्तराणां सद्दशे कुरुणां उदग्दिशादेशवरं प्रसूतः ८. जयाय कम्मरिंगणास्य धीमान यदत्र पुण्यं तदपासस (11) Page #304 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1323 1415 R. C. MAJUMDAR--Ancient India. Banares, 1952. Pp. 136-38. Kalinga-- detailed biography of king Khāravela. Pp. 176-180. Jainism: Pārsva had a real existence; his life; died eighth century B.C.; Mahāvīra born 540 B.C.; his life; died 468 B.C.; the Jain doctrine; resemblance and contrast between Buddhism and Jainism; history of Jainism; the great schism. P. 229. Ananda a Jain laity possessed a treasure of four crore measures of gold and forty thousand heads of cattle. P. 393. Both Mārasimha and Indra (10th century AD.) became Jaina monks. P. 399. According to one tradition Bijjalla (Kalachuri) a patron of the Jainas was killed by his minister Basava, the founder of the Lingayat sect; acceeding to another Bijjala abdicated the throne in 1168 A.D. in favour of his son Someśvara. P. 455. Religion-while numerous inscriptions of the pre-Gupta period, refer to non-Brahmanical religious sects like Buddhists and Jainas, the great major. ity of the inscriptions of the Gupta period refer to Brahmanical religion. P. 457. Buddhists and Jains doctrine of ahimsā or obstention from the slaughter of animals made such a profound impression, that even today the high class Hindus of the greater part of India are strict vegetarians. P. 458. Jainism--the early Chalukyas and the Rashtrakūtas, as well as the Gangas and Kadambas, patronised the Jaina religion, and it made great progress in the South during their rule; Jainism began to decline in South India from the 7th century A.D. owing to the influence of Saiva and Vaishnavas saints The Hoysalas, too, were Jainas; the Cholas and the Pandyas were bigoted Saivas and persecuted the Jainas. Sundara Pāndya impaled 8,009 Jainas-pictures on the walls of the great temple at Madura represent their torture. Jainas, unlike Buddhists, not extinct in the land of their birth. P. 463. Vaishnavism--at first the total number of Avatāras was four or six, but later even Rishabha, the first Tirthankara of the Jinas came to be looked upon as Avatāra of Vishnu. Page #305 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 472-8. Jaina canonical literature-Angas of the Svetämbara sect finally arranged in a council at Valabhi in the midle of the 5th century A D. but the texts were based on those compiled in the council at Pataliputra at the beginning of the 3rd century Bc. The Añgas and their descriptions; the 12 Upangar; the ten Prakirnas; the six Chhedasitras; the four Malasätras; The non-canonical Jaina literature commentaries; stories; the Digambara literature; Kayas and lyricks; famous writers. 1324 P. 479. Kannada literature-most Pampa-Ponna-and Ranna's poetical works on the lives of Jaina Tirthankaras attained great distinction. P. 525. If we exclude Jainism, we find in the far off India Colonies in far east, an almost exact replica of the religious system that prevailed in India during the first milennium. 1416 R. R. SETHI and K. S. NARANG-A Histhtory of Bharat to 1526, Ambala and Delhi, 1952. P. 21. Jainism sought shelter in the Deccan whenever its existence in north became temporarily impossible. Pp. 26-27. Jain literature and tradition also sources of ancient Indian history. The Angas of the Jainas throw light on some obscure portions of history. P 29. Jain traditions tell interesting things about Chandra Gupta Maurya and Samprati. P. 80. Caste the Jains did not take animal diet at all and so they formed separate groups within their castes. Pp. 102-106. Mahavira founded Jainism. But the Jains take him to be the last in a line of twenty-four Tirhankaras; Bharat, the first Vedic Chakravartin King of India was the soon of Rishabha, the first Tirthankara. Pärivanatha, the real founder of Jainism lived in the eight century 8. c.; his life and preaching; Mahavira his life; his death in 546 or 468 B. C.; his doctrines; the Digambaras and Svetämbaras. P. 128. Brahmanism and Jainism. P. 129. Buddhism and Jainism. Pp. 130-31. Common points in Brahmanism, Buddhism and Jainism. Points of contrast in Brhananism Buddhism and Jainism. Page #306 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1325 P. 134. These three religions are not entirely different religions; all the three start from the theory of transmigration of soul and stress on the theory of Karma and moral uplift. Buddhism ignores God and Jainism denies it altogether; both oppose the superstitious ritualism of the Vedas; Jainism carried the idea of Ahimsā and penance to extremes. P. 171. Jain traditions about the Mauryas; Chandragupta. P. 175. Chandragupta's death in the approved Jain manner (300 B. C.). P. 220. The Sungas 184-73 B. C.; the Häthigumphā inscription; Khāravela's war against Magadha; his relations with the Andhras the Cheti and the Sunga kings. P. 355. Harasha called a great assembly at Kanauj it was attended by Buddhist monks and Brahman and Jain priests. Hiuen Tsang gives a vivid account of this assembly, Pp. 384-88. Hindu society and culture in the eleventh and twelfth centuries; Jainism had lost its purity and a new type of Jainism, more akin to Hinduism arose; unpopularity of Jainism in this period; Jainism suffered by lack of royal patronage; its followers did not exceed fourteen lakhs and was confined within the limits of Gujrat and Kathiawar. Pp. 416-17. The Pallavas of Kāñchi : Mahendravarman 600-625 A, D.; he was at first a Jaina but later on converted by Upper to Saivism. In 640 A, D. there were many Jains in Kānchi. P. 421. Amogha Varsha I (814-877 A. D.) a Rāshțrakūta was a Jain and patronised Jainism. 1417 G. YAZADANI--- History of the Deccan-Vol. I, Part VIII. Fine Arts. London & Bombay, 1952. P. 9. Rock-hewen Jaina Shrines at Ellora carved in the 8th and 9th centuries A.D.: Indra Sabhā group being most important both in ornamental detail and in workmanship. P. 10. The number of structural temples of the Deccan built by Jainas is not inconsiderable, Page #307 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1326 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 19. The Jaina group of rock-hewn shrines at Ellora throw much light on the aims and ideals of the Jain builders; Indra Sabhā and Jagannātha Sabha group most notable; the various adjuncts of these temples are crowded and overloaded with architectured detail exhibits industry and skill. Pp. 20-21. The later Chālukya kings and the Rāshtrakūtas favourably inclined towards the Jaina religion, and inscriptions shows that both rock-hewn and structural temple of this faith were built under the patronage of the kings of those two dynasties. Pp. 43-45. Salient features of the Jaina sculpture of the Deccan; Jaina faith existed here (Deccan) from very early times, but flourished especially during the period of the ninth to elevenih centuries A.D., when important centres of the cult were established at Ellora, at Patancheru, 19 miles to the nort-west of the present city of Hyderabad, at Kulpak, the Kallipaka of the inscriptions, 45 miles north-east of Hydrabad, and Kopbal in the Raichur District of the Hyderabad State. All these seats are ancient. Kopbal had acquired fame as a tīrtha of the Jaina religion in the ninth century AD. Kopbal (Kopana) noted as a Jaina sanctuary in the seventh century A.D. (Kannada inscriptions of Kopbal, Hyderabad Archaeological series, Monographs No. 12-p. 2, n. 1. ). Some Jaina shrines at Patancheru, Kulpak, and Kopbal were burnt and razed to the ground-there the Archaeological Dept. has collected a large number of Jaina images. The general character of the Jaina sculpture of the Deccan shows competent workmanship and conveys a feeling of religious serenity; but it possesses neither the majestic dignity nor the vigour and zeal. The art seems to be schematic & showing no creative effort on the part of the artist. To illustrate this view two images may be described; (Plates XXXVIIXXXVIII); one of them (Pārsvanātha) was found at Kopbal now in Salar Jung's palace at Sururnagar in the suburbs of Hyderabad, and the other in the sculpture gallery of the Hyderabad Museum, both described. In Jaina sculptures the figures of gods do not generally possess any decorative features. In purely decorative designs, such as floral and jenealery patterns, the skill of the Jaina sculptor surpasses that of his rivals. P. 58. At Ellora the ceilings of the Indra Sabhā group of Jaina temples are adorned with painting (9th century A.D.), representation of the apsarasas plates: No. XXXVII-(b)—A Jaina image-No: XXXVIII—Jaina image in the Hyderabad Museum, Page #308 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1327 Faddegon Barned--the Pravacana-sära of Kunda-Kunda Ācārya, together with the commentary, Tattva-dipikā, by Amrtacandra Süri-English Translation by BARNED Fuddegon, Edited with an Introduction by F.W. THOMAS. Cambridge, 1935. Pp. I-XXIV & 1-127. The translators's Preface, Introduction, Translation, Gathās given only in the Talparya-vrtti; Appendix to the T'attva-dipika; Eulogy attached to the Tattva-dipikā; Eulogy belonging to the Tälparyavşlti; Division of the Pravacana-sära, as indicated in the Tattva-dipika; Index. The Pravacana-sāra, 'Essence of the Scripture' (or of the Doctrine', since Pravacana does not necessarily imply writing), is an early and authoritative Jain text in Prākrit Gātha--stanzas, embodying the teaching of the Digambara sect. The author of the Irākrit stanzas, Kunda-kunda, is held in very high esteem among the Jainas. 1418 V. S. AGRAWALA-India as known to Pāṇini. Lucknow, 1953. P. 381. Maskarin (Maskari Gosāla) Founder of the Ajivika, order and a contemporary of Buddha. According to Patañjali "A Maskarin is not so called because there is a maskara (bamboo staff) in this hand. Do not perform actions, but seek peace as highest end" i.e. Philosophy of inaction; a Determinist who ascribed every cause to fate or destiny (niyati). P. 383. In the canonical scriptures of the Jains, Makkhali Gosāla mentioned as Gosāla Mankhaliputta. P. 455. Mahāvira, junior contemporary of Buddha. Pp. 463.64. Hāthigumpha inscription dated in the year 165 of the era of Raja Muriya refers to Nandaraja in connection with a canal excavated by him 300 years earlier. Another passage records that king Nanda carried away to Magadha the statue of the first Jina. Khāravela testifies that king Nanda was ruling in 465 B.C. and the form is also supported by the Jaina tradition. P. 474. Paņini a contemporary of the Nanda King named Mahānandamiddle of the fifth century B.C. Pp. 492-93. Jainendra Vyakarana of Pūjyapāda Devanandi (C. 550 - 600 A d.) of which the Gana-patha is preserved in the Mahavritti of Abhayanandi. Page #309 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1328 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Jaina Šakațāyana Vyakarana of Pályakirti, a contemporary of king Amoghavarsha (817-877); the commentary Amoghavrti of the author still unpublished. Siddhahaimaśabdānusāsana of Hemachandra (1088-1172), with his own Brihad-vritti (c. 1130 A.D.) P. 495. Significance of Vishaya ; Jainendra, Sākatāyana and Hemachandra take it as rashtra, and Vardhamāna (1140 A.D.), as Janapada, which is the same thing. 1419 B. SUBBARA0-Baroda through the Ages, Baorda, 1953. Pp, 10-11. The Rāshtrakütas were great patrons of Jainism and Aukottaka became a great centre of Svetāmbara Jainism with temples etc. A group of images from these Jaina temples have been discovered The Jain temples continued to flourish on the banks of the river Vishvamitri in ancient Akota. One of the images of Jinatrayi found at Akola is dated 1006 v.s. (949 A.D.) In 1207 during the invasion of Gujrat by Alp Khan, the Jaina community hurriedly buried all their precious images collected in over four centuries, to prevent them from falling into Muslim hands. A hoard of Jain Bronzes dating from 6th to the 11th century comining from a Jain monastery at Anko laka (to which fortunately we have literary references) were buried in an impoverished pit in the abandoned area of the town. U, P. SHAH - A Note on the Akota Hoard of Jaina Bronzes. A big hoard of Jain bronzes from the site of Akola. A brief outline of the history of these finds and the description of the images and literary evidence, given. Most important in the whole collection is the inscribed bronze of Jivanta svāmi (paper 1, 2), assigned to c. 550 A.D. It represents Mahāvira meditating at home, before, fipal renunciation Images of this type show ornaments on the person of Jina, not otherwise sanctioned in Jaina iconography. Jiwantasvāmi icon represents a sort of Tirthankara-sattva, the analogy of the term Bodhisaltva. The biggest bronze in the hoard is that of a standing figure of Adinātha. It may tentatively be assigned to the latter half of the fifth century A.D. The earliest known example in India of a Tirthankara image showing a dhoti on the person, i. e., of the Svetāmbara sect; the earlier specimens from Mathura or Chausa are all nude. Part III. A Historical Survey of Baroda through the Ages. P. 113. Early Medieval period-Baroda is mentioned in the Jain literature in the 8th century. Haribhadrasüri (701-771 A.D.) in his Upadeśapada mentions "Vadavadde" which is Baroda. Page #310 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1329 P. 115. A whole hoard of Jain bronzes varying in date from 6th to the 11th centuries of the Christian era came to light. The Rāstrakūțas were great patrons of Jainism. During the reigns of Damtivarman, Govinda III and Amoghavarsha, Digambara Jainism from Karnataka spread to Malwa and Magadha. Karka Suvarnavarsha, whose grant is found at Baroda, refers to Jain temples (Chaityālayatana) monastery (vasahika) and Senasangha at Navasari (738 Saka) Svetämbara Jainism had a very strong hold in Gujrat specially due to the activities of Haribhadrasüri. We get definite literary evidence about Jain temples and Jain scholars during the Chalukyan period. A few of the bronzes refer to a Jain monastery at Akola and probably these bronzes were kept in the Jain temples at Akola. The images belong mainly to the Twenty-four Tirthankaras and a few Jain goddesses like Ambikä, Sarasvati etc. P. 116. Late Medieval Period : One of the most dominating features of this period is the dominating position of Jainism in Gujrat and the maintenance of regular Jain Bhandars or libraries has also made available to us a number of dated Jain works which throw light on the cultural history of Gujrat. In Jaina literature, a number of references to Baroda--then a great centre of Jains with a number of Jaina scholars. Jayasimha Siddharāja (1094-1143 A.D.) ascended the throne of Anhilwäda. His governor, Santuka celebrated rathayātrā at“Vada Udaya" (Baroda) is referred to by Devabhadra (Prabha) Sūri in his Sreyāmsinātha Charita. P. 117. During his exile, Kumārapāla came to Vätapadrapuri (Baroda). Where he was entertained by Katuka. After his exile, when he became the king in 1140 A.D., he gave Vadapadra (Baroda) to Katuka as a gift. P. 118. According to the inscriptions on the pedestrals of soine Jaina images (mentioned, at Ankontaka) belonging to 10th, 11th and 12th centuries it is clear that Akota was a great centre of Jains. P. 119. A huge hoard of images, dating from 6th to 12th century from the Jain temples at Akota, were buried in a hurry in a deserted area during the invasion of Gujrat by the Generals of Allauddin Khilji. 1420 K. A. Nilakanta SASTRI- A History of South India fram Prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar--2nd edi. Madras, 1953. P. 5. In Mahendravarman I's time arise a strong reaction against the growing influence of Jainism and Buddhism, which found expression in a wide spread bhakti movement among the worshipers of Siva and Vishnu. Page #311 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1330 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 79-80. Nandas' Empire included Kalinga, Khäravelas' Hathi Gumpha inscription mentions a Nanda Raja; No clear evidence of the Mauryan emperors having undertaken wars of conquest in the South. Jain tradition of Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta Mauryan and migration to the South. Inscriptions of 600 A.D. and another of the fifth century confirm the tradition. Two inscriptions about A.D. 900 from the neighbourhood of Seringapatam and later inscriptions at Sravana Belgola of 12th and 15th centuries repeat this tradition. Brihatakathakosa of Harishena (A.D. 931) also mentions the story. P. 83. Map of South India: 300 B.C.-A.D. 500. P. 85. Häthigumphä inscription mentions a league of Tamil States. P. 90. Satakarni I, may be the King mentioned in the Hathigumpha inscription of Khāravela, but it is more likely that it refers to Satakarni II, the Seventh Andhra King (172 B.C.) For absolute chronology (Pallava). We depend on a Saka date in the Jain manuscript Lokavibhāga, a work on cosmology, finished on the equivalent of the 25th of August. 458 in the 22nd year of Simhavarman's reign. This date receives confirmation from the Ganga Charters. Pp. 110-112. The inscription of Kharavela the only carly epigraphic reference to the Kingdoms of the Tamil country after the Asakan inscriptions. History of the Tamil land-Sangam literatute (the first three or four centuries A.D.)the earliest stratum of Tamil literature. The Tolkappiyam, a comprehensive work on Tamil Grammar also of the same age. Silappadikaram (fifth century) contains a historically correct synchronism. Pp. 154-55 Amoghavarsha, also called Nripatunga, son of Govinda III (814)— author of Prainottara-ratnamalika, a Jain catichism. P. 356. Epoch in the annals of Tamil literature (500-850). Preponderance of Jain writers. But the rising tide of Hindu reaction soon produced a great volume of popular devotional literature, which was set to music and ravished the hearts of the common folk. Notable developments occured in belles-letters, grammar and toxicography, but here the Jains and Buddhists continued to hold the palm. P. 356. Didactical works-the best known of them all, and among the earlist, is the Kural of Tiruvalldvar, a comprehensive mannual of ethics, polity and love. The author was most probably a learned Jain divine 450-500 may be suggested as the best date for the Kural. Page #312 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 360-61. Tirumalisai a Vaishanava alvāra contemporary of Mahendravarman I. He is reported to have tried both Jainism and Buddhism before turning Vaishnava Yogi (8th century). He has many flings at Jains, Buddhists and Śaivas. His works-Nanmugantiruvandadi and Tiruc-Candaviruttam. Pp. 362-63. In the field of general literature, the three most outstanding works are by Jain and Buddhist authors. The Silappadikaram unsurpassed Gem, its authorship and date are doubtful; The work in some ways unique in the whole range of Tamil literature. Its theme given. 1331 P. 363. Perumgadai (Sanskrit Brithat-Katha) of Konguvelir, another great poem by a Jain author of which only parts are available. It tells of the adventures of Naravanadatta, the son of the celebrate Udayana of Kausambi. As a narrative poem the Perungadai has exceptional metrits and it deservedly popular. Valaiyapati and Kandalakesi the two other Jain Kayas in Tamil have been lost but were one counted among the five Kayas. The commentary on a Tapparangalam, a Jain Grammar, cites many works on grammar by Jain authors. Pp. 364-65. The age of the imperial Cholas (850-1200) was the Golden age of Tamil culture and patronage of literature, Jain and Buddhist authors continued to flourish though not in such members as in the earlier age. Many works mentioned in the numerous inscriptions of the period have been lost beyond recovery. In general literature, the Jtoakacintamani of the Jain ascetic and poet Tiruttakkadevar was composed in the tenth century. The story of Jivaka given. The poem is said to have been the author's answer to a challenge that though Jain writers were admittedly distinguished in the field of religious literatures they could make no contribution to the literature of love. Saint Tiruttakkudevar is thought to have been a Chola prince by birth. Another Jain writer was Tolamoli (a man of unsurpassed eloquence) whose Sulamani handles a Jain Puranic Theme in very multifluous verse and is counted among the five minor Kavyas of Tamil literature. P. 370. The Yapparungalam and Yapparungalakkakakagai two authoritative works on prosody, were composed by Amitasägara, a Jain ascetic of the close of the Tenth century. Both have lucid commentaries or Karigai (Skt. Kärikā) by Gunasagara, a Jain ascetic (a pupil of Amitasigara who was patronized by the contemporary Chola monarchs). P. 371. The Neminadam of Gunavirpandita a Jain of the time of Kulottunga II; it treats of the orthographs and parts of speech; named the work after Neminatha the Tirthankara of South Mylapore. Another work of the same writer on prosody was Vaccanandi-malai, named after the authers Guru; it is also known as Venbappaltiyal. The Nannul was the work of Pavanandi, another Jain Grammarian Page #313 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY patronized by a Ganga feudatory of Kulottunga III; it has displaced all otherbooks as the beginner's hand book of Tamil Grammar. The Purapparul-Venbamalai of Aiyanaridanar a Jain; it is based on an early work called Pannirupadalam. The last period (1200 to 1650) of Tamil literature-Philosophical works, commentaries, Puranas and prabandhas; some Jain writers of the period continued to write. work on Śaiva doctrine is the Siva-Naua-Sittiyar of Arunandi, contains critical discussion on rival systems including Jainism. 1332 P. 381. The commentary of Mayilainather on Nannul a work of Grammar; was among the earliest period (in the period of 1200-1650). Then comes the gloss of Adiyarkkunallar on Silappadikaram; a very learned and eloquent commentary remarkable for its extensive and instructive citations from numerous old works now lost. In lexicography, the most popular lexicon Nigandu-Cüdämani was composed by Mandalapurusha, a Jain (in the reign of Krishnadeva Raya of Vijayanagar. Pp. 382-83. Among South Indian languages after Tamil, Kannada possesses the oldest literature. Sri Vardhadeva, also called Timbuluracarya from the place of his birth; his Cudamani, a commentary of the Tattartha-Mahalastra. Another writer of this early period (C 650) was Syamakundacārya. Both these Acaryas, like most Kannada writers, were Jains. The first extant work of real literature is the Vaddaradhana of Sivakoti (C. A.D. 909), a prose work on the lives of the older Jain Saints. Pp. 383-84. Then we have Pampa, who came from Vengi and flourished in the Court of a feudatory of Rästrakūta Krishna III, Arikesari II of Vemulavada. His Adipuräna (life story of the first Tirthankara; and Vikramarjuna Vijaya (his own version of Mahabharata story) is called Pampabharata. Critics have unanimously hailed as the most imminent among Kannada poets. Pampa's Junior contemporary was Ponna whose principal work is the Santipurana, the legendary history of the 16th Tirthankara. He wrote also Bhuvanaikardmabhyudaya now known only from citations in later works, and the Jinaksharamale, an acrostic poem in praise of the Jinas. He got the title Ubhaya Kavi Chakravarti from Krishna III. Ranna. who, with Pampa and Ponna, completes, the three gems, adorned the court of the Chalukya King Taila II, and his successor and rose to the rank of Kavicakravarti (poet laureate) and enjoyed the honours of the golden rod, chauri, elephant and Umbrella, His Ahitapurana (993), Sahasabhimavijaya or Gadayuddha (982), Paruiurama-carita and Cakreśvaracarita, and a lexicon Ranna Kanda. Chavundaraya, a feundatory of Ganga Râcamalla IV, was Ranna's early patron. Page #314 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1333 P. 384. Chāvundrāya, composed the Cavundarāyapurāņa (978) or Trishashțilakshanna-mahāpurāņa. Nāgavarma I, another protege of Chāvundarāya and a pupil of Ajitasena ; his Chandonbudhi (Ocean of prosody) an earliest work on the subject in Kannada. Sridharācārya, a Jain Brahmin, his scientific writing (Šāstrakavita)-Jätakalilaka (1049), the earliest work on astrology in Kannada and belles-lettere (Kavya Kavita) ---Candraprabhacarite no longer extant. P. 385. Nāgachandra (C. 1105) who built the Mallinātha Jinalaya at Bijapur, wrote the Mallināthapuräņa ; his Ramacandra-Caritapurāņa ; his title Abhinava (new) Pampa. To the first quarter of the twelfth century belong also to a Jain polenic Samayaparikshe of Brahmaśiva (Superiority of Jainism over all other creeds) and the Govaidya of Kirttivarama a work on Veterinary Science. Round about 1145, Karnapra wrote his Neminätha-puräņa. To the same time belongs Nāgavarma II, the author of Kaufāvalokana, a work on the grammar and rahetoric of Kannada. Another work of-Nāgavarma on grammar is the Karnataka-bhaşābhushana. The Vastukoša, a third work of Nägavarama II, is a lexicon giving Kannada equivalents of Sanskrit terms. Nägavarma was Katakopadhyāya (camp-teacher) under Jagadekamalli II, whom he survived, became the teacher of poet Janna (C. 1209). A work on medicine, Pujya päda's Kalyana-Karaka translated from Sanskrit into Kannada by a Jain author Jagaddala Somanātha (about C. 1150). Rājāditya (1190) a Tain of Purinabage reduced to easy verse the mathematical subjects he dealt with in several ganita works. P. 386. Jain writers continued to flourish under the later Hoysalas, and the lives of the Tirthankaras formed the theme of many Purāna with form of campus. Nemichandra court poet under Vira Ballala, wrote the Lilavati, a plain romance. He undertook to write the Nerninathapurana, at the instance of Ballala's Minister, but died before completing it, and the work came to be known as Ardha Nemi. Tanna not only a poet but a minister and a builder of temples ; he wrote the rasodharacarite (1209) ; his Annantanāthapurāņa (1230). Bandhuvarama a Vaisya, wrote the HarivanSabhyudaya and Ftva-Sambodhana (on morals and renunciation). Mallikarjuna (an ascetic) (C. 1245), a brother-in-law of Jaina compiled an anthology (Sūkti-Sudhainaava). P. 337. Kumudendil (C. 1275) wrote a Ramayana Punyäsarva (C. 1331) of Nāgarāja. In the age of Vijayanagar (1336—1650) the Jains were being steadily pushed out by the rising influence of Saivas and Vaishnavas; yet they continued to write in Kannada on the lives of Tirthankaras and other holy persons. Madhura (1385), patronized by Ministers of Harihara II and Devarāya I, wrote Dharmanath purāna. Vritta Vilāsa, author of Dharmaparikshe, a Kannada version of a Sanskrit Saivas and Vaishnawans were being stead; nada on the lives of Page #315 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1334 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY original of the same name by Amitagati, and Šāstrasāra. The life of Jivandhara handled three times over by Bhāskara of Renugonda (1424), Bommarasa of Terkanambi (C. 1485) and Koteśvara of Tuluvadesa (C. 1500). Bāhubali of Sringri (C. 1560) narrated the story of Nāga-kumāra. P. 388. Jainism flourished in the Taluva country more than anywhere else in this period, when two colossal Jain statues were erected-one at Kārkala in 1431 and the other at Yenur in 1603. We have four authors from that country-first was Abhinava vādi Vidyananda of Gersoppa, in 1533. He compiled the Karyasāra (he gives the names of many poets of the period 900-1430) ; Salva (C. 1550) Courtpoet of a Prince of Konkon, produced a Jain version of the Bhārat about 1510. Ratnākaravarni, a Kshatriya of Mudabidire, wrote Trilokasāra (1567) on cosmology, the Aparajita-Sataka on philosophy and renunciation the Bharateśvara-carita, Ammagalapada (songs of the brothers). Nem Anna's jñānabhaskara-charita (1559) exalts meditation and study as means of emancipation above rites and austerities. Āyata-varma a poet of uncertain date assigned by some to C. 1400, his Ratna-Karandaka translated from Sanskrit, treats of the three jewels---right belief, right knowledge and right conduct. P. 395. In the beginning, Telugu had much in common with Kannada and this affinity persisted to a relatively late stage in the development of thetwo languages. Pampa and Ponna, two of the greatest Kannada poets, came from the Telugu country. Early Telugu prose and verse can now be traced only in inscriptions like those of Telugu-Chodas and the Eastern Chālukyas. Beyond doubt there must have existed much unwritten literature of a popular character which enlive ed the daily life of the common folk ; such desi compositions may have included ·lalipatalu (songs of the cradle), Melukolupulu (songs of the dawn), Mangala haratulu (songs of festivity), Kirtanalu (devotional songs) and Udupupaiali (songs of the harvest). Pp. 411-42. Religion and Philosophy : Jains were found in considerable numbers in different parts of the country following their practices without let or hindrance. But soon a great change came in the Tamil country-People began to entertain fears of the whole land going over to Jainism & Buddhism ; growth of emotional bhakti to Śiva or Vishnu and hatred of Buddhists and Jains ; challenges to public debate, competition in the performance of miracles, tests by means of ordeal, became the order of the day. Appar or Tirunavukkarasu a Śaiva was attaracted to Jainism in his early years-joined the Jain monastery at Pataliputra (Cuddalore) as a monk by name Dharmasena; further story given of his reconversion to Saivism. Page #316 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1335 The Pāņdya countıy almost overrun by Jainism ; Sambandar (Nanasambandar) Vanquished the Jain in debate and converted the Pāņdya King and his subjects to Saivism ; 800 Jains were put to death by impalement at Madura ; middle of the seventh century ; his Pandya contemporary was either Märavarman Avanisulamani or his grandson Arikesari Mārauarman. P. 415. Tirumalisai an elder contemporary of Pallava Mahendravarman I, is said to have practised Jainism, Buddhism and Saivism. P. 416. Yuan Chwang, who visited South India in 642, remarks that Buddhism had yielded to Digambara Jainism. P. 419. Rämānuja won over the Hoysala, King Vishnu Vardhana from Jainism. Pp. 426-27. Jainism had more influence than Buddhism on the life of the people, particularly in Karnataka and in the Tamil country owing to the striking contributions made by the Jain authors to the literatures of Kannada and Tamil. The Tain Temple built at Aihole by Ravikirti in the reign of Pulakesin II, was the abode of all excellencies; Jain temples and monasteries built in the extensive dominion of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakūtas. Many early western Ganga monarchas followed Jainism and it also found patronage under the Eeastern Chalukyas. Amma II, (mid-tenth century) built two Jinalayas & established salras (feeding houses) attached to them where śramaņas (Jain monks) of all the four castes were to be fed. Jainism had much in common with Hinduism. In 812 a Jain temple was endowed for the removal of trouble caused to a Chalukya Vimalāditya by the planet Saturn. In many Jain grants, endowments for daily rites ; influential guilds of merchants included a strong Jain wing in their membership. Jainism not altogether disappeared from the country. P. 427. The Äjivikas. P. 434. Khandagiri and Udayagiri rock-cut chambers. The Courtyard of the Räni-gumphā constituted an open air theatre. In the Ganesa Gumpha the entrance steps are flanked with figures of elephants, the first appearance of the sculptured animal motiff at the entrance to a rock-cut hall, P. 438. The Ajantā style of Painting seen in a Jain cave at Sittannavāsal. P. 445. At Ellora are five Jain excavations of the ninth century but only three of them Notable--Choța-kailaso ; Indrasabha and Jagannatha-sabha both two-storeyed. Page #317 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1336 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 461. Two Jain monuments at Śravana Belgoļa both creations of Chāmundaraya, the minister of the Ganga King Rācamalla IV ; Chāmund-rāya basadi on the side of the Chandragiri hill ; built orginally about A.D. 980 although in its present form the structure is typical of Chola architecture of early twelfth century. The other is monolithic image of Gommata on the Indrabttea hill (A.D. 983). P. 462. One feature common to Jain temples of the South is the mänastambha standing in front of the temple on a wide square base of several moulded steps ; the column generally square in the lower part, circular above, bears shallow flutes crossed by lateral bands at regular intervals'. The capital is generally a fluted vase supporting an elaborate super-structure carried on an abacus supported by figures of rampart gryphons. Some of these free standing pillars are over 50 feet in height. 1421 N. Lakshminarayan Rao-Eminent Women of Karnataka. (Q.J.M.S. Vol. 45, No. 1. 1954), Bangalore. P. 3. Kumkuma-Mahadevi (C. 708 A.D.). Among the early philanthropistsKumkuma Mahadevi, the younger sister of the Cālukya King Vijayāditya (696734 A.D.); responsible for the construction of a Jain temple (Jina bhavana) at Purigere (Lakshmeśvara, Dharwar Distt.). Vijayāditya made the gift of an entire village called Guddigere for its maintenance. Pp. 6-7. Dānacintämaņi Attimabbe (C. 993 A.D.). Born in a family of learned men, her grandfather was a renowned Jain named Nāgamayya who had two sons, Mallappayya and Ponnamayya. General Mallappayya, the father of Attimabbe, was a great scholar, a reputed astrologer, an excellent teacher of archery. He had another doughter named Gundamabbe. Both married to Nāgadeva, commander-in-chief of the Calukyan armies and son of Dhallapa, the Prime minister. Attimabbe prepared a thousand manuscript copies of Ponna's Šāntinātha Purana. She patronised the famous court-poet Ranna (author of Gadayuddha). At her instance he wrote Ajita Purāņa. She made one thousand and five hundred golden images of Jina. She constructed a number of bastis. P. 12. Santaladevi (1117-1131 A.D.) a Jain-she was the senior queen of Vişnuvardhana (Hoysala). She constructed Savatigandhavarana-Jinālaya at SarvanaBelgoļa in A.D. 1123. A great patroness of architecture and a highly accomplished, cultured and charming lady ; proficient in all arts, an earnest student of the Page #318 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Bharatagama, a crest Jewel in dancing, a Sarasvati in singing. A Brahaspati in discrimination, a Vacaspati in ready wit etc. on account of her religious toleration she is praised as 'the cause of the elevation of the four samayas (creeds) and a jewel of protection to all faiths. 1422 Sunil Chandra RAY-The Gupta Phase at Nalanda. (Ind. Hist. Cong. 17th Ses. Ahmedabad), 1954. P. 78. Nālandă an outlying part of the city of Rajagṛha; Mahavira spent here not less than fourteen rainy seasons (Sutrakṛtänga and Kalpasitra). 1423 1337 Dasharatha SHARMA-New light on Alauddin Khilji's achievements from a Jain Book of 1336 A.D. (Ind. Hist. Con. 17th Sess. Ahemdabad, 1954. P. 240. The main topic of the Nabhinandana-Jinodhara-prabhandha, is the installation of the image of the Jaina Tirthankara, Adinatha by a Jain officer. Incidentally it mentions the chief achievements of Alauddin Khilji, the Sultan responsible for the destruction of Jain images in Gujarat. A study of it is necessary for writing the social, economic and religious and political history of the period. 1424 Sudhakar CHATTOPADHYAYA-The Date of Pusyamitra Sunga. (Ind. Hist. Cong. 17th Sess, Ahmedabad), 1954. Pp. 102-3. Häthigumphä inscription-Khâravela contemporary of Satakarni, the third king of the Satavahana line. Date of Khäravela: Hathigumphä scripts. more developed than Besnagar inscription of Heliodorus; sculptures of Mancapur caves posterior to Bharhuta's; reference to a canal excavated three hundred years before a Nanda king: Khāravela's time later half of the first century B.C. His fifth regnal year 24 B.C. 1425 BUDDHA PRAKASH-Historical Characters in the Mudraraksasa of Visakhadatta. (Ind. Hist. Cong. 17th Ses., Ahmedabad), 1954. 127. The Mudräräksas refers to a relative of Chandra Gupta Maurya, named Mahārāja Balagupta or Beladevagupta; identified with Balabhadra Maurya. connected with the third schism of the Jaina Church in 214 A.V. Page #319 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1338 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1426 Radha Kumud MOOKERJI---Asoka. Second Ed. Delhi, 1955. P. 7. Asoka's younger brother Mahendra alias vitāśoka was beheaded, being taken for one of the Nirgranthas upon whose heads the local king set a price. P. 13. A denfinite and long-continued tradition describes Chandragupta (Grand father of Asoka) abdicating and retiring as a Jain saint at Sravana Belgola in Southern Mysore, upto which, his dominion must have extended (PLUTARCH : Life of Alexander, Ch. LXII) P. 31. Asoka's Edicts State “Dignitaries of piety (Dharma Mahāmātras) were appointed over all sects-Ājivikas, Nirgranthas etc, in 257 B.C. P. 59. Asoka's personal religion, there is a view that it was Jainism. P. 64. Asoka's toleration-promoting the interest of Brahmanas, Ājivikas and Nirgranthas equally with the Buddhists through the instrumentality of his officers, the Dharma-Mahāmātras. Pp. Jainism mentions 18 kinds of of pāpa and 42 of asrava (STEVENSON--Heart of Jainism), Pp. 302-05) of which three are also mentioned by Asoka (P.E.III). Five kinds of asrava mentioned in Jaina works, Asoka followed the Jain rather than the Buddhist view of asrava. D.R. BHANDAKAR (Asoka, Pp. 129-30) finds a further borrowing of Asoka from Jainism in his use in the Edicts described; Asoka tried to include the sāra of Brahmanism, Buddhism and Jainism in his own Dharma. P. 84. The uniscribed Asokan Pillar located at the village now called Koluha (from ancient Kollāga) near the ruins of old Vaiśāli. Modern Basarh; this locality was the birth place of Vardhamāna Mahāvira. P. 100. Among the dissenters (Pashandas) the most prominent in Asoka's time were the Nirgranthas (Jains), and the Ājivikas. P. 179. n.3. In fixing their Uposatha days, the Buddhists and Jainas took over the Brahmanical usages (cf. Vishņu, LXXI, 87; Manu, IV.I 13-114). P. 186. Pillar Edict VII-Dharma Mahamätras shall be employed among Brahmanas and Ajivika ascetics among Nirgranthas, too. Page #320 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1339 P. 201 n.1. In three inscriptions of the Barahar hill caves, there is dedected an attempt to chisel away the word Ajwvikeh Dr. A. BANERJI Sastri fastens the mischief on Khāravela, a Jain (Sec. HULTZSCH, Corpus, p. XXVIII, JBORS, XII, Pp. 49-52; 58-62). 1427 K. A. Nilakanta SASTRI- A History of South India. Madras, 1955. P. 79. King Nanda and the statue of Kalinga Jina. Pp. 80-81. Jain accounts of the end of Chandragupta Maurya. P. 190. Kālaka being insulted by king Gard habhilla of Ujjain, persuaded the Sakas to invade Ujjain. Gardabhilla's son Vikramaditya founded an era in 57 B.C. P. 111. Inscription of Khäravela contains the only early epigraphic reference to the kingdom of the Tamil country after to Asoka inscriptions; Tamiradeśsanghātam -confederacy of Tamil states. P. 112. Silappadikaram cannot he placed earlier than the fifth century. P. 346. Dhananjaya (1150) a Digambara Jaina of Karnataka, compiled Namamala, a lexicon of synonyms. P. 348. Tolkappiyam-close of A.D. 100-300. Pp. 355-56. Silappadikaram an unsurpassed gem and unique in the whole range of Tamil literature its theme. P. 356. Perun gadai (Sanskrit Brihat-Katha) of Kongu-Velir a great poem by a lain author, of which only parts are available--tells of the adventures of Naravānadatta, the son of the celebrated Udayana of Ujjain; as a narrative poem the Perungadai has exceptional merits; Valaiyāpati and Kundalakesi are the two other Taina Kavyas in Tamil which have been lost but were once counted among the five great Kāuyas. The commentary on the Tapparungalam, a Jain grammar, cites many works on grammar by Jaina authors. P. 358. Jivaķacintamani of the Jaina ascetic and poet Tiruttakkadevar composed early in the tenth century—the story. The great poem is said to have been the author's answer to a challenge that while Jaina writers were admittedly distinguished in the field of religious literature, they could make no contribution to the literature of love. The author is thought to have been a Chola prince by birth, Page #321 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 359. Tolamoļi (a man of unsurpassed eloquence) whose Sulamani handles a Jaina puranic theme in very mellifluous verse and is counted among the five minor Kayas of Tamil literature, belongs to the tenth century. 1340 P. 363. Jasambodani of Devendra-munivar, a Jaina work, expounds in detail twelve modes of meditation. The work is replete with mythical stories and ancedotes and its metres resemble those employed in contemporary Tamil inscriptions. P. 363. In the field of Tamil grammar, the Yapparungalam and Tapparungalakkarigai, two authoritative works on prosody, were composed by Amitasägara, a Jaina ascetic of the close of the tenth century. Both the works have lucid commentaries, that on the Karigai being by a certain Gunasägara, also a Jaina ascetic and probably a pupil of Amitasägara. P. 364. The Neminadam of Guṇavirapandita is a short treatise treating of the orthographs and parts of speech of the Tamil language. The author, a Jaina of the time of Kulottunga III, named his work after Neminatha, the Tirthankara of South Mylapore. Another work of the same writer on prosody was Vaccanandimalai (the Garland of Vaccanandi), named after the author's guru; it is also known as Venbappaltiyal. The Nannul (The Good Book) was the work of Pavanandi, another Jaina grammarian, patronized by a Ganga feudatory of Kulottunga III. By its simplicity and terseness, it has practically displaced all other books as the beginner's hand-book of Tamil grammar. The Purapporal-venba-malai of Aiyanaridanar, another Jaina writer, defines the conventions governing the turais (situations) of puram and illustrates each turai by a venbā it is said to be based on an early work called Pannirupadalam. P 365. Šiva-Nana-Sittiyar (a work on Saivism) of Aranandi contains critical discussion of rival systems including two schools of Jainism. P. 374. The period 1200-1650: The commentaries of Mayilainathar on Nannul and of Perundevanar on Virasüliyam, both works of grammar, were among the carliest. Then came the glors of Adiyarkkunallar on Silappadikaram; a very learned and elo quent commentary remarkable for its extensive and instructive citations from numerous old works now lost. P 375. In lexicography, the most popular lexcion Nigaṇndu-cudamani was composed by a Jaina author by name Mandalapurusha most probably in the reign of Krishnadeva Raya of Vijayanagar. P 375. Kannada: Nripatunga's Kazirajamärga (850), the earliest extant work on rhetoric in Kannada; according to this work Kannada country is said to have extended from the Kaveri to the Godavari, and thus included much territory in the Page #322 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1341 north where now Marathi is the spoken language. Śrivardhadeva, also called Tumbulurācārya from the place of his birth; his Cudamani, a commentary on the Tattvarthamahasastra, in 9,60,000 verses. Another writer of this early period (c. 650) was Śyāmakundācārya. Both these ācāryas like most early Kannada writers, were 4 Jaina. P. 376. Pampa-his two great poems Adipurāņa and Vikramarjuna Vijaya; Pampa's Junior contemporary was Ponna whose principal work is the Santipurana. He wrote also the Jinaksharamala, an acrostic poem in the praise of the Jinas. Ranna, who, with Pampa and Ponna, completes 'the Three Gems' who usher in Kannada literature in full panoply, adorned the court of the Chalukya king Tailapa II and his successor. Born in 949 he rose to the rank of Kavicakravarti. His Ajitapuran (993), the Sahasabhima-Vijaya or Gadayuddha (982); Paraluramacarita and Cakresuara-carita (no longer extant); and a lexicon Ranna Kanda. Chavandaraya, one of Ranna's early patrons, was a feadatory of Ganga Racamalla IV, who conferred on him the title Raya for his colossus of Gommatesvarahe composed in 978 the Chamundaraya-puraṇa, the earliest extant prose work in Kannada treating of the legends of 24 Tirthankaras, 12 Cakravartis, 9 Balabhadras; 9 Nārāyaṇas and 9 Partinarayanas, 63 in all. Nagavarma I, a pupil of Ajitasena, his Chandombudhi, 'Ocean of prosody' is the earliest work on the subject in Kannada. P. 378. Śridharācārya, a Jain Brahmin showed his capacity for scientific writing (Sastra-Kavitva) in his Jataka-tilaka (1049), the earlist work on astrology in Kannada, and his capacity in belles letters (Kävya Kavitva) in his Candraprabhacarita, no longer extant. The Jain Nagavarmācārya, patronized by Ganga Udayaditya (1070), a feudatory of Someśvara II, at Bonavase, was the author of Candra cüḍāmaṇiŝataka on the ethics of renunciation. P. 378. The next great writer was Nagachandra (c.1105), who built the Mallinätha Jinalaya at Bijapur, and wrote the Mallinathapurana, a Campa. But he is best known for his Ramacandracaritapuräna. To the first quarter of the twelfth century belong a Jain polemic Samayaparikshe of Brahmasiva which seeks to establish the superiority of Jainism over all other creeds. About 1145 Karnaparya wrote Neminathapurana. A work on medicine, Pujyapada's Kalyaṇakāraka, was translated from Sanskrit into Kannada by a Jaina author Jagaddala Somanatha. P. 379. Räjäditya (1190), a Jain of Pūvinabage, showed great skill in reducing to easy verse the mathematical subjects he dealt with in several ganita works like Page #323 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1342 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Vyavahāra ganita, Kshetra-ganita and Lilavati Jaina writers continued to flourish under the later Hoysalas, and the lives of the Tīrthankaras formed their themes. Nemicandra wrote the Lilāyati, Ardha Nemi (Neminātha-purāna). Jaina, a poet and a minister and a builder of temples wrote the Yasodharacarila (1209), Anantanātha-purāna (1230). Bandhuvarma wrote the Harivamśābhyudaya and Jiva Sambodhana. P. 380. Kumudendu (c.1275) wrote a Jain Rāmāyaṇa. In the age of Vijayanagar (1336-1650) the Jainas were being steadily pushed out by the rising influence of Saivas and Vaishnavas; yet they continued to write in Kannada on the lives of Tirthankaras. Madhura (1385) wrote Dharmanatha-purāna, a short poem in praise of Gommateśvara of Śravana Belgo!a; Vritta Vilasa, author of Dharma-Parikshe and Šāstrasāra. The life of Jivandharaja was a favourite subject and was handled three times over by Bhāskara of Ponugonda (1424), Bommarasa of Terakaņāmbi (c. 1485) and Koteśvara of Tuluvadesa (c. 1500). Bāhubali of Sringeri (c. 1560) wrote the story of Nāgakumara. P. 381 Jainism flourished in the Tuluva country more than anywhere else in this period when two colossal Jain statues were erected --one at Kārkal in 1431 and the other at Yenur in 1603. Accordingly we have four authors from that country. First was Abhinava Vādi Vidyānanda of Gersoppa; in 1533, he composed the Kārpasāra, an anthology, he gives the names of many of the poets of the period 900-1430. Sālva (c. 1550) produced a Jain version of the Bharata. Ratnākara-varni, a kshatriya of Mudabidire wrote Trilokasāra (1557) on cosmology; the Aparajita-Sataka on philosophy, morals and renunciation; the Bharateśvara-carila. Many songs by this author are known as Anngaļapada 'songs of the brothers'. Nemanna's Jñäna-bhāskara-carite (1559), exalts meditation. Ayata-varma wrote Ratnakarandaka, a Campu translated from Sanskrit, treats of 'the beliefs and duties of the Jains'. P. 387. Important works of the early 17th century: Karnataka Sabdanušāsana (1601) of Bhattākalanka Deva, the most comprehensive grammar of Kannada. The re-consecration of the Gommata statue at Sravana Belgoļa in 1612 was described by poet Pancabāņa of that town in his Bhujabalicarite (1614). The Kārkala image was rededicated in 1646 and its history and that of Gommata from the subject of KarkalaGommatesvara carita of Chandrama of the Tuluva country. Bijjala-rāya-caritra, giving the Jain version of Basava's life at Kalyāna and fina-munitanaya on Jain morals are other works of the period. Pp. 419-20. Jainism : Jainism had more influence than Buddhism on the life of the people, particularly in Karnataka and in the Tamil country owing to the striking contributions made Page #324 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1343 by Jain authors to the literatures of Kannada and Tamil. The Jain temple built at Aihole by Ravikirti in the reign of of Pulakesin II, is said to have been the abode of all excellencies ard Jain temples and monasteries continued to be built everywhere in the extensive dominions ruled by the Chalukyas and the Rāshtrakūtas. Rashtraküta Amoghavarsha I, sound solace by retiring to a Jain monastery more than once in the course of his long reign. Many of the early Western Ganga monarchs were followers of Jainism, and it also found patronage under the Eastern Chālukyas, Amma II, (mid-tenth century) built two Jinalayas and established satras (feeding houses) attached to them where sramaņas (Jaina monks) of all the four castes were to be fed. Jainism had much more in common with Hinduism than Buddhism. In 812 a Jain temple was endowed for the removal of trouble caused to a Chālukya Vimalāditya by the planet Saniscara (Saturn). In many Jain grants we find that the donors are required to use the proceeds of the endowment for their daily rites and observances in terms identical with those employed in Hindu donations; and influential guids of merchants often included a strong Jain wing in their membership. Soon after the establishment of Vijayanagar, Jains complained to king Bukkarāya of persecutions by the Vaishṇavas. The monarch interceded (1368) and declared that both parties should practise their respective religions with cqual freedom and without mutual interference. Though Jainism has been steadily losing ground it has not altogether disappeared from the country--particularly in parts of Gujarat. P. 426. Khandagiri Udayagiri caves---35 in number : there are many unidentified sculptured scenes from Jain legends in the gumphầs. The courtyard of the Ranigumphä, there is reason to think, constituted an open-air-theatre, In it are the remains of channels for the distribution of water throughout the structure. In the Ganesa-gumphā the entrance steps are flanked with figures of elephants, the first appearance of the sculptured-animal motif at the entrance to a rook-cut hall which was developed with such wonderful effect later at Ellora and Elephanta (where, however, the elephants are replaced by lions). P. 453. Two Jain monuments at Sravana Belgola, creations of Chāmundarāya the minister of the Ganga king Rachamalla IV, Chāmundarāya basadi it measures 70 ft. in length and its width is 36 ft. ; built originally about 980 although in its present form the structure is typical of Chola architecture of the early 12th century. Image of Gommata, eight 56 ft. carved out in 983 represents the ascetic standing entirely nude and absorbed in meditation. Two other monoliths, were made in Kanara; one over 40 ft. high at Kārkal in 1432, and the other at Yenur, about 35 fc. high, in 1604. Mänastambha a common feature to a Jain temple of the South Some of these free-standing pillars are over 50 ft. in height and are themselves impressive works of art. These stand in front of the temple on a wide square base of several moulded steps. The column is generally square in the lower Page #325 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1344 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY part but becomes circular above and bears 'shallow flutes crossed by lateral bands at regular intervals'. The capital is generally a fluted vase supporting an elaborate super-structure carried on an Nabacus supported by figures of rampant gryphons, 1428 C. SIVARAMAMURTI-Royal conquests and cultural migrations in south India and the Deccan, Calcutta, 1955. P. 10. Mahendravarman was a Jain originally and later on he was converted by the saint Appar. The Pandya king Arikesari Paränkusa was also a Jain but later on converted. The story of Sambanda gives a graphic account of how the saint convinced the king and converted him and how the Jains suffered a defeat. Colossal monolithic Buddhas and Jaina figures like those from the Southern Tamil districts a few of which are now preserved in the Madras Museum. 1429 S. B. DEO-The History of Jaina Monachism from Inscriptions and Literature. (Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute, Vol. XVI. Nos. I-4) Poona, 1956. Pages 608. Part I, Chapter I-Indian Monachism; Chapter II, The sources for the study of Jaina monachism; Chap. III, the origin and antiquity of Samanism; Part II. Chapter I: The historical background of Jain monachism; Part III-Chapter I: The Angas and the Malasätras; Cha. 2, The Chedasätras, Niryuktis and the rest of the texts of the canon; Chapter 3, the post canonical texts; Chapter 4, the order of nuns ; Part IV. Chap. I. Jaina monachism from epigraphs; Social Impacts of Jaina monachism; Part V. Chapter I. Part VI.