Book Title: Proceedings of the Seminar on Prakrit Studies 1973
Author(s): K R Chandra, Dalsukh Malvania, Nagin J Shah
Publisher: L D Indology Ahmedabad
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Page #1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEMINAR ON PRAKRIT STUDIES (1973) L. D. SERIES 70 GENERAL EDITORS DALSUKH MALVANIA NAGIN J. SHAH EDITED BY K. R. CHANDRA HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PRAKRIT AND PALI SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES GUJARAT UNIVERSITY AHMEDABAD-9 bhAratIya IS 2 0 L. D. INSTITUTE OF INDOLOGY AHMEDABAD 9 SIRE Sed Education International For Private & Personal use only Page #2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEMINAR ON PRAKRIT STUDIES (1973) L. D. SERIES 70 GENERAL EDITORS DALSUKH MALVANIA NAGIN J. SHAH EDITED BY K.R. CHANDRA HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PRAKRIT AND PALI SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES GUJARAT UNIVERSITY AHMEDABAD-9 L. D. INSTITUTE OF INDOLOGY AHMEDABAD 9, Page #3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Printed by Mahanth Tribhuvandasji Shastri Shree Ramanand Printing Press Kankaria Road, Ahmedabad-22. and Published by Nagin J. Shah Director L. D. Institute of Indology Ahmedabad-380009, FIRST EDITION May 1978 PRICE RIIPFESZAJIC Revisad R 730T Price Run 1. D. Indology Page #4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREFACE The L. D. Institute of Indology has great pleasure in publishing the Proceedings of the Seminar on Prakrit Studies, held at Ahmedabad from March 22 to 25 th, in 1973 organised by the Department of Prakrit, Gujarat University and financially assisted by the University Grants Commission. Dr. K. R. Chandra, Head of the Department of Prakrit and Pali, Gujarat University offered us the papers read at the Seminar for publication and shouldered the responsibility of editing them. He deserves our heartfelt thanks. We are extremely sorry for the delay, especially because some of the participants are no more to see the volume. My thanks are due to Dr. R. M. Shah for correcting proofs. I hope the rich material presented in this volume will in Prakrit Studies. L. D. Institute of Indology, Ahmedabad-380009. 1st May, 1978 rouse interest Nagin J. Shah Director. Page #5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONTENTS (iii) (iii) (iv) Preface Editor's Note Preparatory Committee Topics for Seminar Extension Lectures Messages Welcome Address : H. C. Bhayani Prakrit Studies : Their Literary and Philosophical Value : A. N. Upadhye Programme of Papers Read List of Non-Local Participants List of Local Participants Brief Report and Recommendations (xiii) (xv) (xxi) (xxv) (xxvii) (xxix) PAPERS 1. Vratakatha in old Marathi : V. P. Johrapurkar 2. Contribution of Prakrit Literature to Biology of Ancient India : J. C. Sikdar 3. kuvalayamAlA meM lokatattva : premasumana jaina 4. A Note on Lord Mahavira's Clan :D. D. Malvania 5. Suddayacariya, a Lost Romantic Tale in Apabhramsa : H. C. Bhayani 6. The Jataka Literature in Pali and its Socio-ethical Importance : N. H. Santani 7. Historico- Cultural Contribution of Jaina Acaryas through Prakrit Sources: Rasesh Jamindar 8. On Studying the Prakrit Literature : K. K. Dixit 9. Paramagamasara of sruta Muni : Gokul Chanda Jain 10. A Comparative Study of Jhanajjhayana by Jinabhadra and Dhyanastava by Bhaskaranandi : Suzuko Ohira 11. apabhraMza kavi vibudha zrIdhara aura unakA baDDhamANacariu : rAjArAma jaina 12. The Stuty of Prakrit Grammar for understanding the Tadbhava Words in Kannada : P. B. Badiger Page #7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 89 101 109 B. K 113 121 13. The Etymological Definitions and Pali Synonyms : M. G. Dhadphale 14. prAkRta tathA apabhraMza kA aitihAsika vikAsa : devendrakumAra zAstrI 15. Prakritic Influence Revealed in the Works of Panini, Katyayana and Patanjali : S. D. Laddu 16. Role of Prakrit Dialects in Sanskrit Dramas : T. N. Dave 17. Applicability of the Rules of Prakrit Grammar to the Formation of Marathi Words : N. A. Deshpande 18. Influence of Middle-Indo-Aryan in Kannada Literature B. K. Khadabadi 19. Some Obscure Passages in the Candaleha Sattaka : S. M. Shaha 20. Some Prakrit Forms from the Vasudevahindi not available in Pischel's Prakrit Grammar under Jain Maharastri : K. R. Chandra 21. Bhoja's Srngaraprakasa (Chs. XXV-XXVIII): Prakrit Text Restored : V. M. Kulkarni 22. Prakrit Studies : Some Problems and Solutions : G. C. Choudhari 23. Prakrit Studies and a Problem of Their Rehabilitation : A. S. Gopani 24. somaprabhAcAryakRta 'sumatinAthacarita' : kathAsAmagrI eva bhASAsAmagrI : #THI 7. flt 25. f' *754 -- 3&49 3111 faxra : 1. H. NIE : -97(Errata) 132 137 158 163 168 175 179 Page #8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEMINAR Page #9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #10 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Editor's Note It gives me pleasure and I feel quite relieved that the Proceedings of the Seminar in Prakrit Studies held at Ahmedabad in 1973, organised by the Department of Prakrit, School of Languages, Gujarat University, aided by the University Grants Commission, Delhi are, though delayed, being published and I am sure that this publication will enhance the knowledge. I am extremely grateful to the authorities of the L. D. Institute of Indology and its ex-director Shri Dalsukhbhai Malavnia who took upon the responsibility of publishing the Proceedings. I express my sincere thanks to Shri Dalsukhbhai Malaynja and Dr. H. C. Bhayani who have extended their valuable guidance in editing this volume. I am also thankful to Dr. Naginbhai J. Shah, Director and Dr. R. M. Shah, Research officer of this Institute for taking interest in publishing this volume. It is regrettable that some of the speeches delivered and the papers not be included as the authors that were read at the Seminar could preferred to publish them elsewhere or they could not return them in the finalised form. Moreover, a few such papers have been also included in it, which were not read at the Seminar by the scholars because of some personal inconviniences they could not be physically present at the Seminar. I express my gratefulness to all the scholars who have contributed their papers. It is also regrettable that some of the participants passed away before the publication of this volume. An eminent scholar like Dr. H. L. Jain, ardent desire to come though ailing had an over here and participate in the deliberations but unfortunately he passed away just a few days before the Seminar. Dr. A.N. Upadhye, the doyen of who had suggested to Our University for organising such and had been encouraging, advising and guiding me through out in the matters of organising the seminar and had actually helped in the smooth running of scholarly deliberations at the seminar, also passed away. Dr. Prakrit studies, a seminar Page #11 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (li) G. C. Chaudhary, Director of Research Institute of Prakrit, Jajoism and Ahimsa, Vaishali, who participated in the seminar also has expired. Dr. P. B. Pandit, an eminent linguist, Delhi University, who had delivered an extension lecture also pagsed away recently all of a sudden. We received many messages but some of them with good suggestions are printed here. We thank all others for their good wishes, K. R. Chandra Editor Head of the Department of Prakrit and Pali, School of Languages, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-9 Page #12 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Preparatory Committee 1. C Chairman : Dr. H. C. Bhayapi Professor & Head of the Deptt. of Linguistics, University School of Languages, Ahmedabad-9. Director : Dr. K. R. Chandra Professor-in-Charge, Prakrit and Pali, University School of Languages, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-9. 3. Members : (i) Dr. K. R. Chandrasekharan, Director, University School of Languages, Ahmedabad-9. (ii) Pt. D. D. Malavnia, Director, L. D. Institute of Indology, Ahmedabad-9. (iii) Pt. Bechardasji Doshi, Research Professor, L. D. Institute of Indology. Ahmedabad-9. (iv) Shri K.C. Parikh, Registrar, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-9. (v) Dr. E. A. Solomon, Head of the Department of Sanskrit, University School of Languages, Ahmedabad-9. (vi) Prof. V. M. Shab, Ahmedabad Arts College, Ghee Kanta Road, Ahmedabad-1. (vii) Prof. M. S. Patel Gujarat Vidyapith, Ahmedabad (viil) Prof. C. K. Sheth (ix) Shri R. D. Desai, 6-Amul Society, Ahmedabad-7. Topics for the Seminar in Prakrit Studies 1. Middle Indo-Aryan Narrative Literature and its unique importance for comparative and historical Folk-Tale studies. 2 Prakrits (including Apabhramsa) in relation to early literatures of New Indo-Aryan Languages. 3 Middle Indo-Aryan Heritage of Modern Indian Literature (Hindi Gujarati, Marathi, Kannada, Tamil etc.) Page #13 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (iv) 4. Prakrit & Apabhraga Languages and Literatures in their Historical and Geographical Perspective. 5. Use of Prakrits in classical Sanskrit works. 6. Influence of MIA Languages on Sanskrit. 7. Status of the Prakrits in the University curriculum in view of A. (i) Their importance sui-generis, (II) Their close relationship with other classical and modern Languages. B. Causes for the present day indifference to the Prakrit studies. C. Effective measures to remedy the situation. Proposed Extension Lectores 23rd March : Prakrits and the literature and culture of Gujarat by Dr. B. J. Sandesara, Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda, (It could not be arranged). 24th March : Prakrit Studies : Literary and Philosophical value by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Head of the Deptt. of P, G. Studies in Jainism and Prakrits, University of Mysore, Mysore. 25th March : Sounds and Spellings in Prakrits by Dr. P. B. Pandit, Head of the Deptt. of Linguistics, University of Delhi, Dolbi. is by DrP. . Pandie, Hond Page #14 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Dr. P. L. Vaidya General Editor: Mahabharata: Editor: Harivamsa MESSAGES Dr. H. L. Jain (M.A.,LL.B.) Professor of Sanskrit, Pali & Prakrit (Retd.) priya DaoN. candrA, Dear Dr. Chandra, I thank you for your invitation to participate in the seminar on Prakrit studies from 22nd to 26th March, 1973 and also to deliver a general lecture. I very much regret that owing to bad health, I am not able to move out of Poona any more, but wish the seminar all success. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Poona-4. (India) Date 2-12-72 Yours Sincerely, Dr. P. L. Vaidya seminAra kI saphalatA ke lie zubha kAmanAe~ ! mujhe tumhArA di. 6 -12 kA patra yathAsamaya mila gayA thA aura di. 4-1 kA patra bhI abhI milA / mujhe AtmIya janoM kI Agraha - pUrNa mAMgoM ko asvIkAra karane meM bar3e duHkha kA anubhava hotA hai, aura isIliye maiM eka ora apane svAsthya ko tolatA aura dUsarI ora tumheM uttara dene meM hicakicA rahA thA / kintu tumhAre isa patra se mujhe kucha bala milA, yaha kahane hetu ki merA vartamAna svAsthya mujhe mArca meM tumhAre pAsa pahu~ca sakane kA AzvAsana nahIM detA / ataeva maiM vyAkhyAna ke kAryakrama se kSamA cAhatA hU~ / prAcArya nivAsa zAsakIya mahAvidyAlaya tA. 10-2-73 yadi usa samaya merA svAsthya anukUla rahA aura tumhAre pAsa pahu~ca sakA to maiM milane bheTane tathA seminAra meM thor3A bahuta bhAga lene kA sukha pAne kA avazya prayatna karU~gA / kintu anizcaya kI avasthA hone se mujhe kisI kAryakrama meM na bA~dhane kI kRpA kareM | bhavadIya hI. lA. jaina Page #15 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (vi) 3-3-73 Dr. W. B. Bollee, 5205 St. Augustin-Hangelar Lilienthalstr. 17 Federal German Republic. Dear Professor Chandra, ......For the successful accomplishment I send you my best wishes. I hope it may result in some new projects to be taken up and old ones to be continued with fresh zeal. ...... There is not even a complete Vulgata, not to speak of a complete critical edition of the Ardhamagadbi Canon. ......I propose to the Seminar to pass a resolution expressing the desirability to reprint the Agamodaya Samiti Granthoddhara and similar Series in which an Agama or auxiliary text was printed along with its curni or tika, the indispensable means to its proper understanding...... ......Would not seem the reprint of Lord Mahavira's Words the best way to commemorate His life's Mission ? The unsatisfactory situation of the Jain Holy Scriptures may be compared to that of the Buddhist Tipitaka which is available in several editions....... yours slocerely, W. B. Bollee 807 Williams Hall, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa, 19104 U. S. A., 5-3-73 Dear Dr. Chandra, Thank you for sending me the announcement of the Seminar on Prakrit Studies. I regret that I shall not be able to attend and see, once again, my colleagues and friends. I send you my best wishes for the success of this most important undertaking. Cordially, Sincerely Yours, Proffesor Ernest Bender Indo-Aryan Languaes and Literatures, University of Pennsylvania; Chief Editor, The Journal of the American Oriental Society, Page #16 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( vit ) Paris Date 6-3-73, Colette Calllat, Parc Eiffel, F 92310 Sevres. Universite De La Sorbonne Nouvelle (Paris III) U.E.R. des langues et civilisations de l'Orient de l'Inde, et de l'Afrique du Nord 13, Rue Santeuil, Paris-V: Dear Dr. Chandra, .... Please, accept all my congratulations and best wishes. I hope it will be possible to print the proceedings of this session, as has been done before : it is a great help for scholars abroad, and certainly calls attention to this field of Indology. ......I would be very glad to be informed about general suggestions as soon as possible. If you wish, it might perhaps be possible to give them some publicity at the next Coagres des Orientalistes, in Paris, next July. We are trying to organise a meeting on Pali and Prakrit Studies, and it might be an opportunity to inform the Paris participants about the work you have done and contemplating. Thanking you, I remain, with all best wishes, Yours sincerely, Colette Caillat THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Box 4, P. O,, Canberra. A.C.T. Australia, 2600 FACULTY OF ASIAN STUDIES Canberra, Date 6-3-73 Dear Dr, Chandra, ......I have followed the proceedings of the earlier seminars with great interest. ...... I hope that progress, particularly in Apabbramsa studies will continue rapidly and I would like to send you the very best wishes for the continued success of your seminars, Yours sincerely, Mrs. L. A. Hercus Reader, Department of South Asian and Buddhist Studies. Page #17 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Faculteit Der Letteren En Wijsbegeerte (viii) Dear Colleague Professor Chandra. ......I am delighted to hear that your country is keeping up the sound tradition of Its Seminars on Prakrit Studies. RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT, Gent, Blandijnberg, 2 12-3-1973. ......One regrets to ascertain that not all the centres of Indological studies have fully realized this fact that the truly scientific study of Modern Indian languages - and even that of Sanskrit, I daresay,-is altogether unthinkable without a proper knowledge of the Prakrits. I would like to add a word on the main desiderata of our discipline, Ernest BENDER (in: Current Trends in Linguistics, 5 (1969), p. 48) enumerated a few of them: comprehensive Prakrit and Apabhramsa dictionaries and grammars, a 'study in depth' of Jain Sanskrit, Periodical records listing the names (I would add: addresses) of scholars working in the MIA domain and giving information on their work. ......I cannot well see, even in the next decades, the creation of (quoting the said author's words) 'an extensive, fully documented Prakrit dictionary' (a kind of Super-Paia-Sadda-Mahannavo). But perhaps, in a not too remote future, the critical study of the Svetambara Canon will be brought to a degree of completion, a uniform critical edition of the Agama and of both a comprehensive Ardhamagadhi grammar and a critical Ardhamagadhi dictionary. ......Many a useful work is conceivable also in the overall field of MIA linguistics: MIA syntax, for one thing, in my opinion, badly needs more advanced investigation. Suniti Kumar Chatterji National Professor India in Humanities of ...... May I enclose my salute and best wishes to you and all the members of the Seminar which I hope will be a grand success! Sincerely Yours, Prof. Dr. Jozef Deleu Department of Indology University of Ghent, Belgium, Dear Dr. Chandra, ......I am sure the Seminar you are going to hold will be very useful. Could you not broach the question of having a Prakrit and Apabhramsa 'Sudharma 16, Hindusthan Park, Calcutta-29. 12-3-73 Page #18 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (ix) Lexicon on historical principles? ...... This dictionary should give Illustra. tive quotations of words from Prakrit and Apabhramsa literature as well as from Inscriptions in these forms of Middle Indo-Aryan. ......I can only wish your Seminar under the guidance of Dr. Bhayani, and yourself the fullest success. with all good wishes, Yours sincerely, Suniti Kumar Chatterji Gustav Roth Goettingen, (Germany) Date 12-3-1973 Dear Sir, ...... A wealth of linguistic materjal regarding Prakrit and Apabhraisa languages has come to light during the last twenty years. Thus the need is now felt as to have all this material listed in a bibliography. .... The argent necessity is felt that a dictionary of the Prakrits realizes. For such a work all available scholars, young and old, have to be mobilized. This is the only way to make the huge wealth of linguistic mate.. rial accessible which is of greatest importance for the history of the modern Indian languages, The leading Prakrit scholars in India and abroad should sit together and draw the lines on which such a work can fruitfully, be done....... On the happy Occasion of your Semioar kindly, receive my best wishes. Yours sincerely, Gustav Rotb Semipar Fur Indologie Der Universitat Kiel OlshausenstraBe 40/60 (Haus 15 v) 23 Kiel. den Tel. : 593 (1) Date 12-3-73. Dear Dr. Bhayani, I am grateful to Dr. K. R. Chandra, Director of the Seminar on Prakrit Studies for kindly inviting me to associate with the Seminar. Page #19 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ... A good deal of work in the field of Prakrit studies has been done by Indologists in German and French languages and our students should be made acquainted with these languages. A student of Linguistics, besides possessing knowledge of northern modern Indian languages should be familiar with the languages of South India. A compilation of up-to-date Prakrit and Apabhramsa lexicons is overdue which can be undertaken with assistance of young scholars. Reference books are badly needed on the subject. I am confident that the Seminar will prove a great success under your able guidance. In order to fulfil the objective of Seminar I wish the organisation to come out with a definite plan for future in the field of Prakrit studies. With warm regards and best wishes, Yours very sincerely, J. C. Jain FACULTY OF ORIENTAL STUDIES University of Cambridge K, R. Norman Sidgwick Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 9DA. Date 14-3-73 Dear Dr. Chandra, ......I was very interested to hear of all you are doing to rehabilitate Prakrit Studies in your universities. ......I should like to wish you and all the participants in the Seminar a most fruitful series of meetings. I hope that your deliberations will help to re-establish Prakrit in its rightful position in the universities, and that sufficient workers will be trained and enough financial aid will be forthcoming to produce the critical editions of Prakrit and Apabhramsa texts which are so much needed, and to make the grammars and dictionaries based upon them, Yours sincerely, K. R. Norman Lecturer in Indian Studies (Prakrit) Page #20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Dr. Sukumar Sen 10, Raja Rajkissen Street, Block No. 2, Suite No. 32, Caclutta-6. Dt. 14-3-73 Dear Dr. Chandra, ......I regret to say that it will not be convenient for me to attend the Seminar and join in your deliberations which I am sure will be fruitful. I trust the papers read there and discussions on them will be readily published for the benefit of the learned world. With kind regards, Yours Sincerely, Sukumar Sen ORIENTAL INSTITUTE Lokmanya Tilak Road, Post Box No. 75, Baroda. Date 17-3-73 Dear Dr. Chandra, Please refer to our previous correspondence. I had accepted your invitaion to deliver an extension lecture in the Prakrit Seminar. But I am sorry to inform you that unavoidable personal circumstances have prevon. ted me from going out of station.......Inconvenience caused to you is vory much regretted. ......I wish the deliberations of the Seminar a grand success. Yours sincerely B. J. Sandesara (Director) Prof. F. B. J. Kuiper Leiden University. Leiden Date 18-3-73 Dear Professor Chandra, ...... There can be no doubt about the important place of the Prakrit languages in the field of Indo-Aryan linguistics. The attention so far pald to this subject at most of the Indian and Western Universites stands in no proportion to its importance for historical Indian linguistics and the cultural history of India. Page #21 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( xii) Therefore, the fact that a fifth Seminar under the experienced guidance of yourself and Professor Bhayani has been organized and is to take place at the end of this month is a matter of great satisfaction to all those who are interested in the study of Indian languages. With my best wishes and my blessings for this Seminar I am, Sincerely yours, F. B. J. Kuiper Instituto Italiano Per IL Medio Ed Estremo Oriente 00185 Roma, Via Meruana, 248, Palazzo Brancaccio Telef. 735 631 Rome Dt. 29-3-73 Dear Dr. Chandra, I have returned home only a few days ago, and I have here found your very kind letter of March ist, by which you inform me about the Seminar on Prakrit Studies that bas taken place from March 22 to 26. It is of course very gratifying to learn that useful action is being taken for the promotion of Prakrit studies, and I therefore, extend you my warmest wishes for the best success and outcome of the learned debates that have taken place. With the assurance of my continued laterest in the matter, and best regards, Yours truly, Giuseppe Tucci - X Page #22 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Fifth Seminar on Prakrit Studies Welcome Address by H. C. Bhayani (Chairman, Preparatory Committee) Revered Panditji Sukhlalji, Mr. Vice-chancellor & Friends, On behalf of the preparatory committee, I have great pleasure in according a hearty welcome to you all to this Fifth Seminar on Prakrit Studies, which has been organized by Gujarat University with the financial aid of the University Grants Commission. Gujarat along with Rajasthan and Malwa has a long, vigorous and continuous tradition of cultivating Prakrits, and in many areas of Prakrit and Apabhramsa literatures the contributions of scholars from these regions have been most significant in bulk and quality. From Devardbigani, Sanghadasa, Haribhadra and Uddyotana, through Abhayadeva, Haribhadra and Hemacandra, down to Hargovinddas Sheth, Sukhlalji, Jinvijayaji, Bechardasji and Punya Vijayaji we have a long line of brilliant scholars and their excellent works. Leaving aside, what has been irrepairably lost, even if we look at the works still preserved at the famous manuscript Bhandaras at numerous places in Gujarat and Rajasthan, they highly impress us as witnesses to uninterrupted literary activity in Prakrit, spreading over centuries upon centuries. It is thorefore, in fitness of things that scholars and students of Prakrit are meeting here for their discussions and deliberations that would further research and tackle problems in the field of Prakrit studies. We all know and it has beea stressed repeatedly at all the previous Prakrit Seminars that even in the primary task of editing and publishing Prakrit texts we have a balance sheet of the little done and the vast undone. Even a casual survey of a single large collection, say like the one here at the L. D. Institute of Indology, would instantly bring home the yawning gulf between the required and the actually available resources, personnel etc. for this purpose. Secondly, we also know that very little of what has been published so far has been exploited and utilized properly for literary, cultural and linguistic histories. Under these circumstances, for achieving substantial progress, we shall serious thought to formulating a practical ten-year plan for bringing out the more important of unpublished texts. Of cousre, when we take into account various requirements problems of Prakrit have to give and Page #23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xiv) studios, we immediately realize that these cannot be considered in isolation, The question of achieving progress in our field is intimately linked up with the overall problems of the role of classical languages in the University studies and outside. We can well take up these matters in the concluding session of the Seminar. It is our good fortune that in spite of his advanced age and delicate health, Revered Panditji Sukhialji has kindly complied with our request to grace the Seminar with his presence and perform the inauguration, The blessings and advice of a veteran scholar of his stature would certainly serve to inspire and guide the work of the Seminar. * Many of you have come from long distances, putting up with consi. derable personal inconvenience and disturbing your current plans and programmes. It is happily ndicative of a deep concern for the advancement of Prakrit studies. We are thankful to you all and we earnestly hope that our meeting would be quite fruitful and rewarding and it will achieve the basic objectives of such a Seminar. With the means at our disposal we have tried to make suitable arrangements for the stay of the delegates, and we are grateful to Gujarat Vidyapith for their generous co-operation in this regard. We mention also with deep gratitude the advice and active assistance, we have received throughout from Prof. Dalsukhbhai Malavoja, the Director of L. D. Institute of Indology. In spite of our best intention and efforts, there are likely to be some faults of commission and omission on our part, for which we crave your tolerance and indulgence. I thank you once more for the ready response and kind co-operation that we have received from you. Page #24 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Prakrit Studies: Their Literary and Philosophical Value (Extension Lecture ) by Late Prof. Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Mysore. By Prakrit Studies we understand the studies in Prakrit languages and literature; and we are to assess their literary and philosophical value. They are an inseparable part and parcel of Indian languages and literature; so they cannot be isolated altogether, though a specialigt might concentrate more attention on some branch of studies or the other. To put it plainly, an earnest student of Prakrit languages has to study them in relation to Sanskrit on one hand and to Modern Indian Languages on the other. Prakrit languages clearly show different layers with reference to time and locality; and on them depends their closeness to Sanskrit or the other modern Indo-Aryan Language. There is a two-fold approach to the study of Prakrit. A modern linguist is interested in the formal study of language and its internal structure; and today, this branch of study is taking quick strides, especially in the U. S. A. A philologist is interested in the study of the text; he is concerned not only with the language and its structure, but also studies it as a piece of literature in which are reflected many aspects of the culture and civilisation, of the sum-total of the life of people who used that particular language or dialect. We have to adopt both these points of view in our Prakrit studies. When the Prakrit grammarians define the term Prakrit, they are doing it in relation to Sanskrit; but it is accepted by all now that Prakrits basically are the spoken idiom of the common man. But, as is common, their usage in literature is erected by men of letters many of whom were well-versed in Sanskrit. So, when one reads Kavyas like the Setubandha, Gaudavaho, Lilavai, Karsavaho and nost of the Prakrit sections in the so-called Sanskrit dramas, one finds here that the authors are working closely under the shadow of Sanskrit. In fact, they are thinking in Sanskrit but writing in Prakrit. A poet like Rajasekhara is a good illustration on the point. A study of such layers of Prakrit literature has to be done in relation to Sanskrit texts of that category. Here, the authors are all well trained in the precision of expression, in various metrical forms, in the use of Page #25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xvi) imagery and in embellishments of Sabda and Ariha. Prakrits have a greater advantage over Sanskrit in achieving Slesa, because the same word can stand for more than one Sanskrit word, and can also have more than one meaning as in Sanskrit. Prakrit-Kavyas are replete with poetic Imagery. There are upamas, utpreksas, etc., in plenty. It is well known that Vak pati stands unequalled in his ut preksas like Kalidasa who is unsurpassed in his upamas. Pravarasena and Vakpati, it is being detected, have lent many of their ideas and images to subsequent Sanskrit poets; it is only lately that these authors have falled into neglect, because Prakrits came to be neglected in our classical equipments. There is another branch of Prakrit literature dealing with two Purudrthas, Artha and Kama, with more slant on the latter. The great representative of this branch is the Gahakoso of Hala. Every verse is a self-sufficient unit, depicting an idea or situation in words, remarkably colourful and catcbing, and, at the same time, full of poetic charm and grace of expression. These are popular songs, but Pandits attached to royal courts seem to have refined many of them; it is said that crores of such songs were current in society; and out of them only seven hundred were put together by Hala, taking into account the urban taste. They pervade many aspects of rural life : the scenic background, the environments, the routine of life, the characters, the custom; etc. primarily reflect the village life and folklore, May be, the sentiment of love, in its various aspects, bad a catching influence on the composers; that is one reason why most of the Gathas are amorous in touch. The commentators are bent on reading sungara in all these verses, directly or indirectly : perhaps that was their pastime. It is a remarkable event in our literary history that nearly all these songs are quoted by poeticians and rhetoricians : the Deyavani did not perhaps sustain so much amorous vagaries with the consequence that the Prakrit verses were quoted as a rule. The real reason appears to be that for slesa and dhvani Prakrit presents more advantages; and Prakrit stanzas, as an illustration, could be followed by many even when some of them did not understand the underlying theory. In some of the texts on poetics these verses are so badly preserved that special efforts of scholars are needed to restore the correct text. As a secular text, the Gahakoso stands unparallelled in its popularity, like the Bhagavad Gita in the religious world: both of them have 700 verses. The very nature of the Kosa has led to its inflation : many anony. mous Gins were being introduced here and there with the result that what was Saptagati has come to be Dasasati and more. The Muktaka poetry is like a piece of pungent pickle which waters the mouth and heighteni the appetire for inre. Being often an arthantara-nyasas.. it contains a lot of wordly visuon Many gifted poets tried their band on Page #26 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xvil ) it; and there grew a small class of poets, often attached to the court and making their mark in the gathering of the learned : they are the Chappa. naayas, Vidagdhas or Sahrdayas. We have an anthology, Chappannaya-ga hao, which incorporates many ideas about the Dharma and Artha besides Kama. When authors of religious aptitude came to handle this Muktaka poetry, they used predominantly religious themes, because they were out to teach moral lessons. The Vajjalaggam is a good illustration. The Gathasahasri is not only religious, but full of dogmatic discourses. Just as Alankara works quote Hala, one can find many verses of this type, generally arthantaranyasa, scattered throughout the narrative literature in Prakrit, for Instance, in the Kuvalayamala, etc. Io the Prakrit commentaries, in stories, Dharmakathas, biographies of great men, etc., we find, in plenty, folk-tales, parables and allegories which show a deeper sense of understanding human weaknesses and strong points and attempt to convey some moral lesson that men might behave better and be worthy citizens. We get plenty of them in works like the Carnis, Samaraiccakaha, Kuvalayamala, etc. The Dhurtakhyana of Haribhadra is a unique satire in Indian literature. The author is a gifted satirist; and he is out to dispel the credulity with which the epic writers have fed the human mind. Haribhadra wants us to be rational to the core; and truth cannot be searched and reached without being rational. The technique is remarkable and the results achieved by the author are worthy of a great geplus and a benefactor of rationality. This branch of literature, later on, assumed the form of religious propaganda. The folk-tale therolo went on increasing, and they by themselves are interesting specimon of literature. The Prakrit languages and literature essentially and basically preserve the common man's culture; and if the common man is to be addressed, the Prakrits are the best vehicle. That is why Mahavira, Buddha, Asoka and Kharavela chose Prakrit. Even in modern times, Mahatma Gandhi preferred simple Gujarati to speak to bis fellowmen. If one compares the percentago of Sanskrit words in the Gujarati, Marathi and Hindi Vorsions of the Atmakatha, the point will be quite clear. For detecting the common man's cultural traditions, perhaps Apabbramsa language and literature have greater value than other layers of Prakrits. When one scrutinises the proper names like Lacchide, Nabada, etc., found in Prasastis, apparently written in Sanskrit, one sees here the language of the people. If Prakrits were assigned to common characters in the plays, that was, to begin with, a reflex of the conditions in the society round about. Though a Brahmana, Vidusaka speaks in Prakrit, that is an exception, because he is a caricatured chara. cter. If one carefully sees the Puranic tradition, one fods that the popular idlom is being gradually replaced by the Sanskrit. The village cults, and Page #27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xviii) : even village deities, gradually gave place to Sanskritic transformation. The Tamil Kottavi became Durga and so on. There is often evidence for this in the Modern Indo-Aryan languages that names like Mahura and Jawn, quite known to foreigners, have additional parallels in Mathra and Jamna which are nearer to Sapskrit. Dr. S. K. Chatterjee has shown, in one of his papers, how the Prakritic forms persisting in M. I. A. are valuable in studying the Puranic legends and their subsequent transformation. The language of the Puranas, the Buddhist Sanskrit texts and some Jaipa Sanskrit texts clearly show how Prakrits, and the common man's language are influencing them. A good deal of work is done in the fields of vocabulary; we can also study how the Sanskrit style in some popular works shows traces more common in Prakrit, for instance, the use of participles as predicates with the subject in the Instrumental. In understanding the beginning of Prakrits or M. I. A., some of the forms in the Asokan inscriptions present difficulties; and the language of the Pali and Ardhamagadhi canons has undergone changes in due course. The beginning of the modern Indo-Aryan has not started in all the areas at the same time and on the same lines. This means that to understand the linguistic developments of our Modern Indo-Aryan languages, we must give greater attention to Apabhramsa language and literature. Most of the linguists are still guided by Pischel's grammar. That is natural. But now we have many more Apabhramsa texts published after Pischel wrote his monumental grammar. Some of the Apabbramsa works are written in the South, some in Madhya Pradesh, some round about Delbi, some in Hariyana, some in Gujarat and some in Kashmir. They all show how Apabhramsa was a standard literary medium like Sanskrit and Prakrit. Of course, minor variations due to locality and dialect can be detected here and there. It was used in mystic couplets, bardic songs and epic poems. Somehow, as expected, many big Apabhramsa works are not discovered from Gujarat. The reasons for this have to be guaged. Such terms like Digambara and Svetambara Apabhramsa are likely to lose their meaning with detailed study of literary Apabhramsa as a whole. It is high time that we analyse the language of works of Puspadauta, Svayambbu, etc. almost up to Raidhu more exhaustively and see how we get more light to understand the growth of Modern Indo-Aryan in its various phases. That is how our studies of Prakrit languages and literature are valuable for understanding the growth of M. I. A. and popular culture to supplement what we learn from Sanskrit court poets who were more interested in the palace culture and upper classes. Now we might take into account the pbilosophical value of Piakrit Literature. Perhaps due to natural environmeats, leisurely living and sub Page #28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xix ) jective attitude towards life, our early philosophers laid more stress on knowing one's self than knowing objects outside. They started with the idea that if 'one' is known every thing else is known; but It was soon realized that to kaow 'one' fully all 'others' have to be known; and what is this knowing one's self after all ? If the one's self is not known in its highest purity and dignity, it is not knowing at all. Such questions seen in early Prakrit works like the Acoranga, etc., are an attempt to understand the mystery of the Atman, Anatman and Paramatman; or to put in popular expression Jiva, Ajiva and Moksa. It is interesting to collect details on these topics from the Ardhamagadhi canon. Of course, one has to be careful in distinguishing between the old and new layers in the canon. Secondly, one is always tempted to arrange the desperate details in the pattern of the Tattvarthasutra : there mayor may not be any justification for this. According to the canon, the Jiva is as much a fundamental fact as the Ajiva. We see in the Raya paseniya how vigorously it is established that Jiva is different from body. The knower and the object of knowledge are realities. The knower and the known constitute the eternal : that is how the question of the Creator is ruled out. The gross matter in its forms acts and reacts, moves and siops in the space, over all times, passing through changes; but it always maintains its existential character. This process explains change and continuity, the atmos combining and reacting in a continuous process. It is a form of matter, called Karman, that is there in association with Jiva from beginningless time and that determines the ability of the Atman to know and its degrees of knowledge. The objective of this knower is to get rid of all that hinders his knowing ability; and thus to enable the Atman to attain perfection in every respect, Jiva passing through rebirths is quite on par with matter passing through various Paryaays. Thus here is a realistic approach and this attempt to escape from the Karmas has given rise to ethics in details, The Prakrit literature develops these ideas in some form or the other in different works. More stress is laid on subjugating Raga and Dvesa. In earlier works like the Acaranga, etc., it is not mere philosophical speculation, but a way of life characterised by self-restraint (samyama) that is set forth; and one has to glean the philosophical concepts here and there. In Suyagadam various views father than systems are criticised. In the Pannavana and its parallel texts like the Satkhandagama-sutra, we have elaborate study of Jiva and Karma. This can be further studied in later works. It is the correct understanding of the Jivas, their classification and their relative Paryapti according to Indriyas, etc., that enables one to Page #29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xx) practise abstention from harm unto them. This is what is implied by padhamam nanam tao daya. Life is the highest value, and it is the respect for its safety that is to guide us in our ethical values. We get fine reflection on these ideas in texts like the Dasaveyaliya. The theory of knowledge has a different pattern in the canon: The Nandi gives us a good exposition. What were seeds in earlier literature, have found fuller exposition later. It has to be remembered that the early Jain saints who wrote their philosophical texts has a common tradition of philosophical concepts; but their development has not taken place in one and the same place and along a single track. Eminent authors like Jinabhadra, Haribhadra, etc., worked in Western India; the authors like Kundakunda, Vattakera, Siddhasena and others worked in the South, The environments, local thoughtpatterns and reactions have given different tones to their thought. In this respect texts like the Visesavasyakaabhasva, Pancastikaya, Pravacanasara and Sammai have special significance. The elaboration on the attainment of Liberation has brought ethical and ascetical overtones for their philosophy. Still an author like Siddhasena has developed Nayavada and Anekantavada to such heights that rarely we find parallels elsewhere for tolerant understanding of reality. One often regrets that many of these texts have not been properly studied and their contents duly digested in the great stream of Indian Philosophy. Another significant aspect of Prakrit literature is its high moral tone. Very little is written by way of panegyric, pastime, flourish of language and to please the audience. The major portion of it is inspired by a high moral tone; and everywhere, with the transmigratiou and Karma doctrine in the background, the attempt is to teach the individual first to improve oneself by subjugating one's baser instincts like anger, vanity, deception, greed and infatuation, which generally arise out of one's attachment and aversion. Secondly, one is taught to behave worthily by respecting the sanctity of all life, of others' possessions and of others' personality. No doubt, this branch of literature has produced worthy men and women In our society of which any age should be proud. These are eternal values and lessons, and let us also be benefited by them. I offer my sincere thanks to the Organisers of this Seminar who gave me this opportunity to speak a few words on the literary and philosophical value of Prakrit studies. I shall welcome all suggestions and corrections from my younger colleagues gathered together here. - * Page #30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Seminar in Prakrit Studies Prakrit Department, School of Languages, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-9. * PROGRAMME OF PAPERS READ Venue : Adivasi Sagsbodhan Kendra, Gujarat Vidyapith, Abmedabad-14. 22-3-1973 I Inaugural Session (4-00 p. m.) (i) Prayer (ii) Reading of Messages by Dr. K. R. Chandra (ili) Welcome Address by Dr. H. C. Bhayani (iv) Address by Shri I, J. Patel, Vice-Chancellor (v) Inaugural Address by Pt. Sukh]alji (vi) Vote of Thanks by Dr. K. R. Chandra 23-3-1973 II Morning Session (1) Literary History and Calture Chairman : A. N. Upadhye Rapporteur : P. B. Badiger Vrata Katha in Old Maratbi. Contribution of Prakrit Literature to Biology of Ancient India. kuvalayamAlAkahA meM lokatattva. 1. V. P. Joharapurkas, Jabalpur. 2. J. C. Sikdar, Abmedabad. 3. P. S. Jajo, Udaipur. 4. K. K. Sharma, Udaipur. 5. Mua Chandrodayvijay, Ahmedabad. lokatattva ke adhyayana meM prAkRta sAhitya kA 969. prAkRta ke adhyayana kA mahattva. Page #31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( xxil ) 23-3-1973 III Afternoon Session (1) Literary History and Culture (Contd.) Chairman : A. N. Upadhye Rapporteur : P. S. Jain A Note on Lord Mahavira's Clan. 6. D. D. Malavnia, Ahmedabad. 7. H. C. Bhayani, Ahmedabad. 8. N. H. Samtani, Banaras. 9. N. C. Shastri, Arrah. 10. R. Jamindar, Ahmedabad. Suddaya-cariya : A Lost Romantic Tale in Apabhramsa. The Jataka Literature in Pali and its Socio-ethical Importance. Influence of Prakrit on Sanskrit Studies. Historio-Cultural Contribution of Jain Acaryas through Prakrit Sources, (2) Importance and Teaching of Prakrit 1. K. M. Patel, prAkRta bhASA-sAhitya : zaikSaNika samasyAe~ Patan. tathA samAdhAna. 2. V. J. Chowkshi, Prakrits in the University Curriculum: Ahmedabad Causes and Remedies for Indiffere nce to their Studies. 3. D. G. Joshi, Some Measures to Remedy the PresentAhmednagar. day Indifference to Prakrit Studies. 24-3-1973 IV Morning Session (2) Importance and Teaching of Prakrit (Contd.) : : D. D. Malaynja P. S. Jajn Chairman Rapporteur 4. G. C. Choudhary, Vaisbali. 5. R. Jamindar, Ahmedabad, K. S. Shukla, Bhaynagar. Prakrit Studies : Some Problems and Solutions. Some Thoughts on the Problems of Prakrit Studies. Causes for Present-day Indifferenc to the Prakrit Studies. Page #32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xxlll ) (3) Philosophy and Religion : D. D. Malavnia : B. K. Khadabadi Paramagamasara of Srutamuni. ** A Comparative Study of Jhanajjhayana and Dhyanastaya. prAkRta bhASA aura itihAsa. Chairman Rapporteur 1. G. C. Jain, Delhi, 2. Miss Suzuko Ohira, Mysore. 3. Pt. Becbardasji, Ahmedabad 4. M. L. Mehta, Varanasi, 5. K. B. Shastri, Dharwar, 6. J. P. Thaker, Baroda. 1. R. R. Jain, Bodh-Gaya. Prakrit Bhasyas. kannaDa meM jaina sAhitya. Interpretation of the Uttaradhyayana Sutra, IIL-12. apabhraMza - kavi vibudha zrIdhara aura unakA vaDDhamANacariu. 24-3-1973 V Afternoon Session (4) Prakrit Language : P. B. Pandit : N. H. Samtani Chairman Rapporteur 1. P. B. Badiger, Mysore. The Study of Prakrit Grammar for Understanding the Tadbhava Words in Kannada. The Etymological Definitions and Pali Synonyms. Abakamma : Possible Explanation of an Important Term of Pindesana. prAkRta tathA apabhraza kA aitihAsika vikAsa 2. M. G. Dhadphale, Poona. 3. R. P. Jain, Delhi. 4. D. K. Shastri, Neemuch. 5. K. C. Kasliwal, Jalpur. 6. S. D. Laddu, Poona. hindI ke vikAsa meM apabhraza kA yogadAna. Prakritic Influences Revealed in the Works of Panini, Katyayana and Patanjali, Page #33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xxlv (1) Extension Lecture by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Prakrit Studies: Their Literary and Philosophical Value 25-3-1973 VI & VII Morning and Afternoon Session. (5) Prakrit Literature Chairman Rapporteur 1. B. K. Khadabadi, Dharwar, 2. S. M. Sbaba, Poopa. 3. V. M. Kulkarni, Bombay. 4. N. M. Kansara, Ahmedabad. : H. C. Bhayani : (Smt.) Ratoa Shriyan Influence of Middle Indo-Aryan Literature on Kannada Literature. Some Obscure Passages in the Candaleha - sattaka. Bhoja's Songaraprakasa, (Ch. XXVXXX): Prakrit Text Restored. Ratnakara's Version of the Prakrit Gathas quoted by Anandavardhana in bis Dhvanyaloka. The Jamadagoi - Parasurama Legend in Jain Narrative Literature. prAkRta kI ajJAta aura aprakAzita racanAe~ 5. K. P. Jog, Poona. A. C. Nabata, Bikaner. K. V. Sheth, Ahmedabad. somaprabhAcAryakRta sumatinAthacaritra : kathAsAmagrI evaM bhASAsAmaprI. (2) Extension Lecture by Dr. P. B. Pandit, Sound and Spellings in Prakrit. VIII Concluding Session Presided by D. D. Malavnia Recommendations and Resolutions Vote of Thanks : K. R. Chandra. Page #34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ I List of Non-Local Participants 13. 1. Dr. A. N. Upadhye Prof. & Head of the Department of Jainology & Prakrits, University of Mysore, Mysore-6. 2. Dr. P. B. Pandit Prof. & Head of the Depart. ment of Linguistics, Delhi University. Delhi-6. 3. Dr. G. C. Chaudhary Director, Research Institute of Prakrit, Jainology & Ahimsa, Vaishali (Muzaffarpur). 4. Dr. Nemi Chandra Shastri Head of the Deptt. of Sanskrit, H. D. Jajn College, Arrah (Bihar). 5. Dr. Mohan Lal Mehta Director, P.V. Research Institute, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-5. 6. Dr. V. M. Kulkarni Director of Languages, Maharashtra State, Telang Memorial Hostel, 44 C-Road, Church Gate, Bombay-20. (BR) 7. Shri J. P. Thaker Oriental Institute, M. S. University, Baroda-2. 8. Dr. S. D. Laddu Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit, University of Poona, Poona-7. 9. Dr. Keshav P. Jog B/9, Teachers' Hostels, University of Poona, Poona-7. 10. Shri K. B. Shastri Municipal Colony, Dharwar. 11. Shri Agarchand Nabata Naharto ka Gavad, Bikaner (Raj). 12. Dr. N. H. Samtani Deptt. of Sanskrit & Pali, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-5. 13. Shri Devendra Kumar Shastri Govt. Post-Graduate College, Neemach, (M.P.). 14. Dr. Raja Ram Jain In-charge, Prakrit Section, Magadh University, Bodh-Gaya (Bihar). 15. Shri M. G. Dhadphale Head of the Deptt. of Sanskrit, Ferguson College, Poona-4. 16. Shri P. B. Badiger University of Mysore, Manasa Gangotri, Mysore-6. 17. Dr. K. C. Kasliwal Director, Mahavir Jain Sahitya Shodhak Sansthan, Mahavir Bhavan, Sawai Mansingh Highway, Jaipur. 18. Dr. V. P. Joharapurkar Mabakoshal Arts Mahavidyalay, Jabalpur, (M, P.). Page #35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xxvi) 19. Shri B. K, Khadabadi Karnatak Arts College, Dharwar. 20. Dr. Gokul Chandra Jain L-22, Navin Shahadra, Delbi-32. 21. Shri S. M. Shaba Lecturer in Prakrit, University of Poona, Poona-7. 22. Shri Prem Suman Jain Lecturer in Prakrit, University of Udaipur, Udaipur. 