-Chapter I. tions. Conclusions. Appendix; Bibliography and abbrevia 1430 P. C. Roy CHOUDHARY-Jainism in Bihar. Patna, 1956. Contents-Jainism and Bihar; Jain Religion: Jain Architecture; Paras Nath hills; Kuluha hills; Jain antiquities (Mandehum and Singhahur Gaya, Shahabad, Bhagalpur, Patna and Muzaffarpur). Page #326 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1431 N. K. SAHU (Edt. by).-A History of Orissa, Vol. I by W.W. Hunter, Andrew Stirling, John Beames and N.K. Sahu-Sushil Gupta (India) Ltd, Calcutta, 1956. 1345 P. 50n. The ancient capital of Kalinga was Dantapura identified with Palura; during Asoka's reign it was at Tosali and at the time of Kharavela, it was at Kalinganagar; both of these may be located in between Dhavli and Khandagiri hills. P. 55. The Buddhist hermits of Orissa-their principal settlement at Khandagiri-some caves described. (n. 26)-Khandagiri and Udayagiri hills were the strongholds of Jainism; HUNTER evidently mistakes the Jainas as Buddhists. Pp. 56-61. A temple of the Jains, the religious descendants of the Buddhists. now crowns the top of western hills; topography friezes caves and sculptures descri bed. (n. 27-28). The sculptures in the caves of Khandagiri and Udayagiri belong to Jainism; -Jainism is much older than Buddhism. HUNTER wrongly makes the Jainas, the religious descendents of the Buddhists. (n. 29). The temple is dedicated to Ṛṣabhanatha-Recently an over life size image of Parsvanatha in Kayotsarga pose, carved out of black marble, has been enshrined to the right of the temple. (n. 32). The Rani-nur (Queen's palace) gumpha was excavated for the Jaina ascetics and had no connection with the Buddhists. It is believed to be the place of retirement for the queen of king Khäravela. (n. 33) The abduction scene is identified with the Vasavadatta-Udayanastory (Journal of the Kalinga Historical Research Society, vol. I, No. 3, P. 241); the frieze-marriage of Pärivanätha (Puri District Gazetteer) depict the scenes from the life of King Kharavela himself. (n. 34) HUNTER ascribes the foundation of Kalinga to 8th century B. G., king Karander (Karakandu), the disciple of Pärivanätha was ruling over Kaling a about that time (Uttaradhyayana sutra, S. B. E. xiv, p. 87). Pp. 65-66. Short biography of a Kalinga king given according to an inscription. (n. 45). King Kharavela of Chedi dynasty; the Häthigumpha inscription depicts his activities Bibliography of Kharavela inscription given: For Häthigumpha-Kharavela Inscription vide: Prince. JASB, vi, Pp. 1075-91; Cunningham, Page #327 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1346 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Corp. Ins. Ind., Pp. 27f; 98-101; 132ff; R. L. MITRA, Antiquities of Orissa, ii, P. 16ff; Bhagwanlal INDRAJI, Actes du Sixieme Congress International des Orientalistes, pt. iii, sec. 2, pp. 152-77; BÜHLER, Indian Studies, iii, p. 13; FLEET. JRAS., 1910, 242ff; 824; Luders List No. 1345; K.P. JAYASWAL. JBORS., iii, p. 425ff; iv. p. 364ff; xiii, p. 221ff; F.W. THOMAS, JRAS., 1922, p. 83f; K.P. JAYASWAL and R.D. BANERJI, Ep. Ind. xx. p. 72f; B.M BARUA, Old Brahmi Ins. No. I; Ind. Hist. Quart. xiv, p. 261ff; D.C. SIRGAR, Select Inscriptions, p. 206ff. P. 70. Kharavela, although a Jain, showed favour to both the Brahmanists and the Buddhists. P. 82. The southern yavanas claimed Andhra descent, came from the eastern side of the Peninsula, and were originally of the Jain religion. (n. 103). The accounts given about the Southern yavanas are erronous; they belong to western Ganga dynasty, these rulers were great patrons of Jainism. P. 87. While Buddhism continued as Buddhism in India, the yavanas were typical Buddhists; and when it merged into Jainism, the yavanas became equally identified with the Jain faith. P. 91 (n. 126). Many of the Jain and Buddhist rock-cells were converted into Hindu shrines. P. 122. In the old settled and strongly Aryan provinces, the composite creed took the highly spiritual form of Jainism. Mount Abu, the richest effort of Jain devotion-its carving and detail stand unrivalled. P. 123. Jain-worship still maintains at Khandagiri. P. 135. Jainism co existed separately and immicably with Buddhism and Hinduism in the Central Provinces. 1432 K. C. JAIN-History of Bhimmal, (Proc. IHC, XXIVth Session), Calcutta, 1963. Pp. 35-36. The old name Bhimmal, modern Śrimala, is situated about 105 miles south-west of Jodhapur. Two Jainas contributed to the repairs of the Jagatasvämi temple of this place. Bhimmal was a great centre of Jainism and there were several Jain temples. The people of the eastern gate of Śrimala accepting Jainism from the Jaina saints in the 8th cent. A.D. were called Pōravālas. The forefathers of Lollaka of Poravala caste living at Śrimālapattana constructed the Jaina temple at Bhijaulia. Page #328 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1433 M. AROKIASWAMI-The antiquity of Mysore, (Q. J.M.S. Culture and Heritage Number, 1956), Bangalore. P. 103. The region of modern Mysore was very important from very early times and served as a kind of half-way-house for all who discended on the South from the North. The pious expedition of Chandragupta and a band of Jain ascetics led by Bhadrabahu reaching Mysore in the first half of the third century B.C. 1347 1434 P. V. BAPAT (General Editor): 2500 years of Buddhism, (Delhi, 1956); P. L. VAIDYA: Origin of Buddhism (Chap. II). P. 11. Five types of Śramanas including the Nigantha (Jaina) and the Ajiva which are mentioned in the Jaina literature frequently. P. 13. The Jaina group their 363 schools broadly into four, namely, the Kriyavada, the Akriyavada, the Ajnanavada and the Vinayavada. Mahavira being shown as the champion of Kriyavada. The principal tenets of the Kriyavada school are that misery. P. 14. Is the result of one's own acts, and is not caused by anything else, that release from Samsära can be secured by knowledge of the highest truth and by good conduct. According to Jaina sources Ajita kešakambalin is the champion of the Akriyavada which roughly corresponds to the Lokayatika or the Cärväka school. No specific mention of any teacher who believed in the doctrine of Vinayävåda is found in Jaina sources. P. 15. Nigantha Nätaputta, who is no other than Mahavira, the founder, or, according to the Jaina tradition, the last prophet of the present world cycle, seems to have been slightly older than the Buddha. He preached ethical doctrines without apparently knowing that similar ideas had been held by an incomparably senior ascetic, Pariva. The latter is Mahavira's predecessor and lived 250 years before Pārśva. Mahavira. P. 16. Pārsva's ethical code consisted of four rules while that of Mahāvira's consisted of five. The disciples of Päriva and those of Mahavira met at Śrävasti and brought about the union of these two schools. In Samaññaphala-sutta Nigantha Page #329 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1348 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Nātaputa is mentioned as having held the doctrine of four-fold restraint, In the Udumbarika-Sibanda-sutta, the restrainsts ascribed to him are different, but identical with the four vows of Pārsva. Jainism is not only a purely ethical system but also philosophical-Anekānta or Syadvada. Jainism enjoins such behaviour as does not cause injury to any Jiva. The Anguttara, and the seventy-fourth sutta of the Tikanipata, redicule the Jain doctrines particularly its idea overcoming sin, its restraint on movements and its insistence on certain types of clothing. Makk hali Gosāta, a contemporary. P. 17. Of the Buddha belonged to the sect of the Aulakas or naked ones. He is said to have been a disciple of Mahāvīra, before he founded the Ajīvika. P. 20. Schools While Mahāvira clung to the docrine of Atlakilamatha or selfmortification, as against Kassapa, Ajita, Gosāla and Sanjaya, the Buddha preached the Majjhima-patipada or the middle path. P. V. BAPAT--Ashok (V. Asoka and the Expansion of Buddhism). P. 58. Asoka advocated tolerance for all religious sects and denominations, and respect for all pious men, such as the Sramanas, Brahmanas, Ājivikas and Jainas. Nalināksha DUTTA-(i) The pali Sutta Pitaka II (The Buddhists Teachings). P. 156. The Pasādika Suttanta was delivered when dissension occured among the followers of Nigantha Nātaputta soon after his death. K. A. Nilkanta SASTRI--Chpat. X Chinese Travellers. P. 270. Yuan Chawang in his account of Banaras describes of some people who are naked, others who rub their bodies with ash, or practice cruel mortifications in order to escape samsāra of the Jainas. S. K. SARASWATI : A. In Northern India, (Chapt. XII, Places of Buddhist Interest). P. 319. Apart from its Buddhistic bearing Rajgrha was also an active centre of Jainism in ancient times, as it is now and interesting remains of Jaina shrines and sculptures such as Maniyar Matha are still extant. P. 320. Vaišāli as the birth-place of Mahāvīra the twenty-fourth Jaina Tirthankara was equally sacred to the Jainas. Page #330 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1349 D. B. DISKALKAR : B. In Western India, (Chapt. XII-Places of Buddhist Interest). P. 336. The author is of opinion that it is due to the stronger influence of Jainism and Brahmanism that the influence of Buddhism declined in Karnatak. (Chapt. XIII-later N. Aiyarswami SASTRI ; Approach to Hinduism Modifications of Buddhism). P. 342. According to Sir R.G. BHANDAKAR, the Bhagavadgitā and the Bhakti movement owe their origin to the stream of thought which began with the Upanişads and culminated in the rise of Buddhism and Jainism in eastern India. P. 354. The person who has been able to bring under control all the three violences (dandas), vocal, mental and physical, is called the tri-dandin. The term danda' in this particular sense is characteristic of the Jainas also as described in Majjhima. P. 357. It is likely that after Asoka's prohibition of animal sacrifice some reformed Hindus and Jainas, took up the cause and roused sympathy in favour of the Asokan mission. 1435 S. Silva-The Bangārs, (Q.J.M.S.-Culture & Heritage Number, 1956), Bangalore. Pp. 165-69. Among the Jain families that held sway over some tracts of South Canara (Tuluva), the Bangārs are the most magnificent. They shed a great lustre on the culture of Tuluva. Their history can be fairly linked together from the year 1157 A.D. (S. 1079). These Kings add to their names the title of Vira Narasimha. Descriptions given of all such kings. (1) Vira Narasimha Banga Räja (Vira Narsimha-1157-1208 A.D.) (2) Chandrasekhara Banga Rāja (1208-1224 A.D.). (3) Pandyappa Banga Rāja (1224. 1239 A,D.) (also known as Santa Rāja). (4) Vittal Devi (1239-1264 A.D.). (5) Kāma Rāja I ( 1264-1274 A.D.). (6) Padumala Devi (1274-1287 A.D.). Page #331 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1350 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY (7) Havali Banga Rāja I (1287–1323 a.d.). (8) Samkara Devi I (1324-1349 A.D.). (9) Havali Banga Rāja II (1349-1400 A d.). (10) Laksmapparasa Banga Rāja I (1400-1455 A.D.). (Popularly known as Mammanna Banga). (11) Samkara Devi II (1455-1491 A.D.). (12) Kāma Rāja II (1491-1533 A.D.). (13) Havali Banga Raja III (1533-1545 A.D.). (14) Laksmapparasa Banga Rāja II (1545-1556 A.D.). (15) Kāma Rāja III (1556-1612 A.D.). (16) Laksmappa Banga Rāja III (1612-1628 A.D.. (17) Havali Banga Rāja Vodeya IV (1628-1631 A.D.). (18) Samkara Devi III (1031-1653 A.D.). (19) Havali Banga Rāja V (1653-1699 A D.). (20) Laksmapparasa Banga Rāja IV (1699-1767 A.D.). (21) Laksmapparasa Banga Rāja IV (1767-1799 A.D.) (22) Laksmapparasa Banga Rāja V (1800-1838 A.D.). In 1838, he was made prisoner by the English. After him, three more were crowned, viz. Kāma Rāja V, Santa Rāja and Padma Rāja. The Kingdom collapsed from 1867. The successor of Padma Rāja is not known. He was ruling till 1923. 1436 D. S. ACHUTA RAO-The Early Wodeyars of Mysore. Their cultural Traditions, Q.J.M. S.--Culture and Heritage Number, 1956), Bangalore. P. 190. The Wodeyars were known for their catholicity of religious outlook. Cämarāja (C. 1617-37), a devotee of Siva and Vişņu was also a great patron of Jainism, In C. 1631 he visited Śravana Belgoļa. There he learnt that the worship at the place had suffered as the lands of the matha had been mortgaged and the officia Page #332 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1351 ting priest Cārukirti Pandita Yogindra had taken refuse at Bhallakipura owing to the harassments of Jaggadevarāya, the ruler of Canna panna. Camarāja, not merely secured the release and restoration of the mortagaged lands but arranged for the return of the Yogi from the latter place, conferred on him many honours including grants of lands and fully restored religious life at the place (Muni Vam. MSS. Pp. 19-22: E.C.11.S.B, 250, p. 106, No.352, 1634, Pp.1556; Annals, p. 60). P. 191. The author of Munivanśäbhyudaya (stn. 151) tells us that Jainism had such decisive influence upon Chikkadevarāja during the early years of his reign that he observed the absolute sanctity of all life, he gave up certain prohibited things and used only purified water. Among the celebrated ministers Viśālākṣa Pandita was a Jrina. P. 192. Karnataka has been the home of tolerance from the earliest times. The Jainas of the Magadhan empire led by Bhadarbāhu found refuse in the heart of Mysore. P. 193. The Sravana Belgoļa inscription of Bukka I (C.1368) where the sovereign impressed upon the Srivaisnavas and the Jainas that there was no difference what ever between the Vaişnava darśana and the Jaina darśana and that the harm or good done to one must be regarded as the harm or good done to the other shows how the conception of religious freedom was held sacred and invisible and increasingly fostered by the Vijayanagar rulers. Such a spirit of enlightened liberalism is best examplified in the invocatory verse in an inscription in the Cannakeśava temple at Belur founded by the Hoysala King Vişnuvardhana. ram Sairah Samubasate Siva ili ... Arhan etc. The verse immortalised of unity of all faiths. the spirit 1437 N. Laksminarayan Rao-The family of Arikesarin patron of Pampa, (Q. J.M.S.), Culture and Heritage Number, 1956, Bangalore. P. 212. Arikesarin II, the patron of the Kannada poet Pampa who wrote his Adipurāna in 941. That in 959 A.D. Baddega, the son of Arikesarin II was ruling is known from the colophon of Yaşastilaka of Somadeva. P. 215. Both Pampa and the inscriptions praise Yuddhamalla, the first known member of the family as ruling the Sapadalakşa country, Page #333 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1352 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P 223. Of Baddega III, son of Arikesarin II-we get some information from the colophon of the Yasastilakacampu of Somadevasürin, who was his protege. An inscription says that Baddega had the Subhadhamajinalaya constructed for the use of Somadevasürin, Chief of the Gauda-samgha, this poet is also mentioned in the Parbhani Plates of his son Arikesarin III. In the colophon Somadeva sa s that he completed it at a place called Gangadhara under the patronge of Baddega, son of Arikesarin II, in Saka 881 (A.D. 959) when Räṣṭrakūta Krishna III, was camping at Melpati (North Arcot Dist.) Gangadhara where Baddega resided still exists under the same. name near Vemulavada the capital of these chiefs. 1438 P. B. DESAI-Jainism in South India and some Jaina Epigraphs. Pp. XIV, 454, with 21 Illustrations, It is the comprehensive history of Jainism in South India with primary emphasis on the Andhra districts, Tamil country and Karnataka, mainly from epigraphical material. Contents:-Jainism in Andhra Deśa (Traditions and Literature, Antiquities and Relics); Jainism in Tamil Nad (Advent of Jainism, Epigraphs, Strongholds of Jainism, some special features, Life and Literature, sage Rṣabhadeo, Hills and natural caverns-Tachchambadi etc.), Jainism in Karanataka, Jain Epigraphs (Antiquities, Incriptions in the Gulbarg and Kopbal districts); Jainism in Karnataka; Jaina monk symbolised; Jainism Vs. Savism. Bad days for Jainism; List of inscriptions edited. Texts of Inscriptions in Nagari script and their summaries in Hindi. Index. Sholapur, 1957. 1439 A. L. SRIVASTAVA-A Short History of Akbar the Great. Agra, 1957. (1542-1605). Pp. 58-60. Akbar and Jainism: Jainism exercised even a more profound influence on the thought and conduct of Akbar than Chaistianity. He seems to have come into contact with Jain scholars quite early, in 1582 he is said to have invited one of the greatest living Jain divines, Hirvijaya Süri, from Gujarat to explain to him the principles of his religion; he so impressed Akbar that the emperor practically gave up meat diet. The teachings of the Jain monks (Munis) produced a remarkable change in Akbar's life. He gave up hunting of which he had been so fond of in his early days and abstained almost wholly from meat diet. He restricted the slaughter of animals and birds, prohibiting it completely for more than half the days in the year. He even laid down the penalty of death for taking animals' life on prohibited days. Farmans were issued to all governors and local officers to abide strictly by the imperial injunctions. Page #334 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1353 1440 YUSUF HUSSIN-Glimpses of Medieval Indian Culture, Bombay, 1957. P. 11. The Vaishnava Alvars and the Shaivite Adiyars (Hindu mysties of the South in the tenth century) had composed popular hymns (parabanha) marked by strong religious emotion. They attached importance to the love of God as the means of salvation. They succeeded in weaning the people away from Buddhism and Jainism, and thus revived Hinduism in the South of India. 1441 Kālidās Nag--Discovery of Asia, Calcutta, 1957. P. 61......Mahāvīra and Buddha......stand as eternal symbols of Asian Spirituality. P. 72. In Max Muller's "Books of the East" series most of the books represent early Brahmanism, Jainism and Buddhism. P. 94. From the age of Mahävira and Buddha we may collect materials and publish them in Encyclopaedia Asiana of Peace and Harmony of the permanent well being of humanity. P, 103. The Heterodox schools led, by Jaina-Buddhistic scholars, have left us priceless documents on our social, economic and ethical life; the classics of Jainism have not yet been systematically explored ; some Jaina-Buddhist scholars were Encyclopaedists in the own way. P. 108. Jainism and other religions of India, can offer valuable manuscript materials which are unpublished and unnoticed. P. 109. Emphasize with the conviction of Mahävira and Buddha that "Conciliation and not conflict is the basis of normal life and society." P. 110. The immortal truth of non-violence alone can drag mankind out of self-destruction and re-establish us all in the World of Life and Joy. P. 111. From the age of Mahävira and Buddha, it has been shown that nonviolence alone leads to the permanent solution of the troubles of all beings. P. 148. Sages (honoured as the "Gymnosophists by the Greeks) -- like Pārsvanātha, Mahāvīra and the Buddha-each a great reformer, as reflected in the texts of Jainism and Buddhism. Page #335 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1354 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P.640. India indifferently represented : Jain woodworks and paintings. P. 642. A Gujrati Jaina painting (15th century A. D.) representing the tonsure (chudakaraña) of Mahāvīra (in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts). P. 648. The Free Gallery of Art, Washington, contains illustrated leaves of the Kalpasūtra showing the style of the Gujrati Rajput paintings of the 15th century. Plate 5. Fig. 8. Jaina like statue by an Argive Sculptor, Delphi. Plate 9, Fig. 16. Gujarati Jain MS. Painting, 15th century, Boston Museum. 1442 D. G. MAHAJAN--Ancient Dravidion Jain Heritage. (1. H. C. Proc. XIXth Session), Patna, 1957. Pp. 70-79. The ancient Tamil literature of the Sangam age (300 B. c. to 300 A. D.) is replete with ample references to 'Amanpalli' or rock caverns resorted to by the Jain Munis-ascetic for meditation. The Tamil epic Manimekalai gives a fair perspective of the Jain religion and its doctrines. The natural caverns on the slopes of the bills practically all over the hilly parts of the Tamil Land are sort of ancient haunts of the Jains. The period from 300 A. D. to 700 A. D.--"The age of the Jain Sanghas” was characterised by a militant propagation of Jainism with main seat at ancient Pataliputra, modern Tiruppapuliyar-Thirupadaripuliyar in the South Arcot district, important seat of a most renowned monastery traced as far back as the 3rd century A. D. adorned by Jain Acharya Samantabhadra, also adorned by Acharya Sinhanandi or Sravanandi in the 5th century, by Achārya Dharmasen, who later converted himself into the Saivite sect. Vajranandi Achārya, a pupil of the great Jain Achārya Pūjyapāda, founded in 470 A, D, the great Jain Sangha of Madura. The period from 700 A, D to 1250 A. D.- the period of the great controversies. The Alvāras and the Nayanamars, the Hindu revivalist, went about the country engaging their Jain and Buddha adversaries in the field of religious disputation. Jain Acharya Vimalachandra, challenged the Saivas, Pāśupatas, Buddhists, Kāpālikas and Kāpālis. Sandusen, Indusen and Kanakanandi were engaged in controversy by the Saivite saint Jnyana-Sambandhar. Prominent Pallis were at Tirumalai, Tiruppannamalai, Rajendrapuram, Villappakam in North Arcot Dist. Jirunarungondai and Srinnur in South Arcot District; Anandamangalam (Chinglepeth Dist.), Sandalai, Maruttavakudi (Tanjore Dist.) Tirumalwadi in Trichinopolly dist. Tirupperuttikunram known as Jain Kanchi just near the present Kanjeeweram. Perumpallies or large monasteries were at Narttamalai, Aunavasal, Settippatti, Sembatur and Mosakudi. Page #336 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1355 Jaina art-Pudukkottai State has more than 50 Jain monuments important for the study of Jain iconography. Frescos in Jain cave temple named "Sittannaväsal Siddhanivasam" are the earliest Jain paintings known in South India. The Jains formed an integrated part of the entire Tamil Society for not less than fifteen centuries. Tamil Literature-If Jain authors' works on each and every subject both Jain and non-Jain are excluded from the Tamil literature there will be practically no Tamil literature as such. Some Tamil works mentioned. 1443 K. C. OJHA--The Yavana invader of the Gangetic basin, (Proc., IHC, XIXth Session), Patna, 1957. P. 174. Dr. K. P. JAYASWAL read the name of inscription. But his reading has been found to be useless. The Hāthigumphā inscription refers to a Satakarni, ruler of southern India. Gautamiputra Satakarni claims in his Nasik cave inscription expulsion of the Graeco Bactrians along with the Sakas and Pahlawas. It is clear that the Graeco Bactrians were occupying some parts of inner India in the time of Khāravela and śātakarni kings, that is about the beginning of the Christian Era. 1444 C. StvaramMURTI -- Presidential Address. (Prof. IHC, XXth Session), Bombay, 1958. P. 25. Kundavai, a sister of Rājarāja Chola, endowed a Jaina institution at Nagapattinam. A Vijayanagar monarch brought about place between Vaişnvas and Jains by requesting his own Rajaguru literally to shake hands in friendship with the Jaina preceptor. 1445 K. A. Nilakanta SASTRI-A Note on Virasaivism-Its History and Doctrine. (Pr. & Tr. A. I. O. C. 18th Sess, 1955, Annamalainagar, 1958). P. 386. 1 he reign of Bijjala, the first and greatest of the Kalachuris who ruled in Kalyāni in the second half of the 12th century, was remarkable for a notable revival of Saivism (Virasaivism of Lingāyatism) in Karnataka. Knowledege of this movement comes mainly from literary sources of a Purānic character, much mix ed Page #337 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1356 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY with legendary and miraculous occurences. The Puranas are both Śaiva and Jaina in origin, the Jaina versions being, generally latter and perhaps relatively less trustworthy. P. 389. Both the Virasaiva and the Jain literary sources say that Bijjala was a Jain. (JBBRAS. Vol. VIII, p. 78 and DKD). The Jainas usually described all important persons from Chandragupta Maurya downwards and even such Puranic figures as Rama as Jainas, and not much value can attach to such testimony. Bijjala was a Saiva. The story of Ekantada Ramayya (Lingayat) and the Jainas; Ramayya's challenge...if the Jainas would wager their 800 temples including the Anesejjeya Basadi in Lakshmeśvara. Jainism in Karnataka suffered most by the impact of the new Saiva revival. 1446 S. S. MALWAD-Swadi Dynasty. (Pr. & Tr. A. I. O. C. 18th Sess. 1955. Annamalainagar, 1958). Pp. 295-296. Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagara (1508-1542) made his sister's son Arasappa Naik the ruler of Swadi which belonged to local chiefs of Kadamba family. Thus Arasappa Naik (1555-1598) became the founder of Swadi dynasty. He patronised the four monasteries at Swadi, viz. Brahmin, Vaishnava, Jaina and Virasaiva. It was during his time that Bhattakalanka, the head of the Jain monastery at Swadi composed 'Karnataka Sabdanusasana". 1447 U. P. SHAH-Jaina Monk Kalakacharya in Suvarnabhumi (Pr. Tr. A.I.O.C. 18th Sess. 1955. Annamalainagar, 1958). Pp. 260-269. Arya Syama identified as Kalakacharya who went to Suvarnabhumi, who learnt nimitta from Ajivikas, who gave some predictions about the siege of Mathura and who composed the anuyoga texts. If the Kalaka of the Garddhabhilla legend is Kalaka II, then this Kalaka II's date would be C. 453 after Mahāvīra, i.e., 74 B.C. or 15 B.C. according as the date of Nirvana in 427 B.C. or 568 B.C. The incidents ascribed to Kalaka II, relate to Kalaka I. Jaina monks and laymen had been to Suvarnabhumi in the first or second century, B.C. Page #338 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1357 1448 JNAN CHANDRA-Some unknown facts about Bimbisāra. (Proc. IHC, XXIst Session), Bombay, 1959. Pp. 215-217. The Purāņas place Bimbisāra in the saišunāga line. Hemacandra's Trishaşțišalaka purusha charita describes him as belonging to Vāhīka-kula ; Punjab was called Vähika. The Jain sources inform us that his real name was Sreņika and he was later called Bhambhasār, for the reason that he preferred to take a Bhambha musical instrument. 1449 N. R. RAY-A note on the decline of Chalukya power under Bhimadeva II (Proc. IHC, XXIst Session), Bombay, 1959. Pp. 84-86. The rich Jain community was primarily responsible for the religious revolution in Ajayapāla's reign. Under Kumārapāla there had been an ascendency of the Jains, in general, and of Hemacandra in particular. Sometimes undue importance is attached to Kumārapāla's association with Jainism. Merutunga and following him several chroniclers claim that Kumārapāla became a convert to Jainism. But this is not supported by epigraphical evidence. Kumārapāla's leaning towards Jainism was more for political reasons. This view is refuted. According to later writers like Merutunga and others Ajayapāla, the nephew and successor of Kumārapāla reversed his predecessor's policy and began to persecute the Jains, though this is not mentioned by earlier Jain writers. Ajayapāla was the patron of a Jain scholar named Vardhamāna. The theory of Jain alienation is seen to rest on slender foundations and as such the decline of Chālukyas under Bhimadeva cannot be explained in terms of a theory or religious revolution. 1450 Ram Sharan SHARMA-Aspects of Political Ideas and Institutions in Ancient India. Delhi. Varanasi, Patna, 1959. P. 151. Religion and Politics : Kautilya exhibits ar attitude of antipathy towards the sects opposed the Brahmanical system of life. He lays down certain regulations regarding crimes committed by the Paşandas and Kșapanakas. P. 152. Omnibus rule prohibiting all kinds of heretical sects from participation in the feast meant for gods and ascetics; if the sākyas, Āijvikas and Śūdra ascetics are invited at the feast, a fine of hundred panas shall be imposed on the guilty (Arth. Ses. III. 20). Page #339 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1358 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 165. Kusana Pulity : The earliest epigraphic mention of the title maharaja is to be found in the first century B.C. Häthig umphā inscription of Khāravela, where his ancestor Mahā-meghavāhana is described as mahārāja. P. 166. Jain text : Kalakacharyakathānaka, which seems to contain genuine traditions about the first appearance of Saka in India, uses the prakritised form rāyāhirāya in the case of Saka śāhi ; also prakritised form sahānusāhi. P. 167. Kālaka story given. P. 171. Gramika, mentioned in a Mathura Jain inscription of the time of Vasudeva (Luders' list No. 69a) another Jain votive image epigraph from Mathura mentions two generations of a local grāmika (Luders' List No. 48). P. 181. Kusanas never adopted policy of religious persecution. Under their rule Mathura, an important centre of Jainism in the reign of Kaniska and Huviska. P. 186. Chandragupta Maurya, according to the Jain tradition, was the son of a peacock'tamer (the different views regarding the caste of the Mauryas have been summarised by K.C. Ojha in "Original Home and The Family of the Mauryas" in the Journal of the Ganganath Jha Research Institute, Vol. IX. 1951). P. 188. According to early Jain text, besides the Ksatriyas, the brahmanas also filled the office of the senāpati and yodhajivas (warriors). class of P. 190. Early Jain sources inform that members of the Srotriya brāhmaṇas were occassionally employed as dūtas. P. 193. Jain sources inform that there was a parisa (as assembly) of the gāhāvais (i.e., Vaisya and šūdras). 1451 RAM GOPAL—India of Vedic Kalpasutras. Delhi, 1959. Pp. 86-87. The Ajivika sect-the Buddhist and Jain traditions are not unanimous in regard to the name Makkhali Gosāla--the Jain scriptures refer to the Ājivika teacher as Gosāla Mankhaliputta. Page #340 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1359 1452 D. C. SIRCAR-History Section, Presidential Address. A.1.0.C. 19th Ses. 1957, Delhi, 1959. P. 174. The relation between the Airas of the Krishna-Guntur region and of Orissa cannot be satisfactorily determined. It is possible that the establishment of Aira rule in the heart of the Andhra country was the result of the southern campaigns of Khāravela and these southern Airas were over-thrown by the Later Satavāhanas who came to the area from outside. 1453 D. C. Sircar-Presidential Address, History Section. (Proc. and Trans. AICC, XIXth Session); Delbi, 1959. Part I. Pp. 174-175. King Haritiputra Manasada ruled over the Krishna-Guntur region about the middle of the second century A. D. with the title Mahārāja. The dynastic name of the king is given as Aira in an inscription discovered in the Guntur District which connects this King with the rulers of the Aira or ChediMahāmeghavähana family. The Aira rule in the heart of the Andhra country was the result of one of the southern campaigns of Khäravela. 1454 SWAMI SANKARANANDA-The Last Days of Mohenjo Daro. Calcutta, 1959. P. 140. The culture of the Indus valley found its way in the Eastern India. This Eastern Zone of the Indus cultural colonization gave birth to the greatest of the religious preachers of the world, the Buddha. It is here in this zone also arose Mahavira, the founder of the Jain religion. 1455 R. C. MAJUMDAR-The Classical Accounts of India, Calcutta, 1960. (being English translations of the accounts, left by Diodorus, Herodotus, Megasthenes, Arrian, Strabo, Quintus, Siculus, Justin, Plutarch, Frontinus, Nearchus, Apollonius, Pliny, Ptolemy, Aelian and others with Maps, editorial notes, comments, analysis and Introduction). P. XX. Sramaņas include both Buddhists and Jainas. Page #341 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1360 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 202. Plusarch's (C. A. D. 46-120), life of Alexander : Kalanos, his real name was Sphines, but as he saluted those whom he met with 'Kale', (that is 'All hail'), he was called by the Greeks Kalanos. P. 225. The Indika of Arrian : (First century): Sophists-these sages go naked, living during winter in the open air to enjoy the sunshine, and during summer, in meadows and low grounds under large trees ; they live upon fruits and bark of trees. Pp. 277-278. The Geography of Strabo (born 63 B. c.) ; Onesicritus (pilot of Alexandar's ship), his account of the Sophists, who always went naked, devoted themselves to endurance; they were held in very great honour ; they did not visit other people when invited ; he found fifteen sophist at a distance of twenty stadia from the city, who were in different postures, standing or sitting or lying naked and motionless with sun; it was very hard to endure the sun, that at midday no one could easily endure walking on the ground with bare feet. Onesicritus conversed with one of these sophists, Calanus, who accompained the King (Alexandar) as far as Persis. Gist of conversation given. Mandanis, the wisest and oldest of the sophists ; his talk with Onesicritus. Pp. 279-80. Lack of agreement among the historians in the account of Calanus. P. 424. Dionysious Periegetes (3rd century A.D.) Priscian, the celebrated grammarian, translated the poem of Dionysios into Latin, in which occur the following lines Some of the Indians who pursue wisdom go about naked, and, what is wonderful, look with eyes undazzled on the sun, and, while concentrating their vision on his rays, concentrate also their minds on the holy themes. Pp. 425-29. Accounts of the Brahmanas and Sramanas : Sramanas include both Buddhists and Jains. Two ascetics named Calanus and Dhandamis who flourished at the time of Alexander (4th century B.c.). Pp. 439-40. Clemens Alexandrinus (A.D. 15-211) In his work "Stromateis', he writes : Those Indians who are called Semoni go naked all their lives. These practise truth, make predictions about futurity, and worship a kind of pyramid beneath which they think the bones of some divinity lie buried. They keep themselves chaste. (The Semnoi were probably Jains Ed. P. 448). Page #342 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1456 R. C. MAJUMDAR-Ancient India As described by Megasthenes and Arrian by J. W. Merindle. Revised 2nd edition. Calcutta, 1960. Pp. 101-02. Of the Sarmanes Megasthenes says that those who are held in most honour called Hylobioi; their descriptions. 1361 Pp. 105, 105n.-COLEBROCKE in his "Observations on the Sect of the Jains," says "the followers of the Buddha are clearly distinguished from the Brachmants and Sarmanes. The latter, called Germanes by Strabo, and Samanaens by Porphyrins, are the ascetics of a different religion, and may have belonged to the sect of the Jina, or to another. Pp. 106-07 & Pp. 116-17. & 123-129. Kalanos and Mandanss: Kalanos condemned by his countrymen but Mandanis is applauded. Kalanos, his real name was Sphines; he received the name Kalanos because in saluting persons he used the word Kalyana, which is commonly used in addressing a person. P. 136n. The Prasil and the Gangaridae, M. de st. Martin thinks their name has been preserved in that of the Gonghris of South Bahar, whose traditions refer their origin to Tirhut; he would identify their royal city Parthalis (or Portalis) with Vardhana (contraction of Vardhamana), now Bardwan. P. 161 & n. Beyond Palibotra (Patna) is Mount Maleus, on which shadows in winter fall towards the north, in summer towards the south, for six months alternately. n. Maleus, possibly, mount Parsvanatha, near the Damuda, and not far from the Tropic, as suggested by Yule; vide Ind. Ant. Vol. VI. P. 127, note and conf. vol. I. P. 46 ff. 1457 Kalidas NAG-Greater India. Bombay, 1960. P. 121. Long before Mahävira, India demonstrated her respect for life (Ahimsa) in her early Vedic history. P. 123. The solemn call 'Listen to me, O ye children of immortality... I have come to know the Great Purusha like the Sun, beyond the darkness! Originated in the Vedic period and culminated in the Upanisadic time-soon beccame manifest in the Jain Tirthankaras. Page #343 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY The unerring universalism of the Upanisads led Mahavira, the Mason of Jainism, so preach Ahimsa (no-injury) as the noblest principle of religion. 1362 Pp. 408-09. It is a fact of profound historical significance that when Mahavira and Buddha inaugurated the era of renovation and emancipation, the hoary religious factors that they had to confront and contend with were ritualism and asceticism. While the ritualism was systematically criticised by Gotama, the asceticism was then strong enough to claim both Mahavira, and Buddha as temporarily its subjects. P. 412. Symbolic representation of deities was a natural compromise on the higher aesthetic plane; and it left its indelible marks on the masterpieces of early. Jaina and Buddhist art. P. 420. Jaina iconography was never touched by the humanizing influence It remained rigidly archaic, ritualistic and formal to the last, as a long list of Jinas and Tirthankaras, although in temple architecture and painting the jaina contribution was really great. Pp. 804-05. Remembering the 2500th anniversary of Mahavira and Buddha, the foundation stone of an International University of non-violence could be laid for the abiding benefit of the entire humanity by holding aloft the banner of Ahimsa in order to solve all our national and international problems and struggles. P. 806. Jain literatures furnish most valuable evidences of research and speculation on science and culture of the Orient. P. 808. Jainism aspired to control by the noble principle of non-stealing (a-chaurya) and non-possessiveness (a-panigraha), "slavery and exploitation". Pp. 809-10. Jainism and the world message of non-violence: By the discovery of Ahimsa Jainism may legitimately claim a very high place in the Parliament of Religions of Man. Jains claim Prehistoric antiquity of Adinath (or Rṣabhadeva) the first Tirthankar: Parsvanath (8 0 B.C.), the 23rd Tirthankara ; and Mahavira-the senior contemporary of Buddha. In the 2500 years ago (i.e. 556 B.C.) on the first day of Sravana, Mahavira preached his first sermon from the Vipule mount of Rajagriha. This event was celebrated at Rajgir in Bihar in July 1944 and from 31st Oct. to 4th Nov. 1944 at Calcutta-attended by, Jains and non-Jains from all over India; and Vira Sasana Sangha of Calcutta was established. Page #344 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1363 To save humanity from annihilation by Atomic warfare. we must accept Non-violence as the basic principle of our co-existence. The need for an International University of Non-violence. Pp. 810-11. Jaineology and World Peace: Jainism is a minor religion of India, yet it antedates Buddhism and offers a solution to offers a solution to many major national and international problems. Ahimsā or non-violence is to be understood and practised in our relation to all beings (Sarva Sattra) (a) terestrial, (b) aquitic and (c) aerial, as later envisaged by the scientists of the Geo-physical year in the Antactic. Adinātha, the first Tirthankara, was followed by other prophets of Nonviolence like Neminātha (cousin of Sri Krsna) and they proclaimed Peace as superior to war. Pp. 811-13. Fine Leading Ways : Preachings of Pārsvanātha and Mahavira. Jainism rejected the rituals involving animal sacrifices. The Jainism and Buddhism contrasted. Between 400 and 200 B.C. the Nanda Kings and the Mauryan Emperor Chandra Gupta supported Jainism. Other enlightened patrons of Jainism. 1458 K. C. JAIN-History of Bayana, (Proc, and Trans., AIOC. XXth Session, 1959), Poona, 1961. Vol. II, Part I. Pp. 179-186. Situated about 30 miles to the South-West of Bharatpur Bayana has been mentioned as Brahmavada in the Jain inscriptions of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. Vedic and Jain religions were popular here. The earliest trace of Jainism, in Bayana is known from the 10th and 11th centuries. The Muslims pulled down the Hindu and Jain temples. Text of the inscriptions in the Jain temple at Bayana given. 1459 earliest time upto Amar Chand MITTAL.-An Early History of Orissa, (From First century B.C.), Banaras, 1962. P. 109. According to the Uttaradhayana Sūtra Karakandu was the name of a Kalinga king. Page #345 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1364 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 116-17. The earliest reference to Kalinga in the Jain literature is found in the Avašyaka Niryukti, 325 in connection with Lord Aranātha, the eighteenth Tirthankara. Pp. 136-139. Prevalence of Jainism in Kalinga. Pp. 144-146. Identification of the Kalinga Jina. Pp. 227-394. Book-III, the epoch of Khāravela. Chap. IX, Sec. I-Political condition of Kalinga on the eve of Khāravela's occasion. Sec. II-Sources for the historicity of Kbāravela --The Hāthigumpha Inscription-its condition, size, system of spacing, authorship and composition discussed. Sec. III-Mahameghavahana dynasty. Sec. IV–Predecessors of Khāravela. Sec. V-Lineage of Khāravela Aira, Chedi Vanisa. Chap. X-Date of Khāravela. Sec. I - Internal evidences. Sec. II-circumstantial evidences. Chap. XI. Sec. 1–Name. Khāravela—its etymology. Sec. II-Childhood of Khäravela. Sec. III-Education of Khāravela. Sec. IV-Marriage of Khäravela. Sec. V-Coronation of Khāravela. Chap. XII. Sec. I--Conquests of Khāravela, extent of empire. Sec. IIKhāravela's administration. Sec. III -Military force. Sec. IV-The city of Kalinga- its identification. Chap. XIII, Sec. I--Wealth & prosperity of Kalinga. Sec. II-Religious policy. Sec. III-Estimate of Khāravela. Chap. XIV-Cave Architecture in Orissa. Sec. A-Details of several caves given. Sec. B-State of sculpture & Architecture. Pp. 395-400. Appendix A-Text of the Hāthigumphā cave Inscription of Khāravela. P. 400. Appendix B-Text of the Manehapuri cave Inscription of the Chief queen of Khāravela. P. 401. Appendix C_Text of the Manchapuri cave Inicription of Vakradeva. Pp. 402-411. Bibliography. Pp. 453ff. Plates--X, figs. 56--Description given. 4 maps. Page #346 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY V. R. DEORAS-Fresh light on the Southern compaigns of the Rashtrakuta emperor Krishna III, (Proc., IHC. XXth Session), Bombay, 1958. 1460 P. 133. Indranandhi's Jualamālinīkalpa completed at Manyakheta in the Saka year 861, i.e. A.D. 939, refers to Krishnaraja as the reigning sovereign, P. 135. Pushpadanta in his Mahapuraṇa records that in the course of his travels he reached Melpati, where king Tudiga i.e. Krishna III was staying after having cut off the head of the Chola king. 1365 P. 138. Somadeva's Yasastilaka was composed in Saka 881 (A.D. 959) while Krishna was reigning at Melpati after having subdued the Pandya, Simhala, Chola, Cherama and other kings Yasastilaka, vol. II, p. 419). 1962. 1461 Jack LINDSAY-A short History of Culture From prehistory to the Renaissance, London, world. P. 90. The careers of the Buddha, Vardhamana, Zorasthustra, John the Baptist, Jesus, Mohammed, Main and we may add Orpheus and Pythagoras-all show strong shamanist characteristics. The Shaman feels strongly his role as mediator between men and the spirit Pp. 197-98. The use of ascetic techniques to gain control of the body is central; and the three main expressions come in Jainism, Buddhism and Bakhti. Jainism accepted nothing less than total escape from the chain, and venerated a small group of noble selves who had escaped into perfection. Jainism founded by Vardhamana, born about 569 B.a., an ascetic who gathered the usual marvellous tales of birth, childhood and initiation. The Jains have carried ahimsa or non-violence towards all creatures to an extreme, e.g., they filter their breath with respirators so as not to swallow living organisms. They have survived as a minority sect; like the Quakers in 18th century England they have played a leading part in banking, and in parts, Bengal and Assam, hold almost a monopoly of retail trade. There is a certain bitter irony in the way in which quietest sects, especially when persecuted, seek to heap up treasure in heaven, and by their extremely abstinent lives end by heaping up treasure on earth and playing a leading role in money accumulation. Page #347 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1366 1462 V. V. MIRASHI-Presidential Address, Twenty-fourth Session, Indian History Congress, Delhi, (Pro. IH.C. Calcutta, 1963). Pp. 12-13. The ideal of Chakravartin before the kings of ancient India, was not for self-aggrandisement but for the promotion of Dharma (righteousness). Such a king was called Dharma-Vijayin. The first king who is traditionally supposed to have brought the whole of India under his rule is Bharata, after whom the country is called Bharatavarsha. 1463 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Gulap Chandra CHOUDHARY-Political History of Northern Indian from Jain sources, (C. 650 A.D. to 1300 A.D.) Pp. XXV, plus 449. Amritsar, 1963. In this work the author has utilised mainly the Jain sources (mostly Svetambar) with a view to reconstruct, examine, check up or supplement the political history of the various dynasties that ruled in different parts of N. India in the said. period. It shows what light the Jain sources throw on the dynasty as a whole or on the individual rulers, their achievements and pricipal political events of the reigns. Part II of the book pertains to a study of the polity and administration. which evolved during this period. 1464 R. K. DIKSHIT-Jainism under the Chandellas, (Jain. Ant. Vol XXII, No. I), Arrah, 1963. Pp. 7 to 13. The allegonical drama of Krsna Misra, Prabodhachandradaya introduces a Digambara ascetic in III Act. The picture presented by Prabodhachandradaya is vitiated and contrary to historical evidence. The Chandella Kings who ruled. over Jejakabhukti (modern Bundelkhand) from the 9th to the 14th century A.D., though were orthodox Saivas showed their respect for and patronage of the rival creeds Buddhism and Jainism. Epigraphic and monumental evidence show that the pradela contained a flourishing Jaina community and its holy Kietras and that the Chandella kings even permitted the Jainas to build their temples in the capital cities of Khajuraho and Mahoba and within the fort walls at Ajayagadha. At Khajuraho, there is compact group of Jaina temples, situated to the South-east of the village, and an isolated temple, the Ghanțai. The Adinath and Pārsvanath temples of the southern group belong to the Chandella period. Most important, of these is the temple of Santinätha. The Pärsvanatha temple is the largest and the finest of the ancient shrines showing an inscription of v.s. 1011. They offer ample material Page #348 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1367 for the study of Jain iconography. The images include those of all the twentyfour Tirthankaras, lunchanas, Yakshas, Yakshinis, Vahanas, sixteen auspicious symbols, the Jain adaptations of Navagrahas and Dikpalas, Apsaras, Vidyadharas, Kirtimukhas, certain Brahmanical deities such as Brahma, Visnu, Šiva and Balarama. All these sculptures are masterpieces of art and reflect great credit on the Chandella sculptors. The State Museum, Lucknow, has a good collection of statues from Mahoba. Most of these statues belong to the Chandella period, as shown by the inscriptions on their pedestals. Three images respectively of Neminātna (vs. 1211), Sumatinatha (v.s. 1215) and Ajitanätha (v.s. 1220) refer to the reign of King Madanavarman. Ajayagadha (Panna Dist., V.P.) the celebrated fortress of the Chandellas, also boasted of a number of Jaina shrines. A statue of Sumatinatha bearing an inscription in v.s. 1331 by Acharya Kumudachandra of the Mula Sangha belongs to the reign of Viravarman. An image of Santinatha set up at Jayapur durgga (Ajayagadh) in v.s. 1335 also belongs to the reign of the same ruler. Large collection of Jaina images, mostly belonging to the Chandella period has been noticed in Ahara, Madanapura (Tikamagadha District, V.P.). The dates of the inscriptions range from v.s. 1123 to v.s. 1869. The inscriptions contain the names. of different anvayas, viz. Gapati, Khandelaväla, Lambakancuka, Paurapatta, Puravata, Medhatavala, Golapurva, Jaisaval, etc. The most remarkable of the Ahara statues is the one of Santinatha 18 high which contains an inscription in stating that it was installed in v.s. 1237, in the reign of Paramardideva and referring a "Sahasrakūta chaityalaya' enshrining the images of Santinatha, Kunthunatha and Arahanatha at Banapura (Jhansi Dist.), as well as to a Sn Santi Chaityalaya' at Nandapura and another 'Chaityalya' at Madanesasagarapura. Papaura, 3 miles to the east of the city Tikamagadha, has 75 Digambara temples belonging to XVI-XIX centuries of the vikrama era. Epigraphic records show that it was important Jaina centre under the Chandellas. Devagadha (Jhansi District, U.P.) has an extensive group of Jaina shrines. The earliest inscriptions in these temples belong to the 9th century A.D., but some of the buildings may be even earlier. The place owned the sway of Chandellas at least during the 11th and 12th centuries. Jaina monuments mostly belonging to the 11th and 12th centuries, existed side by side with the Brahmanical shrines at Madanapura, Dudahi and Chandpur, all in the Jhansi district and at Chhatarpur and Tikanagadha, The dominions of their Kachchhapaghata feudatories are also rich in Jaina shrines. Page #349 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Section III (ii) 1465 R.G. WALLACE -- Memoirs of India. London, 1824. Pp. 145–148. Jainism described. P. 393. Notion of time, or chronology of the Jains. 1466 Ch. P. BROWN-Cyclic tables of Hindu and Mahomedan Chronology-Madras, 1850. P. 57. Geneological review on the Cālukya princes. These would have originally professed the Jaina religion. They would have been afterwards, towards Śaka 1060, converted to the Vişnuism, thanks to the efforts of the famous reformer Rāmānuja (cf. p. 61). 1467 A. WEBER-Chronologische Notiz (Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, vol. XII, Pp. 186-189, Leipzing, 1858. Review on the Satruñjayamāhātmya and the author of this work, Dhaneśvara. 1468 C. M. DUFF-The Chronology of India-Westminster, 1899. The chronological data relating to the Jainas, contained in this work, are recalled in the following pagesPages Tears Events 4-5 527 Before the Christian era. Death of Mahāvira (The Jaina tradition gives still the years 545 and 467 B.c as dates of this event). 7 357 Death of Bhadrabāhu (in 365, according to the tradition of the Digambaras). According to the tradition of the Svetāmbaras the council of Pataliputra, where the Angas had been assembled, must have taken place at the time of this great priest. Christian era 83 Origin of the sect of the Digambaras. First redaction written from canonical books. 139 Page #350 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1369 Pages Years Events 33 453 Traditional date of the final revision of the canon in the council of Valabhi. Towards Epoch of Manatunga, author of the Bhaktamarastotra. Epoch of the poet Ravikirti, 55 65 610 660 743 Ravisena wrote the Padmapurāņa. Birth of Bappabhattisūri, author of the Sarasvatistotra; died in 838. Jinasena wrote the Haritamsapurāna. 783 71-72 Towards 810 814 837 Epoch of: Jinasena, author of the Harivamsapurāņa, of the Pārsvabhyudaya and of the Adipurāņa ; Virācārya, author of the Saro samgraha, a treatise of Jaina mathematics; Vidyānanda, author of the Așțasahasri ; Prabhacandra, author of the Njāyakumuda Chandrodaya. Advent of Amoghavarşa Ist, who has professed the Jaina creed and to whom the Digambaras attribute the Praśnottararatnamalika. Composition of the Jayadhavalafika, a treatise on the Digambara Philosophy, Epoch of Gunabhadra, author of the Uttaraputāna and of Atmānusāsana. Silänka might have composed at this date his commentary on the Acārāngasūtra. Consecration of the Uttarapurāņa of Guņabhadra by his disciple Lokasena. Birth of Pampa or Hampa, the canara poet. Epoch of Amritacandrasūri, author of the Samayasaraţika, of the Pravacanasāraţikā, of the Tattvārthasāra etc. 77 Towards 860 876 897 902 905 83-84 906 Sid 'arsi, cousin of Mágha, composed the Upamitabhavapra. pañcākatha. 90 941 The Canara poet Pampa composed the Adipurāņa and the Pampa-Bharata. Page #351 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1320 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pages Years Years Events 959 Somadeva wrote the Yaśastilaka. 967 Foundation of the Kharatara sect by Jinenśvara disciple of Vardhamāna. 972 Dhanapāla composed the Paiyalacchi. 994 Amitagati wrote the Subhasitaratnasandoha (And in 1014 the Dharmaparikșa). 113 1024 Epoch of activity of Jeneśvara. 1032 Construction at Dailwādā of a temple in honour of Vrisabha, by the marchant Vimalaśāh of Anahilvād. 120 Death of śāntisūri, of the Tharapadra sect, author of a commentary on the Uttaradhyayanasūtra. 