23. Prof. G. D. Sharma CH/38/4 Sector 28, Gandhinagar, (Gujarat). Shri Kanjibhai M. Patel Arts & Science College, Patan, (Gujarat). 25. Dr. Mrs. Suhasini Laddu Vinayak Prasad, 487, Tilak Road, Poona-30. 26. Dr. (Smt.) Ratna Shriyan Head of the Department of Sanskrit & Prakrit, 21, 8th, Cross, 6th Main, N. R. Colony, Bangalore. 27. Mr. Kyoshn Tsuchibashi 52, Mongushi, Higashino, Higashiyama-Ku Kyoto, JAPAN. C/o. P. V. Jain Research Instt. Varanasi-5. 28. Shri Rajendra Prasad Jain B-5/31, Safdarjang Enclave, New Delhi-16. 29. Miss Suzuko Ohira Ladies' Hostel, No. 231, University of Mysore, Mysore-6. 30. Dr. Dattatraya Ganesh Joshi 4331. Nawathe Wada, Gujar Galli, Ahmednagar, (C. Rly.). 31. Prof. K. S. Shukla Prof. of Sanskrit, Desai Street, Bhavnagar. 32. Shri Harnarayan U. Pandya K, M. Patel Arts & Sc. College, Kalol, (N. G.) 33. Shri K. K. Sharma Udaipur University, Udaipur. *34. Dr. H. L. Jain Co. P. K. Mody, Govt. P. G. College, Balghat. (M.P.) *35. Dr. H. S. Ananthnarayana Reader in Linguistics, Osmania University, Hyderabad-7. *36. Dr. A. S. Gopani 52, Dadabboy Road, P. O. Ville Parle (West) Bombay--56. (AS) *37. Dr. R. S. Tomar Vishwabharati, Shantiniketan. *38. Dr. B. J. Sandesara Oriental Institute, Baroda. *39. Dr. U. P. Shah Orlental Institute. Baroda. Page #36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( xxvii) *40. Dr. T. G. Mainkar Head of the Deptt. of Sanskrit, Bombay University, Bombay. *41. V. W. Paranjape Deccan College, Poona-6. *42. Dr. V. P. Jain P. G. Deptt. of Pali and Prakrit, Jabalpur University, Jabalpur. *43. Dr. Mahesh Tiwari Research Institute of Pali and Buddhism, Nalanda. (Bibar) *44. Dr. B. C. Jain P. G. Pali and Prakrit Deptt. Nagpur University, Nagpur. *45. Dr. N. A. Deshpande 202, Turel Pakhadi, Malad, Bombay-64. II List of Local Participants 01 School of Languages, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-9. 1. Dr. H. C. Bhayani, Head of the Department of Linguistics, 2. Dr. K. R. Chandra, Head of the Department of Prakrit and Pali, 3. Dr. Miss E. A. Solomon, Head of the Department of Sanskrit, 4. Dr. Yogendra Vyas, Deptt. of Linguistics, 5. Prof. Bholabhai Patel, Deptt. of Hindi, 6. Pt. D. D. Malavnia, Director, 7. Dr. N. J. Shah, Dy. Director, 8. Pt. Bechardasji Joshi, Sr. Research Officer, 9. Dr. J. C. Sikdar, Senior Research Officer, 10. Pt. A. M. Bhojak, Research Officer, 11. Shah K. V. Sheth, Research Student, *12. Dr. K. K. Dixit, Research Officer, *13. Shri R. M. Shah, Research Officer, of L. D. Institute Indology, Ahmedabad-9. *14. Dr. T. N. Dave, Retd. Professor of Sanskrit and Linguistics, Bhavbhuti, Oppt. Govt. H. Colony, Ahmedabad-15. 15. Prof. Shantibhai Acharya, Head of the Department of Linguistics, 16. Prof. Ramesh S. Betai, Head of the Depart. ment of Sapskrit, 17. Dr. Rasesh Jamindar, Deptt. of History and Ancient Indian Culture, Gujarat Vidyapith, Ahmedabad-14, Page #37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xxviii) *18. Prof. R. C. Parikh, Gujarat Vidyasabha, Ahmedabad, -9 19. Prof. V. M. Shah, (Retd.) 7, Deepak Nagar, Ahmedabad-7. 20. Prof. V. J. Chowksbi, (Retd.), Near Sanjivani Hospital, Ahmedabad-7. 21. Dr. N. M. Kansara, Head of the Deptt. of Sanskrit and Prakrit, Gujarat College, Ahmedabad-7. 22. Prof. N.R. Desai, Sanskrit and Prakrit Deptt. 23. Prof. Nagindas Parekb, Deptt. of Gujarati, *24. Dr. Indukala N. Jbaveri, Deptt. of Philosophy, H. K, Arts College, R.C. Marg, Ahmedabad-9. 25. Prof. M. R. Shah, Sanskrit and Prakrit Department, B.D. Arts College, Sankadi Sheri, Ahmedabad -1. * 26. Prof. M. C. Modi, (Retd.), Ahmedabad. 27. Prof. S. M. Jain, Prakrit Deptt., L. D. Arts College, Ahmedabad-9. * Names of Scholars who accepetd our invitation but due to some unavoidable circumstances could not participate in the Seminar. III List of Scholars Invited but were Unable to Attend. 1. Mu. Shri Jinvijayaji, Chittor. 2. Dr. P. L. Vaidya, Poona. 3. Dr. S. M. Katre, Poona. 4. Dr. S.K, Chatterjee, Calcutta. 5. Dr. Sukumar Sen, Calcutta. 6. Dr. A. M. Gbatage, Poona. 7. Shri Bh. J. Kashyap, Nalanda. 8. Dr. Biswanath Banerjee, Shantiniketan. 9. Dr. Nathmal Tantia, Nalanda. 10. Pt. Kailashchandra Shastri, Banaras, 11. Prof. H. R. Kapadia, Bombay. 12. Dr. M. A. Mahendale, Poona. 13. Dr. P. K. Modi, Balghat. 14. Prof. P. C. Shah. Junagadh. 15. Prof. V. C. Joshi, Baroda. 16. Dr. P. M. Upadhye, Bombay. Page #38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Brief Report Seminar on Prakrit Studies With the aid of the University Grants Commission the Seminar on Prakrit Studies was organised by the Prakrit Department of the School of Languages, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad from 22-3-1973 to 25-3-1973. 45 participants from various other Universities were invited for the Seminar, of which 33 could attend. Besides there were nearly 20 local participants. Out of the eight sessions of the Seminar orginally planned, seven could be actually held. Excepting the first inaugural session all the rest were devoted to paper-reading. In all 36 papers were read and discussed under different heads. A list of the papers read session-wise along with the names of the participants is already given. The venue of the Seminar was the Adivasi Samshodhan Kendra of Gujarat Vidyapith. In its premises arrangements for the boarding and lodging of outside participants were also made by the Vice-chancellor of the Gujarat University. At the concluding session, after the paper-reading was over, various recommendations were made by the participants as a result of the dicussions at the Seminar. These recommendations are given below. Besides the paper-reading and discussions, two extension lectures on 'Literary and Philosophical value of Prakrits' and 'Sounds and Spellings in Prakrit', were delivered by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Head of the Department of Prakrit and Jainology, Mysore University, Mysore and Dr. P. B. Pandit, Head of the Department of Linguistics, Delhi University, Delhi. Third Extension lecture was also planned but Dr. B. J. Sandesara, Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda, who was to deliver the lecture, could not attend the Seminar and it was cancelled. We demanded a sum of Rs. 22000/- from the U. G. C. to meet the entire expenses of the Seminar which included the publication of proceedings of the seminar but the U. G. C. granted Rs. 14000/- for conducting the seminar only. Out of that amount we could utilise a sum of Rs. 11000/- only because instead of five days the seminar lasted four days only and the attendance of outside participants was a little below our expectation. We are quite grateful to the U. G. C. for the grant. We are also grateful to the authorities of the L. D. Institute of Indology, Ahmedabad, which generously met the expenses of the local participants in the Seminar and arranged a visit of the outside participants to their Institute. Page #39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xxx) We are thankful to the authorities of the Gujarat Vidyapith and Gujarat University which helped us promptly in organising the seminar. The Seminar was inaugurated by Pandit Sukhlalji, a veteran philosopher and Prakrit Scholar. In his address he stressed the importance of Prakrit Studies and advised all concerned to undertake a vigorous programme of studying and publishing Prakrit texts, the contents of which were highly important from the point of view of Indian history and culture. In the beginning on behalf of the preparatory committee Dr. H. C. Bhayani welcomed the participants. It was foliowed by the welcome address by Shri Ishwarbhai J. Patel, the Vice-chancellor of Gujarat University. Dr. K. R. Chandra, the Director of the Seminar read various messages containing good wishes for the success of the Seminar and various useful suggestions. At the end of the inaugural session Dr. K. R. Chandra moved a vote of thanks. Due to various circumstances it was not possible for us to hold the Seminar earlier or later than March though this time of the year was not so favourable for holding the seminar due to examinations and other commitments on the part of many participants. This is reflected in the fact that out of 45 invitees only 33 could actualy come from outside. Correspondingly the number of papers presented at the Seminar was reduced and consequently the Seminar lasted four days instead of five as originally planned. Even then on the whole the response to the seminar was very good and encouraging. Looking to the number of serious papers presented at the seminar and to the learned discussions it can be said that the meeting was very fruitful and essential objectives of the seminar were achieved. We may also specially mention the enlightened and experienced guidance which this seminar received throughout from Dr. A. N. Upadhye, the doyen of Prakrit studies. We are also thankful to Dr. G. C. Jain for arranging a slide-show on Jain Cultural Monuments. Thanks are also due to Shri Ratibhai Desai who took upon himself the entire responsibility of looking after the lodging and boarding arrangements of the participants. We have also to record that before the beginning of the paper-reading session a condolence meeting was held to mourn the passing away of Dr. H. L. Jain, an eminent scholar and Prof. G. C. Jhala. It is very sad to note that before the publication of this volume we lost Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Dr. G. C. Chaudhari, Dr. N. C. Shastri and Pandit Shri Sukhlalji who were associated with the Seminar and Dr. P. L. Vaidya who sent good wishes to us on this occasion. Page #40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xxxi) Recommendations of the Seminar on Prakrit Studies At ths earlier Prakrit Seminars the aims, objectives and scope of Prakrit Studies have been clearly formulated in all their important aspects and details. Numerous steps to reorganize the studies in the context of present-day relevance and future requirements have been also suggested and priority plans have been indicated. The present seminar while accepting and stressing all those earlier recommendations, has to make the following specific recommendations to Universities, the University Grants Commission and various other Institutions interested in furthering Parkrit Studies for immediate implementation. (1) Every University should strengthen its Sanskrit and Prakrit or Pali as well as Modern Indo-Aryan language Depart nents by the addition of a teacher - a reader or a lecturer - specialized in Prakrit, so that the Department both in its research and instructional activities becomes fully efficient. (2) Some arrangement for training young scholars for editing and text-critical study of works in Prakrit and Apabhramsa is an urgent necessity. It is for U. G. C. to make available sufficient funds for this purpose. (3) It is urgently needed to institute at various Universities certificate and diploma courses in Middle Indo-Aryan languages (Pali, Prakrit, Apabhramsa etc.) for graduates of other discipines. (4) An Advanced Centre of Prakrit Studies be established at an early date. (5) It is very desirable that with financial support from the U. G. C. certain short-term arrangements like summer schools, workshops etc. be made for training for basic tools and methodology of research in Prakrit. A starting can be made with the following subjects: (i) Editing of lexicography. (ii) Problems of lexicography. (iii) A composite programme of teaching classical languages (Sanskrit, Pali, Prakrit and Apabhramsa), (iv) A number of doctoral and post-doctoral fellowships for special study of Prakrit and Pali be instituted at select Universities. Page #41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #42 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1. Vratakatha in old Marathi Dr. V. P. Joharapurkar, Jabalpur. Introductory Study of Jain literature in old Marathi - though very recent1 has revealed the existence of over 150 works of about 60 authors spread over four centuries (circa 1450 to 1850 A. D.). Out of these, 12 authors are known to have written 24 vratakathas. I had the opportunity of editing 12 stories out of these and the present article is based on their study. It may be noted here that these stories are not related to the vratas as known in the earliest phase of Jain literature (Ahimsa, Satya, Etc.), They illustrate the importance of fasts undertaken on some particular days for a number of years. Texts and Authors: The first vratakatha (which is also the earliest vratakatha in Marathi published so far) edited by me is Ananta Vratakatha of Abhayakirti composed in 1616 A. D.2 Six stories relating to Aditya, Ananta, Puspanjali, Nirdosa saptami, Kalasa dasami and Sugandha dasami vratas by Jinasagara (circa 1724 to 1744 A.D.) are included in complete works of Jinasagara edited by me. Five more stories edited by me and published recently under the title Pracina Marathi Katha Pancaka are: Anantakatha of Cimana Pandita (circa 1650 A.D.), Sugandhadasami Katha of Sabaji (1665 A.D.), Nirdosa-Saptami Katha of Mahicandra (circa 1662 A.D.), Aditya Katha of Punyasagara (circa 1650 A.D.) and Meghamala Katha of Laxmicandra (1728 A.D.) Other Marathi vratakathas known so far are :-Adityakatha of Abhayakirti (1613 A.D.), Rukminikatha of Visalakirti (circa 1670 A.D.), Nandisvara and Garudapancami kathas of Mahicandra (circa 1692 A.D.), Jinaratrikatha of Laxmicandra (circa 1728 A. D.), Karmastamikatha of Soyara (1746 A.D.), Ravivratakatha of Yamasa (1751 A.D.), Dasalaksanakatha of Anantakirti (1775 A.D.), and Aditya, Dasalaksana, Ratnatraya and Sodasakarana kathas of Mabatisagara (1772-1832 A.D.)5 Sources: Mahicandra in his Nirdosa Saptami Katha mentions that he followed Brahma Jinadasa's Rasa Bhasa (Gujarati) version of a Sanskrit story. This seems to be incorrect as the Sanskrit version known so farthat of Srutasagara-is slightly later than Jinadasa's Gujarati version. Another author-Sabaji-also mentions that his Sugandha-dasami-Katha is a Marathi rendering of the Rasachanda of Jinadasa. Excerpts from other Vratakathas quoted by Dr. Akkole show that Mahicandra in his Nandisvarakatha and Anantakirti in his Dasalakasanakatha also mention Jinadasa as their source, Page #43 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jinadasa (circa 1450 A.D.) is known to have written 15 vratakathas in Gujaratie though only one-Sugandhadasami Katha-has been published so far." He has not mentioned any earlier yratakatha, but it seems quite probable that he followed some Apabhraisa stories. One of these-Sugandha. dasamikatha of Udayacandra-is of the twelfth century A.D.8 Balacandra was a disciple of Udayacandra. His Niddukkhasattami Katha is available. His disciple Vinayacandra is known to have written Nijjhara-pancami Katha.9 In Prakrit, Nanapancamikaha of Maheswara is a good collection of ten stories of the tenth century A.D. 10 Two authors of the same period also wrote Vratakathas in Apabbramsa but these - Nayakumaracariu of Puspadanta and Bhavisayatta kaha of Dhanapala - are better known as fullfledged Kavyas. The earliest Apabhramsa poet of eminence-Svayambhudeva also wrote Pancamicariu in the eighth century A.D. but unfortunately no manuscript of this work has been discovered so far. Folk Tales Incorporated : The stories of Ananta, Meghamala and Kalasadasami are very simple--first two illustrate removal of poverty by observing the vratas while in the third one birth of children is said to be the result of the same. Other stories are more interesting as they contain some popular elements. In the Sugandha-dasami-katha we find a young girl ill-treated by her stepmother. She is married to the king by virtue of the merit acquired by observing the vrata in her previous birth. Dr. H. L. Jain has compared this story with the story of Cindrella well-known in western countries. The Adityayratakatha describes a young boy ill-treated by his sister-in-law. The king of Nagas takes pity on him and he becomes the son-in-law of the king of Ayodhya. Intervention of Nagas to help a distressed person figures in many stories. The story of Vairotya in the Nandila prabandha of Prabhavaka-carita may be cited for example. In Nirdosa-saptamikatha we find a lady whose merit by observing the vrata in her previous birth is so great that she knows not what sorrow is. Her neighbour sends a cobra to her but even that turns into a necklace studded with jewels. The story of Pus panjali-vrata is more in line with the pattern of Jain mythology. Here love of a young couple is traced to their previous birth. The earlier part of this story is somewhat unusual, Here a young girl consoles her father who is mourning the death of his wife. He becomes a monk following his daughter's advice but being attracted by wordly pleasures gives up penance. He is again admonished by his daughter and that makes him very angry. These vrata-stories thus contain many interesting elements. Peculiar Ritual : Besides usual Jina-worship, there are some peculiar features in the mode of observing the vratas. In Anantavrata, a thread with fourteen knots is prepared and each knot is associated with mythological Page #44 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ or religious significance. This thread of fourteen knots figures in the Anantavrata of Hindu tradition also.11 In the Adityayrata, nine 'fruits' made of wheat flour are offered. This is also common to the Adityahrdaya-vrata prescribed in the Hindu tradition, 12 In the Nirdosasaptami, the Jina-idol is put in a pot and it is filled with milk upto its neck. In Hindu tradition of Maharastra, Ganesa-idol is sometimes put in a waterpot especially when some near relative is in danger. In the Meghamalayrata, a piece of cloth is hung over the Jina-idol and water is sprinkled over the cloth. It is imagined that this depicts a raining cloud as indicated by the name of the vrata. These peculiar features must have helped in popularising the vratas. Language and Style : All the stories studied here belong to the 17th and 18th century. Still some difference of language and style is noticeable among them. Jinasagara's stories have invariably classical Sanskrit metres. He uses more Sanskrit words than his predecessors. Earlier authors have used Ovi metre. Its popularity and simplicity is comparable with that of Anustubh in Sanskrit. One author-Cimana Pandita-wrote Ananta-vratakatha in the form of a song in which each stanza is of four lines and each line has three parts of 14, 6 and 12 Matras. All the authors follow the general trend of revival of Sanskrit words on a large scale, still many words retain their Prakrita-Apabhramsa form. Some of these appear to be common to Gujarati and Hindi. These are not used by non-Jain Marathi authors. Some words of these two types are noted below (numbers in bracket indicate verses). Abhayakirti :-Tbau (10) for Sthana, Povali (16) for Pratoli, Vasai (17) for Vasati (Jain temple), Gbaya (54) for Gbata, Kuvaru (76) for Kumara, Bakbana (129) for Vyakhyana, Bhadava (142) for Bhadrapada, Sohajala (159) for Sojjvala, Ghevara (182) for Ghitavara. Cimana Pandita :-Ravo (5) for Raja, Thira (16) for Sthira, Padagaha (29) for Pratigraba, Uchbaha (38) for Utsaba, Ujavana (45) for Udyapana, Udima (49) for Udyama. Punyasagara :-Dohala (13) for Dohada, Kuda (43) for kuta, Bhaujaya (80) for Bhratijaya, Asu (115) for Asru, Mahocchava (152) for Mahotsava. Sabaji :- Macchara (116) for Matsara, Vosanga (124) for Utsanga, Patola (199) for Pattakula. Mabicandra :- Koda (20) for Kautuka, Seja (28) for sayya, Danka (47) for Damsa, Nhavana (99) for Snapada. Laxmicandra :-Rukha (25) for Ruksa, Darota (29) for Dvarapata, Khina (35) for Ksana, Poyada (52) for Podana. Page #45 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jipasagara :-Ajaga (Aditya. 3) for Ajnana, Vavara (Aditya. 30) for Vyapara, Vanz (Ananta 9) for Vandhya, Khaja (Ananta 61) for Khadya, Kida (Nirdosa. 3) for Kita, Tarala (Nirdosa, 24) for Talavara, Eri (Puspan. jali 13) for Itara, Juza (Puspanjali 51) for Yuddha. 1. First article on the subject written by me appeared in the Marathi Monthly Sanmati (Bahubali-Kolhapur Dist.) in Nov. 55. The subject was taken up by my friend Dr. Akkole for his thesis for Ph. D. (Published by Suvichara Prakashana Mandala, Poona, in 1968). 2. Monthly Sanmati-May 1958. 3. Jivaraja Jain Granthamala, Sholapur, 1959. 4. Jivaraja Jain Granthamala, Sholapur, 1971. 5. The four stories of Mahatisagara were published in Mahatikavyak unja in 1930. Some details of other unpublished stories are given by Dr. Akkole in his thesis mentioned earlier. Pt. Paramananda has given a list of Jinadasa's works in Anekanta (Noy. Dec. 71, P. 227.) 7. It is included by Dr. H. L. Jain in his edition of Sugandha-dasamikatha (Bharatiya Jnanapitha, Varanasi 1966) 8. Included by Dr. H. L Jain in his edition mentioned above. Many more Apabhramsa, vratakathas are noticed by Pandit Paramananda in his Jaina-grantha-prasasti-sangraha, Vol. II which belong to fifteenth and sixteenth century. 10. Edited by Dr. Gopani in the Singhi Jain Series, Bombay. 1949. 11. History of Dharmashastra (P. V Kane) Vol. V Part I Page 153. 12. Ibid P. 268. Page #46 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 2. Contribution of Prakrit Literature to Biology of Ancient India. Dr. J. C. Sikdar, Ahmedabad. Prakrit literature is to be judged by its value to humanity and its estimation is to be determined by the principles as to what extent does it contributes to the progress of mankind by testifying sufficiently to the linguistic and literary development of its age and its importance to the society by conveying various aspects of Indian Culture, such as; sciences and arts, etc. Here an attempt has been made to bring to light the contribution of Prakrit literature to Biology of Ancient India by making an analysis of living substance (Jivadravya)' as different from non-living substance (ajiva. dravya) 2 for solving the fascinating riddle of life, The survival of early men required a knowledge of such basic facts as which plants and which animals could be safely taken as food and medicine. In Prakrit literature the word 'Jivatthikae's is used to refer to any living substance, plant or animal, from nigodajiva* (micro-organism) up to the Pancendriya manusya'5 (the five-sensed human beings), just as the word 'organism'o in modern age is used to denote any living thing, plant or animal from amoeba up to man. The study of Biology began with the authors of the Jaina Agamic Prakrit literature on the basis of the doctrine of animism? and ahimsas (non-violence) in the hoary past, besides the requirement of food to sustain life with a sense of spiritual value of life of all beings. They kept in view the concepts of living substance as contained in the Vedice and post-Vedicto literature, describing the external and internal parts of plants and animals with their nomenclature, classifications, etc. Biology as an organised science can be said to have begun with the Greeksli in the west on the basis of the knowledge of such basic facts as which plants and which animals were useful as food and medicine. "They and the Romans described the many kinds of plants and animals known at the time."1% It expanded and underwent alteration greatly in the nine. teenth century and it has continued this trend at an accelerated pace in the twentieth century due to the discoveries and techniques of physics and chemistry. Page #47 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Some Generalizations : The idea that living systems are not distinguished from non-living ones by some mysterious vital force (paryapti)13 has gained acceptance in Biology of Ancient India and in modern Biology, one of the basic tenets of which is that the phenomena of life can be explained in terms of Chemistry and Physics". 14 There appear to be no exceptions to the generalization that all life comes only from living things. Like the experiments of Pasteur, Tyndal and others,15 just century ago finally, the authors of Prakrit works provided convincing prooi that micro-organism, such as, nigodajivas, prthivikavaj ivas, etc., i.e. bacteria are also incapable of originating from non-living material by spontaneous generation. It seems clear that nigodajivas require the presence of pre-existing nigodajivas, 1e just as the virus of modern Biology does so. Nigodajivas do not arise de novo from non-nigodajivas, just as viruses do not do so from non-viral material.17 Elements of the idea that all of the many kinds of plants and animals existing at the present time were not created de novo and were externally cxisting and have descended from previously existing organisms are clearly expressed in the Jaina Agamic Prakrit literature, 18 but they have their gradations.19 In the writings of certain Greek philosophers before the Christian era, from Thales to Aristotle, 20 there are the implicit ideas of the descending of plants and animals from gradual modifications. This theory of organic evolution has also gained ground among the modern Biologists as one of the great unifying concepts of Biology, 21 The Prakrit studies of the development of many kinds of animals and plants from fertilized egg?? or embryo 33 to adult leads to the generaliza. tion that organisms tend to repeat in the course of their embryonic develop. ment, some of the corresponding stages of their evolutionary ancestors. According to this theory of recapitulation, embryos recapitulate some of the embryonic forms of their ancestors. 24 "The human being, at successive stages in development resembles in certain respects a fish embryo, then an amphibion embryo, then a reptition embryo and so on". 25 Inter-relations of Organism and Environment : A careful study of communities of plants and animals in a given area, as found in the Jaina Agamic Prakrit literature, leads to the generalization that all living beings in a given region are closely interrelated with other and with the environment It includes the idea that particular kinds of plants and animals are not found at rendom over the earth but occur in inter-dependent communities of producer, consumer and decomposer organisms together with certain nonliving components. These communities can be recognised and characterized by certain dominant members of the group, usually plants, which provide Page #48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ both food 76 and shelter for many other forms. This eco-system is one of the major unifying generalizations of Biology. Cells, Structures and Functions : The Fabric of Life : As already pointed out, Biology is the science of living things, 'Paryapti'37 (Proto. plasm ?) appears to be the actual living material of all plants and animals. This vital force of protoplasm of the human body and of all plants and animals, according to modern Biology, exists, in cells, 28 the discrete portions, which are the microscopic units of structure of the body; each of them is an independent, fuctional unit. "The processes of the body are the sum of the co-ordinated functions of its cells. These cellular units vary considerably in size, shape and function. Some of the smallest animals have bodies made of a single cell, others such as a man or an oak tree are made of countless billions of cells fitted together". 29 Characteristics of Living Substances : All living substances (Jwadravyas) have, to a greater or lesser extent, the properties of specific size80 and shape, 31 metabolism, 32 movement,88 irritability,34 growth,85 reproduction 36 and adaptation.37 Biologic Inter-relationships : At first glance, the world of living substances appears to be made up of a bewildering variety of plants and animals,38 all quite different and each going its separate way at its own pace. A closer study reveals, however, that all organisms, whether plant or animal, have the same basic needs for survival, the same problems of getting food 39 for energy, getting space to live, 40 producing a new generation41 and 30 on. In solving their problems, plants and animals have evolved into a tremendous number of different forms, 42 each adapted to live in some particular sort of environment. Each has become adapted not only to the physical environment,43 has acquired a tolerance to a certain range of moisture, wind, sun, temperature, gravity and so on but also to the biotic environment, all the plants and animals living in the same general region. Living organisms are inter-related in two main ways, by evolutionary descent45 and ecologically.46 One organism may provide food or shelter for another 47 or produce some substance harmful to the second, 48 or the two may complete for food or shelter. The Classification of Living Things : The authors of Prakrit Literature have tried to set up systems of classifications based on natural relationships,49 putting into a single group those organisms which are closely related in their evolutionary origin.50 Since many of the structural similari. ties 51 depend on evolutionary relations,52 classification of organisms is similar in many respects to the one of the principles based on logical structural similarities, 68 that is to say, species, genus, phyla. Page #49 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 8 Many plants and animals fall into easily recognisable natural groups, and their classification presents no difficulty, "but other forms, which seem to lie on the border line between two groups, according to modern Biology, and have some characteristics in common with each are difficult to assign to one or the other."54 Distinction Between Plants, Animals and Protists: The living world has been divided into two kingdoms, one of plants55 and one of animals,66 The word 'vanapphai'57 (plant) suggests trees, shrubs, flowers, grasses and vines-large and familiar objects of every day world. And the word 'pasu' 58 suggests both wild59 and domestico animals in a wider sence, such as, lions, tigers, cows, buffaloes, birds, frogs, fish, etc. Further thought brings to mind such forms of life, as ferns, mosses, mushrooms and pond scums, 62 quite different but recognizable as plants, and insects, 63 worms $4 (krmis), etc., that are definitely animals, According to some modern biologists, a third kingdom, the protista, be set up to include the singlecelled organisms that are intermediate in many respects between plants and animals, e.g. Euglena moves around like an animal but contains chlorophyll and can carry on photosynthesis like a plant. 65 Fundamentally, plants and animals, as mentioned in Prakrit literature, are alive in many ways, both are made of cells (nigoda body?) as structural and functional units and both have many metabolic processes in common. But there are some obvious ways and some obscure ways in which they differ. Plants may be classified into bacteria, 66 algae, 67 fungi, 68 herbs, 69 shrubs, 70 creepers (vines), grasses72 and trees,73 on the basis of general properties of green plant cells, the structure and functions of a seed plant, reproduction, etc. Microscopic bacteria (i. e. nigodajivas, prthvikayika-jivas upto Vanas patikayikas) and insects and animals of terrestrial74 and aquatic75 origin and aerial beings76 find mention in the Jaina Agamic Prakrit texts with their distinct classifications. It appears that plants and animals were classified into species and genus, etc., on the basis of certain principies, such as, birth, habitat, living, special structural features, utility, etc, i. e. evolutionary descent and ecology in general. The authors of Prakrit literature touched upon the problems of properties of green plant,77 plant digestion,78 plant circulation, respiration80 in plants, the structures81 and functions82 of a seed plant, the storage of food,83 types of plants,84 bacteria, etc., figures and sizess of earth quadrates, evolution of plant reproduction87 of bacteria, algae88 and fungi,89 the reproduction-asexual reproduction, 91 germination92 of the seed and evolutionary trends in the plant kingdom. Page #50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ The green plants are the primary producers of the living world. Without green plants, life except for a few chemosynthetic bacteria would disappear from the eartb. Plants have no specialized digestive system. An embryo plant cannot make its own food until the seed bas sprouted and the embryo has developed a functional root, leaf and stem system.o3 Prakrit literature makes an implicit suggestion that the nutrients of the plants are made within the cells of the plants or absorbed through the cell membrances.84 Water or nutrient is absorbed by the epidermal cells of the roots containing bacteria85 and moved to all parts of the plant. There takes place respiration in plants-cellular respiration in plants as explained by modern Biology. The authors of Prakrit literature differentiate the several parts of a plant, such as, root, stem, leaf, etc.97 The obvious function of root is to anchor the plant, to absorb water and minerals from the soils and to conduct these substances to the stem and to store99 food in it. The stem and its branches support the leaves, flowers and fruits.100 Each leaf is a specialized nutritive organ whose function is to carry on photosynthesis 101 Plants are of two types 102 : Subtile and gross ones and both of them are either fully developed or undeveloped. Either many have one body in common or each has its own body. Those who severally have their own body are of many kinds : trees, shrubby plants, shrubs, big plants, creeping plants, grass, paims, plants of knotty stems or stalks, mushrooms, waterplants, annual plants, and herbs. 103 The subtile plants are of one kind as there is no variety. They are distributed all over the world, gross plants are found in a part of the world only.104 Some of subtile plants are identical with bacteria, algae and fungi. An evolutionary sequence in plant reproduction appears to be evident ranging from subtile plants which reproduce largely by asexual means. The higher plants105 may produce no more than a few scores of seeds per plant, but each seed has a fairly good chance of growing into a natural plant. In plants only asexual reproduction106 takes place according to the Prakrit literature. But modern Biology shows that there take place both asexual and sexual reproductions in plant life. The life of some higher plants exists within the cover of seeds in a state of dormancy to be awakened at a proper time and season under the favourable conditions. The viability of the cereals, if preserved in a well protected granary, lasts in the maximum upto-three years, five years and seven years.107 A number of evolutionary trends appear to be evident in the plant kingdom. One of these is a change from a population that is mostly baploid individuals to one that is almost entirely diploid-an evolutionary trend toward a greater size and importance of the sporophyte ang a reduction in the size of the gametophyte generation, Page #51 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 10 Next the authors of Prakrit literature dealt with the Animal kingdom : the lower invertebrates, the higher invertebrates, the phylum Chordata, birds, the mammals, the organization of the body, blood, the circulatory system, foetal circulation and changes at birth, the respiratory system, the digestive system, metabolism and nutrition, the excretory system, the integumentary and the skeletal systems, the muscular system, the nervous system, the sense-organs, the tactile senses, organs of taste and smell, the eye, reproduction-asexual and sexual, human reproduction, embryonic develop. ment, nutrition and fertilization of the embryo and birth of the child, etc. To catalogue the vast array of animals the authors of the Jaina Agamic Prakrit literature bave used a classification system of animals, based upon observation of similarities of structure, sense-organs and development. According to the Uttaradhyayana Sutra, the movable beings are of three kinds, viz. (1) the fire-lives, (2) the wind-lives and (3) those with an organic body.108 They are further sub-divided into subtile and gross animals. Movable beings.09 with organic bodies (i.e. animals) are of four kinds : (1) those possessing two organs of sense, (2) those with three organs of sense, (3) those with four sense-organs and (4) those with five sense-organs. That is to say, they are classified into these groups by counting the senses actually determining the life habits. The two-sensed animals up to the four-sensed animals come under the category of the Invertebratelower and higher, with the problems of terrestrial and aquatic life, while the five-sensed animals including man come under the vertebrate of modern Biology. The animals (man and lower animals) having five organs of sense110 fall under the category of the phylum chordata which consists of the subphylum, vertebrate animals, such as, fish etc. The five--sensed lower animals of the vertebrata are classified first into two groups on the basis of reproduction : sammurochima and garbhavyutkrantikalit (generation aequivoca and those which are born from the womb) and Dext into three groups, viz. andaja, potaja and sammurcchima.112 Either of sammurochima and garbhavyutkrantika animals are divided into three classes on the basis of their habitat, viz. jalacara (aquatic), sthalacara (terrestrial) and nabha (khe)cara (aerial).113 Terrestrial animals are of two kinds, viz. parisar pa and catus. pada (quadruped);114 parisar pa (reptiles) are of two classes, viz. (1) those which walk on their arms (bhujaga) e.g. lizard, etc. and (2) those which move on their breasts (uraga), e.g. spake etc. 115 Winged animals or birds which are the aerial animals are characterised by the presence of feathers, they are of four kinds, viz. those with memberanous wings, 116 (2) those with feathered wings, (3) those with wings in the shape of boxl1; and those which sit on outspread wings (carma paksi, loma paksi, samud gapaksi and vitata paksi).118 Page #52 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 11 The quadrupeds (catuspada) come under the species of the mammals whose distinguishing features are the presence of hair, mammary glands and sweat glands, and the differentiation of the teeth into incisors, canines and molars. 119 They are of four kinds, viz. solidungular animals, e.g. horse, (2) biungular animals, e. g. cows, etc. (3) multiupgular animals, elephant, etc, and (4) animals having toes with nails, e.g. lions etc. (egakhura, dukhura, gandipada and sanappaya).1 20 Men are of two kinds, viz, (4) men originating by generation aequivoca and men born from the womb (sanmurcchima and garbhavyutkrantika).131 The organization of the body of developed animal includes the transport system of the body, the blood and blood vessels that supply all cells with nutrients and remove the waste products of metabolism, the respiratory system, the digestive system, followed by metabolism and nutrition, the excretory system, the integumentary and skeletal systems, which protect and support the body, the muscular system which moves the various parts of the body-one on another, the nervous and endocrine systems together with the sense-organs by which animals obtain and process information regarding the external environment. Blood122 is generated in the foetus, six month old, developing in the mother's123 womb. This statement suggests that men and all the larger animals have developed some system of internal transport, a circulatory system consisting of the heart and blood vessels, the lymph vessels, and the blood and lymph. The reference to seven hundred siras (neurons or nerves) and nine dhamanis (arteries)124 in the foetus, together with pitta (hile) and sonita (blood) suggests the circulatory system of the developed animals that it includes the heart, 125 the blood vessels and the lymph vessels, in addition to the blood, lymph and tissue fluid, The foetus deveoping in the uterus obtains food and oxygen from the maternal blood by means of blood vessels in the placenta and umbilical cord (putrajiya-rasaharani).126 The blood of the foetus is manufactured within its own body. Within the placenta the capillaries of mother and foetus come into close contact, and substances pass from one to the other by diffusion or by active transport processes. Two umbilical arteries (matrjiva and putrajiva-rasaharanil 27 grow out of the lower part of the aorta of the foetus and pass to the placenta. Blocd is returned to the child by a single umbilical vein. In Prakrit literature the term ana pana or 'ucchasanicchasa'128 is synonymous with breathing and means in baling and exhaling. The reference to ahara paryapti, sarira paryapti, ete, and the metabolic process and nourishment of the foetus developing in the mother's womb suggests the digestive system and metabolism and nutrition of all larger Page #53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 12 animal including man,129 Food is any substance taken into the body that can be used for the release of energy for the building and repair of tissue. By the metabolic process the food substances, being taken into the body, get digested and absorbed from the intestine. They are either built into new tissue or oxidized to energy. There is no excretion of feces or urine or sputum or rheum or vomitting or bilious humour of the foetus developing in the mother's womb because all its waste products pass into the stream of the mother's blood.130 But in the case of born mer and lower animals it takes place and includes kidneys and their ducts, the skin, lungs, and digestive tract, etc. The reference to skin and the head, legs, and arms, five sense-organs, etc.131 indicates that the skin and the bony frame-work are both organ systems-groups of organs that act together to perform one of the primary like functions and determine the shape and the symmetry of the body and act as protective devices for the body. The mention of pes7132 produced from arbuda (cell bubble) of the foetus in the second month of the foetus and 500 pesis193 in the seventh month shows that man and indeed most vertebrates are quite muscular animals whose ability to move depends upon the muscle fibres. There are 700 siras' (veins) and 9 dhamanis (arteries)134 which constitute the nerve system which integrates the activities of all the parts of the body, All beings amoeba to man have sense-organs 135 in the evolutionary process varying in numbers from one to five to help them in their struggle for life. Traditionally men have five sepse-organs: skin, taste, smell, sight and hearing.186 The survival of each species of animal requires that its individual members multiply and produce new individuals to replace the ones killed by predators, parasites, or old age or disease. The actual process of reproduction varies tremendously from one kind of animal to another, but two basic types of reproduction : sammurochima and garbha. vyutkrantika137 (asexual aud sexual) can be distinguished. Human reprodnction, 138 in common with that of most animals, is accomplished sexually by the union of specialized gametes: ova or eggs produced by the female and sperm produced by the male. After fertilization kalala (zygote) is formed within seven days, then comes into existence 'arbuda' (slightly hard flat embryonic disc). Within next seven days, from arbuda tissues of muscles are formed, from pesis 'ghana' is formed 1.e. (hard cylindrical embryo) In the 1st month the embryo measures one pala, in the 2nd month its muscles become a little hard; in the fifth month there takes place the segmentation of the embryo into five segm Page #54 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 13 6. Bis ents-2 arms, 2 legs and head. In the sixth month bile and blood develop in the body, then in the seventh month 700 veins, 500 tissues of muscle, 9 arteries, 9900000 pores without hair and 35000000 pores with hair, etc. In the eighth month the foetus fully develops for the birth.139 The child is born after the complete course of pragnancy of nine months, seven and a half days and nights 140 The division, growth and differentiation of a fertilized egg into the remarkably complex and interdependent system of organs, which is the adult animal, is certainly one of the most fascinating of all biologic phenomena, The study of these brief outlines of the world of life, plants and animals, shows the trend how the authors of Prakrit literature contributed to the devlopment of Biology of Ancient India in the hoary past in the absence of the verifying data of the experiments and research of modern Biologists. Their attempt in this fold is thought-provoking and wisdom-evoking. References 1. Bhagavati Sutra, Sataka 25, Uddesaka 2, Sutra 720; Sthananga Sutra, 2.95, p. 86. Pannavana Satta, I. 3, p. 4. 2. Bhgava, Su., 25. 2. 720. Panna, Su., 1.3, p. 4; Jivabhigama Sutra, p. 5. 3. Bhaga, Su., 20. 2. 665. 4. Ibid., 25. 5. 749. 5. Ibid., 33. 1. 844. Biology, C. A. Villee, p. 16. 7. Acaranga Sutra, Adhyayana I, Uddesaka 6, Sutra 48, etc. "Se bemi samtime fasa pana, tamjaha amdaya poyaya jaraua rasaya samse yaya sammucchima ubbhiyaya uvavoiya, esa samsaretti pavuccar" "Se hu munk parinnayakamme" (54) Ibid. See SBE Vol. XXII, Pt. I, p. 11, Book I, Lecture 1. 6th lesson; "Pudhavi ya au agani ya vau, tana rukkha biya ya tasa ya pana je andaya je ya jarau pana samseyaya je rasayabhihana (1), etc. up to Nidhuya kammam na pavamcuvei, akkhakkhae va sagadam ti bemi" See SBE XLV, Pt. II, p. 293, 302; Sutrakstanga Book I, Lecture 7. Su. 1-30 8. Bhaga. Su., 2. 1. 92; 95; 8.5. 328; 11. 9. 417; 11. 22. 435. 9 See the Indian Journal of History of Sciences, Vol. 5, No. I, 1970, Biology in Ancient and Medieval India, Dr. R. N, Kapil, pp. 125-132, 10. Ibid. 11. Biology, Pt. I. 12. Ibid. 13. Navatattva Prakaranam, V. 6., P, 12. Dharmavijayaji; Lokaprakasa, Vinayavijayaji, Pt. I, 3rd Sarga, Vy. 15ff. Ibid., p. 9. 15. Ibid. 16. Bhaga. Su., 25. 5. 749. Nigodas are of two kinds, viz.. Nigodaka and Nigodakajiva (fine and gross nigodas). They are collections of infinite number of beings, making minute group, having common breathing in and out (respiration), sense-feeling. They, longing for development, continue evolution of life through the successive Jivapar yayas (modes of life or being) and they provide the supply of beings in the place of those who have attained liberation. Thus the universe dose not become and will not become devoid of beings., Bhag. Su. 12. 2. 443. 17. Biology, p. 9. 18. Bhaga. Su., 12. 2. 443. Tattvarthadhigama Sutra, 5. 3. Dev. Lal. Surat. (Nityaya sthitanyarupani ca), Page #55 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 19. Bhaga. Su. 12. 2. 442. 20. Biology, p. 10, See A History of Greek Philosophy, Vol I, II, III, by W. K. C. Guthru, Aristotle, 21. Ibid., p. 10. 22. Bhaga. Su, 7. 5. 282. 23. Ibid, 7. 5. 283. 24. Ibid., 1 7 61; Tandulaveyaliya V. 6, p 10. 25. Biology, p. 11. 14 According to the Bhaga. Su. (1. 7. 62), the like an umbrella or the side-ribs of human a humpbacked mango (ambakhujjae) 26. Bhaga. Su., 6.7.246; 6.5.330; 7.3.277; 5.3.324; 8.5.330; 21.2 691: 22.6.692; 23 1.693 etc. Sutra II. 3. 31. 27, Pajjatti Paryapti, Nava, Pra V. 6. p 12.; Gommatasara (Jivakanda) vv. 118-19; Lokapra, Pt. I, 3rd Sarga, vv. 15 ff. 28. They may be identical with Nigod'sarira. 32 29. Biology, p. 16. 30. Bhaga. Su., 19, 3. 53; 5. 1. 717; Uttaradhyayana Sutra, 36 70 (Suksma-badara) Panna. Su. (Suksma-badara, etc.) Gommat. Sa (Jivakanda), v. 177. v. 183. Panna. Su. Samthanaidaracchakam, 983-959, p, 241, Brhatsamgrahani, Candrasuri, VV. 243-5. Mulacara, Pt. II, 12, V. 49, Vatakhera. Sri Vasunandisiddhanta Cakravartin, p. 207; Lokapra. I, 3, vv. 205-10, pp. 98-99; Gommata. (Jivakanda), 201. Nemicandra. Sutra, 11. 3. (Aharaniksepa) Bhaga. Su. 1. 7. 61-62; 7 3, 275 6. Panna. Su, Ahar padam, pajjattidaram, 2nd uddesaka, p. 406; Tandula pp. 3-10; Nava. Pra. v. 6, p. 12.; Lokapra. I, 3 vv. 15-21 ff; Gommata. (Jivakanda). Ch., III, vv. 119-121; Mulacara, Pt. II, 12-4; Tarkarahasya-Dipika on Saddarsanasamuccaya (Jaina-matam), v. 49, Gunaratna. foetus in the mothers womb remains body; the emb.yo appears to be like 33, Aca Su. Book I, 9. 1. 14. Sutra. II, 2. 6. 8; 6 Stha, 2. 4. 10; Bhaga, 25. 4. 789. Uttara. Su. 36. 68. Jivabhi. Su. p. 12. Mula. Pt. I, 30 (226), p. 295. Tattva, Su. 2. 12-14; Tarka, Gunaratna, v. 49. 34. Bhag. Su, 3. 9. 170; 2. 4. 99. Panna, Su. Indriyapadam 15, Puttbadaram, etc; Jivabhi. Su. Jyotiska Uddesaka: Tarka. D. Tika on V. 49. 35. Sutra. II, 3. 55-62, Bhaga. Su. 1. 7. 61-2; 7. 3. 276; Tandula V. vv. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, TarkaD. v. 49. 36. Sutra. II. 3. Bhaga. Su. 7. 5. 282; Stha.Su 3. 1. 129; 7. 3. 543. Uttara.Su. 36, 170. Jiva. Su 31.96; 1. 33, Panna.Su. 1. 58; 68. Mula. Pt. II, 12. 43, 44 45. Tattva.. 2. 32. TarkaD, v. 49. 37. Sutra. II. 3; BhagaSu. 7, 3 275 7. 5. 282; PannaSu. Sthanapadam; Jivabhi. Su. 1, 34, 35, 36. TarkaD. v. 49. 38. Sutra. II. 3, Sutras 48-63. Bhaga. Su 33. 1. 844; 7. 5. 282, etc. Uttara. Su. 36. 68-202. Panna Su Jivapannavana 14. 138. Jivabhi Su. 3. 96; 1. 33, 34; 135. Gommta. (Jivakanda) II, 70, 71, 72, etc. 40. Ibid. 41. Ibid 39. Sutra. II, 3, 40-62. 42. Uttara. Su. 36. 135; 144; 169; 178; 179; 186; 192; 202. 43. Sutra. II. 3. Bhaga. Su 7.5-282. Uttara. Su 36.171 ff Jivabhi Su 1.34; 35. Panna. Su. I, Ji apannavana, Jalacara-Sthalacara-Khecara-Manusya, Prajnapana 29-34. 44. Sutra. II. 3. 43-62. 45. Bhaga Su. 12. 2. 443; 25. 5. 749: 33 1. 844. 46. Sutra. II, 3. 43-62; Bhaga. Su. 7, 5. 282. "The habitat of an organism is the place where it lives, a physical area, some specified earth surface, air, soil, or water," Biology, P. 90. 47. Sutra. II, 3. 43-62 48. Bhaga, Su. 8. 2. 316, Page #56 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 15 50. 49 E. G. Ekendriya-, Dvindriya-Trindriya-Caturindriya and Pancedriya organisms are classfied on the basis of natural relationships. Similarly Jalacara and Khecara organisms are classified according to their natural relationships, as they are closely related in their respective evolutionary origins. Sutra. II. 3; Jivabhi, Su. 3. 1. 96; Bhaga. Su. 7. 5, 282 (andaja, potaja and sammurcchima); Uttara Su. 36. 171 ff. Jivabhigama Su. 1. 33; 1. 34, 35; Panna Su. Jivapannavana (Jalacara, Sthalacara and Khecara and Manus yaprjnapana) 29-34. Aquatic, terrestrial and aerial organisms have been classified into these single groups as the members of each of them are closely related in their evolutionary origin 51. Bhaga. Su. 8. 