126 1064 Abhayadevasüri, founder of the sect Brihatkharatara, wrote his commentaries on the Angas. 1069 Jinacandra wrote the Samvegarangaśāla, 129 1073 Devendragaại comments on the Ultaradhyayanasütra. 130 1076 Birth of Jinadattasūri. 131 1080 Birth of Aryarakṣita, founder of the sect Añcala. 132 1082 Gunacandra composed the Mahāvīracarita ; Guruchandra and Candragani, each one Sriviracarita. 1102 First copy of the Kathāratnakośa of Devabhadrasūri, by Amalacandragani. 137 1103 Foundation of the sect Añcala. Death of Jinavallabha. De 1381111 1401116 Rāmadeva, disciple of Jinavallabha, wrote the Şadaś itika. cūrni. 143 1124 Epoch of Yaśodevasűri, disciple of Candrasüri. Page #352 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pages 145 146 147 148 151 152 153 154 156 161 163 164 165 166 169 174 175 Years 1129 1130 1133 1141 1148 1150 1152 1153 1160 1175 1179 1182 1186 1189 1193 1204 1206 Events Mallisena commits suicide by prolonged fasting. Dhananjaya mentioned in an inscription of Saka 1045; he was the contemporary of the poet Pampa, 1371 Amradevasüri wrote his commentary on the Akhyanakamanikola of Nemicandra. Birth of Jinacandra of the Kharatara sect. Jinasekharasüri, disciple of Jinavallabha, founded a subordinate sect. Epoch of Hemacandra. Birth of Dharmaghosa, disciple of Jayasimha in the Añcala sect; author of Satapadika. Birth of Jinapati, disciple of Jinacandra. Epoch of Candrasuri of the Harşapuriya sect. Candrasuri wrote a commentary on the Sadavakyaka. Foundation of the sect Sårdha paurnamiyaka. Ratnaprabhasüri wrote a commentary on the Upades mala Dharmadasagani. Siddhasenasuri wrote a commentary on the Pravacanasaro dhāra. Birth of Jinesvarasüri; he had as disciple Abhayatilakagani. Foundation of the sect Agamika by Silagana and Deva bhadra. Epoch of Tilakācārya. Dharmaghosa composed the Satapadika. Page #353 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1372 Pages Years 179 179 180 181 182 182 185 186 187 182 1229 188 190 191 194 1219 1220 1222 1227 1228 1230 1235 1237 1240 1241 1245 1246 1251 202 1265 Events JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY The two famous Jains, the brothers Vastupala and Tejahpāla, ministers of the princes Lavanaprasada and Viraddhavala (dynasty Vaghela of the Caulukyas of Anahilvädḍ). Epoch of Jinadatta, author of Vivekavilasa. Abhayadevasuri, disciple of Vijayacandrasuri, composed the Jayantavijayakāvya. Birth of Ajitasimha, of the Añcala sect. Jagaccandra founded the Tapa sect. Arisimha wrote the Sukṛtasamkirtana in honour of the minister Vastupäla. Epoch of Amaracandra. Birth of Jinaprabodha, author of the Durgaprabodhavyäkkyä. Probable epoch of Udayaprabhasūri, author of the Dharmabhyudayamähäkävya. Epoch of Asadhara, author of the Trisastismṛiti, of the Jinayajñakalpa, etc. Mahendrasuri, of the Añcalika sect, wrote the Satapadt. Tilakācārya completes the commentary of Bhadrabahu on the Avasyakasutra. Epoch of Devendrasūri, of Arisimha and of Amaracandra. Death of the minister Vastupäla. Probable epoch of Ratnasimhasüri, author of the Padgalaşaltrimšika. Devendrasuri effected two famous conversions at Ujjain. He died in 1271. Death of the minister Tejahpāla. Epoch of Balacandra, of Vijayasenasüri of Padmasuri and of Pradyumnasüri. Page #354 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1373 Pages Tears Events 203 1266 Dharmatilaka of Lakşmitilaka, disciple of Jineśvara, wrote a commentary on the Ullasikkamastotra of Jinavallabha, 203 1269 Birth of Jinacandra ; he died in 1319. 205 1280 Birth of Jinakusala, 2051282 The Šantinathacaritra of Devasūri is translated from the Frākrit in Sanskrit and abridged. 208 1292 Epoch of the commentator Jinaprabhasūri. 210 1299 Birth of Somatilakasūri, who died in 1368. 210 1300 Epoch of Merutunga. 212 1309 Vijayasimhasūri wrote the Bhuvanasundarikatha. 218 1334 Prabhanandasūri wrote the Kșetrasam grahanivștti. 218 1336 Ratnadeva translated in Sanskrit the Vijjalaya of Jayavallabha. 220 1340 Birth of Devasundara, of the Tapā sect. 220 1343 Epoch of Jinaprabha, of the Rudrapalliya sect. 222 1347 Birth of Merutunga, of the Ancala sect, author of the Sūrimantrakalpasāroddhára. 223 1349 Rajasekharasūri composed the Prabandhakośa. Birth of of Jñānasāgara, diciple of Devasundara : he died in 1404. 224 1353 Birth of Kulamandana, one of the five disciples of Devasundara. 227 1366 Jayasimha wrote the Kumārapalacarita. 227 1370 Gunākarasūri wrote a Bhaktămarastotraţika. 227 1372 Ratnasekharasūri composed the Sripalacaritra; Page #355 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1374 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Years Events 228 1373 Devendra Muniśvara wrote a commentary on the Praśnottararatn mālā of Vimalacandrasuri. 228 1374 Birth of Somasundarasūri, who died in 1443. 229 1376 Birth of Jayakirti, disciple of Merutunga and master of Jayakesarin ; he died in 1443. 229 1379 Jayasekharasūri wrote the Upadeśacintamani. 1380 Birth of Munisundara, author of the Upadeśaratnākara ; he died in 1447. 230 1385 Inscription of frugapa, Jaina minister of Harihara II, and author of the Nānārtharainamala. Sanghatilakasūri, of the Rudrapalliya sect, wrote a commentary on the Samyaktvasa plaţika. 234 1395 Abhayadevasüri, contemporary of Guņākarasűri, composed the Tijayaphuttastotra. 238 1400 Sādhuratna wrote the ratijitakalpavritti. 238 1401 Birth of Ratnasekharasūri, author of the Sraddhapratikramanavritti ; he died in 1461. 1405 Jinavardhanasūri became the grand priest of the Kharatara sect. 241 1408 Birth of Lakşmisāgarasūri. 247 1424 Mention of an inscription dated Šaka 1349 in a Jaina temple of Vijayanagara. 248 1427 Munisundara, disciple of Devasundara and of Jñānasāgara composed the Mitracatuṣka-kathā; he is also the author of the Sahasranāmasmriti. 253 1435 Silaratnasūri, disciple of Jayakirti, wrote a commentary on the Meghadutakāvya of Merutunga. 53 1436 Jinamandanasūri finished the Kumarapalacarita, Page #356 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1375 Pages Years Events 254 1438 Jinakirti, disciple of Somasundara, wrote a commentary on his Namaskārastava ; author of the Dānakalpadruma, of the Śrapalagopalakat ha and of the Dhanyaşālicarilra. 256 1448 A patļāvali of the Kharatara sect, in the temple of Jesalmer, is dated of that year (Samvat 1505). 1448 of Ratnaśekhara, wrote the Somacandra, disciple Kathāmahodadhi. 2571449 Jayacandrasūri, disciple of Somasundara, composed the Pratikramanavidhi. 258 1451 Foundation of the Lumpāka sect. 260 1464 Probable period of Sakalakirti, author of the Tattvarthasāradipaka, 261 1465 Subhasilagani wrote the Pancasatiprabodhasambandha. 1470 Period of Kșemankara. 2631477 Origin of the Vesadhara sect(branch of the Lumpaka sect). Period of Śrutasāgara, author of the Tattvärthadipika. 266 1496 Padmamandiragani commented upon the Risimandalaprakarana. 2691507 Origin of the Katuka sect. 270 1511 Foundation of the branch Nāgapuriya of the Lumpāka sect. 270 1513 Origin of the Bijamata sect. 270 1513 Foundation of the Pāśa sect. Harisena wrote the Jagat sundariyogamala. 273 273 1526 1528 Nemidatta composed the Sripala carita ; he is also author of the Sudaraśanacarita. the Page #357 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1376 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1469 P. C. MUKHARJI-An independent Hindu view of Buddhist Chronology. (Indian Antiquary. Vol. XXXII, Pp. 227-233). Bombay, 1903. The author utilises some Jaina documents in order to fix some dates, among others the following: Death of Buddha 543 B.c. Date of Candragupta 380-375 B.C. Advent of Asoke Between 329 and 325 B.C. 1470 Nīlmaņi CHAKRAVARTI- Chronology of Indian Authors', a supplement to M, Duff's Chronology of India. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1907, Pp. 205-220). Calcutta, 1907. The chronological date relating to the Jaina authors are the following: Date A. D. 479 1166 Death of Haribhadrasūri, Samvat 535. Samvat 1222 Epoch of Chandrasūri, of the Harsapuriya gaccha. He composed the 'Samghayani-rayana', the 'Khetta-samāsa' and a commentary on the 'Avasya-sūtra'. 1240 Gunākara composes the 'Ascara.yogmalalaghuvȚtti', Samv at 1296. 1307 Jinaprabhasūri, disciple of Jinasimhasūri, writes the 'Vihi-maggapava, Samvat 1363. 1405 (?) Jinavardhanasūri, disciple of Jinarājasūri (who was pontiff of the Kharatara sect from Samvat 1461 to 1475), writes a commentary on the 'Vägbhatālamkāra. 1446 Jinamandana gani composes the "Sraddha-guna-samgraha', Samvat 1492. 1469 Hemahamsa gani, of the Tapā gaccha, composes a commentary, entitled 'Nyasa', on the 'Nyayamanjuşa, Samvat 1525. 1516 Vinayahamsasűri composes a commentary on the Disavaikalika-sútra', Samvat 1572. Page #358 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Date A. D.1527 1552 1589 1590 1595 1596 1604 1622 1624 1630 1377 Samvat 1583, a Dipika has been written on the 'Sutrakrtänge" by Harṣakula, disciple of Hemavimalsuri, of the Tapă gaccha. Samvat 1608, copy has been made for the first time of the 'Lokaprakasa', treatise of Jaina geography by Vinayapāla. Samvat, 1645, Narachandrasüri composes a commentary on 'Prakrita-yakarana' of Hemachandra and Punyasägara a commentary on the Jambudelpa Prajñapti". Samvat 1646, Gunavinaya gani composes the 'Raghavi-v qui a commentary on the 'Raghuvania', as well as a 'Damayantikatha-vṛtti", A 'balabodha' has been composed on the 'Pravacanasara' by Padmamandira gani, Samvat 1651. Samvat 1652, Padmadevavijiaya gani composes a 'Ramacharita cr RamaJana and Kanakakušala of the Tapa gaccha, a commentary on the 'Bhaktamara-stotra and the 'Kalyanamandira-stotra". Jnanatilaka gani, disciple of Padmaraja gani, writes the 'GautamaKulaka-vṛtti, Samvat 1660. Samvat 1678, Sumatiharsa gani composes the 'Gunaka-Kumuda-kau mudi'. Samvat 1680, Sadhusundara gani composes a treatise of grammar entitled 'Dhaturalnakara' or 'Kriyakalpalata'. Samayasundara, disciple of Sakalachandra, writes the 'Cailasahasri", well as a commentary on the 'Kalpasatra', the Kalpalata'. 1471 Muni JINAVIJ VYAJI-The Date of Haribhadra Sari-(A.I.O.C. Session I; 1920). P-cxxiv-his works cited-participants KLATT, LEUMANN, BALLINI, MIRONOW, and JACOBI-Age between 705 & 775 A.D. 1472 Rames Chandra MAJUMDAR-The Kushan Chronology. Pt. 1. (JDL, i, 1920, Pp. 65-112). P. 104. The business habit of the Jain merchants is not peculiar to the Kusan period alone-Sodasa's Mathura Inscription belongs to the Jain religion, Page #359 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1378 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1473 R. C. Majumdar--The Origin of the Sena Kings~(A.1.0.C. Session II ; 1922). Pp. 343-7. Line of Jain teachers-earliest one is at the time of the Răstraküta king Krishna II, dated 902-3 A.D.-Mārasimha preserved the doctrine of Jina ... Chāmundaräya, the disciple of Ajitasen ... 1474 PRADHAN SITANATH-Chronology of Ancient India. Calcutta, 1927. P. 63. Mention of Jain version of Brahminical Harivarśa. P. 135. Kalpa Sutra-Jain work. P. 211. Jain literature and chronology alternative sources of Indian history (from Bimbisāra to Chandra Gupta Maurya). P. 218. Purāņas borrowing information from ancient Jain sources. P. 226. Jain tradition refers Mahāpadma as the son of a Courtesan by a barber. Pp. 241-42. Puttavallis works of Svetāmbara Jainas-Jaina tradition asserts Chandragupta's accession to be 312 B.c. Devardhigania Kşamā-Šramaņa the author of Kalpasūtra a Jain work. Mahavira carita, work of Nemichandrācārya mention of the date of Vira Nirväna and the birth of the Saka king to be 605 years 5 months, (??). Trailokya Prajñapti, a Jain work by Yati Vệsabha of Digambara sect. P. 257. Sahasranika, a disciple of Mahāvira-Sansnika the Jain name of Sahasranika. 1475 K. B PATHAK-On the Date of Samantabhadra, (ABORI, Vol. XI, 1930, P. 149). Points: (1) Samantabhadra's attack on Dharmakirti. (2) Aptamimänsā, verse 80, Samantabhadra says that Dharmakirti contradicts himself. See, Verse 106- Page 150. Page #360 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY (3) Samantabhadra refutes Bhartrihari. (4) Santarakshita quotes and refutes Kumărilla. (See, Transactions of the Ninth Oriental Congress-"The position of Kumärila in Digambar Jain Literature"-K.B. PATHAK). Conclusion... Samantabhadra may be assigned to the eight century. 1476 K. B. PATHAK-Santarakṣita's Reference to Kumärila's Attacks on Samantabhadra ond Akalankadera, (ABORI. Vol. XI; 1930, Pp. 155-164). 1477 1379 S. R. DAS-4 Short Chronology of Indian Astronomy. I.H.Q. Vol. VII. 1931. P. 139. Jyotisa Vedānga followed by the astronomy of the Jainas-Suryaprajñapti only available work on Jaina astronomy. Mention of two more Jaina astronomical works viz: Candraprajñapti and Bhadrabahavya Samhita. Mention of Bhadrabahu's commentary on Suryaprajñapti. P. 140. Suryaprajñapti-attributed to Mahavira written about 500 B.C.Conception of juga as explained in Süryaprajñapti explained. P. 141. Astronomy one of the principal accomplishments of the Jaina priest in the Bhagavati Sutra of 300 B.c.-knowledge of astronomy essential for Jaina priest also observed by Śânticandra gana (1595-A.D.) in the preface to his commentary on Jambudvipa pranjñapti. 1478 K. B. PATHAK-Santarakṣita, Kamalaila and Prabhachandra, (ABORI. Vol. XII; 1930-31) Pp. 81-83. Conclusion: It is needless to state that all these authors were contemporaries, the Jain author Prabhācandra being that latest of them. It may be remarked that Prabhachandra, when a mere boy, must have approached the feet of Akalankadeva or seen him. 1479 K. B. PATHAK-On the Date of Akalanakadeva (Reproduced in Part II). (ABORI. Vol. XIII; 1931-32), Pp. 157-160, Page #361 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1380 land. 1480 K. N. S. PILLAI-Chronology of the Early Tamils, Madras, 1932. P. 9. Jains and the Buddhists-the first of the Aryas to penetrate to the Tamil Pp. 26-27. Mention of Vajranandi-a Jain Grammarian pupil of Devandi Pujyapada a Jain Sanskrit Grammarian of the Kanarese country of 6th centuryJainendra a grammatical treatise of Devanandi Pujyapada being one of the eight principal authorities of Sanskrit Grammar. Mention of Vajranandi founding a Sangam at Madura-Sangam, a college of Jain ascetics and scholars for religious propaganda of their faith. B.C. Ruthless persecution of the Jains in the 7th century A.D. in the Tamil land. P. 135. Mention of Mahendra Varma destroying a Jain monastry after his conversion. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 145. Kudal capital of the king Mudukudumi is abbrevated from Sanskrit Mathura the strong hold of the Jains in the North-the importation of the name to south due to Jain auspices. P. 187. Jainism-its influx to Tamilagam about the middle of 3rd century P. 206. Efforts of the missioneries of Jainism and Buddhism resulted in the growth of culture in Tamilagam held by western scholars. P. 220. Mention of the Jain inflicting tortures on Saint Appar. 1481 A. N. UPADHYE-Dr. Pathak's View B.O.R.I., XIII, 2, Pp. 161-70, Poona, 1932). Anantavirya's Date, (Annals of the After collecting the available data it is shown in this paper that Anantavirya, the commentator of Akalanka's works, is altogether different from Anantavirya, the commentator of Parikṣamukha. The first flourished probably in the first quarter of the 8th century A.D. while the second Anantavirya flourished probably at the close of the 11th centruy A.D. Page #362 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ TAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1381 1482 A. N. UPADHYE-A Note on Trivikrama's Date, (Annals of B.O.R.I. XIII, 2, Pp. 171-2, Poona, 1932). In the light of some of the lately published Inscriptions, more definite limits are put to the age of Trivikrama, the Präkrit grammarian, who must have flourished at the latest early in the beginning of the 13th century A.D. 1483 Radha Kumud Mookerji-- Problems of Early Maurya Chronology and History, (J.U.P. H.S. Vol. 6, 1933). Pp. 137 140. Jain traditional chronology ; the date 323 B.C. for Chandragupta's accession to sovereignty. Mahāvīra's death 470 years before the date of the birth of Vikramaditya. Vikrama era started from 57 B.C. Mahāvira predeceased the Buddha. Buddhism did not make much headway in the lifetime of Mahāvira. Majjhima Nikaya, II, 153, and Samyutta Nikāya, Jațila Sutta ; King Prasenajit directly tells the Buddha that he was junior to Mahavira in both age and ascetic career. There are on record only in the Buddhists texts of a few stray cases of converts from Jainism to Buddhism. Mrs. Rhys Davids says in her work on Śākya that the early training of the Buddha himself was received from Jainism as the predominant system of his times. P. 147. Brahminical works are much later than the time of Chandragupta and cannot be expected to reflect reliable history of remote times. The most genuine Brahminical tradition on the subject is the Arthasastra of Kautilya. The theory of Chandragupta being base-born or a șüdra does not fit in with the Brahminical system and ideals for which Kautilya stands. 1484 S. Srikantha Sastri— The Age of Samkara. (A.I.O.C. VIIth Session of VIIIth Session, 1933). P. 563. Historical reference to Jain scholars-Samantabhadra, Pūjyapād, Jinendrabuddhi, Akalanka, Prabhachandra and Jinasena II, etc. 1485 S. C. UPADHYAYA--The Authorship and Date of Paumachariya the oldest extant epic, in the Jain Maharastri language-(A.I.O.C., Session VII ; 1933) P. 135. Page #363 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1382 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1486 Jugalkishore MUKHTAR-Samantabhadras' date and Dr. Pathak, (ABORI. Vol. XV, 1934) Pp. 67–88. Points---PATHAK's view ragarding Samantabhadras' age ; first half of the eighth century A.C. Traditional View-Samantabhadra flourished in the second century A.C., and this view has been upheld by some modern scholars also. 1487 (i) Shah, Shantilal-The Traditional Chronology of the Jainas. (An outline of the Political Development of India from 543 B. C. to 73 A. D)-review by H. R. KAPADIA--(ABORI. Vol. XVII ; 1935-36) P. 215. 1487 (ii) Rajendra Chandra HAZRA - The Dates of the SmȚli- Chapters of the MasytaPurāņa, (ABORI. Vol. XVII ; 1935-36), P. 25. The Brhat-Samhita names the following gods with their respective characteristics. (13) the god of the Arhats (for the Jains). 1488 Author : Exact Date of Amarakārti, the Author of a commentary on the Riusamhara of Kalidas, (ABORI. Vol XVIII ; 1937) P. 20.3. Dictionary of Jain Biography (Arrah) mentions: (1) "Amarakirti - under him a Manuscript of Jinadattas' Vivek vilās was transcribed in V. K. Sam. 1649 - Samvat 1649 varṣe Bhādrapada māse krsn-pakse, navamyāmtithau, somadine likhinyam granthaḥ. (2) then (i) "A Dig. Bhattāraka author of the Svayambhusahasranamoțīkā” and (ii) "the author of a commentary on Ratnasekharasūri's Sambodha-sitteri (3) Hiralal Jain-Amarakirti belongs to the “Mathura Sangha"-line of spiritual preceptors---Amitagati-Sāntisena, Amarasena, Šrishena, Chandrakırti, Amarakirti. He completed his work Satkarmopadesa in Apabhramsa in Samvat 1247, Bhadrapad masa, Dpitia Suklapaksha, 14 tithi, Gurubar, when Krishnanarendra, son of Page #364 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1383 Bandiggadev of the Calukya dynasty was reigning at Godhra in Gujarat. He wrote seven other works. Names given are recorded by the author and find that it corresponds to Thursday, 16th August, 1190. It would thus be seen that this namesahe of the commentator flourished 400 years earlier. 1489 Kamta Prasad JAIN-The Jaina Chronology, (Jain. Ant. Arrah). (1) Pre-Historical or Pauranic period-under it the events happened upto Arista-Nemi is recorded. Vol. II, No. IV, 1937, Pp. 87 to 95 and Vol. III, No. I, 1937, Pp. 19 to 25. Vol. III, No. III, 1937, Pp. 75 to 79; Vol. IV, No. II, 1938, Pp. 57 to 61. (2) Historical period- Vol. IV, No. III, 1938, Pp. 89 to 92. The Historical period begins with Arista Nemi, the 22nd Tirthankara, a cousin and a contemporary Krisna of the Mahabharata. 2(a) Ancient Historical period (800 B.c. to 200 A.D.). Vol. V, No. I, 1939, Pp. 29 to 32. Vol. V, No. II, 1939, Pp. 61 to 64. Birth of Parsvanatha, the 23rd Tirthankara at Benares in 895 B.C. or 877 B.C. and his attainment of Nirvana in 795 B.C. or 777 BC. from the Sammeda Sikhara (Parasnath Hill in Bihar). Vol. VII, No. II, 1941: Pp. 73 to 80. Birth of Vardhamana Mahavira, the last Tirthankara at Kundagräma in B.c. 617, 599 or 562. Vol. VIII, No. 1, 1942, Pp. 30 to 35. Attainment of Nirvana by Mahavira at Pāvā in 545, 527, 590, 580, 467 B.C. The Mauryan emperor Chandragupta (326322 n.c.) adopts vows of a Jain Śramana and accompanies the Jain monk Bhandrabahu to South India, Vol. X, No. I, 1944, Pp. 19 to 24. Samprati, the grandson of Asoka was converted to Jainism in C. 236 B.C. Šālisūka Maurya, the younger brother of Samprati, achieved the conquest of Jainism throughout Saurastra. Birth of King Kharavela of Kalinga in 207 в c. He ascended to the Imperial throne in 183 B C.. His Mahārājābhişeka ceremony in 177 B.C. events of his life with dates given. Conversion of Gautamiputra Satakarni, also called Vikramaditya to Jain faith in 57 B.C. Page #365 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1384 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Vol. XI, No. II, 1946, Pp. 5 to 9. In 66 A.D. flourished Arhaobaliācārya who arranged the sub-divisions of Mülasamgha. Advent of Saka Samvat in 78 A.D. Kundakundācārya flourished in 31 to 165 A.D. Dharasenācārya dictated the Anga knowledge to his disciples Puşpadanta and Bhūtabali in 106 A.D. They recorded the extant Agama into black and white in 136 to 156 A.D. Vol. XII, No. 1, 1946, pp. 27 to 29. Samantabhadra flourished in 138 A.D. Vol. XII, No. II, 1947; Pp. 68 to 75. C. 375 to 585 A.D. Date of Pūjyapādasvāmi 450 A.D. or 600 Circa. Vol. XIII, No. 1, 1947, Pp. 42 to 48. C. 510 A.D. to 715 A.D. The Pallava king Mahendravarman, a devout Jaina flourished in C. 610 A.D. Hiuen Tsang (C. 630 to 644 A.D.) notices Nigranthas (naked Jain) in Afghanistan and other places. Persecution of the Jains in the Deccan in about 655 A.D. Vol. XIII, No. II, 1948, Pp. 30 to 36. C. 662 A.D. to 800 A.D. The famous logician Akalanka, contemporary of Dantidurga II and Krsna I, Rāştrakūta flourished in C. 760 A.D. Jinasenächärya composed the Harivamsapurāņa in about 783 A.D. Valsarāja Pratihāra of Kanauj flourished in C. 784 A.D. Vol. XV, No. 1, 1949, Pp. 41 to 45. (788 to 968 A.D.). Amoghavarsa I, Rāştrakūta flourished in c. 814 to 900 A.D. Harişenāchärya composed the 'Bịhad Kathakosa" in c. 931 to 932 A.D. Devasena (Vik. Sam. 900) Bhattāraka writes "Darśana-sära”. Vol. XVIII, No. 1, 1952, Pp. 20 to 25. 938 A.D. to 990 A.D. Some dated records of the period (938 A.D. to 990 A.D.) mentioning the names of kings of the Ganga, Cālukya and Kalasa dynasties with their grants. Vol. XIX, No. I, 1953, Pp. 24 to 32. C. 981 A.D. to 1058 A D. Some dated records of the period (981 A,D, to 1058 A.D.) mentioning the names of kings of the Rațța, Ganga Cālukya dynasties with their grants. Page #366 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1385 1490 S. Shrikantha SASTRI - The Date of Jambudvipa Prajñapti Samgraha, (Jain Ant. Vol. IV ; No. III ; Arrah ; 1938 ; Pp. 81-81). After discussing the literary and epigraphical evidences the author fixes the date as C. 1050 A.D. 1491 S. Srikantha SASTRI- The Date of the consecration of the Image of Gommațeśvara. (Jain Ant. Vol. V ; No. IV ; Arrah; 1940; Pp. 107-114). After considering several literary and epigraphical evidences the writer arrives at the conclusion and fixes the date of the consecration of the image in Circa. 907-8 A.C. 1492 H. LUDERS-The era of the Mahārāja and the Mahārāja Rajatirāja, (D.R. BHANDARKAR Volume, Ind. Res. Ins. Calcuttta, 1940). Pp. 281 and 288. Text of an inscription on a stone slab found at Kankali Tilā at Mathura formerly published by BÜHLER (Academy, vol. XLIX, p. 367--J.R.A.S., 1896, Pp. 578 ff. --Viruna Orient. Journ. Vol. X, Pp. 171 f) and R.D. BANERJEE, (Ind. Ant., Vol. XXXVII, Pp. 33 ff. and plate III) given. Dale of the inscription is 200 90 (2), though Bühler and R.D, BANERJEE differ with regard to the reading of the date. Notes on the text, translation given. Okhārikā Ujhatikā, and Okhā are names of foreigners. Okhārikā and Okhả are presumably Greek names They may also be Iranian names. There were Parthians at Mathura who had immigrated during the rule of the Khatrapas and who, although they were converted to the Jina faith, upheld the traditions of their native country. The inscription refers to an image of Arhat Mahāvīra. 1493 A. N. UPADIYs -On the Dale of Vasunandi's Commentary on Mulacara, (Woolner Commemoration Volume, Pp. 257-59, Lahore, 1940). The Sanskrit commentary of Vasunandi on the Mulācāra is assigned to the middle of the 12th century A.D. Page #367 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1386 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1494 K. Madhava SARMA-Date of Asaga's Vardhamana Charita (N.I.A. Vol. 4, 194142) Pp. 395-96). In his report for 1886-92 Pp. 163-64. PETERSON extracts the concluding portion of a Ms. of Asaga's Vardhamānacharita, dated Samvat 1679. Here Samvat 1679 i.e. A.D. 1622 is obviously the date MS. and not of the work. The date of the work is Šaka 910. ie. A.D. 853. The author belonged to Dharala in Coladesa and wrote eight works. In his History of Classical Sanskrit Literature, p. 296 Dr. M. KRISHNAMACHARIAR mentions Asaga's Vardhamānacharita with the date of Samvat 1679 and mistakes this date of the MS for that of the work. 1495 P. K. GODE-The Chronology of the commentary of Sadanandagani on the SiddhāntaCandrika of Ramasrama or Ramacandrasrama-A.D. 1743. (Jain Ant. Vol. IX; No. I; Arrah ; 1943 ; Pp. 15-19). Sadanardagani composed this commentary in A.D. 1743. He belonged to the Kharataragaccha. He was a very close student of Sanskrit grammar. 1496 S. Srikantha Sastri-Some Jaina Gurus In Kannada Inscriptions, (Jain Ant. Vol. IX; No. II ; Arrah ; 1943 ; Pp. 61-75. A dynastic and chronological index of names and dates pertaining to Jainism, chiefly called from recent publications of inscriptions in the Kannada country like the M.E, R.E. ; H.A.R.; N.K.K.I.; K.I. etc. The dynastic arrangement has been followed and whenever possible the gurupramparā and exact dates of the following dynasties given : Chalukyas of Badami ; Rästrakūtas ; Kadambas ; Western Gangas; Nolambas ; Kalyäni Cālukyas ; Kalachuryas of Kalyāni ; Yādavas of Deragiri ; Rattas of Soundatti ; Hoysalas; Vijayanagara ; Tuluva Bhairarasas ; Harati Chiefs ; Miscellaneous. Page #368 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1387 1497 H. C. SETH -A critical Examination of Svetārbara and Digambara Chronological Traditions. (Jain Ant. Arrah). Vol. X; No. II ; 1945 ; Pp. 41-48. Both the Svetāmbara and the Digambara sects of the Jainas have preserved certain chronological traditions. A comparative study of these may yield useful results. Chronologies of the Svetāmbaras discussed. Vol. XI ; No, I; 1945 ; Pp. 4-10. Tradition of the Digambaras discussed. 231 years assigned to the Guptas in the Digambara traditions appear to be correct, 1498 S. A. JOGLEKAR-Šatavāhan and Satakarni. (ABORI. Vol. XXVII ; 1946) Pp. 237-248. P. 241. Hāla favourite with Jain authors. P. 248. References in Literature-Jain legend refers to Satigani, Rājā of Paithan and a contemporary of the Saka rulers of Ujjain ... Jaina tradition refers to King Śātavāhan, who built many temples and caityas ... 1499 Jyoti Prasad Jain --The Predecessors of Svāmi Virsena, (Jain Ant. Vol. XII, No. 1), Arrah ; 1946 ; Pp. 1 to 6. Virsena was ordained by Ajjanandi (or Ajayanandi) and was taught Siddhānta by Elächārya. The date of completion of the Dhavala by Virsena is A.D. 780. Ajjanandi or Aryanandi belonged to the first half of the 8th century A D. 1500 H. C. Seti-(Part II) A Critical Examination of śvetāmbara and Digambara chronological traditions-(A.I.O.C., XII; 1946.) Various Jain chronological traditions have been brought together in this paper. They are shown to be generally reliable. The Svetämbar traditions reckon 470 years between Mahāvīr Nirvāna and the commencement of the Vikrama era. The various reign periods of Kings and dynasties making up this total are on the whole correct, except that Nahavāna or Nahapān is wrongly put there before the commencement of the Vikrama era. As suggested by the Digambar traditions, Page #369 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1388 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY which are borne out by the modern researches, he is a post-Vikrama figure. This correction and further critical examination of the various Jain chronological tradi. tions leads to the following conclusions :-- (1) The correct date of Mahāvir Nirvāņa appears to be 430 (470-40 years of Nahavāna's reign) before the commencement of the Vikrama era or 488 B.C. (2) Chandragupta Maurya's reign commenced in 325 B.C. (3) The reign of Nahapāna commenced with 78 A.D. and the saka era reckoned from this date seems to be connected with him. (4) 320 A.D. is obtained as the initial year of the Gupta era. (5) Kalki's reign ends in 512 A.D. The death of the Huen King Toramāna is also placed by some modern historians in the same year. May be that Jain records have preserved the tradition of his reign in the account they give of Kalki. Kalki may be a tribal name reminiscient of Kalkilas of Purānas. 1501 S. Srikantha SASTRI--The date of Sruh wā arya, (Jain. Ant., Vol. XIII, No. II), Arrah, 1948. Pp. 12 to 17. Sridharāchärya, the author of Jataka Tilaka, has been generally assigned to the 799 A.D. But analysing different sources he cannot be taken back to the 9th century A.D. 1502 Sabal Singh-Time of Śrīdharāchārya-(ABORT. Vol. XXX, 1949). P. 271. reference to his work on matters--aye-Jains referred ... 1503 S. Srikantha SASTRI-The original home of Jainism, No. II) Arrah, 1919, pp. 58 to 62). Jain. Ant. Vol. XIV, The antiquity of Aryan traditions-Vedic, Jaina and Buddhistic goes back to at least 20,000 B.C. and the original home of the race must have been in Bhāratavarsa. A comparative study of Susuma and Dussumā Kalpas and of the various legends narrated in the lives of Tarthankaras is necessary in this regard. Page #370 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1389 1504 (J.B.R.S. Vol. Dinesh Chandra STRCAR-Barli Fragmentary Stone Inscription. XXXVII, Parts 1-2, Pp. 1-5, 1951.) The author disagrees with the readings of Pandit G. H. Ojha and K. P. JAYASWAL and says that it does not refer to Lord Vira and the year 84. He translates his reading as-Let there be success! When king Bhagavata (of the Sunga dynasty) was appointed...years . . . an inhabitant of Madhyamika, dedicated ... at Malini, a hall at ... Ka, .... at Vava ..., eightyfour pillars (at ...) 1505 Y. V. Ramana RAO-The Chronology of Andhra Dynasty and the Hathigumha Inscription, (Q.J.M.S. Vol. 43–Nos, 3 & 4. 1952-53-Bangalore), Pp. 117-125 ff. The Andhras or Andhrabhrtyas or Sātavāhanas who held sway over the greater part of the Indian peninsula in the early centuries before the Christian era. For materials Jain and Pali sources have not been tapped. P. 122. Khāravela's inscription and the First Contact of Synchronistic Prong : Mourya era dates from the coronation of Chandragupta (Circa 32: B.C.) ; the date of Khăravela's accession circa 170 B.C. Khāravela third member of Chedi dynasty. The Sātakarni associated with Khāravela was probably the third member of the dynasty (Sātavāhana). Rapson. Pp. 123-25. Date of Khāravela's Accession : K. P. JAYASWAL shows that the inscription does not contain any reference to the Mauryan era. The relevant text runs as 'causes to be completed the eleven Añgas of the 64 letters which had become lost with the time of the Mauryas'. Khāravela a contemporary of Puşyamitra, who founded the Sungamitra dynasty and who ascended the throne in 188 B.C. Khāravela's accession 182 B.C. Q:J M.S. contd. Vol. 44, Pp. 99-107. Was Satkarni Khāravela Ally or Foe (Pro. of the Ind. Hist. Cong. 1945; Trans. of the Third Ori. Conf. Pp. 111 ; 174). Pp. 98-101. The limits of the Kingdom of ancient Kalinga and Andhra, 200 B.C. Pp. 101-02. Jātaka version of Khāravela's attack. The Culla-Kalinga-Jataka (Ed. by Fausbold No. 301). P. 102. Musika and Krishṇavena. Page #371 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1390 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1506 Jyoti Prasad JAIN-The date of Durvinita Ganga the Royal Patron of Pujyapada (Jain. Ant., Vol. XVII, No. II), Arrah, 1952. Pp. 1 to 11. The Ganga monarch Durvenita Konguni cannot be placed much beyond 500 A.D., and as a tentative suggestion his date may be fixed as circa. 480-520 A.D. 1507 B.O.R.I., A. N. UPADHYE---Age of the Paramātma-prakaśa (Anouls of the XXXIV, Pp. 166-7, Poona, 1954). This short note scrutinises the evidences advanced by A. Master to settle the date of the Paramātma-prakāśa ; and it is shown that they are not in any way conclusive. 1508 M. Raja Rao-The Chronology of Events in the Silappadhikaram, (QJ.M.S.--Culture & Heritage Number 1956), Bangalore--Pp. 261-282. P. 261. Ilango-adigal, the ascetic prince, was the younger brother of Senguttuvan, the king of Cera. He consecrated the temple of Pattini at which ceremony Gajabāhu the King of Ceylon, was also prezent. Ilango Aidgal (author of Silappadikarm and Kulavanikan Sattan alias Sittalai Sattanär, were contemporaries of Kovalan and Kannaki. They lived and wrote in the second century A.D. Gajabāhu was reigning between 173 and 191. 171 A.C. the date of fire at Madura (Q.J.M.S. Vol. 16, No. 3, 1926 p. 156). P. 265. The Scheme of week days, tithis and naksatras that Adiyarku Nallar, the commentator, has drawn up is completely sound. P. 266. Adiyarku Nallar lived about 1120 A. D. the date of this patron, Boppana the general of Hoysala Visnuvardhana. Pp 266.67. The story. Page #372 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1391 Pp. 273-74. The distance from Puhar to Tiruchi and from Tiruchi to modern Mudarai is, in each case about 100 miles. The town that was destroyed is referred to in the Sangam literature as Kudal and Manamadurai. It must have been a town at the confluence of a tributory of the Vaigai-either the present Manamadurai (Railway Junction or some other town nearer the sea than modern Madurai). P. 274. Kannaki declares herself as the daughter of the Pandyan--an epithet frequently applied to the present Goddess Mināksi. Local tradition points out a small temple near the river as the original Pattani temple dedicated to Kannaki. Were the honours later on transferred to Goodess Minākşi ? 1509 H, G. SHASTRI–The Purānic chronology of the Mauryan dynasty, (Proc., IHC., XXIInd Session), Bombay, 1959. P. 81. 'Kusala' and 'Kulala' of the Puran as obviously stand for 'Kunala' known in Buddhist and Jain traditions as the name of the son of Asoka and father of Samprati. Page #373 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Section IV GEOGRAPHY-111 1510 J. MACMURDO-An Account of the Province of Cutch, and of the countries lying between Guzerot and the Indus. (TLSB, ii, 1820. Pp. 205-241). Pp. 240-241. Description of Pārsvanātha worshipped in the Parkur Desert in the hands of Soda Rajput. 1511 J. W. MASSIE--Continental India, Vol. I. London, 1840. Pp. 429-477. Mythology of India displayed : the systems of the Brahmana, the Jain, and the Buddhist. 1512 J. STEVENSON-Some Remarks on the Relation that subsists between the Jain and Brahmanical systems of Geography (Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. II, pp. 411-415. Bombay, 1847. Explanation of the Jaina geography. The continents. The Jam budvipa. Rivers and mountains. The Mount Meru, Two maps besides text. 1513 H. G. BRIGGS-The cities of Gujarashtra. Bombay, 1849. Topographical, historical and archeological description of the principal towns of Guzerat 1514 Joseph Dalton HOOKER-Himalayan Journals. Vol. I. London, 1855. Pp. 15-21. Pärasnāth mountain. Its sanctity. The eastern metropolis of Jain worship. Origin of Jain sect. The Jains a transition between Buddhists and Hindus, Ascent of Pārasnāth. Vegetation of Pārasnāth. Page #374 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jana BIBLIOGRAPHY 1393 1515 J. H. NELSON—The Madura Country. Madras, 1868. Pt. 2, P. 16. Survival of Jain worship in two small temples in the district. Pt. 3, p. 50. The professors of the faith of the Kşamaņa or śramaņa heretics were the predecessors of the Jains, and the religion was but little different from that now known as the Jain. 1516 J. BURGESS-- Gujarat and Rajputana. Calcutta-London, 1874. Choice of 30 photographic views of different monuments with historical and descriptive reviews. 1517 J. WILSON--Final Report on the Revision of Settlement of the Sirsa District in the Punjab (Lahore), 1879-83. P. 101. Jaini or Sarāogi sect--worship of Pārsvanátha-Tenderness for animal life-Intermarriage of Bisnis and Saräogis. P. 139. Ascetics and low castes among the Jains, 1518 J. KIATT-Surpäraka. (Indian Antiquary, vol. XI, Pp. 293-294). Bombay, 1882. Series of references to Sūs pāraka (Sopārā), extracts of the following Jaina works: Ganadharasārdhaśataka of Jinadattasūri ;. Prabhāvakacaritra ; A gurvävali of Munisundara, and a Patļāvali of the Kharatara sect. • According to these authorities, Sūrapäraka is situated in the Kuñkundeśa. 1519 universelle. Vol. VIII, L'Inde et l'Indo Elisee RECLUS--Nouvelle geographie Chine. Paris, 1883. Pages. 269-270. The Jaina sanctuaries in the peninsula of Kathiawad, the Satruñ. jaya, Pālitānā. Page #375 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1394 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pages 275. The Jaina art at Ahmadabad, 276. The Jainas at Pāțan : their number, their temples and their libraries. 291. The temples of the mount Abü. 295-296. The Jaina palace at Tulaiti (Chitor). 302. Temples and Jaina sculptures at Gwalior. 345. The Jaina temple at Khūrja. 346. The Jaina temple at Brindaban, near Mathura. 355. The Jaina temples at Ayodhyā. 411. The Jaina commercial movement at Rangpur. 495. The Jaina grottos of Elura, 682-686. General review on the Jains; their origin, their customs, their professions. The Jaina sanctuaries. 685. Map of the principal places of pilgrimage in India. 93, 291, 293 & 683. Engravings representing several Jaina temples. 1520 F. S. GROWSE--Mathura : A District Memoir. 3rd Ed. Allahabad, 1883, Pp. 12-13. Most of the Sarāogis of the dist. including Seth Raghunāth Das are of the Khandel gachchha or got-They number in all 1593 only. A temple of the Seth stands in the suburb of Kesopur. Jambu Svāmi practised penance here. He is reputed the last of the Kevalis. The temple was built by Mani Rāma, who enshrined in it a figure of Chandra Prabhu. A large marble statue of Ajitnātha, brought by Seth Raghunāth Dās now occupies the place of honour. In the city are two other Jain temples dedicated to Padma Prabhu in the Ghiya mandi and the Chaubes' quarter. Other temples at Kosi and Sahpan. Page #376 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1395 1521 Nundo Lal Dev-The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Mediaeval India. Calcutta, 1899. Part 1. Ancient Names & Modern Names or Situation : Ayodhyā. Oudh. Birthplace of Ādinātha, a Jain Tirthankara. Alavi. Airwa. Alabhi of the Jains, from which Mahāvira made his missionary peregrinations, Chandragiri. Near Belgola, sacred to the Jains, Chandrikāpuri. Sravasti, birthplace of Tirthan kara Chandraprabha. Girinagara. Girnar, containing temples of Neminātha and Pārsvanātha. Ujjayanta. Girnār sacred to Neminätha. Part 2. Modern Names and ancient names or situation : Ābu. Arbuda Parvata, containing temples of Risavanātha or Adinātha and Neminātha. Girnar. The Junagar hill in Guzerat is one of the five hills sacred to the Jains, containing the temples of Neminātha and Pārsvanātha. Pālithānā. In Guzarat, one of the five hills sacred to the Jains containing a temple of Adinātha, 1522 Archibald ADAMS--The Western Rajputana States, etc, London, 1899. P. 19. Sirohi : Banias and Mahājans, mostly Jains, form a very numerous class. Pp. 37-38. Mount Abu : Jajn temples at Dilwara -Their age-Abū one of the four principal places of pilgrimage of the Jains. 1523 Elisee RECLUS- The Universal Geography. Ed. by A. H. Keane. 4 Vols. London, (1900). Vol. 3. P. 167. At Kathiawad the largest and most famous groups of Śravaka or Tain temple, the special zeal of the Jains for building temples, their Page #377 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1396 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY greatest pride in decorating temples, the Jains possess more religious edifices than the other Hindus. Vol. 3. Pp. 407-408. Mahāvīra's followers at one time prevailed in Southern India - Jain works still the most remarkable in Dravidian literature greatest respect for all living things, from the venomous snake to the smallest animalcule, the "four duties of the Jain, their spirit of fellowship-some of their sanctuaries, such as those of Palitana, Mt. Abū, Junägarh, Pārasnāth, are amongst the most magnificent in the world. 1524 F. L. PULLE-La cartografia antica dell' India. Parle I (Studi italisani di Filologia indo-iranica, vol. IV).-Firenze, 1901. Pp. 14-15. Enumeration of the Jaina treatises relating to the geography, namely: Kșetrasamāse, of Jinabhādra, with commentary of Malayagiri; Laghukṣetrasamāsa, of Ratnasekhara, with commentary ; Vrihannauyaksetrasamāsasūtra, of Somatilakasūri, Samghayaņi (Samgrahại). of Can Irazúri, disciple of Abhayadevasüri, with commentary of Devabhadra. Special reviews on the Kșetrasamāsa, the Samgrahani, the Trailokyadipiki and the Lok aprakaśa. Pp 19-20. Jaina system of the islands and of the seas according to the Jwabhigamasūtri and the Bhagavall. Pp. 35.41. De cription of the Jambudvipa according to the Jaina geography the Hanumaecaritra. Analysis of the Jumiuddiv zpannatli (Jambudvīpaprajñapli), containing the orthodox geographical tradition of the Jains. Brief analysis of the Jambudurpasamgrahant of Haribhadra, work on which Prabhānanda wrote a commentary called Kşetrasamgrahani. 1525 V. A. SMITH-Vaiśāli (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland for 1902, Pp. 267-288). London, 1902. Pp. 282 Sqq. Vaišāli according to the Jaina tradition. The town included three parts : Vaiśāli properly called, Kundagrāma and Vaniyagrāma. Vaišāli is represented today by Bisa hgarh (Besarh). Vaniyagrāma (the actual village of Baniya was the residence of Mahävira. As regards Kundagrāma, perhaps it is now the village of Basukund, Page #378 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1526 G. W. FORREST-Cities of India. Westminster, 1903. Pp. 55-66. Architectural style of the Jains copied by the Sultans of Ahmedabad. Mahavira with his eleven chief disciples, may be regarded as the first open seceders from Brahmanism-Life of Mahāvīra Jainism and Buddhism were the two heretical sects of importance agitating the region about Benares at the same time. Jainism never became a dominant creed. To the Peases and Barclays of Western In lia we owe the costly Jain temples. Pp 89-94. Jain shrines on Mt. Abū the highest ideals of pure Hindu Arhitecture. Jain aim of victory over desires and Jaina creed that "Patience is the highest good". Description of Jain temples. 1527 T. C. RICE-Jain settlements in Karnata, (Malabar Quarterly review, Vol. III. Pp. 311-312). Ernakulam, 1904. 1528 1397 T. A. GOPINATHA-Jaina Centres in Southern India. (Malabar Quarterly Review Vol. IV. Pp. 229-235).-Ernakulam, 1905. 1529 HIRA LAL-Muktägiri (IA, xlii, 1913, Pp. 220-221). Muktagiri or 'salvation hill' is what is called Sdth-ksetra of the Jains referred to as Medhigiri in the Jain Book Nirvana Bhakti, Jain Temple in Ellichpura. 1530 Cathay and the Way Thither. (Translated and edited by Henry Yule). Second Edition (Revised by Henri Cordier). Vol. 3. London, 1914. P. 251. Mailapur was anciently inhabited by the Jains. The dream story about the image of the place. One had a dream that in a few days the town would be overwhelmed by the sea. Their holy image was removed further inland, and Page #379 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1398 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY three days later the old town was swallowed up. The temples were the re-established in a town called Mailamanagara, where exactly the same thing happened again. Tradition runs in reference to the whole coast from San Thome to the Seven Pagodas, and extensive ruins existing beneath the sea are sometimes visible, 1531 M. RUTHNASWAMI --Dabhoi or the city of the Darbha Grass. (MR. Jany June, 1916, Pp. 539-545). P. 543. Jain brothers Tej-pāla and Vastupāla and their work as builders of temples. 1532 c. Hayavadana Rau-The Place-names of Mysore. (QIMS, vi, 1916, Pp. 264-281). P. 270. A very old line of kings, Jains by religion, called themselves "The Lords of Nandagiri”. The Jain ascetics lovers of the picturesque and they selected such spots for passing their lives. 1533 Lewis Rice–Mullur. (IA, xiv, 1916, Pp. 141-142). Jain temples in Mullur-The Kongalvas were Jains by religion. 1534 Arthur R SLATER - Where religions meet-As illustrated in the sacred places of India. (QJMS, viii, 1918, Pp. 193-309). P. 296. The construction of the series of caves at Ellora is of Buddhist, Brahmanical and Jain origin. The first series are Buddhist, the second Brahmanical, while the third was excavated in the days of the Jains. P. 299. Benares and Mathura, centres of Buddhism and Jainism, Page #380 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1399 1535 K. T. SHAH-Trade, Tariffs and Transport in India. Bombay and London, 1923. P. 26. The Buddhist and Jain influences on trade-Their general condemnation of many an industrial pursuit. 1536 K. P.Jain-Sankišā as a Jaina Tirtha.-I.H.Q. Vol. V. 1929. Pp. 142-143. Sankišā a village in the Farrukhabad district of the United Provinces--represents the old city of Sānkāśya mentioned by Fa-Hian and HiuenTsang. Originality of the name discussed. Kampilya-place of birth and renunciation of the 13th Tirthankara Sri Vimalanātha lying around modern village Kampilla in Kaimganj tahsil of the Farrukhabad district. Kampilya and Sānkāsyaidentical. Mention of quarrel between Jains and Buddhists over the sacred place of Sānkāśyā in the records of Fa-Hian. Mention of a Jain temple in the vicinity of Sānkiša at the village of Sarai mention of a nice Jain image discovered at Sankiśā. Suggestion of the excavation of the mound of Aghatia for some Jainic references. 1537 Puran Chand NAHAR-The Jain Tradition of the origin of Pataliputra.) A.I.O.C., Session VI ; 1930). Pp. 169-171. 1538 B. P. PRATINIDHI-Ajanta, Bombay, 1932. P. 11. The Buddhists, the Jains and the Hindus have worked at Verul (Ellora) and naturally the incidents from the mythologies of all the three religions have been utilised. P. 17. In Jain caves Gomateśvara, Pārsvanätha and other Jain Tirthankaras are shown to carry serpent hoods as an ornament on their heads. P. 18, First Tirthankara was perhaps a Nāga. P. 118. In the Bhikṣu group of painting cave No. 17 one of them is carrying chowrie and one is led to suppose that he may be a Jain of Digambara sect. Some of the Sadhus of the Digambara Jain sect are to be seen moving about naked even in this twentieth centuries. Page #381 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1400 1539 A. C. SEN-Some Cosmological ideas of the Jainas. (I.H.Q. Vol. VIII. 1932). P. 43. Jains oldest sect outside Brahmanism. Pp. 43-44. Jain cosmography discussed, conception of earth, hells and heavens in Jainism discussed. P. 44. The idea of Jambudvipa and Mt. Meru in Jain geography fully explained. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Py. 44-46. Devas, Masculine and feminine-described. 47-48. Narakins i.e. neuter sex-explained. Lesyas means "thought-colours" which determine the temperament of a being. knowledge, body, birth in Jainism discussed. 1540 B. C. LAW-Geography of Early Buddhism. London, 1932. P. XVIII. Jain traditions possess new names for the several dvipas as well as for the Samudras. P. 10 (n). Administration of Añga as a separate province under a Magadhan prince with Campã as its capital mentioned in Jain sources (Hemachandra, the author of Sthaviravali and Bhagavati Sutra and Nirayavali Sätra). P. 64. Häthigumphä inscription mentions king Khäravela bringing back to his realm from Anga-Magadha the throne of Jina which had been carried from Kalinga by king Nanda. P. 65. Jain Uttaradhyayana-Sutra mentions Pithunda as a sea-coast town. This reminds of Khåravelas Pithunda-Pithü daga and Ptolemy's Pitundra. P. 74. 'Celya' (Sans. Caitya) means a shrine associated with Buddhism, Jainism and Brahmanism. P. 74 (n). Jain Cetiyas not big as the Buddhists but resemble it very strongly. Page #382 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1541 Bimala Churn LAW-Sacred Places of the Jains, (Jou. U. P. Hist. Soci. Vol. IX, Pt. II, 1936) Allahabad. 1542 M. Govind PAI-Venur & Its Gommata colossus. (Jain Ant. vol. II; No. II, Pp. 45-50, and No. III, Pp. 51-60), Arrah, 1936. Venur-thirty-four miles to the north-east of Mangalore (S.K.); 35 feet high colossus of Bahubali (Gommata). It was installed by king Timma or Timmarāja Odeya belonging to the Ajila or Ajala family of the Jaina chieftains that once ruled in that part of the district. Description of the image given. A Jaina temple called 'Kalla Busadi' or Säntisvara Basad' and a Mana-stambha-two Kanarese inscriptions dated 1489 A.c. and 1537 A.c. records the installation of 24 images of the Tirthankaras in Tirthankara Basadi-Another Kanarese inscription of the reign of Madukka Devi, a queen of the same Ajila family, dated Saka 1544-a gift to the Santisvara Chaityalaya by a prince called Ramanath Arasu. Another Jain temple. Two inscriptions behind the colossus-one in Sanskrit verse in sixteen lines, text and translation given and explanatory notes of different words--another in Sanskrit verse, text and translation and notes given. The colossus was installed in 1603-1604 A.C. A short history of the Ajila dynasty given. 1401 1543 Kamta Prasad JAIN-Podanapura And Takṣaśilă. (Jain Ant. vol. III; No. 111; Arrah; 1:37; Pp. 57-66). According to the writer, Podanapura of the Jaina books was not Takṣaśilă, rather it was a prominent city of ancient Daksinapatha. Podanapura as the capital of Vahubali discussed. Podanapura in the story of Parsvanath narrated. Podanapura in Sanskrit Jaina literature discribed; in Jain Kannad literature; various names of Podanapura-Potana, Podana, Paudana and Podanapura; Podanapura in Buddhist literature, Podanapura was the capital of Ashamaka in the southern part of India. 1544 K. A. N. SASTRI- Foreign Notices of South India. Madras, 1939. P. 102. Majority of 80 Deva-temples belonged to the Digambaras-Yuanchwang's record. Page #383 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1402 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 125. Mention of secular nude ascetics living on herbs recorded in the accounts of Abu Zaid. 1545 Bimala Churn LAW-Holy Places of India. Calcutta, 1940, P. 49-54. Jain sacred places : Khandagiri, Udayagiri, Pāresnātha, Pāvā and Rājgir in Bihar ; Raivataka ann Somnāth in Gujerat ; Satruñjaya in Kathiawar, Bawangaja Hill in central India; Abū Rakhabha Deva, and Rānapur (or Rāmpura) in Rajputana ; Chandragiri and Sravana-Belgoļa in South India. 1546 R. N. SALETORE- Monastic Life in Šravaņa Beļgoļa. (Jain Ant. Vol. V; No, IV; Arrah ; 1940 ; Pp. 123-132). Some features of monastic life of the Jaina monks of Sravana Belgola from the earliest times till the beginning of the 19th century. Chiefly froin inscriptions. The monks lived in communities called Sanghas-Corporate nature of Jaina monastic life. Revenue for the Jaina monasteries. Gift of donations. Regulations to preserve endowments. The practice of Sallekhana. 1547 (Jain Ant. Vol. V; S. R. SHARMA-Sravana Belgola-Its meaning and message. No. IV; Arrah; 1940; Pp. 141.143). Sravana Belgoļa enshrines the spirit which alone is life. Jainism is the most logically consistent of all philosophies. It is not merely a ‘philosophy' but also a 'way of life'. Jainism enriched Indian civilisation. 1548 A. N. UPADHYE--Belgoļa and Bahubali. (Jain Ant. Vol. V; No. IV; Arrah; 1940; Pp. 137-140). Śravana Belgoļa is a place of great cultural importance. Traditionally, the place is associated with Bhadrabāhu and Chandragupta Maurya, and the historical value of this tradition is now accepted by the standard authorities. It is on Vindhyagiri or Doddabetta that the image of Bāhubali stands. The life of Bāhubali has a noble lesson to the struggling humanity for all times to come. Page #384 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1403 1549 B. A. SALETORE-Sravana Belgola-Its secular importance. (Jain Ant. vol. V; No. IV; Arrah. 1940; Pp. 115-122). Object of this paper-how for centuries this sacred place of Jaina pilgrimage was also noted for its material wealth. Epigraphical evidences discussed. Commercial life of the people of Śravna Belgo!a. Jains of this place were organised in commercial guilds. House-tax at Gommatapur. The Jain Achārya (the Pontiff) was responsible to the state for the imports of Government. Commercial life of the merchants; they were in charge of the public charities. They asserted their rights when injustice prevailed, Jewel merchants. 1550 Bimala Chura LAW-Vijayini in Ancient ladia. Gwalior, 1944. P. 16. The demise of Mahāvīra, according to the Jaina tradition, took place on the day of installation of Pālaka on the throne of Avanti and the interval between this event and Chandragupta Maurya's accession to power is 215 years The interval between the demise of Mahävira and the rise of the Nandas is 60 years. P. 19. According to the Jaina Vividha-tirthakalpa, a powerful prince of the Satavahana family defeated the then Malava king Vikramāditya. P. 25. According to Kalikācayakatha, the Garddabhilla of Ujjayani offered violence to Sarsvati, the sister of Kālikācārya who in revenge uprooted Garddabhilla and established the saka kings at Ujjayini. Garddabhilla's son Vikramāditya destroyed the Sakas and inaugurated the Samvat era. The Jaina Vividha-tirtha-kalpa credits a powerful Sātvāhana prince of Pratisthānapura in Maharāştra with the inauguration of an era. The Tirtha-kalpa alludes to the alliance of the Sātavāhana prince with the Nāgas of the Godavari region. P. 33. The Digambara Jaina tradition avers that Mahāvira visited Ujjayini, where in a cemetry he practised penances and obtained manaḥaparyāya jñāna. 1551 Banarasidas JAIN-An itinerary of a pilgrimage to faina Badri (Jain XIII, N. I), Arrah, 1947. Pp. 24 to 28. Ant., vol. The partial itinerary of a pilgrimage to Jaina Badri given below is based on a single leaf in the form of a letter found among the manuscripts belonging to the Yati's Upaśraya at Zira in the Punjab. The pilgrim also visited many other places, Text given. Page #385 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1404 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1552 A. S. ALTEKAR.- Banares and Sārnath : Past and Present. Benares, 1947. P. 42. Benares also regarded as a holy place by the Jains. Supārsvanātha the 7th and Pārsvanātha the 23rd Tirthankaras, were born in Benares. The birth place of Śreyānsanātha, the Ilth Tirthankara was at Singhpuri in Sārnāth and that of Chandraprabha, the 8th Tirthankara at Chandravati, about 20 miles from Benares. 1553 J. B. AUDEN- A geological discussion on the Satpura Hypothesis and Garo-Rajmahal. Gop. (Pro. N.F.S.I. No. 8, vol. xv, Delhi, 1949). P. 328. Pārasnāth Hill, 4,480 ft. rises above the highest of the Ranchi plateaux, and represent the residual of a still higher land surface. But even if it is supposed that a total thickness of almost 4,000 ft. of rocks have been renouned by erosion in the Pārasnāth area, it is not possible to assume that the original level of assume that the original level of the Pārasnāth Plateau was then at the present level of the top of the hill. Allowing for the line of nil movement along the hinge line at latitude 25° degree, the uplift in the Pärasnāth area should have been about 1,300 feet. That is, the part of the crust now represented by the residual summit of Pärasnāth was probably in Tertiary times at an elevation of about 3,200 feet. The erosion into residual plateaux and uplifts. were doubtless controlled in the main by the Himalayan monuments further north, rather than by simple vertical isostatic adjustment in a crust devoid of compressional restraints. 1554 Sita Rama SINGH-Renascent India and Vaišali. (Jain. Ant., vol. XVI, No. 11). Arrah, 1950. Pp. 70-72. The message of Vaiśāli is that republicanism is the best sort of constitution under which the individual has the best opportunities to unfold his personality to the utmost extent, that such a developed individual should dedicate himself to the well-being of the community, that Lord Mahāvīra was the finest flower which blos cmed at Vaiśāli, embodying as best ideals, and that the religion of a republic should be the cult of self-reliance. 1555 H. V. TRIVEDI-Badnawar and its antiquities. (Jain. Ant., vol. XVII, No. I). Arrah, 1951. Pp. 59 to 72. Page #386 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Some Jaina sculptural and architectural remains including the Baijanatha Mahadeva temple, image of the Jain Acyuta devi (of the Digambara sect) and other images of Jain Tirthankaras, recently unearthed at Badnawar (Vardhanapura and Vardhamanapura of mediaeval inscriptions) in the district of Dhar, Madhya Bharat Union have been described, time, findspot, names and fates of the images. being discussed. 1556 L. A. PHALTANE-The Tatwärthasutra and Geography-Pushkarardha Dwerpa, (Jain. Ant., vol. XVIII, No. II), Arrah, 1952, Pp. 36-38. The Jain scriptures say that Jambud weep. Dhätaki khanda and Pushkarärdha dweepa are the three territories in which men reside. The present round about Bokhara must have been the ancient Pushkara continent of the Jaina mythology. 1557 1405 Jyoti Prasad JAIN-Ramagiri of Ugraditya's Kalyankarat, Jai. Ant.. vol. XIX. No. I), Arrah, 1953. Pp. 1 to 11. Ugråditya's Kalyankaraka is a treatise on the science of medicine in Sanskrit. Contents of its 25 chapters enumerated. Ugråditya got his education in the establishment of Mount Ramagiri from his teacher Śrtnandi. The work was completed in the Ramagiri hill which being adorned with many Jain caves, cave temples and other objects of worship was situated in the Vengi country of Trikalinga. In the district of Vizagapatam lies the famous Rämatirtha hill which was also known in ancient times as Ramakonda (Kondagiri)-Identical with the Ramagiri. The work was written sometimes between 790 and 799 A.D. and he may be assigned to circa 780-840 A.D. 1558 J. E. SPENCER-Asia East by South. A cultural Geography. London, 1954, P. 127. Jain contemporary of Buddhism in protest against Hinduism, but its extreme asceticism long limited its growth. It remained an Indian religion only, but did not die out as did Buddhism. Today its 15,00,000 adherents are mainly located in Northern Bombay Presidency and Rajaputana. Page #387 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1406 1559 D L. SNELLGROVE-Buddhist Himalaya Travels and Studies in quest of the origins and nature of Tibetan Religion-Oxford, 1957. P. 10. The Term 'Conqueror' (Jina), which also became the title of Mahavira, the leader of the Jains, was also applicable to the Sage. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 43. The Jaina built Stapas and decorated them in much the same way. The symbols of tree and wheel and stupa were just as much in use by them and the stories of the previous lives were derived from a common stock of Indian hero-and animal-tales. P. 45. The Buddha-image-One may compare the early Jain images, which are either standing with arms straight to the sides or seated cross-legged with hands placed together on the lap in the gesture of meditation. 1560 Klaus BRUHN-Jain Tirthas in Madhyadesa, (Jain Yug, November, 1958) Pp. 2933, and Jain Yug, April, 1959. Selected Jain monuments at various places in Madhya Pradesh and the surrounding area have been dealt with. 1. Dudahi-Situated about 18 miles to the south of Lalitpur in the Jhansi District of Uttar Pradesh and to the north of the former Ram Sagar, it contains the ruins of Hindu and Jain monuments. Amongst the Jain monuments two colossal images stand out. The seated Jina (Figs. 1 and 3) is a combination of three Jinas, one seated in the middle and two standing to the left and right. The central mürti measures 12 feet in height. Description given. Stylistically all pieces belong together. The seated Jina is identified with Rsabha on account of Jatas and the images to the left and right show the snake-hoods and represent therefore Pārsvanatha (or supärśvanatha). The standing Jina (fig. 2) also measures about 12 feet in height. Description given. On the pedestal there appears a dharmacakra flanked by the two deer (not visible in our photograph). This group does not identify a particular Jina but can be carved on the pedestal of any of the 24 Jinas. The Cakra and deer motif is however not very common in our area. It is therefore, not impossible that it had the meaning of a cinha, identifying the Jina as Santinatha, Page #388 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1407 Chandpur-The deserted and dilapidated town of Chandpur in the Jhansi District has lent its name to a group of medieval temple, Hindu and Jain, whose remains are scattered over a wide area near the ruins of the former town. As one comes from Bhopal one will find the Hindu temples to the left and the Jain temples to the right of the rails. The Jain monuments include the colossal image of a Jina (housed in closed structure with plain walls), the extant porch of a temple, and numerous slabs. Tradition has it that the Jain Temples were built by a Jain merchant "Parah Sah". Almost all the Jain remains are situated within a small fenced compound bordering on the railway track. Of these figs. 1 and 2 described in details. - Fig. 1-The most interesting features of the first piece are the tree and the relief with the horsemen. The trunk of the tree resembles that of a datepalm, All the arms are broken and both the figures possibly carried in their left hand a child which was partly attached to the upper arm. Fig. 2-At the height of the heads of the principal figures a miniature-replica of the crown of the tree projects from its trunk. This is only out of several possible elaborations of the tree of the sacred couple motif which has been discussed in details. The sculptures may belong to the 10-11th centuries. 1561 Kailash Chand JAIN-History of Mandor, (Prof., IHC. XXIInd Sesssion), Bombay, 1959. Pp. 230-231. Jaina temples built at Mandor in a period between the 7th century and 10th century AD. prove the existence of the Jains here. At Ghatiyala Kakkuka, the Pratihāra ruler of this place, a patron of Jainism, constructed a Jaina temple (IRAS, 1895, p. 516). The Śrāvakas of Mandor built and repaired temples at other places and placed images in them. The Mandovara Gotra of Osvalas became famous after Mandor. Mandora Gachchha, a branch of Kharatara Gachchha originated from this place. 1562 Umakant P. SHAH -Geographical evidence from the Kašyapa Samhita, (Prof. and Trans. AIOC, XIXth Session) Delhi, 1961. Part-II. P. 97. The Jaina Prajñāpanā sūtra places Koțivarsa Visaya in the Radha (Ladha). The headquarters of the Visaya have been identified with Diw-kot (Devakot or Devikota). Koraghāța identified with Karahāta is the same as modern Karād in the Satara. Page #389 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Section IV 11-TRAVELS 1563 J. TOD-Travels in Western India--London, 1839. This work furnished a descriprion of the great Jain sanctuaries of West India. The text is illustrated with nine plates. 1564 Colonel Top's "Travels in Western India" (AJ, xxix, 1839, Pp. 145-151, 171-180). Pp. 147-177. Sacred Mounts of the Jains at Abū and Satruñjaya. P. 171. Ancient cities of the Jains. P. 174. Library of the Jains at Anhilwara. 1565 (i) J. Burgess-- Notes of a visit to Satruñjaya hill, near Palitana, in September 1868– Bombay, 1868. Popular description of the temples of Satruñjaya, with recall of some historical data, 1565 (ii) J. BURGESS-Notes of a visit to Somnāth, Girnär and other places in Kathiawad, in May 1869, Bombay, 1869. Popular description of the sites and of the temples of the mount Girnăr. 1566 Fr. BUCHANAN-A journey from Madras through the countries of Mysore, Canara, and Malabar, 3 volumes, London, 1807. (Second edition, 2 volumes ; Madras, 1870). Diverse pages of this account are devoted to the Jains. One will find information of thein in the general index, in the word "Jaina". Page #390 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1409 1567 J. BURGESS--Extracts from the Journal of Colonel Colin Mackenzie's Pandit of his route from Calcutta to Gaya in 1820. (Indian Antiquary, vol. XXXI, Pp. 65-75). Bombay, 1902. New edition of a journal of route drawn up by the pandit whom colonel Mackenzie had engaged for himself. This account contains some historical and archeological reviews on the temples or the Jain sanctuaries of Madhuvana, Bhagalpur, Champaran, Bihar, Bahad, Pawa and Rajgir, Additional note on the mount Pārsvanātha at Palaganj. 1568 Thomas WATTERS-On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India, 629-645 A.D. (Edited by T. W. Rhys Davids and S. W. BUSHELL), 2 vols. London, 1904-05. Vol. 1, p. 252. Yuan-Chwang on the Jains. This pilgrim is of opinion that Jainism as a system was later in origin that Buddhism and was mainly derived from the latter. 1569 Hira Lal-A visit to Ramțek, (IA, V. xxxii, 1908, Pp. 202-208). Pp. 2-4. Local Jains say that Rāma was a Jain and that when he visited Rāmţek, he first worshipped śāntinātha. 1570 Richard Cannac TEMPLE--The Travels of Peter Munday, in Europe and Asia, 1608-1667. Edited by R. C. TEMPLE. Vol. II : Travels in Asia, 1628-1634. London, 1914. (The Hakluyt Society, Second Series, No. 35). P. Lix. Munday heard of a pinjrapol kept up by the Jains at Cambay for sick fowls. P. 257n. Munday makes no mention of the extensive Jain temples on Mt. Ābū. P. 310n. Remarks of all the 17th cent. travellers on the pinjrapols or animal hospital in Gujarat, supported mainly by the Jains. Page #391 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1410 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1571 Mansel Lognworth DAMES—The Book of Duarte Barbosa. Translated from the Portuguese by M. L. Dames. Vol. I, London, 1918. (The Hakluyt Society, Second Series, No. 44). P. 110, n. 2. BARBOSA's description of the Jains-Their carefulness with regard to the life of flies and vermin.-Their keeping up of hospitals for animals. 1572 PANNA LALL-- Account of a Tour in the Almora District, Himalayas, (J.B.O.R.S, vi, 1920, Pp. 361-392). Jain architecture-Characteristics found in the temple at P. 392. Champhāvat. 1573 Diaries of Sir William ERSKINE (JBBRAS, 1922, xxv, 1922, Pp. 373-409). (1) Jaurney to Ellora, 1820, and (2) Jaurney in Gujarat, 1822-23. P. 407. An underground Jain temple in Cambay. P. 408. Sir William's visit to the celebrated Jain temple in Gujarat, the most complete temple he has seen ; no Jains here now, not even one priest or rati. The temple is kept and shown by a Brahmanical Hindu. It is supported by contributions from the Jains at Jumboosur and Kathiawad. 1574 S. R. SHENDE--Routes between Aryavarta and Dakshinapatha, (B. C. Law volume, Part I, Calcutta 1945). P. 522. A Jain Muni Bhadrabahu Shrutakevalin went to Shravaņa Belgoļa from Košala in 3rd century B.C. Page #392 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Section V BIOGRAPHY 1575 BHAU DAJI—Brief Notes on Hemachandra or Hemācharya, (Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. IX, Pp. 222-224).--Bombay, 1872. Biographical review on Hemachandra according to the Kumārapalacaritra, the Kumārapalaprabandha, the Prabandhacintā nani, the Rişimandalavritti, of Jinabhadrasūri, and some other works of Jainas. 1576 Hermann JACOBI - On Mahāvīra and his predecessors. (IA, Vol. ix, 1880. Pp. 158163). Mahavira, the supposed founder of the Jaina sect-His relation with Gosāla Mokkhaliputta-The history of the Niganthas in general. 1577 Lewis Rice-The Poet Pampa (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, New Series, vol. XIV, Pp. 12-23), London, 1882. Bibliographical review on the Canara poet Pampa. Pampa or Hampa was born in Saka 824 His father, Abhirāma Devaraya was converted from the Brahmanism to the Jainism. The two works of Pama are the Adipurāna and the Vikramarjunavijaya or Pampa-Bharata. He wrote both of them in the year Śaka 863. Another Canara poet, Nāgachandra, called Abhinava Pampa, composed the Ramachandracaritapurāņa or Pampa-Rāmāyaṇa about a century later. 1578 Ram Chandra Basu-Fainism and its founder. Calcutta, 1886. A discussion of the life and historicity of Ādināth and also of Mahāvira and his immediate predecessors. Page #393 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1412 1579 G. BÜHLER-Ueber das Leben des Jaina Monches Hemachandra-Wien, 1889. Sources: JAINA BIBLIOGRAPIY 1. Prabhavakacaritra, composed towards 1250 by Prabhäcandra and Pradyumnasūri. 2. Prabandhacintamani of Merutunga. 3. Prabandhakośa of Rajasekhara. 4. Kumarapalacarita of Jinamaṇḍana Upadhyaya. 5. The account furnished by Hemacandra himself in his different works. Biography of Hemacandra. Hemacandra was born in Samvat 1145 (1088 A.D.) at Dhandhuka, in the district of Ahmedabad. He was the student of Devacandra and received the dignity of Suri or Acharya in Samvat 1166. He went to settle down at Anahilvāḍ Patan and met his first protector in the person of the king Caulukya-Jayasimha, surnamed Siddharaja, who died in Samvat 1199. It is in the court of this prince that Hemacandra composed his grammar, two of his dictionaries, the Abhidhanacintamani and the Anekarthasamgraha, his poetical treatise, the Alaṁkāracudamani, and his metrical treatise, the Chandonus asana. The Diydirayamahäkävya was undoubtedly also begun. Kumarapala succeeded Jayasimha on the throne of Gujerat. Hemachandra entered in relation with this prince towards Samvat 1214-1215. Between Samvat 1199 and 1214, the composition of the Desinämamālā and some diverse complements to the Abhidhanacintamani. It is towards Samvat 1216 that Hemacandra converted Kumarapala to the Jainism and composed the Yogaiastra and the Vitaragastotra in order to fortify the king in his new religion. Kumarapala favoured extremely the Jains and built to them a great number of temples. After Samvat 1216, the literary activity of Hemacandra did not fail off. In this period were written the Trisasfiialakapuruşararita, the appendix to this work or Parilistaparvan, the end of the Doyairaya Sanskrit, the Prakrit Duyaraya and the commentary on the Abhidhānacintamani. Hemacandra died in Samvat 1229, a little before Kumarapala. Page #394 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY A considerable series of historical, literary and bibliographical reviews complete this memoir on Hemacandra. Recursion ELEUMANN. Zeitsebriff der dentschen morgendendischen Gesellschaft, vol. XLIII, Pp. 348-352. NOTES Haridas SASTRI A Note on Vimala, (Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIX, Pp. 378-380). Bombay, 1890. The author of the Praśnottararatnamala was certainly a Jain. According to several manuscripts this author must have been Vimalachandra, and according to some others Amoghavarsa. There were four sovereigns of the name of Amoghavarsa, of whom the first was a devout Jaina. It is difficult to determine which one of these kings must have written the Praśnottararatnamālā; but the author of this work must have lived between 853 and 973 A.D. finished. The Padmacarita or Padmapurana is equally a Jaina work. It was composed by Vimalasuri in the first century of the Christian era. It is a Jaina adaptation of the Ramayana. 1580 Umäsväti J. KLATT-Specimen of a literary-bibliographical Jaina Onomasticon-Leipzig, 1892. Preface of WEBER on the extent that would have had the work of Klatt, once Haribhadrasūri Biographical and bibliographical reviews on the following authors: Abhayadevasüri Jinavarman Jinavallabha Jinadatta Jinaprabha Jinabhadra 1413 1581 Jinavijaya Jinasekhara Jinasamudra Jinasamudha Page #395 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1414 Jinakirtisūri Jinakusalasūri Jinagatisūri Jinaguṇaprabhasūri Jinagunasundara Jinacandra Jinatilaka Jinadaman Jinadasa Jinadeva Jinadharma Jinadhara Jinanandin Jinapati Jinapadma Jinapäla Jinapalopadhyaya Jinaprabodha Jinabhakti Jinabhata Jinamaṇḍana Jinamahendra Jinamāņikya Jinamukti Jinasarvasüri Jinavardhanasūri Jinasägara Jinasimha Jinasundara Jinasūri Jinasena Jinasaukhya Jinasaubhagya Jinahamsa Jinaharṣa Jinahita Jinānanda Jinendra Jineśvara Jinodaya Jitadhara Jitavijaya Jiva Jivakalasa Jivadeva Jivana Jivaranga Jivarāja. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Page #396 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1415 Jinamuni Jinameru Jinaranga Jinaratnasūri Jinarāja Jinalabdhi Jinalābha From Jinabhadra upto the end, one finds besides some reviews on the Jaina works, the titles of which are contained in the alphabetical series Jaina-Jiva. 1582 1. KLATT-Specimen eines Faina-Onomastikons. Berlin, 1892. (Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften). First editing of the precedent work. It contains only the reviews relating to Abhayadevasüri, Umäsvāti, Haribhadrasüri Jinadatta, Jinaprabha and Jinabhadra. 1583 S. C. VIDYABHUSANA--Buddhadeva. Calcutta, 1311, Bengali Sal. (1905, A.D.). Pp. 223-225. Conversation between Mahāvira and Gosāl Makhali PuttaMahāvira and Nirgrantha Natha-Putta are one and the same person. 1584 Edv. LEHMANN-Buddha. Kobenhavn, 1907. Pp. 38-42. Jain sect-Their relation and reaction to Buddha. 1585 Manik Chand JAINI-Life of Mahavira. Allahabad, 1908. Preface-Introduction-Introductory remarks, and the historicity of Mahāvira-sources of information, mythological stories-family relation-details arranged chronologically-- Appendix. Page #397 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1416 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1586 S. C. VIDYABHUSANA-Yasovijaya Gani (about 1608-1688 A. D.). (JPASB, vi, 1910, Pp. 465-469). Life of Yaśovijaya---His works on Logic--His criticism on Logic as taught in Benares academies. 1587 A. GUERINOT-Un maitre Jaina du lemps present ; Sri Vijayadharma Sūri. (A Jaina teacher of the present time : Sri Vijayadharma Sūri. (JA, 10th Ser., xviii, 1911, Pp. 379-384). The book in French, forms an account of Jainism as lived in the present time. The present article sketches the life of Vijayadharma Sūri. 1588 K. B. PATHAK--Nripatunga and the authorship of the Kavirājamārga. (JBBRAS, xxii, 1913, Pp. 81-115). In this paper there are several quotations from Jain authors. 1589 Wilhelm HUTTEMANN- Miniaturen zun Finacharitra. (Baessler Archiv, Berlin, iv, 1914, Pp. 47-77). The article, in German, discusses and interprets the small Jinacharitra as available from existing materials, 1590 Umrao Singh TANK-A Dictionary of Jaina Biography, Part I-A. Arrah (India), 1917. 1591 U.S. TANK--Some distinguished Jains, Agra, 1918, Brief sketches of some distinguished Jainas Jaina families. Page #398 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1417 1592 K. B. PATHAK-Sakatayana and the Authorship of the Amoghavritti, (ABI, i, 1918-20, Pp. 7-12). The Jain sākatāyana composed his sūtras and the Amoghavritti in the time of Amoghavarsa I. 1593 M. BLOOMFIELD-The life and stories of the Jain Savior Parsvanātha. Baltimore, 1919. The work contains the life-history of Pārsvanātha as culled from Jain works, canonical and non-canonical. 1594 K, B. PATHAK and K. G. OKA-Amarasimha and his commentator Kshirasvāmin, (JBBRAS, xxiii, 1919, Pp. 275-281). P. 275. Though the production of a Buddhist, Amarasimha's lexicon has been universally accepted as an authority by the Brahmanas and the Jains alike. It has been commented upon by Buddhists, by Brahmanas and by Jains like Āśādharapandita and Nāchirāja. 1595 A. J. SUNAVALA--Vijaya Dharma Sūri, his life and work, with a prefatory note by F. W. THOMAS, Can.bridge, 1922. The work in 18 chapters forms a comprehensive account of the life of the great Jaina monk. 1596 Banarasi Das JAIN - Jaina Jatakas, or Lord Rshabha's Punabhavas. Translated by Amulyacharan Vidhabhusana. Lahore, 1925. A translation of the first canto of Book (Parvan) 1 of Hemacandra's Trişaşțiśalakāpuruşacarita, with a note on Jaina cosmography. 1597 H. BHATTACHARYYA-Lord Mahavira. Delhi, 1926. A short life of Mahavira. Page #399 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1418 1598 C. R. JAIN--Sannyasa Dharma. Allahabad, 1926. A study of Sannyasa Dharma based on three Jain works, Mulacăra, Bhagwati Aradhana and Charitrasara. Stages and ideals-twentyeight root virtues-ten holy virtues-destruction of desire bearing hardships with equanimity-purity in taking of food-how to die-the daily life-riddhis or eight miraculous powers. 1599 H. OLDENBERG-Buddha, Calcutta, 1927. P. 65. Nigganthas-known as Jains-corresponds in many essential points with Buddhism. Point of difference lay in matters regarding penances. P. 77. Pāva the death place of Nataputta referred to in Jain works. P. 175. Mention of the terrible nature of Jain austerities. 1600 (i) H. BHATTACHARYYA-Lord Pariva, Delhi, 1928, A short life of Pārsvanatha. 1600 (ii) H. B. HATTACHARYYA-Lord Arishtanemi, Delhi, 1929. A short life of Arishtanemi. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1601 C. R. JAIN-Risabha Deva-The founder of Jainism. Allahabad, 1929. Pp. xii+ 190 with 10 plates. It gives the life of Risabha Deva, the first Tirthankara. Contents: Glimpses from his early existence; four and twenty Tirthankaras ; His birth, childhood, Family life and Public life, Sannyasa, omniscience, the Samavasarana. Bahubali and Bharata-his two sons; the community of the faithful and His Nirvana. Page #400 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1419 1602 A. N. UPADHYE-1. Samantabhadra, an Outstanding Personality, (The S.D.J. Hostel Magazine, X, ii, Pp. 24-8, Allahabad, 1929). The personality of Samantabhadra, the great logician of the c. 2nd century A D., is delineated on the basis of the glimpses that one gets from his various works. 1603 A. N, N--Review--Rannakavi Prashasthi-Mysore, (QJMS., vol. 19, No. 3, 1929, Bangalore). Pp. 241-42. Contains 15 articles by well known literateures. Life and Times of Ranna ; critical essays on the works of Ranna. All are agreed that Ranna is a Mahakavi. He deserves to be classed with 'Homer, Dante and Milton'. Mr. A. R. Krishna SASTRI points out that Ranna is superior in this descriptive work. 1604 R. Shama Sastry--The life and work of Kesiraia (QJMS, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1931, Bangalore). P. 89. Kesirāja, the author of the Sabdamanidarpana (Kanarese grammar) is not a Jaina but a Brahman. 1605 N. N. LAW-Haraprasad Sastri. I.H.Q. Vol. IX, 1933. P. 335. Mention of a Jain Bhāņdāra with 1335 Mss. receiving an annual grant of Rs. 5,000 from the Govt. of India (Place not mentioned). P. 341. Rāsas. Dhāls and Sijhāis preserved in Jain monasteries in Kathiawad, Marwar, Udaipur Gujerat etc.-Sources of information relating to Aurangzeb's reign. 1606 VIJAYA INDRA SŪRI-Reminiscences of Vijaya Dharma Sūri. Madras, 1933. A collection of articles by different authors on the life and teachings of Vijayadharma Sūri, the Jaina saint. Page #401 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1420 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1607 15 plates), Washington, 1933. Dr. W. N. BROWN--The story of Kalaka (with Pp. viii + 149. The Kālak story as legend and history. Translation--versions of Bhavadevasūri and Dharmaprabha sūri ; Miniature painting in western India-12th-17th century. 1608 (i) G. BÜHLER--The life of Hemacandracārya. Translated from German by M. Patel Santiniketan, 1936 with an introduction by Dr. M. WINTERNITZ, Sources---Hemacandra's youth---Jayasimha Siddharāja-Kumārapāla-literary works. 1608 (ii) G. BÜHLER- The Life of Hemacandrācārya--translated from the original German by Manilal PATEL (Singhi Jain Series Vol. 11), Santiniketan, 1936. A biographical statement of the life of Hemacandrācārya (1088-1173 A.D.) of the most eminent Svetāmbara Jaina monk and scholar of Gujarat. (Pp. 1-XV; 1-104): Preface, forward, the sources, Hemacandra's youth, Hemacandra and Jayasimha-Siddharāja ; the accounts regarding the first acquaintance of Kumārapāla and Hemacandra ; the stories regarding Kumārapāla's conversion, the consequences of Kumāra pāl's conversion ; Hemacandra's literary works after Kumārapāla's conversion ; stories about the inter-course between Hemacandra and Kumārapāla, and about their end. Notes, Indix, errata. 1609 (i) B. C. LAW---Mahāvīra - His life and Teachings, London, 1937. Pp. V+-109; Preface, Life, Teachings, Index. 1609 (ii) B. C. LAW-Mahavīra. London, 1937. An account of the life and teachings of Mahāvīra from the original Jain and Buddhist texts. Page #402 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1421 1610 S. RADHAKRISHNAN -Gautama the Buddha. London, 1938. P. 12. When Siha the Jain becomes a Buddhist he is required to give food and gifts as before to the Jain monks who frequented his house. P. 20. Mention of a discussion held between a Jain layman and Buddha relating to the doctrine of in-action. P. 28. Jain theories maintain an infinity of souls involved in matter. 1611 G. W. BRIGGS-Gorakhnāth and Kānphāță. Calcutta, 1938. P. 72. Nimnāth and Pārasnāth, sons of Matsyendranāth. They were slain and restored to life by Gorakhanāth. They were initiated by father and founded new sects. They were Jains. P. 73. Gorakhanāth left Pārasnāth one of the two boys and the Jains deem him an incarnation of God. P. 151. A Jain temple near Paedhuni in Bombay city shelters an idol of Ghorajināth indicating a contact of the Jains with Gorakhanāth. P. 213. While Gautama turned aside for extremes in fullfledged asceticism Brahman and Jain laid emphasis upon such life. P. 218. Farquhar puts the order of Sannyāsis before those of Buddhists and Jains. P. 259 Both Jains and Buddhists witness to the practice of Yoga which antidates them both. P. 279. Hindus and also the Jains, to certain exent, could not throw off the worthless and immoral practices enjoined in the tantras even when Buddhism was stamped out in India. 1612 (Jain B, A. SALETORE--Vadi Vidyānanda-A Renowned Jaina Guru of Karnataka. Ant. Vol. IV; No. I; Arrah; 1938; Pp. 1-21). Page #403 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1422 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Vādi Vidyānanda of Vijayanagara Age: Details concerning this guru given an inscription in the Padmavati basadi at Humcca, Nagar taluq, Mysore States-his name, lineage, qualifications, achievements, and date-discussed. His date A. D. 1502-A. D. 1530. (It is also dealt with in Delhi Sultans as Patrons of Jaina Gurus in the Karnataka Historical Review, vol. IV, Pp. 77-86 by B. A. SALETORE). 1613 S. Srikantha SASTRI—Vadibha Simha and Vadi Rāja. (Jain Ant. vol. V; No. III; Arrah; 1939; Pp. 89-95). Vädibha Simha must have been as a boy the pupil of Somadeva Sūri in 960 A. D., and he lived up to 1033 A. D. in the reigns of Rāja Raja I and Jayasimha II, and was the contemporary of Vādi Rāja, whose Pārsvanātha Charita was completed in 1025 A. D. 1614 M. Govind Par—Śrīvardhadeva And Tumbalurācārya. No, IV; Arrah; 1939; Pp. 125-127). (Jain Ant. Vol. IV; Srīvardhadeva, the author of Cūdamani, a Kannada commentary upon Tattvarthamālā Šāstra in 96,000 verses. Cūdāmaņi written in C. 6th century A. c. Tumbalurācārya wrote a Kannada commentary on Cüdāmani in 81,000 verses some. time before the 10th century. 1615 P. K. GODE--Date of Malayagiri Sūri. (Jain Ant. Vol. V; No. IV; Arrah; 1940; Pp. 133-136). Malayagiri Sūri, the author of several works, his date may be placed between A, D. 1100 and 1175. 1616 M. Ramakrishna RAVI-Bhatta Jayanta and Yasovarman of Kashmir. (D. R. Bhandarkar Volume, Ind. Res. Ins., Calcutta, 1940). P. 46. The Jaina tradition brings down Vāk pati, the author of Gaudavaho, to 900 A. D., identified with his royal namesake of the Paramāra line. Agamadambara of Jayanta is a sort of allegorical drama, where the characters are the representatives of various scbools of philosophy, including Buddhist, Jaina and atheist. Act. II of Page #404 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1423 the drana takes Anekāntavāda with a Kshopanoka ard ends with a miserable sense of devotees of Nilāmbara or Balarama. P. 47. One of the characters of the drama is Jinarakshita representing the kshapanaka. P. 49. Tenets. Nothing is known about Jinarakshita Kshapanakos appear to be the earlier Digambara Jains. 1617 A. N. UPADHYE-Hastimalla and his Adipurăņa, (Volume of Studies in Indology, presented to Prof. P. V. KANE, Pp. 526-29, Poona, 1941). This is a succinct record of the biographical details about Hastimalla and of the works attributed to him. His date is still a problem. A Kannada work of his Adipurāna by name, is introduced in this paper. 1618 P. K. GODE-The Genealogy of Mandana, the Jaina Prime Minister of Hoshang Ghori of Malwa, between A. D. 1405 and 1432. (Jaina Ant. Vol. IX ; No. II; Arrah ; 1943 ; Pp. 91-94). Mandana, the Prime Minister of Malwa, a Jaina author belonging to the period A. D. 1432. He himself was a Sanghapati like his father and was connected with Kharataranvaya, and a devout Jain. This association of a Jaina Sanghapati with a Muslim ruler of Malwa is as interesting as it is instructive. 1619 P. K. GODE- Mandana, the Prime Minister of Malwa and His works between A.D. 1400 and 1448. (Jain Ant. Vol. XI ; No. II ; Arrah ; 1946 ; Pp, 25-34). Two Sanskrit works of Mandana Mantri--Kavyamandana. and Singarmandana. The Colophon of Kavyamandana. The date of composition of KM is earlier than A. D. 1448 and that it was composed during the reign of one Alamsahi king or governor of Malwa with his capital at Mandapurga or Mandu, Mandan was the Prime Minister of Alpkhan identified with Hoshang Ghori (A. D. 1400 and 1432). Page #405 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1424 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1620 Jyoti Prasad Jain-Some more aliases of Kundakund (Jain. Ant. Vol. XIII, No.I), Arrah, 1947. Pp. 19 to 23. (First half of the 1st century A. D.) Achārya Kundkund is known to have many aliases --Padmanandi, Vakragriva Elächārya and Gridhapiccha. His other known aliases are --Vattakerāchārya, Vattkeryāchārya, Vatterakāchārya and also Pravartakācharya. 1621 Gyanchandra JAIN-Täran Swami and his sect, (Jain Ant., vol XII, No. I), Arrah, 1947. Pp. 59 to 61. Founder of the Tāran Panth, Tāran Swāmi was a Jain philosopher reformer flourishing in India in the 15th century and a contemporary to Sant Kabir, Guru Nānak and other cosmopolitan reformers of medieval India. Born in the year 1448 at Ruhupawati which is near Delhi, he preached against idolatry travelling over the whole of India and was respected by both Hindus and Muslims. The followers of Tāran Swāmi are found all over the country specially in the Central Provinces and Berar, Central India, United Provinces, Bengal and Bombay and are about forty thousand in number. They are divided into six sects namely, the Charnāgaras, the Samayas, the Asaithis, the Ayodhyāwāsis, the Golapurabs, and the Dosakes. Wrote 14 books in the Apabhramba language. Names of his works given. Sacred places connected with the name of Tāran Swāmi-Shree Nisaijee near the fort of Malhargarh in the Gwalior State; Shree Semerkhedi in the Sironi Tahsil of the Tonk in Central India; Shree Sukhajee in the Damoh sub-division of the Central Provinces and Berar. 1622 D. G. MAHAJAN-Acharya Samantabhadra and Patliputra. (Jain. Ant., Vol. XIV, No. I), Arrah, 1948, pp. 36 to 45. The great Jain Achārya Samantabhadra's name has been associated with Pāțaliputra for he visited this place which has been located in modern Patnā in about the 2nd century A.D. Āchārya Samantabhadra might have visited Pataliputra in Tamil land, the ancient Thondaimandalan-South India. Kānchipuram was a centre of learning in the north of the country. Thondayamandalam, with Pāțaliputra in the centre and Madura in the Southern part of the Tamilanādu. Page #406 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1623 Harisatya BHATTACHARYYA-Heroes of the Jain legends. (Jain. Ant., Arrah). Vol. XIII, No. II, 1948, Pp. 18 to 29. Comparative study of the Superme being according to the Jain and Brahmanic schools. Narayana, according to Jainism, is a mighty human being ruling over three parts of the earth and according to Brahmanic school the superme. divine principle. The Jain Puranas contain accounts of nine Näräyanas of whom the accounts of Lakṣmaṇa and Kṛṣṇa is of much interest to a student of comparative religion. Nine Prati-Nārāyaṇas, according to the Jains are persons who are. antagonists of Nārāyaṇas-Vedic and Jain accounts studied. Nine Balabhadras are the elder step-brothers of the Nārāyaṇas and are said to be attached fast to them. Of them Padma, otherwise known as Ramachandra and Baladeva is of interest to a student of comparative religion. Jain versions of the stories of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.. 1425 I. The Jain story of the Ramayana, substantially similar to the account of Valmiki, with details and differences discussed. Vol. XIV, No. I, 1948, Pp. 8 to 21. Story of the Ramayana continued. The Jains maintain that the Raksasas and vanaras are Vidyadharas, i.e., human beings endowed with Vidya or knowledge of extraordinary arts. The Vedic people denounced the Rakshasas, because they were Jainas and as such disturbers of the sacrificial ceremonies. The Krishna story in the Jaina Puranas, essentially similar to that of the Vedic Puriņas, with details and differences discussed. Vol. XIV, No. II, 1949, Pp. 71 to 77. The Jaina version of the Krishna story continued. The Jaina account shows that the battle of Kurukshetra has a core of actual history. It was an actucal national catastrophe in ancient India, and not a poetic imagination. 1624 Kalipada MITRA-Some Jain Kings and ministers. (Jain. Ant. vol. XV, No. II), Arrah; 1949. Pp. 70-77. King Durvinita-There are two classes of evidence, one of which places Durvinita the Ganga king in the 5th century, and the other in the 7th century, and the second view seems to be prepounderating. Page #407 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1426 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY King Nrpatunga Amoghavarsha I (Cir. 815-877), the greatest king of the Rāstrakūta dynasty had is capital at Manyakheta (Malkhed). Disciple of Jinasena he liberally patronized the Digambara sect. Some scholars on the basis of some laudatory verses from the Ganitasāra samgraha and the Yathakhyatacarita of Ainoghavarsha opined that Amoghavarsha adopted muni-di kşā while others do not accept this view as the Diksita name is not known from any sources. Ministers, Bharata and Nanna-Bharaia was the minister of the Rāştrakuța king Kệşņa III (940-968), and his son Nanna, the minister of Krsna III and his brother K bottigadeva (968972). They were the patrons of the great poet Puspadanta, who was a volumnious writer of Apabhramśa poetry. Chāmunda Rāya--The minister and commander-inchief of the Western Ganga kings Mārasimha II, and Rāchamalla of Rajamalla II, Disciple of Ajitasena he erected the images of Gommateśvara and Neminātha and endowed villages yielding 96,000 coins at the feet of Nemichandra for the daily worship of the image of Gaumateśvara. 1625 Muni RATNA PRABHA VIJAYA-Sramana Bhagavān Mahāvīra. Ahmedabad, 2nd Edition, 1948-51. (In the year 1941-42, first edition of the four volumes of this book written in English collected from Svetämbara Jain Scriptures and other sources by Muni RATNA PRABHA VIJAYA was published. Instead of four books of the first edition, the second edition comprises of eight books). The work supplied comprehensive account of the 26 previous Bhavas existences) and the 27th or the last Bhava of Mahāvīra, the 24th Tirthankara. It deals with various subjects relating to Jainism, such as--souls, universe, knowledge, painting, music, ethics, metaphysics, philosophy, etc. It also discusses early history of Jainism, Jainism and democracy; Jainism not a branch of Buddhism; origin of religion ; Jainism and modern science (Physics, sound, Biology). Vol. I, Part I, 1948. Contents: The first fifteen previous Bhavas of Mahävira. Vol. I, Part II. 1948. Sixteenth to twentysixth previous bhavas. Vol. II, Part I. 1948. (27th Bhava)-Mahāvira's descent from the heaven, dreams of his mother, birth celebration, early life, dikşa, first thirteen years of his ascetic life. Page #408 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1427 Vol. II, Part II. 1951. His kevala-jñāna (omniscience), his Samavasarana c ), Dikṣā of 11 teachers (ganādharas), Dikṣā of Candanā, chief lady teacher, four sanghas, preparation of the 12 Angas, his visit to Rājagsha and conversion to Jainism of King Sreņika, Princes and others. Fourteenth to fortysecond year of his Ascetic life. His Nirvāņa. Prominent Royal families and Sadhus, Sadhvis, Srāvakas, Šravikās of Mahāvira. Social. political and religious history of the country. Vol. III, 1950. Gañadharavāda. Discussions with the eleven GanadharasIndrabhuti, Agnibhuti, Vayubhūti, Viyakta, Sudharma, Mandika, Maurya, Akampita, Acalabhrātā, Metārya and Prabhāsa. Vol. IV, 1947. Discussions with the seven nihnavas of the deśa visamvadi type and Bhotika of the sarva visasvādi type. Vol. V, Part I. 1948. Sthavirävali containing summaries of life of the 30 head: of the Jaina church and their chief works. Vol. V, Part II. 1957. Sthavirávali containing summaries of life of the 31-61 heads of the Jaina church. 1626 BIRENDRA KUMAR---Babu Deo Kumārji Jain. (Jain Ant., Vol. XVII, No. I), Arrah, 1951, Pp. 1 to 7. Danbir Babu Dev Kumar Jain of Arrah born in 7th March, 1877, has left a landmark in the cultural and educational advancements of the Jain community. He established "The Central Jain Library”. 1627 Jyoti Prasad JAIN-A noble server of the noble cause, ( Jain Ant., vol. XVII, No. I), Arrah, 1951, Pp. 8 to 10. Life and activity of Babu Deo Kumar Jain. 1628 (i) Jyoti Prasad JAIN-Jaina Gurus of the name of Pujyapāda, (Jain Ant. Arrah), Vol. XVI, Nos. I & II. 1950. Pp. 1 to 6& 46 to 53. Vol. XVIII, No. I 1952, Pp. 7-15. Names of 21 different Pujyapādas discussed from epigraphical and literary (including Pattāvalis) sources, with special reference to (I) Pūjyapāda Devanandi (C. 450-500 A.D.). (2) Pūjyapäda Bhatta-Akalanka-deva (C. 600-675), (3) Pūjyapada ] Page #409 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1428 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Yogi the Siddha (c. 1300 A.D.), and (4) Pujyapāda Bhattāraka of Kārkala (C. 1500 A.D.). With the available data there is no doubt that the Pūjyapāda referred to in Darśanasāra as the Guru of Vajranandi was no other than Pujyapāda I, Devanandi. The epigraphical records provide sufficient corroborative material to fix his identity and to enable us to distinguish him from the other and later Pūjyapādas. His works-Sarvārthasiddhi, Jainābhișeka, Samādhisataka, Jainendra Vyakarana, Sabdāvatāra Tika on Pāṇini and a work on medicine--Vaidya Sastra. His date--latter half of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th or about the middle of the 7th century A.D. 1628 (ii) Jyoti Prasad Jain—“Pūjyapāda of the Chalukyan records”. (Jain Ant., vol. XIX, No. I), Arrab, 1953, Pp. 16 to 20 and Vol. XX, No. II, Arrah, 1954, Pp. 1 to 8. Pūjyapada of the Chālukyan records (c. 7th century) is different from (Devanandi) Pūjyapāda-a grammarian and a contemporary of Ganga Diruinita (c. 5th century). Pujyapāda of the Chalukyan records was a reputed scholar and a great reformer. Epigraphical evidences given. 1629 S. Srikantha Sastri–Vidyānanda. ( Jain Ant., Vol. XX, No. II), Arrah. 1954. Pp. 9 to 14. Can Vidyānanda or Vidyānandin be identified with Vimalacandra ? Vidyānanda appears to have been an immediate disciple of Akalanka and he may be assigned to about 720 A.D. 1630 Jyoti Prasad JAIN-Pujyapäda Devanandi, Jain. Ant. Vol. XXI, No. I), Arrah, 1955, Pp, 21 to 28, 31. Epigraphic evidences sufficiently prove that there must have intervened at least a century between Pujyapāda Devanandi and Akalanka (c. 600-675 A.D.). Akalan ka mentions Devanandi and incorporates the whole of his Sarvärthasiddhi in his own Tattwārt harāja-vārtika and shows great respect and admiration of the latter's Jainendra grammar. Devanandi's well known works are: (1) The Jainendra Vyakarana, (2) The Sarvārthasiddhi, a learned commentary on the Tattvārthadhigamasūtra, (3) Samadhitantra, (4) Istopadeśha, (5) Daśabhakti ; (5) Sabdāvatāra, (7) Kalyāṇakāraka, (8) Jain bhișeka and (9) Sāntyaştaka, Page #410 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1429 1631 Kalipada MITRA-On the identification of Devagupta and Harigupta. (Jain Ant., vol. XXI, No. II, Arrah, 1955, pp. 12 to 14. Views of N C. Mehta (Jain Siddhanta Bhaskar, Bhag 20, Kiran 2, Pp. 1 to 6) quoted. Harigupta and Devagupta were adherents of Jainism according to the Kuvalayamālā of Udyotanasūri. MITRA refuses the views of MEHTA on the basis of available evidences. 1632 Umakant P. Shah-Jaina monk Kalakācārya in Suvarnabhūmi. (Proc, and Trans. AIOC XVIIIth Session, 1955), Annamalainagar, 1958. Pp. 260-269. Jaina monks and lay men had been to Suvarnabhumi in the first or second century B.c. 1633 Amar CHAND-Mahāvīra. Bangalore. P. 19. It deals with the life of Mahāvira. 1634 A. N. UPADHYE-Mahāvīra and his Philosophy of Life. (Transaction No. 25, Pp. 1-22, The Indian Institute of Culture, Bangalore, 1956). This lecture was delivered on the occasion of the Mahāvīra Jayanti under the auspices of the Indian Institute of Culture, in April, 1956. It deals with the background of Jainism, gives a neat account of life of Mahāvīra, and finally discusses the great principles preached by him indicating their value in the context of the presentday world problems. 1635 S. K. RAMACHANDRA Rao-Mahavira : His Life and Influence. (Q.J.M.S. Vol. 49, No. 1, 1959, Bangalore). Pp. 68-73. Mahāvīra-a great hero-his heroism was spiritual and moral; the battles he fought and won were against the base nature of man, urges and impulses, passions and pangs. The greatness of such victory does not cease with the demise Page #411 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1430 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY of its author; its influence spreads and grows. Vardhamana renounced the world at the age of 30. At the age of 42 he obtained omniscience and became arhat. Subsequent to this attainment, Mahavira spent the first rainy season in the village (Vardhamana the modern Burdwän). At the age of 72, he breathed his last at Pāvā in the Malla country in 468 B. C. He was a senior contemporary of Buddha and pre-deceased him. P. 71. The great kings of the Gangetic plain (even Asoka and his grandson Samprati) were Jaina enthusiasts. During the time of the Guptas, Jainism spread across north India, from Orissa to Mathura. The chiefs and kings of Western India exhibited great zeal for this religion. After the middle ages, it declined but was never totally lost. P. 72. Śvetāmbaras and the Digambaras. Page #412 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Section VI RELIGION 1636 Edward MOOR-The Hindu Pantheon. London, 1810. Jains, a sect of Buddhists, or Vaisnavas; their tenets; enmity between them and Brahmanas; their persecution; their statues, images, obelisks, temples, etc., armorial and forehead marks of statue of Jain Deva and Jain 7śvara. 1637 Bombay and Western India. (AJ, ix, 1820, Pp. 609-610). The custom of this Jain Banias to fast for eight days every year. The fasting period is called pajusan. Reference to a voluntary death by fasting. 1638 The Jainas (A) XVII, 1824 Pp. 22-23). Jainas a sect of the Hindus- The name Jain or Joinu derived from the word Jina (Ji, to conquer). Accounts of the origin of Jains, their doctrine and duties. 1639 J. A. Dubois -- Maeurs, institutions et ceremonies des peuples de l'Inde. 2 volumes. Paris, 1925. Vol. II, Appendix I. Review on the Jains. General considerations--Metaphysics Doctrine of the transmigration of souls.-Cosmology. Succession and division of time. The sacred writings.-The Tirthankaras and the Cakravartins. Doctrine of deliverance.- Moral --The temple of Sravana Be!go!a. 1640 W. FRANCKLIN-Researches on the Tenets and Doctrines of the feynes and Boodhists.London, 1827. Page #413 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1432 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1641 W. MILES-On the Jains of Guzerat and Marwar. (AJ, n.s., vii, 1832, Pp. 146, 334-335). Here a brief summary of the paper is given. (The paper in full is contained in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. iii, Pp. 325-371). 1642 BJORNSTJERNA-The British Empire in the East. London, 1840. Pp. 67-68. Short review on the Jains, Resemblance between the Buddhism and the Jainism.-The Tirthakaras.-Characteristic of the Jaina temples. 1643 Baudh Mat Jain Marg Grantha. (AJ, xxxi, 1840, Pp. 201-202). Notice in brief of the Jain work on Buddhism. The work begins with an exposition of the Buddhist religion as professed by Jains, including the worship of Harr Hora, and Hiranyagarba, i.e., of Visnu, Siva and Brahma. Then follows discourses on Dharma and Adharma, showing what is religion and what irreligion, on the qualities and perfection of Bhagavân Śākya Buddha, and on behaviour in assemblies of Jains. The original treatise is in the Magadhi language. (See, Proc. As. Soc. 1873, p. 40). 1644 DuBois de Jancigny et X. Raymond-Inde.-- Paris, 1845. Pp. 203-206. Review on the Jainism. Analogy of the Jainism with the Buddhism and the Brahmanism.-- The principal Tirthakaras.-Morals of the Jains, their literature and their temples.--Rapid history of the Jainism Actual condition of the Jains. Page #414 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1433 1645 and Diffusion. (CR, iv, Art. 1., 1845, Indian Buddhism-Its origin Pp. 241-281). P. 248. In Mysore and the south of India the Jains admit certain of the Hindu deities into the courts of their temples, which they never do in the Mahratta country or Marvara. P. 251. The distinction between the Buddhists and Jains-The Jains worship 24 deified heroes, the Buddhists only 7. The Jains have caste, the Buddhists have none, the Jain images are naked, the Buddhist, not. Pp. 256-257. Description of Pārasnāth hill. P. 257. Murshidabad was a great place of resort for the Jains. Pp. 263-264. Prof. WILSON's opinion that Jainism India about the seventh century of the Christian era. was introduced into P. 266. Mention of the remains of a Jain establishment thirty miles from Puri inland. 1646 Ch. LASSEN-Indische Alterthumskunde. 4 volumes-Bonn-Leipzig. London, 1847-1861. Vol. IV, Pp. 755-787. Sketch of the Jainism. Opinions of WilsON, BENFEY, James TOD, COLEBROOKE and J. STEVENSON on the origin of the Jain religion. Epigraphical ideas. Ideas of the classical antiquity. The Satruñjayamāhātmya; considerations on the date of this work and on the author, Dhaneśvara. The Jains doctrines; agreement with the Buddhistic doctrines; the Jainism proceeded from the Buddhism. The cannonical writings and the language of the Jains. The priests and the laity. Festivals, temples etc. General account of the Jains doctrines. Religious life of the Jains. The priests and the laity. Page #415 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1434 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Festivals, temples etc. Historical summary of the Jainism, --Pārsvanātha, probably the founder of the sect; his life;-Mahāvira, his life bis disciples, his doctrines. The successors of Mahāvīra after the Kalpasūtra. Extension and development of ihe Jainism, from the country of Magadha in the other regions of India. Historical ideas; the king protectors of the Jainism. Principal Jain centres. Bibliographical notes. 1647 H. H. WILSON-Religion of the Hindus. London, 1862. P. 5. Jain system of Philosophy is a heretic system. P. 6. Jainas disregard the Vedas, practice and opinions of Hinduism. faiths and P. 7. Jains evaded the religious fury of the rival religious survived its terror. P. 22. Tenderness towards animated nature comprehends all moral and devotional duty a tenet common to both Bauddhas and Jains. P. 23. Ksapanaka has been described as Jaina naked mendicant. P. 24. Kşapaņaka's doctrine as reviewed by Anandagiri of a double set of Planetary bodies is undoubted by a Jain doctrine. According to Anandagiri the persecution of the Jains took place in the state of Rudrapur during Sankara's life time. P. 36. In a dispute between the Saivas and Vaisnavas the Chula Monarch Krimi Konda Chola being a devout worshipper of Siva sent armed men to seize Rāinānuja who with the assistance of his disciples effected an escape and founded as refuge with Jain sovereign of Mysore Vital Deva, Vattala Rāya. P. 150. Nimbāditya originally Bhaskara ächārya lived near Brindavanand was visited by a dandin according to other accounts by a Jain ascetic and engaged in a controversial discussion till sunset when visiteant was offer d some refreshment which was declined for the fact of taking anything after dark as unlawful. P. 225. fn 2. Hemacandra's history of Mahāvira narrates Saiva, Brahmana bearing Pale Complexion from their smerring themselves with ashes. P. 227. Basava Purāna gives an account of a dialogue between Jainas and the Saivas to prove latter's superiority. Page #416 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1435 Pp. 277-8. The first authentic notices of the Jains occur in the ninth volume of the Asiatic Researches from the pen of Colonel MACKENZIE, Dr. BUCHAMEN and Mr. COLEBROOKE. Some account of the Jain occurs in Colonel Wilk's Historical Sketch of South India. BUCHANAN's travels in Mysore and in the work of Abbi DuBois. WARDS has an article on Jain in his account of the Hindus. Mr. ERSKINE noted some of their peculiarities in his observations on the cave of elephant and in the remains of Bauddhas in India in the proceedings of the Bombay Literary Society. Latest and most detailed account is found in the papers of Mr. COLEBROOKE, Major DELAMAINE, Dr. HAMILTON, Colonel FRENKLIN and Major Tod in the transaction of the Royal Asiatic Society. Some voluable informations are to be found in the Calcutta quarterly magazine. Particularly in the Journal of a Native traveller from Calcutta and back again through Behar. A novel and comprehensive view of Jain literature is contained in the catalogue of manuscripts collected by the Late Colonel MACKENZIE. P. 279. Enurneration of the Jain Parāṇas. P. 278 fn 1. A list of the works by different Western scholars whose contributions on Jaiua topics be inade there. P. 278 fn 4. List of 44 works comprising purānas, charitras or legends, Ritual prāyascitta, Medicine, Grammar, Arithmetic, miscellaneous. P. 279 fn 1. Hamilton's account of the 24 Puranas contradicted. P. 281 fn 1. Enumeration of the siddhāntas and Agamas of the Jainas. P. 282. Hemacandra, author of Abhidhānacintāmaņi is a zealous and able Propagator of the Jain doctrines in the 12th century. 