3. 324; 7. 3. 277; 7. 5. 282; Jivabhi. Su. 3. 1. 91; 1. 33, 1. 34, 1-35, 1-36 Uttara. Su. 36. 135, 144, 154, 169, 178, 179, 186, 193, 202. Panna. Su. "Pancedriya, Jivapanpannavana. "Sthalacara-tirascam catu spada parisar peti-Bhedadvay, p. 30; Catuspadanamekak suradvik suradibhedacatuskam, p. 30. Gandipadunam hasti-puyanaya (de) adinamakadambakan P. 31. Sanakhapadanan sinchavyaghradinamakadambakan P. 31,; etc. See also "Tatrvarthadhigama Sutra, 2, 24, 34. Ibid. 53. Ibid. 54. Biology, 83. 55. Bhaga. Su. 33. 1. 844. 56. Ibid. 57. Ibid. 58. Ibid; 3. 1. 134; 11. 9. 417. 59. Ibid., 7, 8, 288. 60. lbid., 5. 3. 325, 61, Uttara Su 36. 95. 62, Sutra, II, 3, 55, 63, Uttara, Su, 36, 137, 64, Ibid. 36. 128 65. Biology, P, 84. 66. Uttara, Su. 36, 100 (suk smavanaspati) 67, Sevala, Sutra, II, 3, 55, 68. Fungi may be identified with some of the subtile plant bacteria, growing on other objects; See Uttara, Su. 36. 92, Bhaga, Su. 21. 7. 691; Hariyakaya, Uttara Su. 36, 95, Uttara. Su. 36. 94. gumma, similar to guccha, e.g. Vrintaka-Soldnum but bring forth twigs or stems instead of stalks, e, g. Navamallka Jasminum sambac, kanavira, etc, see S, B, E. XLV, P. 216. 71, Bhaga, Su, 21. 5. 691; 21. 6. 691: 23. 1. 693; 23. 4. 693, Uttara Su. 36. 94. Bhaga, Su, 21, 5, 691; 21, 6, 691; 11, 9, 427; 12, 8, 459; 22, 4, 692 etc, Uttara Su, 36, 94. (tana), 73, Bhaga. Su, 22. 2. 693; 22, 3, 692; 22. 4, 692; 23, 1, 693; 23. 3, 693; 23. 4. 693. 23, 5, 693. etc. Uttara Su 36. 94 (Rukkha) 74. Sutra II. 3. Bhaga, Su. 7. 5. 282. Uttara, Su. 36. 71. Panna Su. Tirikkhajoniya (Jivapannavana), 61-91; p. 29. 75, Ibid. 76, Ibid. 77, Sutra, II, 3. 43; etc. Bhaga, Su. 7. 3. 275. Uttara, Su. 36. 92-99 ff, Panna, Su. Vanaspatikayajivapannavana, 35--54. 5. Lokapra. I, 5th sarga, Vanaspati, 78. Sutra. 11. 3. 43.; Lokapara 5. 107-108. Sutra, II. 3. 36. 79. Lokapra. I, 5. 80; 83; 5. 33. Sutra, II. 3, 43.; Panna Su. Vanasa patikayajivapanna vana 54-84. Jivavicara 12; GommaS. 187. (Jivakanda); Bhaga. Su. 7. 3. 275.6. Lokapra, 5 32. Sutra. II. 3. 43; Lokapra. 5. 75; 5. 32-33. 81. Sutra. II. 3. 46, "Rukkhesu mulattae Kardattae Khandhattae tayattae salattae pavalatrae pattattae pupphattae phalattae biyattae viuamti." 82. Bhaga. Su. 7. 3. 275-6; Sutra. II. 3. Lokapra. 5. 107-108. 83. Bhaga. Su. 7. 3. 275-6. Satra. II. 3. 84. Uttara. Su. 36. 93-106. Panpa. Su. Vanassa ikaya -Jivapannavana. 72. 80. Page #57 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 16 88. 91. aga. Su, 7. 3. 2"Vanassaikayajivap6. 7. 246 85. Sutra. 1. 7. Uttara. Su. 36-93 ft. Vanassikaya Jivapannavana, Bhaga. Su. 7. 3. 276. Gommata. (Jivakanda), 189. 86. Gommata. Sa. (Jivakanda), 201 Ibid (Commentary) GommataSa. (Jivakanda). 193, Sevala-aquatic plant Vallisneria. Sutra, II. 3. 55. 89. Uttara, Su. 36-93 ff. 90. Sutra. II. 3. 43. Sutra. II, 3. Aca. Su. I. 1. 6. Bhaga. Su, II. 9. 417; 12, 8, 459,; 21. 6. 691. Uttara. Su. 36. 93 ff. Gommata. Sa, 86 (Jivakanda). 92. BhagaSu. 15. 1. 544 ; 6. 7. 246. 93. Lokapra, XX I. p. 361; 5. 74. 94. Sutra, II. 3; Lokapra. 5. 107-8, 95. Bhaga. Su. 7. 3. 275. 96. Sutra. II. 3 43; Lokapra 5. 75; p. 361. 97. Sutra. II. 3, 43, etc. 98. Bhaga. Su. 7. 3. 275-6; Sutra. II. 3. Lokapra. I. 5. 107, 108. 99 Sutra. II. 3. 100. Ibid. 101. Bhaga. Su, 7. 3. 275. 102. See Uttara. Su 36-106, for all types of plants; Panna. Vanassaikayajivapannavana, 103. Ibid. 104. Ibid. 105. Sutra. 11. 3. 106. Ibid. 107. Bhaga. Su. 6. 7. 246. 108. Uttara. Su. 36. 108-127 etc. 109. Ibid. 36. 126. 110. Bhaga. Su. 33. 1. 844 etc. Uttara. Su:36. 155. Panna. Su. Pancendriyajivaprajnapana 59-147. 111. Uttara. Su. 36. 170. Jivabhi. Su. 1. 33. 112. Bhaga, Su.. 7. 5. 383. Jivabhi. Su. 3. 1. 96. 113. Bhaga. Su. 7. 5. 282. Uttara, Su. 36. 171. Jivabhi. Su. 1. 34. 114. Uttara. Su. 36. 179. Jivabhi., 1. 35. 115. Uttara. Su. 36. 181. Jivabhi. Su. 1. 35. 116. Bats (Carmapak sins). They should be placed under the head of Mammals. 117. Samudgapakisns (These birds are stated to live outside the Manu sottara (a world inhabited not by men.) 118. Uttara. Su. 187, Jivabhai. Su. 1. 36. 119. Biology, p. 244. 120. Uttara, Su, 36. 180. Jivabhi. Su., 1. 35. 121. Uttara. Su. 36. 194. twin children born because of fission of egg are regarded as asexual reproduction in modern Biology. 122. Aca. II. 4; Sutra. II. 2, Bhaga. Su. 1. 7. 61; Tandula V. 2. lp. 6. 123. TandulaV. v. 2, p. 6. 124. Ibid. 2, p. 6. 125. Sutra. II. 2. 126. Bhaga, Su. 1. 7. 61. Tandula V. pp. 8. 9. 127. Ibid. 128. Nava. Praka., p. 12. Jiyavicara, pp. 42. 43. 129. Sutra., II. 3. Bhaga, Su, 1. 7. 61; TandulaV; Lokapra. 3. 15-21. Nava. Praka., 130. Bhaga. Su. 1. 7. 61; TandulaV., pp. 8-9. 131. Bhaga. Su: 1. 7. 61. Tandula V. v. 2, p. 6. 132. TandulaV. 2, p. 6. 133. Ibid. 134. Ibid. 135. Tandulay. 3, p. 7. Bhaga. Su: 16. 1. 466. 136Bhaga. Su. 16. 1. 566. Tandula V. 3, p. 6. Panna, Su, Indriyapada. 137. Bhaga. Su., 7. 5. 282. 138, Satra, II. 3. 139, Tandula V, 2, p. 6. 140. Bhaga. Su. 1. 7. 62, Page #58 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 3. kuvalayamAlAkahA meM lokatattva DaoN0 prema sumana jaina, udayapura prAkRta sAhitya tarkapUrNa evaM vikasita cintana kA pracAraka hote hue bhI jAne-anajAne una lokatattvoM ko bhI svIkAratA calatA hai jo jaina-dharma athavA usake mahApuruSoM ke jIvana kI mahimA ko pratiSThApita karate haiN| aneka aise jainAcArya hue haiM, jinhoMne saMkaTa ke samaya mantra, tantra, yoga evaM vibhinna vidyAoM Adi kA prayoga kiyA hai| piNDaniyukti, vRhatkalpabhASya, nizIthacUrNi Adi prAkRta TIkA sAhitya meM aise kitane hI prasaMgoM kA ullekha hai, jo lokamAnasa evaM lokatattvoM se sambandhita hai / DA. jagadIzacandra jaina ne lokavizvAsoM va rIti-rivAjoM ke prAkRta sAhitya se aneka sandarbha ekatra kiye haiM,' jinakA Adhunika lokasAhitya vijJAna ke AdhAra para adhyayana kiyA jAnA Avazyaka hai / jainAgama TIkA sAhitya meM lokatattvoM kI pracuratA se eka bAta spaSTa hotI hai ki isa samaya taka prAkRta sAhitya lokajIvana se adhika sambaddha thA tathA ziSTa sAhitya kI pravRttiyA~ usa para hAvI nahIM huI thiiN| kintu Age calakara isa sthiti meM kramazaH parivartana dRSTigocara hote haiM / samasta prAkRta sAhitya kI lokatAttvika pravRttiyoM kA vizleSaNa kara pAnA yahA~ kaThina hai| ataH kuvalayamAlAkahA ke kathAnaka ko lekara hI isa sambandha meM kucha pa jA sakatA hai / udyotanasUri ne isa kathA ko hara dRSTi se sazakta banAne kA prayatna kiyA hai| isa grantha kI apanI alaga sAMskRtika upayogitA hai / lokatattva kI dRSTi se i do prakAra ke tattvoM ko khojA jA sakatA hai--eka ve, jinakA khaNDana kiyA gayA hai aura dUsare ve, jo jAne-anajAne kathAkAra dvArA svIkAra kiye gaye haiN| tathA jinako svIkRti isa yuga ke anya prAkRta kathAkAroM ke dvArA bhI milI hai| kuvalayamAlA meM caNDasoma, mAnabhaTa Adi kI jo kathAe~ haiM una pA~coM meM pApa kAryoM ke prAyazcita ke liye lokavizvAsa ke AdhAra para prabhAsa Adi tIrthoM kI vandanA, vaTavRkSapUjana tathA gaMgAsnAna ke lie pramukha pAtra pravRtta hote haiM / kintu udyotanasUri ne dharmAcArya dharmanandana dvArA ina saba dhArmika vizvAsoM kA khaNDana karA diyA hai / AcArya kA kathana hai pApa mana vAle AtmA ko bAhya jala se dhonA usI prakAra nirarthaka hai jisa prakAra kumhAra kI strI ke prasUtA hone para luhAra kI stro dvArA ghI pInA / yadi aGgaprakSAlanamAtra se AtmA pavitra ho sakatI to gaMgA ke jala meM rahane vAle magara, matsya, kevaTa Adi sarvaprathama svarga cale jAte / tathA ___ yadi yaha mAnA jAya ki mana kI pavitratA ke kAraNa tIrthajala prabhAvaka hotA hai to dUra dakSiNa deza ke loga itanI dUra gaMgA meM snAna karane na jAte / ciMtana karake hI svarga cale jaate| Page #59 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ataH tIrthavandanA aura gaMgAsnAna se AtmA ko pavitra karane kI vicAraNA vidvAna logoM kI nahIM hai, apitu mUDha logoM meM paramparA se yaha vizvAsa pracalita ho gayA hai jutti-viyAraNa-joggaM tamhA eyaM Na hoi vibuhANa / mUDha-jaNa-vayaNa-vitthara-paramparAe gayaM siddhI ||-kuv0 49.4 isa paramparAgata vizvAsa ke kAraNa hI ajJAnI janatA loka meM bhramaNa karatI rahatI hai|' isa prakAra kI vicAradhArA prAyaH sabhI jaina racanAoM meM vyApta hai| AcArya haribhadra ne bhI samarAiccakahA meM narabali evaM hiMsaka dhArmika anuSThAnoM kI nissAratA pratipAdita kI hai| chaThe bhava meM nAyaka jaba svayaM devI ke samakSa bali dene prastuta ho jAtA hai to devI pragaTa hokara hiMsaka bali lene se iMkAra kara detI hai / aura bhI aise niSedhAtmaka prasaMga isa yuga ke prAkRta sAhitya meM khoje jA sakate haiM / lokatAttvika dRSTi se vicAra karane para tatkAlIna samAja meM isa prakAra ke dhArmika vizvAsoM ke astitva kA patA calatA hai, jo usa Adima loka-mAnasa kA pratinidhitva karate haiM jisameM mUla pravRtti-bhaya ke kAraNa ina dhArmika anuSThAnoM kA janma huA thA / lokatattvoM ke nirmANa meM dhArmika vizvAsoM kA mahatvapUrNa yoga raho hai| kintu jaina cintakoM kA dharma kisI bhaya athavA ajJAna para AdhArita nahIM hai| zuddha tattvajJAna evaM tArkika DhaGga se vikasita huA hai| ataH jaina dharma sambandho sAhitya meM kramazaH dhArmika anuSThAnoM se sambandhita lokatattvoM ko kama svIkRti milI hai yadyapi bhAratIya samAja ke aGga hone ke kAraNa prAkRta kathAkAra tathA jaina zrAvaka inase sarvathA mukta nahIM ho sake haiN| kuvalayamAlAkahA ke pramukha kathAnaka meM 27 avAntara kathAe~ haiN| unameM se adhikAMza meM lokakathAke tattva upalabdha haiM, jo svAbhAvika haiN| vizeSa bAta yaha dRSTigocara hotI hai ki ina kathAoM ke mAdhyama se Adima lokamAnasa kA svarUpa bhI ubhara kara sAmane AtA hai| usakI abhivyakti ina cAra prakAra ke lokatattvoM dvArA hoto hai :--- 1 TonA vicAraNA-lokamAnasa jaba kisI kAraNa dvArA koI kArya hotA huA anubhava karatA hai to usakI eka dhAraNA bana jAtI hai ki aisA hone para aisA hotA hai / mAtA dvArA dekhe gaye svapnoM ke AdhAra para bAlaka ke bhaviSya kA anumAna lagAnA isI prakAra kA lokavizvAsa hai / yadyapi ise svapnavijJAna ke rUpa meM jAnA jAtA rahA hai| udyotanasUri evaM haribhadrasUri ne apanI kathAoM meM mAtA ke svapnoM kI pUrNa vyAkhyA kI hai / TonAvicAraNA ke antargata rahasya, kautUhala, aprAkRtika, atiprAkRtika, adbhuta Adi tatva svIkAra kiye jA sakate haiM / kuvalayamAlA meM isa prakAra ke nimna lokatattva upalabdha hote haiM : 1-kuvalayacandra ke ghoDe kA AkAza meM ur3a jAnA, 2-rAkSasa dvArA lobhadeva kA jahAja samudra meM DUbA denA, 3-mohadatta ko divyadhvani dvArA AgAha karanA aura Page #60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 19 4- vajragupta dvArA vaitAla ko sAdhanA karanA, divya astra-zastroM kA prayoga karanAM ityAdi / 10 samarAiccakahA isa prakAra ke lokatattvoM se bharI par3I hai / lIlAvaIkahA meM bhI citrAMgada ko zApa dekara rAkSasa banAnA, punaH rAjakumAra banajAnA, aneka siddhiyoM kA camatkAra dikhAnA Adi isa koTi ke lokatattva upalabdha haiM / 2. -- prAkalpanA-Adima lokamAnasa yathArtha aura kalpanA meM prAyaH bheda nahIM kara pAtA thA / isa kAraNa vaha svapnajagat ko bhI satya mAnakara calatA thA / zarIra aura chAyA ko eka mAnatA thA tathA mRtaka ko bhI jIvita jaisA mAnakara AcaraNa karatA thA / ye vizvAsa Alocya yuga meM bhI vyApta the / kuvalayamAlA meM sundarI ko kathA dvArA isa lokatattva kA pratinidhitva huA hai, jisameM vaha apane mRta pati ke sAtha vaisA hI AcaraNa karatI rahatI hai, jaisA vaha usakI jIvita avasthA meM usake sAtha karatI thI" / yadyapi kathA kA dUsarA pakSa rAjakumAra anaMga kA AcaraNa isa lokavizvAsa kA yuktipUrvaka khaNDana bhI karatA hai / isa prakAra ke AcaraNa ko moha kahakara usake dvArA saMsAra se virakti utpanna karavAyI gayI hai / . 1 3- anuSThAnika vicAraNA- kuvalayamAlAkahA meM isa lokatattva se sambandhita aneka prasaMga prApta hote haiM / kathA ke prArambha meM hI rAjA-rAnI dvArA putraprApti kI vibhinna prakAra kI manautiyA~ manAyI jAtI haiN| rAjA dRDhavarmA devI ke samakSa apanA sira kATakara arpita karane ke lie bhI taiyAra ho jAte haiM / tabhI devI pragaTa hokara unheM santAnalAbha kA varadAna detI hai / santAna prApti ke lie saMbhoga kriyA ko hI paryApta kAraNa svIkAra na karanA lokamAnasa kI pramukha pravRtti rahI hai / vizeSa vidhi ke anuSThAna se abhISTa kI siddhi hogI -- yaha vizvAsa aneka lokatattvoM ke rUpa meM pragaTa huA hai / svarga-naraka meM vizvAsa, zakuna-apazakuna kA vicAra tathA karmasiddhAnta kA pratipAdana inameM pramukha haiM / udyotanasUri ne ina saba para vistAra se apane vicAra pragaTa kiye haiM / lobhadeva samudra ko devatA mAnakara pUjatA hai, sAgaradatta jamIna se dhana nikAlate samaya vRkSa hai / itanA hI nahIM AcArya yaha bhI batalAte haiM ki kauna-sA kArya karane se vyakti kisa svarga jAyegA tathA kisa naraka meM / usakA zarIra kaisA hogA, sukha aura duHkha kI anubhUti kitanI hogI ityAdi aneka kAraNa-kArya ke vidhAna isa grantha meM haiM, jo AnuSThAnika vicAraNA nAmaka lokatattva kA prabhAva kahA jA sakatA hai / kI pUjA karatA vAstava meM jainadarzana bhale jJAna-mImAMsA para vikasita huA ho, tattvajJAna meM vaha vaijJAnika bhI ho, kintu karmasiddhAnta ke pratipAdana meM vaha loka - mAnasa se jur3A hai / antara itanA hai ki sAmAnyatayA loka meM dhArmika anuSThAnoM dvArA phala kI prApti ArAdhya kI kRpA para nirbhara mAna lI jAtI haiM, jabaki jainadharma ke anuSThAna vyaktisApekSa haiM / vyakti kA prayatna pratyeka kArya ke lie eka Thosa kAraNa hai / phira bhI divya, atimAnavIya evaM atiprAkRtika zaktiyoM kA sahayoga prAkRta sAhitya kI kathAoM meM avazya svIkArA gayA hai / 4 - AtmazIlatA- - Adima loka-mAnasa samasta sRSTi ko apane sadRza svIkAratA thA / jar3a padArthoM meM bhI vaha AtmA kA astittva mAnakara unheM apane kAryoM meM sahayogI Page #61 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 20 mAnatA thA / isa lokatattva ke kAraNa hI lokakathAoM meM vRkSa, pahAr3a, nadI, pazu-pakSI sabaM samAna rUpa se mAnavoM kI taraha kArya karate hue pAye jAte haiM, patthara evaM kASTha kI pratimAoM meM vibhinna devatAoM kI prANapratiSThA isI pravRtti kA pariNAma hai / kuvalayamAlA meM bhI caMDasoma Adi pAMcoM vyakti apanI-apanI svarNapratimA kA nirmANa isalie karate haiM tAki agale janma meM bhI ve eka-dUsare ko pratibodha de skeN| grantha kI svayambhUdeva kI kathA meM bhI pakSiyoM kA vyavahAra eka mAnavIya saMyukta parivAra ke jIvana sadRza prastuta kiyA gayA hai / saMbhavataH pRthvI, jala, agni, vAyu evaM vanaspati jaise prAkRtika evaM sAmAnyatayA jar3a mAne jAne vAle padArthoM meM jaina darzana dvArA cetanatA svIkAra karanA Adima loka-mAnasa kI pravRtti kA hI pariNAma ho / jise Aja vijJAna ne bhI svIkRti de dI hai| isa pravRtti ke kAraNa jaina dharma utanA hI prAcIna kahA jA sakatA hai, jitanA Adima lokamAnasa / isa prakAra na kevala kuvalayamAlAkahA, apitu prAkRta apabhraMza jaisI loka bhASAoM meM nibaddha jaina dharma kI aneka racanAe~ lokatAttvika dRSTi se adhyayana karane yogya haiN| loka saMskRti ke vibhinna upakaraNoM-bhASA, vizvAsa, jIvana-paddhati, muktacintana Adi ko AtmasAt karane ke kAraNa prAkRta sAhitya lokasAhitya kI koTi meM rakhA jA sakatA hai, bhale hI usake racayitAoM ke dvArA koI viziSTa uddezya isake dvArA pUrA hotA rahA ho| pAdaTIpa 1. jaina Agama sAhitya meM bhAratIya samAja- pR. 339-360 2. iNTroDakzana TU kuvalayamAlA-DaoN0 e0ena0 upAdhye tathA kuvalayamAlAkahA kA sAMskRtika adhyayana-le0 kA zodha-prabandha 3. jaha appA pAva-mago bAhiMjala-dhovaNeNa kiM tassa / jaM kuMbhArI sUyA lohArI kiM ghayaM piyau || -vahI, 48.27 4. jaha aMga-saMgameNaM tA ee mayara-maccha-cakkAI / kevaTTiya-macchaMdhA paDhama saggaM gayA NaMtA ||-vhii, 48.32 5. mahava pariciMtiyaM ciya kIsa imo dUra-dakkhiNo loo / Agacchai jeNa Na citiUNa saggaM samAruhai ||-vhii, 49.1 6. garavara Na-yANai cciya esa vagao imaM pi mUDha-maNo / jaM mUDha-vayaNa-vitthara-paraMparAe bhamai loyaM ||-vhii, 55. 25 7. harbarTa spensara, hayUgoelArDa mecera. pro. rijave, leMga, phrejara, kotha Adi ke siddhAnta / ---dRSTavya-loka sAhitya vijJAna, pR-60-64 / 8. kuvalayamAlA ko avAntara kathAoM kA lokatAttvika adhyayana, lekhaka kA nibandha-satyendra abhinandana grantha / 9. kuva0 pari0 41; samarA0 prathama bhava ko kathA / 10. haribhadra ke prakRta kathAsAhitya kA AlocanAtmaka parizIlana DA0 nemicandra zAstrI - pR0 244-286 11. kuvalayamAlA meM maNirathakumAra kI kathA / Page #62 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 4. A Note on Lord Mahavira's Clan. D. D. Malvania, Ahmedabad. In Pali texts Nigantha Natha putta (or Nataputta) and in Sanskrit Buddhist texts Nirgrantha (Nigrantha Jnati putra (Jnata putra) is used for Lord Mahavsra (see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary ). In Jaidagama texts also we have Naya putta, Nayasuya, Naya putta, Mabavira etc. According to the comm. of Samyuttanikaya 'Nata' was the name of his father but Malalasekera says that Nata is the name of the clan, and most of the Jaina texts and commentators are unanimous in saying that Nata is the clan of the Ksatriyas. Recently Mupi Nathmalji has opined that the Prakrit word Naya or Nata should be sanskritized as Naga. He may be correct to a certain extant as far as Prakrit word is concerned but when we see the word Nata or Natha used in Pali, there remains no possibility of sanskrtizing it as Naga. Still we can keep this question of sanskritizing the word Naya open and find out some solution. In Acaranga II we find <Page #63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Now let us see what information we get from the Jaina literature about the clan of the Lord and the Naya kula. It is certain that amongst the Vedic this Naya kula was not well known. Hence we find its mention very rare in the Vedic Puranas.2 And it is surprising to note that even in Jaina literature the Nayavamsa is given the prominent place in later times. An attempt is made to relate it with the famous Iksvakuvamsa or to separate it from the same. This shows that the authors were not certain about the real position of the clan Naya, There are two clear traditions regarding the prominent Vanias. One is represented by Jaina Canonical literature and its Niryukti etc. and other is of the Jaina Puranas. This will be clear from the following table. Ayasyaka Niryukti. (193) Ugga Bhoga Rainna Khattiya + These constituted the retinue of Rsabha. Visesavasyaka. (1610, 1829), ,, X Naya, * Harivamsa. * * * * Koraya . i : : : :: Bhada Bhagavati. (20.8) (9. 33) Sthananga. (497) Prajiapana (104) Kal pasutra (17) Bihatkalpa* (3265) : * * : Ikkhaga : : : : : : Rakkhasa ** : . : : . Ikkhaga :* : Soma Paumacariya5 Vijjahara Vanara . Harivamsa In the Avasyakaniryukti it is said that Ikkhaga Varsa began with Rsabha (181). So after Niryukti we find it mentioned as an important Vamsa in Jaina literature but question is-if it is a seperate Vamsa, what is the relation between it and the Nayakula ? The authors are not unanimous about the answer. In Bhagavati etc. and even in Visesavasyaka as we have seen two are separately mentioned. But Umaswati and other commentators like Abhayadeva (zlato 153) are of the opinion that Naya is a branch of the Ikkhaga : Umasvati says? :-Gat all fa c ta: Jaar 4-7f78183 The comm. on this is-fra ATA TESTET: Taft fatisgara:' It should be noted here that even fast gooria (4.550) mentions Naha Varsa quite different from Ikkhagakula. It speaks of these Vamsas : Kuru, Naba, Ugga, Page #64 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Yadava and Ikkhaku. Avasyakacurni explains the Nata as 'a: usabhasAmissa sayaNijjagA te gAtavaMsA' - p. 245. Here we can see an attempt to relate the Naya kula with Rsabha. It will be interesting to note the meaning given to Ugga etc. by the Avasyakaniryukti-Uggas were arakkhi-guards, Bhogas guru-preceptors, Rainnas were Vayamsa-friends and the rest were Khattiyas (193). So the Ava. cu. follows the Ava. N, when it includes relatives of Rsabha in the Nayas. not Commentator Abhayadeva also follows him when he says jJAtAH ikSvAkudafaar: (Comm. on Nayadhammakaha, p. 153.) Jinasena does mention Naya or Jnata but mentions Siddhartha, the father of Lord Mahavira as belonging to the Iksvakus (Harivamsapurana, 2. 4. 13.), so also is done by the author of Cauppannamahapurisacariya (p. 271). 23 Observation of the above given table shows that Harivamsa was included in the list of the prominent Vamsas for the first time by Kalpsutra and it is quite clear that after the inclusion of Krsna story in the Jaina Canonical literature it was necessary to include the Harivamsa in the list. The Jaina puranas have it from the beginning. One more striking fact is to be noted that the Rainna and the Khattiyas are removed from the list and the other ones are included. This also is a deliberate attempt to follow the Vedic North Indian tradition instead of the tradition which was followed by the people of the Bihar-East India, as such practice is not seen in the older Jaina text where we find Suyagada 1 13. 10 Here we see that the mahana and Khattiya are seperately mentioned differentiating them from Ugga and Lecchat. Same tradition is followed by Ava. Ni, having a minor change, but not giving the place of reputation to the Vedic Puranic Vamsas. 1. Anusandhana Patrika 1. 1. 2. prAcIna caritrakoSa (hindI) pR0 "je mAhaNe khattiya jAyae vA tahuggaputte taha lecchaI vA / je pavaIe paradattabhoI gotte na je thabbhai mANabaddhe || 5. 6. 236. 3. Uvavaia also has this list. see Bhagavati 9.33. 382. In the concerned gatha number six is given so 4. References the comm, Koravva as one. Dr. Chandra A Critical study of Paumacariyam, pp. 199, 226. See also Vasudevahindi, p 161 Cauppannamahapurisacariya p. 37 and Ava. Cu, p. 152. But according to Paumacariya Rsabha etc. are of Ikkhagakula. (94, 8) and the same says that Ikkhagakula originated with the son of Bharata (5, 9). 7. Can the word 'a' be taken to mean famous ? counts Naya and Page #65 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 5. Suddayacariya, a Lost Romantic Tale in Apabhramsa Dr. H. C. Bhayani, Ahmedadad. Vira, an Apabhramsa poet of Malwa, enumerates in his Jambusamicariya (completed in 1020 A. D.) the following four works of his father, poet Devadatta:1 Varamga-cariya (in Paddhadt metre) Suddaya-Vira-kaha Santinaha-caccari Ahbadevi-rasaya None of these works has been recovered so far. Most probably all the four were in Apabhramsa. The themes of these works, except that of the second one, are well-known in the Jain literary tradition. We know of nume. rous works in Prakrit, Apabhramsa, Sanskrit and Old Gujarati (either in any one of these or in several languages) pertaining to the lives of Varamga, santinatha and Ambadevi. But Suddaya-Vira-kaha is obscure. Samdesarasaka of Abdala Rahamana (composed probably in the thirtteenth century), while describing the city of Mulasthana (i. e present-day Multan in the Eastern Punjab), refers to the public recitation of the epics, epic tales and popular tales along with performances of dance and opera. Along with Bharata, Ramayana and Nalacarita, we find there mentions of Sudavaccha, which is explained in the Sanskrit Tippanaka on the Samdesarasaka as Sudayavaccha-katha "the tale of Sudayavaccha.' In the Index to the Sandesarasaka I had suggested that this tale of Sudaya. vaccha was the same as the popular tale of Sadevamta and Savalimga wellknown in the oral tradition and early literature of Gujarat and Rajasthan. The Samdesarasaka reference establisbes its currency in the Punjab region. Further, Padumavata of Jayasi (17th century) refers to a tale of Sadaivaccha and Mugudhavati. If this tale was the same as for a version of) the Sudavaccha, its currency in other regions also is indicated. Another reference to the tale of Suddaya or Sudavaccha sheds some light on the general character of that tale. In the Apabhramsa poem Sudamsanacariya completed in 1044 A. D., Nayanandin extols the biography of Sudarsana in the following terms:4 rAmo sIya-vioya-soya-viharaM saMpatta rAmAyaNe jAdA paMDava dhAyaraTTha sadadaM gotaMkalI bhArahe / DeDAkoDiya-cora-rajja-NiradA AhAsidA suddae No ekkaM pi sudaMsaNassa caride dosa samubbhAsidaM / / Page #66 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ The text of the third line here seems to be corrupt in few places, but the general meaning is quite clear. The poet says: The Ramayana story is not enjoyable because of the sufferings of Sita due to separation. The Bharata story is marred by the constant family feud of the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The tale of Suddaya teems with incidents involving gambling dens, Kolis, robbers, police guards and similar low characters. As against these narratives the life-story of Sudamsana cannot be alleged to have a single fault. Like the author of the Samdesarasaka, Nayanandin also bears witness to Suddayacariya being one of the most popular fales, comparable with "The Ramayana and the Mahabharata'. It seems to have been a tale of adventures full of popular characters and interesting incidents. Nayanandin's allusion is amply born out by some later versions of the Suddayakaha preserved in Old Gujarati. Further the references by Vira and Nayanadin point to the great popularity of this tale in the Malwa region in the tenth and eleventh century. This is self-explanatory in view of the fact that the hero is a prince of Ujjayini. Sadayavatsa-Vira-Prabandha of Bhima in Old Gujarati was composed c. 1400 A D. Regarding the extent of the text there is considerable variation among the manuscripts. Roughly the work has round about seven hundred verses. The work in mostly composed in the Caupai and Duba metres, but numerous other metres also are used for variation, etc. Besides there are some thirtyfour Gathas in Prakrit. It is obvious that at least some of these Gathas were borrowed from some early Prakrit version of the tale, as mostly they repeat in short what is said in the Gujarati verses. 6 preceding Old The tale narrates the loves and adventures of Sudavaccha, who was a Prince of Ujjayini and son-in-low of Salivahana, the ruler of Pratisthana. Rescuing a woman from a mast elephant, machinations of a minister, exile, wandering in strange countries, princesses pining for the heroes, omens and portents, helpful robbers, godesses, hunchbacks, courtesans, battles, wrestlers, goblins, witches, cemeteries, deserted cities and all the rest of the hot romantic stuff, and numerous well-known motifs fill up the tale. There is also a Sanskrit version of the tale in prose and verse prepared by Harsavardhana in 1471. But it is just a recast of Bhima's Old Gujarati work. Later on the tale of Saday-Vatsa and Savalimga underwent such development and alteration as to become altogether a different tale. This new version of the tale is represented in the Sadayavaccha-Savalinga Caupar of Kesava Muni alias Kirtivardhana, which was completed in 1623 A D. 4 Page #67 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 26 Another such work of unknown authorship and date, but linguistically assignable to the seventeenth century is called Sadayayaccha-SavalimgiPanigrahana Caupar. Both these works have been given in the appendix by Manjulal Majmudar in his edition of Bhima's poem. Agarchand Nahta has given us a survey? of different early and late versions of the tale current in Rajasthan and Gujarat. Lastly, there is one more reference to the tale of Suddaya, once again from an Apabbramsa poet. And if this tale is the same as the one we are considering here then the date of the earliest literary composition about the adventures of Suddaya can be shifted back by a century. The reference concerns the great Apabhram a poet Svayambhudeva, the author of the epics Paumacariya and the Righanemicariya. In the latter work, which has not been published so far, we find the following verse, which expresses exhaustion on the part of the poet after continuous life-long literary activity.8 kAUNa pomacariyaM suddayacariya ca guNa-gaNagghaviyaM / e-HE-ETOT As ginag-all The poet here says that after having composed the Paumacariya and the Suddayacariya full of literary merits, my Sarasvati (literary powers) seems to have become exhausted in the present task of clearing delusions regarding the Harivamsa narrative. Here it is quite likely that Svayambhu's Suddayacari ya was a poem dealing with the tale of Suddayavira. Of course we cannot be definite about this as Pk. Ap. suddaya stands also for Sk. Sudraka and we have references to several Sudraha-kothas composed in Prakrit ard Aratharisa10. But it should te rcted that Siajambtu bas composed works on Ramayana and Mahabharata and his third work Suddayacariya might have handled the popular tale of Suddaya. We have already taken note of two Apabhramsa poets, Nayanandin and Abdala Rahamana, talking about the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Suddaya tale in the same breath. Let us hope that we may recover some day the old Prakrit and Apabhramsa works on this highly romantic tale of Sudayavatsa. References 1. Jambusamicaria of Virakavi edited by V. P. Jain, 1968, Samdhi 1, Kadavaka 4, also Introduction, pp. 11, 14. Hence Kochad (Apabhramsa-sahitya, 1956, p. 148) has missed it. Paramanand Jain Shastri (Jain-Grantha-Prasasti-Sangraha, Part-2. 1963, Introduction p. 59, text p. 6, Index, p. 165) has misunderstood it as Vira-kaha. V. P. Jain has either simply mentioned it (loc., cit., Index, P. 386) without any comment or has rendered it incorrectly and with a query as 'Suddhayavira-Katha ?'. Page #68 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 27 3. Samdesurasuka, edited by Jinavijaya Muni and H. C. Bhayani, 1946, verses 43-44. 4. Sudamsanacariya of Nayanandin, edited by Hiralal Jain. 1970, Samdhi 2, verse 2 in the opening. In place of the readings dedakodiya and suddhae in the cited verse, I would prefer iemakoliya, suddae. The Tippana has some different readings and has misunderstood a few words. The gloss on suddae, viz. vacchasudaye sastre is somewhat confused. It should be sudayavacche and it was not a sastra. Jain wrongly thought that the name of the work was Suddhaya. Paramanand Jain Shastri too has failed to make out the name and has vaguely rendered suddaya as loka sastra 'secular treatises.' See op. cit. Introduction, p. 48. 5. Suda yavatsa-vira-prabandha edited by Manjulal Majmudar, 1964. 6. It may be also noted in this connection that the Gathas at vv. 180 and 181 are the same as Vajjalagga 54 and 51 respectively with a few variants, 7. Sadayavatsa-sa valimgaki prem-katha', Rajasthana-bharati, 3, 1. See also H. C. Bhayani, Anusamdhan, 1972, pp. 241-243. 8. Paumacariya of Svayambhu edited by H. C. Bhayani, Part-I 1952, Introduction, pp. 28, 43-45. 125 (v. 65).. 9. The poet expired sometime after he wrote this. The remaining portion of the epic was completed by his son Tribhuvana. See Paumacariya, Part-I, Introduction pp. 44-45. 10. V. Raghavan, Bhoja's Singaraprakasa, 1963 pp 624, 819, 820. H. C. Bhayani, 'About the Language of the Sudrakakatha,' Journal of the Oriental Institute, XVIII, 1969, p. 316. Page #69 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 6. The Jataka Literature in Pali and its Socio-ethical Importance N, H. Samtani, Banaras The Jalaka' or former birth-stories of the Buddha, included in the Khuddaka nikaya in Pali Canon are important not only from the literary point of view but also they constitute a great contribution towards the social and moral advancement of mankiad. Although they became important vehicles of Bhddhist teachings, they are mostly secular in origin and teach human values in the most splendid manner. There are about 550 birth-stories of the previous existences of Buddha. Jataka book, however, of the Pali Canon contains only verses. It is the Jataka Commentary which gives these 550 stories in details. Some birthstories of the Buddha are scattered throughout the Nikayas of the Suttapitaka. In them the Buddha (or Bodhisattva as he is called before becoming Buddha) is depicted not as a bird or animal as in the tales of Jatakacommentary but as a famous sage or teacher of old time. All the Jatakas, canonical and non-canonical, represent generally Bodhisattva preparing himself for the attainment of Buddhahood by the practice of certain definite virtues afterwards called 'Paramitas, or Perfections'. Generally each birth-story designed to illustrate Bodhisattva's practices of particular perfection. In a Jataka story the Bodhisattva is the main figure. Generally he is a hero of the story and does some good deed, but even if he is a secondary character he impresses by some virtuous action. Buddhists made full use of the art of story-telling. As Winternitz points out: "One had only to make a Bodhisatta out of some human, animal or divine being which occurred in the story, and any story, however worldly and however far removed from the sphere of Buddhist thought, could become a Buddhist story". He further adds: "Now the Buddhist monks would not have been true Indians if they have not taken into account the need, so deeply rooted in the soul of Indian people, of hearing and relating stories and if they had not utilised this need to gain followers for their religion. In fact not only the Buddhist monks but the preachers of all sects in India, have always done what the Christian monks of the west did centuries later."'1 Page #70 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 29 It is also interesting to note that some orthodox monks in the earlier period of Buddhism do not seem to have been greatly in favour of this story-telling for many passages of the canon, do not approve of the loud conversation of the monks, who tell stories of kings, robbers, ministers, arms, wars, women, spirits, sea-faring adventure. Actually all this storytelling business is called 'frivolous talk' (sambhinna-pralapa)?. It is difficult to say that Jatakas give us a full picture of earlier narrative literature and the conditions of civilization at the time of Buddha. It may be true in only limited sense for some of the sayings and legends may indeed belong to Buddhist and pre-Buddhist period. For greater mass of verses and legends, no greater antiquity than the 3rd century B, C. can conscienciously be urged, and as Winternitz puts it-"much of the prose assuredly belongs to the Christian era.3" Jatakas contain fables, many of which like other Indian fables in general aim at teaching niti or worldly wisdom. Only a few of them have the moral tendency as evinced in the ascetic poetry and only few of them are genuinely Buddhist. Attempt at Buddhistisation is found in few of them. There are moral narratives, pious legends, all of which are partly Buddhist in origin and many of them belong to common property of Indian asce. tic poetry. Winternitz is of the opinion that far more than one half of all the Jatakas, if we omit the Commentary, is not of the Buddhist origin, 4 It may be noted that Buddhist monks were recruited from all classes, hence there were many among them who were quite familiar with the popular tales and anecdotes of the workers, artisans and especially merchants, others who knew well the old ballads and heroic songs of the warriors and yet others, who had often heard the sacred legends and myths of the Brahmins and forest hermits,5 When they became monks they endeavoured as far as possible to connect the memories with the monkish and purely religious tradition. And this element has made these Jalakas more important. Directly and indirectly the Jatakas have also enriched the literature of many other people, and have therefore been of immense importance in universal literature. Some scholars are of the opinion that the entire fairy tale literature of the world is of Buddhist origin. This may not be true but largely, the Brahmins, Jains and other sects might have contributed to Indian narrative literature, Buddhism, however, pushed forward far beyond the borders of India and became a world religion, thus spreading and diffusing Indian civilization and literature far and wide in the coun. tries of the East and West. It has rightly been suggested that Jatakas are of inestimable value, not only as regards literature and art, but also from the point of view of the history of civilization. Though they cannot serve as documents for Page #71 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 30 the social conditions at the time of the Buddha, but at the most, for the period of 3rd century B.C., and for the greater part, especially in their prose, only for the fifth or sixth century A.D.; yet so much has remained uochanged in India throughout the centuries, that the picture of civilization in the Jatakos may nevertheless be regarded as very "ancient." In any case, the narratives of Jataka book afford us a glimpse into the life of all classes of the Indian people, of which other books of Indian literature rarely give us information.? Jatakas (to which 'avadanas' can also be added) are the basic scriptures of Bodhisattva ideal because instead of merely arousing our interest with a dissertation on Bodhisattva doctrine they inspire us, by showing, with shattering simplicity and truth, how the Bodhisattva actually lives, how, not in one life only but through hundreds of lives, he sweats and suffers for the ultimate good of sentient beings.8 "Jatakas are the divine songs of the Bodhisattva ideal" as Lama Anagarika Govinda put it, and it is a song in form which speaks directly to the human heart and which, therefore, is not only understandable to the wise but even to the simplest mind." And we find, upto the present day, Jatakas have not lost their human appeal and continue to exert a deep influence upon the religious life in all Buddhist countries. In Ceylon, Burma, Siam and Cambodia crowds of people listen with rapt attention for hours when Bhikkhus during the full moon nights recite the stories of the Buddha's former lives and even in Tibet as the Lama reports tears come to the eyes of sturdy caravan men, when sitting around the camp fire, the Bodhisattva's suffering and sacrifice are told. For these people. Jatakas are not literature or 'folklore' but something that happens in their very presence and profoundly affects their life 10 Bhikshu Sangharakshita remarks: "One must read Jalakas, if one wants to be moved, as one reads poetry, that is to say with a willing suspension of disbelief' on whatever one, on mere intellectual grounds, is unable to accept. The beauty of Milton's "Paradise" moves us regardless of whether we accept or do not accep: the Biblical account of creation. 11 In the Vessantara-Jataka, one of the best known and most widely appreciated of all stories of Buddha's former births, Prince Vessantara in fulfilment of his vow to give whatever he is asked to give, not only surrenders his ancestral kingdom but even his own wite and children. Here the question may be asked whether Vessantara had the right to dispose his wife and childeren in this manner. The question is irrelavant. The purpose of this Jataka is not to assert that a man's family is a species of movable property, to be given or sold at will, its purpose is to show that absolute non-atiachment to worldly things is an integral part of Bodhisattva ideal.12 Page #72 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 31 In another Jataka the Bodhisattva sacrifices his body for the sake of starving tigress13 who is unable to nourish her young. Human life is not less valuable than animal life but the Jataka inculcates absolute selfabnegation, To the modern man such a story may appear unreasonable and exaggerated because he judges from purely intellectual, i. e. external point of view, according to which the sacrifice appears to be out of proportion to its cause. The preservation-or rather prolongation-of the life of some wild beasts does not seem to be worth the sacrifice of a human life. The Buddhist, however, sees this story in quite a different light. To him it is not the factuai or objetive reality that matters, but the motive, the power of compassion, which caused the Bodhisattva to act in this way, irrespective of external consequences. The spiritual and symbolical meaning of the deed goes far beyond the frame of its apparent cause. That the lives of the tigress and her cubs are saved, is not of such fundamental importance as that the Bodhisattva experiences within himself their suferring and despair in all its terrible reality, and that he proves by his deed that there is no more difference for him between his own suffering and the suffering of others.14 In this supreme sacrifice he overcomes the illusion of his own self, and thus he lays the foundation for his later Buddhahood. Now, let us see what is contained in Jatakas. We find some hypocracy is exposed. In Jataka No. 128 we find hypocritical cat devour. ing the mice, while pretending to be like a pious ascetic.15 In No. 278 Mahisa Jataka we find Bodhisattva is born as a buffalo, and as such exhibits unbounded patience. An impertinent monkey climbs on his back befouls him, seizes him by the hords and does all kind of mischief to him. Then the monkey does the same to another buffalo and is killed by him. In this way the Bodhisattva preserves his virtue of patience and yet the monkey is punished. Highly sarcastic is the anecdote of the monkey, who has stayed for sometime in the palace of king, who then sets him free. When he reaches his companions again, they surround him and wish to know how things go on in the world of human beings, of whose daily life he must have seen a great deal. The monkey describes the life of man in two verses. "The gold is mine, the precious gold; so cry they night and day. These foolish folk cast never a look on the holy way. There are two masters in the house; one has no beard to wear. But has long breasts, ears pierced with hcles, and goes with plaited hair. His price is told in countless gold; he plagues all people," Page #73 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Some of the moral tales have an avowed pedagogical aim and look as though they have been composed for children of this kind is for instance Salikedarajataka (No. 484) where Bodhisattva as a wise parrot, not only eats rice from the field, but also carries some away in his beak, and in answer to query for his reason for doing so, replies : "I pay a debt, I give a loan, I lay down a treasure" meaning that he brings food to his old parents, nourishes his young ones and gives food to other weak birds." Some of the Jatakas e.g. Mahanaradakassa pa-jataka (No. 544) contain such dialogues as are found in Upanishads and Mababharata. Here virtue is praised and theory of karma is explained with full description of hell, ctc. Thus, these sublime stories abound in examples of self-sacrifice, com. passion, supreme charity, etc. These stories gave great stimulus to later movement of Mahayana where the aim of Bodhisattva is to live for others and work for others. We find in Mahayana the concept of punyasambhara of the Bodhisattva where Bodhisattva accumulates punya which results from constant right action not only in this birth but in various births. It is the invisible cosmic force of karma ( punya ) that confers happiness on the individual. The Buddhists developed a precise qualitative view of punya. All that is noble, beautiful, auspicious, glorious and desirable in this world is the result of punya. In the end, it may be pointed out that despite emphasis on compassion in these Jataka stories (or in the Bodhisattva ideal), the Bodhisattva is not an effiminate or weakling. He is the great hero, the embodiment of not only of wisdom and compassion, but also of virya or "vigour' which signifies energy and strength, In brief, these Jataka stories tell us not only to inculcate the best virtues among ourselves but point out that individual perfection is not the aim but we should rather work for others, live for others, and think of no individual salvation till the last tear on the face of beings is wiped out in this world, References 1. Winternitz : History of Indian Literature, Vol. II, p. 114. 2. Cf. yatha va paneke bhonto samana brahmana saddh7de yyani bhojanani bhunjitva te evarupam tiracchanakatham anuyutta viharanti seyyathidam-rajakathcm, corakathan -..evamrupaya tiracchanakathaya paivirato Samano Gotamo-Digha, Vol. I, p. 7. Cf, also Sambhinna-pralapah katamah ? tadyatha-rajakatha, corakatha, yuddhakatha, madyakatha, dyutakatha, strikatha, akhyayika-katha.-A. Su, p. 38 Winternitz, op. cit. p. 121 4. Ibid. p. 125 Page #74 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 7. Winternitz, op. cit. p. 156. 8. Sangharakshita : Survey of Buddhism, p. 436. 9. "Origins of the Bodhisattva Ideal", Stepping Stonas, Vol. II, p. 244. 10. Ibid. 11. Sangharakshita : op. cit. 12. Sangharakshita : op. cit. p. 437. 13. Cf. Jatakamala, if ; Bodhisattvavadana-Kalpalata, Vol. II, p. 53. 14. Anagarika Govinda, op. cit. p. 243-45. 15. yo ve dhammadhajam karva, nigulho papam acare vissasayltva bhatani bilaram nama tam vatam / Jataka 128, p. 461. Cf. also : dharmadhvaji sada labdhaschadmiko lokadambhakah / bidalavratako jneyo himsrah sarvabhisandhakah / Manu 4, 195. 16. Cf. Bodhisatto khantimetranudayasampadaya tam tassa anacaram na manasa akasi. Jasaka No. 278, p. 285. 17. Hiran Aam me suvannam me esa rattim-diva katha dummedhanam manussanam ariyadhammam apassatam 11 dve dve gahapatayo gehe eko tattha amassuko lambatthano venikato atho ankitakanniko kito dhanena bahuna so tam vitudate janam // Jataka No. 219, p. 185; Eng. tr. in verse by. W. H. D. Rouse, quoted in Winternitz, op. cit. p. 135. Page #75 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 7. Historio-Cultural Contribution of Jaipa Acaryas through Prakrit Sources Dr. Rasesh Jamindar, Ahmedabad. The purport of this small paper is to high-light the historio-cultural significance of Prakrit by reviewing briefly some important works of Jaina Munis. Prakrit literature, as we all know, is also one of the varied sourcematerials of Indian history. While such literature has more or less a religio-regional bias, it is certainly most useful material when archaeological evidences are very meagre or none. The significance of Prakrit sources is that they are connected with almost every phase and part of this vast country. These works do not restrict to only one or two subjects or to only religious philosophies but embrace various branches of literature such as toponymy, logic, politics, grammar, dialectics, astronomy, astrology, medicine, cosmology, epigraphy. temple architecture, sculpture, etc. These sources are highly critical, standard. authentic and contain abundant historical information as given below with a few examples : Tilova pannatti of Yativrsabha (2nd cent.) is an early Prakrit text on cosmology. This work throws light on many things such as nature, shape, size and divisions of Universe, ancient geography, politics, history of ancient India, commencement of Saka rule, their dynastic chronology & eras, Jaina doctrine, puranic traditions and so on. This is also very useful for studying the development of matbs. in ancient times. Siddhasena Diwakar's Sanmati-Tarka-Prakarana (4th cent.) gives authentic and critical exposition of many different philosophical streams of India prevailing before his times. This is a comparative work of philosophical trends of different religions, written by one of the early Jain logicians. There are many Paumacariyas of which that of Vimalasari is available and very welknown ; while that of Mallavadisuri is not available in original but it is the oldest among all the Jaina versions of Rama-carita. These Paumacariyas do give different aspects of social traditions of the times of Rama's India. They also shed some light on the conditions of the society of ancient India. Angavijja written by an unknown author or authors, is a Prakrit work of importance for reconstructing India's history of the first four centuries after Christ. Though it mainly deals with Faladesa this book has much more Page #76 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 35 data other than astrology. Written in both prose and poetry its 60 adhyayas give many useful information regarding the things which come under the moon and sun. In short it is an encyclopaedic work and deserves our full cultural attention to undertake its comparative study for highlighting the materials it contain. Loka-Vibhaga of Sarvanandi (5th cent.) helps us in reconstructing the Pallava chronology by fixing the initial date of Simhavarman, as this book was written in his 22nd regnal year. It also throws light on the currency of Saka Era, the first ever known example in literature. Padmanandin's (7th cent). Jambudvipa-prajnapti-sangraha is another work on cosmology, giving much useful information about ancient geography and Jaina traditions. Kuvalayamala (8th cent.) of Uddyotanasuri is a book on romance in Prakrit. This supplies useful politico-historical material. It mentions Jabalipura (modern Jalor) king Sri Vatsaraja (Gurjar king) and such other things. Nitivakyamrta of Somadeva (10th cent.) is an excellent treatise on the science and art of politics in India. Different Jain Caritas & Puranas often touch the politics, through which we get information about current political theories, origin of different dynasties etc. Adipurana of Jinasena (9th cent.) deserves such attention and appreciation, who was a religious Guru and adviser to the Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsha 1st. Such Gurus of the later period have also contributed in reconstructing the history of different regions of the country by collecting and editing the epigraphic data. There are many such books in different languages. Many Jaina Munis were not only the expounders of religious dogmas but they also acted as the leaders of the society and advisers to kings & their heirs. Striking example is of Hemacandracarya. Ganga, Chavda, Hoysala etc. were some of the kingdoms created by at the instances of Jaina Gurus. Let me, at the end, suggest a few points for the consideration of this congregation: 1. First and foremost is to speed up the work of cataloguing of MSS of many Bhandaras which are still untouched and awaiting careful editing; as well as they also need getting printed as early as possible and making them accessible to the researchers. 2. It is necessary to undertake comparative study of Jaina Prakrit works highlighting the vastness of materials they contain and to bring them to the notice of the scholars is an imperative need of the moment. Page #77 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 36 3. As mentioned earlier there are many Pattavalis of different Sanghas of different age of wbich some have already been given due attention and have been published, while there are still many which are buried in Bhandaras unnoticed. A close and comparative research work of these Pattavalis should be taken up with utmost priority so as to help bringing out many interesting details about political history of the country through the ages and thereby solving many problems. 