1648 H. H. WHISON-Essays and Lectures on the Religion of the Hindus. Collected and edited by R. Rost. In two volumes. London, 1861-1862. Vol. I. Sketch on the religious sects of the Hindus. (Memorie original. Asiatic Researches, Vol. XVI, Pp. 1-136, and Vol. XVII, Pp. 169-314). Pp. 5-7. Buddhists and Jains in comparison with the Brahmanical religion: contempt of the Vedas and of the religious practices. Brahmanical persecution to which the Buddhists succumbed, but to which the Jains outlived. Page #417 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1430 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 24. At the period of Anandagiri, the Jains should be represented only by the Digambaras. Pp. 276-347. Review on the Jains. Bibliography. The Jaina literatures : canonical writings and other.. The language. Fundamental principles of the Jainism : Rejection of the authority of the Vedas. Cult of the Tirthakaras. Life of Mahāvira.-The first disciples. Among these, Indrabhüti, or Gautamasvāmin, could not be identified with the Buddha. The Jain doctrines. The nine categories (tattvas): 1. Jiva 2. Ajiva 3. Punya 4. Papa 5. Asrava 6. Samvara 7. Nirjară 8. Bandha 9. Mokşa. The metaphysical principle of the Syadvāda and the seven logical possibilities. The doctrine of Karma, the eight kinds of acts. Moral : the five fundamental precepts and the four dharmas. Yatis and Srāvakas. The Jaina cult. General formula of prayer. The ceremonies. The objects of adoration. The Tirthakaras and the gods. The grand festivals. History of the Jainism.-Opinions and considerations on the origin of the Jainism. It would not have its origin to a high antiquity.- Extension and development of the Jainism. The succession of the pontiffs.-The Svetāmbaras and the Digambaras.-Principal differences between the two communities. --The schisms and the sects. The 84 gacchas.--condition and importance of the Jains. Vol. II. Miscellaneous Essays and Lectures. II. Two lectures on the religious practices and opinions of the Hindus. (Original edition : Oxford, 1840). P. 87. (Ed. or. Pp. 41-42). General characteristics of the jains and of the Buddhists; Contempt of the Vedas. Rejection of the distinction of the castes. Substitution of a new pantheon to that of the Brahmanical religion. The Jains in the West of India. 1649 D. MOORE-Examination of Jainism Surat, 1867. Refutation of the doctrines of Jainism, In Guzerati, Page #418 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1437 1650 J. VINSON --La religion des des J'aina--Paris, 1870. 1651 P. WURM-Geschichte der indischen Religion im Umriss dargestellt. Basel, 1874. Pp. 286-288. Review on the religion of the Jains. The Jainism is considered as a mingling of Buddhism and of Brahmanism-Age and home of the Jainism.Characteristics of the Jaina religion in comparison with the Brahmanism; 1. Rejection of the Vedas.-The sacred literature of the Jains. 2. Adoration of the Tirthakaras. 3. Absolute prohibition to kill living being, no matter what it may be. Characteristics in comparision with the Buddhism : 1. Tendency to the monotheism and not to the atheism. 2. The cosmology. The priests: Sabhus and ratis.--The sects. Digambaras and svetāmbaras.- The Jainism is specially diffused into the caste of the Vaisyas. 1652 L. ROUSSELET--L'Inde des Rajahs.- Paris, 1875. Pp. 17-18. The respect of animal life to the Jains. Description of the Jaina hospital for animals at Bombay. P. 27. Influence of the Jains at Bombay. The Banyas. P. 98. The Jains at Surat. The priests. The hospital for animals. P. 146. The Jain temple of Kaira. P. 173. The group of Jaina temples at Jowar (Rajputana). P. 232. The Jain temple of Chitor. Page #419 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1438 JA'XA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 362-470. Gwalior : the temple of Ādinātha; the gigantic statues of the Tirthakaras (figures). Pp. 370-374. Review on the Jainism. Antiquity. General doctrine. Comparison with the Buddhism. Historical development. Digambaras and Śvetāmbaras. Acutal plate customs. The Jaina architecture. Pp. 395-399. Description of the sacred mountain of Sunagadh near Datiya (two prints). P. 497. Ruins of a Jaina temple at Gyarispur, 1653 M. MONIER-WILLIAMS—Hinduism. London, 1878. Pp. 221-224. General survey on the Jainism. The sects.--The canonical treatise-cosmology. The principal Tirthakaras—The beings : the living souls and the inanimate objects.-The deliverance-Moral : the five duties.-Yatis and Śrāvakas. The divinities and the Brahmanical priests in the Jain temples. 1654 A. BARTH-Les religions de l'Inde.---Paris, 1879. A. BARTH.-The religions of India. Authorised translation by Rev. J. Wood.-- London, 1882. The English translaiion of the original French has been made under the direction of the author, with correction, alterations and additions. It must then be considered as a second edition. The chapter devoted to the Jainism (Pp. 81-91, French edition ; Pp. 140-152, English edition) deals with the following points : The canonical literature of the Jains.--Close resemblance between the Jainism and the Buddhism.--The Jinas and the mythology in general.-The cult.Rejection of the Vedas and of the distinction of the castes.- The priests and the lay community. The principal Jaina sects.-Asceticism, metaphysic and moral.The Jina and the Buddha of the actual period.---The legend of Mahāvira; the Nirgrantha Jñātaputra.--The Jainism is more recent than the Buddhism.-The present condition of the Jainism.-Bibliographical notes. 1655 R. Cust-Les religions et les langues de l'Inde. Paris, 1880. Pp. 47-43. Short review on the Jainism. The Jaina literature.--The Jains in former times and today.-Respect for animal life. Page #420 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1439 1656 Joseph EDKINS--Chinese Buddhism. London, 1880. P. 31. The ruins of the city of Rājagriha visited by the Jains at a spot sixteen miles south-west of Behar. Pp. 156-158. Dr. HAMILTON says, speaking of the Śrāvakas or Jains, a still existing Buddhist sect in India, that they worship twenty-four great teachers, who are called either Avatāras or Tirthankaras. The series of twenty-four patriarchs may be assumed to be the same as the Jain twenty-four patriarchs. RHODE supposes the Jains to be descendants of the asuras and rakshas. Bodhidharma headed a new school in Southern India, and was heretical as viewed from the Jains' standpoint. 1657 Fr. LAOUENAN-Du Brhmanisme et de ses rapports avec le Judaisme et le Christianisme. 2 volues. Pondicherry, 1884. Vol. I, Chap. VII. The Jainism and the Jains. Origin of the Jainism. Periods to which its existence is established undeniably.-Struggle between the Jainism and the Brahmanism.--Jain doctrines of South India. Moral and discipline. 1658 L, de Milloue-Essai sur la religion des Jains. Louvain, 1884. Introduction: The Jainism would be more ancient than the Buddhism. 1. General survey on the Jains. -The different names of the Jins.Resemblance of the Jainism with the Brahmanism and the Buddhism. Morals and customs of the Jains. The Svetāmbaras and the Digambaras. The laicadepts : prescriptions and customs. The priests, the monks and ascetics; precepts and occupations. II. General doctrines. The Universe. The time. The Supreme God ; His attributes. The Tirthakaras ; their characters; the Tirthakaras of the past cycle, of the actual time and of the future cycle. The Manus. The Cakravartins. The gods. The demons. Page #421 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1440 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY III. Legends of the Tīrthakaras.-Legend or history of each of the 24 Tirthakaras of the present time, and in particular of Vrsabha, of Pārsvanātha and of Mahāvira 1659 C. P. TIELE-Outlines of the History of Religion to the Spread of the Universal Religions. (Translated from the Dutch by J. ESTLIN CARPENTER). Third Edition. London, 1884. Pp. 140-142. The Jains : Characteristic features of their religion. 1660 M. MONIER-WILLIAMS - Religious Thought and Life in India. Part I. Vedism, Brahmanism and Hinduism. Second Edition. - London, 1885. P. 250. Legend of the demon Kalkatti and origin of the famous status of Kārkaļs. 1661 Moreshvar Gopal DESHMUKH-On the Habits of a Jain ascetic. (JANTH. SB, i. 1886, pp. 77-89). The doctrine and principles of the Jain religion as revealed in a monk's life. 1662 leur historie, Paris, J. VINSON-Les religions actuelles, leurs doctrines, leur evolution, 1888. Pp. 186-195. General sketch of the Jainism. Life of Mahāvīra. The principal Tirthakaras, Vrsabha and Pārsvanātha.-The Supreme God and his attributes.The cult.-Doctrines relating to the time and to the Universe. --The deliverance.The moral precepts. The Jain sects.-Origin and history of the Jainism.--Actual State. 1663 Guru Prasad SEN-A Reply to my Critics ; or what is Hindu religion ? (Cr. xciim, Art 11, 1891, Pp. 158-185). Pp. 169-170. A memorial from the Jains of Shahabad, one of the most importand Jain communities in India, to the Chief Secretary to the Government of Bengal, Page #422 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1441 suggesting that they are to be classed under head "religion" as Hindus, and under head "sect" as Jains. 1664 Sylvain Levi-La science des religions et les religions de l'Inde (Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes, Section des Sciences religieuses, Rapport), Paris, 1892. Generalities on the religion, the role and the destiny of the Jainism-The canon of the Svetämbaras and the Digambaras. 1665 A. BASTIAN-Kosmogonien and Theogonien indischer religion philasophien besonders der Jaina. Berlin, 1892. (Cosmogony and Theogony with religio-philosophical details of the Jaina). The work contains a detailed account of the theory of the origin of the world and the hierarchy of their deities according to the standpoint of the Jains. 1666 Ernest LEUMANN-Rosaries mentioned in Indian literature. (Transactions of the Ninth International Congress of Orientalists, London, 1893, vol. 2., Pp. 893-899). The rajoharana and the mukhavastrika, two of the most characteristic utensils used by the Jains on same Jain monuments. Occurrence in the older literature of the Jains the names genettiya and kañchaniya. First refer.nces to rosarius found in the Jain canon. The Jain literature ascribes rosaries only to certain monks of the Brahmana order. 1667 L. H. ANDERSON-Spirit of the Buddhists and the Jainas Regarding Animal Life Dawning in America.-How Animals are slaughtered in Chicago. (Jbts, ii, 1894, Appendix 4). A paper advocating non-slaughter of animals. 1668 W. CROOKE-An Introduction af the Popular Religion and Fokklore of Northern India. Allahabad, 1894, Page #423 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 4. The Jains are forbidden to eat after sun set lest insects may enter the mouth and be destroyed. 1442 P. 67. The Jains worship Bhairava (one of the most awful forms but do not offer him flesh or blood sacrifices, but fruit and sweetmeats of siva) as the protector or agent of the Jain church and community. P. 117. Worship of ancestors by the Jains. P. 338. Akbar's prohibition to kill cattle during the twelve sacred days (pojisan) observed by the Jains. 1669 Ancient Religions Before the Great Anno Domini. (CR, c, art 5, 1895, Pp. 75-98). P. 90. Mixing up of Jainism sometimes with Buddhism and sometimes with Brahmanism. Parsvanatha was contemporaneous with other great men of the time. Two centuries later lived Mahavira, who, like Buddha, was of the royal caste. In several features Jainism differs from Buddhism; it has never left India, and is still a quasi It has a form of worship; ineffable bliss is the goal of Jainism, not nirvana; both lay stress on morality, charity, purity, patience, courage, contemplation, knowledge; both get rid of caste, and are atheistic. The Jains number one and a half million; they enjoin mercy to all animated beings, and place a cloth over their mouths to save the lives of insects; they have a considerable literature, and an order of priesthood. 1670 E. W. HOPKINS-The Religions of India-Boston. London, 1895. Pp. 280-297. Jainism-Origin of the Jainism. It is contemporary of the Buddhism and appeared in the 6th century BC. The author is inclined to believe that the Jainism is however more ancient than the Buddhism.-Mahavira: his personality.-The Svetämbaras and Śvetämbaras and the Digambaras. -Principle of the Jainism. The three jewels. The moral practices; the duties of the laic adepts. Analogy of the Jain moral with the Brahmanical moral and moral and that of the Buddhists. Respective customs of the Svetämbaras and of the Digambaras. P. 318. The path of deliverance according to Mahavira. Page #424 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1443 Pp. 585-586. General bibliography of the Jainism, 1671 T. W. Rhys DAVIDS.--Buddhism, its History and Literature. New York-London, 1890. P. 24. Jain literature is considerable. However it includes few original elements. It consists rather of a series of isolated propositions, than of a system of philosophy. 1672 P. D. CHANTEPIE de la SAUSSAYE--Lehrbuch der Religions--geschichte. Zweite Auflage. 2 volumes. - Freiburg i. B-Leipzig-Tubingen, 1897. Vol. II, Pp. 63-68. General account of the Jainism. Origin of the Jainism; Pārsvanātha and Mahävira. The Buddhism and the Jainism; comparison--Life of Mahāvīra.--Philosophical principles of Jain doctrine- The action, the sin, the deliverance. The triple jewel-Digambaras and Svetāmbaras-The cult and the organisation-The Jain writings-Actual position of the Jains. 1673 J.G.R. FORL ONG--Short studies in the Sciences of Comparative Religions. London, 1897, Pp. 14662. Ch. 1. Jainism and Buddhism. The article on Jainism and Buddhism draws special attention to the student of Indian Religions. The most important fact brought out is the relation of Jainism and Buddhism. Instead of Jainism being, as was formerly supposed, an offshoot from Buddhism, it is shown to extend as far back as 3,000 B.c. It is found flourishing alongside the nature worship of the rude tribes in Northern India. The author points out that Asoka on becoming a Buddhist changed his title, and it is significant of the difference between Jainism and Buddhism. 1674 Ed. HARDY—Indische Religions geschichte. (Sammlung Goschen).- Leipzig, 1898. Pp. 81-86. Concise statement of the Jain religion. Review on Mahävira.-- The Jaina doctrines. The sects.-Extension of the Jainism. The Jain art. Page #425 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1444 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1675 A. WEBER-Zur indischen Religions geschichte, Stuttgart, 1899. This little volume contains a brief review on the Jainism in which there is discussion on the following points : Origin of the Jainism. Its period in comparison with the Buddhism.--The Digambaras and the Svetāmbaras. The Digam. baras must be more ancient : they are the Gymnosophists.-The canonical and secular literature of the Jains.. 1676 R. HOERNLE-Jainism aud Buddhism. (Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1898, Pp. 39-55-Calcutta, 1899. The major part of this memoir (Pp. 39-53) is devoted to the Jainism deals with the following points : and Antiquity of the Jainism. Review of the most recent works on this religion. Life of Mahāvīra : its resemblances with Gosāla and with Pärasanātha. Religious state of India at the advent of the Buddhism and of the Jainism. These two orders were the result not of a religious reformation, but of a protest against that which was exclusive in the Brahmanism. Essential differences between the Buddhism and the Jainism. Concise history of the Jainism.-Origin of the Svetambaras and of the Digambaras. The council of Pāțaliputra. Progressive extension of the Jainism. The council of Valabhi and the fixation of the canon. The inscriptions of Mathura. The Jaina sects at the commencement of the Christian era. [The same study is found also in the Calcutta Vol. CVI (1898), Pp. 374-337. It has been further summed up in the Journal of the Mahabodhi Society, Vol. VII. (1898) Pp. 22-23]. 1677 C. Von Orelli-Allgemeine Religions geschichte.--Bonn, 1899. Pp. 493-498. The Jainism. Page #426 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1445 Notes on the origin of the Jainism.-Mahāvira, his period, his life, his roleJain doctrines. General characters. The souls; the living beings - The knowledge. The moral ; the five fundamental precepts.—The Jain writings ; constitution of the canon. Development and history of the Jainism. The Svetāmbaras and the Digambaras.--Actual organisation. 1678 W. J. WILKINS--Modern Hinduism. Second Edition. Calcutta and Simla, (1900). Pp. 347-351. The Jains-Their leading tenets and teneis distinguishing them from the main body of the Hindus - Jiva and Ajiva-ratis and Šrāvakas -The rituals of the Jains-The Jains a sect of the Buddhists-Svetāmbaras and Digambaras. 1679 Morris Jastrow—The Study of Religion. London, 1901. Pp. 114, 233. Jainism follows Buddhism-Buddhism and Jainism give birth to other forms of religion. 1680 Rickhab Dass JAINI--The Doctrines of Jainism. (Calcutta Review, Vol. CVII, Pp. 388-392 ; vol. CVIII, Pp. 338-344 ; vol. CIX, Pp. 356-359 ; vol. CX, Pp. 190192 ; vol. CXI, Pp. 151-158; vol. CXII, Pp. 161-165). Calcutta, 1899-1901. Very elaborate explanation of the Jaina doctrine such as it is professed at the actual time. The question is especially of the philosophical principles of the Jainism and of the doctrine of deliverance. 1681 A. BARTH-Bulletin des religions de l'Ind.-Jainisme (Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, vol. I, Pp. 256-257; Vol. III, Pp 89-92; vol. V, p. 246; vol. XI, Pp. 179-184; vol. XIX, Pp. 280-296; vol XXIX, Pp. 25-36; vol. XLV, Pp. 171-185). Paris, 1880 a 1902. As one knows it, the Bulletine of M. Barth are devoted to the critical recension of the works relating to the religions of India and have the object of recording the results acquired in this sphere. We shall recall only those where it is the question of the Jainism, Page #427 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1446 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY I.--1880, Principal works mentioned : E. WINDISCH, Hemacandra's Yogaśāstra. H. JACOBI, Kalpasūtra; J. WARREN, “Nirayāvaliyā" and “Uber de godsdiestige en wijsgeerige Begrippen der Jainas.” Conclusions : The antiquity of the Jainism cannot be contested However, it is not allowed to affirm in an absolute manner that the founder of the sect may be the same personnage as the Nirgrantha Jñātraputra of the Buddhistic books. "All what one can say, it is this that from the 5th century A. D. the Jainas identified the Jinas of the actual age with one of the six scholars of whom the Buddhistic sūtras make contemporary adversary of Buddha." II.- 1881. Examination of the two memoirs of M. JACOBI, on Mahävira and his Predecessors and Das Kalakācārya-Kathanakam. Conclusions: 1. "It becomes more and more probable that the Jainas from the 5th century were able to rise by the traditions mor? or less direct to the ascetics having lived thousand years before. "We admit also that real personality is concealed probably under the figure of Pārsvanātha. “That which we contest, it is the conscious and continuous existence of the sect since romote date, it is the direct transmission of a doctrine and of a proper tradition. This tradition appears to us, on the contrary, to be formed later, of vague recollections and on the model of Buddhistic tradition," 2. As regards the legend of Kālakācārya, it is difficult to separate the reality from the skein of fictions which accompanies it. III.-1882. Mention of the article of Bhagwanlal INDRAJI and M. J. BURGESS, The Kahaun Inscription of Skandagupta, which "restores in a difinite manner” this inscription to the Jaina religion, Page #428 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY ( IV. 1885. 1. Canonical treatises. Reviews on the edition of the "Ayaramgasutta" by M. JACOBI, on that of the "Aupapatikasutra" by E. LEUMANN, on the article of M. THIBAUT relating to the "Suryaprajapati", and on the concerted article of WEBER, "Ueber die heiligen Schriften der Jainr." 2. History. Review of the works of M.M.E. LEUMANN( JACOBI ( 1447 ); edition of the "Parisistaparvan" of Hemacandra, WEBER ), and KLATT The Jaina documents of the middle age deserve generally confidence; beyond the 5th century, there is no more than scattered recollections. With the approach of our era they become absolutely imperfect. As to the period of origin, "Until now two points appear; it is that, of the Jainism and of the Buddhism, one of the two has largely copied the other; and that the chances of originality are not in favour of the first". 3. General studies. L. de MILLOAR' Essai sar la religion des Jains; J. BARGESS Papers on Satruñjaya and the Jains. The communications of M. BURGESS are particularly interesting relatively to the customs and to the rituals in usuage today among the Jains. 4. Stories. Mention of the two narrations published by WEBER, Campakacresthikathanaka et Uttamacaritra-Kathanakam. V--1889. 1. Reviews on the following works : A. WEBER, "Verzeichniss der Sanskrit-und Prakrit Hands-chirften der K. Bibliothek zu Berlin, Band II, Abth. 2, (In this catalogue, M. Barth quotes the Reports of BHANDARKAR for 1883-84, and the first three Reports of PETERSON.) H. JACOBI "Jaina Sutras translated, I. Acaranga Sutra and Kalpa Sutra. (For M. BARTH, the most probable Page #429 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1448 faina BIBLIOGRAĐHY date of the “Kalpasūtra" is 980 of the era of Mahāvīra, that is to say 453 or 513 A.D.). R. HOERNLE, “Uvāsagadasão” edited and translated. 2. Historical and critical notes. M. BARTH remains suspicious with regard to the Jaina tradition that characterises "a lack of true recollections associated with a profusion of details of a minute and certainly fictitious precision.” His scepticism is particularly keen as regards the first centuries of this tradition. However he recognised the ability of the works o Bühler on the inscriptions of Mathura. “The result from now onwards acquired from this beautiful country so vigorously conducted, he says, is a series of documents going from the year 80 upto the middle of the 2nd century of our era, and establishing in an unquestionable manner that, from this peiod, the Jaina church was perfectly distinct and organised.” Inspite of all, these researches are generally very far from confirming the Jain tradition. (Compare Revue de l'Histoire des Religions "Vol. XX, P. 332, under the title : "M. Buhler et la tradition Jains”, a rectifying note of M. Barth, concerning the opinion of M. BÜHLER on the Jaina tradition, 3. Mention of other different works, among which : G. BÜHLER, "Uber das Leben des Jaina Monches Hemacandra;" H. JACOBI, "Ausgewahlte Erzahlugen in Maharashtri ; E. LEUMANN, "Beziehungen der Jaina-Literatur zu andern Literaturkreisen Indiens.” VI-1894. 1. Review of the works of BÜHLER on the inscriptions of Mathura : "From the mass of these inscriptions admirably interpreted by M. BÜHLER, it proceeds that, from the 1st century before our era, the Svetāmbara Jaina church was solidly organised...” But on several points, 'which are of capital importance for the first history of the Jainism, I have nothing to change to the stocks that I have made in the preceding Bulletin." Mention of other inscriptions and of different pattavalis published by several scholars. 2. Svetāmbara canonical literature. E. LEUMANN, Daśavaikālika-sūtra und Niryukti. 3. Stories, History, Polemics. Page #430 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1449 The principal memoirs examined here are : E. LEUMANN - "Die Legende von Citta and Sambhuta”. A. WEBER - "Samyaktvakaumudi”. H. JACOBI "Upamitabhavaprapancae Kathae specimen. G. BÜHLER - Das Sukritasamkirtana des Arisimha, et The Jogaducharita of Sarvānanda. 4. Digambara literature. K. B. PATHAK "The position of kumarila in Digambara Jaina literature"'; R. HOERNLE, “Two Patļāvalis of the Sarasvati Cachchha of the Digambara Jains."; Lewis RICE, “Inscriptions at Sravano Belgola.” The interpretation of M. Lewis Rice relatively to the first inscription of this collection (epitaph of Prabhācandra) is criticised and the works of M. M. FLEET and E. LEUMANN in this matter are remarkable. 5. General works. WEBER, Verzeichniss d Sanskrit- und Prakrit Handschriften d. K. Bibliothek zu Berlin, Band II, Abth. 3; J. KLATT, "Specimen of literary-bibliographical Jaina-Onomasticon." VII-1902. 1. General Works. R. HOERNLE Jainism and Buddhism'; Rickhab dass JAJNA. "The Doctrines of Jainism"; Upamitibhavaprapanca Katha edition of the "Bibliothecaindica". "Syādvādamaħjart"' of Mallisena.; Șațdarcanasamuccaya (iha" of Gunaratna, published by M. PULLE.; The calalogues of Jaina manuscripts of FLORENCE, by M. Pulle, and of STRASBOURG, by M. E. LEUMANN. 2. Archeology. Mention of two memoirs of BÜHLER, the one on the conception of Mahavira after the sculptures of Mathura, the other on the legend of the “Stūpa constructed by the gods” equally at Mathura. Note on the epitaph of Prabhācandra, at Sravana Belgola, definitely published by M. Fleet in the "Epigraphia Indica”. Page #431 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1450 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 3. Canonical treatises, Critical considerations on the Jaina tradition, with respect to the translation of the "Uttarādhyayana" and of the "Sutrakstānga" by M. JACOBI. The narrations relating to the "Avašyaka”, after the “AvasyakaErzahlungen" published by M. E. LEUMANN. 4. Stories and legends. Translation of the history of "Sanamkumāra" by M. de BLONAY, and of the “Kathakoşa" by M. TAWNERY. The studies of M. PULLI on the "Antarakat hasangraha''. Translation of the "Prabandhacintamaņi" of Merutunga by M. TAWNEY. Edition of the “Kumarapalacarita” of Hemacandra by Shankar Pandurang Pandır. Re-edition by M. BURGESS of the memoir of WEBER on the "Satruñjaya-māhātmya. 5. Digambara literature. Review on the edition by M. PAVOLINI of the "Pancatthiyasamgahasutta" of "Pavayanasāra” of Kundkunda, 1682 T. W. Rhys Davis.-- Jainism (Encyclopaedia Britanica, Ninth-Tenth edition, vol. XXIX). Edinburgh, 1902. Complement to the preceding article. The canonical books : age ; indigenous and European editions ; historical studies.-Antiquity of Jainism, Role of Mahāvīra.--Opposition between Buddhism and Tainism, -The principal doctrines of Jainism ; the 'Jiva'; the 'syadvada'; the asceticism-life of Mahävira. 1683 BENARSI DASS-A Lecturer on Jainism. (Jain Itihas series, No. 1) Agra, 1902. Introduction-Jainism misunderstood --Causes of of misunderstanding A--ntiquity of the Jains - Jainism never originated after Sankarāchārya-Jainism is not offshoot of Buddhist-Hindu scriptures-Buddhist works-Jain śāstras-Buddha not a disciple of Mahävira-Buddha an older contemporary of Mahävira - Antiquity of the Jains further-Jainism not a product of Brahmanism. Both product of the common atmosphere of ancient India-Ancient India in Jain sastra--Max muller's opinion Hinduism and Brahmanism misnomers-Jainism was not founded by Pārsvanatha but Risabha-Buddhist work-Jain sastras-Hindu scriptures-Inscription at Page #432 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1451 Mathura-Ancient India once more-Yoga Darśana-Sānkhya Darśana-Mahāb1.ārata--Chārvāka Darśana-Tenets of the Jain Ratna-Traya-Eleven Pratimās---Dasa Laksana Dharma-Twelve Anupreksas-Charitra of a Muni-Why the Jain monks are naked and why the Jains worship naked images-Winding up. 1684 1. G. BÜHLER-On the Indian Sect of the Jainas. (Tr. From the original German by J. BURGESS). London, 1903. P. 1. Communities of Jainas or Arhata i.e., followers of the prophet. The tenets-Mythology-Philosophy and ritual of this Jains. 1685 John Campbell OMAN-The Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India. London, 1903. Pp. 142-151. Hindu ascetic sects and their subdivision. Sec. 1: Introductory remarks --The multiplicity of Hindu sects by no means abnormal-Jain monks or Yatis interviewed-Their opinions and habits. 1686 A. Guerinor--La doctrine des etres vivants dans la religion Jaina. (Revue de l' Histories des Religions, vol. XLVII, Pp. 34-50).--Paris, 1903. Comparative explanation of the Jaina doctrine relating to the living beings, according to the Uttarādhyayana and the Jīvavicāra. Classification and characters of the living beings : 1. Beings in state of perfection. 2. Beings in state of transmigration ; inanimate or animate : Inanimate beings : earth, water, fire, wind, plants. Animate beings : inferior animals, inhabitants of the hell, superior animals, men, gods. 1687 Paul DEUSSEN-Erinnerungen an Indien (Indian Memories). Kiel, Leipzig. 1904, Pp. 1-256. P. 61. The Jains-Their creed and doctrines-Their relation to Brahmanism, Page #433 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1452 1688 BAIJNATH.-Hinduism: Ancient and Modern, Meerut, 1905. Pp. 130-131. Jainism-A branch of Hinduism. 1689 J. M. MITCHELL- The Great Religions of India'. Edinburgh and London, 1905. P. 19. Principle of Jainism; the respect of life down to its lowest manifestations. The Jaina temples. Number of the Jains; their principal professions. Pp. 204-208. Short explanation of Jainism. The two great Jaina sects. Geography of Jainism. Asceticism and cult. Literary and scientific culture of the Jains. The recent Svetämbara Congress in Rajputana (1903) and at Bombay (1904). JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1690 C. F. OLDHAM-The Sun and the Serpent. London, 1905. Pp. 172-181. Both Buddhist and Jain systems closely connected with the Sun and the Serpent. Each of these forms of religion arose or found their chief supporters, amongst Solar tribes who had come but little under Brahmanical influence. The Purana version that Buddhism and Jainism originated amongst the Asuras-OriginLegend ancient, as later sects of white-robed Jains not mentioned. Jain devotees called rati-Term siddha for the deified ascetics-Jains in existence before Buddha. All the twenty-four Tirthankaras, or deified anchorities of the Jains, were Kshatriyas, and all but two were of the Solar race of Ikṣvāku-Close connection as such with the Sun and the Serpent. The last of the Tirthankaras was Vardhamana or Mahavira who was a contemporary of Sakya Buddha. He was related by marriage to Bimbisära, Raja of Magadha. By permission of his elder brother, Vardhamana became an ascetic; he went naked; after twelve years he became a Jina or Tirthankara; after his death, he became a Siddha-Pärśa, who preceded Mahävira, was a son of the Raja of Benares. He is represented with the hoods of a seven-headed Naga expanded over his head-Sculptured representations of Naga at Jaina temples. 1691 F. R. HORRNLE-Origine at premiers developments du Jainisme-Translated from English by A. GUERINOT. (Museon, Nouvelle Serie, Vol. VII, Pp. 109-134). Louvain, 1906. Page #434 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1453 Translation of the memoir constituting the first part of "I" Annual Address of M. HOERNLE at the Asiatic Society of Bengal, in 1898 (to see the proceedings of that Society, 1898, Pp. 39-53). The text of M. HOERNLE is found still in the Calcutta Review. 1898, Pp. 315. 333 and that second edition contains some complementary pages dealing with the Jaina doctrines. 1692 S. Krishnaswami ArYANGAR--Self-Immolation which is not Sati, (IA, xxxv, 1906, Pp. 129-131). P. 129. There are numerous instances of Jains performing the act of Sallekhanā, i.e., death brought on by starvation. 1693 J. C. R. FORLONG--Faiths of Man ; A Cyclopaldia of Religions, 3 Vols. London, 1906. Vol. 2, P. 308. The Jains are followers of Mahāvira (or Vardhamāna) the contemporary of Gotama Buddha. They include Digambaras and Svetāmbaras. rati, ascetics, are naked and laity (Śrāvakas or "discipl s") are clothed. The Jain scriptures include 45 agamas in Jain dialect. They aim at nirvana (Encyclop. Brit.). 1694 J. KENNEDY—The Child Krishna, Christianity, and the Gujaras. (JRAS, 1907; Pp. 951-991). P. 975. Jain traditions to represent the oldest form of the Krishna legend. P. 976. Mathura, originally a capital of the Surasenas, was afterwards entirely Buddbiest and Jain. 1695 D. T. SUZUKI--Outlines of Mahāyāna Buddhism. London, 1907. P. 8. The Hinayānists and the tirthakas were sweepingly condemned by the Mahāyānists as inadequate to achieve an universal salvation of sentient beings. Page #435 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1454 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1696 P. DEUSSEN - Allgemeine Geshichte der Philosaphie mit besonderer Berucksichtrgung der Religionen-1. Band. III, Abteilung: Die nachwedische Philosophie der Inder. Leipzig, 1908. Pp. 116-118. General characteristic of Jainism and of Buddhism, Pp, 118-120. The Jainism. Its place in India on the side of the Brahmanism. Its adepts. The analogies between Buddhism and Jainism.-Life of Mahāvíra. The Śvetāmbaras and the Digambaras. Principle of Jainism. Conception of the Nirvāna. The Triratna. Pp. 231-258. Translation of the chapter III of the "Sarv 1-daśana samgraha' of Mādhavāchārya (philosophical system of the Arhatas or Jainas). 1697 Richard SCHMIDT--- Fakire and Fakirtum im Alten und Modernen Indien. (Monk and Monkhood in ancient and Modern India). Berlin, 1908. Pp. 38-42. Hemachandra and Kumārapāla. 1698 A. De GUBERNATIS-Le Bouddhisme en Occident avant et apres le Christianisme, (Rivista degli Studi Orientali, Vol. II, Pp. 167 230). Rome, 1908-1909. Pp. 175-180. Buddhism, Brahmanism and Jainism. Morals of the Jainis. Chronological relation between Buddhism and Jainism : 'One can suppose that the Jainas have been the predecessors of Buddhism in its relation with Brahmanism'. General characteristics of the History of Jainism. 1699 The Convention of Religions in India. (Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India, Almora. xiv, 1909, Pp. 90-94, 110-114, 130-134, 150-154, 169-174, 190-193, 207-210, 231-234). Pp. 132-133. Jainism (Švetāmbari) By Muni Maharaj of Benares. In this thesis are stated the fundamental doctrines of Jainism. 1700 A. GUERINON - Religion Jains. (JA, 10th Ser. V. xiv, 1909, Pp. 547-549). The article is a summary of a paper meant for the Švetāmbara Conference at Baroda. It gives a brief outline of the religion of Jainism. Page #436 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1701 Mrs. RHYS DAVIS-Psalms of the Early Buddhists. London, 1909-13. I. Pp. 57-58. Psalms of Five Verse ascribed to Nanduttara, daughter of a Brahmin of Kammassa damma, ex-Jain, pupil of Great Moggallana. I, Pp. 63-68. Bhadda 'Kundalakesà', ex-Jain, daughter of a setthi of Rajagaha, wife of a Brahman thief, foremost of the sisters who had swift intuition. II, P. 30. The Jain leader Nätaputta teaches a dilemma to Abhaya. II, P. 83. Contact of Ajjuna with the Jains and his entrance into their order. 1702 Th. ZACHARIAE-Vertia; eine Bezeichung der Jainas. (Vienna Oriental Journal, xxxiv, 1910, Pp. 337-344). The article deals with Jaina notation, among others. 1703 A. GUERINOT-Religion Jaina. (JA, 10th Serv. V. xv, 1910, Pp. 377-378). Tenets of Jaina religion-Its mythology and the ethical background. 1455 1704 Mrs. S. STEVENSON-Notes in modern Jainism: with special reference to the Svetambara, Digambara and Sthanakavāsi sects. Oxford, 1910, The distinctive characteristics of the three sects have been discussed with reference to modern practices. 1705 K. V. Subrahmanya AIYAR-Origin and decline of Buddhism and Jainism in Southern India. (IA, xl, 1911, Pp. 209-218). Buddhism known to the Pandya country a few centuries prior to Aśoka-In the 1st century A.D. it gradually spread throughout Southern India-Jainism also. dated back to the same period-Jains put a permanent barrier to the growth of Buddhism in the 7th and 8th cent.-The rise of the Saiva saints effected removal from Southern India of the two religions in the course of a few years after the Page #437 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1456 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 9th century A.D.- Jainism continued for three more centuries in Mysore and was stamped-out by the Lingāyat rising and the advent of Rāmānuja in the 12th century A.D. (See No. 390). 1706 Louis De La VALLEE POUSSIN--The Stance Fain et Bouddhique. (One stanza of Jainism and Buddhism). (JA, 10th Ser. xvii, 1911, Pp. 323-325). The article in French contains a brief account of the religions of Jainism and Buddhism, 1707 E. W. THOMPSON—Religion in the Mysore State. (Q.J.M.S. i, 1911, Pp. 126-145). P. 139. The Jains more numerous and powerful in the Southern than the Buddhists. They came for purposes of trade or for Government administration. The Jain writers created the earliest Kanarese literature-Names of Jain Prime Ministers and Generals in Mysore known from inscriptions but the religion confined equally to small and exclusive class. It never spread outside the capital cities. All the remains of Jain temples known are in cities that were capitals or sub-capitals of provinces. 1708 T. A. GOPINATHA RAO-A Note an the "Origin and Decline of Buddhism and Jainism in Southern India". (IA. xlii, 1993, Pp. 307-308). A criticism on Mr. K. V. Subrahmanya Aivar's paper “The Origin and Decline of Buddhism and Jainism in Southern India" published in the "Indian Antiquary”, xl, 1911, Pp. 209-218, (see-No. 379). 1709 R. G. BHANDARKAR-Vaisnavism, Saivism and Minor Religious systems, Strassburg, 1913. P. 2. The rise of a New Theistic System— Tide of free speculations culminated in the east into such systems as those of Buddhism and Jainism. Pp. 8-9. The Satvats and their Religion --Siddhārtha and Mahāvira belonged to the sākya and Jñātrika races of Kșatriyas, and Buddhism and Jainism, might be considered to be the religions of these tribes. Page #438 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1457 Vasudeva Krisna worship owes its origin to the stream of thought which began with the Upanisada and culmninated in the east in Buddhism and Jainism. 1710 Tukaram Krishna LADDU-Address at the Tenth Anniversary, the Syadvada Jain Mahavidyalaya, Benaras. Benares, 1914. Early History of Jainism-Principles of Jainism-Conclusion. 1711 Hermann JACOBI-Some Aspects of Jainism. (Journ. Maha-bodhi Soc., Calcutta, xxii, 1914, Pp. 83-90). Like Buddhism Jainism is originally and pricipally a monastic religion and it is entirely dependent on Buddhism-Internal evidence-Ethics of the Jains-The Jain Belief-The Jain Literature. 1712 Mrs. Sinclair STEVENSON-The Heart of Jainism. Oxford, 1915. Introduction-Historical Summary-The Life of Mahavira-Mahavira's Predecessors and Disciples-History of the Jain Community-Introduction of Jain Philosophy-The Nine Categories of Fundamental Truths-Karma and the Path to liberation The Life Story of a Jain-The Jain Layman and his Religious LifeThe Jain Ascetic-The end of the road-Jain worship and religious customs-Jain mytholoay-Jain architecture and literature-The empty heart of JainismAppendix. A. Jainsime GUERINOT-Jainisme (JA, 11th ser., v, 1915, Pp. 371-375). The small article; in French, gives a short outline of the Jain religion. 1713 Herbert WARREN-Jainism in Western Garb, as a Solution to Life's Great Problems. Chiefly from notes of talks and lectures by Virchand R. GANDHI. Second Edition, Arrah (India), 1916. Introduction-The Universe--Man as he actually is-Man as he may become-Means to the end-Recapitulation. Page #439 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1458 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1714 A. B. KEITH-M. Reinach's Theory of Sacrifice. (JRAS, 1916, Pp. 542-555). P. 552. The source or origin of the nude statues of the Tirthankaras from the archaic type of "Apollo" which flourished in Greece from the middle of the 6th century B.C. A discussion on the above theory. 1715 Jain Ahimsa. (Mar, July-Dec., 1916, Pp. 385-387). Non-injury to life, the essence of Jain religion thought not exclusively its own principle. 1716 Jagamanderlal JAINI-Outlines of Jainism, with a preliminary note by F. W. Thomas. (Index by H. Warren). Cambridge, 1916. The work in different chapters devoted to subjects like Religion, ethics, metaphysics etc., describes Jainism in broad outline-The original texts (Pt. 2). 1717 S. C. GHOSAL-Davva-Samgaha (Dravya-Samgraha) of Nemichandra SiddhāntaChakravarti with a commentary by Brahma-deva. Arrah, 1917. with Pp. L 123 103 Li-L xxxiii. With 9 plates and 5 charts. (Text edited translation. Notes and an original commentary in English). The introduction deals with the Ganga dynasty, Chāmundarāya, Śravana Belgola, Gommațeśvara, Bāhuvali, Nemichandra-the author, the sources of the story, subject-matter of the book and Brahmadeva's commentary, Contents :--The Dravyas (substances)--Jiva and ajiva; connection of Jiva with Karmas ; Gunasthanas (stages), märgaņās (states), Pudgala, Dharma (medium of motion), Adharma (medium of rest), Akaša (space), Kala (time), Pradeśa (space occupied by one particle), Asrava (influx), Bandha (Bondage), Samvara (check), Nirjarā (Destruction), Pun ya and Papa (weal and woe), Moksa (liberation), Jñana (cognition), Samāropa (fallacies), Caritra (conduct), Dhyāna (meditation), Arhat-Siddha- Ācārya-Upādhyaya-sadhu. Puran Chandra NAHAR and Krishna Chandra Ghosh-An Eptome of Jainism, being a Critical Study of its Metaphysics, Ethics and History etc., in Relation to Modern Thought. Calcutta, 1917. Page #440 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1459 Introduction-Jainism-Its Philosophy and Religion-Predicaments by Preeminence Knowledge and its forms-Epistemology and Logic-Pratyakça is really Parokṣa-The Jain Theory of Formal Logic-The Jain Logic and the "Nayas"The doctrine of Syådvad-Sankara and Syadvad-Examination of Sankara-The Doctrine of Unity in Difference-The Universe as a self--Existent Unit-Theories of Evolution-The Sänkhya Poilosophy-Causation and Compound Evolution-GodSoul-The Karma Phenomenology-Churchianity and the Low of Karma-Belief in Rebirth-Rebirth and Karma-Sartra-Karma-Sartra and Oudarika-Sarira-Freewill and Fatalism-Will and Individuality-Causality in the Moral World-Classification of Karmas-From Metaphysics to Ethics-The Conceptions of Virtue and Vice-On Punya and its Fruitions-Papa, vice or sin-Asrava or Influx-Bandha or Bondage-Samvara or Stoppage-Nirjara or Dissipation -Mokia or EmancipationGunasthänes-Jain Church-Jain Festivals-Jain Places of Pilgrimage-Jain Literature-Jain Art and Architecture-Appendices. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY James A., MONTGOMERY-Religions of the Past and Present. Philadelphia and London, 1918. 1718 Pp. 135-160. Buddhism with an addendum on Jainism. By Franklin EDGERTON. 1919. Banarsi Lal GARR-Samyayikia; or, A Way to Equanimity. Arrah (India), 1918, Its Origin-Its Meaning and Object-Dissensions of the subject from the ideal or internal (Niichai) point of view-A succinct account of Avaśyaka Sutra Dosas (blemishes to be avoided)-The Texts-How to perform Sämäyika-Appendix (A): Eleven Pratimas, (B): Twelve Vows. 1719 1720 C. R. JAIN-What is Jainism-Third Edition, Revised. Arrah (India), 1919. Jainism-Its ethics. Philosophical background-Its mythology and ritual. 1721 C. R. JAIN-The Key of Knowledge. Second Edition, Revised. Arrah (India), Page #441 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1460 JAINA BIBLIOCRAPHY Preface-The Ideal - Creatian-God - The fall Redemption-- The Kingdom of God--Yoga-Resurrection--The holy Trinity-The Siddhānta--The coming of the Messiah-Reincarnation - In the Footsteps of Gods-Reconciliation-Summary and Conclusion--Appendix-Glossary of Non-English Words and Phrases etc. 1722 (JPASB, B. C. Law-Influence of the five heretical teachers on Jainism and Buddhism. xv, 1919, Pp. 123--136). An attempt to make an extensive research with regard to the influence of the doctrines of the five heretical teachers on the development of Jainism and Buddhism. 1723 N. RAMANUJASWAMI— Who is a Hindu ? Madras, 1919. Pp. 29-31, Jainis and Sikhs are Hindus but Buddhists are not-Characteristics of Jainism-Jains consider themselves to be Hindus, and are governed by Hindu secular or Civil jurisprudence. 1724 A. G. WIDGERY-Salvation and Redemption for Sin and Suffering as taught by some Oriental Religions. (QJMS, ix, 1919, Pp. 102-110). P. 107. Salvation, according to the Jains, revealed to men especially by the twentyfour great Tirthankaras, It appears to the Jains that one may obtain redemption from suffering. 1725 H. WARREN-Jainism not Atheism ; And the Six Dravyas of Jain Philosophy. Second Edition. Arrah (India), 1920. An attempt to establish Jainism as not atheistic absolutely-An account of the six dravyas or reals of the Jains. 1726 C. R. JAN--- Selections from 'Atma-Dharma' of Brahmachari Sital Prasadji. Allahabad, 1920, Page #442 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1461 1727 P. C. BAGGHI- Animistic elements of Jainism. (Proc., Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, xvii, 1921, P. ccxlvii). The ethical background of non-injury in Jainism is discussed in this paper with reference to original texts—The historical beginnings-Elements in Jain philosophy in Jain mythology and ritual. 1728 Sir Charls ELIoT-Hinduism and Buddhism : An Historical Sketch. Vol. I. London, 1921. Pp. 105-123. The Jains-Their relation to Buddhism etc. 1729 P. C. Bacchi— Primitive Elements of Jainism. (JDL, v, 1921, Pp. 349-364). Introductory- Philosophy-Religious Rites and Superstitions-MythologyConclusion and Probabilities. 1730 K. G. Sankara–Tolkapya’s Religion. (QJMS, xi, 1921, Pp. 289-290). The earliest Tamil grammarian Tolkapya was a Jain house-holder ; Tolkapya may have been a Brahmana before he became a Jain. Mr. SUBRAMANIAN shows that Tolkapya was a Brahmana and was never a Jain. 1731 B. K. GOSWAMI SASTRI -The Bhakti Cult in Ancient India. Calcutta, 1922. Pp. 55-56. Jains were the first to open the attack upon orthodoxy of the Vedas and its functional injunctions. Pp. 58-59. Metaphysical doctrines adopted by Jains. P. 62. Buddhists and Jains introduced the worship of human Saints (Siddhapuruṣa) and the Tirthankaras as embodiments of pure life, as a culmination of their creed of respect for life. These heretic schools laid the foundation of the cult of personal devotion which was to play at subsequent period in the Pāśupata and Vaisnava creed. Page #443 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1462 P. 63. The scrupulous and pious reverence for all life-the essential creed of the heretic Buddhists and the Jains considerably helped the evolution of the Satwata Philosophy of 'all life' in latter times, P. 63. Jainism and Buddhism naturally at once captured the imagination of the masses when they began to preach 'no murder' as their religious ideal. P. 63. The Jains and the Buddhas thoroughly exposed the claims of Vedicism to an inspired divine origin by their remorseless logic, P. 97. Even the complete original work Bhagavata underwent several modifications as will appear from internal evidence from references in the work of Buddhism and Jainism. 1732 C. Hayavadana RAO-Primitive Religion in Mysore. Q. J. Mythisociety, Vol. xll, No. 2, Bangalore, 1922. P. 154. Out of the Jain temple of Padmavathi at Humcha is growing a sacred tree called Lakke Gida, said to be the same that Jinadatta (the founder of Humcha), tied his horse to as described in the account of that place. 1733 N. C. BANERJEE-Religion and Belief in the Arthakastra. (A.L.O.C., Session II; 1922). P. 472. Aparajita, Aprahpata, Jayanta and Vaijayanta occur. Also these names are found in the Jain Uttaradhyayana Sutra. 1734 M. GнOSH-The Religion of Asoka. (A.I.O.C., Session II, 1922). P. 555. Early in the 3rd century 8.c. the Ajivikas or Trairäsikas definitely and finally separated to form a separate order and came to be known as Digambaras... Abhidana Ratnamāla (ii, 189, 190) the Digambaras are also known as the Ajivas... Difference between Digambara and Svetämbar discussed in brief... P. 556. By the time of Asoka they were two different sects of Jainas. Acute antogonism arose in the time of Bhadrabahu... Magasthenes mentions a class of mendicants who took food from hand. ...The Ajivikas are the same as the Digambaras of the present day. The word Deva here (Rock Edict. IX) only refers Page #444 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1463 to Jaina deity to whom he professed allegiance up to his 29th year and most likely this was the state religion of the Mauryas... probably Asoka after his 9th year became a staunch Jaina and made Jainism his state religion. In the 8th Edict he speaks of going out on tour well-enlightened. This shows that after the tenth year he became a follower of Jaina sect of Ājivika. 1735 John MCKENZIE-Hindu Ethics (The Religious Quest of India). London, 1922. Chapter II. Buddhist and Jain Ethics, and Egoistic Hedonism : Pp. 109-115. Jains are a religious community with a distinct origin and history; Mahavira-little known of his life ; title of Jina correspondens to that of Buddha ; means Conqueror. Jainism much nearer to Hinduism than to Buddhism. In Jain teaching, features suggestive of Buddhism-destruction of Karma; Jain conception of Nirvana different from the Buddhist Nirvāṇa, not the annihilation of the soul, but its deliverance and its entry into a blessedness that has no end (Barth, Religions of India, P. 147). Qualities of a Siddha (one who has attained deliverance). The way to the attainment of Siddha-hood : Triratna or Three jewels vows of the laymen and ascetic. Principles of ahimsa-Jain more rigorous than Buddhist. Gautama died of a disease caused by eating pork. Preservation of life. Pinjra Pols or hospitals for animals, outcome of the doctrine. Belief in transmigration and hell. Ahimsa-its development. The Digambaras and the Svetāmbaras. 1736 Th. STCHERBATSKY-The Central Conception of Buddhism and the meaning of the word "Dharma". London, 1923. Pp. 34, 49. (n. 2). Karma and Jainism. P. 68. Jainism existing before Mahāvira. P. 70. Soul with reference to Jainism and other schools of philosophy. P. 73. 8th cent. B.C., the period of pre-Jainistic Jainism, 1737 T. A. Gopinatha RAOOn the History of Sri-Vaisav nas. (Sir Subrahmanya Ayyar Lectures, 1917). Madras, 1923. Page #445 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1464 P. 11. Bittideva's conversion to Sri-Vaisnavism. P. 12. Images of Narayana set up in Jain temples converted into places of Vaisnava worship. Pp. 35-36. Conversion to Vaishnavism of the Jain king Biṭṭideva Account given in the Sthalapurana-Date of the royal conversion by Ramanuja, sometime before 1021 Šaka (A.D. 1099). P. 38. Kulottunga I's grant to Saiva, Vaisņva and Jain temples alike. 1738 R. Rama RAO-Origin and Development of Siva-worship with Special Reference to Virasaivism. (QJMS, xiv, 1924, Pp. 282-301). Basava-His birth and early life-His rise to power under king Bijjala-His missionary zeal. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1739 O. PERTOLD-The idea of God in Jainism and Buddhism: Observed from the point of view of the comperative Science of Religions. (Proceedings of the Tenth Indian Science Congress, Pp. 241-242). Calcutta, 1924. The idea of god in Jainism. 1740 Jinneswar Prasad JAIN (Mail Delhvi)-Husn-i-Avval (or, First Beauty), an Original Work on Jainism. (In Urdu). Arrah (no date), Pp. 1-178. The work is a discourse on Jain philosophy and religious doctrines. 1741 H. JACOBI-Der Jainismus (Jainism) (Archiv fur Religion surissenhaft, xiii, 4.). The short article in German gives a succint account of Jainism. 1742 J. GR. FORLONG-A Student's Synchronological chart of the Religions of the World, Accompaniment to Rivers of Life or Faiths of Man in all Lands. Edinburg (No date). Page #446 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1465 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Jain preceptor, 24-Tirthankaras (700 .c.-600 B.C.). Jain Kalpa Sutra written; part of Sutras or Jain Bible (500 B.C.-400 B.C.). Jain images naked. Buddha called Jain Esa. Jain faith in full vigour (100 A.D.-200 A.D.). Siladitya of Balabhi protects Jains. Jain priest-Jain Śiva. Jainism revived under Amogavarsa, king of Konjeveram. Jain temples of Satruñjaya and Palitana, that of Somnat destroyed by Mamud (1025 A.D.) at Abu of Vimalasa (1032 A.D.). That of sad rebuilt by Kamboo Rana of Oodayapur. Jain Tower, Chitore, built by Kamboo Rana (1439 A.D.). KANNOOMAL-The Study of Jainism, Agra. It contains a summary of the Jain philosophy (dharma) and religion based on the Tattwadaria of Atmaramji. There are chapters in it dealing with the Tirthankaras, the ideal of a Jain sadhu and the ideal of a Jain householder. 1744 Helmuth V. GLASENAPP-Der Jainismus Eine indische Erlosungsreligion. (The Jainism, An Indian Religion of Salvation). Berlin, 1925, Contents: 1743 Foreword, Pronounciation of Indian words First Part. Introduction. Second Part. History. Preliminary notes. I. The Tirthankaras. (1) Original history. (2) Päriva. (3) Mahavira. II. The oldest community. (1) Mahavira's successors. (2) The Jainism in Bihar. (3) Jainism in Orissa. (4) The great schism. III. Spreading and flourishing. (1) Jainism in North India. (2) The Jainism in Gujrat. (3) Jainism in the Dekhan. (4) Jainism in South India. IV. The decline. (1) The retreat before the Hinduism. (2) The Jains under Islamic rule. Page #447 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1466 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY (3) The Jains in the Hindu Kingdoms. (4) Reformatory movement. IV. The present time. Third Part. Literature. Preliminary notes. I. The canonical literature : (1) Origin of the canon. (2) Canon of the Svetāmbaras. (3) Canon of the Digambaras: (a) The lost ancient canon. (6) The modern secondary canon. II. The non-canonical Literature : (1) Theological and scientific lit. (2) Novels and poetry. (3) Drama. (4) Miscellaneous. III. The inscriptions. Fourth Part-Doctrine. Preliminary notes. A. Empirism. Doctrine of cognition. 1. The sources of cognition, 2. Ontology and dialectics. 3. The truth and the tradition. B. Metaphysics. 1. Fundamental truth. 2. The substances : (i) Jiva, the soul, (ii) Ajiva, the unspiritual. 3. Karma. 4. The soul under the influence of the Karma. I. Physical life of the incarnated souls : (a) The bodies and their organs. (b) The functions of the body. (c) Sexual relations, (d) Birth and death. Page #448 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY II. The Psychic life of the incarnated souls. (a) The activity. (b) Ability of recognition. (c) The faith. (d) The manner of life. (e) The type of souls (Leshya). (f) The state of the soul. C. Ethics. I. Theoritical fundamentals of the ethics. (a) Suffering and possibility of salvation. (b) The reasons of Karma. (c) The way to salvation. (d) The 14 Gunasthānas. II. The practical ethics : (a) Merits and guilt. (b) The ethical orders: (i) The duties of the laymen (ii) The duties of the ascetics. (c) Means to defence against karma. (d) means to destory karma. III. Salvation D. Cosmology. I. Evidences against existence of god. II. Form and size of the world—all. III. The inhabitants of the world-all. IV. Description of the world: 1. The central world. 2. The lower world. 3. The world of the gods. 4. The dwelling places of the blessed, of the departed. 1467 Page #449 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1468 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY E. World history and Hagiography I. Fundamental ideas: 1. The periods and the ages. 2. The 63 great men :(a) The 24-Tirthankaras. (b) The 12-Cakravartins. (c) 9.Vasudevas, and 9-Prativasudevas. II. History of Bharat and of his great men. 1. Preliminary notes. The 9-Baladevas, 1. Ages, Saints and Heroes of the present period. (a) Sushamā sushamā, (b) Sushamā, (c) Sushamā-dushamā, (d) Dushamā-sushamā, (e) Dushamā, (f) Dushamā-dushamā. 3. The future period and its saints. Final remarks. Second Part-Society. I. The fundamentals of Society. 1. Jainism a world religion. 2. Castes. 3. State and right. II. Clerical and lay people, 1. State of the community. 2. Laymen. 3. Monks and nuns. III. The sects. 1. The schisms of old days. 2. The sects of later periods, (a) Śwetāmbaras, (b) Digambaras, Sixth Part-Worship. A. General part. I. Preliminaries and subject of Jain-worship. II. Forms of devotion. 1. Prayer, hymns, mantras. 2. Meditation 3. Postures and bodily exercises. Page #450 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1469 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 4. Confession and penance. 5. Renunciation and mortification. 6. Yoga. III. Cure of souls, Practical religion. IV. Adoration of images. (1) Holy symbols. (2) Images. V. Places of worship. VI. Magic and mantric. B. Special part. I. The rites of laymen. 1. Daily rites. 2. Rites of special occasion. II. Rites of the ascetics. 1. Daily rites 2. Special. III. Ritual of the temple. 1. Daily 2. Spcial. IV. Festivals. V. Sancturies and pilgrimages. Seventh Part.Conclusion, I. The position of Jainism in the history of religions. II. Jainism and Indian religions. (1) Jainism and Hinduism. (2) Jainism and Buddhism. III. Jainism and the non-Indian religions. Notes. Bibliography. Notes to the illustrations. Index. Page #451 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1470 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1745 J. JAINI-A Review of the Heart of Jainism of Stevenson, Ambala, 1925. P. 1. Every Jaina book opens with a Mangalācharaṇa to the omnicient, perfect, Liberated soul. P. 2. 23rd Tirthankara attained liberation in 776 B.C. P. 4. Jainism 'a theological means between Brahmanism and Buddhism' (Prof. HOPKINS). Absence of hurry excitement in Jainism is a condition of its longivity. P.5. Atheisticism of Jainism discussed. P. 7. Tirthankara--simply means a Jaina Arhat. Nirvanan-absolute extinction of all desires and passions--No soul loses individuality in Jainism, Moksha---liberation of soul from the bondage of Karmic matter, P. 9. Jaina saints renounce the world not for pretty fears of it but for the joy and impulsion of the inner call of the soul. P. 12. Mahāvīra and Pārsvanātha-historical personalities. Chandra Gupta and Śreņika were Jains. P. 13. Svetām baras and Digambaras --explained. P. 15. Existence of Jains in the south before Bhadrabāhu's pilgrimage to that country. P. 16. Different kinds of death--given in gāthās of "Karma Kānda' of Gom. malasāra by Sri Nemichandra Siddhānta Chakravarti (C, 1000 A.D.). P. 19. Pārsvanātha born in 876 B.C. P. 20. Rishabhadeva taught His own daughters writing-mentioned in AdiPurāņa. P. 23. Saptabhangi--The soul of Syadvada or the Logic of many points of view. P. 29. The Digambaras do not include Punya under Asrava. P. 32. In Jainism all sin is wrong whether it is secret or aggressive, gross or light. Page #452 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 44. The Jain ideal is to evolve the utmost powers of the soul. 1746 Jagmanderlal JAINI-A review of the Heart of Jainism by Mrs. Sinclair Ambala city, 1925. Stevenson. A critical review of Mrs. Stevenson's book, pointing out its errors and misjudgments. JAINI, Rickhab Dass. An Insight in Jainism. Meerut. 1471 Characteristics of Jainism-Jain cosmology, tea and Ajiva-the karma Jiva Theory-Jaina conception of Dharma-Jainism is not Atheism-Ahinsa. 1747 William CROOKE-Religion and Folklore of Northern India. Oxford, 1926. P. 34. Use of Swastika among Jains used on shaven heads of children on marriage-day in Gujrat and in place of dieties-their significance. A father's rites to his new born child, as prevalent among the Jain of the Dharwar district. P. 243. Fertility charms as prevalent among the Dhundia sect of Jains in Gujrat. P. 246. Marriage of a girl to a godling (Tirthankara) prevalent among Jains of Central Provinces. 277. Protection of a new born chiid, customs of Jains of Bombay. P. 287. Use of metal in cooking by Jain women. P. 305. Use of knots in majic among Jains. Pp. 327-8. Use of the broom, as prescribed for religious minded Jains. P. 349. Tenderness to animal life shown by Jains. 1748 A. GUERINOT-La Religion D. Jaina-Histoire Doctrine, Culte, Customs, Institutions. Paris, 1926. Pp. 1-VII & 1-351. History-Chapters I-X. Page #453 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1472 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Doctrine-Chapter 1-XIII. Cult, Custom & Institution-1-VI. Conclusion-Index, Plates 1-xxv, Table of matters, Errata. 1749 N. B. UTGIKAR-Some Notes on the Mokșa Dharma Section of the Santipurvan of the Mahābhārat. (A.1.O.C., Session IV ; 1926). P. 127. Adhyaya 18-a passage to show the widespread tendency of renouncing the world--found in Jainism... P. 131. Condition of things reflected in the epic, remarkably coincides with the conditions, which are generally recognised as prevailing at the time of the rise of Jainism. P. 131. The period in evolution of Indian life and civilization the period immediately preceding and following the birth of Jainism...formation of the epic-400 B.C. to 400 A.D. 1750 Rev. H. Heras--Asoka's Dharma and Religion. (AIOC, Session IV ; 1926). P. 123. A criticism of Asoka's Dharma. In this Dharma there is nothing exclusively Buddhist. It is something Common to all religions, though specially influenced by Jain doctrines as regards sacredness and inviolability of life. 1751 B. M. Barua-The Religion of Asoka. Calcutta. P. 9. Upāli a staunch follower of Jaina-his conversion to Buddhism but still liberal to the Jains. 1752 W. SCHUBRING-The Jainismus. Religionsgeschi-chtliches Lesebuch (Text Book of history of religion), Second Edition, Nr. 7. Tubingen, 1927. Page #454 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1473 Survey on the translated passages. Introduction. The Founders : Pārsvanātha-- Mahāvira-Life of the monastic order. Idea of the world : World and non-world-Fundamental facts—Places in the world all, atoms-souls. Life of the world : Chain of existences, Samsära. Consequence of deeds, karma---Intelligible type of soul, Leśya--Re-incarnation. Renunciation of the world : Way to salvation. Beginning of salvation--The liberated ones and their place. Index. 1753 G. GRIMM-The Doctrine of Buddha. Leipzig, 1927. P, 250. Mention of Upali a follower of Nigantha Nāthaputta holding a religious discourse with Buddha. 1754 Bertram C.A WINDLE--Religions, Past and Present. London, 1928. Pp. 73-4. The Jain Swastika Symbol--ils significance-the various forms of life, the three jewels, and complete liberation, Pp. 219-20. A survey of Jainism. 1755 C. R. Jain-The key of knowledge (Third Edition, Allahabad, 1928). Pp. xiiii, 788 cix. The key of knowledge makes a minute analysis of all the religions of the world with special reference to Jainism. Contents-(1) the idea; (2) Creation ; (3) God ; (4) The fall; (5) Redemption ; (6) The kingdom of God; (7) Yoga ; (8) Resurrection ; (9) The Holy Trinity ; (10) The siddhānta ; (11) The corning of the Messiah ; (12) Re-incar Page #455 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1474 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY nation; (13) In the footsteps of Gods; (14) Reconcilation; (15) Summary and conclusions; Appendices A, B & C. Glossary of non-English words; Bible. References; General Index. 1756 C. R. JAIN-The Practical Dharma. Allahabad, 1929. Pp. 1-4. Jain Tattvas viz. Ja, Ajwa, Asrava, Bandha, Sariwara, Nirjard and Moksha-mentioned and explained. Pp. 5-10. Nature of Karma-Karmana Santa (body of Karmic matter) i.e. of the Jain Siddhanta, Paramatman-discussed. Pp. 11-16. Asrava-the influx of matter into the constitution of soul-explained Pp. 17-27. Bandha (bondage) division into two classes Samprayika and try patha by Jaina-discussed. Pp. 28-43. Conception of Samvara (the stopping of asrava)-explained. Pp. 44-59. Philosphy of Nirjara (the gradual removal of Karmic matter)explained. Pp. 60-72. Moksha (the attainment of perfect freedom)-discussed. Pp. 73-80. 14 stages on the path to Nirvana-described. Pp. 81-98. Table showing Satta, bandha and udaya of Karma prakritis. Pp. 99-104. Dharma in practice elaborately-discussed. P. 105. Glossary of Jain terms. 1757 H. WARREN-Jainism-Not Atheism. Bijnor, 1929. P. 1. God described in Jainism not as the creator but an all-knowing and perfectly happy soul. Conception of God in Jaina theology-discussed. P. 2. Conception of soul in Jainism-discussed. Pp. 3-10. Jain Philosophy of God, Deity, soul and matter-fully discussed. Page #456 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 11-12. Conception of the world as the effect of intelligent and non-intelligent causes discussed and causes referred to. Pp. 13-14. Moksha in Jainism and five salient principles of virtuous conduct of Jina discussed. P. 15. Karma theory-explained. P. 17. Jainism acknowledges Deity and advocates worship but does not regard Deity as creator and ruler of the Universe, Pp. 18-24. Six kinds of substances (Dravyas) of Jain philosophy viz, Dharmāstikaya. Adharmastikaya, Akashästikäya, Pudgalāstikāya, Jivästikaya and Kala-fully explained. P. 25. 'Pradeshas' in Jain philosophy indivisible and inseparable parts of a substance. Guna-Paryaya-Guna means quality and Paryava means modificationexplained. Pp. 26-33. Conception of Natures and Jiva in Jainism--fully analysed. 1758 H. S. GOUR-The spirit of Buddhism. Calcutta, 1929. P. 50. Ajat Shatru embraced Jainism under the influence of Devdutt. P. 90. Similarity of Buddha images with Jain images--discussed. 1475 Gist of Mahavira's life and working. Jainism a distinctive religion to Buddhism. Pp. 420-423. Jainism-its denial of the authority of Vedas-word Jain derived from Jin-which means victor. Jagatprabhu, Kalan-Karm, Adish wars, Devadhideva, Tirthankara, and Jina titles given to the Jain Saints. Jains conception of soul in man and living creatures and that Nirvana as the goal attainable after self mortifications, differ with Buddhists conceptions. Differences of Jain and Buddhist doctrines fully discussed. Mahavira's preachings not a systematic philosophy but a sum of opinions on various subjects. Ethics-a corrollary and subordinate to the metaphysic of Mahavira. 1759 C. KRAUSE An Interpretation of Jain Ethics. Bhavnagar, 1929. A lecture on Jain ethics and ritual. Page #457 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1476 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1760 C. R. JAIN-Jainism, Christianity and science. Allahabad, 1930. A comparative study of Jainism and christianity and Jainism as a science of Salvation. 1761 C. CHAKRAVARTY--Antiquity of Tantricism. I.H.Q. Vol. VI. 1930. Pp. 124-125. Traces of Tantricism found in Jain Prakrit canonical works. Mahävira refers Sāya-vadins to have been sensualists in the Sthänånga sütra-The Uttaradhyayana sütra has reference to curative spells. The Sūtrakstānga mentions men who practise incantations (atharvani) and conjuring, the art to make one happy or miserable. 1762 M. DASGUPTA-Early Vişnvism and Nārāyaniya worship. I.H.Q, vol. VII. 1931. P. 97 (n) "Bhagavatism, like the religions of Mahāvīra and Buddha, was the expression of a natural reaction from the sacrifice ridden religion of Brahmanic period". 1763 C. R. JAIN--Ratna-Karanda-Srävakāchara (or the Householder's Dharma of Samantabhadracharya. Bijnor, 1931. Pp. xxii 99. (Introduction, text with English translation). Contents : Right Faith-Characteristics of right knowledge--necessity for the adoption of right conduct-Guna vratas-Sikşā vratas-Sallekhana--the pratimās. Appendix - Householder's life and yoga-samadhi. 1764 S. NARAIN-Buddhism. Calcutta, 1931. P. 19. Shankara's contention against the Jains -his preaching of Advaita in order to refute the doctrines of the Jains. Page #458 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1477 1765 Buddhist Esoterism. Hemphry Benoytosh BHATTACHARYA--- An Introduction to Mulford, 1932. P. 114. Buddhist mode of worship is entirely different from that of the Hindus or Jainas. The Jainas regard their images as remembrances ; by seeing the images of Tirthankaras they call to mind their doble lives excellent deeds, their lofty preachings, their high ideals, and to their memory they offer various articles of worship in token of reverences. P. 147. Buddhism and Jainism had to borrow some of these Hindu deities for their Pantheons. At the same time Buddhist Pantheon was commonly ransacked by Hinduism and Jainism in the later and more promiscuous Tantric age. 1766 A. N. UPADHYE-A Note on Nisidhi (Nisidiya of Khāravela inscription). (ABORI, vol. XIV; 1932-33) Pp. 264-266. 1767 P.S. DESHMUKH-The Origin and Development of Religion in Vedic Literature. Oxford, 1933. P. 349. Rise of Buddhism and Jainism was a check on Brahmanism. P. 350. The ritualistic spirit of Brahmanism which existed in India from the end of the Rigvedic period, continued to pervade and dominate, till the rise of the two rival religions (at least so they are called) Jainism and Buddhism. 1768 Mrs. RHYS DAVIDS- Indian Religion and Survival. London, 1934. P. 83. The effective power of Karma was more of a central doctrine for the Jains than it was for the Šakyans. 1769 Mrs. Rhys DAVIDS-Outlines of Buddhism. London, 1934. P. 43. Ascetic Practices-in vogue among the Jains was a new movement of a new movement of a religio ethical tendency located chiefly at Vesale teach Page #459 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1478 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY interalia the cancellation of the pleasant errors in ones past deeds (Karma) by tapas or voluntary bodily privations. P. 70. Doctrine of Karma of the Jains discussed. 1770 V. BHATTACHARYA-The Basic conception of Buddhism. Calcutta, 1934. P. 9. Mahāvīra the last Tirthankara of the Jains. 1771 N. MACNICOL-The Living Religions of the Indian People. London, 1934. P. 21. Jainism closely akin to Hinduism. Pp. 171-178. Jainism its history and General characteristics. Mahāvīra the chief exponent-Jainism and Buddhism movements of revolts against Brahman doctrine. Mahāvīra an elder contemporary of Buddha-a Kshatriya of the Jñāta or Jñātri clan. His Nirvāṇa in 527 B.C. according to tradition and 480 B.C. according to Prof. JECOBI. Jainism and Buddhism compared and contrasted. Mention of 5 rules of the Jains. Mention of Bhadrabāhu converting Chandragupta Maurya. Division of sects, Digambaras and Svetāmbaras discussed. Influence of Jainism in Mathura before the christian era. Notable splendour of Mt. Ābū temples--conversion of Hoyshala kings from Jainism to other faiths marked the decline of Jainism in the South. Jainism compared with Hinduism. Pp. 179-191. Jainism-its doctrines fully described. Pp. 191-197. Jainism-its discipline and ethics fully discussed. Pp. 198-202. Present position of the Jains-Jains a commercial community, Rajachandra Raojibhai a notable Jain of the present age of Kathiawar. Influence of Jainism over Mahatma Gandhi. 1772 MACMUNN--The Religious and Hidden cults of India. London, P. 45. Mahāvīra the Jina, contemporary of Gautma the Buddha. P. 46. Jainism compared with Buddhism. Page #460 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1479 P. 58. Plate--A Jain carving near Gingee (S. Arcot). an uprising against caste. Pp. 78-79. Jainism an offshoot of Brahmanism Jainism a midway between Buddhism and Hinduism. The Jain canons-framed at the council of Vallabhai in A.D. 454 Jains canons written in Ardha-Magadha Hemachandra Jain writer of the Life of Şixty Three great Men. Jains developing a special form of art. The temples of Mt. Abu famous throughout the world. Jain temples suffered less terribly than the Hindu in the clash with Islam. 1773 H. R. KAPADIA-Ethico-Religious classifications of Mankind as Embodied in the Jain canon. (ABORI, Vol. XV; 1934), Pp. 97-108. 1774 A. B. Keith-Pre-canonical Buddhism, (I.H.Q., Vol. XII. 1936). P. 13. The Jain and some pre-Vaiseșika system joined the materialists and began to assume indivisible atoms, whereas the Sāṁkhyas and some pre-Buddhistic philosophers decided for infinite divisibility. 1775 H. L. JAIN --What Jainism stands for ? (Jain Ant. Vol. II ; No. II ; Arrah ; 1936). Pp. 29–37, According to Jainism religion came in to keep peace on earth, promote good will amongst mankind and inspire hope of a higher life in the individual Jainism is the system of synthesis of all the so-called false belief-Syadvada-an elephant and seven blind men. In the Jaina system the principle is always kept in the forefront, and hence, religious toleration and fellowship is the essence of Jaina philosophy. The principle of Ahimsā or non-injury to living beings. Jainism does not prohibit a house-holder from committing these three kinds of Himsa which may be called accidental, occupational and protective. It is only the injury for injury's sake, for the merest pleasure or the fun of it without any thought and with out any obvious higher end to serve, that a house holder is recommended to guard himself against. Whenever the occasion arises, let him ask to hiniself the question. “Is it necessary for me to injure this being, and if so, what is the minimum amount of injury Page #461 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1480 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY that will serve the need ?" This much care and caution would save him from a lot of wanton destruction. Violence in words and violence in thought are also constituents of Himsa and one must abstain from these too. Jainism wants to make people gentlemen who have no tendency to do violence to any body. 'Parigraha parimana vrata' or the vow of setting a limit to the maximum wealth that one would possess. The aim of Jainism is to avoid as far as possible, undesirable clashes in life and consequent disharmony in society. This is a very quiet and peaceful attempt at economic equalisation of wealth. Karma Theory-every individual works out his own destiny by his own mental and physical exertions which, by themselves generate energies that bring to them agreeable or disagreeable experie nces. The Jainas worship Tirthankaras or those who made it easy for others to cross over the ocean of life. In Jainism, there is no place for the distinction of caste and creed. Jains believe in salvation of mankind and brotherhood among all men. 1776 B. Seshagiri RAO-New Studies in Jainism-Emotional Interpretation of the Jain Religious Ideal. (Jain Ant. vol. III; No. II; Arrah; 1937; Pp. 43-46). The emotional interpretation of Jaina ideal of moksha. These observations are based on stotras of various literary types like-Nama-japams. Prataḥsmaraniyas (early morning prayers). The ancient Jains adumbrate the heroic yogamarga for the realisation of "the freedom of the sould" from all limitations which is the only sukha or satsukha as moksha. 1777 Kamta Prasad JAIN-Jainism. (Ind. Cul. Vol. IV, 1937-38; Calcutta)-Miscellanea : Pp. 37-73. Its universality; Ahimsā, Syadvada, Nirvana. 1778 I. B. HORNER-The Book of the Discipline. London, 1938. P. viii. Jain orders of monks and nuns-contemporary of Buddhism. Page #462 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1481 P. xxiii. The Jains had precepts corresponding to the first the Parājika rules as did the common precursors of Jain and sākyan, the Sanjäsins or brahmin ascetics and recluses. P. xxix. Mention of Buddhist order attracting Jains. P. xxxviii. The term auso (senior ascetics) and bhamte (juniors) commonly used by Buddhists and Jains. P. liii. Somana Niganthā or niganthā nāma samanajalikā-followers of Mahāvira. P. liv (n). Jain tradition supporting Mahāvira's parents as having been the followers of śramanas. P. Lv. Probability of the words brahmacariya and brahmacarin taken over by Sākya (and Jainism) from Pro-Säkyan sects. 1779 V; No. I; Arrah; 1939, N, S. JUNANKAR-Future of Jainism. (Jain Ant. Vol. Pp. 9-20). Why has Jainism ceased to be a vital force in the national life. ? Historical retrospect: It challanged the divine authority of the Vedas and the infallibility of the priests who were the custodians of the divine world; it protested against the tyrrany of an all powerful God over human lives; it denounced the cult of ritual and sacrifice its whole teaching represented a democratic and egalitarian urges in the priest-ridden society. The 'clan vital of Jainism in its early Stages was supplied by its relevance to the specific needs of the age. The divorce of philosophy and religion from life and environment has produced moral and intellectual preversity. Challenge of science to religion : Science has proved that suffering is not inevitable, poverty unnecessary, squalor and unhappiness uncalled for. Present day need : A Jain university will be the beacon of national and social regeneration. Next to education in importance, is the provision of medical facilities. Shadow of unemployment ; the distinction of caste, creed or colour cannot have any place in any genuine Jaina creed. There must be fullest freedom for inter-marriage and inter-dining. Similarly, to revise our ideas of sanctity about sex and sexual relations. Page #463 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1482 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1780 B. Seshagiri RAO- New Studies in South Indian Jainism. (Jain Ant Arah). Vol. V ; No. IV ; 1940, Pp. 147-162. Sravana Belgola Culture --Śravaņa Belgoļa appears to be a centre of culture of śiksha and Diksha. It has a remantic history. Through the ages, it has continued to be a place of Memorial Tombs. In its undated archaic descriptions Belgola came to be called Śrīlitha'. Sallekhana' the fast unto death'-it is a special 'ideosyncracy' of Jainism. A similar cultural 'ideosyncracy' of Jainism is said to be Ahimsa. Vol. VI ; No. II ; Pp. 67-74. Ahimsa was a 'religion of strength', a religion of self-effort. It appealed to the general, common mind of the vast body of Andhra-Karnatakas will be clear from a few excerpts from the Sravaņa Belgola inscriptions. The culture of the spirit, chit and ananda in Jaina faith. Sallekhana, 'the fast unto dcath'-Sallekhana corresponds to Prayopaveśana, a rite of purification of body (deha) and the ego (dehi). Details of Sallekhanā of women given. The idea of the transience of riches, and their sanctification by utilising them towards acts of social usefulness and exaltation of the faith and commemoration of teachers in Jainism ; epigraphs cited. Spiritualisation of life on the conquest of desire, of sense, of sex-not only recommended to the ordinary householder, but even to the king, the general and the warrior. Vol. VII ; No. I ; 1941 ; Pp. 26-39. The cultural influence of Jainism in all ranks of society. Epigraphs cited. Sociological interest to modern times echoing from stone scripts. Religions catholicity. The elasticity of caste. Appendix I-Sravana Belgola culture. Authors and works. Appendix II-Names of some of the Poets who composed the Sravana Belgola Inscriptions. 1781 J.C. JAIN--Presidential Address. (Jainism Section of the First Convention of Religions, Calcutta, 1137). (Jain Ant. Vol. VI ; No. I ; Arrah ; 1940 ; Pp. 17-24). Page #464 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Definitions af religion according to different thinkers. Vedänta takes a monistic or idealistic view of life. Jainism and Samkhya philosophers take pluralistic or realistic view of it. Mahavir taught his tenents not in Sanskrit but in Ardhamagadhi, the vernacular of the masses. He treated all men and women equal without any distinction of caste or creed. In his assembly hall a compartment was allotted even to the animal. He laid emphasis on the theory of Karman, i.e., 'as a man has sown so shall he reap'. Theory of 'Anekäntaväda'-many sided view of a thing. Anekantarada propounds 'No judgment is true in itself and by itself Every judgement as a piece of concrete thinking is informed, conditioned to extent and constituted by the appercepient character of the mind.' Present-day needs of the world. International peace through religion comparative study of all religions. 1782 S. R. SHAAMA-Jainism and Karnataka culture. Dharwar, 1940. Pp. IV-XIX and 1-2-06. List List of Abbreviations, Errata, Introduction, Historical survey, contributions Literature, Art and Architecture, Idealism and Realism; Karnataka culture, Appendices, India. 1483 1783 N. DUTTA-Early monastic Buddhism. Calcutta, 1941. P. 2. The outland of Magadha became a fruitful field for the growth of Jainism, Ajivikism and Buddhism. P. 129. Mention of Dighatapassi. a Jain monk. P. 142 (n). Bimbisāra and Ajataśatru claimed as Jains in Jaina agamas. Ajätasattu a supporter of Devadatta. Mention of Abhayarajakumāra-a Jain expostulating Buddha for condemning Devadatta. Devadatta supposed to be a Jain-his conversion to Buddhism a year before Buddha's demise. P. 143. Mention of Buddha's failure to convince on the inefficacies of self mortification adhered to by a number of Jain monks on the side of Isigili Mountain at Kalasilā (Rajagaha) Upali's conviction as to the failure of Nigantha Nataputta's wrong in putting more stress on Kayakamma (-danda) than on monokammas while Abhayarajakumara failed to establish that Buddha was lacking in anukampa (compassion). Dighatapassi, the Jain monk though convinced like Upäli did not change his faith. Page #465 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 153. Dighatapassi, Upäli, Abhayarajakumara and Asibandhakaputt-gamani the Jain disputants with Buddha at Nalanda. Meeting of Mahavira with Gosāla at Nalanda mentioned in Bhagavati sutra. 1484 P. 159. Mention of Migara, the rich Setti of Savatthi, a staunch adherent of Nigantha Nataputta. P. 172. Influence of Nigantha Nätaputta over Sakyas over Sakyas before Buddha. Mention of Mahānāma a relation of Buddha towards Jainism. Dandpani of Devadaha a follower of Jainism. No mention of any Jain of Devedaha converted to Buddhism by Buddha. Vappa, a Šakyan Jain converted to Buddhism by Moggallana. P. 176. Influence of Jainism for 250 years over the Licchavis before the advent of Buddhism. Geneology of Mahavira traced. Saccaka, a Licchavi Jain, defeated by Buddha in religious dispute but not mentioned if he turned Abhaya and Panditakumaraka's enquiry of Ananda but the means of destruction of dukkha as pointed out by Buddha but dissatisfied with the answer. Siba, a military Jain official of the Licchavis--his conversion to Buddhism regarded as a great shock to Jainism in the Licchavis. 1784 P. C. DIVANJI-Origin of the Bhagavata and Jain Religions. (A paper read before All India Oriental Conference 22nd December, 1941)-(ABORI. SJV Vol. XXIII, 1917-42), Pp. 107-125 P. 115. III Jain Religion and its Origin. [vide-(1) On the Indian Sect of the Jainas-BÜHLER. (2) S.B.E. Vol. XII. Introd. by JACOBI-Pp. XIX-XXXVIII, (3) ERE Vol. II-Jainism by JACOBI-Pp. 465 66). For the purpose of the History of Religions, Jainism cannot be believed to have been started earlier than between B.C. 877 and 717 (see f.n. to this line)...... P. 117. Bhagavat Purana V. refers to Rşabhadeva as a great devotee of Viṣṇu and a great Yogi.... P. 120. The charge that the Jainas had made out their Puranic works from the Bhagavat sources on twisting the facts so as to suit their purpose must be dismissed as unfounded and that as regards certain matters of historical interest the Jaina works are more informative and reliable than the Bhagavat works. Dr. Ray CHAUDHARY has taken a note of his (Aristanemi) being a first cousin of Krisha in his Early History of the Vaisnavas but beyond that he has not Page #466 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1485 referred Jain works for more information...the word Aristanemi appears at least in the Santipath of the Mundak. Prašna, and Mandukya Upanishads of the Atharvaveda.... in Panini VI. 2. 100 there is reference to an Ariştaśritapuram (a city where Arista had taken up an abode)...It is significant that the Jain works contained detailed accounts of the lives of the first Tirthankar Rṣabhadeva & 22nd, 23rd and 24th Tirthankaras...Rṣabha is revered both by the Bhāgavatas and Jains.conclusion. The origin of the two religions cannot be placed (125) earlier than about .c. 3050 to 3000. The latest date arrived at by some is B.C. 1100. The said forigin cannot therefore have taken place later than between B.C. 1050 and 1000. Pp. 107-25. Earliest date is c. 3050 to 3000 B.c. and the latest c. 1100 B.C. and both are evolved from the Nivrtti-dharma. 1785 Ajit PRASAD-The contribution of Jainism to religious thought-Aryan Path, xlll, Malabar Hill, Bombay, 1942. Pp. 99-103. P. 436. Early Buddhist and Jain texts show that there were various kinds of ascetics wandering students. P. 437. Ahimsa-it is not certain whether Ahimsa sprang up under the Jains or they exploited some life-sparing tradition already there.. 1786 Sukumar SEN-Is the cult of Dharma a living Relic of Buddhism in Bengal? (B. C. LAW vol. Pt. I, Calcutta, 1945). P. 669. The cult of Dharma is the most primitive and native form of religious practice in Bengal. The eptreme austerities of the Gajan celebrations may indicate Jain or allied influence. 1787 Phani Bhusan Roy-Brahmanism and Jainism. (B. C. Law volume, Part I, Calcutta 1945), pp. 527-529. Pp. 527-529. Jainism a Pauruşeya and Brahmanism an Apauruşeya religionpauruşeya religions are proselytizing cults-Pauruşeya Jainism should be renamed as Vedic religion, i.e, the religion of Veda (truth). Page #467 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1486 1788 Miss I. B. HORNER-Early Buddhism and the taking of life. (B.C. Law volume, Part I. Calcutta, 1945). Pp. 436-37. Among the most famous of all the religious groups were the Jains, whose doctrines were already well developed by the time of the rise of Buddhism. In the sixth century B.C. the two greatest religious systems, Jainism and Buddhism made an indelible impression against the prevalence of practices which deprived creatures of life, whether the notion of akimua actually sprang up under the Jains or whether they exploited some life sparing tradition already there. we do not know, but the magnitude of the stress the Jains lay on doing anything so calamitous as taking life has an appearance of a protest against an existent and wide spread slaughter of creatures. P. 443. Jains ultra-scruplous in their avoidance of taking life; naked as cetics, called Ajivikas, were not strict vegetarians. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1789 A. P. KARMARKAR-The Linga cult in ancient India. (B. C. Law volume, Part I. Calcutta, 1945). Pp. 463-64. Linga and Yoni symbolise the generative and reproductive aspects of nature; ring-stones-a stone at Satruñjaya, the hole in it being is known as Muktadvāra (door of absolution), through which any one who can creep us assured of happiness; such dises can be regarded as cult objects comparable with the prehistoric ring-stones on the one hand and the cakras and the Yantras of the Saktas, the Visnupattas of the Vaisnvas and the Ayapatas of the Jains on the other. 1790 B. C. LAW-Jain Rules of Etiquette, (Jain Ant. vol. XI; No. II; Arrah; 1946 ; Pp. 10-14), The Jain rules of etiquette-the Jain rules of conduct contain also the rules of decorum. They are classified under such general heads as begging of food, drink and clothes, walking, modes of speech, entry into others possessions. postures, place of study and attending to the calls of nature. Each item explained. Page #468 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1791 Kamta Prasad JAIN-Catholicity of Jainism and reaction of other influence on it. (Jain Ant., vol. XIII, No. I), Arrah, 1957. Pp. 9 to 18. The characteristic feature of Jainism is its universal catholicity. 'caste' had no place of importance, in Jainism Literary as well as epigraphical evidences are there to prove the prevalence of catholicity in Jaina Samgha even century A.D. 1792 1487 SRINIVASACHARI, C. S.-Akbar's Eclecticism and Parliament of Religions. (BharataKaumudi, Part ii, Allahabad, 1947). The background of cultural and religious conditions that prevailed not only in India, but also in other countries like Persia and central Asia, exerted a definite influence on the thought and action of the Mughals. P. 996. Akbar said to have come under the influence of Jain scholars alsoaccording to Abul Fazl, Akbar was taught by the Jain Sadhu Hira Vijaya the righteousness of Ahimsa, 1793 SWAMI VIVEKANAND-Bhakti or Devotion. Mayavati, Almora, 1947. With the exception of the Buddhist and the Jain, perhaps all the religions of the world have the idea of a Personal God. The Buddhist and the Jains, although they have no Personal God; worship the founders of their religions in precisely they same way as others worship a Personal God. 1794 Kalipada MITRA-Jainism and the modern world. (Jain Ant. vol. XVI, No. 1). Arrah, 1950. Pp. 7 to 16. History has shown that Jainism can adapt itself to changed circumstances, can rise above stagnation by freeing itself from the bondage of the tangle of dogmas and can create kingdoms, The character of the United Nations Organisation offers indeed the solitary ray of hope in the prevailing gloom and human rights are in a way recognised. India in recent times has again and again declared her policy of working for peace-peace of the world which is perhaps beginning to sense that salvation lies in Ahimsa. Page #469 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1488 1795 Brahmachari, SITAL PRASADJI-Jainism a key to true Happiness. Jaipur, 1951. Pp. VII-133. True happiness; Soul, energy and fate, principles of Jainism; inflow and Bondage; etc... 1796 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY G. VENKAT RAO-Asoka's Dhamma (Dharma) (Publication and year nil). (Krishnaswami Aiyangar commemoration vol.). P. 261. Any tinge of Brahmanical or Jain influence that is discovered in it (Asoka's Dhamma) may be traced to Asoka's own Catholic outlook. 1797 Hiralal R. KAPADIA-A syllogism Pertaining to Ahimsa. (Jain. Ant., vol. XVIII, No. I), Arrah, 1952. Pp. 16 to 19. The doctrine of ahimsa has captured and enraptured the hearts of the Indians from the hoary antiquity. The great vow of ahimsa occupies the central place in Jainism, Dasaveyaliya, a canonical treatise of the Svetämbaras, sheds ample light on the conduct of the Jaina alergy. Dasavej aliya-nijjutti, ten parts of a syllogism with Sanskrit equivalents and with English rendering. 1798 Sashi Kanta JAIN-Some common elements in the Jain and Hindu Pantheons-1. Yakshas and Yakshinis (Jain, Ant., vol. XVIII, No. II). Arrah, 1952 Pp. 32 to 35 and vol. XIX, No. I, 1953, Pp. 21 to 23. Yakshas and Yakshinis are technically known as "Sasan devata" "Guardian deities'. Indra appoints one Yaksha and one one Yakshini to serve each Tirthankara as attendants. Their full representation in sculpture is found in the specimens of the Gupta period, and thereafter, the epoch which saw the expansion and elaboration of Brahmanic pantheon. The conceptions of the Yakshas are found mixed with those of such Brahmanic gods as Brahma Siva, Vishnu, Skanda, Indra, Varuna, Seshanaga, Yama, Kubera and such semi-divine beings as the Gandharvas and the Kinnaras and among the Yakshinis analogous representations may be traced with such Brahmanic Goddesses as the cosorts of Visņu, Brahma, Śiva, Kama, Yama, Varuna and Agni and the goddess Tară. Comparative study of the Jain Yaksa-Yaksiņis with Hindu gods. and goddesses made. Page #470 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1799 Edward CONZE-Bud hism its Essence and Developments. Oxford (2nd edi.) 1953. Pp. 61-62. About 500 B. C. two religions came to the fore in India which placed 'No Harming' into the very centre of their doctrine--the one being Jainism and the other Buddhism. This spiritual emphasis on the prohibition of doing harm to any living being was presumably a reaction against the increase in violence, which marked human relationships as a consequence of the inventions. of bronze and iron. It was directed in India not only against the massacres which marked tribal warfare, but also against the enormous slaughter of animals. which accompanied the Vedic sacrifice, and to some extent against the cruelty which marks the attitude of peasants to animals. The doctrine of Jains and Buddhists is based on two principles: 1489 (1) The belief in the kinship of everything that lives which is further strengthened by the doctrine of reincarnation, according to which the same being is today a man, tomorrow a rabit, after that a moth, and then again a horse, By illtreating an animal one might thus find oneself in the invidious position of ill-treating one's deceased mother or one's lost friend. (2) The second principle is expressed in the Udana, where the Buddha says: "My thought has wandered in all directions throughout the world. I have never yet met with anything that was dearer to anyone than his own self. Since to others, to each one for himself, the self is dear, therefore, let him who desires his own advantage not harm another". In other words, we should cultivate our emotions so that we feel with others as if they were oviselves. If we allow the virtue of compassion to grow in us, it will not occur to us to harm any one else, any more than one willingly harm ourselves. P. 92. The Buddhists, like the Jains, are taught to concentrate their attentions on the "Nine Apertures" from which filthy and repulsive substances flow unceasingly-the two eyes, the two ears, the two nostrils, the mouth, the urethra and the anus. P. 140. The a-theoretical attitude of the Madhyamikas had a striking parallel in the so-called Greek Sceptics. The founder of this school is Pyrrhon of Elis (C. 330 B.G.) Except for the stress on omniscience, his view of life corresponds in all its details closely to that of the Madhyamikas. Pyrrhon had no positive doctrines. To be his disciple meant to lead a kind of life similar to that of Pyrrhon. "He wanted to reveal to men the secret of happiness, by showing them that 'salvatian' can be found only in the peace of thought which is indifferent, a sensibility Page #471 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1490 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY which is extinct, a will which is obedient ; and further, that this quest requires an effort which is, on the part of the individual, an effort to die to himself." (L. ROBIN, Pyrrhon et le scepticisme grec, 1954, p. 24). P. 141. It is a fact that Pyrrhon founded his school immediately on his return from Asia, which, together with his teacher, Anaxarchos, he had visited in the train of Alexander's army. It has further been asserted by ROBIN, and other authorities, that the sceptic philosophy was something quite new to Greece, and that none of the preceding indegenous Greek developments led upto it. One can therefore, infer with some probability that Pyrrhon acquired his views in India or Iran. If he did not acquire them in Iran, the tenets of the Madhyamikas would have been present in India already by about 350 B.C. They were of course, not necessarily transmitted to Pyrrhon by Buddhist monks. It is perhaps more probable that he was in contact with the Digambara Jains, who, in the Greek accounts occur under the name 'gymnosophists', the naked ascetics. The Jains and Buddhists lived in close contact with each other, and the doctrine of each shows the influence of the other. It is, for instance, curious that the Jains have a list of twenty-four successive Tirthankaras (saviours), and that ancient Hmayana Buddhism knows a Itst of twenty-four predecessors of Shakyamuni. I believe that the Mahayan doctrine of Omniscience has also been profoundly influenced by the Jain views on that subject. As a matter of fact, a typical Jain doctrine is recorded among the sayings of Pyrrhon. He gave as his reason for writing no books that he was resolved to exert no pressure on any body's mind, The Jains, before him, had drawn, from their injunction. of 'inoffensiveness' the logical conclusion that one must not do violence to anyone by imposing one's views upon him. However that may be, if it is granted that Pyrrhon owed his basic ideas to his conversion by Indians, and if his philosophy is very similar to that of the Madhyamikas, then the Madhyamika doctrines, which are known to us only from writings certainly not older than about 100 B.C., must go back in their essentials to c. 353 B.c. i. e. to within 150 years of the Buddha's Nirvana. 1800 K. GURU DUTT-Review of Religions af Ancient India by Louis Renou. QJMS. Vol. 44, No. 4. 1953-54. Bangalore. P. 153. The Section on Jainism gives a sketch of "A religion of austere aspect, that might be described as Buddhism's darker reflection". The Jainas believe that there has been a progressive attention of the right knowledge and the inner history of Jainism shows the effort to retrace the path and recover the original sources of this knowledge. In its outward history it is a contrast to Buddhism which inspite of its spectacular origins and early imperial support, has faded out of India, whereas the Jaina Community has always been firmly established. Page #472 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1491 1801 R. C. AGRAWALA-Vaisnavits gleanings from the mediaeval inscriptions of Marwar. (Ind, Hist. Cong. 17th Sess. Ahmedabad), 1954. P. 164. The Nadol plates of Rajaputra Kirtipāla (E. I., IX, Pp. 67-8 dated v. s. 1218; testimony to harmonious relations existing between Jainas and the Brahmanas ; Brahma, Visnu and Siva famous as Jinas. 1802 H.J. Forman and R. GAMMON. Truth is one. New York, 1955. Pp. 106-115. 6. Jainism and Sikhism. Jainism, the creed that will not kill a gnat; A vital religion in India today, with millions of followers. Mahāvira, founder of Jainism ; Jina', a conqueror, who conquered himself. Born forty years before Buddha in 599 B.C. All Jaina mothers of great saints have annunciatory dreams. Trishalā dreamed of a white elephant, white bull, a bear, Lakshmi or Shri, a garland of flowers, white moon, sun, and seven other dreams, Tirthankara, a pilot to guide humanity across the troubled stream of life to the other shore. Mahāvira married Yashodā and had a daughter. He left home in 570 or 569 B.c. to escape life to liquidate the debts of Karma accumulated in past lives, achieve Nirvāṇa and end forever the ceaseless round of birth and death. The Digambara or sky-clad ones, wore no clothes at all, to show the uttermost poverty. In our own day tbat nakedness is somewhat modified. Mohandas K. Gandhi's loin cloth was a sop to modern convension from one at heart a Digambara. Possessions, attachments. are insperable obstacles to enlightenment. Life of Mahāvira ; his supreme knowledge, non-injury; Jainism a revolt against Brahmanism The five vows non-injury, truthfulness, no-stealing, chastity and non-attachment. M. K. Gandhi took vow before a Jaina sädhu that he would abstain from wine, meat and women. The twelve vows of a lay brother or sister. The Jaina idea of Karma is perhaps more concrete than it is in either Hinduism or Buddhism. Jaina teinples of India are among architectural glories. The Jains are the only religious body that tries to extirpate cruelty. Plates : Jaina temple of Calcutta-one of world's beautiful buildings ; Jaina colossus Gomateswara ; Mahāmastakabhisheka or great head-anointing ceremony ; Jain statue in the Sanghiji's temple of the 11th century near Jaipur. Page #473 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1492 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1803 Gustav Roth-The terminology of the Karana sequence in Ancient Digambara and Shvetambara Jaina Literature. (Proc, and Trans. AIOC, xviiith Session, 1955), Annamalainagar, 1958. Pp. 250-259. Karana i.e. ways in reaching the state of a Tirthakara be reached. Both Digambaras and Shvetāmbaras give 16 karuna sequence leading to the state of a Tirthakara. The oldest version of the karana sequence is found in the Dig. texts Mahabandho and Satkhandagama (Cir. 1st Cent. A.D.). 1804 A. N. UPADHYE-The Ethics of the Fainas. (The Indo-Asian Culture, V, 2, Pp. 183-189, Delhi, 1956). In this note the details of the Jaina ethics are discussed, as prescribed for a layman and for a monk. 1805 A. N. UPADHYE-Right Faith. (Jaina Gizette, XXV, Pp. 10-13, 35-39, 65-69 and 99-105). This is an exhaustive exposition of the Jaina doctrine of Samyag-darśana, the significance of which from the Vyavahara and Niscaya points of view is discussed giving the necessary dogmatic details connected with it. World Parliament of Religions---Commemoration volume. Rishikesh, 1956. P. VIII. A collections of Prayers of World's Religions : Adoration to the Tirthankara. P. 86. Comparative sayings from twelve Religions : 5. Jainism : Indifferent to worldly objects, a man should wander about treating all creatures in the world as he himself would be treated. (Sacred Books of the East, 45 : P. 314). Pp. 289-295. Jainism by Swāmi Sivananda : Introduction : Jainism a very ancient religion. Mahāvīra not the founder of Jainism, he revived the Jain doctrine ; Parávanātha was the twenty-third ; the first of these twenty-four was Rishabha Dev ; Time divided into cycles. Page #474 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Jain Philosophy: God not a creator; godhood is the perfected soul (Siddha) or the liberated soul (Mukta). Thirthankaras ; Jiva-Ajiva (soul, Non-soul); World. Doctrine of Reincarnation. Triple Jewels. Moksha. Jain concept of soul (Pañchastikayasara, Pp. 135-137). P. 296. Jaina sayings collected by Swami Sivananda. injury), five vows, etc., 24. P. 297. Jaina Sutras-Translated from Präkrit by Herman JACOBI : a few given. 1493 Pp. 298-300. Mahavira-The Prophet of Ahimsa by R. R. DIVAKAR (Governor of Bihar). A living cult; Lesson of Ahimsa ; not a negative force. Pp. 300-302. Analects of Jain Scriptures by Swami Sivananda. Pp. 302-307. Gospel of Jainism by George ZUTZALER. Jainism an exact science; nature of happiness; objects of knowledge: karma; true civilization; salvation. Ahimsa (Non Pp. 307-310. Universal Principles of Jainism by Dr. Mohammed Hafiz Syed (Allahabad). Religion; Tirthankaras; brotherhood of life; philosophy; catholicity of attitude; social behaviour. Pp. 310-311. Some Ideals of Jainism by Sant Sri Balajt (Ahmedabad). Pp. 311-320. An Outline of Jaina Ethics and Philosophy by Jyoti Prasad Jain. Two Aspects of Religion (1) Worship and rituals, (2) Ethical and moral; Jaina Philosophy; Opinions of Scholars; Antiquity; Concept of Universe; Material World; Process of liberation; Ethics; Ahimsa ; Realistic faith; True freedom. P. 549. Comparative Teachings of Religions-on brotherhood, cosmic love and peace. Jainism. Pp. 619-622. Renunciation in Jainism by Jyoti Prasad Jain. Concept of mind; Human relationsphip; Process of evolution; Interdependence; Mahavira. 1806 J. L. JAINI-Tattvartha-Sutram, (A Treatise on the Essentials of Jainism) of Umäsvami, Delhi, 1956 (2nd edition). Pp. vi 171. The first edition of this book was published in 1920. It is the oldest extant Sanskrit work of the Jainas-composed in the 1st century A.D. The book in ten chapters is the most authoritative exposition of Jaina doctrine. Text, transliteration, English translation with notes, Page #475 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1494 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1807 S. C. DIWAKAR--Religion and Peace. Mathura, 1957. Pp. viii 116. Contents--Religion and world peace; Heart of Religion ; Ahimsã and Aparigraha (Non-injury and possessionlessness) ; Anekāntavāda and Syadvāda (NonAbsolutism and co-existence); Karma Philosophy and Samādhi Maran (ideal Death). 1808 A CHAKRAVARTI --The Religions of Ahimsā. Bombay, 1957. Pp. i-vii. Introduction. Pp. 1-18. Life of Vardhamāna, Pārsva, Aristanemi and Rishabha. Is it Pp. 19-34 Jaina scriptures ; Kāla or Time; the nature of Loka world. created ? Pp. 35-38. The Age of Ahimsa Dharma. Pp. 39-64. Jina logic-nayas, Asti-nasti Väda, Anekanta vada. Pp. 65-75. Jaina Psychology. Pp. 76-83. The Ethical Code. Pp. 84-110. Karma Theory. Pp. 111-122. Jaina Metaphysics. Pp. 123-142. Nava Padarthas or Nine Categories. Pp. 143-146. Spiritual Discipline. Pp. 147-150. The ten Noble Virtues, Daša Dharmas. Pp. 157-158. The twelve Anuprekshäs. Pp. 159.170. Parishaha Jaya or conquering inconveniences and pains, Pp. 171-182. Tapas. Pp. 183-189. Gunasthānas or the stages or spiritual developments. Pp. 190-197. Jaina conception of Divinity. Pp. 198-226. Jaina Darshana compared with other Darshanas. Pp. 227-254. Jaina Philosophy compared with Western Thoughts. Pp. 254-277. The life of Sri Krishņa; the story of Rāma. Page #476 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1495 1809 Kamalabai DESHPANDE-Some Religions observances (Vratas) and festivals (utsavas) mentioned in Desināmamala (Proc. and Trans., AIOC XVIIIth Session, 1955), Annamalainagar, 1958. Pp. 483-91. Hemachandra's Deśināmamālā, a lexicon, contains list of religious observances (vratas) and festivals. List with description given. 