4. Comparative study of Jain Prakrit works will help us in solving many chronological and socio-historical problems. 5. The editing of these MSS requires proper attention for the understanding of the development of paintiogs, epigraphy and calligraphy. 6. It is also necessary to study the axiological aspects of these works to apprise the modern generation with their usefulness in understanding different subjects of both the humanities and the sciences and to familiarise them about their origin & development. Page #78 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 8. On Studying the Prakrit Literature Dr. K. K. Dixit, Ahmedabad One might make plea for a serious study of the Prakrit literature on several grounds, considerably independent of each other. Of these, worthy of special consideration are three viz. (I) The fact that the Prakrit languages stood closer to the popular languages of the day than did Sanskrit, the most celebrated classical language of India. (II) The fact that the modern Indian Languages (belonging to the Aryan group) stand closer to the Prakrit Languages than they do to Sanskrit. (III) The fact that a very large number-if not actually the majority-of Prakrit works are a composition of Jaina authors while these Jaina Prakrit texts are, for some reason or other, some of the most important Jaina texts. Let these three grounds be taken up one by one. (I) The vast Prakrit Literature is a standing and solid testimony to the experiment made in this country in the past to employ near-popular languages for the purposes of cultured communication light-literary as well as theoretical. To say that the Prakrit languages were near-popular languages only means that they stood closer to the contemporary popular languages than did Sanskrit which then was the most developed and most frequently employed language of cultured communication. On the other hand, it also obviously means that the Prakrit languages were not themselves popular languages. For pieces composed in actual popular languages of those times must have been of the form of folk-composition circulated orally among the illiterate masses at large. As against them, the Prakrit works were the composition of learned scholars who would pick up their Prakrit from the grammatical texts just as they would pick up their Sanskrit from Panini. So it was possible for a Sanskrit dramatist writing in any part of the country to make his characters speak Sauraseni, Maharastri, Magadhi or the like as was prescribed by the authorities on Sanskrit drama. Even so, the Prakrit-experiment deserves a more serious and sympathetic appreciation than is usually meted out to it. This experiment is neglected unduly because in the course of history it was heavily overshadowed by the much more successful Sanskrit-experiment. But that is what happened in the past whereas our times should find it possible to take a balanced view of the total situation. For our Page #79 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 38 times have conceded to the popular languages the right to be the sole vehicle of cultured communication: that is why in Europe Latin and in our country Sanskrit eventually came to be replaced by the national language of our times. Thus it is that a modern student of the lingulstic scene should find it instructive to learn how the near-popular Prakrit Languages sought to perform in olden times in India functions which the popular languages are seeking to perform to-day throughout the world. (II) In relation to the modern languages of India (belonging to the Aryan group) the Prakrits act not only as an example of how to compete with high-flown language like Sanskrit but also as a relatively close ancestor. In view of what has already been said that should be only natural, For the modern languages of India are respective daughters of the popular languages of olden times, and if the Prakrit languages stood closer to the contemporary popular languagues than did Sanskrit then the corollary ought to be that the Prakrit Languages are a closer kin to the modern languages of India than is Sanskrit, Thus it is that a modern student of Indian linguistic scene should find it instructive to learn how the Prakrit languages exhibited tendencies that gradually got crystallized in this way or that in this modern Indian language or that. rich (III) For students of Jainism the Jaina Prakrit Literature is a source of certain highly unique material. Thus are (1) a good number of really old poetic pieces and pieces of speculation found preserved in the Ardhamagadhi Canon of the Svetambara Jainas (occasionally subjected to commentation in Prakrit). (2) The Digambara text Satkhandagama stands at the head of a vast Karma-literature composed in Prakrit by the Digambaras as well as Svetambaras. (3) A large number of more or less works have been composed in Prakrit Svetambaras as well as Digbmbaras. highly successful light-literary (including Apabhramsa) by the all serious In view of the fact that the Jaina Prakrit literature is the most stupendous and most solidly built part of the Prakrit literature a general acquaintance with the Jaina Prakrit literature is a must for students of Prakrit just as a general acquaintance with Prakrit is a must for all serious students of a modern Indian language. This necessitates the consideration of a point of cardinal importance and that as follows. are The Brahmanical and the Jaina are our two exclusive sources for procuring Prakrit texts but the Brahmanical such sources inadequate in the extreme. For one thing, the Brahmanical authors never developed the tradition of undertaking theoretical discussions in Prakrit; and as for the Page #80 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 39 independent light-literary works composed by them in Prakrit, they are mostly lost-what we are left with being but stray survivals like Gathasaptasati, Ravanavadha, Gaudavadha. What has survived in really good measure are the Prakrit passages composed by the Brahmanical authors while writing a dramatic work; (these passages have survived precisely because they are an integral part of a dramatic work with fairly strong survival value). To this total output of Prakrit composition, available or extinct, that emanated from the Brahmanical camp is to be contrasted the corresponding performance of the Jainas. As has already been hinted, the Jainas undertook considerable theoretical discussion through the medium of Prakrit and much of it survives upto this day; similarly, they composed a vast mass of light literary works in Prakrit and much of it too survives upto this day. Hence it is that one seeking to peruse in its entirety the available Prakrit literature is bound to be overwhelmed by the preponderance of Jaina works within its body. As a matter of fact, this is one reason why Prakrit studies, in spite of their obvious numerous advantages, have made so little headway even during our times. For an average student of a modern Indian language would rather console himseif that no literary works representing an early evolutionary stage of his mother-tongue is now available rather than take the trouble of going through a Jaina text that is actually such a work. A good selection of Jaina Prakrit texts, theoretical as well as light-literary, made with a view to specially helping the non-Jaina reader is a desideratum. Page #81 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 9. Paramagamasara of Sruta Muni Dr. Gokul Chandra Jain, Delhi. This paper gives a brief account of a small Prakrit text named Para. magamasara. As far as I know, this text is not published as yet. I have requested Dr. A. N. Upadhye to include it in the Manikacandra Jaina Granthamala. Two paper manuscripts, perhaps both copied from one and the same older manuscript, are preserved in the Ailaka Pannalal Saraswati Bhavan, Beawar (Rajasthan). The description of these Mss. is as follows : A. Manuscript No. 633 of the said Bhandara is a paper Ms. of Paramagamasara. It has eight folios of 7" x 12" each written on both sides except leaf No. 1 which is written on one side only. Each folio is numbered on one side. Its script is Devanagari. There are 12 lines on a page. Each line contains fifty-five to sixty letters: The Ms. begins with : 371 nama : siddhebhya: / atha zrutamuniviracitaparamAgamasAre likhyate / ghAicaukkavirahiyA zrImacchratamuniviracitaparamAgamasAra : samApta : / etc. The last line reads : iti The date of copying the Ms. is mentioned as follows:- zrI zubhamiti zrAvaNa zukla 9, dina budhavAra vikrama saMvat 1989 ko likhakara samApta bhayo so sadA jayavanta hou / zrI zubhamastu / hastAkSara tArAcaMda jaina mukAma mahalakA jilA meraTha / Letters, not the writing are beautiful but the copyist did not know the Prakrit language, and as such the text is corrupt at many places. B. Another paper Ms, preserved in the same Bhandara, has thirty leaves each of 41" x 8" size written in Devanagari scripts. Each leaf contains twenty or twenty-two letters. It begins with: OM namaH siddhebhya: / ghAicaukkavirahiyA etc. and ends with :- iti zrutamuniviracitaparamAgamasAra : samApta : / This Ms, is undated but seems to be of the same age as that of Ms. A. One more Ms. written on palm leaves is said to be preserved in the Jaina Matha of Moodbidri, South Kanara. I have been trying to procure it. Two Mss. of the Kannada version of Paramagamasara are also preserved in the Jaina Matha, Moodbidri (K. P. T. G. S. No. 132, 133, 134). The Paramagamasara contains two hundred and thirty Gathas in all, out of which twenty-five, including two Sanskrit verses, have been quoted from other texts. First seven gathas are devoted to mangalacarana or salutation to pancaparamesthis. Then in one gatha (no. 8) the author Page #82 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ tells about writing the Paramagamasara. Two gatbas explain the subject matter of the text as follows:-- paMcatthikAya davva chakka taccANi satta ya pdtthaa| Nava baMdhI takkAraNa mokkhA takkAraNaM cedi / / 9 ahiyAro ahaviho jiNavayaNanirUvidA savittharado / vocchAmi samAseNa ya, suNuha jaNA dattacittA hu|| 10 Thus it is clear that the subject matter of Paramagamasara is nava Padarthas or nipe categories of Jaina metaphysics and 194 gatbas are devoted to this purpose. Next fcur gathas from 195 to 198 may be called antyamangala. Rest of the gatbas from 199 to 205 contain the author's prasasti in which the date of completing Paramagamasara, its author and his guru-parampara are given as follows: sagagAle hu sahasse bisayatisaTThI gade du bisavarise / maggasirasaddasattami guruvAre gaMtha saMpuNNo / / aNuvadagurubAle dU mahavvade abhayacaMdasiddhaMtI / satthebhayasUri pabhAcaMda khalu yamuNissa guru / / zrI mUlasaMghadesiyagaNaputthayagaccha koDakudANaM / paramaNNaiMgalesarabalimhi jAdassa muNipahANassa / / siddhantAhayacaMdassa ya sissA bAlacaMdamuNipavaro / so bhviykuvlyaannaamaannNdk| sadA jayau / / sadAgamaparamAgamatakkAgamaNiravasesavedI ha / vijidasayalaNNavAdI jayau ciraM abhayasUri siddhatI / / Naya-Nikkheva-pamANaM jANittA vijiyasayalaparasamayo / varaNivANivalaMdiyapayapammA cArukittimuNi / / varasArattayaNi uNo suddhapparao virahiyaparabhAvo / bhaviyANa pavibohaNaparo pahAcaMdaNAmamuNI // The Paramagamasara was completed in the saka year 1263 on Thursday the seventh day of bright Magasira, srutamuni, the autbor of Paramagamasara, was the disciple of Balacanda and Abhayacanda Siddhanti, He had accepted the anuvratas from Balacanda and mahavratas from Abhayacanda. He had learnt sastras from Abhayasuri and Prabhacanda. Srutamuni belonged to Mulasangha, Desiya gana, Pustaka gaccha, Kodakunda-amnaya of Tiglesvarabali. Fortunately the description given by Srutamuni is cnofirmed by inscriptional records. I have noted it in the preface to my edition of Karmaprakrti of Abhayacanda (pages 6-7), published by Bharatiya Jnanapith, Page #83 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 10. A comparative study of Jhanajjhayana by Jinabhadra and Dhyanastava by Bhaskaranandi Miss Suzuko Ohira, Mysore. There seems to have been a fashion in writing the work of Jaina dhyana in one hundred verses in Prakrit, Sanskrit or Apabhramsa For instance, we have Jhanajjhayana, better known as Dhyanasalaka (105 verses) by Jinabhadra (Pt. Malvaniya ascribes it to Bhadrabahu), Samadhitantra or Samadhisataka (105 verses) by Pujyapada (Kundakunda also is said to have written Samadhi. tantra), Jogasaynga by Haribhadra, Jogasara or Dohasara (108 verses) by Joindu, Samyasataka (106 verses) by Vijayasimhasuri, and Dhyanastara (100 verses) by Bhaskaranandi. Dhyana occupies a specific position in Jaina acara, which is one of the internal tapas constituting the causes of samvara and nirjara; two kinds of auspicious dhyana, namely, dharmya and sukla, ar: regarded to be the moksakaranas. Naturally a number of treatises have been written on this subject partly or independently, in verse or in prose, and in various languages. Subhacandra and Hemacandra's treatises are now considered as the standard works of Jaina yoga. From the Agamic literature (e. g. Sthananga) to this medieval age, certain aspects of Jaina dhyana, e. g. concept and classification, seem to have gone through some changes in due course in the cross currents of thoughts. Jinabbadragani, who is the author of Visesavasyakabhasya and possibly also of Jiyakappa, is said so have lived in the 6th century according to some, or before 750 A. D. according to the others. Haribbadra who commented on Jhanajjhayana is said to be the student of Jinabhadra. Bhaskaranandi, who possibly flourished in the 12th century AD, is a Digambara author; he wrote a commentary on Tattvarthasutra of Umasvati. There is at least four centuries of distance between these two authors, and some similarities and differences are evidenced in their views and treatments of dhyana, which are attempted to be presented briefly in this paper. Jhanajjhayana dedicates its mangalacarana to lord Mahavira, who is reverentially addressed as rogisvara and saranya. The definition of dhyana and the classifications of dhyatr and dhyana are then introduced. The rest of 100 verses beginning with the 6th sloka are devoted to the exposition of four Agamic kinds of dhyana, i. e. arta (6-8), raudra (19-27), dharmya (28 - 63, 65-68, 93) and sukla (61-61, 69-92, 94), together with the eleven verses of epilogue. Dhyanastava salutes the siddhas, the omniscients. The definition Page #84 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 43 and purpose of dhyana, qualification of dhyat, are then briefly introduced. It is followed by the description of the two kinds of classification of dhyana, one Agamic and the other non-Agamic, namely, pindastha, padastha, rupastha and rupatita (8-37), then, by the exposition of Reality and the theory of Knowledge (38-76). Three jewels are epitomized as the cause of liberation (77-92), and the work ends with eulogical hymn including its prasasti. The derivative classification of dhyana by four sthas which first appears in Joindu's Jogasara 97, is, according to Dr. Upadhye, possibly adopted from non-Jain source; something of this pattern is found in the Tantraloka of Abhinavagupta. It was possibly not known to Jinabhadra. Dhyanastava does not subordinate these four sthas to the dharmya dhyana as Jnanarnaya and Yogasastra do, but treats them under the object of meditation as an independent category. The concepts of these four sthas are likewise premature and in a crude form, are apparently indicating the position of Dhyanastava in the midway towards the later development. Jhanajj hayana exclusively devotes itself to the exposition of the four Agamic categorical concepts of dhyana according to the traditional beadings, i. e, the object of meditation, meditator, method and result. Dhyanastava spares more than half of the entire work for the exposition of the Jaina dogmatics, i e, metaphysics and epistemology, and explains dhyana in the more objective plane, bringing it into the system of Jaina tenets. Its mode of presentation of the materials is comparable to Dravyasangraha in 58 Prakrit verses, only if the order of the contents of the latter is slightly rearranged. Jhanajjhayana uses abundant metaphors and similes. Similarly, Dhyanastava is affluent with the tone of personal adoration of Lord, giving the taste of lyricism to the stiff doctrinal subject of this work. As to the attitude of the author, Jinabhadra takes more practical approach to the subject, while Bhaskaranandi brings it up on the more theoretical level, Now let us look into the conceptual comparison of the two works : (1) Definition of Dhyana Jhanajjhayana-2 defines dhyana, jam thiramajjavasanam tam jhanam' (That which is steady in the effort of meditation is dhyana). Haribhadra explains it 'sthira-niscalam, adhyavasanam-mana-ekagratalambanam-ityarthah'. This is stated against citta or discursive thought, which can be bhavana, anupreksa or cinta. This is further clarified by the verse 3, 'antomuhuttamettan cittavatthanamekavatthummi'. Dhyanastaya-6 defines dhyana as nanalambanacintaya yadekarthe niyantranam' (Restraining thought activities clinging to various objects to one point), which can be supplied by Tattvarthasutra Ix, 27, 'uttamasamhananasyaikagracintanirodho dhyanamantarmuhurtat (Restraint of discursive thought to one point for object] which dhyana is lasts Page #85 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 44 up to antarmuhur a for a person with the best physical formation of joints). Bhaskaranandi also adds in his vrtti, 'sthiracintatmakasyatmano dhyanasyestatvat' (Because the self characterized by unwavering thought is expressly meant as dhyana). Jhanajjhayana-3, says that this definition applies to those in the chadmastha stage, but for the Jinas, dhyana is meant as 'yoganirodha' or the total suppression of the threefold activities, which Occurs in the last two stages of sukla dhyana, upon which they enter nirvana. This is similarly stated in Dhyanastava 20-23. However, Jhanajjhayana lucidly defines dhyana in two divisions, one for the chadmasthas, and the other for Jinas. Dhyanastava gives one general definition of dhyana after Tattvarthasutra and treats Jinas' dhyana in the last two stages of sukla dhyana. (2) Purpose of dhyana Jhanajjhayana 5 and 95 summarize that arta and raudra dhyanas are the samsarakarana and dharmya and sukla are nirvanakarana, which are likewise mentioned in Dhyanastava-8. Dharmya and the first two stages of sukla dhyana are stated by Jinabhadra to bear fruits of subha-asrava-samvaranirjara, and amarasukha (93-4), while its last two stages lead to parinirvana (94). Therefore, he says, dhyana is the cause of moksa (96), aad its purpose is the purification of a soul or the removal of its karmas (98). Dhyanastava claims that the aim of dhyana is the attainment of perfection or the realization of the innate self with its attributes such as infinite knowledge. Therefore, if the meditating self does not shine forth in its inherent nature of knowledge, it is not called dhyana (3-5). The natures of self in the three kinds, i,e,, external, internal, and supreme, are mentioned in the verses 33-37. The purification of a soul from its karmas and the attainment of the perfection of self aim at the same goal, and the process or the method for it is considered as dhyana. Dhyanastava-92 reads that three jewels constitute the cause of liberation, which can be compared with Yogasastra 1,15 that three jewels, i.e. knowledge, faith and conduct constitute yoga. (3) Agamic divisions of dhyana dharmya dhyana Arta and raudra dhyana are treated as the divisions of dhyana in the traditional classification, as they are fit for the definition of dhyana. However, the rational thinker like Hemacandra eliminates these two from the category of dhyana, as these ought to be discarded by aspirants on the path to liberation. This is really an important aspect of his exposition. Often the word dhyana is referred to dharmya and sukla dhyanas alone, neglecting the undesirable first two. Arta and raudra dhyanas are treated basically alike in both works, with more detailed explanation in Jhanajjhayana. And the case is similarly true with sukla dhyana, therefore dharmya dhyana alone is here taken up. Jhanajjhayana relates dharmya dhyana under the ten heads, i.e., (1) bhavana (2) desa Page #86 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 45 (3) kala (4) asana (5) alambana (6) kramana (7) anu preksa (8) lesya (9) linga and (10) phala. Among them, bhavana and kramana through phala are likewise treated in Dhyanasatva or Tattvarihasutra and its vrtti. Although there are no regulations prescribed in the Agamas as to desa, kala and asana for dhyana, says Jhanajjhayana 35-41, it is suggested to the untrained monks to choose the lonely places free from women, beasts, eunuchs etc.; both novices and experts in dhyana are free to choose any time and posture as fit. Dhyanasatva does not refer to these topics. Alambana or condition of dharmya dhyana mentioned in Jhanajjhayani-42, i.e., vacana, prasna paravariana and anucinta are found in Tattvarthasutra-IX 25 as the divisions of sadhyaya, one of the internal ta pas. Jhanajjhayana adds sama yika etc. to it, which are included in Tattvarthasutra IX,18 as the divisions of caritra. Dharmya dhyana is said in Jhanajjhayana 63 to occur to those of ksina and upasantamoha which are commented by Haribhadra as kna paka-nirgranthas and upasamaka-nirgranthas. They are those on the upasamasrent and ksa pakasreni who can be those in the fourth to the seventh stages of gunasthana, Dhyanastava 15-16 read that it occurs to those in the fifth to the seventh stages prior to ascending those two srenis. Bbaskaranandi mentions that it occurs to those in the fourth to the seventh stages in his vati IX.38 after Pujyapada and Akalanka, with a critical comment that it occurs to laymen in the fourth and fifth stages from the figurative point of view alone. amayikaritra. Dhupasant Bibliography : Jhanajjhayana, Jinabhadra's manual of meditation, edited with Haribhadra's gloss, translated into English with explanatory notes, by S. K Ramachandra Rao. Oriental Research Trust Madras, 1971. . Dhyanastava by Bhaskaranandi. Tattvarthavrtti or Sukhabodha by Bhaskaranandi, ed. by A, Shantiraja Sastri. University of Mysore, Mysore, 1944 (University of Mysore Oriental Library publications, Sk. Ser. 84). Dravyasangraha by Nemicandra, comm. Mohanlal Kavyatirtha, Sarala Jaina Grantha Bhandara, Jabalpur. Jaina sahit ya ka byhad it ihasa, Vol. 4, by M Mehta and H. R. Kapadiya. Parsvanatha Vidyasrama sodha Samsthana. Varanasi, 1965. (Parsvanatha Vidyasrama granthamala 12). Page #87 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 11. apabhraMza-kavi vibudha zrIdhara aura unakA vaDDhamANacariu DaoN rAjArAma jaina, bodhagayA madhyakAlIna bhAratIya saMskRti aura itihAsa, Adhunika bhAratIya-bhASAoM ke kramika vikAsa tathA unakA bhASA-vaijJAnika adhyayana aura vividha sAhityaka vidhAoM ke sarvAMgINa prAmANika adhyayana ke lie apabhraMza bhASA evaM usake sAhitya kA apanA vizeSa mahattva hai| usameM upalabdha vistRta prazastiyA~, aitihAsika sandarbha, loka-jIvana ke vividha citra, samasAmayika sAmAjika paristhitiyA~, rAjanIti, arthanIti evaM dharmanIti ke vividha sUtra, hAsaparihAsa evaM vilAsa-vaibhava ke rasasiddha citrAGkana isa sAhitya ke prANa haiM / apabhraMza ke prAyaH samasta kavi AcAra aura dArzanika tathyoM tathA loka-jIvana kI abhivyaJjanA kathAoM evaM caritoM ke parivezoM meM karate rahe haiM / isa prakAra ke caritoM aura kathAnakoM ke mAdhyama se apabhraMza-sAhitya meM mAnava-jIvana tathA jagata ko vividha mUka-bhAvanAe~ evaM anubhUtiyA~ mukharita huI haiM, kyoMki vaha eka ora purANa-puruSoM ke mahAmahima Adarza caritoM se samRddha hai, to dUsarI ora sAmantoM, vaNika putroM athavA sAmAnya varga ke vyaktiyoM ke sukha-dukhoM athavA romAMsapUrNa kathAoM se parivyApta hai / ____ apabhraMza sAhitya kI isI zrRMkhalA meM vibudha zrIdhara kA bhI mahattvapUrNa sthAna hai / unake dvArA viracita vaDUDhamANa cariu apabhraMza sAhitya meM upalabdha mahAkAvya zailI kI prathama mahAvIracarita sambaMdhI racanA hai / vibudha zrIdhara ke sarvAMgINa vistRta jIvana-paricaya ko jAnane ke lie paryApta sandarbhasAmagrI upalabdha nahIM hai / kavi ne apane 'vaDhamANacariu' ko antya-prazasti meM usakA kevala racanAkAla ho diyA hai, jo vi. saM. 1109' hai / isa racanA meM usane apanI paravartI anya do racanAoM ke bhI ullekha kie haiM jinake nAma haiM- candapaha cariu evaM saMtijiNesara cariu / kintu ye donoM hI racanAe~ durbhAgya se adyAvadhi aprApta haiM / grantha-prazasti meM samakAlIna rAjAoM athavA anya kisI aisI ghaTanA kA ullekha nahIM milatA, jisase ki usake jovanakAla para kucha vizeSa prakAza par3a sake / vaDDhamANa-cariu kI pratyeka sandhi ke antameM dI gaI puSpikA meM kavi ne apane lie vibuha siri sukaisirihara [vibudha zrI sukavi zrIdhara ] kahA hai / isase spaSTa hai ki ukta kavi zrIdhara 'sukavi' evaM 'vibudha' upAdhi se bhI vibhUSita the| apabhraMza evaM saMskRta sAhitya meM ukta vaDDhamANa cariu ke atirikta sAta anya aisI racanAe~ aura bhI upalabdha haiM, jinake kartA bhI zrIdhA nAmake hI haiM / inakI bhinnatA athavA abhinnatA vicAraNIya haiM / unakI racanAe~ nimnaprakAra haiM -- 1. pAsaNAhacariu-ke karttA zrIdhara]-vi. saM. 1189. sukamAlacariu- (ke kartA zrIdhara)-vi. saM. 1208. 3. bhavisayattakahA-(ke kartA zrIdhara) vi. saM. 1230. 4. bhavisayattacariu (ke kartA zrIdhara) vi. saM. 1530 5. vizvalocanakoSa-(ke kartA zrIdhara) Page #88 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 47 6. bhaviSyadattapaMcamIkathA-(ke kartA zrIdhara) 7. zrutAvatArakathA-(ke kartA zrIdhara) ukta 7 zrIdharoM meM se sAtaveM zrIdhara vibudha upAdhi se vibhUSita avazya haiM, kintu unakA samaya anizcita hai / racanA navIna pratIta hotI hai / unake zrutAvatAra-kathA ke varNanoM meM kaI aitihAsika truTiyA~ bhI pAI jAtI haiM, jo anusandhAna kI kasauTI para kharI nahIM utaratI / pAMcaveM vizvalocanakoSa ke zrIdhara senavaMza ke vidvAna pratIta hote haiM, kyoMki ve sena vizeSaNa se vibhUSita haiM / grantha-prazasti se vidita hotA hai ki inake guru ko, thA / ina zrIdharasena ne nAgendra evaM amarasiMha Adi ke koSoM kA sAra lekara vizvalocanakoSa kI racanA kI thI / inakA janma athavA racanA kAla jAnane ke lie sandarbha sAmagrI anupalabdha hai / ukta donoM racanAe~ saMskRta kI haiM inase yaha vidita hotA hai ki anya zrIdharoM se ye donoM zrIdhara bhinna haiM / chaThavIM 'bhaviSyadattapaMcamI kathA' bhI saMskRta racanA hai / usakI prazasti meM kaviparicaya sambandhI koI sandarbha-sAmagrI prApta nahIM hotI / dillI ke eka zAstra-bhaNDAra meM usakI eka jIrNa-zIrNa pratilipi prApta huI hai jisakA pratilipi kAla vi0 saM0 1486 haiM / isase to yaha spaSTa hai ki ye zrIdhara 1486 ke pUrva ho cuke the kintu vAstavika paricaya prApta karane ke lie sAdhana-sAmagrI kA abhAva hai| aisA vidita hotA hai ki ye zrIdhara bhI anya zrIdharoM se bhinna hoMge / caturtha zrIdhara ke bhavisayatta-paMcamI-cariu kA lekhana kAla granthakAra ne svayaM hI apanI grantha-prazasti meM 1530 vi. saM. aMkita kiyA hai / isake lekhanakAla ko dekhakara ina kavi zrIdhara ko anya zrIdharoM se bhinnatA nizcita hai / isakI antya prazasti meM kavi zrIdhara muni upAdhi se vibhUSita haiM tRtIya zrIdhara kI racanA 'bhavisayattakahA kI antya-prazasti meM lekhaka ne usakA lekhana kAla vi. saM. 1230 spaSTa kara diyA hai tathA likhA hai, "caMdAvara nagara meM sthita mAthurakulIna nArAyaNa ke putra tathA vAsudeva ke bar3e bhAI supaTTa ne kavi zrIdhara se kahA ki "Apa merI mAtA ruppiNI ke nimitta paMcamIvrata phala-sambandhI 'bhaviSyadatta kathA' kA . nirUpaNa kiijie|" dvitIya zrIdhara ne apane 'sukumAlacariu' meM usakA lekhanakAla vi0saM0 1208 aMkita kiyA hai tathA grantha-prazasti ke anusAra usane usakI racanA 'balaDai' grAma meM rAjA govindacandra ke samaya meM kI thI / yaha racanA pItheputra kumara kI preraNA se likhI gaI thii| antarbAhya sAkSyoM ke AdhAra para prathama racanA 'pAsaNAha cariu' ke kartA zrIdhara kI abhinnatA 'vaDhamANa cariu' ke kartA zrIdhara ke sAtha nizcita hai / 'pAsaNAha cariu' kI prazasti ke anusAra usakA racanAkAla vi0 saM0 1189 hai / / ukta zrIdharoM kA tulanAtmaka adhyayana karate samaya kaI jaTila samasyAe~ uTha khar3I hota haiM / ukta samasta kRtiyoM kA racanAkAla vi0 saM0 1109 se 1530 ke madhya (arthAt 421 varSoM ke bhItara) ThaharatA hai / ataH yaha kahanA to asaMgata hI hogA ki ve sabhI kRtiyoM kisI eka kavi kI raha hogI / Page #89 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 48 sabase adhika ulajhana utpanna kI hai, kavi zrIdhara ke pramukha vizeSaNa 'vibudha' zabda ne / vaDDhamANa cariu, vi0 saM0 1109, sukumAlacariu vi0 saM0 1208 evaM bhavisayatta kahA vi0 saM0 1230 kI puSpikAo meM kavi zrIdhara ke nAma ke sAtha 'vibudha' vizeSaNa milatA hai| isase pratIta hotA hai ki ye tInoM kavi abhinna haiM / 'pAsaNAha cariu' kI puSpikA meM yadyapi kavi ne apane ko 'vuha sirihara' hI kahA hai, 'vibuha sirihara' nahIM, jabaki "vaDDhamANa cariu'' ke kartA vibuhazrIdhara se usakI abhinnatA siddha hai / donoM racanAoM meM kavi ke mAtA-pitA ke nAma samAna haiM / ukta 'bhavisayatta kahA' evaM 'bhavisayatta cariu' ke racanAkAla meM yadyapi 300 varSoM kA antara hai phira bhI una donoM ke AzrayadAtA bilkula eka samAna haiM / yaha eka Azcarya kA viSaya hai / isa viSaya meM gambhIra zodha-khoja kI AvazyakatA hai| merI dRSTi se ukta donoM hI racanAoM meM AzrayadAtA kI vaMzAvalI ke sAdRzya ko eka vizeSa saMyoga (accident) mAtra kahakara TAlA nahIM jA sakatA / aisA pratIta hotA hai ki lipika ke pramAda athavA bhrama se racanAkAla ke ullekha meM kahIM gar3abar3I huI hai| cUMki ye donoM racanAe~ mere sammukha nahIM haiM ataH isa dizA meM vizeSa kaha pAnA zakya nahIM / donoM kI prazastiyoM ke anusAra ina racanAoM ke AzrayadAtAoM kA vivaraNa nimna prakAra hai:bhavisayatta kahA [1230 vi0 saM0] | bhavisayatta cariu [1530vi0 saM0] mAthurakulIna zrInArAyaNa [patnIrUpiNI] | mAthurakulIna zrI.......[patnI mAr3hI] supaTTa (vAsudeva ke bar3e bhAI ) sAhAraNu NArAyaNu (ruppiNI) paTTa vAsudeva jasadeva lohaNu lakkhaNu ukta donoM 'canAoM ke zIrSaka evaM prazasti-khaNDoM ke tulanAtmaka adhyayana se nimna tathya . sammukha Ate haiM / 1. kathAvastu donoM kA eka hai / donoM hI racanAe~ apabhraMza bhASA meM haiM / kintu zIrSaka meM kucha parivartana hai-eka meM bhavisayatta ke sAtha 'kahA' evaM dUsare meM 'cariu' zabda saMyukta hai| 2. AzrayadAtA donoM ke eka haiM / antara kevala itanA hai ki eka meM do pIDhiyoM kA tathA dUsarI meM tIna pIr3hiyoM kI carcA hai / 3. kavi kA paricaya donoM hI kRtiyoM meM anupalabdha hai / 4. 'bhavisayatta kahA' (vi0 saM0 1230) meM kavi ke lie 'kavi' tathA 'vibadha' ye donoM vizeSaNa milate haiM tathA "bhavisayatta cariu" meM vibudha ke sAtha-sAtha (puSpikAmeM) 'muni' vizeSaNa bhI milatA hai| ukta samatAoM ko dhyAna meM rakhate hue yadi ye donoM racanAe~ 1230 kI siddha ho sake to 'vaDDhamANacariu' evaM pAsaNAha cariu ke kartA ke sAtha inakI samatA baiThAI jA Page #90 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ sakatI hai / yadyapi usa samaya yaha prazna khar3A hogA ki eka hI kavi eka hI viSaya para eka hI bhASA meM eka hI AzrayadAtA ke nimitta do-do racanAe~ kyoM likhegA ? kintu aisA koI niyama nahIM hai ki koI kavi eka hI viSaya para eka hI bAra racanA kare ? eka hI kavi vividha samayoM meM eka ho viSaya para ekAdhika racanAe likha sakatA hai / 'bhavisayatta kahA' meM zrIdhara ko 'vibudha' evaM 'kavi' kahA gayA hai tathA 'bhavisayatta cariu' meM use vibudha ke sAtha sAtha 'muni' kI upAdhi bhI prApta hai / ho sakatA hai ki zrIdhara usa samaya 'munipada' dhAraNa kara cuke hoM / ataH eka racanA usane AzrayadAtA kI preraNA se muni banane ke pUrva kI ho tathA dUsarI racanA apanI pratibhA pradarzita karane hetu tathA paMcamItrata kathA ko ora adhika sarasa banAne hetu parivartita zailI meM usI AzrayadAtA kI preraNA se munipada dhAraNa karane ke bAda kI ho / vastutaH isake parIkSaNa meM bar3I sAvadhAnI kI AvazyakatA hai / ukta saMgatiyoM evaM asaMgatiyoM ko dhyAna meM rakhate hue yadi vivAdAspada samasyAoM ko pRthaka rakhanA cAheM to yaha prAyaH nizcita hai ki 'vaDUDhamANacariu', 'pAsaNAhacariu' 'sukumAla cariu evaM 'bhavisayatta kahA' ke lekhaka abhinna haiM / isa dRSTi se kavi kA racanAkAla vi0 saM0 1109 se 1230 sthira ho sakatA hai / vibudha zrIdharane apanI kRtiyoM meM apanA vistRta paricaya nahIM diyaa| unake 'vaDDhamANa cariu' se jJAta hotA hai ki unake pitA kA nAma golha tathA mAtA kA nAma vIlhA thA / ve asuhara grAma ke nivAsI the4 / kavikI dUsarI racanA 'pAsaNAha cariu' kI prazasti se uparyukta sUcanAoM ke sAtha-sAtha yaha bhI jJAta hotA hai ki kavi hariyANA deza kA nivAsI agravAla jaina thA / vaha yamunA nadI pArakara 'DhillI' AyA thA, jahA~ rAjA anaMgapAla ke maMtrI naTTalasAhU kI preraNA se kavi ne pAsaNAhacariu kI racanA kI thI5 / vaDDhamANa cariu meM ullikhita pUrvavartI racanAe~ caMdappaha cariu evaM saMtijiNesara cariu adyAvadhi anulabdha hI haiN| unake upalabdha hone para unakI prazastiyoM se sambhavataH kavi-paricaya para aura vizeSa prakAza par3a skegaa| vibudha zrIdhara kRta vaDDhamANacariu kI kula tIna hastalikhita pratilipiyA~ upalabdha haiM jo rAjasthAna ke byAvara, dUNI evaM jhAlarApATana ke zAstra-bhaNDAroM meM surakSita haiM / ye pratiyA~ apUrNa haiM / unameM antima patra na rahane se unakA pratilipikAla jJAta na ho sakA / phira bhI anumAnataH ye 300 se 400 varSa ke bIca kI pratiyA~ pratIta hotI haiM / inameM se byAvara kI prati meM 8642 patra haiM / prati pRSTha 11-11 paMktiyA~ evaM prati paMkti meM lagabhaga 16-16 zabda evaM 42 se 45 taka varNa haiM / isakA kAgaja kucha maTamailA aura patalA hai / usameM kAlI evaM lAla syAhI kA prayoga huA hai aura prati jIrNonmukha hai| kavi zrIdhara ne vaDDhamANa cariu ke lekhana-kArya meM preraka evaM AzrayadAtA kA paricaya dete hue apanI grantha-prazasti meM likhA hai-"jAyasa kulAvataMsa zrI naravara evaM somA ke putra nAmacandra ne eka dina kavi se kahA ki he kavi zrIdhara, jisa prakAra Apane saMsAra meM saMtApa ko dUra karane vAle candraprabha evaM zAnti jinezvara ke caritoM kI racanA kI haiM, usI prakAra antima tIrthaMkara varddhamAna ke carita ko bhI racanA kara dIjiye / " kavi ne usa Agraha ko svIkAra kara 'vardhamAna-carita' kI racanA kara dI / apanI antya prazasti Page #91 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 50 meM kavi ne ukta nemicandra ke rAmacandra, zrIcandra evaM vimalacandra nAmaka tIna putroM ke nAmoslekha bhI kiye haiN| __ ukta AzrayadAtA nemicandra vodaunagara ke nivAsI the / kavi ne asura-grAma meM baiThakara yaha racanA kI thI / ukta vodAu uttarapradeza kA vartamAna jilA 'badAU~' pratIta hotA hai / kavi harayANA nivAsI thA / sambhavata: asuhara grAma bhI harayANA meM honA cAhie / bahuta sambhava hai ki yaha asuhara grAma ghisatA-piTatA evaM rUpa parivartana karatA huA Ajakala kA hisAra nagara hI ho / vibudha zrIdhara ne apanI racanA meM pUrvavartI kisI grantha yA granthakAra kA ullekha nahIM kiyA phira bhI adhyayana karane se pratIta hotA hai ki kavi mahAkavi asaga evaM puSpadanta ke varddhamAna caritoM se prabhAvita rahA hai, kintu apabhraMza ke kSetra meM varddhamAna carita sambandhI vibudha zrIdhara kRta vaDDhamANa cariu sarvaprathama svatantra racanA hai tathA paravartI apabhraMza kaviyoM meM 'vaDDhamANa kavvu' ke praNetA jayamitra halla (aparanAma haricanda, vi0 saM0 15 vI zatI), 'sammaijiNa cariu' ke praNetA mahAkavi raidhU (aparanAma siMhasena vi0 saM0 1440-1530) tathA 'vaDDhamANa kahA' ke praNetA kavi Narasena (vi0 saM0 14 vIM15 vIM zatI) ye kavi zrIdhara ke cira RNI raheMge / vibudha zrIdhara ne apane 'vaDUDhamANa cariu' ko 2500 grantha pramANa kahA hai usameM kula sandhiyA~ 10 evaM kaDavaka saMkhyA-231 haiM / ukta vaDUDhamANa cariu kI kathAvastu kA mUlAdhAra digambara mAnyatA prApta kathAvastu hai| kavi ne prathama ATha sandhiyoM meM bhagavAna mahAvIra kI pUrvabhavAvalI prastuta kara antima do sandhiyoM meM unake pAMcoM kalyANakoM kA varNana kiyA hai / varNana-prasaMgaH-- 'vaDUDhamANa cariu' meM deza, nagara evaM grAmoM ke pracura varNana milate haiM / ina varNanoM meM aprastuta-yojanA dvArA unake utkarSa kI abhivRddhi kI yojanA ke sAtha hI aneka svAbhAvika citraNa bhI prApta hote haiM / grAmya jIvana kI jhAMkiyA~ to anupama hI haiM / dhAna ke lahalahAte kheta, unakI mer3hoM para zuka bhagAtI huI grAmya-kanyAe~, madhura kaNTha se gIta gAtI huI hAliniyA~, godhana se paripUrNa grAma, dadhimanthana-rava tathA gopa-gopikAoM ke vividha hAsa-vilAsa ke jIvanta citra aMkita haiN| isI prakAra nagara evaM deza-varNanoM meM bhI kavi ko ur3Ane kulAce bharatI huI pratIta hotI haiM / (1 / 3) isI prakAra kavi ne magadha, videha, rAjagRha, kuNDagrAma Adi ke varNana bhI kiye haiM, jinameM vahA~ ke prAkRtika saundarya, dhana-dhAnya, rAjabhavana, aizvarya Adi ke manohArI varNana citrita haiN| inake atirikta prAtaH evaM sandhyA varNana (7 / 15-16), vana- upavana, nadI, sarovara Adi ke bhI alaMkRta zailI meM varNana kie haiN| unameM upamA, utprekSA, atizayokti Adi alaMkAroM kI chaTA darzanIya hai / cakravatiyoM, samrAToM evaM rAjAoM ke varNana-prasaMgoM meM kavi ne unake zaurya evaM parAkrama kI khulakara carcAe~ kI haiM / usa mAdhyama se kavi ne zatru-rAjAoM ko lalakAreM, yoddhAoM kI darpoktiyA~, raNabAMkuroM kI huMkAreM evaM tumula-yuddha ke varNana-prasaMgoM meM vIra, raudra evaM bIbhatsa raso kI udbhavanAe~ kI haiM (517) / Page #92 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ kavi zrIdhara ne yuddha sambandhI sundara varNana to kiye hI haiM aura sAtha hI sAtha yuddha meM prayoga kie jAne vAle vividha prakAra ke zastrAstroM ke nAmollekha bhI kie haiM / isase madhyakAlIna yuddha-vidyA evaM yuddha-sAmagrI para acchA prakAza par3atA hai (3 / 20, 5 / 7-22) / 'vaDUDhamANa cariu' kA adhyayana karanese yaha vidita hotA hai ki granthakAra bahujJa thaa| kisI bhI prAsaMgika viSaya para vaha usakI gaharAI taka jAne kA pUrNa prayatna karatA hai| vaha jaba cakravartiyo evaM samrAToM ke viSaya meM apanI lekhanI calAtA hai to unakI paribhASAoM, kAryapraNAliyoM evaM rAjanIti ke viSaya meM bhI gaharI carcA karatA hai| cakravartI rAjA ke pAsa hone vAle cetana evaM acetana sAta ratnoM evaM navanidhiyoM ke ullekha evaM unake phaloM kA bhI usane nirdeza kiyA hai / kavi kA yaha varNana nizcaya hI madhyakAlIna bhAratIya itihAsa evaM saMskRti kI dRSTi se vizeSa mahattvapUrNa hai (81518-13) vidyAsiddhi bhAratIya sAdhanA evaM saMskRti kA pramukha tattva rahA hai| samAja ko camatkAroM dvArA prabhAvita karane kA yaha eka bar3A bhArI sAdhana thA / pratIta hotA hai ki kavi ke samaya meM bhI ukta vidyA-siddhi kA paryApta pracAra thA (4 / 18-19) rAjanIti ke kSetra meM bhI kavi ne kucha mUlabhUta siddhAntoM kI carcA kI hai / usake antargata kavine sAma (4 / 14) evaM bheda nItiyoM (4 / 15) ko pramukhatA dI hai| prasaMgavaza usameM sandhi nIti (5 / 1) kA bhI ullekha kiyA hai / kyoMki isase akAraNa hI niraparAdhiyoM kA raktapAta nahIM hotA / eka prasaMga meM usane rAjA kI tIna pradhAna zaktiyoM-mantra, utsAha evaM bala (2 / 2) kI bhI carcA kI hai| rAjAgaNa jisa sthAna para baiThakara gupta mantraNA karate the, kavine use 'mantragRha' (6 / 6) kahA hai / prastuta kAvya meM tIrthakara mahAvIra ke janmAbhiSeka, niSkramaNa, tapazcaraNa, vihAra, bodhilAbha evaM nirvANa ke prasaMgoM meM nAnA prakAra kI paurANika mAnyatAoM kA bhI samAveza kiyA gayA hai (938) / . vaDDhamANacariu ke karttA kI yaha vizeSatA hai ki vaha zabdADambara ke ghaTATopoM se dUra rahane kA prayAsa karatA hai / rasoM evaM alaMkAroM kI jabaradasta DhUMsa-ThA~sa eva rahasyavAda jaise nIrasa vAdoM se apanI racanAoM ko duruha nahIM banAtA / janakavi hone ke kAraNa usane gahana viSaya lekara bhI use lokAnukUla banAkara use atyanta sarasa evaM sarala bhASA-zailI meM prastuta kiyA hai / varNya viSaya ko aura bhI adhika spaSTa karane ke lie kavi ne lokoktiyoM evaM muhAvaroM kA bhI prayoga kiyA hai, kyoMki kAvya meM inakA vahI sthAna hai, jo sone ke AbhUSana meM nagIne kA (1 / 17 / 1-2, 2 / 1, 468, 4 / 12, 5 / 3-4) / vaDDhamANacariu meM nAyaka ke udAra caritake sAtha-sAtha AcAra, darzana evaM siddhAnta sambandhI mAnyatAe~ bhI varNita haiM / kavi zrIdhara ne isameM jainAgama kA sAra gAgara meM sAgara kI taraha bhara diyA hai / ukta samasta mAnyatAe~ paramparA prApta hI haiM / kabi ne samavazaraNaprasaMga meM muni evaM gRhasthAcAra, saptatattva, anuprekSAe~, mArgaNA, guNasthAna, cAra gatiyA~, sRSTiracanA prabhRti kA vistRta varNana kiyA hai| 1-eyAraha-saehiM parivigayahiM / saMvaccharasae Navahi samayahi / vaDDha, 10 // 41 // 8 2-caMdappaha-saMtijiNesarAha~ / bhavvayaNa-saroja-diNesarAha~ / vaDDha. 1 / 2 / 6 3-anekaant.8|12|465 Page #93 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 52 4-anekAnta. 8 / 12 / 465 5-anekAnta. 8 / 12 / 465 "saM. 1486 varSe ASAr3ha vadi 7 guru dine gopAcala durge rAjA DUMgarasiMha rAjya pravarttamAne zrI kASThAsaMgha mAthurAnvaye puSkaragaNe AcAryazrI sahastrakIrti devAstat paTTe AcArya zrI guNakIrti devAstacchiSya zrIyazaH kIrtidevAstena nijajJAnAvaraNIkarma-kSayArtha idaM bhaviSyadattapaMcamIkathA likhApitam / " [ pratilipikAra kI yaha puSpikA nayA mandira, dharmapurA, dehalI ke zAstra-bhaNDAra kI jIrNa pratise aMkita hai ] 6 anekaant-4|12|465 7 bhavisayatta cariu 1 / 4 ghattA-supaTu ahiNaMdau jiNapayavaMdiu tavasiriharamuNi. (Amerapratise de. jai. graM.pra. saMgraha, pR. 145 8 bArahasayavarisahiM parigaehiM, duguNiya paNaraha vacchara juehiM / bhavisayattakahA 6 / 30 (de. jai. graM. pra. saMgraha, pR. 50) 9 bhvisyttkhaa--1||2-3. 10 sukumaalcrit-6|13. 11 suku.-112 12-sukumaal-6|12-13-de0 10 graM. pra. saM. dillI, 1963 pR. 10-11 13 saNavAsi eyAraha saehiM, parivADie varisaha parigaehi / kasaNaTThamIhiM, AgahaNamAsi, ravivAri samANiu sisiramAsi / siriSAsaNAha Nimmalu carittu, sayalAmala-guNa rayaNoha dittu / pAsa0 1218 14 golhataNUruheNa, vaDDhamANa0 1 / 3 / 2, vIlhAgabha samubhavadehe-vaDUDha0 10141 / 5 tiyaraNarakkhiya asuharagAmeM-vaDUDha0 10 // 41 // 4. 15 pAsaNAha0 1 / 2, 114 119 16 vdduuddhmaann-10|41 17 iya vodAuvaNayare maNoharaM-vaDUDha0 10 // 411 18 vaDDha0 10 / 41 / 4 19 baDDhamANa0 1041 / 16 Page #94 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 12. The Study of Prakrit Grammar for understanding. the Tadbhava Words in Kannada P. B. Badiger, Mysore. Languages, like cultures, are rarely sufficient unto themselves. The necessities of contact bring the speakers of one language into direct or indirect contact with those of neighbouring or culturally dominant languages. The contact may be friendly or hostile. It may move on the humdrum plane of business and trade relations or it may consist of borrowing literary influence or interchange of spiritual goods-art, science, religion etc. It would be difficult to point to a completely isolated language or dialect. Whatever the degree or nature of contact between neighbouring peoples, it is generally sufficient to lead to some kind of linguistic inter-influencing. Frequently the influence runs heavily in one direction. The language of a people that is looked upon as a centre of a culture is naturally far more likely to exert an appreciable influence on other languages spoken in its vicinity than to be influenced by them. The simplest kind of influence that one language may exert on another is the "borrowing" (or parellel changes to suit the genesis of borrowing languages) of words. The associated words are borrowed along with cultural borrowing. Each cultural wave brings to the language a new deposit of loan-words. In such a situation one can take a note of the extent to which the vocabularies of various people have filtered into those of other peoples. It is generally assumed that the nature and extent of borrowing depend entirely on the historical facts of cultural relation. It seems very probable that the psychological attitude of the borrowing language itself towards linguistic material has much to do with its receptivity to foreign words. The borrowing language reacts to the presence of foreign words, it may reject them, it may translate them or it may freely accept them. The borrowing of foreign words always entails their phonetic modifications. There are sure to be foreigo sounds or accentual peculiarities which do not fit the native phonetic habits. They are then so changed as to do as little violence as possible to their habits. Frequently, there are phonetic compromises. In view of the above facts, if we examine closely the Kannada vocabu. lary, we feel assured that it has borrowed largely from Sanskrit (more in Page #95 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 54 later years than in the early period) and Prakrit languages. We come across a larger number of Prakrit words in its stock. Kannada has been influenced by Sanskrit and Prakrit since its beginning. Kannada has borrowed many more words from Sanskrit in order to express the thoughts contained in the sastras and Vedas, becauses it did not possess such a vocabulary that could correctly express them. Such a need compelled to make use of Sanskrit words with phonological and morphological changes. This tendency resulted in the abundant use of Sanskrit words in the early writings of Kannada With the advent of Jainism in Karnatak, Kannada came in close contact with Prakrit. The Jaina saints began to preach their religion in Kannada, They were compelled to use their technical vocabulary in course of their preaching. Thus in the early writing of Jaina poets in Kannada, a vast number of Prakrit words occupied permanent place. Besides, the ancient Kannada poets and writers were expert in Sanskrit, Prakrit and Kannada, They used both Sanskrit and Prakrit words in Kannada; The regional languages were naturally influenced by the Prakrit because it was a language of the common people and secondly, the writers used abundantly Prakrit words due to their phonetic feasibility. Moreover the Prakritic pronunciation better suited the Kannada phonetic tendencies. Thus the Kannada grammarians devoted a separate section in their works for such borrowed or loan-words under the title of Tadbhavas. These Tadbhavas in Kannada can be classified into three groups : phonologically modified Sanskrit words, Prakrit words and those Prakrit words which appear as if Kannada original words. Examples : bavi "well", kavadi, "coweree" and guddali "pick-axe's etc. These are supposed to be Kannada words. These can not be given up because they can not be substituted with other equivalents. It seems that the Sanskrit words of this type entered into Kannada through Prakrit. Similarly, we find the flow of words from Telagu, Tamil, Marathi, Parsi, Hindustani, Urdu and English into Kannada. Kesiraja (1260 A.D.) has written a grammar of Kannada Language, known as "Sabdamanidar pana". After describing grammatical features, he has made an attempt to describe the Tadbhavas in the seventh chapter called "Apabhrasa-prakarana". He uses the Apabhramsa in a general sense of the term like Patanjali. A close study of these Tadbhavas discloses a fact that he has put the Prakrit words in the name of Tadbhavas. These Tad. bhavas seem to have undergone the vocalic and consonantal changes so as to fit the native phonetic habits. The study of Prakrit Grammer enables to know how the Prakrit words are borrowed into Kannada, I have given beolw the vocalic and consonantal changes in Prakrit which correspond to those of Tadbhava words in Kannada : Page #96 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 55 1. Vocalic Changes : Kannada tina> tina srngara > singara srkhala>sankhala sankale>sankole, sanskrta>sakkada. mittika>muddiga>muddige angara >ingala>ingala. jirka > jirige, danda > dandu, 6. Prakrit a. f changes to -a, -i -u. : tlna>tina, srrgara >singara, mottika>muddiga, srnkhala >sankhala sanskrta > sakkada Initial - a changes to - i. angara >ingala Final - a changes to - e. and - u.: gihagihe, danda > dandu 2. Dipthongal Changes : a. ai changes to - e. saindhava >sendhava, vaidya>vejja. au changes to - 0, saurastra >sorattha, maura>mora. 3. Anaptyxis : a. insertion of - a : yatna > jatana, indra>indara or inda, insertion of - i; sro>siri insertion of - u: padma > pauma 4. Consonantal changes : a. Sibilants; sa and sa change to - sa. sasi>sasi, rasi>rasi, samsaya dosa, visaya visaya. Semi-vowel-ya initially changes to - ja. : yatna> jatana, yajna> janna, Jogin>jogi. saindhava >sendbava, vaidya> vejja>bejja. saurastra >soratha > soratta> sorala, maura>mora. yatna >jatana, indra>indara. sri>siri padmapaduma. sasi>sasi, rasi>rasi, samsaya >samsaya, dosa> dosa, visaya> visaya. yatna> jatana, yajna > janna, yogin>jogi. Page #97 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 56 5. Change of place of Articulation : Prakrit Kannada a. dental become retroflex : ta>da : sanghata > sanghada sangbata>sangbada na>na ; sthana>lhana. sthava>thana>tana b. tril becomes latral : ra>la : carana>calana carana >calana 6. Voicing of Consonants : The tendency of voicing the surds is quite in agreement with the Prakrit used in South by Kundakunda and others. Later grammarians called this Sauraseni feature. But linguistically this voicing precedes the elision of medial surds giving place to the constituent vowel or ya-sruti, a. ka>ga : asoka >asoga asoka >asoga ca> ja ; kaca> gaja>gaju ta>da : tada : ratna>radana ratna >radana pa>va : dipika>diviga dipika>divige vapi>vavi Vapibavi 7. Changes of Conjunct-consonants : Most of the clusters tend to form geminated groups by the process of assimilation which is progressive and regressive. The consonants accord. ing to decreasing strength are : a) mutes, b) nasals and c) 1, s, v, y, r in order. The treatment of conjunct-consonapants as in Prakrit is the same in Kannada also. a. surd+surd : kta>tta : yukti>jutti tpa>ppa : utpata >uppada tpha >ppha : satphala >sapphala b. mute + pasal : tnanna: ratna>ranna c. mute+sibilants : vatsala> vaccala> vaccale apsaras>acchara>accarase d. sibilants + mutes : ascarya >accariya > accari kasturi>katturi>katturi viskira>vikkira, a kind of bird sasvata>sasata amavasya >amavassa >amavasa>amavase. e. liquids + mutes : parva > pabba >habba, sarva>savva>sabba, garbhagabbhagabba, dharma >dhamma, markata>makkada, karkasa> kakkasa. Page #98 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ f. liquids + semivowel : karya>kajja, arya>ajja. g. ksa : ksa changes to kkha and ccba which lose their aspiration in Kannada. paksa>pakkha >pakka, ksira>khira>kira, aksi>acchi>acci, maksi>macchi>macci, tiksna> tikkha>tikka. 