1810 K. A. Nilakanta SASTRI - A note on Virasaivism-its History and Doctrine. (Philosophy and Religion section, Proc. and Trans. A.I.O.C., XVIIIth Session, 1955), Annamalainagar, 1958. Pp. 386-391. The Purāņas are both Śaiva and Jaina in origin; the Jaina versions being generally later and perhaps relatively less trustworthy. There is no clear proof that Bijjala was a Jain. Bijjala was a traditional type who has been represented as a Jaina by Virasaiva sources because of the fact that the Jainas were their chief antagonists. At Ablur Ekāntada Rāmayya-his controversy with the Jains-his offer to cut off his own head if the Jainas would wager their 800 temples including the Anesejjeya Basadi in Lakshmeśvara-Unwillingness of the Jains. Jainism in Karnataka suffered most by the impact of the new Saiva revival, 1811 S. RADIIAKRISHNAN-Indian Religious thought and Modern Civilisation. (Pro. and Trans., A.I.O.C. XVIIIth Session, 1955. Presidential Address), Annamalainagar, 1958. P. 11. The goal of world unity is to be achieved by ahimsa. The catholicity of the Tamil classic Tirukkural, its emphasis on ahimsa or non-violence in its varied applications, ethical economic and social ; Tirukkural is used by the Buddhists and the Jains, the Saivites and the Vaishnavas ; it is called podumurai or common scripture. P. 15. A Tirthankara is one who provides the ship to cross the world of Sansära. The ship is the dharma. Destroying the four karmas, he attains the four eminent qualities of anantajñāna, infinite knowledge, anantadarsona or infinite perception, ananta-virya or infinite power, ananta-sukha or infinite bliss. He spends the rest of his life in the world for the good of mankind. When the self realizes its true Page #477 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1496 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY nature it is freed from subjection to time or as it is said, it is released from rebirth. He becomes siddha paramești, the perfect being. The Siddha is worshipped because he represents the final spiritual perfection. The arhat, the siddha, the sangha and the dharma and the four objects of supreme value worthy of adoration. Jainism emphasizes the potential divine stature of man and its teacaing claims to be of universal application. 1812 Gustav Rors-The Terminology of the Karana scquence. (Pr. & Tr. A.I.O. Con. 18th Sess. 1955. Annamalainagar, 1958). Pp. 250-259. How could the state of a Tirthankara be reached? What stations had a man to pass to be at home on such heights of complete perfection. 16 Karanas leading to the state of a Tirthankara; i.e., by meditating upon the sixteen forms (bhavanā) of penance, and according to the Svetāmbaras there are 20 karanas. Conclusion: The 16 karana sequence cannot only be traced in Tattvarthasūtram and later Dig. texts but also in more ancient Dig. literature such as Mahabandha and Şațkhandagama but that the Shvet. 20 karana sequence cannot be traced in the more ancient parts of the Angas and Upangas. The karana sequence leading to the state of a Tirthankara originated in circles close to the Digambaras. It seems that the Shvet. after the separation of the two groups have included the karana sequence and enlarged upto 20 karanas. 1813 C. B. SHETH-The fain Acharya. (Proc., IHC, XXIInd Session), Bombay, 1959. P. 178. The Panchindiya Sūtra prescribes thirty-six qualifications for the Achārya. He must be able to control the five senses. He must be endowed with five samities and three guptis. 1814 Madan Mohan SINGH-Brahmanism as described in early Buddhist texts. (Proc., IHC. XXIst Session), Bombay, 1959. Pp. 102-103. Though people responded to the teachings of the Buddha and Mahāvira, yet it is revealed from the Buddhist literature that Brahmanism remained the dominant religion of the age. The rules laid down for Jain monks show closer similarity to those of the Brahmana mendicants. Though the Jains revolted against the authority of the Brahmanas and the efficancy of the Vedic rajñas and Page #478 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1497 rituals, they did not go against the prevalent customs and practices of the people, but they tried to replace a few of them by similar disguised practices in order to attract the masses. They tried to get rid of those Brahmanical practices which involved killing of life The Jains introduced eight Mangalas. Though they challenged the orthodox view of the high position of the Brahmanas, they placed the Kshatriyas above all. 1815 S. B. Deo--- Jaina Manastic Jurisprudence. Banares, 1960. P.187. It is a book on Jaina monastic jurisprudence originally embedded in the author's 'History of Jaina Monachism from Inscriptions and Literature'-contents. I. The Background to Monastic Jurisprudence. 2. The custodians of Monastic jurisprudence. 3. Laws of jurisprudence and their working. 4. Transgressions and punishments. 5. Bibliography and Index. 1816 H. L. JAIN---I he practice of the earlier Tirthankaras. (Proc. and Trans. AIOC, XIXth Session), Delhi, 1961. Part II, Pp. 75-81. Mahāvira adopted an earlier system of religion which was prevalent in his time and which he renovated and preached to his followers. According to Dr. Herman Jacobi Pārsvanātha was a historical person (Introduction to Vol. XXII and XIV of the SBE). According to Dhammanand Kosambi Buddha came into contact with the followers of Pārsvanātha even before as well as after his enlighteninent (Pürsvanatha's Caturyama Diarma). The asceticism of Pārsvanätha has been called Caujjāma (Caturyāma) and this name has been given even to the system of Mahāvīra in the Pāli books. Pārsvanātha regarded all Samyama as one (Sāmāyika), Mahāvīra classified it into five vows Chhedopasthānika). Both the Digambara and Śvetāmbara traditions agree. 1817 A. N. UPADHYE and H. L. JAIN-Gunabhadra's Atmānušāsana, Sholapur, 1961. Text critically edited with Introduction, Appendices, and with the commentary of Prabhācandra. Introduction. 1. Atmānuśāsana-means spiritual advice or self instruction. Its various editions. It belongs to the category of religious and didactic poetry following the pattern of Jaina ideology. Page #479 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1498 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Contents: Every one desires for attaining true happiness that arises from the destruction of all karmas which results from right conduct which is dependent of right knowledge, which is acguired from scriptures. It is by the practice of penances, for which the human birth alone is suited, that the karmas are consumed and real happiness is reached. Proper meditation destroys all karmas ; and then the Alman is realised in full effulgeness. Jainism makes no room for a God which is a creator and a distributor of favours and frowns; but it is a pre-eminent champion of the Karma doctrine which is an automatically functioning mechanism. By one's thoughts, words and acts one incures good or ban karmas. 2. Gunabhadra, the anthor ; his date---middle of the 9th century A.D.He belongs to the ascetic line of pañcastūpānvaya, which was later on replaced by Senānvaya or Senagana of the Mülasamgha. 3. Prababācandra, the commentatory between 1185-1243 A.D. 1818 R. WILLIAMS--Jaina Yoga. London, 1963. P. 296. This book describes what the Jainas considered to be the way of life proper to a layman, during the period of their greatest political importance (from the fifth to the thirteenth centuries, particularly the eleventh and twelfth). It deals with the Śravakacāras, the actual treatises on the lay life, and sets forth, primarily, the opinions of the doctors of the church ; taking no account of material from the narrative literature or from inscriptions. This exposition is preceded by an account of the authors covered by the survey, with an investigation of the attribution and dating of their works. As the original texts are not easily accessible, some extracts from them, showing the dependence of the writers on one another, are given in an appendix. Contents: Preface ; Introduction ; Bibliography; Authors - Svetāmbara sampradaya; Authors-Digambara sampradāya ; The Ratna-traya ; Categories of Śrāvakas ; Categories of food , Samyaktva and mithyatva ; The Mūla gunas ; the Vratas; the Ahimsa-vrata ; the Satya-vrata ; the Astepa-vrata ; the Brahma-vrata ; the Apari graha-vrata ; the Dig-vrata ; Ratri-bhojana ; the Bhogopabhoga parimāņa vrata; Ratri-bhojana ; the Abhakşyas ; the Ananta-kayas ; the Professions; the Anarihadanda-vrata ; the Samāyika-vrata ; the Deśūvasika-vrata ; the Poşadhopavāsa-vrata ; the Dan-vrala; the Sallekhanā-vrata ; the Pratimas; the Dina-carya ; the necessary duties; the namaskara ; the caitya-vandanā ; the vandanaka ; Pratikramana Page #480 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1499 and alocana: Pratyakhyana; the Kayotsarga; the Paja; the Asatanas; Pramada; the Yatra; the caitya; Soadhyaya; Tapas; Dhyana. Vinaya and Vaiyavṛllya; the Anupreksas; the Bharanas; the Kalas; the seven Vyasanas; the gatis; the Śravakagunas; the Kriyas; Appendix. 1819 Diwakar PATHAK-Non-violence and Jainism. (Jain Ant., vol. XXII, No. II), Arrah, 1964, Pp. 26 to 32. Jainism an important ideological phenomenon in the religio-philosophical history of mankind is one of the ancient religions of India that came with a fixed aim to disclose the shallow mundane practices of the Vedic priests. Jainism puts forward the idea of non-violence which is also supported by Buddhism. All the major religions of the world support ahimsa-the highest fideal of all religions and morality. 1820 K. C. SOGANI-The Gunavratas and the Siksaoratas in Jainism. (Jain Ant., Vol XXII, No. II), Arrah, 1964. Pp. 9 to 16. The Gunaratas and the Siksavratas recognised as the seven Slavratas serve the useful purpose of guarding the Anuvratas-they effect a positive improvement in the observance of the Anuvratas. Nature of Digurata (fixation of the limits of one's own movements in the ten directions), Nature of Desavrata (more precision of the Digurata), Nature of Anarthadanda-vrata (renouncing the commitment of such acts as are not subservient to any useful purpose) and forms of Anarthadandas-described. Vol. XXIII, No. 1, Arrah, 1964. Pp. 8 to 22. Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata (the limitation in the use of Bhoga and Upabhoga in order to reduce attachment to the objects. Two kinds of Abegation in Bhogopabhogapartmanavrata, Bhogopobhogaparimaṇavrata. Nature of Samayika (positive way of submerging the activities of mind, body and speech in the Jaman. Nature of Prosadhopavasavrata (renouncing of the four kinds of food on the 8th and 14th lunar day in each fortnight). Procedure of Prosadkopavāsavrata; Prosadhoparasacrata and the five sins. Nature of Atithisamibhagavrata (offering of four kinds of gifts in conformity with the manifold ways of entertaining the three kinds of recipients by one who has acquired certain qualifications) Consideration of five objectives for the adequate observance of this vow. The five Aticaras of this vow are: (1) placing food on things having life, (2) covering food with things having life, (3) offering food at an improper time, (4) offering some other person's food, and (5) lack of interest or jealousy towards the other giver. Page #481 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Section VII PHILOSOPHY AND LOGIC 1821 Traduits par G. H. T. COLEBROOKE—Essais sur la Philosophie des Hindous. Pauthier. Paris, 1833. Pp. 210-221. French translation of the memoir of ColeBROOKE on the philosophy of the Jains. 1822 MADHAVACHARYA-Sarvadarśana Sangraha, edited by Iswarchand VIDYASAGARA, (Bibliotheca indica). Calcutta, 1858. One knows that the third section of this famous compendium is devoted to the explanation of the Jain philosophy. 1823 Acharya. Translated by E. B. The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha, by Madhava COWELL and A E. Gough, London, 1882. Chapter III (Pp. 36-63). The Arhata system. 1824 S. J. WARREN--Les idees philosophiques et. religieuses des Jains. Traduit du hollandais par J. Pointet. (Annales du Musee Guimet, vol. X, Pp. 321.411).Paris, 1887. 1825 R. C. Bose -- Hindu Philosophy popularly explained. 1887. The heterodox systems. Calcutta, Chapters VI and VII. The Jainism. The first works relating to the Jain religion : MACKENZIE, BUCHANAN, COLEBROOKE, WsLson. The works of Mon. JACOBI.-- The Kalpasūtra : age, style, contents--The doctrine of the time--The Tirthakaras. Rsabha and Parsvanātha-Life of Mahāvīra-Jainism and Buddhism, Page #482 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1501 Chronological and dogmatical resemblance between the two religions. The Jain of this treatise-The Tirthakaras and their characters--The moral. The vows-- The five degrees of the knowledge.-The path of deliverance--The categoriesThe nitvāna. 1826 R. GARBE-Samkhya und Yoga. (Grundriss der indoarischen Philologie und Altertumskunde, Band III, Heft 54). Strassburg, 1896. Pp. 39-40. Explanation of the Jaina doctrine of the Yoga, according to the Yogaśāstra of Hemchandra. 1827 Richard GARBE-Philosophy of Ancient India. The open Court Publishing Company, Chicago, 1897. P. 8. The doctrine of the Vedānta system is a body of ideals which belongs alike to all systems of Brahman philosophy and Buddhism and Jainism. Pp. 11-14. Sāṁkhya system supplied the foundations of Jainism and Buddhism, two philosophically embellished religions, which start from the idea that this life is nothing but suffering, and always revert to that thought. P. 82. The doctrines of the Jains are so extraordinarily like those of the Buddhists that the Jains were until recently regarded as a Buddhist sect. 1828 M. Rajaram Bodas-A historical Survey of Indian Logic. (Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. XIX, Pp. 306-347), Bombay, 1897. Notes on the resemblances of the Vaiseșika philosophy with the doctrines of the Jainism. 1829 Max MULLER-The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy. Varanasi, Reprint (first published in 1899; second edition, 1933). P. 19. Syadvāda, the theory that everything may be or may not be. Mahāvīra, the founder of Jainism, often took refuse in Agnosticism or the Angānavāda (Max MULLER- Natural Religion, P. 105). Page #483 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1502 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 31. King Harsha, his history written in Sanskrit by Bāņa (Harshacarita, translated by Cowell and THOMAS, P, 235)-the king is represented as entering a forest, perceives Gainas in white robes (Svetāmbaras). P. 89 and P. 239. In the Buddhist annals other teachers such as Gñātiputra, the Nigrantha, the founder of Gainish are mentioned by the side of Gautama. The Nigrantha or gymnosophist developed into a powerful sect, the Gainas. Gnātiputra or Nātaputta was the senior of Buddha. Pp. 438-39. In the year 1885 Prof. LEUMANN published an article, 'The old reports on the schisms of the Gainas,' in the Indische Studien, XVII, Pp. 91-135. Haribhadra's Shaddarśanasamukkayasūtram was published in the first volume of the Giornale della Societa Asiatica Italiana, 1887 by Prof. C. Punni (besides this there are other contributions of his to Gaina literature). References to Vaišeshika philosophy in these Jain works discussed. 1830 L. De La Vallee Poussin-Le Bouddhisme d'apres les sources brahmaniques.-1. 'Sarvadarcanasamgraha, Series : Arhatadarcana. (Museon, Nouvelle series, Vol. III. Pp. 40-54)-Louvain, 1902. Annotated translation of the first part of the chapter III of the 'Sarvaderśanasamgraha', containing the controversy of the Jains against the Buddhists. 1831 F. O. SCHRADER--Uber den Stand der indischen Philosophie zur Zeit Mahaviras and Buddhas.-Strassburg, 1902. The author states the philosophical opinions (not the systems) which were current in India at the time of Mahāvīra and of Buddha. He enumerates at fitst these opinions ant treats them in a general manner. Afterwards, in so many distinct paragraphs, he speaks of Kala-Väda, of the Svabhava-vada, Niyati-väda, Yadrecha-vāda, of the Alma-Vada, Isvara-vāda, Ajñana-vāda, of the materialistic and atomical theories and at last of the eight kinds of Akriya-vadins. The work is quite entirely written after the Jain documents, in particular after the commentary of Malayagiri on the Nandis ütra and after the comment of Silānka on the 'Sütrakrtanga'. However the following pages concern specially the Jainism. Page #484 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1503 2-8. Classification of the philosophical opinions after the Jaina canon. These opinions are of the number of 363, divided in four groups: Kriya-vada, Akreya-vada, Ajnana-vada and Vinaya-vada. 15-16. List of different authors who have vindicated these opinions, after the 'Rajavartika' (VIII-i), a commentary written in the 8th century A.D. on the Tattvarthasutra of Umāsväti. 27-29. Explanation of the Kala-vada. 30-31 Svabhava-vada. 32-34 Nijati-vada. 36-37 Tadrecha-vada, 41-42 Atma-vada. 47-51 Ajñana-vada. 52-54. Materialistic and atomical theories in the Jainism. 54-57. The eight kinds of Akriya-Vadis after the Jaina canon. 60-61. The time in the Jaina doctrine. 62-68. Refutation of the theism by Malayagiri. 1832 H. JACOBI-The Metaphysics and Ethics of the Jainas. (Transactions of the Third International Congress for the History of Religions, Vol. II, Pp. 59-66). Oxford, 1908. 32 دو 33 دو 22 The doctrine of the Being in Jainism. The indetermination of the Being. Consequences of this doctrine: the 'syadvada and the naya". The 'Syadada' all metaphysical proposition is only true from a determined. point of view, and its contrary can be true if one places oneself at another point of view. The seven possibilities. The 'naya': the terms and the words express only the idea by one of its sides. The seven 'nayas or modes of expression. Eternity and formal indetermination of the matter. Relation of Jainism with the Samkhya. The material things. The atoms, their modifications and their combinations. The karman; its material on constitution, Elimination of the Karman; role of the religion. The ascetic discipline. Relation of Jainism with the theories of Yoga. (See a summary of this memoir by M.P. OLTRAMARE in the 'Revue de l'histoire des religions, vol, LVIII, Pp. 351-360). Page #485 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1504 1833 L. SUALI Materiaux pour serir a l'histoire du materialisme indien (Museon, New series Vol. IX, Pp. 227-298). Louvain, 1908. French translation of passages borrowed from the chapters IV and VI of the 'Saddarśana-samuccaya' of Haribhadra, and of the corresponding commentary of Gunaratna. 1834 M. R. BODAS-A Brief Survey of the Upanishads. (JBBRAS, xxii, 1908, Pp. 67-80). P. 74. Upanishads gave birth to Buddhism and Jainism and many other movements and yet ultimately supplanted them by means of the orthodox Vedanta philosophy. 1835 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY S. C. VIDYABHUSHANA-History of the Mediaeval School of Indian Logic. Calcutta, 1909. Book 1: The Jain Logic-The Era of Tradition-The Historical Period. Book 2 The Buddhist Logic. 1836 J. CHARPENTIER-The Lesya theory of the Jainas and Ajvikas. (Goteborg, 1910) (Festskrift tilegnad K.F. Johanson pa hans 50-arsdag, Pp. 20-38). The article is an exposition of the Leiya-Theory as given by the Jain authors like Umasvati. 1837 M. L. JHAVERI-The first principles of Jain Philosophy. With an introduction by L. D. Barnett. (Vira Samvat, 2436). London, 1910. The work contains a discussion in outline of the main tenets of Jain philosophy. Page #486 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1505 1838 (i) Virchand R. GANDHI--- The Jain Philiosophy. Bombay, 1911. Pp. 1-6, 12-23, 32-47. Jain philosophy, ethics and psychology, Pp. 76-97. Symbolism. Pp. 76-79. Significance of Om and Swastika. P. 80. The sacred thread. P. 80. The elephant and seven blind men. P. 84. The mango tree and six persons. P. 88. Sandal-wood mark on the forehead. P. 88. The heart-sign. P. 89. Mark of an eight-petaled lotus. Pp. 91-93. Hemacandra and his works. Pp. 112-120. Jain explanation as to the nature and existence of the soul. Pp. 143-153. Rules of taking food. P. 173. Jain view regarding the origin of caste. Pp. 176-185. Jain philosophical activity. P. 186. Jain literary activity-Devarddhi Gani codifier of the sacred canon, Bhadrabāhu Sūri, author of Nirguktis', Siddhasena. Haribhadra, Malayagiri, Abhayadeva, Devendra sūri, author of works on Karma, Dharmasāgara who wrote a history of the heterodox sects, Hemacandra, the encyclopaedist, Yasovijaya, and Muni Ātmārāmji. Patļāvalis, lists of spiritual P. 187. Jain historians and commentators-Jain heads of the community with their biographies. P. 187. Sacred libraries of the Jains at Pattan, Cambay and Jessulmir. P. 188. Colonel Top's mention about the influence of the Jains in Western India in his Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan' (1829). Page #487 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1506 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1838 (ii) Virchand R, GANDHI- The Karma Philosophy. Bombay, 1913. Definition of Karma-eight kinds of Karma and their subdivisions-causes of Karma---stages of development --the vows. 1838 (iii) Virchand R, GANDHI—The Yoga philosophy, Bombay, 1912. An exposition of the Yoga philosophy and practical rules for soul-culture. 1839 Dr. Helmuth Von GLASSNAPP-Die lehre vom Karman in der Philosophic der Jainas. Leipzig, 1915. The doctrini of karman in Jain philosophy. 1840 Satis Chandra VIDYABHUSANA-The Nyāyāvatāra--the earliest Jaina work on Pure Logic of Siddha Sena Divakara. Arrah, 1915, Pp. iv-+-42. Siddha Sena Divākara--the author, the celebrated Kșapanaka of Vikramā. ditya's court (c. 550 A.D.); Candra prabha Sūri, author of Nyāyāvatāra Vivrti, founder of the Svetāmbara Pūrnima Gaccha in 1102 A.D. Text and translation with notes, and the text of Nyāyāvatāra vivști. Commentary. 1841 Champat Rai JAIN-Nyaya, the Science of Thought. Arrah (India), 1916. A brief exposition of the view of Jain philosophy on the nature and types of jñāna (knowledge) and the working of mind in reference to logical inference, 1842 Champat Rai JAIN-The Practical Path. Arrah (India). 1917. The method of philosophy--the tattvas--the nature of karma-asrava bndha-sanvaranirjară-mokşa-stages on the path-dharma in practice-Appendix-GlossoryIndex. Page #488 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1843 H. Ut.-The Vaileşika Philosophy. Edited by E.W. Thomas, London, 1917. P. 19. Four schools of the Jains: Kriya vada, Akriya vada, Ajänavada, and Vainayika vada. P. 23. Mahavira and even Buddha were compelled to provide their teachings and assertions against the scepticism of Sanjaya Velatthi-putta. Pp. 24-25. JACOBI's remarks on matter in Jainism-Atomic theory of the Jains. Pp. 28-29. Dharmottara's theory opposed to the Jain theory-According to the Uttaradhyayana Jainism maintains three categories-In Jainism the categories are divided into two. The Vaiśeşika borrowed, materials from the thoughts of those days and systematized them later. 1507 P. 35. Roha-gutta, the chief teacher in the sixth schism of Jainism imported the Vaišesika doctrines into Jainism. P. 38. The Jains maintain that the Vaiseşika was established by Roha-gutta. P. 133. In Jainism ether means empty space and is not an element. 1844 VIJAYANAND SURI-The Chicago Prainottar, Agra, 1918. Questions and answers on Jain philosophy, for the Parliament of religions held at Chicago in 1893. 1845 (i) C. R. Jain-Logic for Boys and Girls. Arrah (India), 1920. Jain logic, simplified for the Young. 1845 (ii) C. R. JAIN-A Peep behind the veil of karmas. Third edition, Revised. Arrah (India), 1920. An exposition of the Jain theory of Karma. Page #489 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 508 1846 A. B. DHRUBA-Trividham Anumanam' or a study in Nyaya Sutra. (A.I.O.C. Session I; 1920). P. Lxxxix-Importance of the Jain tradition about the composition of the Āgamas... (1) The first glimmer of the light of Indian Logic belongs to the PreBuddhistic age of the 'Parsads'. (5) The results of Brahmanical thought in this department, as linked with theism and Realism got summed up in the Nyaya Sutras of Gotama, as similar work of Jain and Buddhist logicians carried on in harmony with their own religious and philosophical dogmas is represented in the corresponding fragments of the Jain and Buddhistic literatures. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1847 S. C. VIDYABHUSANA-History of Indian Logic. Calcutta, 1921. P. 122. fo. Vätsyana refers perhaps to the Jain syllogism of ten members as illustrated in the Dala-vaikälika-niryukti of Bhadrabahu who is supposed to be contemporary of Candragupta II called Vikramaditya about 375 A.D. The Jain logician Anantavirya, in his commentary of Nyayanatara (?) verse 13 says that best form of syllogism consists of ten parts, mediocre of five parts and the worst of two parts only. P. 151. About 1409 Gunaratna in his commentary of Saddariana-samuccaya mentions two Brahmana logicians Śrikantha writer of a commentary on Nyayasutra called Nyayalankara, and Abhayatilaka writer of a commentary on Nyayasutra called Nyaya-vytti. P. 152. Jinadatta Süri reviews in his Vivekasvilasa the six systems of philosophy as enumerated by Haribhadra in his Saddarianasamuccaya. Date of Jinadatta Sûri P. 152. Haribhadrasüri's account of the six systems of philosophy in his work Saddariana-sammuccaya. These are Buddhist, Nyäya, the Sankhya (including Yoga), the Jaina, the Vaišeşika and the Jaiminiya (comprising the Mimämsa and the Vedanta). P. 153. Another Jain writer Maladhari Rajasekhara Sūri in his Saddarakanasamuccaya mentions the six systems of philosophy in a different order. These are Jain, Sankhya (including Yoga) the Jaiminiya (comprising the Mimämsä and the Vedanta), Yanga or Saiva (which is the same as Nyaya), the Vaišeṣika and Saugata. Page #490 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1509 P. 154. In the Vivekavilasa in Saddarśanavicāra, Jinadatta includes both Naiyayika and Vaiseșika in the Saiva sect. P. 154. Naiyāyikas are Saivas and Vaisesikas are Pāsupatas. Pp. 157-8. Fonuders of medieval logic. P. 159. Adināth or Rsabh adeva, the first Tirthankara. Digambara and Svetāmbara sects. Indrabhūti Gautama a disciple of Mahāvira, his date, birth place and parcentage. Pp. 160-61. The canonical scriptures of the Jainas. P. 161, Dșstivada consists of five parts, the first of which is said to deal wit hlogic. It is reputed to have existed at the time of Sthūlabhadra. P. 164. The early Jain writers who discussed definite problem of logic were Bhadrabāhu and Umāsvāti. An elaborate discussion of certain principles of logic is found in Prākrit commentary on Daśavaikālika Sūtra called Daśa-vaikālikaniryukti. This commentary was the work of one of Pracinagotra. He was Śrutakevalin that is one versed in 14 Purvas of the Distivāda. P. 164 fn. Bhadrabāhu's date according to KLATT, WEBER and PETERSON. Pp 164-5. There are two Bhadrabāhus and their date and work according to Digambara and Svetāmbara standpoints. P. 165. fn. Bhadrabāhu must have lived as late as the 6th century A.D. if he was really a brother of Varāhamihira who was obe of the nine gems at the court of Vikramāditya. Another view that Bhadrabāhu's brother was not the same Varāhamihira that adorned the court of Vikramāditya. Date of junior Bhadrabāhu. Pp. 165-7. Syllogism of Bhadrabāhu. Pp. 167-8. Bhadrabāhu's explanation of Syädvāda in his Sutra-kstāngniryukti. P. 168 fn. Dr. HOERNLE. in Ind. Ant. XX. P. 341 says Umāsvāmin is included as the sixth Digambara-sūri of the Saraswati-gaccha between Kundakunda and Lohācārya II. P. 172. The teachings of Mahāvira are said to be handed down in the form of Agama through memory and were codified in writing by Devardhigaņi otherwise known as Kșamāśramaņa. Page #491 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1510 Pp. 185-6. Akalanka's works. His age. P. 195. Amṛta-candra-sūri who belonged to the Digambara sect was the author of Tattvarthasara, Atmakhyati and lived in S. 962 or 905 A.D. Devasena Bhattaraka, his guru, his date and his works. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 196-7. Abhayadeva-sûri and his works on logic. He was succeeded by Jinesvara-suri a contemporary of king Munja. P. 198. Devasüri, otherwise known as Vadapravara, his date, works and enterprise. Pp. 200-205 ff. Devasuri's view on right knowledge (Pramana); on inversion (Viparyaya); on argumentation (tarka); his criticism of the application (upanaya) and conclusion (naigama)-they are as parts of syllogism are useless but these together with the example are to be employed to convince men of small intellect. Devasüri on inference for the sake of self and others (svärthänumänana parärthänumänana) and intrinsic inseperable connection (antranyapti). His view on four kinds of nonexistence; on council and method of discussion. P. 205. Hemacandra Suri surnamed Kalikalasarvajña was the preceptor of Kumarapala, king of Gujrat, author of many books and the spiritual brother of Pradyumna-süri. P. 206. Date of Candraprabha-süri and his works; for details PETERSON'S 4th report, p. xxvii. P. 207. Amaracandra-sūri nicknamed Simhaśiśuka was the pupil and successor of Mahendra-süri of Nagendra-gaccha and was succeeded by Haribhadra-süri ; referred to by logician Gangeśa Upadhyāya in his Tattva Cintamani. P. 208. Date of Haribhadra-suri and his works. P. 209n. Dr. JACOBI's opinion on Haribhadra-süri. Haribhadra-süri II, and his date. He is not the author of Ṣaddarsana-samuccaya. P. 210. Haribhadra-sūri who was by birth a Brahmin and was a chaplain. ta king Jitări whose capital was Chittore (Citrakūt) was instructed in Jaina doctrine. by Jinabhatta Haribhabra-süri's pupils Hamsa were sent for missionary work of Jaina faith. This was marked by Haribhadra-suri in the end of each of his 1400 works. P. 210. Parsvadeva was the author of a commentary on Nyaya-Pravesa called Nyayapravekapanjika. He assisted Amaradeva-süri in S. 1190 or 1133 A.D. in writing his commentary on Akhyanamanikaša of Nemicandra. Page #492 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1511 P. 211. Candrasena-sūri, his date and works. P. 214. Devasundra is the guru of Gunaratna as mentioned by Ratnasekharasūri in his Śrāddhapratikramaņa-sūtaavštti composed in S. 1496 or 1439 A.D. P. 214. Gunaratna his date and works. P. 218. Knowledge from particular standpoint (Naya). P. 221. Akşapāda was attacked by Siddhasena Divākara in his Sanmati'arka and Haribhadra-sūri in his Sastravārla Sammucaya and Anekanta-jayapataka. Udyotakara (Varttikakāra) was attacked by Abhayadeva-sūri of Rajagaccha. P. 221 f. Conciliatory character of Jaida logic; it is not in conflict with the Bhamanas. It has no bitter rivalry with the Buddhists. The special Jaina doctrines of Naya and Saptabhangi though occasionally criticised did not receive any rude blow from Brahmanas, The Pramāna-vārttika-ţika of Jaina Kalyānacandra is likewise a commentry on the Praman-vartlika of Buddhist Dharmakirti. Dhammottara-tippanaka is the title of Jaina commentary by Mallavādin on the Buddhist work Nyāyabindutikā of Dharmottara. Pp. 222-23. Royal patronage and persecution of the Jains but no hostility from the Mahomedans. Rights and privileges of the laity and aid to literary men. P. 227. Takki (Tarkin) and Takkika (Tārkika) referred to in Tipitikas are men who were Buddhists, Jainas or Brahmanas. They were not logicians but sophists indulging in quibbles and causistry. P. 252. Nāgārjuna called in Tibetan Klu-Sgrub is stated by Lama Taranath to have been a contemporary of king Nemicandra. Fn. 4. Date of Nemicandra ; his genealogy. P. 346. Subhakaragupta, a Buddhist philosopher of the monastry of Vikramasila, was quoted and criticised by Haribhadrasüri. P. 351. Kasta-samgaha arose at the time of Umāsvāmin. P. 371. Nyāyabhūşana, the oldest commentary of Nyāyasära, is, mentioned by Gunaratna in his commentary of Saddarśanasamuccaya and by Maladhari Rajasekhara in his Saddarsanasanasamuccaya. P. 390. Ksamākalyāna, a pupil of Jinalābhasūri, wrote his commentary on Tarkasamgraha and Tarkasdipika. Page #493 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1512 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 396. In reality it was the faina logicians Amaracandra and Anandasūri who were called the lion and tiger and not Sašadhara and Manidhara who were according to Bengali tradition criticised by Gangesa in his work under the title of Simha-vyāghrokta laksana, P. 406. 1093-1150 A.D. is the date of Ananda-süri and Amrtacandrasuri. P. 423. Invariable concomittance (vyāpti) defined by lion and tiger. Amaracandra and Anandasūri. 1848 Satis Chandra VIDYA BHUSANA- A history of Indian Logic. Calcutta, 1921. P. 141. Vācaspati Misra, author of the Nyāyavartika vatbarya-ţikā, (about 841 A.D.) condemns Jain scriptures. P. 151. Gunaratna, a Jaina philosopher, author of Şaddarśana-samuccaya-vstti (about 1409 A.D.). Pp. 152-3. The six systems of philosophy according to the Jain philosophers Haribhadra Sūri, author of Saddarasana-samnccaya (about 1168 A.D.) and Maladhāri Sri Rājasekhara Sūri (1348 A.D.). Pp. 157-163. Mahāvīra (599-527 B.c.). Division of Digambaras and Svetāmbaras (1st century A.D.) Indrabhūti Gautama, a disciple of Mahāvīra (607-515 B.C.) cannonical scriptures of the Jains--Logical) subjects in the canons. Pp. 164-171. Early Jaina writers on Logic : Bhadrabāhu, the senior (C. 433357 B.C.)-- Bhadrabāhu the Junior (C. 375 A.D., or 450-520 A.D.).--Umāsvāti (1-85 A.D.). Pp. 172 220. Jaina writers on systematic Logic-Siddhasena Diväkara, alias Kșapaņaka (c. 480-550 A.D.)- Jinabhadra Gani Kşamāśramaņa (484-588 A.D.)Siddhasena Gani (600 A.D.)--Samantabhadra (600 A.D.)- Akalankadeva (c. 750 A.D.)-Vidyānanda (c. 800 A.D.)-Māņikya Nandi (c. 800 A.D.)-Prabhā Candra (C 825 A.D.)-Rabhasa Nandi (C. 850 A.D) ---Mallavādin (C. 827 A.D.)-Amộta Candra Süri (905 A.D.)- Devasena Bhattāraka (899-950 A.D.)--Pradyumna Sūri (C. 980 A.D.)-Abhayadeva Süri (C. 1000 A.D.)--Laghusamantabhadra (c. 1000 A.D.)–Kalyāna Candra (C. 1000 A.D.)-Ananta Virya (c. 1039 A.D.)-Deva Süri (1086-1169 A D.)-Hemacandra Süri (1088-1172 A.D.)- Candraprabna Süri (1102 A D.)---Nemicandra Kavi (C. 1150 A.D.)--Ananda sūri, and Amarcandra Sūri, Nicknamed Tiger-cub and Lion-cub (1093 1135 A.D.)--Haribhadra Süri (1120 A.D.) Page #494 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1513 Pārsvadeva Gani (1133 A.D.)-Śrteandra (C. 1137-1165 A.D.)-Devabhadra (1150 A.D.)-Candrasena Suri (C. 1150 A.D.)-Ratnaprabha Suri (1181 A D.)-Tilakacārya (C. 1180-1240 A.D.)-Mallisena Suri (1292 A.D.)-Rajashekara, Süri (1348 A.D.)Jnana Candra (1350 A.D.)-Gunaratna (1409 A.D)-Śrutasägara Gani (C. 1493 A.D.) Dharma Bhusana (C. 1600 A.D.)-Vinayavijaya (1613-1681 A.D.)Yasovijaya Gani (1608-1688 A.D.). P. 273. Hostility between Jains and the Buddhist logician Dignaga (C. 450520 A D.) P. 305. Philosophical debates between Jains and Acarya Dharmakirti, a Buddhist logician (C. 635 A.D.). A. B. KEITH-The Karma-Mimasa. Calcutta, 1921. Pp. 32 n, 34, 38, 68, 69. Jaina views about the theory of Karma. 1849 (i) A. B. KEITH-Indian Logic and Atomism: An exposition of the Nyaya and Vaiseşika systems. Oxford, 1921. 1849 Buddhist or Jain Logic has been handled where it comes into immediate contact with the doctrines of the Nyaya and Vaiseşika. Pp. 14-16. Jain legends as to the origin of Vaiseṣika. P. 53. Jain view about Cognition. P. 56. Jain theory of perception. P. 80 n. P. 195. Realism and Jainism. P. 228. Mythology of the Jains. Bhadrabähu's 10 member argument for Jainism P. 232. Sound theory of the Jains. P. 271 n. 4. Theism and the Jains. P. 272. Jain theory about self-moving atoms. Page #495 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1514 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1850 A. B. Keith--- Indian Logic and Atomism. Oxford, 1921. P. 14. The tradition preserved in a late text the Avaśyaka in a passibly interpolated passage and in late prose versions attributes the Vaišeșika system to a Jain schismatic 544 years after Vardhamāna Rohagutta, of the Chaulu family whence the system is styled chaluga. P. 15. In the Jain system there is no evidence of anything which could give rise to the Nyāya or Vaišeșika system. P. 15. In the Sthānanga sütra we find mention made of the usual four means of proof, perception, inference, comparison and verbal testimony and there are given certain classes of inferences but it is idle to claim priority for the Jain logic nor as it appears in such authors as Umāsvāti and Siddhasenadi vākara is there anything to suggest that the logic was the original possession of the Jains. P. 15. According to Syādvāda everything is indifinite and changing in point of quality, permanent only in respect of substance and thus to make any true statement about it demands a qualification. P. 15. Similarly Nayas are modes of regarding reality from different points of view. P. 16. The case is different with the atomic theory of the Vaišeşikas and the Jainas... In the Jain conception atom has taste, colour, smell, two kinds of touch and is a cause pf sound though soundless and thus differs from Vaišeśika's atom which has no connection with sound and has one, two three or four of the ordinary qualities according as it is air, fire, water or earth. Jain atoms are thus qualititatively alike the Vaišeșika's atoms are not. P. 17n. On the general appearance of Jain doctrines as influenced by Vaiseșika view see Bhandarkar report for 1883-1, Pp. 101 ff. A Primitive view recognising the self as well as the five elements appears in the Sutra kştanga (SBE XIV; XXIV) but this is very far from the Vaišeşika. The age of Buddhist atomism kui Pp. 26 ff) is very doubtful. P. 31. Reference of Nyāyasůra of Bhāsarvajña in the commentary of Gunaratna on Saddarśanasamuccaya. P. 53. Jains contention about knowledge. Page #496 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ AINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1515 P. 263. Rajasekhara's Evidence of the application of the term Yoga to Nyāya and Vaiseșika in his Saddarśana-samuccaya is supported by Gunaratna in his commentary of Haribhadra Sūri's Saddarśana-samuccaya. 1851 B. M. BARUA - A History of Pre-Buddhistic Indian Philosophy. Calcutta, 1921. Pp. 363-404 Philosophy of Mahavira. Aim and scope - Review of modern studies in Jainism : Lack of historical method--Acknowledgement of debts to the lain scholars--A general reflectian on Indian life in the time of Mahāvira and Buddha - The bearing of political history upon the progress of thought and the development of language-Uninterrupted growth of Sanskrit -The origins of pessimism--The problem of misery and other ethical problems. A short account of Mahävira's life : flis names and birthplace-His parentage : The source of his anti-Brahmanical feelings-Marriage--Renunciation. Pärsvanātha and Mahāvira--His philosophy-Sources of information-Kariyam or Karijāvāda was the original name of what is now known as Jainism-Significance of the name Niganthu. In which sense Päráva may be called a precursor of Mahāvīra -- The original Nigantha order---Päráva doctrine-Modern interpretation of the term cātuyāma samvara --Contrast between Pārsva and Mahavira. The former was a mere religious teacher, the latter a religious philosopher-Mahāvīra's philosophic predecessor was Gosāla-Three questions relating to the ecclesiastical history of the Jains, and their answeis Definition of Kiriyam. Gosäla, Mahāvīra and Buddha-Buddha's interpretation and criticism of pre-Jain and contemporary philosophers from the standpoint of his ethicThe fundamental categories and maxim of Mahāvīras ethics-Modification of Buddhas interpretation of his predecessor's fundamental ethical thesis, and of Mahävira's interpretation of pre-Jain philosophies-- Difference between the views of Mahavira and Buddha, and the correlation of Niyativāda and Kriyāvāda. The category of Jiva--Gosāla's determinism did not exclude the notion of freedom of the will, nor did Mahävira's dynamism altogether set aside the rule of fateGosäla, Mahāvīra and Buddha : Transition from a Biological to a psychological, or from a physical to an ethical stand-point-Threefold division of actions into deed. word, and thought-There is physical determinism : Soul is in its nature absolutely pure. The category of Ajīva : Its signification--the problems of knowledge-Sañjaya, Mahävira and Buddha-Syadvada-Pañc aasti-kaya. Page #497 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1516 1852 S. N. DAS GUPTA-A History of Indian Philosophy. Vol. I. Cambridge, 1922. Pp. 169-207. The Jain Philosophy. The origin of Jainism-Two sects of Jainsm The canonical and other literature of the Jains-Some general characteristics of the Jains-Life of Mahävira-The fundamental idea of Jain ontology-The doctrine of relative pluralism (Anekantaväda)-The doctrine of Syadvada-Knowledge, its value for us-Theory of perception, Non-perception knowledge-knowledge as revealation-The Jivas-Karma theory-Karma, Asrava and Nirjara-Pudgala-Dharma, Adharma, Akäia-Kala and Samaya-Jain cosmography-Jain Yoga-Jain atheism-Mokļa (emancipation). 1853 H. P. SASTRI-Chrology of the Nyaya System. (JBORS, Vol. viii, 1922, Pp. 13-28). Haribhadra Suri and prmeya sutra-Nyaya Sutras, a sectarian work-Jains and the Saptabhanginyaya or Syadada. JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1854 Paul MASSON-OURSEL-Esquisse d'une Histoire de la Philosophie Indienne. (A Sketch of the History of Indian Philosophy). Paris, 1923. Pt. 3. On Jain and Buddhist thought. 1855 S. RADHAKRISHNAN-Indian Philosophy. Vol. I. London, 1923. P. 286. Pluralistic realism of the Jains. 1856 Gopinath KAVIRAJ-The Doctrine of Pratibha in Indian Philosophy. (ABORI, vol. v, 1924, Pp. 113-132). Pp. 126-128. Jainism. Omniscience explained by an appeal to the nature of jiva and the existence of the Past and the Future--Classification of InstitutionRise of institution-Process of dawning of Institution-described. 1857 MAITREYA-Buddha Mimamsā. London & Calcutta, 1925. P. 34. Jain Mandir include Baddhist and Jain temples proper. Buddha not the son of a Jina. Page #498 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 35 (n3). Jina meaning Vishnu referred to by Hemachandra. Word (n4.) Jina, Jinendra, Jaitra applied to Buddha meaning the mightly. Jina used as epithet of Buddha and again as Arhat or Tirthaka of the Jains mentioned in the Vaijayantikosha Yadavaprakāśa. P. 176. Tirthamālā-stavana-a Jain classical work. 1858 C. R. JAIN-Sacred Philosophy. (Allahabad). (no date) A discourse on the Jain Siddhanta. 1859 R. D. RANADE-A Constructive Survey of Upanisadic Philosophy, Poona, 1926. P. 134. The passage of Kauslaki Upanisad (IV, 20) leads to the view that the souls fills the whole of the body, a doctrine which is not unlikely to have led to the Jaina doctrine that as large as the body is even so large is the soul, that the soul of elephant is as large as the body of elephant, while the soul of ant is only as large as the body of ant. 1517 1860 S. K. BELVALKAR & R. D. RANADE-History of Indian Philosophy. Vol. II. Poona, 1927. P. 423(n). Mention of Sanjaya Belatthiputta as paving the way for Jainism. P. 445. Jainism-its Kriyavada explained. P. 446. Jainism-its categories explained. 1861 J. L. JAINI-Gommatasāra Javakaṇḍa (The Soul) of Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravarti, Lucknow, 1927. (Introduction, text with English translation and commentary). It deals primarily with the soul. Page #499 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1518 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Contents-The name and origin of the book-the author (10th century A.D.)the four Anuyogas of Jainism-omniscience-early Jain sacred literature-(the 12 Angas-five Parikarmas-sütra-14 Pürvagatas-five chūlikās)-the Jaina theory of Numbers and its 21 kinds-Jaghanya Parita Asamkhyata and Ananta-the contents of Gommalasura-the Philosophy of the book-vitalities-consciousness-Attentionknowledge and its 8 kinds-the soul and the body--soul classes and its 406 kindsNigodas-vegetables-Bhogabhumi-the neclei-Spiritual stages-Text and translation and Index. 1862 J. L. JAINI-Commatasāra Karmakunda (Part-I) of Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravarti, Lucknow, 1927. (Introduction, text with English translation and commentary). It deals with the material and self-forged Karmic fetters of the soul. Contents-The six substances-the embodied soul-the seven tattvas-Karmic matter-39 kinds of inflow and their difference-Inflow of the eight karmasBondage and its causes and kinds-148 sub-classes of karmas-Fruition of karmaLiberation-11 Pratimas-vows. Index. 1863 R. R. SHARMA-The Yogachara theory of the external world-(A.I.O.C., Session V: 1928). Pp. 883 & 395. Jain philosophers Samantabhadra, Prabhachandra, Vidyanand & others. 1864 JWALA PRASAD-Indian Philosophy. Allahabad, 1928. P. 37. General Introduction to the Jain system. P. 39. Outlines of the Jain Philosophy. P. 50. Jain literature. P. 60. Vardhamana Mahavira, the reputed teacher of Jainism was the senior contemporary of Buddha. Page #500 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1519 P. 89 In the mediaeval age the Jains and the Buddhists developed an independent system of logic which was confined to the discussion of strictly logical problems. P. 117. Yoga philosophy presents remarkable resemblance to Jainism and Buddhism in the nature of the Yoga discipline and its consistently predominent note of pessimism. 1865 Prabhu Dutt SHASTRI–The essentials of Eastern Philosophy, New York, 1928. Pp. 57-66. Jain logic, psychology, metaphysics, and ethics. 1866 C. R. JAIN-Confluence of Opposites. Delhi, 1928. Jainism-Jain logic-Jainism and Science-Jainism and Yoga--Tirthankaras Ritual. 1867 C. R. JAIN-Jaina Psychology. Allahabad, 1929. An exposition of Jain psychology. 1868 S. N. Das GUPTA--Yoga Philosophy. Calcutta, 1930. Pp. 65-67. Beginning from Acārānga, Uttaradhyayana-sutra and the Sūtra Krtānga and passing through Tattvārthadhigama-sūtra to Hemacandra's Yogaśāstra, Jains had been founding their yoga discipline merely on the basis of a system of morality indicated by the Yamas. Yoga Sūtra was written shortly after the close of the epoch of the early Upanişad under the influence of old Bhuddhism and Jainism. P. 144. The simile used by the Jains in explaining the pervasion of the bɔdy by the soul is just the same as with Rāmānuja. The soul being atomic in size-on the basis of their expression anuguradehaparimana. P, 151. Nyāya and Jain objection tuat if Puruşa were the principle of intelligence, then all things should be directly illuminated by it, and there would be no need of the help of any organ such as the Buddhi, is groundless, for knowledge in Page #501 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1520 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY our ordinary sense means that a limited content should appear revealed as the experience of a person. P. 155. As against tee Jains and the school of Rāmānuja, Samkhya yoga argues with the Naiyāyikas in holding that the souls are omni present. P. 181. Gunaratna referred to Maulikyasänkhya (original Sānkhya school) in his commentary of Şaddarśana-samucavya. Pp. 237-8. If we take a bird's eye view of the Jaina we find the denial of Isvara is mainly due to the fact that all that he could do is really determined by Karma. P. 243. fn. 2. Jain objects to the argument to prove the existence of a creator on the basis of the collocation of parts. P. 263. Citta aecording to Yoga, is regarded as being spread all over the body just as the Jains thought of the soul. P. 303. Jains had exactly the same code of morality of the Yoga system and Hemacandra in his Yogaśāstra relates how Kausiki having told the truth in pointing out the way of the bandits to the villagers had violated the law of Ahimsā and gone to hell. P. 327. When we attempt to get at the root of the detailed Karma theory of Yoga which bears a strong Jain colouring we see that by the Karmas some new kinds of matter stuff are produced which may be called virtue or vice. P. 328. Karmas however do not penetrate into the puruşa of Yoga after the Jain fashion and eannot therefore, obscure his visiob or weaken his soul. 1369 K. B. PATHYK-Dharmakirti's Trilakṣaṇahetu attacked by Patrakesari and defended by Patrakesari and defended by Santarakṣita. (ABORI, vol. XII ; 1930-31), Pp. 71-30. 1870 (ABORI, vol. XIII; H. R. KAPADIA- A note on Siddhiviniscaya and Srstiparıkşa. 1931-32). Page #502 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1521 1871 Dr. Betty HEIMANN -Philosophical Aspect of Ahimsa. (Substance the lecture delivered at the B.O.R.I. Poona, 25th Feb. 1932, ABORI. vol. XIII; 1931-32) Pp. 331-334. 1872 H. D. BHATTACHARYYA--The Vicissitudes of the Karma Doctrine, (Malaviya Commemoration volume, Benares, 1932. Pp. 491-526.) P. 497. Jainism evolved a salvation knowledge, a residence of Siddhas and a karma with form. P. 498. Jainism dispensed with the necessity of a moral Governor and yet upheld the validity of moral law. P. 500. Jainism constructed tiers of heaven and hells to make provision for saints and sinners of different grades in after life. P. 507. The Jaina view that Salvation could come only to man was accepted by other creeds--the Nyāya-Vaiseșikas, the Samkhya-Yoga and Buddhism favoured a negative definition of salvation while Jainism and Vedāntism associated pleasure with salvation. 1873 A. B. KEITII - Some Problems of Indian Philosophy, (1.H.Q. Vol. VIII, 1932). P. 438. The Yoga doctrine that Dharmā dharman (or Karman) are the product of the prakrties--familiar with the idea in Jainism. 1874 D. C. CHATTERJEE-The Doctrine of Trirüpa Hetu. I.H.Q. vol. IX, 1933. P. 506. Jain logicians object to the doctrine of the threefold character of a "hetu' and aver that one characteristic i.e. anyathanupapatti is alone sufficient to make hetri a valid one. P. 508. If the Sadhya is not proved the 'hetu' also is not proved, for the 'hetu according to Jainas is inseperably connected with the Sadhya and is ascertained as such in the Sadhyadharmin. Page #503 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1522 1875 J. C. JAIN-The Metaphysical Significance of Dharma and Adharma in Jains Metaphysics. IH.Q. vol. IX, 1933. Pp. 793-794. Division of the universe to Jtvastikāya and Ajwastikaya according to Jain metaphysics discussed. Concept of Dharma ann Adharma fully explained. 1876 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY D. C. CHATTERJEE-Hetucakranirnaya. (I.H.Q. Vol. IX, 1933). P. 266. Mention of references found in Jain works relating to Diñnäga the Buddhist scholar. 1877 G. V. BUDHAKAR--Is the Advaita of Sankara Buddhism in disguise? (QJMS. vol. 24, No. 1, 1933, Bangalore). Pp. 5-6 & 15. The Jain references, mention the Vedanta from 400 B.C.The Satrakritanga gives both absolutism and theism. But all the later. authorities generally refer to the first only. No theistic or Pañcaratric view is given. 1878 J. N. SINHA-Indian Psychology. London, 1934. Pp. 2-3. Theory of sense organs and their functions. P. 16. Vidyanandin in his Tattvartha-Šlokavärttika argues that so called motor organs (karmendriya) are included in the tactual organ. P. 17. Jain does not recognise manas as a sense organ. P. 20. Jain holds that only visual organ is apräpyakāri. Pp. 86-7. Theory of acquired preception according to Jain. P. 89. The difference between the Jain and the Vedantist in their views of acquired perceptions. P. 93. Jain holds that recognition is a single Psychosis but is not a kind of perception. It is a unique Psychosis. Page #504 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1523 P. 99. Theory of recognition according to Jain. Jain regards recognition as a single unitary Psychosis produced by perception and recollection both, which apprehends the identity of an object in the past and the present. Pp. 99-102. Jain criticism of the Nyāya, Vaišeșika and the Buddhist view. P, 106-9. Jain theory of perception. P. 164. Jain upholds the theory of nominalism of Buddhists as also realism of the Naiyāyika, a class of Vaišeșika and Mimāmsakas regarding the notion of universal. P. 165. Jain is not out and out nominalist like the Buddhist though they deny the existence of class essence they are nominalists with a leaning towards realism. Pp 172-4. The modified nominalism notion. of the Jain regarding universal Pp 174-77. Jain criticism of the Buddhist nominalism. Pp. 177-8. Jain criticism of the Nyāya Vaiseșika realism. P. 179. Jain refutation of the Mimāṁsaka object about universality. P. 180-1. Ramanuja holds almost the same view as the Jaina as regards the universal, P. 181. Jain and Rāmānuja hold that universal is real, it exists in the individual in the form of common characters; there is no other universal besides them. Pp. 191-2. The Bhatta criticism of the Jaina doctrine of Universal. P. 199. According to Jain a cognition is perceived by itself in apprehending its object. It is not perceived by any other cognition. Pp. 206-9. Jain criticism of the Bhatta doctrine about the perception of cognition. Pp. 214-218. Jain criticism of the Nyāya Vaišeșika doctrine about the perception of cognition. Pp. 244-5. The Jain doctrine ef the perception of the self, Page #505 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1524 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 260. Jain agrees with Prabhākara in holding that in every cognition of an object there is the cognition of the self, the object and itself. Every cognition is appropriated by the self, P. 265. Vadideva Sūri in his Pramānanayatattvaloka defines Sam-saay as uncertain knowledge consisting in an alteration between various extremes owing to the absence of proof or disproof. P. 270. Vādideva Süri gives a similar account about anadhyavasāya with that of Vallabhācārya, author of Nyāyalilavati. P. 271. Ratnaprabhācārya 'in his Ratnakarāvatārikā explains the nature of anadhyavasāya as defined by Vādideva Sūri. It is a bare apprehension of an object in the form 'what it is'. In it the particular features of the object are not distinctly presented to consciousness. P. 284. Anyathākhyāli or viparitakhyāti is advocated by the Jaina. P. 335. Jain believes in super-normal perception. P. 361. Jaina divides super normal preception into two kinds : (i) empirical perception (sāmvyāvaharika) and the (ii) transcendental perception (pāramārthika). Pp. 362-3. Jain criticism of the Nyāya-Vaišeșika doctrine of yogic intuition. Pp. 364-7. Jain doctrine of omniscience. Mimāṁsakas objection to the Jain doctrine of omniscience. Jain a refutation of Mimāṁsaka objection to doctrine of omniscience. 