8. The process of palatalization : The process of palatalization is found to be very predominant. If the conjunct is made up of ta-varga and -ya, or to a limited extent -va, ca-varga takes place. This may be illustrated as follows: a. group with -y: tya >cca : nitya>nicca, jya >jja : rajya>rajja, dya>jja : vidya>vijja>bijje b. group with -va : tva>cca : catva > cacca, jva>jja : jvara > jara c. group with -la : bilva > billa > billu palyayana> pallana >ballana. Taking into consideration the above Prakrit phonological changes which correspond to those of Tadbhava words in Kannada, it can be said that the study of Prakrit grammar will be useful in understanding the Tadbhava words in Kannada in particular and some morphological features in general. Page #99 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 13. The Etymological Definitions and Pali Synonyms Prof. M. G. Dbadphale, Poona 0.0. In my previous paper "Adhivacanas As A Class Of Pali Synonyms' submitted for the Seminar in Prakrit, held at Poona, I discussed how the adhivacanas become instrumental in producing newer synonyms in the Pali Canon. In this paper, I wish to discuss, how far and in what ways do the 'etymological definitions in the Pali Canon contribute to the increase of Pali synonyms. It will be seen that along with the adhivacanas, the nibba. canas also play a significant role in the coinage of newer synonyms, Pre. suming the analysis and the discussion of the adhivacanic mode which I have presented in my previous paper, I shall like to make a straight way beginning by citing a few typical examples of the Pitakan synonyms based on fresh etymologies. The verse 221 from the Theragatha runs as follows. (see in this context Thag. 140 also.) Brahmabandhu pure asin idani(m) kho'mhi brahmano / Tevijjo nhatako ca'mhi sottiyo ca'mhi vedagu // 0.1. The Elder Angaaikabharadvaja bere uses some five adjectival terms, which, it is obvious, do no admit an interpretation in the Vedic-Brahmanic sense, for nobody will be justified in saying that the Elder has become a master of the three Vedas (tevijjo=Sk. traividyah) or that he has performed the ablution marking the completion of his religious studentship (nhatako Sk, snatakah) or that he has become a member of the Brahmin caste (brahmana), which was an impossibility. What then is the correct interpretation of these terms ? The term Brahmana is to be interpreted not as a Jativacana but as a gunavacana, meaning 'one who has driven out all his evil tendencies' (bahitapapadhammo). Tevijja likewise speaks of 'one who bas realized threefold knowledge in the peculiarly Buddhist sense, to wit: Remembrance of former births, the Divine Eye and Extinction of all blases. It has no reference to the Brahmanic 'knower of the three Vedas' (traividyah). 1.1. Now a question may arise : on what ground have we discarded the usual meanings of these terms and have given a different interpretation, equating them with a novel signification ? The answer is a plain one. Lord Buddha himself has elsewhere in his sermons, invested these terms with definite significations as pointed above, and it is quite legitimate, therefore, to interpret the terms in those peculiarly Buddhistic senses. One can refer in this context to the Chapter 19th of the Dhammapada (viz. Page #100 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 59 Dhamma thavagga) to find new etymologies and new interpretations of some old words and ideas. This Chapter from the Dhammapada is not an isolated instance. Such etymologies are scattered all over the Tipitaka and the examples can be classified under two main heads : (i) Re-etymologising of old words. (ii) Re-interpretation of old terms. In case of the words brahmana, samana, pabbajita etc. one finds fresh and edifying etymologies presented, while in the case of the words like tevijja, vedagu etc. one finds fresh interpretations offered by the Buddha. 1.2. Since the Pali equates brahmana with bahitapapadhamma, samana with samacarita and pabbajita with pabbajitamala, these turn out to be synonymous expressions. In the words of REICHANBACH brahmana, samana, pabbajita etc. can be rightly called as abbreviative definitions1. A definition is an introduction of new terms as a function of known terms' as when we define a submarine' as 'a ship capable of going under water'. Logically all the definitions are absolute cases of the simple converse of A-propositions, both the subject and the predicate terms being distributed. They form equations. Thus the relation of equality effected by definitions is a special type of the relation of equisignificance i. e. of having the same meaning. It is thus a type of synonymy, a type which is exploited by QUINE in illustrating the logical truth of the proposition 'no unmarried man is married' implying the truth 'no bachelor is married'. The logical truth of such statements is formed by substituting one synonym (i. e. bachelor) in place of another synonym (i. e. unmarried man). Since the interchangeability criterion of synonymy is fulfilled in such examples, they prove to be adequate synonyms. 0771 1.3. When the Lord once establishes (either in his mind or publicly) the relation of equisignificance between bahitapupadhamma and brahmana, the usage of one in the place of the other becomes permissible in all the like contexts. It is only on the strength of such equations that the Elder Anganikabharadvaja could call himself a brahmana, a samana etc. Notable in this context is also the 5th Sutta (The Brahmana-Sutta) from the first Vagga of the Udana. The Elders Sariputta, Moggallana, Mahakassapa, etc., in all ten in number, were approaching the Lord. The Blessed One saw them coming from a distance and said, "Lo, Monks, the Brahmanas are approaching me" (Addasa kho Bhagava te ayasmante durato'va agacchante, disvana bhikkhu amantesi, ete, bhikkhave, brahmana, agacchanti, ete bhikkhave, brahmana agacchanti). A certain monk who happened to be a brahmin by birth could not understand this and asked to what extent one is a brahmin? (annataro brahmana-jatiko bhikkhu Bhagavantam etad-avoca, 'kittavata nu kho bhante, brahmano hoti, katame ca pana brahmana-karaka dhamma)', to which the Lord replied *T..! Page #101 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 60 Bahitua papake dhamme, ye caranti sada sata khinasamyojana buddha, te ve lokasmir brahmana (The fanciful etymology based on the word-play, as implied in the above verse is also observable with a slightly different interpretation at Ndl. p. 72 where we read 'Sattanna dhammanam bahitatta brahmano,' at D. iii 94 (Roman) we have papam bahesun. Dha, iii. 84 has bahitapapatta and DA. I. 244 glves 'ariya bahitapa patta brahmana). 1.4, The examples like the verse 388 from the Dhammapada, namelyBahita papo'ti brahmano samacariya samano'ti buccati | Pabbajayamattano malam tasma pabbajito'ti vuccati // are all, really interesting examples of resultant synonymy where one word tends to acquire the sense of the other. By a certain stipulation (in most cases prompted by ethical considerations) the terms like brahmana, nhataka, pabbalita etc. become almost the stenographs for the fuller expressions of bahitapapadhama, ninhatasabbapapaka, pabbajitamala etc. respectively. In other words the Pali nibbacaniyas like these appear not as simple terms but as specific code_words. 2.0 So far only the logical aspect of this type of synonymy is consi. dered. The consideration led to the conclusion that the Pali nibbacanas are the steno-symbolic words formed under the influence of certain stipula. tiva definitions. These stipulative definitions, however, lead us to another and equally important consideration which is linguistic relating to phonetic and etymological aspects. For when the Buddha gave such stipulative definitions he showed some regard for, nay, even based these definitions on etymological grounds. To consider a few examples : (a) agui na karoti kinci loke nago tadi pavuccate tathatta / ( (b) ninhaya sabbapapakani kappam ne'ti tamahu nhatako / ( (c) Samitatta hi papanam samano'ti pavuccati (Dh. 265 cd.) [See also SD, verse 119.1 In (a) there is an attempt of dissolving naga into natagu (sk. agas) thus equating it semantically with the Sanskrit anagas (= sinless). In (b) there is no word-play or semantic make-shift, but the sinana (= bathing or washing) as in the Vitthupamasutta from M. Is conceived as ethical rather Page #102 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 61 than physical, i.e. washing away of the evils is intended. In (c) the attempt is to relate samana to sk. sama and not to srama, the interchange of -sa-and-sa being possible only in Pali and Prakrits (one recalls how in the first act of the Mrcchakatikam, Sakara mistakes Vasantasena's santo'si for sranto'si).8 2.1. These are thus the examples of forced derivations and fanciful etymologies of which there is an abundance in Pali as in the Brahmanas, in the Nirukta of YASKACARYA and in the classical Sanskrit poetry, as when KALIDASA implies a connection of raja with-ranja rather than with-raja (Raja Prakrtiranjanat, Raghuvamsa IV. 12). The reaction of the scholars to such etymologies and derivations consists in treating them as 'crude attempts of deriving,' as 'fanciful etymologies', as 'folk-etymologies'-in short anything but 'scientific etymologies'. Along with the depreciation of these so-called etymologies from the purely scientific point of view, there also comes a generous and broad-minded appreciation of these from the point of view of 'peeping into the opinions of the authors of these etymologies', of 'knowing the public mind' as also the ancient ways of interpreting the connections between the phenomena' etc. Since our primary concern is with the question how the nibbacanas produce synonyms and not with the Pali etymologies as such, these considerations are not to the point. Suffice it is to note that in these etymologies the sounds are transposed very arbitrarily, the essential parts of the words are wholly ignored, the quantity of vowels in the cases of contraction are entirely neglected; all sorts of semantic makeshifts are availed of, in short all principles of sound etymologies are set aside. These etymologies touch upon quibbling, paranomasia, figura, etymologica (see infra 2.5) etc. It will, therefore, be certainly interesting to mark the successive stages through which the nibbacanas emerge as synonyms proper. Some five stages can be demonstrated, of course, with least pretension for accuracy. The overlapping is very unavoidable. The nibbacanas which pass through all or most of these stages can only attain the status of synonyms of what they stand for. The stages are (i) Puns and Quibbles, (ii) A purposive twist effecting a shift in the meaning and corresponding roughly to the chala in the Nyayasastra, (iii) Establishment of pseudoetymological relations between the nibbacaniyas and the nibbacanas, (iv) Synonymous usage along with such etymologies and (v) Purely synonymous usage as divested of such etymologies. The following is a brief account of all these stages: 2.3. Puns and Quibbles: The puns and quibbles though meagre as compared to their occurrence in classical Sanskrit Literature are yet not wholly absent in Pali, The Dh. verse 97 is a fine specimen of 'double entendre' Assaddho akatannu ca sandhicchedo ca yo naro Hatavakaso vantaso sa ve uttamaporiso || Page #103 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 62 [Trans : The man who is free from credulity, who knows the uncreated, who has severed all ties, who has put an end to all occasions (for the performance of good or bad actions), who has renounced all desires, he, indeed, is exalted among men. - S. RADHAKRISHNAN.7 Here akatannu stands not for an ungrateful person but for one who knows the Nibbuna which is a-kata or uncreated and sandhiccheda also means not a thief' but one who has cut the knots of rebirth'. At another place we find the Buddha saying jocularly that the ajjhayakas (Sk. adhyayaka) are so called as they do not meditate (a-jjhayaka-unmeditative). These puns and quibbles however have not raised to the status of synonyms and we do not find elsewhere in the Tipitaka the word akatannu used for the knower of the Nibbana' or the word Sandhiccheda used to mean "a liberated person'. 2.4. A Purposive twist effecting a shift in the Meaning: A bright example of this tendency is to be found at the beginning of Parajika. The Brahmin Veranjaka comes to the Buddha asking whether the latter is really a venayika, appagabbha, jegucchi4 etc. as his adversaries report him to be. The Buddha instead of rejecting the charge says that there is a way (pariyayo) by which even a righteous speaker can truly characrerize him as venayika etc. He then gives a different turn and a fresh and healthy interpretation of all these expressions, accepting the allegations to be true only in these specific meanings. Here the Buddha exploited the puas possible on the words venayika5 etc. But we do not find these expressions used eulogistically in the context of the Lord except in some very isolated instances like Upali-sutta (M. II p. 59), where venayika ('the averter or diverter of passions', Miss. I.B. HORNER) is used in praise of the Lord. 2.5. Establishment of the pseudo-etymological relation etc : The glowing example to illustrate this variety is the Dhaniya-sutta from the Sn. This is a 'poetical duel' (see JAYAVIKRAME. UCR. Vol. VIII. No. 2. p. 88)between the two chief interlocutors, the herdsman Dhaoiya and Lord Buddha; the one rejoicing in his worldly security and the other in his religious conviction. The Buddha used invariably the words of the herdsman either giving a slight twist to the meaning or revaluing them from a religious point of view. Thus when the heardsman expresses his satisfaction because he is a pakkodhano and duddhakhiro. The Lord tells him that he rejoices equally because he is exactly the opposite of it, i.e. akkodhano and vigatakhilo. This means that the Lord purposely twists pakkod hano (really intended for 'one who has cooked his rice' pakka todano so as to extract from it the 'excess of wrath or anger' (pa+kodbano), taking advantage of the fluctuation common in Pali, between Page #104 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 63 da-and-dha-. Again when the Dhaniya says proudly that he is 'self-supporting' (attavetanabhato'hamasmi), the Lord plays with the word bhata and negates that he is not the servant of any one. (nahan bhatako'smi kassaci). The poem Itself does not add a single synonym for anything that is referred to in it but is very important as it shows much material on which the Buddha re-interpreted many of the old terms giving at the same time an apparent phonetic support to the procedure adopted. The fluctuations between da and dha, ra and la, the change of quantity of vowels (i.e. khira becoming khila), the intentional play on words like kuti and bhatta and such other things were the material with which the Lord built newer etymological structures. The khettajina is apparently derived at one place (Sn. Sabhiyasutta, p. 348) from viceyya (equated with vijeyya) and khetta philosophically conceived as a vast (bramha) khetta of the human (manusaka) and divine (dibba) types khettani viceyya kevalani dibbam manusakan ca bramhakhettam sabhakhettamulabandhana pamutto khettajino tudi pavuccate tathatta Such fragmentary etymologies abound in Pali.. 2.6. Synonymous Usage along with such etymologies : In this fourth stage the word freshly etymologised is used in that particular sense but is still invariably accompanied with the particular fresh etymology. Thus for example Ye brahmana bahita papadhamma. Here the tone appears slightly diffident in the sense that a fear lurks in the mind of the user of the term Brahmana, that it might be erroneously understood in its older convention and hence is the haste of adding the newly established convention on the basis of the fresh etymology. This stage marks the process of synonym-making almost near completion, yet in need of a foot note like or paraphrasal explanation as for instance these brahmanas, that is to say, those who have expelled their evils' etc. 2.7. Purely Synonymous Usage of the New Etymological Definitions : This is a final and finished stage. The user can confidently use the terms brahmana, nhataka etc. purely in their newer etymological significations. This, we saw. Anganikabharaddaja did (supra. 0.1). Now, in course of time, this newer etymological sense gained currency at such an extent that it became necessary to point out at some place that the word Brahmana used in their context was intended to denote a brahmin caste and not as usual bahitapapatta. Thus we read at Parajika p. 222. id ha brahmano'ti jatiya brahmano ti vuttam hoti [Trans. Here in this particular Vinayic context the word brahmana denotes 'a brahmin by caste.') Page #105 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 64 3.0 At this point, it will be proper, to discuss in brief, the term Nibbacana which is used all through the argument. Nibbacana has only one sense in Pali viz. etymology (rather derivation). It is a recognized mode of explaining a term and a concept, the commentators often use. The word dukkha is usually given as a stock example of this nibbacanic mode of explication. (See Vism, 494 (Roman) where BUDDHAGHOSA derives it it from du (bad, woeful) kha (akasa or space). The cognate term of nibbacana is nirruti which has such different usage as a vedanga, pronunciation dialect etc. (s. v. PTSD). It, of course, does mean in some contexts etymological interpretation', but this usage is relatively infrequent. When Atthasalini enumerate three dukas (1306-1308 viz. adhivacana, nirutti and pannatti) the reference is definitely to the etymological meaning'. The expositor (I.p. 69) explains the nirutti with a citation from S.III.87 (Roman) abhisamkharot'ti kho bhikkhave tasma samkhara'. [Trans.. samkharas are those states which compose what is compound]. A characteristic of the nirutti is explained in words evam niddharetva sahetukam katva ruccamana abhilapa nirutti nama (ibid) [Trans. Etymology is the derivation of words expressed together with the reason in word definition. MAUNG TIN] The nirutti thus explains the reason why the term is so called. The reason is of course etymological, i.e. derivational). In the definition of the nirutti the hetu is specifically mentioned and in the given example the hetu is expressly mentioned. But this should not be construed to mean that for being a proper nirutti the hetu must always be explicitly stated. It is stated in such examples as samitatta hi papanam tasma samano'ti vuccati' while it is implied in the rest of the cases. The students of YASKA'S Nirukta will recall that YASKA while stating the derivations invariably proceeds with asking kasmat, i.e, why a particular thing is so called? V. K. RAJAVADE has discussed at great length this peculiarity in YASKA'S method [see his Ed. of Nir. pp. CX(XLV), CXI(XLV), CXII (XLVI) CXIII(XLVI). CXIV (XLVI-XLVII)]. He has also noted that YASKA has used kasmat after 42 derivable words, two of which are in the Maharastra recension. DURGA'S comment on the word tasmat in this context, is also notable. Yesu abhidhananirvacanaprarambhakesu acaryah kasmat-sabdam uttararatra na kuryat tesu api vyakhyakale ayam samut padyah | tatha hi vyakhyasakalyam bhavati / In short, the word kasmat asking for the reason in the word derivation is very essential according to DURGA. He advises us to supply it wherever YASKA has not explicitly stated it." 3.1. To continue, the expositor comments that really speaking there is not much difference in meaning between three dukas, viz. adhivacana, nirutti and pannatti (see Expositor I.p.69). This is very right. The Mohavicchedini (Abhidhammamatika'tthavannana, p.111) further points out that the three dukas though converging in the meaning are yet stated differently only with a view to pointing out the difference in their origin and purpose. (Read. na Page #106 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 65 hi adhivacana-nirutti-panhattisu atthato koci bhedo atthi, nipphatti-nimittabhe. dadassanattham pana nesam vibhagenapadattho dassito. The point which the Expositor wants to make is that when a word is given as a synonym of another word, the adhivacana marks its adhikara, the nirutti points out its derivation, and the panhatti, its signifying mode. This is why an amalgamation of the usage of these terms is perceptible as for example A.IV. 88-89 sukhassetam adhivacanam yadidam punnani where subhasse'sa pahhatti can also be thought of. [The Expositor.I.p.69 says 'terms, signifying (one and the same idea) in various ways, e.g. takka, vitakka, sankappa, are called 'ex... pressions' (=nirutti)'. Here adhivacana and nirutti converge in meaning.] 3.2 Comparison of Adhivacanas and Niruttis : The formal distinction between the two is that the former is presented usually in the form 'B' is the adhivacana of A' (i.e. amukasse'tam adhivacanan) while the latter is generally introduced with 'tasma amuko'ti vuccati'. A more vital difference between the two pertains to their origin. The adhi. vacanas have their stand primarily on metaphors while the niruttis or nibba. cana are based on the slender phonetic semblance between the nibbacaniyas and the nibbacanas. In other words the adhivacanas acquire their status of synonyms through metaphorization while niruttis do it through some pseudo etymological relations. The differences between the two can be still more exactly stated by subjecting them to a specific difference under the generic heading of 'metaphoric activity'. (Here, the phrase 'metaphoric activity' is to be understood in its etymo. logical meaning, meta, - a change and phora - a motion. A change in the motion is the resultant where the motion is of course to be conceived as semantic rather than a physical one). The following diagram will clarify the position : Vocable Change in the Meaning Modus operandi (a) Kantaka(=a thorn) (piyarupa & satarupa Metaphorization (pleasant and agree. able) (b) B(b)rahmana bahita papa Etymologization (A Brahmin by (a sinless person) based on pseudocaste) metaphor or pun. 4.0 The preceding discussion can be summed up with the following remarks: 4.1 The Buddha in his reformative zeal wanted to revalue many of the old terms like brahmana, nhataka, samana etc. This was a socio-religious ideal. He tried to achieve this by means of fresh interpretations (etymo. logical and otherwise) and presented many stipulative definitions in the course of his discourses, Page #107 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 66 4.2 Some justification for the new interpretations was thought essential and he adduced reasons for the peculiar interpretations he offered. The arguments were of the popular etymological type (sahetukam katva vacanan. The way for such a procedure was always paved by the vast Brahmana Lit. and more especially by the Nirukta school of etymological exegesis. 4.3 These etymologies need not be examined scientifically as the Buddha never set before himself the task of supplying scientific etymologies. His interest in the language was pragmatical. He looked at the words only as means to convey the ethico religious import of his teachings. There are places in the Canon (see Db, verses 266, 268, 270 etc.) where the Buddha even shows a disapproval of true etymologies. To illustrate, it appears in Buddha's times the word arya was connected by the then etymologists to the V (to attach) from which perhaps we have a cogpate in ari(attacker, an enemy). But the Buddha, a staunch non-violent as he was, could not concede to this and in bold defiance to the then prevalent ideas he said 'na tena ariyo hoti yena panani himsati [Trans. A man is not noble (or elect) because he injures living creatures. S. RADHAKRISHNAN] and we in Pali the word ariya derived from ara (far off), meaning one who keeps himself far off from violence or depravities. [At A. IV. 145. (Roman) we have ari hatta ariyo hoti and a little later arakatta kilesanam...etc.) . 4.4 Thus, it can be appreciated that, after all, the Buddha did not misetymologise certain words as he re-etymologised them. The re-etymologising was achieved through a skilful employment of puns (pseudo metaphors), a poetic quality which POTEBNJA recognises under the name 'inner etymo. logy'. The purning unlike other tropes, is not merely a confrontation or a mecbanical sum of juxtaposed terms. It is 'Energy' in the Aristotalian sense. The Buddha is to be credited with the authorship of such 'inner etymologies.' 4.5 Following the footsteps of the Lord, the commentators perfected this art and we read the following from the VA (Samantapasudika) about the brahmana; Bramham anati'ti brabmano, mante sajjhayati'ti attho / idameva hi jalibramhananam niruttivacanam | Ariya fana hahitapa patta brahmana ti vuccanti Thus the vocable B(b)rahmana, to use the words of Balley, is "homonymes etymologiques' (two different words having the same sound). Brahmana has two derivations in Pali, one Brabmanical and the other Buddhistic. In most of the contexts the words ariya, brahmana etc, are to be understood in their Buddhistic derivations (Ariya nirutti) alone 4.6 When the Buddha derived purindada from pure pure danam adasi so called because he gave gifts from town to town or as 'pure danam adasi he was a giver of alms in the past. This alone is to be accepted as a right Page #108 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ etymology in the Buddhist context. For if we relate it to the Vedic puramdara and mark purindada as a mere distorted form of puramdara (vide PTSD s.v. purimdada we are missing some thing very important. In the first place, we of Indra are ignoring the complete metamorphosis in the character as is depicted in the Pali canon. If the deeds and character change, the names and epithets must also change and if these change, their significations should also change, the names then, are to be derived independently and diffe rently. What relevancy puramdara can have in Pali where there no more remain fortresses of the non-Aryans to be destroyed. The relevancy is only of the appraisal of Dana which elevates one to the position of purimdada. Puramdara is Vedic, puramdada is Buddhist. Thus, there is a real 'morphological diversity' for if they have a difference in meanings it is because they are different persons altogether. 4.7. One can go a still further and insist that it is not always wise to translate the Bhikkhu in oft-repeated 'sunatha bhikkhave' with an assiduously pointed reference to the original etymological sense of the word of 'begging alms', 'Oh, ye, almsmen' was never the address of the Buddha. Begging of alms is after all a very minor thing, recommended only for the subsistence.. The Buddha, always, looked at his men as those philosophers who not unlike him, saw peril in the existence (the bhikkhu being derived from bhi (fear, peril)+ikkhu (=one who sees), (samsare bhayamikkhati'ti bhikkhu, adinavadassavi). So now there will be always this tussle, for the etymologist will always say a bhikkhu (=a beggar) is 'one who begs' (bhikkhat'ti bhikkhu) and the Dhammapada will always insist, A na tena bhikkhu so hoti yavata bhikkhate pare | vissam dhammam samadaya bhikkhu hoti na tavata 67 (Trans. He is not a mendicant simply because he begs others (for alms). Receiving stale things, he does not become a mendicant thereof.) Shall we be justified in sticking to the historical etymological meaning of the word bhikkhu, disregarding completely all that Lord wanted to convey through this word ? Below is given a register of only a few important words, peculiarly derived in the Pali canoncial and commentorial literature. References to their actual occurances can be found out from PTSD which also gives the peculiar etymologies of these words. ajhayaka anuvidita araha ariya ajaniya kusala khettajina caranava tathagata tevijja naga nahataka (nhataka) paribbajaka pandita brahmana bhikkhu bhunahu loka viriyava vedagu venayika samana sabbaji sottiya Page #109 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 68 NOTES 1. For this see What is Language ? A new approach to Linguistic Description by ROBERT M.W. DIXON..1966 p. EUR6. 2. We should say Brahmana=cf. bahitapapadhamma. 3. See also DA I. P. 70'Samano'ti Bhagavato samitapapataya laddhavoharo. The Jain Agamas also give their own etymologies of Samana. (a) Samamanai tena so samano (Thananga.3) (b) So samano jai sumano bhavena jai na hoi pavamano (ibid.6) (c) Samayae samano hoi (Uttarajjhayana 25,31) See also Abhidhanarajendrakosa which gives some more as sama anati iti etc. 4. appagabbha (=unobtrusive, free from boldness) occurs in the Vajasaneyi-Samhita as : apagalbha vyrddhyai apagalbham; Jegucchi (=one who detests or avoides); bhunahu (=puritanical), 5. This mode of interpretation is very much alike what the Sanskrit rhetoricians choose to call slesa vakrokil, See MAMMATA'S Kavyaprakasa IX, the very first verse, yadukramanyatha vakyamanyathanyena yojyate vakroktistatha dvidha // (Trans : When what is said by one person in one sepse and is construed by another person in a different sense either through punning or through intonation, it is Equivoque 6. To-day what we have before us is only the written record of the Pali Canon. We do not know in what way the words used to be pronounced. But when the commen. tator (DA-I.p. 146.) derived araha or arahanta as (kilesarupanam ar nam hatatra) (=a killer of the enemies in the form of deprivities) he had very probably the Support of the then prevalant pronunciation. The contemporary Jain Prakrit was already saying arihanta (namo arihantanam..) See also A.IV. 145 arakatta kilesanan, armann hatatta araha -hoti. Again when the loka is derived at S.IV, 52 from lusia. et is because, as is suggested by LUDERS, the form in the Eastern Canon must have been loga (voiced-g-) and not loka, Lujjati kho, bhikkhu, tasma loko'ri vuccati. The voiced-j- suggests the voiced -- (Trans : It crumbles away, brethren. Therefore, it is called 'the world') See Beobachtungen uben die sprache des Buddhistischen urkanons. Berlin 1954. p.66. 7. See also the derivation of duhkha given by BHATTAKSIRASVAMIN in his gloss on Amarakosa-dustani khani asmin iti. The derivations are many times definitions aiming at giving in nut-shell the aspects of the thing defined (or derived the aspects as implied in that particular science or tradition, Mark the Vedanta-way of deriving the word alman, 'Yaccapnoti yadadatte yaccatti visayaniha / etc. It is from this point of view that we have to understand the derivation-cum-definitions of words like Bhagava or Bhagavanta (NDI. 142=ND, 466; Vism. 210 sq; DA.I. 32.sq.) 8. There is a common complaint about the Niruktic and the Buddhistic derivations, namely, that both these traditions present not one but many (alternative) derivations of a word,-a procedure which makes each derivation doubtful. I refrain from say. ing anything about tha Niruktic derivations. But when the Pali commentators give many derivations, they do not mean these as possible or probable alternatives. They sincerely mean all these derivations, and they have some definite canoncial support for this. For, on many occasions, the canon itself tells us that the word is true in two or more senses of the term. Take, for example, the word Tathagata. T. W. RHYS DAVIDS ahd STEDE grumble (s.v, P.T.S.D.) 'BUDDHAGHOSA (DAI. 59-67) gives eight explanations showing that there was no fixed tradition on that point, and that be bimself was in doubt. But we have only to remember that in she Lokasutta (Itiv.) Page #110 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Buddha himself has suggested four such derivations of Tathagata. In Thag. verse. 490. Sarabhang also sugaests Yeneva maggena gato vipassi...tenanjasen agamasi Gotamo'. Do we complain against the modern speaker if in his speech he says that the word is true in both the senses of the term or all the senses of the term? Then that what does it matter if the Buddha and following him, the Buddhist commentators say a particular word is true in many of the senses of that term? There is one more thing. Sometimes a thing or a person is called by the same name by one for one reason and by other for another reason. The poet-Thera Vangisa said that some called him Vangisa because he was born in Bengal and some because he was 'master, of speech (vaca vanga). Read Vange Jato'ti Vangiso, vacane issaro'ti va Vangiso iti me nama abhavi (vi) lokasammatam || 9. Although through-out this discussion the word 'etymology' has been used, it is possible to argue that in-many cases what we find is not an etymology but etiology (Gr. aitia cause). Etiology is 'an assignment of a cause or reason for a custom, a name, an object etc, The Pali sahetukam vacanam katva and the Sanskrit kasmat used invariably by YASKACARYA while presenting the derivations also point out this etiological aspect. The derivations are supposed to be the explanations or reasons why a thing or a person etc. is called by a particular name. 10. But read C. E, GODGE. UCR. Vol. III No. I, p. 49. The earlier meaning of the word 'Purandara' and 'purabhid' was forgotten and a new meaning was attached to the mispronounced word 'purindada, 'Purindada' is thus to be regarded as a distorted form of Vedic 'Purandara'. See alsa GEIGER, PLL 44.3 and Saddaniti. pp, 506-507. Tattha Sakko'ti devaraja, so hi atthanam sahassam pi muhuttena cintanasamatthataya sa-para-hitam katum sakkoti'ti Sakkoti vuccati; annatra pana dhatunama visaye taddhitavasena 'sakkaccam danam adasi'ti sakko'ti evam pi attham gahetva sakkasaddo niruttinayena sadhetabbo, vuttam hi Bhagavata (S. I. 230) Sakko. Mahali, devanam indo, pubbe manussabhuto sakkacam danam adasi, tasma Sakko'ti vuccati'. A D DA Dh anigo Itiv M Nd1 Nd2 PLL P,T.S.D. S Sn Thag Thig UCR VA Vism - - - - www - - - Anguttaranikaya Dighanikaya Dighanikaya-atthakatha Dhammapada Dhammapada atthakatha Itivuttaka Majjhimanikaya Mahaniddesa Culaniddesa 69 Suttanipata Theragatha Pali Language and Literature (W.E. GEIGER) Pali English Dictionary by T W RHYS DAVIDS and STEDE Samyuttanikaya Therigatba Univercity of Ceylon. Vinaya atthakatha a Visuddhimagga References from Saddaniti are to the page numbers of HELMER SMITH'S ed, of the text. Page #111 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 14. prAkRta tathA apabhraMza kA aitihAsika vikAsa DA0 devendrakumAra zAstrI prAcIna bhAratIya AryabhASAoM ke vikAsa krama meM prAkRta tathA apabhraMza bhASAoM kA mahatvapUrNa yoga rahA hai / ye bhASAeM vibhinna yugoM meM bolI tathA bhASAoM meM hone vAle parivartanoM kI saMsUcaka | DA0 caTarjI ne ThIka hI kahA hai ki vaidika zabda yA saMskRta, prAkRta aura bhASA kA prayoga saMkSipta aura suvidhA ke lie tathA bhAratIya AryabhASAoM kI tIna avasthAoM ke lie kiyA gayA hai, aura " prAkRta" tathA "bhASA" ke madhya meM saMkramaNa * zIla avasthA jo ki prAkRta yA mabhAA kI hI eka aMga thI, suvidhA kI dRSTi se apabhraMza kahI jAtI hai' / prAkRta zabda kA artha aura usakI vyApti DA0 jArja griyarsana, vAkaranAgala, ricarDa pizela aura pro0 enTone maileTa prAbhRta bhASAvaijJAnikoM ne vaidika yuga kI prAdezika coliyoM ke vikAsa se zilAlekhoM kI prAkRta tathA sAhityika prAkRtoM kA udbhava evaM vikAsa mAnA hai / vaidika yuga kI prAkRta boliyoM ko prAcIna yA prAthamika prAkRta (2,000 I0pU0 - 5,00 I0 pU0 ) nAma diyA gayA hai / DA0 griyarsana ke zabdoM meM azoka (250 I. pU.) ke zilAlekhoM tathA maharSi pataMjali (150 I. pU.) ke granthoM se yaha jJAta hotA hai ki I. pU. tosarI zatAbdI meM uttara bhArata meM AyakI vividha boliyoM se yukta eka bhASA pracalita thI / janasAdhAraNa kI nitya vyavahAra kI isa bhASA kA kramAgata vikAsa vastutaH vaidika yuga kI bolacAla kI bhASA se huA thA / isake samAnAntara ho inhIM boliyoM meM se eka bolI se brAhmaNoM ke prabhAva dvArA eka gauNabhASA ke rUpa meM laukika saMskRta kA vikAsa huaa| zrI pITarsana ne apane lekha meM batAyA hai ki prAkRta vaha saMskRta hai jise yahAM ke AdivAsI loga azuddha uccAraNa ke rUpa meM bolate the / kintu jArja griyarsana una se sahamata nahIM haiM / unakA spaSTa kathana hai ki prAkRta kA artha hai-naisargika evaM akRtrima bhASA / isake viparIta saMskRta kA artha hai- saMskAra kI huI tathA kRtrima bhASA / saMskRta se prAkRta sadA bhinna rahI hai / prAkRta bola-cAla kI bhASA tho / bhASA kA svabhAva Aja bho prAkRta hai isalie usa ke svabhAva ko prakRti kahate haiM / prAkRta zabda prakRti se niSpanna huA hai / prAkRta zabda kA mukhya artha svAbhAvika hai / prAkRta lagabhaga tIna sahasrAbdiyoM aura usake pUrva kI bola-cAla kI bhASA rahI hai / bhASA-vijJAna meM sAhityika bhASA ko bhASA kahA jAtA hai / jisameM koI sAhitya racanA nahIM ko jAtI, jo kevala maukhika rUpa se pracalita rahatI hai use bolI kahate haiM / paramparA 1 - caTarjI, sunItikumAra : da orijana enDa DevalapamenTa 2- griyarsana, sara jArja abrAhama : bhArata kA bhASA sarvekSaNa, Ava da beMgAlI laiMgveja, kalakattA vi0 vi0, 1926, pR017 anu. -DA. udayanArAyaNa tivArI, 1959, pR. 224 se uddhRta Page #112 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ gata rUpa se bhASA aura bolI donoM hI apane-apane rUpoM meM pravartamAna rahatI haiM / bhASA hameM sAhitya se sIkhane ko milatI hai aura bolI mAM-bApa tathA jana samAja se / hamAre bolane aura likhane kI bhASA meM prAyaH antara rahatA hai| bolane meM hama asAvadhAnI aura zithilatA bhI barata lete haiM, kintu likhane meM saMyama aura sAdhu bhASA ke prayoga kA dhyAna rakhate haiM / sAdhu tathA saMyata bhASA ke pakSapAtI ziSTajana svAbhAvika bhASA yA bolI ko gaMvArU yA ujjaDa logoM kI bhASA samajhate cale A rahe haiM / ise ve apazabdoM se bharita tathA apabhraSTa bhI mAnate haiM / bhASAvida sTenalI raMDale kA yaha kathana ucita hI hai ki bolI ke sambandha meM bar3A bhrama phailA huA hai / loga samajhate haiM ki coliyAM loka sAhitya ke rUpa meM pracalita banI huI haiM, kintu ve asaMgata rUpa haiM aura kevala adhyayana kI vastu haiM / ataeva adhikatara logoM kI dRSTi meM bolI mAnaka bhASA (Standard Language) kA atikramaNa hai / pratyeka deza kI koI na koI mAnaka bhASA hoto hai / ura mAnaka bhASA ke apabhraMza ko bolI samajhA jAtA hai / kArnavAla aura skATalainDa logoM ke viSaya meM kahA jAtA hai ki ve mAnaka aMgrejI kI tor3a-maror3a kara bolate haiN'| TakaggalI, Adarza yA mAnaka bhASA sadA sthira nahIM rahatI / yuga-yugoM meM ghaTita hone vAle parivartanoM ke bIca bhASA kA svarUpa bhI parivartita hotA rahatA hai / lagabhaga eka zatAbdI ke pUrva jo khar3I bolI lokanATyoM tathA svAMgoM ke rUpa meM pracalita tho vaha Aja bhASA hI nahIM rASTrabhASA bhI hai| isalie a"ja ke bhASA-rUpa kI racanA meM pahale ke bhASika rUpa se bahuta bhinnatA hai / isase yaha bhI spaSTa hai ki Adhunika yuga kI boliyAM samprati svIkRta mAnaka yA Adarza bhASA-rUpa kA atikramaNa nahIM hai / boliyoM kA bhI apanA itihAsa hai| ve kaI zatAbdiyoM ke antarAla meM phaila kara apanA vikAsa karato haiM / boliyoM ke vikAsa kI yaha eka prakriyA hai jo kisI eka deza meM nahIM, varan saMsAra kI sabhI boliyoM ke sambandha meM ghaTita huI hai| yahI prakriyA saMskRta ke sAtha ghaTita huI, jo eka kRtrimapUrNa sAhityika bhASA thii| prAkRtika boliyoM ko prAkRta kahA jAtA thA / yadyapi te saMskRta-sAhitya se prabhAvApanta rahIM. kinta unhoMne apane apane sAhitya kA svayaM nirmANa kiyA / ve saMskRta kA bhraSTa rUpa nahIM thiiN| hamAre jovana kI vAstavikatA sahaja rUpa meM bolI ke mAdhyama se niHsRta hotI hai / ataeva AMcalika vAtAvaraNa ke citraNa meM kSetrIya bolI kA prayoga karanA Avazyaka ho jAtA hai| yahI sthiti saMskRta-kAla meM prAkRta kI thI / bhAratIya itihAsa ke gapta-yaga meM rAjadaravAroM meM prAkata nATikAoM, saTTakoM ke abhinaya ke sAtha jaba saMskRta nATakoM ke abhinaya bhI kie jAne lage, taba saMskRta nATakoM meM prAkRta kA samAveza anivArya ho gayA / kyoMki sAmAnya rga ke loga prAkRta ho bolate-samajhate the / isake lie vaiyAkaraNoM ko vizeSa prayatna karane par3e / yathArtha meM usa yuga ke saMskRka vaiyAkaraNoM ko saMskRta bhASA ko prAkata meM DhAlane ke lie vizeSa niyama banAne pdd'e| isa kAraNa prAkRta zabdAvalI meM tor3a-maroDa bhI huI aura Age cala kara ve prAkRta-apabhraMza kahalAI jo vAstava meM bolI 1-draSTavya : vilsana, grehama (saM) : e liMgvisTika rIDara, 1967, pR. 86 2-vahI, pR. 87 Page #113 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ thiiN| ina prAcIna bhAratIya AryabhASAoM ke adhyayana se yaha spaSTa pratIta hotA hai ki jaba taka saMskRta yA vaidika bhASA loka jIvana aura loka-boliyoM ko AtmasAt karatI rahI, taba taka barAbara usa meM vikAsa hotA rahA kintu jaba vaha zAstrIya niyamoM meM bhalIbhAMti Abaddha ho gaI, tabhI usakA vikAsa ruka gayA / isase jahAM vaha vANI amara ho gaI vahIM usakA pravAha avaruddha hogayA aura vaha mRtabhASA ke nAma se abhihita kI gii| yathArtha meM saMskRta ko amaratva rUpa mahaSi pANini ne pradAna kiyaa| unake pUrva kI saMskRta bhASA ke vyAkaraNika rUpoM meM atyanta vividhatA thI / DA. pusAlakara kA kathana hai ki bhAratIya purANoM kI bhASAviSayaka aniyamitatAoM ko dekhate hue yaha lakSita kiyA gayA hai ki jana boliyoM se prabhAvApanna saMskRta ke ye purANa Adhe ke lagabhaga prAkRtatva ko liye hue haiM / isa se yahI samajhA jAtA hai ki maulika rUpa meM ye purANa prAkRta meM likhe gaye the, jinheM haThAt saMskRta meM anUdita kiyA gayA / prAkRtika pravRtti kA prabhAva vaidika granthoM taka meM prApta hotA hai / paravarto kAla meM sahaja rUpa se prAkRtoM kA prabhAva dhArmika granthoM, mahAkAvyoM aura purANoM para bhI lakSita hotA hai / prAcInatama bhASA likhita bhASA ke rUpa meM saMsAra kA prAcInatama pramANa Rgveda hai / yadyapi prAcIna pATha-paramparA ke anuvartana se vedoM ke mUla rUpa kA rakSaNa hotA rahA hai, kintu bhASA vaijJAnika yaha mAnate hai kI racanA kisI eka samaya meM aura eka vyakti ke dvArA na ho kara vibhinna yugoM meM saMkalita huI hai / vaidika racanAeM purohita-sAhitya haiM / "Rgveda ripoTI. zansa" meM blUmaphIlDa ne spaSTa rUpa se batAyA hai ki Rgveda meM lagabhaga eka cauthAI se bhI adhika pAda-punarAvarta huA hai / Rgveda ke prathama maNDala aura dazama maNDala kI bhASA meM bhI antara lakSita hotA hai| aitahAsika dRSTi se Rgveda kI racanA evaM saMkalanA kA samaya 1200 I0 pU0-1000 I. pU. ke lagabhaga mAnA jAtA haiM / isa kAla se sAhityika paramparA satata evaM avicchinna rahI hai aura bhAratIya AryabhASA kA kramika vikAsa vibhinna avasthAoM meM vividha rUpoM meM samAhita ho kara vistRta huA hai / TI. baro ke anusAra Rgveda 1000 I. pa. ke lagabhaga aura avestA 600 I. pU. ke lagabhaga kI racanAe~ haiM / IrAnI bhASA kI prAcIna sthiti kA pratinidhitva avestA tathA prAcIna phArasI sAhitya ke dvArA kiyA jAtA haiM aura ye ho grantha vaidika saMskRta kI tulanA ko dRSTi se atyadhika mahatva ke haiM / jarathu. strIya dharma ke matAnusAra avestA una ke dvArA surakSita pavitra lekhoM kA prAcIna saMgraha hai, 1-vilsana, grehama (saM) : e liMgvisTiksa rIDara, nyUyArka,1967 meM prakAzita sTenalI runDale ke prakAzita nibandha 'laiMgveja eNDa DAyalekTa', pR. 87 se uddhRta In fact the grammarians of the day developed special rules for turning Samskirt into Prakrit, so that real Prakrit tended to be lost to the written language and the literary Prakrit became a definite mutilation of Samskrit. (p. 87) 2- e. DI. pusAlakara : veyara da purANAja orijanalI ina prAkRta, AcArya dhrava smAraka grantha. bhAga 3, gujarAta vidyAsabhA, ahamadAbAda, pR0 103 3-draSTavya -baro, TI. : da saMskRta laiMgveja, hindI anu., pR. 43 Page #114 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ aura isa ke AdhAra para vaha bhASA bhI avestA (bhASA) kahalAtI hai| yaha korAsmiyA pradeza meM pracalita pUrvA IrAnI vibhASA jAna par3atI hai / bhAratIya Arya kI pazcimI boliyAM kucha viSayoM meM IrAnI se sAmya rakhatI thI / pro. entvAn meyaye ne Rgveda kI sAhityika bhASA kA mUla sImAnta pradeza kI eka pazcimI bolI ko hI nirdiSTa kiyA hai / pazcima kI isa bolI meM 'la' na ho kara kevala 'ra' thaa| kintu saMskRta aura pAli meM 'ra' aura 'la' donoM the / tIsarI meM 'ra' na ho kara kevala 'la' hI thA, jo sambhavataH sudUrapUrva kI bolI thii| isa pUrvI bolI kI pahuMca AryoM ke prasAra tathA bhASA viSayaka vikAsa ke dvitIya yuga ke pahale-pahala hI Adhunika pUrvI - uttara pradeza aura bihAra ke pradezoM taka ho gaI thii| yahI pUrvI prAkRta tathA uttarakAlIna mAgadhI prAkRta banI / isa meM 'ra' na ho kara kevala 'la' thaa| vastutaH eka hI yuga kI ye tIna taraha kI boliyAM thIM, jo paravartI kAla meM vibhinna rUpoM meM parivartita hotI rahIM / Age cala kara vibhinna jAtiyoM ke samparka ke kAraNa ina meM aneka prakAra ke mizraNa bho hue / asIrI-bAbilonI se Agata vaidika bhASA meM kaI zabda milate haiM / jahAM taka phinno-ugrI ke sAtha prAcIna bhArata-IrAnI ke samparka kA sambandha hai, isa sambandha meM adhika pramANa upalabdha haiM tathA una kA vizleSaNa karanA adhika sarala hai / bhArata IrAnI kAla ke pUrva bhI bhAropIya tathA phinno-ugrI meM samparka hone ke pramANa milate haiM / ina bhASAoM meM zabdoM kA AdAna-pradAna donoM dizAoM meM rahA hogA / . .. vaidika, avestA aura prAkRta vaidika kAla se hI spaSTa rUpa se bhASAgata do dhArAeM parilakSita hotI haiM / ina meM se prathama chAndas yA sAhitya kI bhASA thI aura dUsarI janavANI yA lokabhASA thI / isa ke spaSTa pramANa hameM avestA, niya prAkRta tathA sarvaprAcIna zilAlekhoM kI bhASA meM upalabdha hote haiM / pAli-sAhitya ko bhASA ke adhyayana se bhI yaha nizcita ho jAtA hai ki usa samaya taka kucha hI bhASAeM tathA bhASAgata rUpa parimArjita ho sake the| usa samaya kI vividha boliyAM apariSkRta dazA meM hI thIM / Rgveda meM vibhinna prAkRta boliyoM ke lakSaNa milate haiM / udAharaNa ke lie, prAkRta boliyoM meM prArambha se hI 'R' varNa nahIM thA / ataeva saMskRta vyAkaraNa kI racanA ko dekhakara prAkRta-vyAkaraNa kA vidhAna kiyA gayA, taba yaha kahA gayA ki saMskRta 'R' ke sthAna para prAkRta bhASA meM 'a', 'i' yA 'u' Adeza ho jAtA hai / yaha Adeza zabda hI batAtA hai ki prAkRta boliyAM kisa prakAra sAhitya meM Dhala rahI thiiN| vyAkaraNa banane ke pUrva kI bhASA aura bolo meM paravartI bhASA aura bolI se atyanta bhinnatA lakSita hotI hai / vedoM kI kaI RcAoM meM 'kRta' ke lie 'kaDa', 'vRta' ke lie 'vuDa tathA 'mRta' ke lie 'maDa' zabda prayukta milate haiM / 'pAia-sadda-mahaNNavo' kI bhUmikA meM aise teraha viziSTa lakSaNoM kA vivecana kiyA gayA hai, jina se vaidika aura 1-vahoM, pR. 6 2-caTarjI, DA. sunotikumAra : bhAratIya AryabhASA aura hindI, dvi. saM., 1957, pR. 63 3-draSTavya-caTarjI sunItikumAra : bhAratIya AryabhASA aura hindI, dvi0, saM0, 1957, pR0 41 4-TI0 baro : da saMskRta : laiMgveja, hindI anuvAda, pR0 30 Page #115 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 74 prAkRta bhASo meM sAmya parilakSita hotA hai| vaidika aura prAkRta bhASA meM kucha aisI samAna pravRttiyAM milatI haiM, jo laukika saMskRta meM prApta nahIM hotoM / zrI vI. je. cokaso ne ina donoM meM kaI samAna pravRttiyoM kA nirdeza kiyA hai' / vedoM kI bhAMti avestA kI bhASA aura prAkatoM meM kacha sAmAnya pravRttiyAM samAna rUpa se pAI jAtI haiM (1) saMskRta kA antya 'as', avestA meM 'o' dekhA jAtA hai / (2) avestA, prAkRta aura apabhraMza meM svara ke pazcAt svara kA prayoga pracalita rahA hai / kintu vaidika aura saMskRta meM eka zabda meM eka sAtha do svaroM kA prayoga nahIM milatA / .. (3) avestA meM eka hI zabda kaI rUpoM meM milatA hai, yathA : Ayu, ayu, hamo, hAmo ; prAkRta apabhraMza meM bhI isa taraha ke zabda-rUpa vipula mAtrA meM milate haiM / ....... (4) lhamana ne prAgbhAropIya dhvani-prakriyA kA vicAra karate hue nirdiSTa kiyA hai ki vyatirekI dhvaniprakriyAtmaka prAmANika srotoM kA nizcaya karane meM eka AkSarika apazruti bhI haiN| sAmAnya rUpa se svaradhvani ke parivartana ko apazruti kahate haiM / apazruti mAtrika aura guNIya donoM prakAra kI kahI gaI hai / prAgbhAropIya dhvani-prakriyA meM eka pada-grAma meM vividha svaraH dhvani-grAmoM ke parivartana sabhI bhAropIya boliyoM meM lakSita hote haiM aura yahI kAraNa hai ki ve boliyAM mAropIya bhASA kI mUla strota haiN| (5) azoka ke zilAlekhoM tathA pAli granthoM ke mUla aMzoM meM R aura lU svara upalabdha nahIM hote / vaidika kAlIna boliyoM kI vikasita avasthA meM ghoSabhAva kI prakriyA kA patA bhI yahAM se lagatA hai / avestA meM kahIM kahAM R ke sthAna para ra dikhalAI par3atA hai: yathA ratUm garamam daragam Adi / isakA kAraNa svarabhakti kahA jAtA hai / svarabhakti pAli, prAkRta aura apabhraMza meM bhI pAI jAtI hai| TI0 baro ke anusAra IrAnI meM bhArata-yUropIya ra, lU binA kisI bheda ra ke rupa meM milate haiM / Rgveda kI bhASA meM mukhyataH yahI sthiti hai / kintu vAstavikatA yahI hai ki IrAno, vaidika, saMskRta aura pAli-prAkRta meM lU aura r donoM milate haiM / Rgveda kI bhASA meM "ra" kA mukhyataH hone ke kAraNa yahI kahA jA sakatA hai ki Rgvaidika bolI kA mUlAdhAra uttara pazcimo pradeza meM thA, jaba ki zAstrIya bhASA madhya deza meM banI thI / ina donoM ko mUla vibhAjana isa taraha kA rahA hogA ki pazcimI vibhASA meM ra ThIka usI taraha lU ho jAtA hogA, jisa taraha IrAnI meM (kyoMki yaha IrAnI ke pAsa thI aura sAtha hI sambhavataH paravartI prasAra kI dhArA kA pratinidhitva karatI thI), jaba ki adhika pUrvo vibhASA mUla meda ko surakSita rakhe thI / sabhI prAkRta bhASAeM sAmAnya rupa se vyAkaraNika tathA kozIya pravRttiyoM meM vaidika bhASA kI zreNI meM haiM jina meM prApta hone vAlI vizeSatAeM saMskRta meM nahIM 1-vo0 je0 caukasI : da vivAgasuyam enDa kampereTiva prAkRta grAmara, ahamadAbAda, 1933 / 2-vinphreDa po0 lhemana : proTo-iNDo-yuropiyana phonolAjI, pA~cavAM saMskaraNa, 1966 pR. 12 3-TI0 baro: da saMskRta laiMgveja, anu0 DA0 bholAzaMkara vyAsa, 1965, vArANasI, pR0 98-99 Page #116 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ milatoM / ataeva prAkRta bhASAoM kI jo anviti madhyayugIna tathA navya bhAratIya Arya boliyoM se hai usase kama kisI prakAra vaidika se nahIM hai / isa prakAra avestA, vaidika aura prAkRta bhASAoM meM kucha bAtoM meM sAmya parilakSita hotA hai, jisa se ina bhASAoM meM eka anviti tathA ekarUpatA bhalI bhA~ti jAna par3atI hai prAkRta aura usakA itihAsa - tIrthakara mahAvIra ke yuga meM I0 pU0 600 ke lagabhaga 18 mahAbhASAeM aura 700 laghu bhASAeM (boliyA~) pracalita thiiN| una meM se jaina sAhitya meM prAdezika bhedoM ke AdhAra para Avazyaka, auSapAtika, vipAka, jJAtRdharmakathAMga, rAjapraznIya Adi AgamagranthoM tathA kukalayamAlAkahA evaM anya kAvyagranthoM meM aThAraha prakAra kI prAkRta boliyoM kA ullekha milatA hai / nizIthacUrNi meM aThAraha dezI bhASAoM se niyata bhASA ko arddhamAgadhI kahA gayA hai| udyotanasUri ne "kuvalayamAlAkahA" meM vistAra ke sAtha golla, magadha, antarvedi, kIra Dhakka, sindhu, maru, gurjara, lATa, mAlavA, karNATaka, tAjika, kozala aura mahArASTra prabhRti aThAraha dezIbhASAoM kA vivaraNa diyA hai, jo kaI dRSTiyoM se atyanta mahatvapUrNa hai / vedoM, smRtiyoM evaM paurANika sAhitya meM aneka sthAnoM para kahA gayA haiM ki loka meM kaI boliyAM bolI jotI haiM / ziSya ke anurUpa hI guru ko saMskRta, prAkRta tathA dezI bhASA Adi kA zikSaNa denA caahie| "svabhAvasiddha' ke artha meM "prAkRta' zabda kA ullekha zrImadbhAga. vata tathA liMgapurANa Adi purANoM meM lakSita hotA hai / " bharata kRta "gItAlaGkAra" meM saba se adhika 42 bhASAoM kA ullekha milatA haiM / una ke nAma haiM : mahArASTrI, kirAnI, mlecchI, somakI, colakI, kAMcI, mAlavI, kAzisambhavA, devikA, kuzAvarttA, sUrasenikA, vAMdhI, gurjarI, romakI, kAnamUsI, devakI, paMcapattanA, saindhavo, kauzikI, bhadrA, bhadrabhojikA, kuntala kozalA, pArA, yAvanI, kukurI, madhyadezI tathA kAmbojI, prabhRti / ye bayAlIsa prasiddha boliyAM thIM, jina meM gIta likhe jAte the / kisI yuga meM gItoM kA vizeSa pracalana thA / AcArya bharata muni ke samaya meM prAkRta ke gIta prazasta mAne jAte the / unhoMne dhruvA tathA gItiyoM evaM lokanATya ke prasaMga meM vividha vibhASAoM (boliyoM) kA varNana kiyA hai, jisa meM mAgadhI 1-Ara0 pizela : kampereTiva graimara Ava da prAkRta laiMgveja, anu0 subhadra jhA, dvi0 saM0, 1965, pR0 4-5 2-DA. jagadIzacandra jaina : jaina Agama sAhitya meM bhAratIya samAja, vArANasI, 1965 pR0, 304 3-"janaM bibhratI bahudhA vivAcasaM nAnAdharmANAM pRthivI yathaukasam / " -atharvaveda, kA, __ 12, a01, sU0 1-45 4- saMskRtaiH prAkRtaiH vAkyaiH ziSyamanurUpataH / . dezabhASAdhupAyaizca boghayet sa guru smRtaH // 5- vAlmIkirAmAyaNa, sundarakANDa, 30, 17, 19 "prAktaH kathitastveSaH puruSAdhiSThito mayA / "-liMgapurANa, 3, 39 ........ "vidhiH sAdhAraNo yatra sargAH prAkRtavaikRtAH / "-zrImadbhAgavata, a0 10 zloka046 Page #117 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 76 gItioM ko prathama sthAna diyA gayA hai / ' - ina gItiyoM ke vidhAna ko dekhakara aura mahAkavi kAlidAsa Adi kI racanAoM meM prayukta gItiyoM ko bahulatA se yaha nizcaya hue binA nahIM rahatA ki Adya loka-sAhitya gItiyoM meM nibaddha rahA hogA / maukhika rUpa meM gItiyoM kA pravana sahaja tathA sukara hai / "prAkRta" kA eka nizcita bhASA ke rUpa meM vistRta vivaraNa hameM A0 bharata muni ke "nATyazAstra" meM milatA haiM / prAkRta ke sambandha meM una kA vivaraNa isa prakAra hai : ... (1) rUpaka meM vAcika abhinaya ke lie saMskRta aura prAkRta donoM pAThya lokapracalita haiN| ina donoM meM kevala yahI antara hai ki saMskRta saMskAra (saMvArI) kI gayI bhASA hai aura prAkRta saMskArazUnya athavA asaMskRta bhASA hai / kumAra, Apizali Adi vaiyAkaraNoM ke dvArA jisa bhASA kA svarUpa niyata evaM sthira kara diyA gayA haiM vaha "saMskRta" hai kintu jo anapar3ha, dezI zabdoM se bharita evaM parivartanazIla hai vaha "prAkRta" hai / isa se yaha patA lagatA hai ki vAstava meM bhASA kA pravAha eka hI thA, kintu samaya kI dhArA meM hone vAle parivartanoM ke kAraNa prAkRta lokajIvana kA anusaraNa kara rahI thI, jabaki saMskRta vyAkaraNika niyamoM se anuzAsita thI / abhinavagupta ne "nATyazAstra" kI vivRti meM isI tathya ko spaSTa kiyA hai / * (2) A0 bharatamuni ne vaidika zabdoM se bharita bhASA ko atibhASA, saMskRta ko AryabhASA aura prAkRta ko jAtibhASA ke nAma se abhihita kiyA hai / jAtibhASA se una kA abhiprAya janabhASA se haiM / boliyoM ke rUpa meM spaSTa hI sAta taraha kI prAkRtoM kA nirdeza kiyA gayA hai / ina ke nAma haiM : mAgaghI, avantijA, prAcyA, zaurasenI, ardhamAgadhI, lhIka aura dAkSiNAtya / vAstava meM boliyoM ke ye bheda prAdezika AdhAra para kie gae haiM / "prAkRtakalpataru" meM bhI prathama stabaka meM zaurasenI, dvitIya stabaka meM prAcyA, AvantI, bAhIka, mAgadhI, ardhamAgadhI aura dAkSiNAtyA kA vivecana kiyA gayA hai / isa vivecana se yaha bhI spaSTa hotA hai ki mUla meM pazcimI aura pUrvI do prakAra ke bhASA-vibhAga the / boliyAM 1-nATyazAstra, 32, 431 / etadeva viparyastaM saMskAraguNavarjitam / vijJeyaM prAkRtaM pAThyaM nAnAvasthAntarAtmakam // nATyazAstra, a017, zlo0 2 "saMskRtameva saMskAraguNena yatnena parirakSaNarUpeNa varjita prAkRtaM, prakRterasaMskArarUpAyAH Agatam / nanvapadaMzAnAM ko niyama ityAha nAnAvasthAntarAtmakam...dezIvizeSeSu prasiddhayA niyamitamityeva / " tathA-"dezIpadamapi svarasyaiva prayogAvasare prayujyata iti tadapi prAkRtameva. avyutpAditaprakRtestajjanaprayojyatvAt prAkRtamiti kecit / " -vivRti (abhinavagupta) 3-nATyazAstra, 17, 27 4-mAgadhyavantijA prAcyA zaurasenyardhamAgadhI / vAlhIkA dAkSiNAtyA ca saptabhASAH prakIrtitAH / -nATyazAstra, a0 17, zlo049 Page #118 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ina se kiMcit bhinna thoM / rAmazarma ne vibhASA-vidhAna nAmaka tRtIya stabaka meM zAkArikI, cANDAlikA, zAbarI, AbhIrikA, Takko Adi ke lakSaNa evaM svarUpa kA pratipAdana kiyA hai / isI prakAra tRtIya zAkhA meM nAgara, vAcaDa aura paicAzo apabhraMza kA vivecana kiyA gayA hai| ... tIrthaMkara mahAvIra aura bha0 gautamabuddha kI bhASA ke namUne Aja jyoM ke tyoM nahIM milate / azoka ke zilAlekhoM (250 I0 pU0), bhAratavarSa ke vibhinna bhAgoM meM prApta prAkRta ke jaina zilAlekhoM tathA pAli-sAhitya ke kucha aMzoM meM prAkRta ke prAcInatama rUpa nibaddha haiM / DA0 caTarjI ne bha0 buddha ke samaya ko udIcya, madhyadezIya tathA prAcyavibhAga kI tIna prAdezika boliyoM kA ullekha kiyA hai| ina ke atirikta I0 pU0 tIsarI zatAbdI kI khotana pradezIya bhAratIyoM kI pazcimottarI gAndhArI prAkRta tathA IsA kI prathama zatAbdI ke lagabhaga prayukta turkistAna kI niya prAkRta evaM I0 pU0 chaThI zatAbdI ke madhya kI kAThiyAvAr3a se sIlona pahu~cAyI gayI prAkRta vizeSa rUpa se ullekhanIya haiM / ' isa deza meM IsA pUrva zatAbdI meM mukhya rupa se bhAratIya AryaboliyoM ke cAra vibhAga prasiddha the: . (1) udIcya (uttara-pazcimI bolI), (2) pratIcya (dakSiNI-pazcimI bolI), (3) prAcyamadhya (madhyapUrvI) aura (4) prAcya (pUrvI bolI) / azoka ke zilAlekhoM tathA pataMjali ke mahAbhASya ke ullekhoM se bhI yaha pramANita hotA hai / ___alsaDorphake anusAra bhAratIya AryabhASAkI sabase prAnInatama avasthA vaidika RcAoMmeM parilakSita hotI hai| kaI prakArakI pravRttiyoM tathA bhASAgata staroM ke anuzIlanase yaha spaSTa hai ki bolI hI vikasita ho kara saMskRta kAvyoMkI bhASA ke rUpa meM prayukta huI / ataeva usa meM dhvani-prakriyA tathA bahutase zabda boliyoMke samAviSTa ho gae haiM / zAstrIya saMskRta kA vikAsa. kAla cauthI zatAbdI se lekara AThavIM zatAbdI taka rahA hai / kevala ' saMskRta-sAhitya meM hI nahIM, vaidika bhASA meM bhI bahuta se aise zabda haiM jo nizcita rupa se dhvani prakriyAgata parivartanoM se sambaddha prAkRta ke prabhAva ko niHsandeha pramANita karate haiM / bhaugolika dRSTi se zikSA grantha meM svarabhakti kA uccAraNa jisa kSetra meM nirdiSTa kiyA gayA hai, vaha ardhamAgadhI aura apabhraMza kA kSetra hai / prAkRta ke prAcIna prAcya vaiyAkaraNoM meM zAkalya, mANDa0 kohala aura kapila kA ullekha kiyA gayA hai| yadyapi una kI racanAeM abhI taka upalabdha nahIM ho sakI haiM, kintu mArkaNDeya ne "prAkRtasarvasva" meM zAkalya aura kohala ke sAtha hI bharata 1-caTarjI, sunItikumAra : bhAratIya AryabhASA aura hindI, dvi0 saM0 1957, pR083 2-sukumAra sena : e kampareTiva amara Ava miDila iNDo-Aryana, dvi0 saM0 1960, pR07 3-luDaviga alsaDorpha : da orijana Ava dI nyU iNDo-Aryana spIceja, anu0 esa0 ena0 ghoSAla, jarnala Ava da ori0 i0, bar3audA, jilda 10, saM0 2, disa0 1960, pR0 132-133 4-siddhezvara varmA : da phoneTika Abjarvezansa Ava iNDiyana graimeriyansa, dillI, 1961, pR050 - Page #119 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ vararuci, bhAmaha aura vasantarAja kA vizeSa rUpa se ullekha kiyA hai| mANDavya kA rAmatarkavAgIza ne aura kapila kA rAmazarmA tathA mArkaNDeya ne nAmollekha kiyA haiM / ' yadyapi prAkRta ke prAcya zilAlekha kama milate haiM, para pravRtti bheda se DA0 mehandAle ne dakSiNI, pazcimI, madhyadezIya aura prAcyabheda mAne haiM / bhaugolika dRSTi se isa prakAra ke cAra bheda pravRttigata bhinnatA ke kAraNa atyanta prAcInakAla se barAbara Aja taka bane hue haiN| prAcIna vaiyAkaraNoM ne bhI ina bhedoM kA ullekha kiyA hai / bhAratIya AryabhASAoM ke itihAsa ko tIna avasthAoM meM vibhakta karane kA eka krama pracalita ho gayA hai / vAstava meM ye avasthAeM eka hI bhASA pravAha ko tIna vibhinna yugIna sthitiyA~ haiM jo nAma-rUpoM ke bheda se alaga-alaga nAmoM se abhihita kI gyiiN| aitihAsika kAla-krama kI dRSTi se boliyoM kI vibhinna avasthAoM kA vivecana karanA eka bhASAvida kA kArya hai| DA0 e0 ema0 ghATage ne kSetrIya bhedoM ke anusAra uttara-pazcima meM upalabdha azoka ke zilAlekha mAnaseharA ora zAhabAjagaDhI, kharoSTrI dhammapada kI prAkRta bolI tathA paizAcI aura usa kI sambhAvita upaboliyAM, pUrva meM gaMgA aura mahAnadI kI tarAI meM upalabdha azoka ke zilAlekha, satanaka ke rAmagar3ha-zikhAlekha tathA nATakoM meM prayukta mAgadho prAkRta aura usake upavibhAga, pazcima meM giranAra, bauddha- sAhitya kI bhASA pAli, sAtavAhana tathA pazcimIya kSatrapa rAjAoM ke zilAlekhoM kI prAkata aura mahArASTI prAkata madhyadeza meM zaurasenI aura pUrva kI ora jainAgamoM kI ardhamAgadhI evaM tAdRza azokazilAlekhIya bolI parilakSita hotI hai| kintu isa vibhAjana meM kucha boliyA~ chUTa jAtI haiM / ataeva aitihAsika kAlakramAnusAra kiyA gayA vargIkaraNa adhika acchA aura sunizcita hai / prAcInatama avasthA meM aneka zilAlekha, pAli, ardhamAgadhI aura paizAcI kI gaNanA kI jAtI hai / paravartI avasthA meM zaurasenI, mAgadhI, jaina mahArASTrI aura jaina zaurasenI nirdiSTa kI gayI haiM / anantara uttarakAlIna vikAsa meM mahArASTro prAkRta aura vibhinna apabhraMza boliyAM AtI haiN| azoka ke lagabhaga cauMtIsa abhilekha milate haiN| azoka ke zilAlekhoM me paizAco, bhAgadhoM aura zorasenI prAkRta kI pravRttiyAM lakSita hotI haiM / DA0 nemicandra zAstrI ne "azokakAlIna bhASAoM kA bhASAzAstrIya sarvekSaNa' zIrSaka lekha meM batAyA hai ki azoka ke samaya kI pazcimottarIya-(paizAca-gAndhAra), madhyabhAratIya (mAgadha), pazcimIya (mahArASTra), aura dAkSiNAtya (Andhra karNATaka) boliyAM usa sasaya kI janabhASAeM haiM / pazcimottarIya varga 1-DA0 satyaraMjana banajI : phregmenTasa Ava da arliesTa prAkRta graimeriyansa, zrI mahAvIra jaina vidyAlaya suvarNamahotsava grantha, bhA0 1, 1968, pR0 270-274 2-DA0 ema0 e0 mehandAle : hisTArikala grAmara Ava inskripzanala prAkRtsa, pari. ___caya, pR0 15 3-draSTavya : nirukta (yAska): dvitIya adhyAya, SaSTha pAda / 4-DA0 e0 ema0 ghATage : hisTArikala liMgvisTiksa eNDa iNDo-Aryana laiMgvejeja bambaI, 1962, pR0112 5-DA nemicandra zAstrI : pariSadpatrikA, bhASA-sarvekSaNAMka, barSa 8, aMka 3-4, pR0 78 Page #120 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ kI bolI meM zAhabAjagar3hI aura mAnaseharA ke abhilekha, madhyabhAratIya bolI meM vairATa, dillI ToparA, sAranAtha aura kaliMga Abhalekha, pazcimI meM giranAra aura bambaI meM sopArA ke abhiH lekha evaM dAkSiNAtya meM dakSiNI abhilekha sammilita haiM / pazcimottarIya meM dIrgha svaroM kA abhAva, Umma vyaMjanoM kA prayoga, antima halanta vyaMjanoM kA abhAva, repha kA prayoga evaM prathamA vibhakti eka bacana meM ekArAnta zabdoM kA astitva pAyA jAtA hai| madhyabhAratIya bolI maiM 'ra' ke sthAna para 'lU', prathamA eka vacana meM ekArAnta rUpa kA sadbhAva, svarabhakti kA astitva, 'ahaM' ke sthAna para 'hakaM' kA prayoga, 'tu' ke sthAna para 'tave', 'tumhANa' athavA 'tujjhANa' ke sthAna para 'tuphAkaM' evaM 'kR' dhAtu ke 'ktA' ke sthAna para 'Ta' kA prayoga pAyA jAtA hai / pazcimIya volI meM 'ra' kA prayoga, adhovartI repha kA zIrSavarto repha ke rUpa meM prayoga, prathamA eka vacana meM okArAnta rUpa, 'ddha' ke sthAna para 'iDha' evaM saptamI vibhakti ke eka vacana meM 'smi' ke sthAna para 'mhi' kA prayoga pAyA jAtA hai / dAkSiNAtya bolI meM mUrdhanya 'Na' kA prayoga, tAlavya 'ja' kA prayoga, svarabhakti kI prApti, 'tma' ke sthAnapara 'tpa', USma vargoM kA dantya varNa ke rUpa meM prayoga evaM 'tu' ke sthAna para 'tave' kA prayoga milatA hai / azoka ke zilAlekhoM ke atirikta do anya prAkRta abhilekha bhI ullekhanIya haiM / ye haiM-kaliMgarAja khAravela kA hAthIgumphA abhilekha aura yavana rAjadata hiliyodorasa kA besanagara abhilekha / ina abhilekhoM meM prAcIna bhAratIya AryabhASA se parivartana kI pravRttiyAM spaSTa lakSita hotI haiN| - I0 pU0 1,000 se 6,00 varSoM kA kAla bhAratIya AryabhASA kA saMkrAntikAla kahA jA sakatA hai| vibhinna Arya tathA Aryetara prajAoM ke samparka se isa dIrgha kAla kI avadhi meM eka aisA bhASA-pravAha lakSita hone lagA thA, jisameM vibhinna jAtiyoM tathA bhASAoM ke Agata zabda Arya boliyoM meM samAhita ho gae the aura AryabhASA meM eka nayA parivartana lakSita hone lagA thA / ataeva vaiyAkaraNoM aura dorzanikoM ne Arya kI sAdhutA kI ora lakSya diyA / bhASAviSayaka parivartana ke vega ko avaruddha karane ke lie vaiyAkaraNoM ne do mahAna kArya kie / prathama prayatna meM unhoMne gaNoM kI vyavasthA kI / maharSi pANini ne "pRSodarAdi'' gaNoM kI sRSTi kara zabda-siddhi kA eka nayA mArga hI unmukta kara diyaa| dasare prayatna meM svArthika pratyaya kA vidhAna kara dezI tathA mleccha bhASAoM se zabdoM ko udhAra lekara apanAne kI tathA racAne-pacAne kI eka naI rIti ko hI janma diyA / ina donoM hI kAryo se saMskRta kA zabda-bhaNDAra vizAla ho gayA aura bhASA sthira tathA nizcita ho gayI / sambhavataH isI ora lakSya kara mImAMsAdarzana meM zabaramuni kahate haiM ki jina zabdoM ko Arya loga kisI artha meM prayoga nahIM karate, kintu mleccha loga karate haiM; yathA : pika, nema, sata, tAmarasa, Adi zabdoM meM sandeha hai / Rgveda meM prayukta kaI zabda muNDA bhASA ke mAne jAte haiM / udAharaNa ke lie kucha zabda haiM : 1-vahIM, pR0 78 se uddhRta ...... 2-"codita tu pratIyeta avirodhAt pramANena / " "atha yAnzabdAn AryA na kasmizcidarthe Acaranti mlecchAstu kasmizcit prayuJjate yathApika-nema-sata-tAmarasa Adi zabdAH teSu sandehaH / -zabarabhASya, a0 1, pA03, sU0 1. a0 5 Page #121 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ .. kapota-durbhAgya dAyaka (Rgveda 10,165,1), lAMgala-hala (Rgveda), vAra-ghoDe kI pUMcha (Rgveda 1,32,12), mayUra (Rgveda 1,191,14), zimbala-semala puSpa (Rgveda 3,53, 22) ityAdi jo prajiluskIne aise aneka zabdoM kI sUcI dI hai' / kAlDabela ne bhI saMskRta meM adhigRhIta aise aneka zabdoM kI eka lambI sUcI vistRta vivaraNa ke sAtha dI hai / yadyapi saMskRta vaiyAkaraNoM kI dRSTi meM isa prakAra ke zabda tathA dezI upAdAnoM ke sambandha meM koI dRSTi nahIM thI aura na unameM se kisI ne isa bAta kA vicAra hI kiyA thA ki kitane zabda yA unake mUla rUpa (dhAtu) dezI haiM aura kauna se Agata zabda videzI haiM / parantu kAlDaMbela, guNDarTa, silavAM levI, prajiluskI, amRta ro aura blUmaphIlDa Adi vidvAnoM kI khojoM se aba yaha nizcita ho gayA hai ki bhAratIya AryabhASAoM meM bahuta bar3I mAtrA meM videzI upAdAna lakSita hote haiM / blUmaphIlDa ne kucha zabdoM ke adhyayana se yaha niSkarSa nikAlA thA ki pAli-prAkRta meM prAgvaidika boliyoM ke zabda-rUpa nihita haiN|-vedoN meM ziSTa bhASA kA prayoga kiyA gayA hai / vaidika yuga kI bolacAla kI bhASA prAkRta hI thI, jo kucha bAtoM meM saMhitAoM kI sAhityika bhASA se bhinna thI / aneka vaidika yuga kI boliyoM ke zabda Aja bhI vibhinna pradezoM meM pracalita haiM / ina prAkRta boliyoM kI eka pramukha vizeSatA 'dezI' zabdoM kI bahulatA hai / Rgveda Adi meM prayukta "vaMka (vakra), meha (megha), purANa (purAtana) titau (cAlanI), jUrNa (janA, purAnA) ulUkhala (udUkhala, okhalI), uccheka (utseka) aura ajagara Adi prAkRta boliyoM ke zabda upalabdha hote haiN| ina dezI zabdoM kI grahaNazIlatA 'dezI' kI prAcInatA ko siddha karatI hai / jyUla blAkha ne bho 'dezI' ko prAkRta kA prAcIna rUpa kahA hai / una ke hI zabdoM meM dezI prAkRta kA eka prAcIna pUrvarUpa hai, jo bahuta rocaka hai / kyoMki isase use chor3a kara ajJAta bhASAoM ke astitva kA patA calatA hai / 'dezI' kevala zailI aura Aja bhI pAyI jAne vAlI bhASAoM kI zabdAvalI meM liye gaye aMzoM kI aura saMketa karatI hai| prasiddha bhASAvaijJAnika bImsa ke anusAra dezI zabda sadA se lokaboliyoM meM prayukta rahe haiM / sAhitya kI bhASA meM prAyaH una ke prayoga nahIM milate / prathama avasthA . bhASA-vikAsa kI prathama avasthA meM Rgveda kI bhASA meM mukhyataH 'ra' pAyA jAtA hai, kintu prAkRta-boliyoM meM 'la' bhI milatA hai / sAtha hI bhASA ke itihAsa se hama yaha bhI bhalIbhAMti jAnate haiM ki prAcIna IrAnI bhASA meM pratyeka bhAropIya 'la' kA parivartana 'ra' meM ho gayA thA / vAkaranAgala kA yaha kathana ucita hI pratIta hotA hai ki Rgveda ke prathama maNDaloM kI apekSA dazama maNDala kI bhASA meM atyanta parivartana lakSita hotA hai" / ataeva isa 1-draSTavya : pri-Aryana eNDa pri-TraiviDiyana, pR09-10 2-rAbarTa kAlDabela : e kampereTiva graimara Ava da draviDiyana Ara sAutha-iNDiyana phemilI Ava laiMgvejeja, madrAsa. tRtIya saMskaraNa, 1961, pR0 567-588 3-jyUla blAkha : bhAratIya-Arya bhASA, anu0 DA0 lakSmI sAgara vArSNeya. 1963 pR0 15 4-saM. Ara0 sI0 majamadAra : da vaidika eja, jilda 1, pR0 335 . .. 5-vahI, pR0 336 Page #122 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ maNDala kI bhASA meM 'kRNu' ke sthAna para prAkRtika dhAtu 'kuru' kA prayoga milatA hai / isI prakAra Rgveda kA 'car' atharvaveda taka Ate-Ate 'cal' ho jAtA hai| yahI nahIM, Rgveda ke udumbala' (10,14,12) tathA 'bhadraM bhala' (Rgveda, 10,86,23) 'mudgala' (Rgveda, 10, 102,9) aura 'phAla' (Rgveda, 10,117,7) Adi zabdoM meM lakAra 'paravartI racanA jAna par3atI hai / Rgveda meM kaI vibhakti-cihnoM ke prAcIna aura navIna donoM prakAra ke rUpa milate haiM / akArAnta tathA halanta zabdoM meM prathamA aura dvitIyA vibhakti ke dvivacana meM 'A' aura 'au' donoM vibhakti-cihna milate haiM / Rgveda meM 'a' vAle rUpa 'o' vAle rUpoM kI apekSA sAta gune adhika haiM / akArAnta zabdoM meM prathamA bahuvacana meM 'as' aura 'asas' donoM vibhakti-cihna milate haiM / kintu napuMsakaliMga meM prathamA bahucana ke 'A' aura 'Ani' ye bhakti cihna hai / purAnA 'A' 'Ani' kI apekSA Rgveda meM tona aura do ke anupAta meM haiM / atharvaveda meM sthiti Thoka isake viparIta hai| eDagarTana ne saMskRta dhvani-prakriyA kA aitihAsika vikAsa nirUpita karate hue spaSTa rUpa se batAyA hai ki yadyapi Rgveda meM 'ra' kI pracuratA hai aura 'la' virala hai, jisase Arya-IrAnI se usakA nikaTa kA sambandha nizcita hotA hai / bhASA ke paravartI vikAsa meM 'la' svacchandatA se prayukta milatA hai| bhAropIya aura saMskRta ke sambandha meM 'ra' aura 'la' ko lekara koI niyama nirdhArita nahIM kiyA jA sakatA / kyoMki saMskRta meM 'la' bolI ke mizraNa ke phalasvarUpa prApta hotA hai 2 / Rgveda ke 'iha' kA prAcIna rUpa 'idha' prAkRta meM hI milatA hai, jo avestA 'ida' kA samakAlika rUpa hai| dhvanyAtmaka vizeSatAoM ko dRSTi se hama vizeSakara saMskRta tathA madhya kSetra kI paravartI prAkRta meM padAnta as ke sthAna para 'o' ke bajAya 'e' ke parivartana kA saMketa kara sakate haiM / pUrvI bhAratIya AryabhASA kI yaha bhedaka vizeSatA thI aura isa taraha ke udAharaNa sUdUra pUrva meM bhI milate haiM / Rgveda meM 'sUre duhitA' meM isa prakAra kA eka vaibhASika rUpa surakSita hai| isI prakAra se dvitvIkaraNa kI pravRtti bhI prAkRta ke prabhAva ko pradarzita karatI hai / atharvaveda prAtizAkhya meM (3. 26) sabhI padAnta vyaMjana dvitva milate haiM / DA0 varmA ne ina dvitva vyaMjanoM kA kAraNa prAkRta-boliyoM kA mizraNa batAyA hai / yadyapi prAkRta meM sabhI vyaMjana padAnta meM dvitva nahIM milate, kintu kucha boliyoM meM aise rUpa avazya milate haiN| prAkRta ke nada, sadda, haththa, chaDUDa, ghaTTa, ghalla, Adi ditva padAnta vyaMjanoM ke rUpa Aja bhI paMjAbI rAjasthAnI, lahaMdI, sindho, kacchI Adi boliyoM meM surakSita haiM / RkU-atharva-prAtizAkhya 1-draSTavya : pariSad patrikA, varSa 8, aGka 3-4, bhASA-sarvekSaNAMka, pR. 57 2-phreMkalina eDagarTana : saMskRta hisTArikala phonolAjI, amerikana o. so, 1946, 3-TI0 baro : da saMskRta laiMgveja, vArANasI, 1965 (anu0-DA. bholAzaMkara vyAsa) pR0 54 4-siddhezvara varmA : kriTikala sTaDIja ina da phoneTika Abjarvezansa Ava iNDiyana graimeriyansa, bhAratIya saMskaraNa, 1961, pR. 109 Page #123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 82 aura cArAyaNIya zikSA meM kahA gayA hai ki abhinidhAna meM eka sparza dUsare sparza rUpa pariNata ho jAtA hai / bhASA ke vAstavika uccAraNa meM aisA prAyaH dekhA jAtA hai| bhASA vijJAna meM ise samIkaraNa kahA jAtA hai / 'sapta' kA 'satta' aura 'tapta' kA 'tatta' isI prakAra ke udAharaNa haiM / abhinidhAna apUrNa uccAraNa kI sthiti meM ghaTita hotA hai| isI prakAra vaidika bhASA meM pAI jAne vAlI svarabhakti prAkRta kI boliyoM meM eka sAmAnya pravRtti rahI hai / prAkRta meM prathama puruSa sarvanAma ke lie 'se' nipAta kA prayoga pAyA jAtA hai, jo avestA 'he, ze' tathA prAcIna phArasI 'zajhyU' se milatA hai aura jo saMskRta meM upalabdha nahIM hotA / vaidika bhASA meM aneka zabda prAkRta ke milate haiM, jinameM se kucha isa prakAra haiM: ___ juNNa (saM. jurNa, jIrNa), tUha-taTa, ghATa(saM. tUrtha, tIrtha, apa. tUha, ji. ca. 1, 10, ma. pu. 17. 12. 8), siDhila-DhIlA (saM. zithira, zithila, apa. siDhila, ma. ka. 5. 23. 8), NiDDa (saM. nIDa). kaTTa (saM. kRt),-vikaTTa (saM. vikRt), galla (saM. gaNDa), dADhA (daMSTrA) aura uccheka (saM. utseka) Adi / dvitIya avasthA vikAsa kI dUsarI avasthA meM prathama IsvI ke lagabhaga ke paMjAba se khotAna meM le jAye gaye dharmapada ke aMza tathA madhya eziyA ke kharoSTrI lipi meM likhe hue abhilekha evaM uttara-pazcima bhArata ke kharoSTro abhilekha atyanta mahatvapUrNa haiM / madhyabhAratIya AryabolI meM abhilikhita ye abhilekha madhya eziyA ke niya sthAna se prApta hue haiM isaliye ye niya prAkRta ke nAma se jAne jAte haiM / ye zAna-zAna rAjya kI rAjadarabArI bhASA meM likhe hue haiM / ina kI bhASA mUlataH uttarI-pazcimI hai / inakA samaya IsA kI lagabhaga tosarI zatAbdI kahA jAtA hai / inake atirikta azvaghoSa ke nATakoM kI prAkRta bhI isI yuga kI dena hai / azvaghoSa kI prAkRta bolacAla ke adhika nikaTa hai / bharatamuni ne nATya meM varNita vibhinna pAtroM kI bolI ko bhASA kahA hai; na ki prAkRta / vastuta: azvaghoSa kI bhASA, bhAsa ke nATakoM ke kucha prAkRta aMza tathA bharatamuni kI nATyagItiyAM saMskRta ke zAstrIya (classical) nATakoM se pUrva kI hai / lokanATya pahale Amataura se prAkRta meM likhe jAte the / saMskRta meM likhe gaye nATakoM meM bhI pacAsa pratizata ke lagabhaga prAkRta kA samAveza hai| ina meM bhI abhinaya kevala Ama janatA kI bolI meM hAva-bhAvoM ke dvArA kiyA jAtA thA / isalie bhareta muni ne prAkRta kI boliyoM kA kSetrIya bhedoM ke anusAra vivaraNa diyA hai / unake samaya meM uttara meM himAlaya kI talahaTo se lekara paMjAba taka aura pazcima meM sindha se le kara gujarAta taka prAkRta pratiSThita thii| IsA kI prathama zatAbdI se 1-vahIM, pR. 137 2-TI. baro : da saMskRta laiMgveja, anu. DA. bholAzaGkara vyAsa, vArANasI, 1965, pR. 55 3-sukumAra sena : e kampereTiva graimara Ava miDila iNDo-Aryana, dvi. saM. 1960 pR. 13 4-jyUla blAkha : bhAratIya-AryabhASA, anu0 lakSmIsagara vArSNeya, 1963, pR. 10 Page #124 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 83 kahate haiM, vaha prAkRtoM ke vikAsa deza kA adhikAMza dhArmika sAhitya vyAkaraNa kI bhASA ke rUpa rUDha ha lekara jisa yuga ko saMskRta kI samRddhi kA kAla kA bhI kAla thA / ina madhyabhAratIya boliyoM meM hI likhA gayA / saMskRta isa samaya dhArmika sAhitya aura cukI thI, jisa se usa kA vikAsa ruka gayA' / svayaM maharSi pANini " bahula' chandasi " kaha kara vaidika bhASA meM prayukta vibhinna rUpoM (vibhASAgata) kA vivaraNa prastuta kara rahe the / una ke atirikta maharSi yAska aura pataMjali bhI vaibhASika prayogoM kA svacchandatA se ullekha karate hue dikhalAI par3ate haiM / vikAsa ko isa dhArA se navya bhAratIya AryabhASAoM kA vikAsa huA / navya bhAratIya AryabhASAoM tathA boliyoM meM aise kaI sau zabda haiM, jinakI vyutpatti bhAratIya Arya udgamoM se nahIM milatI / hAM, una ke prAkRta pUrva-rUpoM kA avazya saralatA se puna nirmANa kiyA jA sakatA hai / una kA bAharI rUpa sAmAnyataH yugma vyaMjanoM yA nAsikayoM evaM tatsambandhita sparzo evaM mahAprANoM se banA huA bilakula prAkRta jaisA hai tathA una se vyakta bhAva bhI nyUnAdhika aMzoM meM mUlagata yA prAthamika rahate haiM / udAharaNa ke lie aDDA vyavadhAna, paradA; aTTakka-rukAvaTa, khillA - khIlA, korA - apariSkRta yA khuradurA; khoTa-dhabbA, khossa - bhUsA, goDDa-pAMva, goda-goda, muGga-mUMgA, DhUMDha-DhUMr3hanA, phikkA - phIkA; loTTa - loTanA; lukka chipanA, ityAdi / isa prakAra ke lagabhaga 450 bhAratIya Arya punargaThita zabda nepAlI koSa meM diye hue haiM, jina ke mUla zabda abhAratIya-yUro pIya, anizcita athavA ajJAta haiN| madhya bhAratIya AryabhASAo meM anya boliyoM tathA videzI bhASAoM ke zabdoM kA AdAna pradAna svacchandatA se huA hai / saMskRta ke sambandha meM bhI jo yaha kahA jAtA haiM ki maharSi pANini ne Aryetara prajAoM ke paraspara lena dena ke kAraNa AryabhASA meM apanAye jAne vAle videzI zabdoM ko rokane ke lie saMskRta bhASA ko kaTora niyamoM meM bAMdha kara use "amara" banA diyA, yaha kisI eka aMza taka hI ThIka hai / kyoMki hama dekhate hai ki vaidika bhASA kI apekSA saMskRta meM videzI bhASAoM ke zabda bahuta haiM / A. pANini ne jahA~ gaNapAThoM kA vidhAna kara bhASA ko vyavasthita banAyA, vahIM "pRSodarAdi" tathA 'svArthika' pratyaya Adi kA abhidhAna kara Agata zabdoM ke lie praveza dvAra bhI nirmita kara gae / ataeta kevala anya bhASAoM aura dezI boliyoM ke zabda hI saMskRta meM nahIM apanAye gaye varan naye zabdoM kA nirmANa aura punanirmANa bhI kiyA gayA / bhArata tathA bRha. uttara bhArata meM saMskRta kA vikAsa inhIM mUla pravRttiyoM ke sAtha lakSita hotA haiM / DA. sAMkaliyA ke anusAra saMkSepa meM bhAratIya AryabhASAoM kA vikAsa isa prakAra batAyA jA sakatA haiM : prathama prAkRta ( I. pU. 3,00-100 I.) anantara saMskRta (1,00 - 7,00 I.) aura tadana 1-DA. Ai. je. esa. tArAporavAlA : saMskRta sinTeksa, dillI, 1967, pR0 13 2 -, caturthyarthe bahula chandasi' (aSTAdhyAyI 2 3.62), bhASAyAmubhayamanvadhyAyam (nirukta 1 a., 2 pA0, 4 khaM . ) prathamAyAzca dvivacane bhASAyAm (aSTA. 7. 2.88 ), bhASAyAM sadavasazruvaH (aSTA. 3. 2. 108), pratyaye bhASAyAM nityam ( kAtyAyana vArtike), neti pratiSedhAyo bhASAyAm (nirukta 1 a.), siddhe zabdArthasambandhe lokato'rthaprayukte zabdaprayoge zAstreNa dharmaniyamaH / ( mahAbhASya - pataMjali ) 3 - DA0 sunItikumAra caTarjIH bhAratIya AryabhASA aura hindI, dvi. saM. 1957, pR0 111 Page #125 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 84 ntara saMskRta (7,00-1,200 I.) kSetrIya bhASAoM ke rUpa meM vRddhiMgata hotI jA rahI thii| prArambhika do zatAbdiyoM meM sampUrNa bhAratavarSa meM anavacchinna rUpa se saMskRta-prAkRta meM abhilekha likhe jAte rahe / 3,20 I0 meM guptakAla meM saMskRta susthira rUpa se pATaliputra meM pratiSThita thI / mathurA ke abhilekhoM se bhI patA calatA haiM ki IsA kI prathama zatAdhdI taka vizuddha prAkRta kA pracalana rahA hai / dUsarI zatAbdI se saMskRta meM abhilekha likhe jAne lage the / chaThI zatAbdI se unakA vizeSa pracAra ho gayA thA / phira bhI prAkRtoM kA prabhAva una para barAbara lakSita hotA hai / yathArtha meM isa yuga meM prAkRta aura saMskRta kA vikAsa samAnAntara rUpa se huA / saMskRta kA anusaraNa karatI huI prAkRta bhI sAhityaka Asana para samAsIna hathI / yadyapi sAhityakAroM ke dvArA prAkRtoM ko kRtrima rUpa se bho DhAlA gayA para prAkRta apanA dezIpana nahIM chor3a skii| phira bhI, saMskRsa sAhitya kI tulanA meM prAkRta kA sAhitya kisI bAta meM nyUna pratIta nahIM hotA / sabhI prakAra kI sAhityika racanAeM isa bhASA meM likhI huyI milatI haiM / A. pANini ke yuga ke anantara prAkRtoM meM do bAteM vizeSa rUpa se lakSita hotI haiM -naye zabdoM kA adhigrahaNa aura prAcIna saMgItAtmaka svarAghAta kI apekSA balAtmaka svara saMcAra / isa prakAra yaha eka bhAratIya AryabhASAoM kI paravartI avasthA eka saMkramaNa kI sthiti ko dyotita karatI hai / isa avasthA se hI bhAratIya AryabhASAoM ke vikAsa meM eka nayA moDa tathA tathA mahAna parivartana lakSita hone lagatA hai| ataeva isa avasthA se ho kara hI navya bhAratIya AryabhASAeM utpanna hone kI prakriyA meM bIjAMkura kI bhA~ti parilakSita hotI haiM / una kA udgama sahasA tathA apratyAzita rUpa se nahIM huA / tRtIya avasthA prAcIna yuga kI prAkRta hI azoka ke abhilekhoM kI sthiti se gujaratI huyI lagabhaga dasavIM zatAbdI ke madhyayugIna prAkRta ke rUpa meM mukhyataH cAra boliyoM meM vibhakta kI jA sakatI hai / pazcima meM siMdha kI ghATI meM apabhraMza, doAba meM zaurasenI, mathurA meM bhI usa kA kendra thA / isa ke upavibhAgoM meM gaurjaro (gujarAtI), avantI (pazcimI rAjasthAnI) aura mahArASTI (pUrvI rAjapUtAnI) / prAcya prAkRta mAgadhI aura ardhamAgadhI rUpa meM parilakSita hotI hai| apaza se siMdhI. pazcimI paMjAbI aura kazmorI, zaurasenI se pUrvI paMjAbI aura hindI (jUnI avantI) tathA gujarAtI jabaki mAgadhI ke do rUpoM meM se marAThI aura baMgAla kI anya boliyAM nikalI haiM / Adhunika boliyoM ke vikAsonmukha hone kA samaya 1,000 I. hai / apane maulika artha meM "apabhraMza' kA artha hai vipathagAmI / pataMjali ne isa kA prayoga 1- eca. DI. sAMkaliyA : iNDiyAja laiMgveja, I. pU. 3,00-1960 I. buleTina pUnA, disa. 1968, pR0 16 2-vahIM, pR. 13 3-e. e. mekDonala : e hisTrI Ava saMskRta liTarecara, paMcama saMskaraNa, 1958, dillI, pR. 26 4-vahIM, pR0 27 5-Arthara e. me DAnola : e hisTrI Ava saMskRta liTarecara, paMcama saMskaraNa, 1958 pR. 127 Page #126 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ prAcIna madhya kAlIna bhAratIya bhASA ke kurUpoM ke lie kiyA hai, jo usa samaya kI saMskRta meM sAmAnya the, para una kI dRSTi meM asAdhu haiM' / lagatA hai ki vaiyAkaraNoM ne zabda-racanA kI dRSTi se hI kisI zabda ko asAdhu mAnA hogA, kyoMki artha kI STaSTi se asAdhutA kA prazna ho nahIM uTha sakatA / "go' ke lie gAvI yA goNA zabda apabhraMza meM pracalita hai to isa se vaiyAkaraNa ko kyA kaThinAI hai ? kevala yahI ki vaha saMskRta isa zabda ko nahIM apanA sakatA hai, kyoMki saMskRta vyAkaraNa kI rUpa paddhati ke anusAra vaha niSpanna nahIM hotA / ata eva zabda racanA saMskRta se bhinna hone ke kAraNa jo zabda asAdhu yA bhraSTa hai una se bharita bhASA apanaza hai| apabhraza navya bhAratIya AryabhASAoM kI vaha avasthA hai jo madhyakAlIna tathA Adhunika bhAratIya AryabhASAoM ke bIca eka setu ke samAna hai / yaha Adhunika bhAratIya AryabhASAoM kI vaha pUrvarUpa hai, jisase sabhI navya bhAratIya AryabhASAoM kA nikAsa evaM unmeSa huA / vAstava meM zabda kI prakRti hI apabhraMza hai| Aja "saMskRta' zabda kA uccAraNa hI ThIka nahIM ho sakatA aura phira "saMskuruta uccAraNa ThIka hai yA saMmakirata" isakA nirNaya kaise kiyA jA sakatA haiM ? kabIradAsa to spaSTa zabdoM meM kahate haiM - kabirA saMsakirata kUpajala, bhAkhA bahatA nIra / ' bhartRhari ne paramparA se Agata tathA prasiddha evaM rUr3ha svatantra apabhraMza bhASA kA ullekha kiyA hai / kevala zabdoM kI aura saMketa hone se yaha nahIM samajhanA cAhie ki unakA lakSya kucha zabdoM ko ora hI hai, varan aise zabda-rUpoM tathA vAkyoM se bharita bhASA kI aura bhI hai / zAstra meM to saMskRta se bhinna sabhI (prAkRta bhA) bhASAeM apabhraMza kahI jAtI rahI haiM / isa kA mukhya kAraNa yahI pratIta hotA hai ki ina apabhraMza boliyoM meM prayukta dezI zabda prAmANikatA kI koTi meM nahIM A sake / prAkRtoM kI bhAMti apabhraMza bhI makhya rUpa se uttarI-pazcamI bolI se nikalI, isalie vaha kisI pradeza kI pratinidhi bhASA nahIM thI varana bhASAgata avasthA vizeSa kA pratinidhitva Avazya karatA hai| apabhraMza chaThI zatAbdI ke lagabhaga sAhityika bhASA ke rUpa meM pratiSThita ho cukI thI, tabhI to chaThI zatAbdI ke prasiddha kAvyazAstrI bhAmaha saMskRta, prAkRta kI bhAMti apabhraMza kA bhI kAvyAbhASA ke rUpa meM ullekha karate haiM / yadyapi apabhraMza kA bolI ke rUpa meM I0 pU0 lagabhaga tIsarI zatAbdI meM ullekha milatA hai| bharata muni ne ukArabahulA ke rUpa meM jisa bolI kA ullekha kiyA hai aura saMskRta-sAhitya ke samAlocakoM-daNDI, namisAdhu, lakSmIdhara, Adi ne AbhIrAdigiraH 1-jyUlsa blAkha : iNDo Aryana, anu. alphreDa mAsTara, perisa, 1965, pR. 21 Apabhram'sa-Its Original sense is something aberrant. Patanjali applies it to certain forms of old Middle Indian, in common use in the Sanskrit of this time, but from his point of view, incorrect." (pp. 21) 2. nAprakRtirapabhraMza: svatantraH kazcid vidyate / sarvasyaiva hi sAdhurevApabhraMzasya prakRtiH / prasiddhestu rUDhitAmApadyamAnAH svAtantryameva kecidapabhraMzA labhante / tatra gauriti prayoktavye azaktyA prAmAdAdibhirvA gAvyAdayastatprakRtayo'pabhraMzAHprayujyante |-vaakypdiiy, 1, 148, vArtika 3. zAstre tu saMskRtAdanyadapabhraMzatayoditam |-kaavylkssnn (daNDI, 1, 36) / 4. saMskRtaM prAkRtaM cAnyadapabhraMza iti tridhA |-kaavyaalNkaar, 1,16 Page #127 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 86 kaha kara jisa kA paricaya diyA hai aura mahAkavi kAlidAsa ne vikramorvazIya meM apabhraMza ke dohoM meM bhASA kA jo nidarzana prastuta kiyA hai, usase apabhraMza kA eka yathArtha rUpa hamAre sAmane AtA hai / A0 namisAdhu ne spaSTa rUpa se AbhIrI yA apabhraMza bhASA ke lakSaNa mAgadhI meM kahe haiM jo eka rUr3hi mAtra thii| unhoMne prAkRta kI pradhAnatA hone ke kAraNa apabhraMza ko bhI usake antargata ginAte hue apabhraMza ke tIna mukhya bhedoM kA nirdeza kiyA hai-upanAgara, AbhIra aura grAmya / saMskRta kAvyazAstriyoM ke vivaraNa se yaha spaSTa ho jAtA hai ki apabhraMza janasAmAnya kI aura eka grAmya gaMvArU bhASA thI / rAjA bhoja ke yuga meM 1022-63 I0 prAkRta kI bhAMti apabhraMza kA bhI acchA pracAra thA / kahA jAtA hai ki svayaM rAjA bhoja saMskRta, prAkRta aura abhraMpaza ke acche jAnakAra the tathA tInoM bhASAoM meM racanA karate the / kAvya meM bhI tInoM bhASAoM kA isa yuga meM sAmAna rUpa se mahatva thA / gujarAta meM apabhraMza kA vizeSa pracAra thaa| vahAM ke loga kevala apabhraMza se hI santoSa kA anubhava karate the / yahI nahIM, lATa deza ke vAsI saMskRta se dveSa rakhate the aura prAkRta ko rucipUrvaka sunate the| gauDadezIya logoM ko bhI prAkRta acchI lagatI thI / zAlivAhana rAjA ke kAla meM prAkRta kA vizeSa abhyudaya huA / prAkRta se bharita hone ke kAraNa apabhraMza kI racanA bhI atyanta bhavya aura sarasa hai / ise magadha aura mathurA ke loga bolate the, jo kavijanoM ko bhI iSTa thI' / rAjazekhara ne kAvya kI mukhya cAra bhASAoM kA nirdeza kiyA hai| usake anusAra saMskRta sunane meM divya prAkRta svabhAva se madhura, apabhraMza subhavya aura bhUtabhASA sarasa hai / kAvyamImAMsA ke vivaraNa se patA lagatA hai ki apabhraMza kA pracalana mAravAr3a meM hI nahIM, sampUrNa prAcIna rAjasthAna, pazcimo paMjAba, gujarAta tathA mAlavA meM bhI thA / mukhya rUpa se DA0 tagAre ne apabhraMza ke pazcimI, dakSiNI aura pUrvI tIna bheda mAne haiM / apabhraMza kA likhita sAhitya abhI taka uttara bhArata ko chor3akara dakSiNa, pUrva aura pazcima tInoM bhAgoM se prApta ho cukA hai / vAlTara zubiMga ne AcArya kundakunda ke aSTapA. huDa para apabhraMza kA prabhAva lakSita kiyA hai / isI prakAra zaivAgama sAhitya meM prAkRta tathA apabhraMza kI pradhAnatA hai / abhI isa para zodha-kArya nahIM huA / kintu isa aura vizeSa rUpa se lakSya denA Avazyaka pratIta hotA hai / bAstava meM prAkRta aura apabhraMza hI isa deza kI aisI bhASAeM haiM jo sahasroM varSoM se pravartita bhASAoM ke itihAsa meM vizeSataH AryabhASAoM kI zrRMkhalA ke samAna haiM / inake binA isa deza kA bhASAviSayaka itihAsa sadA apUrNa rhegaa| vAkaranAgala ne bahuta pahale hI yaha tathya hamAre sAmane rakhA thA ki vaidika yuga meM bhI boliyAM thIM, isakA pramANa apabhraMza meM milatA hai / saca bAta yaha hai ki dvitIya prAkRta meM vyAkaraNa sambandhI aneka aise rUpa milate haiM, jinakI vyAkhyA pANinIya saMskRta dvArA nahIM kI jA sakatI / inameM se eka apAdAna athavA saptamI kI vibhakti 'hi' hai jo pAli tathA prAcIna 'saskRta' 'dhi' se udbhUta huI hai, sAhityika saMskRta se nahIM / 'dhi' kA hI rUpa pratyaya rUpa se groka meM 'thi' milatA hai / vaidika yuga meM bhI isa pratyaya kA prayoga milatA 1. mahArAjA bhoja : sarasvatIkaNThAbharaNa, 2,13-16 2. DA0 jI0 vI0 tagAre : hisTArikala grAmara Ava apabhraMza, 1948, pR0 15-16 Page #128 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 87 hai / kintu jisa pariniSThita bolI se saMskRta prAdurbhUta huI hai, usameM isakA abhAva hai ' (dekho pro0 vAkaranAgala : AlTiNDIze grAmeTika, pR0 20 ) spaSTa apabhraMza kI dhvani prakriyA prAkRta ko varNAnupUrvI se bhinna nahIM hai aura na alaga koI pratIkAtmaka paddhati hI isa meM pAI jAtI hai| A0 bharata muni tathA prAkRta ke vaiyAkaraNoM ke anusAra saMskRta se prAkRta kI varNamAlA kucha bhinna hai / boliyoM meM saralIkaraNa kI pravRtti vaidika yuga se hI barAbara banI rahI hai / apabhraMza meM hrasva e aura o kA prayoga usake bolI rUpa ko dyotita karatA hai / saMskRta meM e, o sandhyakSara haiM kintu apabhraMza meM unakI sthiti bhinna hai / boliyoM meM inakA prayoga svatantra svara ke rUpa meM hotA rahA hai / jaba boliyoM kA barAbara prabhAva sAhityika saMskRta para par3a rahA thA taba una meM bhI sandhi kI pravRtti manthara par3a gayI thI / RksaMhitA meM pAdAnta aura pAdAdi ko sandhi meM bhI yaha vRtti rUpa se lakSita hotI hai ki ina dazAoM meM mUla pATha meM sandhi hotI hI nahIM thI aura pAdAnta tathA pAdAdi meM sandhi kA honA vyAkaraNa kI dRSTi se ucita nahIM hai / DA0 alsaDorpha kA kathana bilakula ThIka hai ki apabhraMza kI pravRtti antya svaroM ke hrasvIkaraNa kI ora hai / isase apabhraMza kI saralIkaraNa kI sAmAnya pravRtti kA hI saMketa milatA hai / IsAkI prathama sahasrAbdI ke madhya meM Arambha huI apabhraMza bhASA- paramparA turkI IrAnI vijaya ke samaya bhI barAbara cala rahI thI / kAlidAsa ke vikramorvazIya meM apabhraMza ke kucha dohe milate haiM / yadi ye prakSipta hoM, athavA Adya dvitIya prAkRta kI kAlidAsa-kAlIna 400 I0 apabhraMza ke parivartita rUpa hoM, to sAhityika apabhraMza sAhitya kA zrIgaNeza ukta tithi ke AsapAsa ginA jA sakatA haiM / apabhraMza kI kucha vizeSatAeM, udA0 ho jAnA, isake bhI pahale IsA kI tRtIya zatAbdI meM hI pazcimottaro prAkRta meM dRSTigocara hotI haiM / isa prakAra apabhraMza prAkRta kI mUla paramparA kI madhyakAlIna bhAratIya AryabhASA kI vaha avasthA hai, jo navya bhAratIya AryabhASAoM kI purogAminI hai aura Adhunika Arya boliyoM kI sAmAnya pUrvarUpa hai / antima o kA kSayita hokara u 3 apane vyApaka artha meM apabhraMza bhI rUpa meM sAdhu bhASA se vipathagAmI hai / sAmAnya nAma hai / vastutaH yaha madhyakAlIna usa janabhASA ke liye prayukta nAma hai jo lagabhaga chaThI zatAbdI se pandrahavIM taka prAkRtoM kI antima avasthA meM sAhityika bhASA ke rUpa meM prayukta hotI thI aura jo hindI, gujarAtI, rAjasthAnI, sindhI, paMjAbI aura baMgalA Adi kI mUla rahI hai / 1. sara jArja abrAhama griyarsana : bhArata kA bhASA - sarvekSaNa, khaNDa 1, bhA0 1, anu0 DA0 udayanArAyaNa tivArI, 1959, pR0232 2 - kRSNa ghoSa: prAkRtika sandhi ina da RksaMhitA, iNDiyana liMgvisTiksa, jilda 9, bhA01. 3 - DA0 sunotikumAra caTarjI : bhAratIya Arya bhASA aura hindI, dvi0saM0, 1957, pR0117 - pizela : kampereTiva graimara Ava da prAkRta laiMgveja, anu0 subhadra -jhA, dvi0saM0, 1965, pR031 4-Ara0 kisI bhI usa bhASA kI dhotaka hai jo kisI pariNAmataH yaha sabhI bhAratIya lokacoliyoM kA Page #129 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1. Prakritic Influences Revealed In the Works of Papini, Katyayana and Patanjali Dr. S. D. Laddu, Poona Introductory A large mass of Vedic variants that bear striking resemblances with the phonetic features of the later Middle-Indic dialects has been collected by Bloomfield and Edgerton in their Vedic Variants. This was followed by studies by Oertel, Wackernagel, Tedesco and Devasthali, on this aspect for the Vedic Sanskrit. These studies are convincing for the existence of dialects, contemporary with the Vedic texts and having phonological features that we know from the later attested MIA dialects. Skold's study of the Nirukta has led him to believe that Yaska spoke a language of that earlier stage of Middle-Indian which is characterized as the "Pali-Stufe " by German Scholars. He further states that the Sanskrit of Yaska and Panini was "the spoken language of the educated class, the brahmans, but which could not remain uninfluenced by the vernaculars."2 In Panini Emeneau finds "some clear evidence" of this nature which he easily expects in view of the chronological proximity of Panini to the Buddha who taught in the colloquial or MIA dialects. When we find a whole class of words assumed by Panini, the prsodaradi-s, showing irregularities of formation and yet granted a special sanction by him, it is not difficult to agree with the conclusion of Emeneau. Katyayana (Kty), who followed Panini (P) some centuries later, has discussed in his Varttika (Vt)s about one-third of P's Sutras in the light of the state of Sanskrit current at his time. These were critically discussed in the Great Commentary by Patanjali (Ptj). There are several passages in the Mahabhasya (M) bearing references to the popular speech which exhibited a number of corruptions of the Sanskrit language. Thus, a single word go showed not less than four apabhramsa-s, carrying the same denotation (samanayam arthagatau), into gavi, gont, gota, and gopotalika, while Devadatta, ajnapayati ( through ajnapayati), vartate, vardhate, krs-,drs- and svap- were uttered then by people respectively as Devadinna, anapayati, vattati, vaddhati, kasa-, disa- and supa-. This sample of the invasion of corrupt expressions on the Sanskrit speech of the days is enough to show the contamination in speech which was then a mixture of correct and incorrect. expressions. So a dialect like Pali, according to R. G. Bhandarkar, must have been "the vernacular of the other classes." Although the object of Page #130 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 89 Grammar was to teach avoiding of such expressions belonging to the vulgar speech, it was inevitable to find a "two-way" infuence during the normally slow and steady process of linguistic transformation. Further, forms current in the popular dialects i.e. among the non-sista members of the society of a particular region and period could even win recognition from the sista-s of that region at a later period, the speed of the recognition depending upon the degree of vitality and prestige developed by the dialects. Attention to this fact was drawn long back by S. M. Katre in his address on " The influence of Popular Dialects on Sanskrit."5 It is on this background of a continuous influence of features peculiar to the MIA being exercised on the Sanskrit language right from the Vedic stage, that the rules and other data provided by the earliest grammarians of Sanskrit, P, Kty, ( followed by a few others ) and Ptj are taken up here for a study, trying to discover such influences in the field of phonology on the Sanskrit as described by them, leaving aside those restricted to the Veda and the Nirukta (Nir) which have been earlier studied. At the beginning of M, Ptj says that lopagamavarnayikarajno hi samyag vedan pari palayisyati (1. 1. 15f.); again, on the Sutra, 6.3.109 be points out (IlI. 174.1) that the irregularity in the forms like Prsodara-could be three-fold, viz. showing lopa, agama and ( varna-) vikara or "elision", <<<< increment" and " modification " respectively. Now, these are the most general categorie; under which alm )st all the phonological variations could fit in, (A) LOPA I. Loss of an intervocalic single unas pirated consonants 1. Emencau sees in maireya- listed by P ( 6.2.70 ) a loss of d from a word having madira- at its base.? 2. P derives datta by suggesting a substitution of ad to the a of da (7.4.46 but when datta is preceded by a vowel-ending upasarga, he de. rives forms like pratta by substituting 1 for a in da ( 7.4.47), and derives forms liko niita similarly but, further, lengthening the vowel i or 4 at the end of the upasarga (6.3.124 ). Now, leaving for our purpose P's guiding factor of economy, it can be seen that pratta and nitta probably show some much process where ad uniformly replaces ai pradata > pradadta > pradatta < pra-atta > (> pratta ) > pratta (-by regressive assimilation or para-rupa of Vt; nidata > nidadta > nidatta > ni-atta > nitta ( by progressive assimilation or purva-rupa ) (>nitta ). 12 Page #131 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 90 II. Loss of the unas pirated portion of an intervocalic single aspirated consonants. 1. Imper. 2nd sg. dhi found in the Veda and Classical Sanskrit changes to hi in some roots in some situation. Cf. juhudhi, krinihi (6.4.101). ... 2. Vedic sadha (as in sadhamada, sadhastha ) changes to Cl. saha (6.3.96). 3. nyagrodha- is derived by Ptj ( 1.433.2) from nyak- ruh-. ( The same word, as noted by Mehendale, 10 is derived from vruh- at AiB, 35.4 ).. 4. Vedic subhita > suhita in M (1.31.10, 11.64.18 ). (Mehendale 11 notes AiBr 40.3 paraphrasing the Mantra word sudhita with suhita. ) 5. The Vedic forms sudhita, vasudhita, and nemadhita recorded among others by P (7.4.45 ) as irregular, were, according to the Kasika, replaced (possibly at the time of P) by suhita, vasuhita and nemahita respectively11.1 6 aho purusa, at the base of aho purusika which is first attested in M (twice at 1.15.18. III. 340.15 ), is suspected by V. P. Limaye ( against Kaiyala's derivation to be developed out of adhahpurusa" one who looks down upon others, or treats others with contempt."11.2 III. Syncopation ( and Haplology) : 1. dh + dh > dh ( 8.3.13 dho dhe lopah). Thus, lih + ta > lidh+la ( 8.2.31 ) >lidh+dha ( 8.2.40 ) > lidh + dha (8.4.41 ). 2. r tr=r(8.3.14 ro ri ). Thus, agnir + rathah, punar + ramate etc. 3. Kty ( derives vaihinari from vahinara through vihinaraBut Kunaravalava who followed him derives it form vihinananiz- through vihinara - (M III. 317. 9f.). IV. Syncopation : 12 1. (a) Loss of 'a' when followed by 'a' The form kulata recorded by P (4.1.127 ) is derived by Ptj with the help of pararupa sandhi (under ). (b) Loss af 'a' whep followed by 'e' 1. It is first p who grants sa action to such forms ( 6.1.94 ) as probably in prejati (< pra + ejati ) or upelayati (upa+elayati ). 2. In the case of combinations with eva, Kty ( restricts this Sandhi to the idiomatic use of eva which does not convey certainty. Ptj supplies i heva and adyeva as examples, kveva bhoksyase could be one more. Page #132 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 91 (c) Loss of a' when followed by 'o' 1. The same rule of P (6.1.94) gives sanction to such forms as probably uposati ( nutna alternating with nu+tana (Kty: 2. pratna alternating with pra + tana (Kty: The latter form is post-Vedic. 3. Bharuja (Nir 2.2; bharujt, in AV-S 2.24.8 and AV-P 2.42.6) is derived by Kty (1.1.47,3) from bharj- with the insertion of u(m). 4. marici (Veda) also is derived by Kty there from marc- with the insertion of (m). 5. A large number of past passive participles and other forms are had, either necessarily or optionally, with the link-vowel, technically called it or idagama. Cf. pavita, pavitum, pavitavyam. 6. It is also seen sometimes before ra ( in the Vedic medhira or rathira, or before snu (3.2.136-38) as in alamkarisnu or bhavisnu etc. 7. u as a link-vowel occurs sometimes before ka (5.1.103) as in karmuka, before the primary ra (3.2:161f.) as in bhangura, bhasura, medura vidura, bhidura, chidura, or before the secondary ra (5.2.106) as in dantura, Page #133 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 92 11. "Y"-glide (sometimes with shortening of the preceding vowel.14 1. deyah + iha > devar iha ( 8.2.66) > devay iha ( 8.3.17 ) >deva iha (8.3.19) shows that a hiatus-tilger' y is optionally put in expressions where the hiatus is preceded by aja, though it was elided in the speechcommunity represented by sakalya. This y was a glide or of light articulation (laghu prayatnatara) according to Sakatayana (8.3.18 ), but not necessarily so according to P, implying thereby, as V. Bhattacharya feels, that the glide changed to a fully developed y when Panini wrote his grammar. 2. bho + acyuta > bhoy acyuta (8.3.17 ) or (according to Gargya ) bho acyuta ( 8.3.20 ), suggesting the same implication as above. 3. deva + os > deva-y-oh, although in such cases Pfirst has a > e (7.3.104 ) and then e > ay ( 6.1.78 ). 4. rama + a > rama-y-a, although in such cases P first has a ne (7.3.105 ) and then e > ay. 5. tva/ma + a > tvay/may + a (7.2.89 ). 6. ni + ah > niy + ah; susri + ah > susriy + ah (6.4.77 ): sudhi + ah > sudhiy + ah ( 6.4.85 ); stri + ah > striy + ah (6.4.79 ); stri + am + striy # am (6.4.80 ). 7. da + aka > da-y-aka; da + in> da-y-in; da ta > da-ya; and cekriya, syargahvaya, tantuvaya, dhanyamaya, gosandaya, ksira payin etc., all showing the y(uk) agama (7.3.33 ) according to P. 8. ga + a-ti > gay + a-ti; ci-ksi + us > ci-ksi-y + us; a-da ti > a-da-y + i ( 6.4.77 ); i + esa > iy esa ( 6.4.78 ). III. 'V'-glide (sometimes with shortening of the preceding vowel ) 1. bhru + ak > bhruv + ah; 1u + ah > luv + ah; kata pru + ah > kata pruv + ah (6.4,77 ); bhu + ah > bhuv + ah ( 6.4.85 ); lolu + ah > loluy + ah (6.4.77 ). 2. u-okh + a > uv-okh + a (6.4.78 ). 3. apnu + anti > apnuv + anti ( 6.4.77 ); lulu + uh > luluy + uh (6.4.77). 4, abhu + an > abhu-v-an; babhu ta > babhu ---U-a (6.4.88 ). 5. bhu + adayah > bhu-v-adayah done by P himself at (C) VIKARA C-1. Vowels (a) e ai > 116 P sanctions the shortening" of e or ai into i ( 1.1.48 ). So we get : Page #134 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 93 1. as a neuter stem, ati-ri ati-rai (by 1.2.47 ); and 2. reduplicated forms like piprese or jiheda ( by 7.4.59 ). 3. Although govinda ( attested in the Mahabharata 1.91.11, 5.68.12-13) as " winner of cows " is derived out of go- and vind- by Kty (, it is suspected by Bohtlingle and Roth ( PW 2.816 ) to have developed out of gopendra " the chief herdsman" (through *go pinda ). Or is it, as V.P. Limaye suggests, 16.1 connected with govindu- of RV 9.96.19 or with vindufrom-vindur icchuh of P 3.2.169 ? (b) ofau > 417 By the same rule (1.1.48 ), P sanctions this kind of " shortening ". So we get : 1. as neuter stems, upa-gu < upa-go or ati-nu < ati-nau ( 1.2.47 ); 2. forms like dyi-gu at 2.1.23, tisthad-gu at 2.1.17, citra-gu etc. (all by 1.2.48 ); and 3. reduplicated forms like dudhauke or u-v-okha ( 7.4.59 ). (C-1) It was pointed out by some to Ptj that the followers of the Satyamugri and Ranayaniya schools among Samavedins uttered e and , and hence they deserved to be accepted as the short counterparts of e and o respectively; they were again more homorganic (sasthanatara) than i and u which were enjoyed by P ( 1.1.48 ), and so better satisfied P's condition for a substitute (1.1.50 ) to be the closest possible to the original linguistic Item. Now, although Ptj answers this by saying that it was merely a stylistic peculiarity on the part of the reciters and that an e or an > was not to be expected either in the Vedic or in the secular speech, yet it appears that there was this tendency in the pronunciation of a section of speakers at the time. We know this was a peculiarity of the Prakrit phonology.18 (c-2) ai > e; au > 018.1 Keith suspects the working of this phenomenon 18.2 in the eastern placenames allowed as correct by P (1.1.75 ), such as enipacaniya, bhojalafiya and gonardiya ( supplied by the Kasika ), side by side with forms normally showing ai and au by his other rules (1.1.73, 4.2.114 ). (d) ! > 219 1. P has noted this in reduplicated forms (7.4.66) as in cakre, vavyte etc. 2. Ptj has noted (1.259.14 ) the popular pronunciation of v krs- askas(e) ! > 120 Page #135 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 94 . 