1879 Srikāntha SHASTRI- Jain Epistemology. (A.I.O.C., Session VIII; 1935), P. 49. 1880 S. MOOKERJEE-The Buddhist Philosophy of Universal flux. Calcutta, 1935. Pp. 173-179. The soul theory of Digambara Jains-its difference with Buddhism--fully discussed. P. 250. The Sautrantikas vehemently opposed this doctrice of the duality of nature--the division of entities into substantial and phenomenal aspects and they scenied in it the reminiscence of Sānkhya and Jain doctrine. Page #506 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1525 P. 30!. Jains holding an intermediate view on the relation of the sense organ with the object having Vedānta and Yoga on one side and Buddhist on the other. P. 305. Jain position regarding the contractual relation between sense-organs fully discussed. P. 342. Jain doctrine of relativity (anekāntavāda) means the miraculous efficiency of reconciling all contradictions. Jain view of no soul distinct from the mind. P. 365. Mention of absence of Syllogistic form of argument in phases of Jain logic. P. 376. Gangesa's views on Jain Logicians mentioned. Pp. 578-9. Mention of Jain logicians views on the triple characteristics and fivefold characteristics of probans. P. 382. Pātravasvāmin, the Jain logician. P. 383. Jain theory of the probans discussed. P. 392. Mention of Jains non-allegiance to Dignāgas philosophy. P. 398. The doctrine of antarvyāpti (internal concomitance) originally the creation of Jain logic Siddhasena Divãkara (6th century) and Hemachandra Sūri (12th century) Jain logicians. No mention in Jayantabhatta as to the originality of the doctrine of antarvyāpti being Jain ar Buddhist. P. 400. Indian logic incomplete without study of Jain and Buddhistic logic, 1881 J. C. JAIN -The Conception of Soul in Jainism. I. H. Q, Vol. XI. 1935. P. 138. Jain Philosophy of soul discussed. P. 139. Mention of Upādhyāya Yaśovijayaji an 18th century Jain saint. Division of soul in Jain theology into mukta (liberated) and samsarin (nonliberated) fully discussed. P. 140. Division of living matter (sacitta) and dead matter (aeitta) discussed. Page #507 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1526 JAIN BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 141. Jain view of life in the vegetable kingdom-explained ; observance of Nature in Jain philosophy-discussed. 1881 (i) Francis GRANT-Oriental Philosophy. New York, 1936. Pp. 20-30. History and Philosophy of Jainism. 1882 C. HAYAVADANA RAO-The Srikara Bhasya by Sripati. Bangalore, 1936. 2 Vols. Vol. I. Introductions : P. XXVII. Jainism offshoot of Upanishadic thought but independent in its outlook. P. XLII. Bādarāyana agrees with the Jains, that continued existence cannot be disputed. P. 15. Śrīpati stupefied the Jains. P. 46. Āhavamalla and his dynasty were Jains but tolerant towards Saivism. P. 135. Note. Kumārapala converted to Jainism in A.D. 1159. Pp. 209-213. Arrangements of the Brahma-sūtras of Bădarāyana by different commentators-Rejection of Vivasana or Jain system : Suka 1550 A.D. - Pasupathyadhikarana 11. 2. 32-35. Sankara 788-8?0 A.D. - Ekasminnasambhavādhikaranam 11.2.33-36. Rāmānuja 1140 A.D. - -do 11.2.31-34. Anandatirtha 1238 A.D. Naikasmin adhikaranam 11.2.33-36. Nimbārka 1250 A.D. 11.2.33-36. Vallabha 1479-1544 A.D. -doSuka agrees with the commentators that Bādarāyala rejects the Jain system in the Ekasminnasambhavadhikaraṇam. Page #508 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1527 P. 649. Saptabhangi nyāya. P. 678. Existence and non-existence. P. 839. Jain indifference to caste. 1883 A. N. UPADHYE - Jainism and Karma Doctrine, (J. A., II, 1, pp. 1-28, Arrah, 1936). The various aspects of Karma doctrine are found in Jainism. The Indian continent is geographically and naturally favourable for speculative thought, and it is here that the help of the theory of transmigration was invoded to explain the inequalities of the human life. Then here is presented a review of the theory of Atman through the various stages of Indian literature, 1884 Rhys DAVIDS- The Birth of Indian Psychology. London, 1936. P. 110. In later days the Buddhists saw in the teaching of the Jain founder mainly a gospel of restraint or Samvara. P. 278. Pali and Jain scriptures we find the triplet; action of body; action of speech ; action of mind or word, thought and deed. Pp. 346-347. Origin and development of the word Arhanta. P. 393. In Jain doctrine, it is the soul (Jiva) that is coloured. 1885 Rhys DAVIDS--The birth of Indian Psychology and its development in Buddhism---- London 1936. P. 110. Buddhists findings of a gospel of restraint or Samvera in the teachings of Jain Founder. P. 271. Mention of triplet, action, body, speech and mind in the Jain scriptures. P. 393(n). In Jain doctrine, it is the soul (Jiva) that is coloured. - 1886 Jainism and Karma doctrine. (Jain, Ant. vol. II, No. 1) Arrah, AN UPADHYE 1936. Pp. 1 to 28. Page #509 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1528 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY On the antecedents of the Karma theory the law of cause and effect is not always effective in its operations. The various local conditions remaining the same, one is tempted to seek their cause in some previous birth or births. The doctrine of transmigration is the starting point of all Indian religions. The doctrine of Karma presupposes, and is meaningless without, a fully developed doctrine of transmigration through which is passing a permanent soul. The Jațilas were Kriyāvādins, According to Dr. KEITH (Buddhistic philosophy, p. 113) Buddha borrowed the Karma doctrine from the Jatilas. It may be possible that the Buddha was indebted for his Karma doctrine to Jainism which too was a Kriyāvāda and the antiquity of which over Buddhism is an undisputed fact. 1887 Kalipada MITRA--Knowledge and conduct in Jaina Scriptures. (Jain Ant. Vol. III; No. III ; Arrah ; 1937 ; Pp 67-73). Both Jhana and Kriya are necessary for the attainment of mokṣa without knowledge action becomes ineffectual-therefore both should be treated as equal. Problems discussed by citing texts. 1888 Betty HEIMANN- Indian and Western Philosophy, London, 1937. P. 89. Jain logic--the theory af the five or seven-fold reality of thingsSyāduada. P. 110. Figures in Jain sculpture repeated in rows of the same or similar type-a representation of law of plurality. P. 123. Observation of Ahimşa by Jains. 1889 H. M. BHATTACHARYA-The Jaina theory af Knowledge and Error. (Jain Ant. Vol. IV; No. 1 ; Arrah ; 1938 ; Pp. 23-32). The paper deals with the Jaina theory of knowledge and error (1) Metaphysic of knowledge ; (2) Knowledge and self-consciousness ; (3) The conditions of knowledge ; (4) The position of the not-self or object in the knowledge situation ; (5) The limits of knowledge ; (6) The Jaina test of Truth ; (7) The Jaina theory of Error, Page #510 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1529 1890 J. N. SINHA-- Indian Realism. London, 1938. P. 18. Nyäyavaiseșika, Mimāṁsaka and Jain hold that a cognition apprehends an object without being invested with its form, even as a sword cuts an object without being invested with its form. A lamp illuminates blue and other objects but it does not assume their forms. Po. 61-76. Jain Realism. The Jain realism contrasted with the Sauträntika realism. Jain criticism of Sautrāntika realism. P. 66. Whether the parts of a body are in conflict with one another or in harmony with one another present no difficulty to the Jaina who is an advocate of pluralistic realism or relativism (anekantavada). Pp. 66-71. Mallisena's exposition of the Yogācāra idealism ; and his criticism af the same. P. 220. Mallisena borrows in his Syadvāda-mañjari in almost the same language the details of criticism of the subjective idalism from Sridhara's Nyāyakandali. P. 224. The cognitive act apprehenns its object by its very nature without being invested with the form of the object. The Jain, the Mimāṁsaka and some Vedāntins hold this doctrine. P. 235. Cognition without an object is impossible. 1891 Sadhu SANTINATH --Sadhana, Poona. (Review by S. S. in QJMS, Vol. 29, 1938-39, P. 53). The spiritual discipline or Sadhana : The non-Vedic Jain reconciles the world as constituted of conscious and unconscious entities in a world uncreated by God and says that beyond Karma Law there is no regulator of the body. 1892 Hari Mohan BHATTACHARYA- Jaina Critique of the Samkhya And the Minamsa Theories of the Self in relation to knowledge. (Jain Ant. Vol. V; No. I, Arrah; 1939; Pp. 21-25). (1) Examination of the Sāmkhya position ; (2) Examination of the Mimārsa ka position. Page #511 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1530 1893 S. C. GHOSHAL-Mind in Jain Philosophy. (Jain Ant. Vol. V; No. III; Arrah; 1939; Pp. 75-79). This article summarises the view of the Jaina philosophers whether mind is to be regarded as a servee or not and compare this view with the same in Hindu Philosophers. Mind is called in Jain logic Anindriya or No-indriya. The view of Jain logicians is the same as that of the Hindu Nyaya Philosophy. It is not confined. to particular object cognizable by particular senses or contact but it can cognise all. objects, cognizable by the five senses. 1894 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY S. C. CHATERJEE-Nyaya Theory of Knowlegde. Calcutta, 1939, P 133. Pratyaksa, perception is of two kinds, mukhya or the Primary and Samyavaharika or the Practical; the first is independent of the mind and senses and the second is conditioned by both mind and senses. P. 143. Sense is a physical organ with specific energy (Sakti). P. 181. The Jains and Advaita Vedäntas adopt a conceptualistic view of the universal. P. 222. According to Jains all true knowledge must be a definite and an assured cognition of objects. P. 226. Jains take Pratyabhijña to mean recognition in the sense of both understanding the nature of an object and knowing that it was perceived before. P. 254. Jains hold that Anumana is the method of knowing an unperceived object through the perception of a sign and the recollection of its invariable concomitance with the object. P. 331. What the Naiyayikas calls Upamana or comparison is according to Jains, a form of Pratyabhija. P. 348. In the Jain system Sabda is recognised as separate Pramana or source of knowledge. P. 349. While in the Nyaya system scriptural testimony depend on divine revelation, in the Jaina it comes from the perfected and omniscient finite self. Page #512 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1531 P. 381. Jains and the Naiyāyikas take Sabda as the statement of a perfectly realiable person. P. 406. Jain accept Smộti as a source of valid knowledge. It is not merely a revival of the past experience but its essence lies in the knowledge of some thing as 'that'as past (talityakāra). P. 409. Prabhacandra and Hobhouse point out that inference in its turn involves memory. 1895 CHATTEEJLE and DATTA - Introduction to Indian Philosophy. Calcutta, 1939. The founders of Jainism and their place in Jain faith--they are libera P. 83. ted souls. P. 84. The two sects of Jainism--Svetāmbaras and Digambaras. literatures. Their P. 85. Then Philosophical outlook of Jainism. Pp. 86-89. Conciousness is the essence of soul; it manifests itself and other objects. Immediate and mediate knowledge and their kinds. Aksa in Parokșa is interpreted as Jiva and not indriya as ordinarily P. 87 fo. explained. P. 89. Cārvāka school criticised by the Jain. P. 90. Jain theory of Judgment. Every judgment expresses one aspect of reality and is therefore relative and subjective to some condition. Pp. 92-93. Different systems of Philosophy represent different partial aspects of reality and therefore every judgment should be qualified by some word like somehow Syät expressing conditionality. This view is called Syādvada. Pp. 94-97. The seven forms of judgment of Saptabhanginaya. P. 98. It is a kind of relativism but is realistic but not idealistic. It is not also scepticism. Every object is found to possess inumerable P. 99. Jain metaphysics. characters, positive and negative. Page #513 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1532 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 100. Moreover every object acquires new character with changes in time, Only the omniscient therefore knows and object fully. P. 101. Jain conception of substance. The world is composed of substances of different kinds and a substance is possessed of some unchanging essential characters (Guna) and accidental characters undergoing modification (Paryāyas). Change and Permanence are both, therefore real. P. 102. There are three factors present in reality, viz. permanence, origination and decay. Casual efficiency is not the mark of reality as Buddhas think. The Buddha theory of momentariness is also untenable. Classification of substances. Subs P. 203. Refutation of momentariness. tances extended and non-extended. P. 104. The living and the non-living substances. The fettered and the liberated substances. The Moving and the non-moving; the five kinds of immobile living substances having only one sense. The mobile living substances having two to five senses. P. 106. Jiva is a soul, souls have varying degrees and kinds of knowledge. The soul manifests itself and others. It is eternal. Pp. 107-8. Like light the soul pervades the entire body in which it lives. Soul's occupying space simply means its presence in the defferent part of space and not filling space like a material body allowing no other matter to occupy it. Soul's presence does not prevent another soul's presence in a same space. Proofs for the existence of soul. P. 109. Cārvāka view that unconscious material elements can produce consciousness is not verified by perception nor by inference. The inanimate substances ajīvas ---Pudgala, Akasa, Kala, Dharma Pp. 110 - 14. and Adharma. P. 115. Bondage of the soul. The soul in itself is possessed of infinite potentiality. Due to Karman it is associated with matter and thus its limitation or bondage occurs. P. 116. Passions attract matter to the soul, the body and other conditions of an individual are all due to Karma. Page #514 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1533 P. 117. The passions causing bondage are anger, pride, infatuation and greed. Bondage of the soul to matter is due to its bondage to bad dispositions or passions. P. 118. Interpenetration of the soul and matter is proved by the presence of consciousness in every part of the body. Liberation is the expulsion of matter from the soul. P. 119. Ignorance is the cause of passions. Knowledge alone can remove ignorance. Right knowledge is obtainable from the teachings of the omniscient Tirthankaras. Therefore faith in them is necessary. Knowledge is perfected in right conduct. P. 120. Right faith, right knowledge and right conduct constitute the three gems of a good life. They jointly produce liberation. Right faith is respect for truth. It is not blind faith. It is the the minimum will to believe without which no study can rationally begin. P. 121. Perfect faith can result only from perfect knowledge. Right knowledge consists in the detailed knowledge of all truth. Removal of Karma is necessary for this. Right conduct is refraining from wrong and performing what is right, P. 122. The five great vows form the basis of right conduct. The principles underlying these accepted by many other faiths. The vow of Ahimsā or non-injury to life. It is based on the idea of potential equality of all souls. P. 123. Ahimsā must be practicised in thought, speech and action; the vow of Satya or truthfulness consists in speaking what is true, as well as pleasant and good; the vow of asteya or non-stealing is based on the idea of the sanctity of property. P. 124. The vow of Brahmacharya consists in abstaining from all forms of self indulgence; the vow of Apari graha consists in abstaining from all attachment to sense-objects ; right knowledge, faith and conduct jountly bring about liberation consisting in fourfold perfection. P. 125. Jainism as a religion without God ; the grounds of Jaina atheism. Neither perception nor inference can prove God. The quality attributed to God Page #515 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1534 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY are not reasonable. The Jains worship the liberated souls possessing God-like quality instead of God. The religious fervour of the Jains does not therefore suffer. Jainism is a religion of self help. P. 87 in. Early writers lik Umāsvāmi confine Aparokşa only to soul's immediate knowledge without any medium. Hemacandra extended it to ordinary perception as well to justify Akşa interpreted as Jiva and not indriya as ordinarily explained. 1896 S. C. CHAKRAVARTY--The philosophy of the Upanişads. Calcutta, 1939. P. 54. Sānkhya, Cārvāka, Buddhist and Jain systems should be placed in another group called the atheistic group. P. 55. The Yoga philosophy followed closely on the lines of the Sānkhya system which greatly influenced the Buddhist and the Jaina philosophies. P. 200. Sankara first turns his dialectic guns against the unorthodox systems of Buddhists and Jains and the orthodox Vaišeşika, Nyāya, Sānkhya and Yoga systems. 1897 & A. N. UPADHYE--References to Svadvāda in the Ardhamagadhi Canon, (Proc. Trans. of the A.I.O.C., IX, Pp. 669-72, Trivandrum, 1940). With a view to shed light on antecedents and history of the doctrine of Syūdvada, some crucial passages from the Ardhamagadhi canon are broght together and discussed critically. 1898 A. S. GOPANI-Characteristics of Jainism. (Bharatiya Vidya I, Pt. 2. Pp. 168-178, Bombay, 1940). The Jain conception of Philosophy ; Syāduāda, the the most striking inventions of the Jainas ; Nayavāda ; Jaina metaphysics ; their historical principles; Jaina Physics, Ahimsa and the doctrine of Karma. Page #516 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ TAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1535 1899 T.K.V.N. SUDARSANACHARYA-Some parallel coneepts of Jainism and Vedanta (Jour. of Sri Venkatesvara Oriental Inst. II, Part I, Pp. 57-64). Tirumalai --Tirupati, 1941. The writer compares the system with the Vedic texts and points out the parallels. 1900 G. HANUMANTHA RAO- Anekāntavāda or the Jain philosophy of Relativity (Halfyearly Jour. of Mysore Uni. II. Pt. 2, Pp. 79-91. Mysore, 1942). 1901 Barry GIFFORD-Tr. Doctrine of Karman in Jain philosophy. Translated into English from the original German work by Dr. H.V. GLASSENAPP. Pp. XXVI 104. Bombay, 1942. Law of Karma is one of the cardinal principles on which the Jain metaphysics is based-next to the doctrine of Ahimsa. 1902 M. A. VENKATA RAO-A note on Nyāyamakaranda. (Essentials of Authentic Advaita (Q.J.M.S. Vol. 32, No. 3, 1942), Bangalore. Nyāyamakaranda, an advaitic exposition by Anandabodhācārya of perhaps the 12th century A.D. P. 263. The idea of salvation, liberation, or Mokșa. Jainism holds that perfection consists in endless progress in thought, feeling and activity a very modern doctrine indeed. (this is the view of Jainism current in Vedāntic criticism. I have since reason to doubt this interpretation. Even the Jains seem to prefer enternity in the end. M.A.V. RAO). It is perhaps the only Indian system that conferg eternal value on time. Alexander would be very surprised to know that from more than 2,500 years past an Indian scheme of religion is maintaining substantially his view. Page #517 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1536 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1903 (i) Helmuth Von GLASSENAPP-The doctrine of karman in Jain philosophy. Bombay, 1942 (Bai Vijibai Jivanlal Panalal charity fund) translated from the original German by Mr. G. Barry Gifford, Pp. i--xxvi and 1-104. 1903 (ii) G. HANUMANTA RAO--Anekantavuda or the Jaina Philosophy of relativity. The halfyearly Journal of the Mysore University, II, Mysore, 1942. Pp. 79-92. Attempts to bring out only those features of Jainism that reflect the relativistic principles. 1904 P. N. SRINIVNSACHARI--The Philosophy of Visistadvaita. Adyar, 1943, P. 347. Buddhism and Jainism favour, more than any other religion, the ethics of Ahimsa and Jiva Kärun ya extended even to the sub-human species. P. 476. Jain posits the existence of fiva and explains mukti as the severance of the Atman from the influence of Karma and the entry of the self into endless perfection. P 592. The combination of two tatvas led to the formulation of the Jain and Sankhya systems and the schools of personalism. 1905 K. C. BHATTACHARYA-The Jain theory of Anekānta-vada. (Jain Ant. Vol. IX: No. I; Arrah; 1943, Pp. 1-14). The Jaina theory of anekanta-vāda or the manifoldness of truth. This paper discusses the conception of a plurality of determinate truth to which ordinary realism appears to be committed and to show the necessity of an indeterministic extension such as is presented by the Jaina theory. The Jaina theory elaborates a logic of indermination--not in reference to the will--but in reference to knowing, though it is a pragmatist theory in some sense. As a realist, the Jaina holds that truth is not constituted by willing though he admits that the knowledge of truth has a necessary reference to willng. His theory Page #518 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1537 of interministic truth is not a form of scepticism. It represents toleration of many modes of truth. 1906 H. JACOBI-The Metaphysics and Ethics of the Jainas. (Published in the transaction of third I.C. for the History of Religions). (Jain Ant. vol. X; No. I; Arrah, 1944, Pp. 32--40). Jainism, at least in its final form, which was given it by its last prophet the twenty-fourth Tirthankara Mahavira, took its rise in that part of Eastern India wherein an earlier period, according to the Upanisads, Yajnavalkya had taught the doctrine of Brahman and Atman. The position taken by the Jainas towards the problem of being discussed. The Jaina theory of Being. Syadvada. The doctrine of Nayas. Relation between Jaina philosophy and Sankhya-Yoga. Karma. Nyaya and Vaiseṣika systemes. Jainism is an original system, quite distinct and independent from all others. 1907 Satkari MOOKERJEE-The Jaina Philosophy of Non-Absolutism, Calcutta, 1944, P. xxii-+-323. In this book the author has discussed at length the Jaina philosophy of 'NonAbsolutism (Anekäntavada) with his philosophical insight, logical analysis and critical exposition. It reveals an ideology entirely different from the Vedic. It is not an exhaustive account of Jaina thought, but an analytical studo of its foundation. Jaina philosophy is frankly realistic and so stands in a close relation of kinship to the Nyaya, Mimänsä and Sankhya system of thought. Contents: Ch.I. The logical Background of Jaina philosophy. Ch. II. Non-Absolutism-an absolute real can neither be a cause nor an effect; the Jaina solves the difficulty by means of anekanta, Vedänta, Sänkhya, Mimämsä and Carvāka system discussed in relation to Jain Philosophy. Ch. III. Numerical difference and Absolute non-existence Vedäntist, Buddhist, Sünyavädin and Jaina view discussed; Nagarjuna on Sankhya and Nyaya theories and the Jaina solution; Jaina position compared and contrasted with other systems. Ch. IV. Absolute Negativism and Absolute Particularism. Fluxist on the Jaina position, voidist's position and the Jaina reply. Page #519 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1538 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Ch. V. The Inexpressible or the Infinite. Ch. VI. The Dialectic of sevenfold predication. Ch. VII. Relations : The presupposition of relation the fluxist, the Vedāntist and Bradley Dharmakīrti and Kant. The Nyāya conception of universals; the objection of Ch. VIII. Dharmakirti. Ch. IX. The Jaina conception of universals : Jinabhadra, Akalanka, Vidyānandi, Yasovijaya and Samantabhadra's view discussed. 1908 A. K. COOMARASWAMY-Time and Eternity. (Artibus Asiae, supplementum VIII). Ascona (Switzerland), 1947. P. Time (Kāla) unites procession, recession, and stasis, and by these all this (world, or universe) is united. Essentially, this is the doctrine attributed by Rāmānuja to the Jains : "Time is a particular atomic substance which is the cause of the current distinction of past, present and future". P. 57. Poussin cites some Jaina sources (ZDMG. 40; Genitasārasaņgraha, edited by M. RANGACHARYA, Madras, 1912) in which samaya as point of time corresponds to the Buddhist Kana: 'a moment (samaya) is the minimum time (kāla) required by an atom (Parmaņu) to move its own length'. 1909 H. M. BHATTACHARYA--The Principles of Philosophy. Calcutta, 1948. P. 157. Rāmānuja theory of Svavikalpa form of knowledge fully resembles that of the Jain. P. 292. Jains believe in the all vital character of the material world which is pervaded by what they called Nigodas or minute life principles. 1910 H, CHAKRAVARTY--Astinäşti Vada. Jain Ant. vol. XIV, No. I ), Arrah, 1948. Pp. 28 to 35. Astinästi vada implies the prediction of contradictory attributes of Asii and Nasti, 'is' and 'is not to the same object of Jaina metaphysics, implies that an object Page #520 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1539 can be described from one point of view, i.e., it exists and from another point of view that it does not exist. Matter discussed under the following heads : (1) self and alien ; (2) Place (3) Time (4) Form (5) Interpretation (6) Relative qualities (7) Matter and form (8) Review. 1911 Rājendra PRASAD--A critical study of the Jaina Epistemology. (Jain. Ant., vol. XIV, No. II ), Arrah, 1949. Pp. 63 to 70. To have the consciousness of an act of knowledge another act of knowledge is not necessary according to the Jain thinkers. Knowledge is known by itself. Details of Jaina epistemology discussed. Classification of knowledge into mediate and iiomediate. Samuyābahāmika pratyaksha (ordinary sense perception) is characterised by four stages, viz. Avaraha, Iha, Avāay and Dhāraṇā. Paramārtha Pratyakşa is subdivided into Sakala and Vikala. The first has Kevala-jñana--'Omniscience unlimited by space, time and objects and free from doubt, perversity and indefiniteness' and the second has Awadhijñāna and Manahparyayajñāna. There are five kinds of mediate knowledge : Smarana (memory), Pratyabhijñāna (recognition), Tarka Anumana (inference), and Agama (testimony). 1912 M. HIRYANA-The Essentials of Indian Philosopoy. London, 1949. Pp. 41, 59-60, 64. History of Jainism, Pp. 61-1. Philosophical categories of Jainism. P. 61. Notes on Jiva. P. 62. Notes on matter, time and space, Pp. 63-4. Notes on knowledge; kinds of knowledge, mediate and immediate. Pp. 65-69. Conception of reality. P. 66. Notes on universals. Pp. 61, 69-70. Goal or theology of life ; means to the attainment of goal. Pp. 68-9, 82-3. Relativism. 1913 A. CHAKRAVARTI --Samayasāra (or the nature of the self) of Sri Kunda. Kuņņācarya. Banares, 1950. Page #521 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY (Introduction, text with English translation and Amritachandra's commentary in English exposition). 1540 Samayasara, the most important philosophical work by Shri Kunda Kunda, deals with the nature of the self. Samaya is used synonimously with Ätman or Brahman, The translation and commentary are based upon Amritachandra's Atmakhyati. Jayasena's Talparyavṛti and Mallisena's Tamil commentary have also been consulted. The introduction is divided into three main groups :--- (A) Self in European thought-Greek and Christian thought; Renaissance; Bacon and Scientific method; Cartesianism mathematical methods-the English Empirism and the German Idealism. (B) Self in Indian thought--In the Upanishads (Chandogya-kathamundaka and Bṛhadaranyaka) in the Sänkhya and Vedanta system; A discussion of Dreams and Hallucinations; Jainism-its age and tenets; Muksa murga; the concept of Dravya, Asti-Nästivada, Jiva or soul. (C) Self in Modern Science-Sankara and Kundakunda; Šankara and Amritachandra and their views in relation to the Individual and Samsara, nature and the external world, the origin of the concrete world, the doctrine of causation and one and many text with translation and commentary. 1914 CHAINSUKH DASS-Jain Darshanasar. Jaipur, 1950. Pp. XL+75+20. Contents -Introduction-Universe, soul, Karmas, God and Moksha, logic, Jainism and other Indian Darshanas, Jainism and Western thought and modern Science, Ahimsa, caste system, Is Jainism a Nastika system? Jainism as a solution to some modern problems. Text in Sanskrit. And notes in English. Nathmal TATIA-Studies in Jain Philosophy, Banaras, 1951. Study of Jain dogmatics, relating to non-absolutism, epistemology, Karma and Yoga. 1915 Nathmal TATIA-Studies in Jaina Philosophy. Banaras, 1951. Pp. xxxv+327. It deals with the Jñana, Ajñana, Karma and Yoga of Jaina Philosophy. The non-absolutistic attitude of the Jainas (Nature of Brahmanical, Buddhistic and Jaina compared). Page #522 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Ch. II. The Epistemology of the Agamas (Introductory, Mati-jñana, the four Buddhis, ruta-jñana, avadhi, Manahparyaya-jhana, Kevalajana-and comparison of them). Ch. III. The problem of Avidya (yoga, Sänkhya, Nyaya, Vaišeṣika, Vedanta, Buddhist, Saiva views and compared). Ch. IV. The Jaina doctrine of Karman (Material nature, relation between the soul and karma, classification, states and process of karman). Ch. V. Jaina yoga. (the Doctrine of Gunasthana, Dhyana and Haribhadra's view). Index Authors, works, general, Sanskrit, Päli and Präkrit words. 1916 1541 Ronald, M. SMITH-Brith of Thought. (ABORI. Vol. XXXIII, 1952). P. 113. In Indian thought all things have life, and that remains the Jain belief to this day. The Jain conception of Jiva, the soul must date from about this. time, long before Mahavira. 1917 A. CHAKRAVARTI -Moghala and Saptabhangi. (Jain Ant., Vol. XVIII, No. II), 1952. Pp. 27 to 31. Moghala representing Buddhistic views, criticises the Jaina metaphysical doctrines of Nitya-anitya, Asti-nasti and Bheda and Abheda. Arguments in support of the Jain theories put forward. 1918 Harisatya BHATTACHARYYA-Satya. (Jain. Ant., vol. XIX, No. I), Arrah, 1953. Pp. 12 to 15. Satya' literally meaning telling the truth is being discussed in its various aspects and distinguished from 'Anrta' or speaking falsely with reference to various sources-Brahmanic, Buddhist and Jain. 1919 Ram Jee SINGH-Syadvada-an epistemological solution of world tension. (Jain. Ant., Vol. XIX, No. II, Pp. 22 to 32), Arrah, 1953 and (Vol. XX, No. I, Pp. 22 to 37), Arrah, 1954. Page #523 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1542 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Syadvāda discards all absolute judgements and holds that the knowledge of reality has got innumerable characteristics. Points of discussion-World tensions, need of a solution, religio spirituo, physical view, political solution, economic solution, transition to epistemological solution, theory of Syädvāda, syādavāda and anekāntavāda, seven Nayas and their fallacies, doctrine of Saptabhangi, syadvada as a doctrine of seven forms of judgement. Examination of criticisms against syadvada. Syadavāda and world tension. 1920 Heinrich ZIMMER-Philosophies of India. Ed. by Joseph Campbell. London, (2nd ed. 1953). P. 60 note 23. Dr. Zimmer regarded Jainism as the oldest of the non-Aryan group, in contrast to most accidental authorities, who consider Mahāvira, a contemporary of the Buddha, to have been its founder instead of, as the Jainas themselves (and Dr. ZIMMER) claim, only the last of a long line of Jaina teachers. Dr. ZIMMER believd that there is truth in the Jaina idea that their religion goes back to a remote antiquity, the antiquity in question being that of the pre-Aryan, so called Dravidian period. Sankhya and Yoga represented a later, psychological sophistication of the principles preserved in Jainism. P. 96. The records of the Buddhists and Jainas make it possible to study the state of in the sixth and fifth centuries B.c. P. 105. Candragupta was an adherent of a non-Vedic creed (that of the Tainas), the roots of which go back to pre-Aryan beliefs in north-western India which had never been quite eradicated by the Brahmans. P. 158. Originally, Jaina saints went about 'clothed in space' (digambara), i.e., stark naked, as a sign that they did not belong to any recognized group, sect, trade, or community. They had discarded all determining marks ; for determination is negation by specialization. No. 6. Later on, as a concession, the Jaina holy men donned the white garment and became Svetāmbara, 'clothed in white'. Pp. 181-279. Jainism. Pp. 181-204. Pārsva : his life and stories of pre-births described. Pārsvanatha attained liberation in 772 B,C.; born about 872 B.c, Page #524 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1543 Pp. 205-217. Jaina Images ; Life of Buddha and Pārsvanātha—some close correspondences shown ; Pārsva and the Buddha images based on the conceptions of older forms ; legends of Dharnendra and Mucalinda ; images of Pārsvanatha with two serpents sprouting from his shoulders (plate Vla) point to a connection with ancient Mesopotamian art (plate VIC) the Persian legend of Dahhāk corresponds to that of Kamatha (Plate Vlb). Image of Rşabhanatha ; Jaina vision of the perfected saint. Pp. 209-10. Plate vii. Rşabhanätha, Mt. Abü, 11th to 13th centuries A.D. a Typical Jaina vision of the perfected saint-described. P. 210. In ancient times the Jaina monks went about completely naked ; later on many assumed a white garment and termed themselves Svetāmbara. P. 211. Jaina iconography--the scupitor not allowed to damage the sense of his representation by modifying in any way the perfect isolation and non-particularity of the released beings. The solution--providing every image with an emblem that should refer either to the name or to some distinctive detail of the legend of the Tirthankara intended. P. 211 n. 26. At the time of Alexandar's raid across the Indus (327-326 B.C.) the Digambara were numerous ; the Greeks called them gymnosophists 'naked philosophers', a most appropriate name. Editor's note: the schism-Svetämbara and Digambara (Encyclo. Reli. & Ehic. Vol. IV. p. 704). P. 212. The Jaina colossus (of 983 A.D.) at Sravana Belgola one of the largest free-standing figures in the world ; its history and legend fully described. (Pl. viii). Legend of Bharata the first Cakravartin, note 27 : Legend of Bharata - see Kālidāsa's Sakuntala (Everyman's Library, No. 629). On a hill 15 miles from Mysore, is a statue of Gommata, 20 ft. high ; another erected in 1432 by Virapāņdya of Kārkala, South Kanara. In 1604 in the same district, in Venur, still another, 37 ft. high. Pp. 213-16. The 24 emblems of the Tirthankaras, fully described; the form, sphere and spirit of the Jaina images described. How an images affects the mind. P. 217. Jainism reflects the cosmology and anthropology of a much older, pre-Aryan upper class of north-eastern India. P, 218. Krsna's father, Vasudeva, was the brother of the father of the twenty-second Tirthankara, the Lord Aristanemi. History of Indian philosophy characterised by ruins of crises of interaction between the invasive Vedic, Aryan and the non-Aryan, earlier Dravidian styles and thought. Jain retains the structure. Page #525 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1544 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pp. 219-20. Krşņa, Rāma and the Tirthankaras, represent the resurgence of a world view totally different from that of the Aryans. Parśva can be visualized in a historical setting. Pp. 221-224. Mahāvīra, his life described. The canonical texts of the Buddhists, dating from the first centuries B.C. mention the Jaina frequently under their old name of Nirgrantha, 'without knot, tie, or string, i.e. 'the unfettered ones'; and referto them as a rival sect, but nowhere as one newly founded. Mahāvīra not a founder of a new ascetic community but the reformer of an old one. Aristanemi (or Neminātha) cousin of Krsna. Pp. 224-n. 44. The cycle of time explained. Pp. 225-26. With Aristanemi, Jaina tradition breaks beyond the bounds of recorded history into the reaches of the mythological past. And yet it does not follow that the historian would be justified in saying that some teacher of the Jaina faith-perhaps Aristanemi-did not precede Pārsvanātha. The long series of these mythological saviors, points to the belief that the Jaina religion is eternal. P. 227. A philosophy of the profoundest pessimism. The round of rebirths in the world is endless ; as a result of meritorious, or evil conduct, one is reborn a god or being of hell or an animal. The release is possible only by heroic effort-a long, really dreadful ordeal of austerities and progressive self-abnegation. Pp. 227-234. According to Jaina cosmology, the universe is a living organism, made animate throughout by life--monads which circulate through its limbs and spheres ; and this organism will never die. Life-monans and their possesions described. The six colors (leśyās) described. 'Humanity' (the phenomenon of the human being, the ideal of its perfection, and the ideal of the perfected human society) discussed. Pp. 234-40. The mark of the personality. P. 241. The Cosmic Man: The philosophy of Jainism as monistic ; in its analysis of the psychology and destiny of man, Jainism is dualistic ; Pp. 248-252. The Jaina doctrine of Bondage, Pp. 262-268. The Doctrine of Gosāla-Maskarin Gosäla's systematization of the universe was akin to the tradition of the Jainas ; the two doctrines were related being derived from some main tradition of pre-Aryan natural science and psychology; the followers of Gosāla were Ajivaka ; his doctrine described. Pp. 268-279. Man against Nature : Jainism agrees with Gosāla as to the masklike character of the persanality ; but Jainism disagrees with Gosäla's fatalistic Page #526 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1545 interpretation of the graduated roles of the play, asserting that each human individual is free to make his own escape. The universe composed of six constituents; Jiva, Ajīva, Dharma, Adharma, Kala, and Pudgala--fully described. Karmas described. The seven Tattvas, described. P. 281. Sānkhya and Yoga related to the Mechanical system of the Jainas, which can be traced back, in a partly historical, partly legendary way, through the long series of the Tirthankaras, to a remote, aboriginal, non-Vedic, Indian antiquity. Pp. 305-6. The term Kevälin denote the Jaina saint or Tīrthankara cleansed of karmic matter, detached from bondage, this perfected one ascends to the summit of the universe. The word Kevalin expressed the two meanings of 'isolated, exlusive, alone and whole, entire, absolute', both being ideas pertaining to the sphere of beatitude in perfection. Sānkhya Yoga system shares many features with the ancient pre-Aryan philosophy preserved in the beliefs of the Jainas. P. 315. Jainism viewed the interaction of the two principles (life-matter and life-monads) in terms of a kind of subtle chemistry, as a material process of per. vasion and suffusion, a tingering of the crystal of the life-monad by contamination with a subtle karmic substance. P. 331. Denunciation of ascetic extravagances of the Jainas by Buddhism and Sankhya. P. 337. From the materialistic non-Aryan philosophies of the Jainas and Gosāla, the universe is interpreted on the basis of two antagonistic eternal principles, purusa and prakrti (or Jiva and non-jiva). P. 379. It was in the great paradoxes of the epoch-making Bhagvad Gita that the non-Brahmanical, pre-Aryan thought of aboriginal India became fruitfully combined and harmonizéd with the Vedic ideas of the Aryan invaders. The nonAryan systems (Jainism, Gosāla's teaching, Sānkhya, and Yoga) were characterized by a resolutely logical, theoretical dichotomy, which insisted on a strict distinction between two spheres, that of the life-monad (jiva, puruşa) and that of matter (a-jtva, prakriti); Pp. 404-07. Yoga according to Bhagvad Gita and Jainism. P. 413. Jainism assigns a completely passive role to the self and describe the self not as the force and sustance of the cosmos but as the individual life-monad. Page #527 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1546 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY P. 474. The Jainas called their way of salvation the ford (tirtha), and the supreme Jaina teachers were, Tirthankaras, 'those making, or providing, a ford'. P. 492. Vaisali (modern Basarh, in the Hajipur subdivision of the Muzaffarpur District of Bihar Province) the ancient city near which Vardhaman Mahavira, the last of the Tirthankaras (cf. supra, Pp. 221-222) is supposed to have been born. P. 546. According to Buddhism all beings are to be regarded, respected, and treated as potential Buddha-basically the same view as that of the ancient Jaina system. Pp. 547-550. Purification of the subtle body: according to the more ancient, less psychological, more materialistic approach of the Jaina discipline, it is to be brought about by an inhibiting of the physical infux of darkening karmic colour into the crystal of the monad. Pp. 595-96. The ruthless asceticism of the 'naked philosophers' (the 'gymnosophists' who astounded Alexander's Greeks) followed logically from their resolution to be sterilized of (ajiva) dead material and thus rendered pristine-pure, luminous, and perfect. Pp. 615-18. Appendix B: Appendix B Historical summary. (Appendix B. Historical Summary): B.C. c. 2000-1000 Aryan Invasions of N. India. 325 Alenxander enters N.W. India. c. 400 B,C.-Rāmāyaṇa 200 A.D. (present form). c. 3500-1500 c. C. ? (Indus Valley Ruins). B.C. 563-483 Dravidian Civilization 872-772 Pāršāva (23rd Jain Savior). ? Gosala. Prehistoric Jaina Saviors. Buddha. 321-297. Candragupta Maurya. Canakya Kautilya (Arthaśästra). c. 274-237 Aśoka. Page #528 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1547 c. 400 B.C.-Mahabharat 400 A.D. (present form) (Bhagvad Gua). C. 80 Pali canon. c. 983 Camundrarāya (Gommata image). INDEX: Abhinandana, 4th Jaina Savior, 213. Ajita 2nd Jaina Savior, 213. Alabaster, Jaina statues preferably of 209-10, pl. VII. Ābū, mount, Jaina temples at, 215n, pl. VII. Ājivaka, Gosäla and his doctrine of 262-68, 497n, 546, 612, 615 ; asceticism in, 267-68, 404, 453 ; cosmology, 263-65, 278, 331, 488 ; dualism, 337, 379; 'as hempen garment', 264-65, personality in 268-69. alms, Jaina karmas affecting adversely, 273 ; see also charity. Ananta 14th Jaina Savior, 213, 226. Ara, 18th Jaina Savior, 213, 226. Aravinda, Dravidian (Jaina) king, 186,188-9. Aristanemi, Bhagvān (Neminātha), 22nd Jaina Savior, 183, 213, 216, 224-46; in art, Pl. VII ; Indo-Aryan links, 218, 220, 225 ; putative date, 226; Art, Buddhist - Jaina parallels, 205-8; Hindu-Jain contrast, 215, Jaina, 132n, 205-17, 225-27, 259, 507, Pl. V, VIa, VII, VIII; Ascesticism, Ājivaka, 267-68, 404 ; Jainism. 187, 209-10, 250-51, 254-56, 275, 278-79, 404, 469, 595, 600; Aśvasena, king, in Jaina legend, 184, 195. Atheism : Jainism, 182 ("transtheism') Atoms : Ājivaka, 265; Jainism, 271, 277-78, 279. Page #529 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1548 TAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Bhadrabāhu, Jaina teacher, 211n. Bondage, Jaina doctrine of, 248-52, 274-75. Brahmanism and Jainism, 244. Bubble, Jaina metaphor of, 258-59. Buddha, Jaina Saviors parallel to, 205-8, 221-24. Buddhism, Jainism parallels to 205-8, 221-24, 266 ; Jainism, view of 223-25. Butter, Jaina statue, Jaina statue anointed with, 212. Bull, in Jaina statue, 211, pl. VII. Cāmundarāya, Ganga statesman, 212-13, 618. Candraprabha, 8th Jaina Savior, 213. Caste, Jaina karma of, 273. Charity, Jainism, 196n, 279, see alms. Chastity, in Jainism, 196n see celibacy. Clothing, Jaina monks, question of, 158, 210-11, 210n 222-23, 223n. Colors, karmic, in Jainism (leśyās), 229-30, 241, 248-50, 256, 257, 550. Cosmology, Jaina, 227-31, 250-52, 259-60, 270-78. Crossing-Makers, see Tirthankaras. Deities : Jainism, Vedic/Hindu deities in, 181-82, 183, 193, 194, 198-99, 200, 202, 203, 215, 218, 277, 262, 306, Pl. V.VII. Death Jaina ideal type of, 193, 198-99, 204, 216-17, 222, 257, 404. Devendra, Jaina teacher, 202n. Dharma, 15th Jaina savior, 213, 226. Dharma, medium of movement in Jaina universe, 271. Diet : of Jaina householder, 196n; see also food ; vegetarianism. Page #530 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1549 Digambara Jaina sect (clothed in space; nude), 158; 210, 210n, 211n, 214, 222, 223n. Dravidian factor : see Jainism. Dualism: Jainism 185n, 208, 219, 241-42, 330, 337, 379, 576. 578, 595-96, 599; Elements: Jainism, 277. Faculties (usually indriyas), Jainism, 228, 277-78; Fasting, in Jainism, 189, 192, 196n, 201: see vegetarianism. First man, Jaina concept of, 241-48. Food, of Jaina saviors; 209. Giants, of early Jainism, 226-27. Gommata (Bahubali), Jaina saint, colossal image of, 212, 213n, 618, Pl. VIII. Gunas: Jaina correspondences, 229-30. Gymnosophists, 210, 595. Heaven/hell, Jainism, 187-204, passim, 258-59, 270. Iconography: Jaina, 207-16, see also art. Images: Jaina, 205-16, 219, Indra, Päráva as, 183, 193, 194. Influx (asrava); in Jainism, 231, 248-51, 550. Integration-isolation (Kaivalya): Jainism, 221, 253-54, 257-59, 268, 331, 459, 576, 596. Jainism, 181-234, 240-62, 268-79; afterwards, 184n, 187-204 passim, 227, 238, 257, 258-59, 270, 272. Antiquity of, 60n, 96, 217, 259, 281, Art of 132n, 205-17, 225-27, 259, 507, Pl. V, VIa, VII, VIII. Asceticism, 183n (longivity and), 187, 209-10, 250-51, 254-56, 275, 278-79, 331-404, 405, 469, 595, 600. Asceticism, extreme, condemned, 196-99, 203, 400n, 404n. Page #531 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1550 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Atoms in, 271, 277-78, 279; Bondage, doctrine of, 248-52, 274-75 ; and Brahmanism, 244. Buddhism, parallels to, 205-8, 221-24, 266. Buddhist view of, 223-25; Cakravartin in, 129, 191-93, 205, 216 ; caste no restriction in, 59-60, 60n, 203, 273 (karma), 596, 602 ; charity, 196n, 279 (bed-bugs); charity, 196n; classic tradition, prefigurement of, 228n, 229n; clothing of monks (Digambara/Svetāmbara), 158, 210-11, 210n-lin, 222-23, 223n, 595 ; cosmic man, 241-48, 259-60, 270, 275-76 ; cosmology, 227-31, 245, 250-52, 259-60, 270 78, 453, 488 ; death, ideal type of, 193, 198-99, 204, 216-17, 222, 257. 404, dharma (medium of movement), 271, diet in, 196n, 209, 254-55, dualism of, 185n, 208, 219, 241-42, 330, 337, 379, 576, 578, 595-96, 599, elements in, 277, faculties in, 228-29, 277-78, fasting in 189, 192, 196n, 201 ; ferryboat metaphor in, 392 474, 552 (see also Tirthankara ; and Gosāla (Ajivaka doctrine), 264, 266, 268-69, 278, 331 ; and Greeks, 210n. Iln, 507 (Alexander's Jaina Guru), 595 ; guņas, correspondences to, 229.30; heterodoxy of, 59-60, 60n, 129n, 217, 219, 251, 252, 269, 281, 306, 330, 337, 379, 413, 569, 612 ; Hindu gods in, 181-82, 184n, 194, 198-99, 202, 204, 215, 218, 257, 262, 306 ; house-holder's twelve vows, 196n; human being and personality in, 231-32, 250, 268-70, 272-73, 546 ; inconography, 207-16 ; images, 205-16, 219; influx (asrava), 230-31, 248-51, 550 ; integration-isolation (kaivalya), 182, 221, 253-54, 257-59, 268, 272, 276-77, 305, 331, 459, 544, 552, 576, 596; karma (actions), 183n, 203, 204, 224, 229-31 (colors), 241, 248-52 (bondage doctrine), 256, 257-58, 271-74 (types), 306, 315, 547, 550 ; life-monad (jiva), 227-31, 241-42, 249.51, 256 60, 270-71, 274-77, 286, 298, 306, 307, 315, 337, 379, 404, 413, 459, 547, 550, 596, 609n ; longevity, ideal of, 183n ; matter (ajiva), 241, 244, 270-71, 274, 286, 298, 337, 379, 404, 413, 595 ; mind, faculty of, 228-29; monasticism, 158, 239, 254-55, 256-57. 263, 264n, 278-79, 404 ; monistic element in, 241, 244 ; mythology, 182, 213-14, 225-26 (see also Hindu gods, above ; Tirthankaras) ; name, meaning of, 210 ; negation in, 558, 575 (see also ascetism and integration - isolation above) ; nirvāṇa in 183, 217; non-violence (ahimsa), 250, 254-55, 278-79, 400n; pessimism, 227, 248 ; postures in, 209-10, 211, 214, 219-20; principles (tattvas), 274-75 ; reincarnation, 185-200 passim, 227, 272-73; release (moksa), 204, 252-62, 275 ; and Sānkhya-Yoga, 228-29, 251, 270n, 281, 285-86, 298, 306, 330 ; saviors, see Tirthankaras; also Aristanemi, Mahāvira, Pārsva(nātha) ; sense, faculties of, 228-29, 260, 277-78 ; sin Page #532 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY 1551 in, 181 ; Sweden-borgianism, parallels to, 244-48, 259n ; temples, 215n ; time-cycle in, 224n-25n, 226-27 ; time, constituent of universe, 271 ; Tirthankaras, see that title ; and Vedänta, 459; vegetarianism, 251, 254-55, 279 ; Yoga in, 209-10, 217, 405n (see also asceticism above). Kalanos, Jaina saint, 507. Kalvānas, celebrations for Tirthankaras, 195-96, 200, 204. Kamatha, Jaina legendary adversary, 186-87, 190. Kārkala, Jaina statue at, 213n, Karma : bondage--causing factor : Jainism, 203, 204, 229-31 (colors), 241, 248-52 (bondage doctrine), 256, 257-58, 271-74 (types) 306, 315, 547, 550 ; Kesi, Jaina teacher, 222. Ksemankara, Jaina hermitage, 192. Kundakundācārya, Jaina teacher 623. Kunthu, 17th Jaina Savior, 213, 226. Kusumāndi, Hindu-Jaina deity, 213. Laksmivati, (Queen in Jaina legend, 192.) Life-monad : Jainism, 227-31, 24142, 249-51, 256-60, 270-71, 274-77, 286, 298, 306, 307, 315, 379, 404, 413, 547, 550, 596, 609n longivity, Jaina ideal of, 184n. Madhyagraiveyaka, Jaina heaven, 193, Mahāvīra, Vardhamāna, 24th (last) Jaina Savior, 60n, 182, 210, 252, 282, 615; in ait, PI, VII ; Buddhists on, 223-25 ; emblem, 214, 225n; and Gosäla, 263-64 ; life, 220-22, 492n teachings and reforms, 222-23, 269, 278 Mahipāla, Jaina legendary adversary, 196-201. Malli, 19th Jaina savior, 213, 226. man, cosmic : in Jainism, 241–48, 259-60, 270, 275 ; matter : ajiva : Jainism, 241, 244, 270, 71, 274, 286, 298, 337, 379, 404, 413, 595; pudgala : Jainism, 271, see also karma (bondage causing factor : Jainism). mind, Jainism, 228-29. moasticism, Jaina, 239, 254-55, 256-57, 263, 404 ; see also asceticism; celebacy; clothing, Jaina monks ; monoism (non-dualism) : Jainism, 241, 244, Nami, 21st Jaina savior, 213, 226. Nandivardhana, Jaina legendary prince, 221 ; Neminātha, see Aristanemi. nirvāņa (enlightenment/extinction): in Jainism, 183, 217. Nonviolence (usually ahiṁsā) Jainism, 250, 254-55, 278-79, 400n. Padmaprabha, 6th Jaina savior, 213. Padmavati, 202 ; Goddess as, 569; identified with Artemis, 504 ; Laksmi as 199. Palitana, temples at, 215n. Pancastikayasära (Kundakundācārya), 623. Pārsva(nātha), 23rd Jaina savior ; 181, 1824 99, 222, 233, 404n; Buddha, parallels with, 205-8; and 'dark brother' motiff, 185-88 ; historicity of, 182, 194, 220, 224-26 ; incarnations, 186-17 (Marubhūti), 189-90, (Vajraghosa), 190 (Sasti-prabha and Agrivega), 191-93 (Vajranabha), 193-94, 216-17 (Anandakumāra), 193 (Aham-Indra), 194 (Indra); snake emblem, 205, 208, 213 ; statues of 205, 208, 213—15, 219, PI. V, VIa, VII ; Tirthankara, probable career as, 182–85, 95-99, 200-204. Page #533 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1552 JAINA BIBLIOGRAPHY Pārsvanātha Caritra (Bhāvadevasürī), 166n, 181n, 201n passimism, of Jainism 227, 248. posture : Jainism, 209-10, 211, 214, 219-20. prāna: "bodily power" in Jainism, 228n, see also life-breath(s) Pravacanasāra (Kundakundācārya), 623. principles (tattvas), Jainism, 274-75. Psycho-analysis/psychology : Jaina, 228, 241-42. Rahagutta, Jaina schematic, 612. Rajamalla, Ganga king, 212. Ravana, Jaina demon, 213. Reincarnation, in Jainism, 185–200 passimism, 227; release (moksa) : Jainism, 204, 252-62, 275 ; Rşabha (nātha), first Jaina savior, 199, 212, 213 ; in art. Pl. VII. 208-9, 211. Sagaradatta, Jaina sage, 193. Sambhava