1. P has seen this in the case of roots or derivatives (7.1,100,101) as in kirati, kira, kirtayati. 2. Ptj bas noted (1.259.14 ) the popular pronunciation of vdes--as disa- (v. l. y disa-). (3) H. Berger explains20.1 vedh- probably as a borrowal from a vernacular showing it as a secondary strong root from Vidh- which, in turn, developed out of Vidh. (f) ! > 421 1. P has seen this in the case of roots beginning with a labial conso. nant ( 7.1.102 ), as in pupursati. 2. P notes this for the gen. sg. of q-ending forms (6.1.111 ), as id pituh, matuh etc. 3. P notes this for mat; ( 4.1.115 ), in forms like dvaimatura, sammatura or bhadramatura. (8) r > ri22 1. In the passive, benedictive and present active constructions, P notes the root-final changing to ri (7.4.28), as in kriyate or hriyate, hriyat, and adriyate or mriyate. 2. The word krmi is found mentioned by Pti once as krimi which is frequent in the Inscriptions ( M 11.309.7, III. 179.17). (b) ! > e Io the Vedic littrature geha occurs only in the VS-K ( 30.9 ); later it is found once in the Mahabharata ( 3.287.7c) and then frequently in the Manusmrti. At P's time its occurrence must be rare. Yet he has specially derived it form vgrh- (3.1.144 ) showing how ? started getting corrupted into e in the current speech. Kty too has once used it. ( ). (i)(a + CC) > (a + GC) (Shortening of a when followed by a conjunct consonant ). 1. Apisali as quoted by P (6.1.92) allowed the use of forms like uparkariyati and upalkartyati ( mentioned by Ptj, M. 1.63.12 ) side by side with uparkariyati and upalkartyati respectively. 2. Kty's speech contained forms like sakand hu which he derived from saka + andhu ( 3. Ptj further supplied simanta (only referring to the hair ). There were probably many such in vogue at his time, for be twice uses a regular term sakandhu-nyaya' to describe such ( II. 373.107., 111,259.15 ). 4. Common forms like pacanti, gacchanti, etc. seem to be derived (P. 6.1.97 ) through * pacanti etc. Page #136 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 95 5. According to Ptj (III. 96.12-14 ), maskarin recorded by P (6.1.154) is to be derived from *maskarin22.1 showing a sut-ugama. C-2. Single Consonants (a) p > 722.2 gopendra > *go pinda > govinda, referred to earlier, may be seen. (b) c > S If, as S. Sen says,28 savati corresponds to cyavati (7.4.81 ), it appears to be a parallel to the SB ( ) reference pointed out by Mehendale about s having corrupted into c.24 Now, say, is actually found in the famous M (1.9.25f.) and Nir (2.2) passage, savatir gatikarma etc. (c)s > 326 subhita (Veda > suhita has been noted earlier. S > h26 s of the First Future suffix tas and of the root as- changes to h before the termination e, as in kartahe or vyatihe (7.4.52 ). (d) > 127 1. Roots mruc - and mluc - are together mentioned by P ( 3.1.58 ). 2. Similarly, roots gruc- and gluc- are mentioned by him there. 3. The suffix aru (3.2.173 ) deriving the forms sararu and yandaru is mentioned by P, and also the suffix alu (3.2.158 ) deriving sp;hayalu etc. 4. While graha meant only << seizure", glaha also derived from the same root, denoted in P's time "a die " (3.3.70 ). 5. sphurati and sphulati are mentioned together by P (6.1.47) to derive sphara and sphala. 6. By 8.2.21 P sanctions pairs like girati : gilati, nigaryate : nigalyate, and by 8.2.22, pairs like paryanka : palyanka. 7. In some cases only forms with 1 are sanctioned by him 8.2.19 ), as in playate, palayate and perhaps also palyayate. His matula (4.1.49) also is mentioned by S. Sen in this connection.28 8. His root Vlajj- is taken to have been developed out of raj(y). 9. DhP shows ragh- and Vlagh- ( 1.113f. ). 10. Even before Ptj. the r: 1 alternation was sanctioned in the forms taruna ; taluna by the Saunagas ( II. 105.8, 209,8, 238.11 ). Page #137 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 96 11. By the time of Ptj. a number of such pairs were seen current. Thus, bhiruka beside P's bhiluka (on 3.2.174), plaksa: praksa (1.433.1), asvavala : asvavara, Muladeva: Muradeva, laghusyada: raghusyada, alam: aram, svanguli : svanguri, kapilaka: kapiraka, tilvilka: tilvirika, loman: roman, pamsula : pamsura, kalman karman, sukla: sukra ( on 8.2.18) and paliyoga: pariyoga (on 8.2.22). (e) Voicing. 1. P mentions libi side by side with lipi to derive the forms libikara and lipikara (3,2.21). : 2. The name Patanjali, probably a patronymic from Patancala Kapya (of BArUp 3.3.1, 7.1), bears according to Weber and S. Sen,31 an MIA stamp. 3. Mancaka is noted by Ptj as corrupted in his time into manjaka (I.14.20, II.201.3). 4. DhP shows ag- (130) beside Vak- (129) in identical sense. (f) Devoicing 1. As was pointed out by me elsewhere,32 the tendency of devoicing in the following cases: 1, kupya, recorded by P (3.1.114) as an irregular form, derived by Ptj from gup- (II.86.22 ); 2. sankara current with P (3.2.14) and Ptj and suggested by Kunaravadava (who preceded Ptj) to be a corruption from sangara (II.100.8f.) 3. payya-recorded as an irregular form by P ( 3.1.129) is derived by (Kty and) Pij from ma- (II.89.13). If that were correct, could this be regarded as a case of devoicing at the time of P ? (g. 1) Cerebralisation: Unconditional n33 1. The roots pan-, No pan- (3.1.28; DhP 1.466f.), bhan- (RV) : bhan- (DhP I. 474), mun- (DhP VI. 44) etc. 2. Kty ( has noted the form anapayati. 3. Ptj (1.20.12) has noted the form Devadinna. t #85 1. There is a root pat mentioned In DhP (1.318, X.212, 311 ). 2. Ptj has mentioned the pairs, varna-samghata : varna-samghata and pada-samghata pada-samghata (II.104.2-3). # (id) < 186 : Page #138 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 97 1. P has noted the forms vacata vacala (5.2.125) denoting "a talkative person." (g.2) Cerebralisation: Conditional n n 1. There is a large section of rules about this (8.4.1-39) given by P pointing out the use of n as either obligatory or optional, some of which may be illustrated:- badartvana: badarivana (8.4.6) Jan-an- (8.4.1921), prahanmah prahanmah (8.4.23), antarhanama but, when a region is to be referred to, antarhanana (8.4.24), prayana (8.4.29) prako pana or prakopana (8.4.31), pranindana or pranindana (8.4.33). 2. Elsewhere P has mentioned (5.2.78) a form gramani. S 3. Kty has added the forms, girinadi: girinadi (, nirvinna (, dunasa ( etc. 4. Ptj has recorded, among other forms, gramanaya (II.79.17). ! < t < d Page #139 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 98 2. Kty has noted the forms, fodan, sodasa (, dudasa and dudabha ( 3. Among instances of voc. sg. forms, Ptj mentions the stem ambalz.! beside the stem ambada (III. 340.7). dadabha Kits 2169 9oted the forms (d)dh < (d)dh 1. S. Sen points out that, while sadhri is given by P as a substitute to saha (6.3.95 ), in literature it is attested not like that but only In MIA as saddhin. Tbis latter appears to be a counterpart of the Sanskrit, sard dhi. 2. Kty has noted the forms sodha ( and dudhya ( (g.3) Decerebralisation 1. On P's sankaja, prakafa and utkata ( 5.2.29 ), Ptj says that the meanings conveyed by these were respectively sangata, pragata and udgata (II.375 20f.). Does it suggest an actual usage in the speech than showing decerebralisation ? 2. krs- > kasa- noted by Pej is already mentioned. C-3. Consonant Clusters (a) jy > i 1. It is already mentioned that scholars are inclined to derive from rajy (through raji ). 2. Palsuleti derives sajj- also (from v saj-) through sajy. lais (b) sj > P's discovery of the root masj- (cf.7.1.60 ) and >bhrasj-, at the base of majj- and bhrajj- respectively (both arrived at by 8.4.53 and 8.4.40), has been hailed by scholars. (c) ks < khas P's record of khefa once (: ksetra ) has been already mentioned. (d) ps > cches While P mentions Ipsita often, bis Vicch- is certainly a Prakrit form of vipsa. (e) dy > PV In an interesting passage in M (1.11. 11 14), P records the style of some ritual scholars uttering the phrase yar va mah and tar va nah, though only in informal situations; while in formal (ritual) situations they would be particular to utter those 28 yad ya nah and tad va nah. Page #140 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (f) hm, hn, hy, hv, hl44 These clusters (the first two with P, 8.3.26f., and, in addition, the last three with Kty), when following an anusvara, were pronounced then in two ways : either the anusvara being retained, or it being changed to m, n, 9, , and 1 respectively. As has been shown by V. Bhattacharya45 and A. M. Ghatage, 46 this second tendency which began with P and spread at the time of Kty has become more and more frequent in the later stages of Indo Aryan and is the usual one in most NIA languages. Foot Notes 1 "Prakriticism in the Rgveda", Proceedings of the Seminar in Prakrit Studies, Uni versity of Poona, 1970, pp. 199-205. 2 The Nirukta, Lurd, 1926, pp. 132,134f. 3 "The Dialects of Old Indo-Aryan" (pp. 123-38; p. 129) from Birnbaum and Puhvel (ed.), Ancient Indo-European Dialects, 1966. 4 Collected Works, Vol. IV, P, 583. 5 ABORI 24.12,16 (1943). 6 Prakyta-Prakasa of Vararuci (pp), II.2; Siddha-Hema-Sabdanusasana (SHS), 8.1.177. 7 Loc. cit. 8 pp 11.27; SHS 8.1.187. 9 Cp. Burrow, The Sanskrit Language, 2nd. ed., 1965, p. 348. 10 Some Aspects of Indo-Aryan Linguistics. 1968, p. 17. . 11 Loc. cit. 11.1 va sudhita, vasuhita and nemahita are not attested: see V. P. Limaye, Critical Studies on the Mahabhasya (CSM), V.I.S. & I.S., Hoshiarpur (to be published shortly). p. 679. 11.2 See CSM, p. 638. ahopuru sa is not attested in early Literature; it is derived by Nagela (in the Udd yota at 7,2.67) by resort to 2.1.72 of P. According to Kaiyata (11th c.A.D.) on M above and Vardhamana (1140 A.D.) on Karika 120 of the Ganaratnamahodadhi, it forms a member of the manojadi-gana referred to by Pat 5,1.133 and thus gives the form ahopuru sika with the suffix vun and earrying the sense of "the attitude or action of (proudly) considering oneself to be manly." However, neither the Kasika (7th c.A.D.) nor Birwe (p. 344f. of Der Ganapatha zu den Adhyayas IV and V der Grammatik Paninis, 1961) record it within the Gana; but Bohtlingk does include it there (p. 130* of Panini's Grammatik, reprint 1964). 12 Noted by Vidhushekhara Bhattacharya, "Panini's Grammar and the influence of Prakrit on Sanskrit", IL 3.157-59 (1933). 13 PP 111.59-66;SHS 8.2.100-15. 14 SHS 8.1.180. See V. Bhattacharya, op.cit. This is called yanvyavadhana by Sanskrit Grammarians; see G. B. Palsule, The Sanskrit Dhatupathas : A Critical Study, 1961, p. 24, fn.59. 15 See Palsule, op.cit., pp. 23f. 16 PP 1.34.38; SHS 8.1.146, 149f. 16 1 CSM, P. 189f. 17 PP 1.44; SHS 8.1.160f. 18 Cp. PP. 1.5; SHS 8,1.78,82, Page #141 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 18.1 PP 1.35,41; SHS 8.1.148, 159. 18.2 A History of Sanskrit Literature, reprint, 1961, p. 24. 19 PP 1.27; SHS 8.1.126. 20 PP 1.28; SHS 8.1.128. 20.1 MIS 1.48f. (1955), as quoted by Gonda, Old Indian, 1971. p. 173, fn. 9. 21 PP 1.29; SHS 8.1.131. 22 PP 1.30; SHS 8.1.140-42. See also Wackernagel, Altindische Grammatik, Band I,p.199. 22.1 For the original 'ma' in this form, see Limaye, CSM, p. 498. 22.2 PP 2.15; SHS 8.1.465. 23 "Three Lectures on Middle Indo-Aryan". JOI 11.193-216 (1962): p. 200 24 Op. cit., p. 20. 25 PP II.43; SHS 8.1.260. 26 PP II.46; SHS 8.1.263. 27 PP II.30; SHS 8.1.254. 100 28 Op.cit., p. 198. 29 Burrow, op.cit., p. 84; Palsule, op.cit., p. 183. 30 IS (1873) 13.316, fn. 2. 31 Op.cit., p. 200. 32 "A Linguistic Phenomenon from the Mahabhasya", read at the 26th session of the A.I.O.C. Ujjain, 1972. 33 PP II.42; SHS 8.1.228. 34 S. M. Katre, (1) op.cit., p. 19; (2) Some problems of Historical Linguistics in Indo Aryan, 2nd ed., 1965, p. 155. 35 SHS 8.1.205. 36 PP II.22f., SHS 8.1.197f., 202. 37 Op.cit. p. 198. 38 In personal communication. 39 Burrow, op..cit., p. 56. 39.1 Not attested although at the base of ambalika; see Limaye, CSM, p. 669. 40 Loc. cit. 41 Op. cit., p. 183. 42 PP III.29; SHS 8.2.3. 43 Cp. SHS 8.2.21. 44 PP III.8; SHS 8.2.74, 76. 45 Loc. cit. 46 "Pronunciation of Sanskrit in Clusters with h", ALB 25.103-05 (1961). Page #142 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 16. Role of Prakrit Dialects In Sanskrit Dramas Dr. T. N. Dave; Ahmedabad No literature in the world has several dialects spoken by characters in any one Drama. Curiously enough, Sanskrit dramas have more than one dialect in each of them. The hero, the heroine, the servants, merchants speak different dialects in one and the same Sanskrit drama. Prof. Weber has tried to explain this phenomenon as being due to the existence of high degree of social stratification existing in Indian Society of the time when dramatic literature came into existence in India. The small differences of the beginning, were later exaggerated in dramas, and we arrive at the picture we dow see about the dialects in Sanskrit dramas. The difference between the several dialects used in the dramas and Sanskrit was, in the initial stages, so small that all characters and all members of the audience perfectly understood all the dialects spoken on the stage. The difficulty of incomprehensibility did not exist, as all were intelligible forms of one IA. The palpable differences grew in dimensions as centuries passed We have decided to study this question from three different angles, viz. (i) From the point of view of the Pkt. Grammarians, (2) from that of the Dramaturgists and (3) from the actual practice of the poets who wrote dramas. From the long period of about 1500 years of the active life of Prakrits we have selected representative authours of the three branches for our study. Vararuchi, Hemachandra and Markandeya from the Grammariads; Bharata, Dhananjaya and Vishvapatha from the Dramaturgists; and about a dozen poets from Bhasa to Jayadeva of 18th century. Of the three groups, the Grammarians are most reliable as their interest in language was genuine and they were properly qualified for the work. The Dramaturgists have only superficial knowledge of dialects and were interested only in knowing to what areas the different dialects belonged, and whom to assign these dialects among the dramatic characters. The study of play-wrights will reveal what use they have made of the information about the various dialects made available by the above two sources, I The Grammarians : Though no grammasian assigns definitely the different dialects to the different areas, the names that they have given to Pkts are sufficient indication of their locality. Thus, we can take for gran. ted that Saurasens belonged to the western Indian region of the Saurasenas. Mogadhi was spoken in the East, i.e. Magadba, Maharastri in MaharastraPajsaci in the Pisaca country or Durdistan. Paisaci being a mountain dialect was split up into several sub-dialects of which Kashmiri was the Page #143 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 102 chief representative. This is the earliest Geographical lay-out, after that obtained from Asokan Edicts, we have about Pkt. Later, langnages were added, their areas were more specifically ear-marked, and so on. From 4, their number grew to 6 in Hemachandra's time, and in Markandeya we find innumrable dialects and subdialects with various peculiarities of their own. Although from literary point of view Mabarastri (or the Prakrit) is held to be the standard form, and other forms like Saur. Mag., Pais. are derived from it, the historical development tells a different tale. Historically, Pais., is the oldest form; Saur. and Mag. come next to it as twin sisters of East and West; while Maharastri developed last. This is very easy to prove by linguistic arguments: (1) The intervocalic single unaspirated stops remained in fact in Pais. but were either softened or elided in Mag. and Saur. while they were completely lost in Mabarastri E.g. the OI mata 'mother', remained 'mata' in Pais, but became 'mada' or (pida etc.) in Sauraseni & Mag., while in Maha. we find maa, pia, etc. This happened to -k-,-g-,-c-,-j-, -t-, -d-, -p-,-y-,-v-. (2) The intervocalic aspirated stops voiced and unvoiced have been retained in Pai.; while the unvoiced aspirates have been softened, i.e.-kh-> -gh-,-th-> -db-, th->-dh-etc. E.g. Pais. katba; Saur. kadha, Mag. kadha but in Mah. their stop element is totally lost and only the aspiration remains as Skt-katha >Mab. kaha; Skt. sakba Mah.-saha; Skt. Magha>Mah.-Maha etc. Similarly intervocalic -t--tb- -d- remain intact in Pais, but are softened to -d-,-db- and 1.(4) The original dentals are mostly preserved in Pais., but are cerebralised in Saur., Mag, and Mah. (5) Original N remans in Pais. but becomes -- in the other dialects. (6) The original p, ph and b do not change in Pais. but are changed to v, h and v respectively in Mag, Saur., and Mah. (6) The original r of the Vedic dialects remains r in Pais, while it becomes 1 in Mag. (7) The three Skt. sibilants are changed to s in Pals., and Saur. and Mah. follow it, while Mag. changes it to $. (8) Morplologically, the suffixes-aniya- remains intact in Pais, while other Pkts. have-anijja-, similarly -tiya> -tijja, etc. This shows that Pais. stands on the same land as Pali so far as the change of intervocalic stops is concerned. The treatment of conjuct stops in Pals, is almost the same as that in Pali. The other Pkt. dialects have foll. owed the suit. Thus, historically considered, Pais. represents an earlier stage, the Magadhi and Saur. show next later and the Maharastri shows the last stage in the dialectical development. I have not touched Chulika Pais. as it is insignificant and apparent development of Pais, and is not used at all in Sanskrit dramas. The net result of the study of Pkts, in Gram, is that we have obtained a reliable information about the lay-out of Prakrits, Page #144 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 103 which is to be very useful to us when we study the question of distribu. tion of dialects among the various characters in dramas. The lay-out is, In short, as follows :- (1) Pais. covered the modern Dardistan from Kashmir to N. W. Frontier Provinces, Peshawar (which is now in Pakistan). Saur. covered the whole of West India jncluding modern Sind, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Matbura, Brindaban etc. The Mag. covered modern Bengal, Bangladesh, Bibar, Orissa, Bundelkband, Patna-almost the whole of Eastern India. The Ardh-Mag. was a small but important area between Sauraseni and Magadby. The Maharastri spread as for as Vindbya and reached Avanti, Madhya Pradesha, Vidarbha and Konkana. Later it became the standard Pkt. and was an all-India medium for Pkt. Poetry. II. Dramaturgists: Natya-sastra : Of 37 chapters and 9000 karlkas in the work, the section on Language is only a part of one (17th) chapter and is finished in 60 karikas. Language is merely a pathya (stuff for recitation from their point of view. Thejr interest in languages ends as soon as they can identify it and assign it to one or more of the actors and actresses. However, the classifications of languages and the discovery of special dialects are their original contribution. Classification: There is language for gods, animals, trees and mountains. Language is all pervading. This is their Philosophical aspect which is of no use to us. We take the next classification ; Languages are devided into two groups : (a) Bhasas (or major dialects) and (b) Vibbasas (minor dialects). The former are developed and have literature, the latter are used for speaking by uncultured tribes and people and have no written literature, but only some oral stanzas, Bhasas are 7: Magadbi, Avantika, Pracya, Saurasens, Ardhamagadhi, Bahlika and Daksinatya. The Vibhasas are also 7;-Sabari, Abhiri Candali, Khasi, Dravidi, Audri, Vanacars. The second list is original contribution of N. $. to the language group. Distribution :- (a) Bhasas: Mag: for people working in harems of kings. Pracya: for Ceta (megsenger), song of harlots (rajaputras), and wanderers. Saur: for Nayika, Queens, ber friends; This is the general dialect of the women folk in plays, Daks: for warriors, leading citizens, gamblers, drunkers. Bablika : for North Western Indlans, of country Balkh. Pracu or Avantika for Vidusaka. (6) Vibhasas : Khasi for Khasa-tribesmen, nomads. Pancali: for untouchables, Candalas. Sabari: for people of hunting tribes, 1.e., Sabaras. Abbirokti: for goat herds and shepherds, and those dwelling in huts away from town. Page #145 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 104 Dravidi for South Indian tribal people, south of Vindya mountain.. Audri : Tribes of Orissa, working for mud-houses. Magadhi, (different from the Mag. bhasa) ; for pit-diggers, mine-workers, Raksasas and camel tamers, Sakari : a special sub-dialect of Eastern Magadhi. At another place some special classes of men are mentioned. They are called linga-sthas, i.e. wearing specific uniforms, etc. They are Sadhus, Sanyasys, sramanakas, Buddhistic bhikkhus and Bbikkhunis. Their speech is governed by other rules presently to be mentioned. Under this class come also Kapalikas, harlots, tapasvins, Apsarasas, N. S. mentions Bala-bhasa for childrens but gives no further details. Rules for use of dialects ; () Certain characters speak the higher dialects and never condescend to speak the lower one : Kings, Ministers, Pari vrajakas speak Skt. (ii) Certain low-type characters speak their own dialects and never shift to a higher one; as Candalas, Sabaras, Audras. (iii) Certain cbaracters generally speak a higher dialect, occasionally turn to the lower one due to circumstances; Crowned Queens, Harlots, etc. They ordinarily speak Saur, but under the influence of drink, intoxication, turn to a lower Pkt. Apsarasas speak Skt. in heaven, but on earth they speak saur. (iv) Certain characters speaking a lower dialect ordinarily, speak the higher dialect like Sanskrit or Sauraseni, in order to impress the other and to show their proficiency. Dancing girls, spies and detectives, wearing different dresses and wandering in different localities speak different languages to suit their purpose. (v) The Vidusaka always speaks Avanti or Pracya no matter from what ever part of India he comes. (vi) The questions of sex, prestige, learning and social status are involved while distributing the dialects for the stage. Thus the considerations for chosing a dialect for a character are different from those that we fiad in actual daily life, though they are more or less based on the natural distribution of dialects. i III Writers of Dramas : Let us now see how play-writers have in their actual practice placed different dialects in the mouths of different types of people. For this purpose we have selected about a dozen representative dramas covering the whole period of about 1500 years of the life and activity of Sanskrit plays. They are (arranged chronologically) as follows: Bhasa : Sw: Kalidasa: Mal, Vik, sak, Sudraka's Ms; Visakbadatta's Mudra; Bhavabhuti : Malats-Ma., Bhata Nara : Venisam, Harsa: Ratna., Murari's Anargh; Jaydeva's Prasanna; and Rajas. Karpura-manjari. Page #146 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 105 A study of Prakrits found in the Skt. plays reveals the fact that the Pkts. have undergone three stages in their development. The earlier dramas like those of Bhasa, Kalidasa, etc. show that the intervocalic stops are not always elided. There is no Prakrit poetry in Bhasa; in Kalidasa Pkt. poetry in seen twice : Hamsapadika's song in Sak.; and the gatha of Malavika's dance. They are in proper standard Prakrit. Prakrit speeches are short. But when we come to the most thriving period between Kalidasa and Harsa a very large number of Prakrit dialects are found. In Mrccba. for example there are as many as 16. The class dialects multiplied as the classification of the lower class of society grew more and more prolific. After this fertile period, the number of Pkt. dialects shrinks again, the speeches became short and even characters like Sita who normally speaks Saur. shifts to Sanskrit and recites slokas not in Pkt. but in Skt. The predominance of Sanskrit has virtually killed Prakrits in the last period. But Rajagekhara's Karpura-m, is a class by iteslf. It is an entirely Pkt. play where even Kings and Ministers speak Pkt. But even in this play we miss the variety and freshness of the dialects that we meet with in Mpccha. We shall now briefly note the specialities of the role the Pkts. have been made to play. In the interest of the brevity of this paper, I shall not mention those cases of the use of Pkt, which are covered by the general rules discussed above. We shall confine our attention only to the striking peculiarities of the role the Pkts, are made to play; and that too as briefly as we can 1. Sw:- Only three Pkt. djalects are used, Vasavadatta and Padma. yats speak Saur., the servants, men and women speak lower type which can be identified with Pais, and Mag. 2. Kalidasa's plays are full of Pkt, varieties : (a) Malv. : The Parivrajika, though a woman, speaks Skt.; due to her holy status, Haridatta and Ganadasa, both acaryas, speak Skt. Malavika speaks "Saur, but sings her song in Maharastri (i. e. standard Pkt.), Bakula. vale and Nipunika, her close friends, speak Saur. Vidusaka as usual speaks Avantika. Two women speak tribal varieties. Pratybari, a Greek maid servant speaks sabari. (b) Vikr: The Apsarasas speak Saur, as they are on the earth, in heaven they speak Skt. Of the two pupils of the sage, the senior being learned speaks Skt., the junior speaks Pkt. Saur. The woman from the hermitage who escorts Urvasi's son speaks Pkt, though coming from a Page #147 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 106 Asrama. Ayus, the young boy, a fresh product of Asrama education speaks Skt. The Vaitalikas, the Devadutas, kancukin speak Skt. as they have to be in touch with the king. Nipunika, Parijana, Sahajanya, and Ceti speak varteties of Magadhi. (c) Sak: Out of 48 characters, the large majority speak various types of Pkts. Sakuntala, her two friends and the mother Gautami speak excellent Saur. The army officers, the celestial beings like Marica and male dwellers of the asrama speak Skt. Aditi speaks Saur. Men members of Kanva's asrama, Sarangarava, Kasyapa, Saradvata, Purohita at the king's court speak Skt. The door-keepers, Karbhaka, the Police men, the fisherman speak different forms ranging from Saur. to Magadhi and Pais. according to their status. Kalidasa has made the little son of Sak. to lisp in Balabhasa, the broken Saur, and has described it phonetically as having indistinct phonemes (avyaktavarna-ramaniya). As Kalidasa is fond of children, he has introduced a boy-character in Vikr. Only 16 persons speak Skt. and 31 speak various Pkts. Mrcch This play has about 40 characters of which only 8 speak Skt. Others speak various kinds of Pkt. In fact, this play is a mine of Pkt. dialects. There are at least 13 dialects detected by me, though the Commentator says there are more. Vasantasena, the heroine, and Radanika speak elegant Saur. Madanika, Dhuta (Carudatta's wife), Vrddha (Vasantasena's mother) speak ordinary Saur. The cetis, the umbrella-bearer speak inferior Magadhi. Among the male characters Vidusaka (Maitreya) speaks Avanti, Ceta, Vardhamanaka, Samvahaka, the gamblers, drunkards the elephant-tamers and a large number of inferior characters speak various shades of Pkt. ranging from Magadhi to inferior Paisaci. The two Candalas (executors) have their Magadhi. Amongst men, the two merchants, and the clerk of the court speak superior Saur. while the sweeper speaks low Magadhi. The Buddhist monk, against the rules, speaks Pkt. not Skt. The Judge, the prof. of house-breaking (fa) true to his dignified profession speaks Skt. But the most interesting dialect is that of Sakara. It is a highly exaggerated form of Magadh1 abounding in palatal sibilant (); in style the same idea is repeated in different words as Kim yasi, dhavasi, palayasi etc. His similies and mythological references are entirely misdirected; he says Svetaketu was a Pandava, son of Radha; Ravana, the son of Indra, and born of Kunti through Rama-a very absurd set of statements. His verses are not in standard Pkt, and unlike other Pkt. poems his verses are in long metres like Sardalavikridita. There are two cases of change in dialect. The sutradhara who speaks Skt, immediately reverts to Pkt. when he wants to talk with his wife. He says eso 'smi kavyavasat prakrtabhasi samvrttah. Page #148 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 107 Mudra : There are many men characters who speak Pkt. of various types and a large number of cases where the speaker shifts from Skt, to Pkt. and vice-versa. This play being full of spies and detectives, who under various guises have to mix with the public and to speak different languages is interesting from that point of view. The snake-charmer, e.g. speaks three dialects---Skt. before Raksasa, Pkt, in the streets, and Maharastri in his poetical composition. The two officers who play the part of executioners, have to speak Candali, besides his own Pkt. The Buddhist monk speaks Pkt. though according to rule he should speak Skt. Candana. dasa's wife speaks ordinary Saur. and his little son speaks the Bala-bhasa of Saur. MalatiM:- The Abbottess Kamandaki, though a woman, speaks Skt. as she is the head of the Abbey. Her servant Avalokita speaks Saus. Malati as minister's daughter speaks Pkt. but changes to Skt. as that privilege is granted by NS. Senior members of the Church Kapalakundala, Buddharaksita, Lavangika speak Skt., while Kapalika Aghoraghanta speaks Skt, als Saudamsni, though a woman speaks Skt. while her friends speak Pkts. Veni: 19 characters speak Pkts. and 13 speak Skt. Draupadi, Bhanumati, Suvadana, Mata Gandhari speak elegant Pkt. Saur. wbile Cetis, Sakhis, speak Mag. The Raksasi, a unique character speaks Paisaci, Here are represented 3 levels of Pkt speakers: (1) The higher, as illustrated by Draupadi; (2) The middle as in case of Sakbis and (3) The lowest, in case of Raksasi. Ratna : In this small Natika, women of higher status like Sagarika, Susangata, Vasundhara and Ratnavali, speak Saur; their close associates, like Kancanamala, Nipunika speak mixed Sauraseni-Magadbi; the inferior women like Madanika, speak Magadhi. The Magician (aindrajallka) speaks two languages Skt. and Pkt. Vidusaka, as usual speaks Avanti Pracya. Anargh: This play heralds the decline of the Pkt. role in Skt. plays. The Skt. speaking characters out number the Pkt. speaking ones. Only one character of noble rank speaks Saur. But she also changes to Skt. twice and recites long Skt. verses, which is not usual. Other characters are low. Batu. Pasumedhra, Kalahamsa, etc. speak mixed jargons difficult to name. Only Surpanakba, a Raksasa woman speaks Paig. Prasann. R. : This long play has 47 characters of which 10, almost all of minor importance, speak Pkt. Some characters like door-keepers. speak Skt., unusually. Some characters which should speak Pkt. are made to talk in Skt. A few fanciful characters like the rivers Ganga, Yamuna, Sarayu, Godavari, Tungabhadra and the ocean Sagar are introduce which Yamuna speaks Pkt. Others speak Skt. Sita breaks twice in Skt. Page #149 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 108 verse. Trijata, a Raksasi, speaks Skt. Mandodars speaks clegant Saur, but sings one verse in Skt. The God Sun. the forefather of kings of solar dynasty speaks Skt. This play ignores and transgresses dany rules laid by Dramaturgists. Abbreviations and References : (a) Languages. Au, = Audri Av. = Avantika or Avanti Bah. - Bablika Daks = Daksinatya Dr. = Dravidi Kh. = Khasi Mag. = Magadhi Mah. = Maharasgri MI. - Middle Indian Pais - Paisaci Panc. - Pancali Pkt. - Prakrit Prac = Pracya Sak = sakari Saur = Sauraseni Skt. = Sanskrit (b) Works : Var, = Praksta Prakasa of Vararuci Hem. Hemacandra : Siddhahema, ch, VIII Mar. = Markandeya's Prakstasaryasva N.S. or Nat. = Natyasastra of Bharata Das. = Dasa--rupka of Dhananjaya Sahi. = Sahitya Darpana of Visvanatha (c) Dramas: 1 Anargh = Anargha-Raghavam 1 Kar. - Karpura-Manjari 3 Mal. = Malatimadhavam 4 Malv, = Malayikagnimitram 5 Prsn. = Prasanna-Raghavam 6 Ratn - Ratnavali 7 Sak. = Sakuntalam 8 Sw. = Swapnayasavadattam 9 Mr = Mrcchakatikam 10 Veni = Venisambaram 11 Vik, = Vikramoryasiyam Page #150 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 17. Applicability of the Rules of Prakrit Grammar to the Formation of Marathi Words Dr. N. A. Deshpande, Bombay Maraths shares certain features of the Prakrit languages. The peculiarity of the Paisaci language of having 'oa' only, and not 'na', has influenced certain words in Maraybi, like 'una' (379) from "usna' (3607, 'sune' (aa) from suaya' (Tu). The Magadbi trend of 'ra' being replaced by 'la', and 'sa' by 'sa' (u), is to be met with in such Maralhi words like 'pelane' (Ta), 'Josi' (start) etc. The tendency in Ardhamagadhi to shorten vowels is to be found in Marathr; e.g. the word 'kumara' (AT). The tendency of intial 'da' (E) changing to 'da' (5) is common to Ardhamagadhi, Marathi and Maharastri; 'das(EU) becomes 'das' (TA), 'dobalaka' (TEMA) changes to 'dobala' (ETELT). Infiuence of Apabhramsa is also noted in certain Marathi words. Most of its words, as is well-known, are derived from Sanskrit either directly or through the Prakrits. Grammarians like Vararuci, Hemacandra and Trivikrama have laid down, in their Sutras, the rules which govern the change of Sanskrit words into Prakrit ones. An attempt is made be. low to show how a number of rules applicable to the formation of Prakrit words can also be made applicable to the formation of Marathy words. About the TF vowels, Hemacandra says that an am at does not coalesce with the previous vowel (1.8); but then also points out certain exceptions to this rule. The Maratby words like 'r' derived from Sk. (277777', through Pkt, 62727277', '71' from Sk. 67924, through Pkt, barat, 'satAra' from Skt. 'sUtrakAra' and Pkt. 'suttaAra', 'mire' from Skt. 'marica' through Pkt fafar', 'AR' from Sk. 'Aur', through Pkt. 6737T', and it from Sk. Fafa' (Pkt.' 'Pop') are examples of this exception. The Maraths word 97 (in words like that') is derived from Sk. HTT', through Pkt. 7877'. Here the 3' in 7377') is changed to (Hemacandra 1.48). Then, (a+57) the word is har', Lasertion of an 'I T' in certain words is stated by Hemacandra in 1,26. Some of the Marathy words in which such an 347fart is inserted are Har' (from Sk. #9), fia' (from Sk. ART), 'zo' (from Sk. Beat), 'ga' Sk. 3 ) etc, Page #151 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 110 In 1.61, Hemacandra gives the change of '' to ''. This phenomenon is found in Marathi words like 'oMjaka' ( from Sk, aJjali). In I.72, Hemachandra illustrates the optional change of 'a' to 'g' in words like 'sadA'. In the Marathi words like 'iMdoLA' (also hiMdoLA) derived from Sk; AMdolaka (Pkt. AMdolaa) we find the first 'A' changed to 'i'. In 1.92, Hemacandra notes certain words in which short 'g' changes to long 'i', The Marathi words 'kIva' ( from Sk. kRpA, Pkt, kivA ), 'gIva' (from Sk., Pkt. f) and 'y' (from Sk., Pkt. f) are examples, where such a change is seen. Hemachandra illustrates the change of '' to '' in 1.86. The Marathi words 'mehUNa' ' ( from Pkt. mihuNa) 'veDAvaNe' ' ( from Pkt. viDaMvaNa), 'zeMDI' (from Pkt. far) are words in which the '' changes to ''. The change of '' or '' to 'a' is covered by Hemcandra in 1.88ff. The_Marathi_words like 'haLada' (Pkt. haladdI ), paDasAda' (Pkt. paDisa6), 'punava' (Pkt. puNNivA), 'bahINa' ( Pkt. bhaiNI) are illustrations of this change. The shortening of the long '' to short '' is found in words like 'kiDA' (from Pkt. kIDaa), 'piDA' ( from Pkt. pIDA ) or 'piLaNe' (from sa). This shortening of the long '' to short '' is laid down by Hemcandra in 1,101. The change of '' to '3' (Hemacandra 1.107ff.) or ' to 'a' is noticed in Marathi words like 'q' (from Pkt. go, Apabhramsa Sk. puNu, punaH), 'jathA' (from Pkt. jUthaa, Sk. yUthaka), 'caDa' (frora Pkt. cUDaa, Sk. cUDaka) are illustrations of this change. In I.117 Hemacandra tells about the change of ' to 'a', in the word ''(changing to '' in Pkt.) we have a similar word in Merathi viz. 'mohare' from Sk. mukhara and Pkt muhara, The change of ' to 'f' as is seen in words like ' changing to 'F' (Hemacandra I.141) is seen in Marathi words like 'f' from Sk. Rtu. in certain Sk. words like,, etc. changes to '' in Pkt, as can be seen from Hemacandra I.181. The same rule holds good in the case of the Marathi words like '', and '', which have ''in them in place of ' in the words from which they are derived viz. Sk. kuzala (Pkt. kusala ), and Sk. krIta (Pkt. kirIta ) respectively. Page #152 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 111 The change of '*' to y noted by Hemacandra in 1.182 in words like Apa', is also seen in the Maratbi words like 'IT' (from Sk. 1%), 'con' (from Skt. sakala) and 'anega' (Sk. aneka) The Marathi word 'a', is derived from Sk. Buah. Hemacandra gives the example of the Sk. word sfer, in which, when it changes to Pkt., the changes to 'F' (1.194). The change of a to z is found in certain that words like 'ara' from Sk miatt, as noticed by Hemacandra in IV. 262. The Maraths word 'dodila' derived from Sk. tundila (Pkt. tondila) shows how in Marathi also we find this trend of the change of sai to'g'. Hemacandra, in 1.217, enunciates the change of to iz in words like 'ata' etc. The Marathi word 'afaa' derived from the Sk. word gifs (Pkt. area) is an illustration of this phenomenon. Here the (in gen) changes to 'g' (Elfasa), The same is the case with the Marathi word 'DohALA' derived from the Sk. word dohada (Pkt. dohala), The Marathi word elust is derived from the Sk. word gaala, As in words like cao (Hemacandra 1.203), here the 'z' changes to see The change of q' to mentiomed by Hemacandra in 1.232, is to be seen in the Maratbi words like '180' from the Pkt. word 967' (Sk. qa), and e' from the Pkt. word qe (Sk. arg). The rule of the change of q' to fa enunciated by Hemacandra in 1.231 is to be noticed in the formation of the Maralhi word 'eta'. It is derived from the Sk. word 926 '. The q' in the word a ' changes to a'. So we have '; and then #aziz' with the changing to (341' according to 1.177. The change of 77 to fa' (II.126) is found in words like argun' (from Pkt. 2goft, Sk. fort). In the word 'afet', (a change in the form of argut'). we find, how, like Pkt., Maratbi also seems to use a' for '' (1.240) (with a change in meaning of course). The '' in some Sk. words like 'FHE' changes to paccording to Hemacandra ,242. This rule finds itself illustrated in the Maratby words like 'jevaNa', derived from the Pkt. word 'jemmana' (Sk. jamana), 'sAvaLA' from the Pkt. word 'sAmala' (Sk. zyAmala) aud 'kuMvara' or 'kovAra' from Pri. 'kumara' (sk. Hr). Page #153 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 112 The Marathi word ' is derived from the Sk. word 'a'. The rule that is applicable here is 1.183, according to which '' in the words like 'kirAta' changes to 'ca'. According to this rule it would be 'candua', Then, by 1.57ff. ' changes to '; and then by I.217' changes to '', Pkt. vAUla) For the formation of the Marathi word 'vAuDA' (Sk. vAtula, we can apply Hema. I.251. The last ('' and '' being treated as identical) changes to '', as in the case of words like 'kiri', 'bhera' etc. enumerated by Hemacandra in this Sutra. Examples of prothesis are noted by Hemacandra in II.110ff. This phenomenon is present in a number of Marathi words, used especially by the rustlc; e.g. 'mAraga' (Sk. mArga), 'gharama' (Sk dharma), 'bhagata' (Sk. bhakta) etc. So also metathesis or ' noted by Hemacandra in II.116ff. in case of words like 'kareNU', 'acalapura' etc. is to be seen in certain Marathi words like kAkha- khAka, aDANI - anADI, nukasAna - nusakAna, dundha-dhunda etc. Thus, the examples given above show that many of the rules used for the formation of Prakrit words-their derivation from Sanskrit words-can be applicable to the formation of Marathi words. They also show that though every Marathi word is not necessarily derived through the Prakrits, those Marathi words, which are directly derived from Sanskrit, can be so derived by the application of the rules used in the derivation of Prakrit words from Sanskrit words, and that as far as the Prakrit languages and later Indian languages like Marathi, which owe a majority of their words to them, are concerned, they all have similar tendencies in the formation of their words. Page #154 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 18. Influence of Middle Indo-Aryan Literature on Kannada Literature Dr. B. K. Khadabadi, Dharwar It was a sublime virtue of the Jaina teachers and authors that wherever they migrated and settled down, they learned the regional language, cultivated it to a literary one, if it was not so then, and enriched it through their instructional and literary activities. It exactly happened so in South India and particularly in respect of Kannda. It was at the beginning of the present century that Buhler pointed out that the foundation of literary Kannada, together with that of Tamil and Telugu was laid down by Jajna monks. Later Winternitz observed the same fact at same length. The root of laying down the foundation of literary Kannada may be said to go back actually to the great migration of the Jaina Sangha headed by Bhadrabahu and Candragupta and establishment of the first Jain Colony at Sravanabelgola. The members of such Sangha and, later, many a Jaina teacher and author were Prakritists. Hence it was natural that Prakrit or Middle IndoAryan literature influenced Kannada literature to a considerable extent. In such process the non-Jaina Middle Indo-Aryan literature also influenced Kannada literature here and there. As things stand to this date Kannada literature, found in inscriptional form, dates back from the 5th century A.D. There must have been some line of literary development connecting the earliest type of literary activity and this inscription. But unfortunately Time has hopelessly erased it. From 450 A.D., the date of this inscription, to the middle of the 9th century A.D., the date of Kavirajamarga, the earliest available Kannada work, Kannada literature is found so far in the form of inscriptions alone. At this context it is so very interesting to know that the earliest available and decipherable epigraphic records in India, including those in Karnatak are written in Prakrit alone. Hence it is just possible that the literary form of the early Prakrit inscriptions in Karnatak might have served as a model to or influenced the early Kannada inscriptions, a number of whith surely have not come down to us. A comparative and intensive study of the 1 The Indian Sect of the Jainas, English Tr. by Burgess, London 1903, p. 22 2 History of Indian Literature, Vol II, Calcutta 1933, pp. 594.595. 3 This is the inscription of Kakusthavarman at Halmidi of c. 450 A.D. and is the earliest datable one: Sources of Karnatak History, Vol. I, by S. Shrikantha Sha stri, Mysore University, 1940, Intro., p. XX 15 Page #155 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 114 Asokan edicts and other Prakrit inscriptions in Karnatak, including those found at Sannathi and Belvadgi, on one hand, and the available early Kaonada inscriptions, on the other, would yield some tangible result. I could however, note some Prakrit terms in some of Sravanabelgola inscriptions of c. 700 A.D. : moni (S.B. 8,20), risi (S.B. 13) saddhamma (S.B. 29) etc.5 The Kavirajamarga is first available Kannada work and is supposed to have been composed br Nrpatunga (814-877 A.D:), the Rastraki and disciple of Acarya Jinasena. It is a woek on rhetorics and, hence, presupposes earlier forms of literature. It tells us that prior to the 9th cent. A.D. Kannada possessd rich varied literary forms in prose, poetry and mix. ture of both by eminent scholars like Vimala, Udaya, Nagarjuna, Durvioita, Srivijaya, Kavisvara, Lokapala etc. The works of these scholars, unfortunately, have not come to light so far. It is possible that some of their works were influenced by the prior Prakrit literature or some of the authors were also Prakrit scholars. It is interesting to note here that one of these literary figures viz. Durvinita (c. 600 A.D.), a king of the Ganga dynasty, is said to have readered the Paisaci Bebatkatba of Gunadbya into Sanskrit. Now it can be conjectured that this eminent Kannada Prose-writer (gadyakara) might have also rendered the Brhatkatha into Kannada, wbich was lost but still remained, as we shall see below, in an oral tradition from which some of rare storymotifs appear to have been picked up and included in works like the Vaddaradhane. And K.M.Munshi's views regarding the oral tradition of the Brhatkatha in Indian folk-literature very well support this line of thought here. The early prose works like the Vaddaradhane and Cavumdaraya-Pu. rana are highly influenced by the Middle Indo-Aryan literature. The Vaddaradhane, composed by some unknown Jaina (Digambara) monk (0.925AD) is an Aradhana (Kavac3) Kathakosa containing 19 stories which are based on the 19 gabas (1539-1557) in the Bhagavatl Aradhana of siyaKotyacarya. It had as its sources one or more Prakrit commentaries on the Bhagavati Aradhana and are mainly influenced by them. Anong 131 quo. 4 Vide Studies in Prakrit Inscriptions, by Dr. G. S, Gai, Proceedings of the Seminar in Prakrit Studies, Poona University, 1970, pp, 115-123. 5 Epigraphia Carnatica, Vol. II 6 Kavirajamarga, Bangalore, 1898, verses 27-32. 7 This work is not extant. This information is available from some copper-plate Inscriptions, Vide Kavicarite, Bangalore, 1961 pp. 12-13. 8 Gujarat and its Litrature, ch. V 9 Thece gahas refer to the Sholapur edition. Page #156 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 115 ted verses in it 62 ace in Prakrit (including Apabhramsa). The rest are in Sanskrit and Kannada, It bas preserved some are story motifs10 which appear to have been picked up from some written or, more probably, oral tradition of Gunadhya's Bihatkatha. Moreover, an Interesting feature of tbis narrative work is its having some tendencies of the prose narrative texts of the Ardhamagadbi Canon like the Nayadhammakabao, Antagadadasao, A0uttarovavaiyadasao, Nirayavaliyao, etc. and some of the narrative parts of its exegetical literature, where strict adherence to the Jaina cosmographical setting for each story, emboxment of sub-tales in the main or frame-story stereo-typed descriptioas, synonymous repetitions are liberally used. Moreo. ver, several Prakrit words and phrases are found used in their natural set. tings along with the Kannada words in sentences or clauses in the course of the text : vakkhanisu, japisu, javajjivam. chatthatthamadasamaduvalasa etc. After reading the text one feels that the author's Prakrit sources and other Midole Indo-Aryan literature (in Jaina Saurasens, Ardhamagadhi, Apabbramsa and even Palsaci) he bad used or assimilated, had developed in him a special liking for the diction of the Prakrit literary speech. The Cavumdaraya Purana of the great Cavumdaraya (c.778 A.D.) who wrote a Kannada Commentary on the Gommatasara of his teacher Acarya Nemicandra, also shows the influence of Middle Indo-Aryan literature (in Jaina Saurasenl, Ardhamagadbs and Apabhramsa) but not to the etenxt as that of the Vaddaradbane. Similarly some of the early Campu works like the Adipurana of Pampa (941 A.D.), the Santipurana of Ponna (950 A.D.) and the Ajitapurana of Ranga (993 A.D.), all Jaina works, indicate some direct or indirect infi. uence of Prakrit literature. In these woks are found backformations from Prakrit like paguda, carige, vigurvisu etc., the birth of which appear to have been owing to such author's being influenced by their some Prakrit sources along with the Sanskrit ones. Moreover, these early Campu works, beginning from Pampa, were influenced by the Apabhramsa metre Pajjhadia'11 which was adapted to Kannada suitabiy, Pampa was the first known poet to adapt this Apable rarsa metre which later came to be known as 'Raghata' or Ragale'12 with its three varieties Utsaha, Mandanila and Lalita. This "Ragale' metre in Kannada continued to hold its sway on the minds of the later poets to such an extent that with further adaptations it finally appeared as "Sarala Ragale' and continued to be used till the recent days of the 20th century when the 10 Like the hybrid motif of promise to return' used iu ihe sud-sub-tale of Sudame which is emboxed in the subtale of Kanne in the Story of Sukumara Swami. 11 This is described in 1--125 in the Prakta Paingala na, Varanasi, 1959, p. 112. 12 Nagavarma has used these terms for the first time in his Chhando'mbudhi, 3.22. Page #157 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 116 Jhanapitha Award winner Ramayanadarsanam of Kuvmepu is also composed in this very metre,18 Coming back to Pampa he must have sufficiently read the Apabhramsa poetry and adapted it suitably in his works. At this context it is interesting to know that in those days the Prakrit poets also read the works of the Kannada poets with the same zeal and sympathy: Dhavala, an Apabhramsa poet of the 10th Cent. A.D. appreciates in his Harivamsa Purana the work of a Kannada Poet Asaga (c. 900 A.D.) in glowing terms16 : "Asagu mahakai jem sumanoharu Virajinindacariu kilu sundaru / Kettiya kabami sukai gana ayara Jem kavva jahim viraiya sundara || Now there are some scholars who are koown by reference only and who are said to have composed works both in Kannada and Prakrit and also in Sanskrit. Unfortunately these works are not extant. Tumbaluracarya or Srivardhadeva (c.650 A.D.) was an authority on the Siddhanta and wr. ote in Prakrit. Sanskrit and Kannada the voluminous Cudamani Commentary on the Tattvartha-mahasastra.16 Syamakundacarya (e. 600 A.D.) com. posed a Prabhita in Prakrit, Sanskrit and Kannada.16 Bhrajisnu wrote a huge Kannada Commentary on the Aradbanal? (The Bhagavati Aradhana or Malaradhana) on wbich Ramacandra Mumuksu based his Sanskrit Punyasrava Kathakosa. All these works must be having the influence of the concerned branches of Prakrit literature, Then there are some interesting self-refused titles of scholars that ind. icate the possible Prakrit literary influence on their respective works: Balacandramuni (c.1170A.D.) is known as "Samasta Saiddhantika Cakravarti',18 Nemicandra (c. 1170 A.D.) as 'Caturbhasa Kavi Cakravarti',"' Subhacandra (c.1200 A.D.) as "Sadbhasa Cakravarti'20 Magbanandi (c. 1253 A.D.) as <Page #158 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ vayarni (c.1319) as 'Saratrayavedi'.12 A peculiar phase of influence of Prakrit literature on Kannada literature can be seen in the production of several Kannada Commentaries on Prak. rit (Jaina) works. Unfortunately almost all such Commentaries, except a few are still in manuscript from. The following Kannada Commentaries on the respective Prakrit works would give us an idea of the extent of interest of Kannada scholars in Prakrit literature:23 Prakrit Work Samayasara Author Kannada Commentary Author & date Kundakunda Acarya Tika Balacandra (c. 1170 A.D.) Pancastikaya Pravacanasara Pancastikaya Mokkhapahuda Padmaprabba (c. 1300) Balacandra Padmaprabha Kanakacandra (c. 1300) Bahubali Vrtti Baraba Anupeba Tika Malacara >> >> Tika Tika Meghacandra Kesavavarni (1359) Rayanasara Gommatasara Nemicandra Acarya Vrtti Dravyasangraha Vstti & Tika... Vrtti Tika 27 Cavundaraya (978) Kesavayarni Balacandra Kesavavarni Prabhacandra (c. 1300) Padmaprabba Balacandra Kammapaya di Visa paruvana Tibbangi Vrtti 22 Op. cit., p. 469 23 The data collected in the following table is based on (i) Kavicarite I & II. (ii) Kannada Prantlya Tidapatriya Grantha Suci, by K. Bhujabali Shastri, Varanasi, 1948 and (iii) Karnataka Kavicariteya Anukta Krtisuci, by S. Shivanna, Mysore University, 1967. In the following table commentator's name and date are given. If he is repeated his date is not given under his name. Want of information is suggested by a long dash. Page #159 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 118 >> Tika Labdhisara Payadisamukkittana Puvvanupeha >> Vstti ... Megbacandra (-) Padmanandi Balacandra Paramappa payasu Yogindradeva Tika Jogasaru Siddbantasara Asavasantati Arahanasara Jinacandra Srutamuni Devasena Vrtti & Tika... Tika Prabhacandra Balacandra Kesavavarni Santikirti (1755) Maghanandi (c. 1253) Padartbasara Sangraha grantba ,, Sastrasarasa muccaya Now some obseryations may be offered on the contents of tbis table : The commented Prakrit works are mostly in Jaina Sauraseos; two are in Apabhramsa; the Siddhanta sara, being concerned with the twelve Angas, may be linked with Ardbamagadhi to some extent; and Maghanandis works, being of the nature of sangraha granthas with Kannada Commentary, concern with different Prakrit dialects and Sanskrit too. Kundakunda and Nemicandra are the most commented authors. The earliest known Kannada Commentator is Cavumdaraya (978 A.D.) and the latest one is Santikirti (1755 A.D.). Besides these Kannada Commentaries on Prakrit works there are found a number of such ones wherein the commentators' names are absent. It is aiso possible .that many of these may be just the copies of the above noted ones. 24 At this context it is worth noting that in those days the Kannada Commentaries on Prakrit works were held in high esteem in the world of scholars as is seen in the following facts : Ramacandra Mucuksu partly based bis Sanskrit Punyasrava-Kathakosa25 on Bbrajisnu's Kannada Commentary on the Aradhana and Kesavavarni's Kannada Commentary on the Gommatasara was rendered into Sanskrit.26 Besides these Kannda Commentaries on Prakrit works, there is found a Kannada 'tatparya' of Pavayanasara by Padmapandi27 and the Kannada translation of Jnanacandra Carita of Vasavacandramuni by Pujyapadayogi 24 As found in Pt. Bhuja bali Shastri's Suci, 25 As noted above. 26 As noted by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Jrana Pitha Patrika. Oct. 1968, p. 4. 27 Pt. Bhujabali Shastri's Suci. Page #160 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 199 (c. 1600 A.D.):28 Moreover, Samayasara, Tribhuvanakosa, Karmapraksti, Yo. gasara, Paramagamasara etc. are the other Kannada translations of Prakrit works of the same names. Then the numerous Kannada Puranas, Caritas29 and Kathas like the Jaina Kathasangraba, Dharma Kathasangraha and Vrata Kathasangrabado could hardly escape the influence, direct or indirect, of the concerned Pra. krit literary works. Really this is an interesting field for such a kind of study. At this stage I may just refer to an instance of the fact that a very bigh value of Prakrit religious literature weighed on the mind of the Jaina community in Karnatak which is seen in the unparalelled careful way the great Satkbandagama works have been preserved in Kannada script and protected, till today, in the Bhandara of the Jalpa matha in Mudabidri. Now considering the secular literature, the Kannada Lilavaty of Nemi. candra (c. 1170 A.D.), a romance, is influenced in respect of its Mayabh. ujanga Episode by the Karpuramanjari Sattaka of Rajasekhara. We have already seen above that the Ragale' metre in Kannada literature in general is a lovely gift from Apabbramsa in which the great works like the Mahapurana of Puspadanta were composed in the Kannada region itself. Lastly coming to the folk-songs82 it may just be said that Halas Gabasattasai or other Prakrit lyrical songs must have influenced the early Kannada folk-songs which have come down to us from tongue to tongue. It is, of course, very difficult to trace such in. fluence in the Kannada folk-songs of today for some of the basic human feelings and aspirations are more or less the same in different periods and places and "a folk-song theo is always grafting the new on to the old.""88 Yet some of the Kannada folk-songs available today can curiously be compared with those in the Gabasattasas: The folk-songs mavana magale' etc. and 'geneyanna kalakodu' etc. collected by Dr. B. S. Gaddigimath, 34 very well copmpare in spirit with gaba Nos. 161 and 56 respectively. 35 28 Kavicarite II, App. I p. 604. 29 Most of which are still in manuscript form. 30 Noted from Pt. Bhujabali Shastri's Suci, 31 Vide this author's paper: Rajasekbara and Nemicandra, Journal of Karnatak Uni versity (Hum)., Vol. VI. 32 Kannada is also rich in folk literature of varied forms from early times. Nrpatunga proudly tells us that the illiterate Kannada people too possessed skilled poetic talent. 33 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. IX, 14th edition, p. 448. 34 In Kannada Janapada Gitagalu, Karnatak University, Dharwar, 1963. 35 Nirnaya Sagara edition. Page #161 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 129 Thus the Middle Indo-Aryan Literature in Jaina Saurasent, Ardhamagadbi, Apabbramsa, Paisacs and Mabarastri, has influenced, at times indirectly, the Kannada literature in varied ways and in different degrees in different periods of its history86 and made it rich and colour. ful. And the Jaina teachers and scholars have a prominent role in this process right from the days of its foundation, 36 This study, howover, is not claimed 4s exhaustive. Page #162 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 19. Some Obscure Passages in the Candaleha S. M. Shaha, Pune While bringing out the Second Edition of the Candaleha the editor Dr. A. N. U padhye observed : "In this edition it will be seen that substantial additions are made in the Notes by way of explanations of a number of difficult contexts in this play."] Further, he added : "If I could make my Notes so exhaustive the major credit should go to the learned notes of Prof. M.V. Patawardhan..." Now while I had the occasion to teach this Saffaka to my students, I came across some passages which still remained in need of proper or satisfactory explanation, despite the meticulous care of Dr. A.N. U padhye. I, therefore, borrowed Prof. M.V. Patawardhan's translation and Notes in the manuscript form (which he kindly lent we) and tried to solve the difficulties felt by me. Never the less, there still remained some obscurities which I try to solve here. These obscurities may be divided under the following groups : (i) those pertaining to the poetic conceits (Sanketas) adopted by Rudrad asa, the author of Candaleha, (ii) those arising out of the peculiarities of Prakrit language, viz. its innate capacity of pun, its translatability in Sanskrit in more than one way, etc, (iii) those pertaining to textual readings, (iv) those pertaining to syntax, and (v) those pertaining to etymologies. I hope that the discussion of these difficulties, may lead to a satisfactory translation of this remarkable Sattaka, which still remained a desideratum. First, I take up the case where Rudradasa appears to have followed a poetic conceit which was shared in common by many Sanskrit poets. But Dr. Upadhye and Prof. Patawardhan have, I am afraid, not noticed it through inadvertence, and, therefore, their notes and translation have left it as a doubtful passage, 16 Page #163 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 122 The benedictory verse in the play reads as paNamaha sui-rAa-haMsaesu hara-NaaNesu muhaMbuUsuesu / paa-kamala-pahAviaM umAe paDhama-Naimmi avaMga-bhiMga-mAlaM || (CI. I.2) In this verse, salutation is offered to the row of bees in the form of Uma's side-glances. The adjectival phrase 'paa-kamala-pahAviaM' qualifies the substantive 'avaMga-bhiMga-mAlaM'. It means that the row of Uma's side.glances rushed towards the lotus-like feet. And since there is no specific mention of a person whose feet are meant, the meaning has remained a bit obscure. Dr. Upadhyes has understood that the poet intends Siva's feet, while Pro Patawardhan feels a little uncertain about this, as his notes and translation show. Yet, in his translation, he could not help wondering, if the poet meant Uma's feet. In my opinion, this benedictory verse, closely resembles in idea, with the benedictory verse of the Ratnavali. I quote the verse : pAdAgrasthitayA muhuH stanabhareNAnItayA namratA __ zambhoH saspRhalocanatrayapathaM yAntyA tadArAdhane / hRImatyA zirasIhitaH sapulakasvedodgamotkampayA vizliSyankusumAJjaligirijayA kSipto'ntare pAtu vaH // (Ratnavali. I. 1) At this first meeting with her husband, Parvati eagerly hastened towards him, but turned back through natural bashfulness; She began to look down to her own feet ! This shows how it is appropriate to say that in Candaleha the poet describes the side-glances of Uma which rushed towards her own feet. I now take up another passage which expresses a peculiar concept of Drakrit poets and which has not been satisfactorily explained by the two scholars. The passage reads like this eNhi edassa vIrukkarasiramaNiNo kitti-joNhAhi tAhiM thorAArA caorA sasahara-maNiNo Nicca-NIsaMdamaMtA / uvelA siMdhu-velA saI kumua-gaNA hoti NiddA-daliddA therAdo NadaTha-lajjA viharai hariNA caMcalacchI a lacchI // (CI. IV. 19) Page #164 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 123 Dr. Upadhye renders the fourth line of the verse as follows : "Laksmi with tremulous eyes spcrts with Hari, without any sense of shame of the presence of Brahman". He adds a comment that this effect 'is somewhat obscure's and that the other effects described in the verse are natural and conventional! As against this, Prof. Patawardhan remarks, "The sense of the fourth line is not clear." He asks a question : "The moon-light of the king's fame pervades the world, but how is it, and why is it, that Laksmi does not feel any bashfulness in sporting with Hart even in the presence of Brahmadeva ?" To me, it seems that the moon-like fame of the king is shining continuously throughout the day and night. Had it not been so, the poet would not have said that the night-blooming lotuses would not have lost sleep in the day-time That is to say, they retained their bloom all the while. It suggests that the king's moon-like fame has upset the normal course of the Nature, and there is thus a continuous night-like effect-the sun does not appear to come up the horizon. Under the spell of this illu. sion, Brahma who is seated on the lotus growing out of Visnu's navel, would ever remain in a state of sleep. Hence Laksmi eontinues to indulge in sporting with Visnu without auy sense of shame in the presence of Brahma. For this interpretation I take the support of a verse from Vajjalaggam which reads as follows: vivarIyarayA lacchI baMbhaM daTThUNa nAhikamalatthaM / hariNo dAhiNaNayaNaM rasAulA kIsa jhapei || (Vajjalaggam, Section of Riddles,'- Verse 611; 64.1) Prof. Patawardhan has himself rendered the verse as follows: "Laksmi, practising inverted coitus (on Visnu) and overpowered by emotional excitement on seeing Brahmadeva poised on the lotus growing of Visnu's navel, closes the right eye of Hari (Visnu)- but say, why ?" A relevant passage from Ratnadeva's commentary on this verse may be found useful in explaining my idea. The passages runs thus: " idamuttaramatra kathayanti pUrvavidaH / lakSmIH kila kAmArtA brahmANamapi nAbhikamalasthita dRSTvA suratasukhaM tyaktumapArayantI lajjAmajjadvadanakamalA kathamasau parameSThI mAmevaM kurvANAM drakSyatIti cintAcAntacittA, "hu~ jJAtam, asya bhagavato nayanadvayI kila sUryAcandramasau / tahiM yatra sUryastatra kamalaM vikasati, tasmiMzcAstamayamAne payojamapi saMkucati / ato nAbhipAthoruhaM nArAyaNadakSiNanayana sUryAcchAdanena saMkucediti (dakSiNa) nayanaM pidadhe bhagavatyudadhijeti / " Page #165 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 124 In the notes on this verse of Vajjalaggam, Prof. Patawardhan gives the following quotation of Weber in this reference : "And thereby (i,e by covering the right eye of Visnu ) she covers the sun bimself, so that now the lotus-flower becomes contracted or closed, and Laksmi can now indulge in the fazla enjoyment with Hari, without any exposure"? Mammata in his Kavyaprakasa, also comments on this verse as follows: "atra hi haripadena dakSiNanayanasya sUryAtmakatA vyajate / tanmIlanena sUryAstamayaH tena padamasya saMkocaH, tato brahmaNaH sthaganam / tatra sati gopyAGgasya adarzanena aniyantraNaM nidhuvana vilafaay 1" Secondly, I take up a passage which contains such a word that is capable of yielding more than one Sanskrit equivalent and this would, conse. quently, lead to some difficulty of interpretation. And, what is more, one of the Sanskrit equivalents of the word is a technical term in the Nat yasastra and, I have no doubt that Rudradasa had this sense in his mind. Let me read the original passage and then explain; "3713770-19347-es-tig-ha-Af1901-*#70- ... NOT WISTEMI I Prof. Patawardhan derives 3113170 from 37gatur meaning 'the waving of light' and renders the passage thus: " It is (i, e. the sound of dancing=0301-031631) mixed with the tinkling sound of the jewelled bangles placed (word) on the wrists of the act. resses (dancing girls), who have started the waying of the light." Dr. U padhye also presents the same meaning of 371STTOT with some reservation as shown by his question mark in the notes ! The Prakrit word oaraNa may be rendered in Sanskrit as (i) upakaraNa (ii) apakaraNa (as the printed chaya gives) and (iii) 37aat. Out of the three Sanskrit equivalents we may drop 37470 (i.e, instrument) at the very outset since it has no relevance here. 379 means 'carrying away', 'scattering' etc. But this too is meaningless. since it does not explain what the actresses were carrying away or scattering so that the movements of their hands caused the tinkling sound of the jewelled bangles. This may be cited as an example where the printed chaya has failed to give a satisfactory rendering of the original Prakrit accept what Dr. U padhye and Prof. Patawardhan have said that 3113 Tur is derived from spamut. But I do not agree to their interpretation of graacor as 'waving of light.' It appears to me that Rudradasa here indicates the avataraNa as ths second part of the preliminaries (pUrvaraGga) of the performance of plays. It is one of the nine items of the gets which were performed be. hind the curtain at the beginnig of a dramatic performance. According to Page #166 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 125 the Nafyasastra (v.17)8 the placing of the singers in their proper positions is called the avataraNa. It follows the first item of the pUrvaraGga, viz.pratyAhAra which means the arranging of the musical instruments. Our passage clearly refers to this usual preparation of the dramatic troupe of actors or actresses in the Green-room. It appears to me more likely that Rudradasa bas well kept in view the dictates of Bharata and, therefore, referred to the second item of the tits to which I have referred to earlier. I must add that Bharata defines saatu as the placing of the singers. We can general se the meaning of the term 'singers' as factors or actresses' Since they used to play their part and sang as well when occasion demanded. It is quite natural that when a band of dancing-girls or actresses starts taking proper position behind the scene, the jingling sound of their bangles adds to the 70-ak i, e. the sound of dancing or acting. By the way, let me point out that the Nati in the prastavana of the Sakuntala also sings a song. It will be evident from this that the meaning of saatu as 'waving of light' as given by the two scholars, fails to explain the passage adequately. There is one more instance where the peculiarity of the Prakrit lang. uage and Rudradasa's fondness for adopting words of dramatic science with a deliberate play on word is clearly noticeable. The passage reads thus : so saTTao sahaaro kila NADiAe tAe caujjavaNiaMtara-baMdhuraMgo / cittattha-suttia-raso paramekka-bhAso faci4911fa-1f247 #feet gele 11 (CI. I. 5) Here the phrase cittattha-suttia-raso is rather difficult of rendering. citta may mean fee or fan; But the term 37 is capable of yielding more than one meaning and an exact sense which is suitable to the context should be decided with a great care. It can be equivalent of any as well as fait (fax-171-37ef:). But if we pay attention to the fact that Rudradasa is defining or describing saffaka as a type of drama in this verse, we can easily rule out other meanings and fix only that meaning which specifically throws light on the characteristics of a Sattaka. Dr. Upadhye translates the phrase "wherein the sentiment of love is woven through varied situations;'9 While Prof. Patawardhan makes a valuable addition to the meaning by translating the word far as 3ya gear and rendering the whole passage as 'wherein Page #167 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 126 the emotional element (of love) is woven on marvellous situations. I would like to interpret atef as a plot and hence fearah means a wonderful plot. The translation will be: "Wherein the emotional element of love) is developed through a wonderful plot." I may add that this meaning is justified if we take into consideration Visvanatha's10 description of Sattaka also in his Sahitya.dar pana. I must, however, admit here that my translation does not differ very much from that given by each of the two scholars. Nevertheless, it has achieved a slight improvement, For, while Dr. Upadhye stresses over the sentiment of love, he overlooks the element of 37 : So also does Prof. Patawardhan throws the sentiment of love into the background and is not quite certain (or rather, is a bit doubtful) about the element of a. My translation shows how Rudradasa has kept in view Visvanatha's definition of a Saffaka and thus some positive improvement, Thirdly, I take up a passage where I find the texual-reading adopted by Dr. Upadhye is not preferable to a reading which he has discarded. In addition, the printed chaya of the reading also causes some confusion. I would, therefore, quote the passage and its Sanskrit chaya and explain what I mean, The passage and the chayu read thus : fa-farr37-an-gia-igia-galicaTf7:371 - 7301-mora igo-facaexf31-AR-at-f9574-#-AETT...531 773720 i (CI, I, 17.5) [dizAvirAva[vega] muhyatsaMcaranmugdhAbhisArikAcaraNajhaNajhaNAyamAnanU puravirAvamukharIkRtamArafaetu THAIETT... Helaat ] (ibid.) Prof. Patawardhan says that this passage is obscure and offers a ten. tative translation : "...and which is charming with the victory-proclaiming drum of the bero viz, cupid-the drum which is resounding with the jingling sound of the anklets, tinkling because of the movements of the lovely Abhisa. rikas, moving out (to meet their lovers by previous appointment), being powerfully affected ( 41), by the force (or fury) of the exciting) sounds in the various quarters..." Here the Vidusaka is drawing the king's attention towards the great city which looks charming, enchanting and hilarious at the advent of the spring. People are celebrating the spring festival. They are in gay, free, Page #168 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 127 festive and amorous mood. Abhisatikas also being affected by the light atmosphere, are passionately rushing towards their lovers, The variant reading Fealaat of the Ms. Ka' in the place of the reading for fara preferred by the editor suits better in the above context and helps to remove the obscurity in understanding the passage. Here the Prakrit word 'F' (i. e. ft) is derived from the Sanskrit word 'fa' meaning "the sky'; We may take fattat for the Sanskrit word auto meaning 'change or loss of colour'. At the close of a day, the sky loses its various colours and finally plunges into the ocean of darknegs. As per literary convention it is twilight or a little later an Abhisarika goes to meet her lover at a rendezvous. Hence 'fee-fact-a-ra-gia- Tea ' etc may be rendered as follws: "...Jingling sound of the anklets of the charming Abhisarikas being overwhelmed by passion moving immediately as the sky lost its brilliance (i. e, as it became dark)." In the above explanation, I have expressed, though faintly, my dissa. tisfaction with the printed chaya. There are, however, more instances where the chaya needs to be corrected11. But just I pass over that part. Now I take up yet another passage where I believe a proper reading of the text was necessary and where a problem of syntax is involved. The passage under question is this: "kadivaa-guNaggahaNa-gavva-vaMcide vipaMcie, agaNijja guNaM amia-guNAaM imAe 3quartat o fe a \" (CI. 11. 22 2) In this passage, the phrase 'agaNijja guNaM amia guNAaM imAe' is apparently obscure In order to overcome this obscurity, Dr. Upadhye12 prefers a reading of (from the Ms. Ka) to form and makes fuJU (vocative) an epithet of fagfy. Prof. Patawardhan disapproves of this reading because, according to him, fue JU' would be a repetition of faget and he appears to be right. He, on his own part, amends to SAC and suggests that 37fa31 J037 should be altogether dropped. But I am afraid, he is taking too much liberty with the text in order to overcome the obscurity. In these circumstances, a third reading may be suggested as a possible alternative-"...377651 Jul 374 3 37 ATC...' (87777afta 11 37 T: 978: etc.). While construing this phrase, I treat stofur (Acc. pl.) (on the lines of Prof. Patawardhan) as an object of squad. True, this construction appears to contain a repetition of the same idea, Page #169 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 128 f. e. innumerable qualities. But the word of 3TUJUT24 which I have suggested may be translated into Sanskrit as amitaguNAyAH and amRtaguNAyAH as well. This newly suggested reading might remove tha obscurity without much alteration in the text; for it is only possible that the copyists may introduce an 3176 where it was not necessary. What now remains is a few cases of etymologies which the two scholars have shown as mere obscurities. Let me venture to offer some of them. Take for example, the passage ' f ha 33779 na fa' (CI. II. 8-15) The chaya runs-paga H07441 Transfer | Dr. Upadhyels interprets afas g1 in a 'round about way' and adds that its etymology is not clear. He further states that it is the way of putting things in the fashion of a Dravida; and it can be compared with afael TA, an idiomatic phrase in Marathi. Prof. Pataward han hypothetically suggests that qual may be equated to art and translates, "why are you going by the way of the Dravida ?" In this context let me point out that late Prof. K. P. Kulkarni in the Marathi Etymological Dictionary (Edition II, P.453) while annotating a word "Dravida' has stated that the term 'Dravida' con. notes what is strange, abnormal and everything that is opposed to Aryan, The Maratbi idioms as drAviDI prANAyAma and drAviDI kAsoTA are based on this concept and they point out the same meaning of doing a thing in Dravida fashion, i, e. in round about, twisted manner or in curved or bent form. That is a devlation from the direct, straight or normal Aryan manner. But I feel that the word 73 371 (403) appears to have no connection with the Maralhi idiomatic use. It seems to have a Dravidian origin. A Tamil root matanku (mafanki) means, to become bent, as an arm or a leg, to bend, to turn about, to be twisted, to bo diverted etc. A Tamil noun matankal also means bending, being bent etc. A Tamil word manti means kneeling (bending on one knee) as an-archer. In Malayalam manfuka means to be seated on heels. In Kannada mandi means what is bent, the knee; In Tulu mand: means bending(kneeling) on one knee. With these words we may compare a Sanskrit word manduki which means a part of an elephant's hind leg. Though it is difficult to guess from which particular Dravidian Language the Prakrit fogor que has originated; It appears as the closest to Malayalam oz. "oz' is changed to ' in Telagu and Tulu gfog. Rudra. dasa halled from Kerala, where Malayalam was prevalent; and therefore, maNDaka or maNDakA seems to be derived from (maNTuka> maNduka> maNDaka maNDaa or qocat.) Page #170 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 129 Now, I try to offer an etymology of a word af, satisfactory translation of the passage concerned. The passage runs : "porathama-kaba liA - pariggaho ebva bisuNeha gurukulavAsaM / " By far, Dr. Upadhye means 'a piece of cloth over a sore wound, a bandage'. He further adds, 'Here it appears to signify some thing like a cloth-bag for books'.14 Prof. Patawardhan suggests that it might indicate a wooden support for holding a book while reading. If we take into consideration the etymology of af Prof. Patawardhan's suggestion regarding the meaning of seems to be quite justified. The word f appears to be of Dravidian origin. Most probably it has developed from Tamil root 'Kavar' meaning 'to bifurcate, to branch off, to fork, to seize, and to grasp.' The Tamil word 'Kavalai' means forking of branches. The Kannada root 'Kaval' is a counterpart of the Tamil root Kavar meaning to become bifurcated or forked; 'Kavar' is also noun and means bifurcation, couple, pair etc. There is Sanskrit root which also means to grasp, to devour, to eat etc. One does not know if it is derived from the Tamil root 'Kavar', since the meaning indicated by 'Kavar' seems to be more primary and original than that of 'a'. Again the Paia-Sadda-Mahannavo gives kavaliA (strI.) as a Desi-word and translates as 'jJAna kA eka upakaraNa' - (ArAdhanA prakaraNa, gA. 8). At present I could not consult ArAdhanA prakaraNa but if it treats a wooden-support along with (a scriptural text) as an instrument of knowledge, this may serve as an additional evidence. The Marathi root which means to embrace, to grasp with two arms, also gives the same meaning throwing light on the function of af grasps or holds a book with its two arms. 15 which and thereby Cl. 11. 20.7) Hence though Prof. Patawardhan retains the word 'fr' in his translation as it is and gives its meaning as a wooden support for holding a book in a bracket along with an alternate meaning 'cloth bag' suggested by Dr. Upadhye, we may give the definite translation of the passage in question as follows: "The very manner in which a person holds the wooden support for holding a book while reading suggests his residence in the preceptor's house. Lastly, I give here, an etymology of a word a 'jo khalu lAhillo rivuNo sirI-karagharI-kesa - gahesuM balA'... ( Cl. IV. 17b) 17 from the passage Page #171 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 130 The chaya runs: '7: 63, GHITA fiat: >> afina96! 21...' Prof. Patawardhan translates, "who is successful in forcibly seizing the hair of captured royal glory of the enemy" and remaks, "The word 'fect' is obscure in meaning. It is rendered as afer in the chaya. aft: + apa:+ a prisoner, a captive. fecraft (sit a&t)-meaos, perhaps, the enemy's glory (royalty) taken prisoner or captive or captured'. So far as the etymology of the is concerned, I offer the following suggestions : (i) #79*<#Trast<$r819< *1712&. [ Sanskrit #rize here reminds me of the Tamil word 7 which means the fenced houso (prison-house)]. (ii) Accordiug to the Desinamamala of Hemacandra (II, 15). #TA is synonymous with aret. In the commentary of the same verse (1, e. I1,15) Hemacandra says, "THI gocar fl" i. e, a lady captivated by force. It is possible that #7777 may be a scribal error for the original word #777). Dr. Upadhye has already detected a lot of scribal errors of various types in the Prakrit text. (ili) #aft #ragt (FTRT ZET: JAI: *1981)? (Is it like 'atfor: tala: 7641: qozelfa uralgi etc. ?) Foot Notes : * While I prepared this paper, I had unhesitatingly troubled my colleague Dr. K. P. Jog for getting some knotty points clarified; and he readily offered his help. 1 UPADHYE, Candaleha, Second Edition, Preface, p. XI, Bombay, 1967. 2 Ibid. 3 Op. cit. Notes, p. 81. 4-5 Ibid, p. 97. 6 M. V. Patawardhan, Vajjalag gan, p. 167. 7 Ibid., Explanatory notes. 8 kutapasya tu vinyAsa: pratyAhAra iti smRtaH / agraarui a 17191 faaaa | Natya'sastra, v. 17. 9 OP. Cit. Notes, P. 81 10 372 H H 1...7 a fax + 4 5 czarya ra: 11 etc. -VISVNATHA, Sahitya-dar pana, VI. 276-7. 11 For example, in the chaya of III, 6 a, p. 50, of Candaleha, there should be [5971: instead of all as an equivalent of '1837' which suits better to the context. 12 OP. cit. Notes, P. 91 13 lbid. P. 88 Page #172 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 131 14 OP. cit. Notes P. 91 15 I record with gratitude that Prof. Dr. H. C. Bhayani supplied me the following re ferences and meaning of this word. .. (1) # # (a) catatata, ed. by Mrgendramuni, p. 252, line. 18. (p) 977 of tartar, 10, 27-28. (ii) #95 in 997at, 24, 19-20; 25-26; 25, 1-2. Meaning: A cardboard with two or three folds and used to keep papers, manuscripts, etc. inside it'. : was, however, not able to check up these words personally. Page #173 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 20. Some Prakrit Forms from the Vasudevahindi not available in Pischel's Prakrit Grammar onder Jain Mabarastri Dr. K. R. Chandra, Ahmedabad Dr. Pischel has collected a rich variety of Prakrit forms under various Prakrit dialects in his Prakrit Grammar. But a study of the Vasudevahindi reveals that a number of JM forms have been left unrecorded and this was due to unavailability of sufficient JM literature to him at that time. Dr. Alsdorf has already discovered some forms from the VH which are unrecorded under JM by Plschel. But still some more forms can be traced in the VH? which are unrecorded by Dr. Alsdorf and also do not find mention under JM in Pischel's Grammar though they are assigned to some other Prakrit dialects. A. Forms that are noted by Pischel from Amg. only. (i) artit as Acc. plu. of arg (Fifa) used as Masc. ; Pischel (381) records this form from Amg. oply. The VH also has this form. [azgot ar si atlatait JEU 340195 - 20.25, 478 AMTST resfu SIFA 21.1] (ii) Ara as Nom. plu. of FIE : Pischel (380) records it from Amg. only. But in the VH there is available this form. (Area Farer 550 ...... 72797A1721-- 89.18 ] (iii) meat as Acc. plu .of HIE : Pischel (381) records qaat as Acc. plu. of qy from Amg. only. In the VH, we find a similar form in plaat EBM ATT HETT Aado Aka n 5% afT f - 39.16, # zafa-87.23] (iv) ZEFET Inst. sg.: Pischel (404) notes it from Amg. oply. 1. See Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies. Vol. VIII, pp. 319 ff. 2. This sludy covers only first 113 pages of the VH Page #174 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 133 [tassa piyA AsukkAramaraNarogeNaM kAladhammuNA saMjutto- 75-25 ] (v) -o as Ablative sg. termination of Fem. base : Sec Pischel (386) kosaMbIo AgacchAmi-42.23, ujjeNIo AvaMteNa-43-21, niggao sahAo107.11 (vi) bhayavao as Gen. sg. : See Pischel (396). [taM soUNa bhayavao vayaNavitthara-3.16, See also 5.5, 25.14. 1 (vii) ammayAo and ammatAto as Voc. Plu. of ammA-tAta : ___See Pischel (366 b and 372). [evaM ammatAto ! ahamavi- 6.1, evaM ammayAo ! ahaM saMpayaM- 6-14 ] (viii) tubbhe as Inst. plu. of II: [ajjaya ! tubbhe vAsasayaM paribhamaMtehiM ahaM ajjiyAo laddhAo- 110.20 ] (ix) tubha as Gen. sg. of II : See Pischel (421). [iyareNa sAhuNA bhaNiya-dacchAmi tubha bhAugaM pabvayaMta- 20.28, tumaM putta ! dArayasa. mIve, sesA tumbhaM avasANe- 109.8] (4) tunbhaM as Gen. plu. of II : See Pischel (422). __[bhayavaM mA bIheha, jaM amha hohiti taM tubha pi hohiti 43.8, teNa bhaNiyA tubhaM kiM mariyanva-92.14, Ste also 49.10,56.25] (xi) etto, itto as pure Abl. sg. of etad : See Pischel (425). [Na etto airiyaM daTUThavvaM-5.9, jai itto me niggamo hojjA- 10.1 ] (xii) Instrumental forms of 3477 stem : Pischel (430) records that 377 stem has been retained in the Inst. only and indeed only in the prose of Amg, In this connection he refers to JM (Erz. ) also but without any example. In the VH we find the Inst. forms of ana. Page #175 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ [Inst. sg. of Mas. -94.8, Inst. plu. of Mas, fang-89.28, Inst. sg. of Fem. y of Fem. kahio aNAhiM cAraNAdeso paNayaM ca - 83.10] -103.15, Inst. plu. (xiii) Forms of kayara : Pischel (433) records the forms of from Amg. only. [citiyaM ca NAe - kayaro maNNe esa devo - 78.13, deva ! ettha amha kayara khettaM -- 91.7, aNNA kaNNA kayaro visirUvA - 103.5] B. There are in the VH available some forms which are noted by Pischel from other languages but not from JM. (i) Lengthening of ending short vowel of Masc. base in Voc. sg.: Pischel (71, 363, 366 b) notes that the ending short vowel of Mas. bases is lengthened in some cases. He gives examples only from, Amg, S. M., Mg. and Ap. [tao bhaNai usabhadatto-jAyA ! asthi te viulo attho - 6.3] (ii) as Gen., sg. of II: Pischel (421) notes it from Amg. S and M. [rar! arfer a fas-6.3 See 32.3, 59.13, 95.8, 90.18, 89.29 also.] (iii) of as Acc. Sg. of 134 (Fem): Pischel (431) notes it from Amg. S. and M. [vacchAmo, dacchiha NaM - 82.23] (iv) of as Acc. sg. of (Mas.) Pischel (431) notes if from Amg. Mg. S. M. and Ap. [ esa me khuDDaDgo, soyarikA ! mA NaM pIDeha -22-21, See also 6.28, 21.13, 24.16 48.23, 55.8, 14, 98.1] (v) evaM as Acc sg. of idaM : Pischel (431) notes qui from Mg. S. and M. [ to sA eNaM soUNa AsuruttA - 28.3] (vi) gas Acc. sg. of Neut. Pischel (429) records this form from Mg. only. [ suNaha idaM - 22.5) PA Page #176 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 135 (vil) se as Acc. plu. of III : Pischel ( 423 ) notes it from JS. only, [khamasu se - 88.30 ) (viii) te as Inst. sg. of II : Pischel (421) says that the interpretation of te as Inst. sg. is sometimes necessary and for that he gives examples from S only. In the VHwo find a number of such examples purely used for Inst. sg. (appaNA ceva ya te kao doso - 29. 14, kIsa te esa tilapUlao. ANio -32. 25, suTu te suo dhammA- 4.5, na te puNo tassa darisaNaM dAyavaM - 51.25, kiM ciMtiyaM te- 99. 22, See also 28. 8, 14. 30, 7. 29 ] (ix) tANa as Gen. plu. of III Mas. and Neut. : Pischel ( 425 ) notes it from Mand Ap. Flom JM he notes aro but in the VH we find au also. [tANa ya ahaM putto agaDadatto - 36.5) C. The following forms have been noted by Pischel from Maharasiri only but we find them in the VH also, (1) paccha o ( adverbial use of paccha) See Pischel ( 69 ) [se me pacchao ceva vattai - 6.9 ] (ii) tumAo as Abl. sg. of II : See Pischel (421) [ko vA me tumAo visiho nattuo --110. 25 (iii) tume as Loc. sg. of II: Sce Pischel (421) [tume parAjie tubbhehiM samvehiM niggantavvaM io -86. 3) (iv) imo as Nom. sg. Masc. of idaM See Pischel ( 429) [imo sarIrasamudAo - 23. 18] (v) kammi as Loc. sg. of ka : See Pischel ( 428 ) [imo sarIrasamudAo...... kammii samae paDihii ---23. 18] Page #177 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 136 D. Verbal Forms : (i) Nijaha Passive form ofNI: It is noted by Pischel (536) from M. only [jassesA samIvaM nijjai bhANussa- 94.6] (ii) mahaMta Present Participle of ati + yA : [aiMto ya kaNho -107. 16] Pischel ( 493) has noted it from M. only. (iii) ejjA as Optative termination of I sg. : Pischel (+60) notes quas termination of I from Amg. only and in the case of JM. he notes ejja only. [ahaM pi tumbhehiM same ujjeNI vaccejjA -43. 3, jayA puNa (ahaM) paMciMdiyavisayasaMpalaggo bhavejjA - 6. 15] (vi) -tANaM as the Participle of absolutive : Pischel (583) restricts it to Amg. only. .. [SayamahuNA tassa muhaM bharettANa kayaM se vaNarAhaNaM - 53. 27 ] (v) Use of Passive base for Active voice : Pischal ( 550 ) says that Passive is sometimes used in the sense of Parasmaipada. He does not record any example from JM. He has noted examples from Amg. M. and Ap. In the VH there is [logo ......samaNasamIvamuvagammati -85. 13] Page #178 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Prakrit verses in works on Sanskrit poetics have received less attention than what they deserve from Sanskrit scholars and editors of these works. Scholars believed that the number of these Prakrit verses might not be large, as a good many of them are repeated from early standard works. When I first undertook the work of restoring the text of corrupt verses in Prakrit, given as illustrations in these works, I myself was not aware of the stupendous nature of the work I would be required to do. No doubt, a large number of these verses are quoted in common by various writers on poetics; still the fact remains that the total number of Prakit verses cited as illustrations far exceeds our general belief. Bhoja's Sarasvatikanthabharana (SK) alone quotes 350 Prakrit stanzas; and his Srngaraprakasa (SP) earns the distinction of quoting the largest number of Prakrit verses. The first 24 chapters of SP out of 36, which are so far published, contain 780 Prakrit verses. Chapters XXV to XXX of the SP which were available to me for my present study quote not less than 694 Prakrit verses. In all we have 1480 Prakrit verses in the first 30 chapters of SP. I have already published my study of the Prakrit verses occurring in the first 24 chapters. 21. Bhoja's Srngaraprakasa (Chapters XXV-XXX) Prakrit Text Restored Dr. V. M. Kulkarni, Bombay In this paper I present study of the Prakrit verses occurring in Chapters XXV to XXX (both inclusive). With a view to saving space I confine my discussion to very obscure Prakrit verses and as regards the remaining ones I refer scholars to the sources indicated in the Index given at the end of this paper. 1) Vide my papers: The Srngaraprakasa; Prakrit Text Restored. 1) Shivaji University Journal, vol. I, 1968 2) -do -do- vol IV, 1971 3) - Bombay University Journal vol XXXIX,No75, 1970 I acknowledge with thanks the following suggestions made by Prof. M. V. Patwardhan after going through these papers: 18 - Shivaji University Journal, vol IV; 1971 Page #179 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 138 1)..........(tatra viniyogavidhya peksita-sesabhava-pratipadakani sruti-lingadi sat pramanani- Paropakarabhavo vis-sah samakhyato yatba - (pp 887 -- 888) sa0 ca saNNA ghaNNA etc. Now, this gatha, in its present form, is obscure. It may tentatively be rewritten as follows : sacca saNNA dhaNNA jA taiA kesaveNa giridharaNe / gurubhAravAvaDeNa vi tasavaliacchaM ciraM dihA // rsatyaM saMjJA dhanyA yA tadA kezavena giridharaNe / 1 LgurubhAravyApRtenApi vyasravalitAzaM ciraM dRSTA ||J atra dhanyeti samAravyAbalAt sadaiva tasyAH priyaprasAdapAtratva eva viniyogaH / 2) Virabavisuranam yathaafwat............. 70 g 11 (p 901) These four lines, as prlated in the text, lead us to believe that they form the four quarters of one single stanza. On a closer look it is, however, seen that they are in the Arya metre (with 12, 18, 12 and 15 matras in the four quarters respectively) and actually form two independent stanzas. i) P.5, II.B. 1 "The remaining three quarters of the gatha( OH 01934 etc.) show close similarity with GS III. 15 (st 215 according to Weber's edn, 1881). There the fourth quarter reads kuvi . (=kupitam ) which is decidedly better than the reading Frost (=5434 ) of the Strgaraprakasa." Bombay University Journal, vol XXXIX, No. 75, 1970 : ii) p 25," Stanza No. 22 # af akcufgoot etc. The first quarter of this stanza is identical with Vajjalagga No 432.For 479=GT PE Cf GS IV.69". iii) p 26, St No. 24 : Cf GS V. 93. iv) p 26, St No. 26 : Cf Vajjalagga No 472. v) p 27, St No. 30 : Cf st No 743 in Weber's edition (1881) vi) p 28, St No. 37 : Cf St No 720 in Weber's edition (1881) and st No 284, Vajlalarga. vii) p 31 st No 49 : GITHUBTetc. Cf GS VI. 50 viii) p 33 St No. 55 : Brorssy etc. Cf St. No 958 in Weber's edition for The second half. ix) p 38 st No. 81 HEAT AT HIETA3 etc. Cf. GS V.97 for the quarter. Page #180 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 139 perijjaMto puvakae hiM kamme hi kehiM varAo / suhamicchaMto dullahaja gANura e jaNo paDai // preryamANaH pUrvakRtaiH karmabhiH kairapi varAkaH / 1 Lsukhamicchan durlabhajanAnurAge janaH patati // This stanza is found in the Lilaval (v. No 569). As the next verse follow; this without any introductory words such as "yatha va", which Bhoja frequently adds, when giving an additional example, one would expect to find this next verse also in the Lilavaj in the same context. The printed edition of the Lilavai, however, does not contain it. This verse when corrected would read as : AraMbho jassa imo NIsAsAAsasosiasarIro / pariNAhI (? pariNAmo) kahaM hoii Na ANimo daDDhapemmassa / / AraMbho yasyAyaM niHshvaasaayaasshossitshriirH| 7 LpariNAmaH kathaM bhaviSyati na jAnImo dagdhapremNaH // J variant Now this verse is found quoted in the Vajjalagga with a few readings : AraMbho jassa imo AsannAsAsasosiyasarIro / pariNAmo kaha hosai na yANimo tassa pemmassa // The words underlined present variant readings; atas and gifts are just two different forms identical in meaning. Na ANimo andna yANimoM are (almost) identical. The reading AsannAsAsa however, is not happy. Ratnadeva, the commentator, renders it as AsannAzvAsa and Prof. M. V. Patwardhan syas in his Notes : "Asanna AsannajaNa, AsannANaM AsannajaNANaM AsAsehiM (AsAsehiucchavAsaiH) It would be better to read AsannUsAsa". The reading NIsAsAAsa of the SP is decidedly far better and eminently suits the context. From the point of view of grammatical construction the reading ata found in the Vajjalagga seems to be more appropriate. The reading dapemmassa conveys in a telling manner the viraha-bisUraNa (distress or sorrow caused by separation) which is being illustrated. 3) (Candrika--nirvedo) yatha va -- (p 903) kettiamettaM hohii mAe - - - - This verse is obscure with a couple of letters missing in the second half. The first part of the first half is identical with the GS VI. 81. The verse as a whole presents the same idea embodied jo identical words except the Page #181 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 140 opening words of the GS V. 91. The gatba may be corrected as follows: kettiamettaM hohii mAe joNhA-jalaM Naha-sarammi ! jaM caMda-paNAlojjhara-Nivaha-par3ataM Na NihAi // kiyanmAnaM bhaviSyati mAtaH (1 sakhi) jyotsnAjalaM nabhaHsarasi / / [yaccandra-praNAla-nijhara-nivaha-patan na nistiSThati // 4) [-Nisrstartha] Tasyah samagra--buddhi--gunayogat yatha-- (p. 917) hiaeAha kiMpi tassa etc. The verse, as it stands, presents difficulties. It could, however. be corrected in the light of an almost identical gatha quoted in the tenth chapter of the Kavyaprakasa to illustrate the figure "Aksepa". ehi kiM pi kIe vi kaeNa Nikviva bhaNAmi alamahavA / aviAriakajjArabhaAriNI marau Na bhaNissaM // [ayi ehi kimapi kasyA api kRte niSkRpa bhaNAmi almthvaa|] LavicAritakAryArambhakAriNI mriyatAM na bhaNiSyAmi / / This gatha is very much the same as the GS VII, 2 (with a few variant readings in the first half). 5) [Sandesadanam yatha.-) (p.950) dhUha tuma cia NiThaNa etc. This verse is obviously corrupt with some letters missing in the fourth quarter. This verse, even in its corrupt form could easily be identified with the Vajjalagga, 413 and the GS II. 81. In the light of these two gatbas the verse could be restored as follows : dui tumaM cia NiuNA kakkhaDamauAi jANase 'vottu / kaMDuiapaMDuraM jaha Na hoi taha te kuNijjAsu // dUti tvameva nipuNA karkazamRdukAni (=mRdUni ) jAnAsi vaktum / / LkaNDUyitapANDuraM yathA na bhavati tathA tvaM kuryAH / / 1 kusalA (VL,Gs) 2 bollu (GS) 3 karejjAsu (GS) 6) Gamagama--cinta yatha .. (p. 951) The text here is, no doubt, corrupt but on a closer look it reveals its metrical character. It is not a prose passage although it is so presented in theprinted text. The first line very closely resembles the gatha (No 918) in Weber's edition, and keeping it in view it may be rewritten as follows: ___ Page #182 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 141 pazcihii so ghara se lahihii oAsamehii saAsa / bhaNihii jaM bhaNiavaM, paccuttaM kiM Nu pAvihii / vijiSyati sa gRhaM tasyAH lapsyate'vakAzam eSyati sakAzam / / LbhaNiSyati yad bhaNitavyaM pratyukta kiM nu prApsyati / / The second line is also a gatba and is, when corrected, identical with the GS No II.87: Aassa kiM Nu kAhaM ki vocchaM kahaM Nu hohii ima ti / paDhamuggaasAhasaAriAi hiaaM tharaharei // Agatasya kiM nu kariSyAmi ki vakSyAmi kathaM nu bhaviSyati idam iti / / LprathamodgatasAhasakArikAyA hRdayaM tharatharAyate / 7) Duta-vyaharo yatha - jaiAirintavesavia etc. (p. 952) This stanza, as printed, appears to form one independent unit. The first two lines and the last two lines, however, form two different verses. I have not been able to trace the first verse to its source correct it but the second verse is adopted from the Ravanavaho (X.79) : avalaMbijau dhIraNa hu so ehii aiggae vi paose / ia dUIhi tulijjai paDhamANiapiaamo vilAsiNisattho / / avalambyatAM dhairya na khalu sa eSyati atigate ' pi pradoSe / / Liti dUtIbhiH tulyate prathamAnItapriyatamo vilAsinIsArthaH // / 8) (Data-puraskaro) nayakakrto yatha - - -- -- yatha va - (p. 960) puNo vi paNaabhaMgau........jeNa / evaM hiaaM // Now, on the face of it, this passage, though printed as a metrical one, is 10 prose and all efforts to search for it in Prakrit poetic works would be in vain. From the context I could trace it to the following passage in the Malati-Madbava (Act VII. 1-2 pp. 91-92 (ed. by Prof. Devavdbara and Suru) madayantikA : ( sahi kiM puNo vi ) paNaabhaMgeNa kadAvarAho ajaNo / jeNa evaM matesi / piasahi tuma lavaMgiA a sauMpadaM me hia / Page #183 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 142 r(sakhi kiM punarapi ) praNayabhaGgena kRtAparAdho'ya jano yenaiva Lmantrayase / priyasakhi tvaM lavaGgikA ca sAMprata me hRdayamU / / 9) Nayikavadhanam yatha --- (p 968) paLihI pADaapuNNA etc. ajja mae gaMtavvaM etc. The Sanskrit Chaya of neither of these verses is recorded in the the printed text. The first verse is very obscure. The second verse is easy of identification. In fact, this very verse is cited on p. 902 with the introduc. tory words "dhvanta. pratiksa yatha' and on p. 973 with the introductory words" utsaba-sakti-vivecanam yatha" and in both these contexts the Sanskrit Chaya is given below the Prakrit verse. The correct text of the Prakrit verse, along with its Sanskrit Chaya, is given here below : ajja mae gaMtavvaM ghaNaMdhAre vi tassa suhaassa / ajjA NimIliacchI paaparivADi ghare kuNai / / | adya mayA gantavyaM dhanAndhakAre'pi tasya mubhagasya / / | AryA nimIlitAkSI padaparipATI gRhe karoti / This gatha is found in the Gs (III.49). 10) Aharyanuragajanma aharyo yatha ---- (p 997) alikuNa a 0pi The text of the rest of the verse is not given. Even the opening words of the verse are corrupt. I should however, tentatively identify this verse with the gatha No 941 in Weber's edition. For the idea embodied in the gatha seems to be in agreement with the variety of imaoa' that is here illustrated by Bhoja : aliakuvi pi kaamaMtuaM va meM jesu suhaa aNuNeMto / tANa diahANa haraNe ruAmi Na uNo ahaM kuviA // [alIkakupitAmapi kRtamantukAm iva mAM yeSu subhaga anunayanU / / [ teSAM divasAnAM smaraNe rodimi na punara, kupitA // 11) Prosita-visayo (mano) yatha) ---- (p.1001) sahitA avacaru0 ttiThis verse, as it stands, makes little sense. It is again cited on p. 1003 with the introductory remark : "prosita-patikasrayo yatha". There too the text is corrupt. Tentatively I restore it as follws : Page #184 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 143 sahi tAva acchau ccia , alAhi kiM vAhueNa leheNa / aiArisaM lihaMtANa eMti pahiA viesAA // [ sakhi tAvat AstAmeva, alaM kiM bAhukena lekhena / / [etAdRzaM likhatAm enti pathikA videzAt / / 12) Alambana-prakImakesu parihasalambano yatha ----- (p. 1004) pariuciA Na kaMpasi etc. The gatba, as printed, is unintelligible with some letters missing and some words making no sense. The whole verse, however, is to be identified with the gatha (No 923) in Weber's edition. The gatha, in its corrected form and with its Sanskrit Chaya, is given below : pariucchi A Na japasi cuMbijjatI balA muhaM harasi / parihAsamANavimuhe pasiacchi maNaM maha dUmesi / / paripRSTA na jalpasi cumbyamAnA balAt mukha harasi / [parihAsamAnavimukhe prasRtAkSi (athavA, mRgAkSi) mano mama dunosi // We have the readings paDiutthiA and paDipacchiA as well. It may be noted in passing that the Sarasvatskanthabharana p 624, v. 179, (especially, the first half of this verse,) contains a similar idea : paDiucchiA Na japai, gahiA vipphurai cuMbiA rusai / [paripRSTA na jalpati, gRhItA visphurati cumbitA ruSyati / / 13) [Mananubandho......] tatraiva vaividhyam yatha - (p. 1007) tIe daMsavaNa ahakhalaNa....... Now, this verse, as it stands, is very obscure but Bhoja's another work on poetics, viz, the Sarasvatikanthabharana (p. 724 v. 485) helps us to identify the verse and its source (Harivijaya) The following passage may be read with interest : tatra ratAvupamAyAH saMkaro yathA tIe daMsaNasuhae paNaakkhalaNajaNio muhammi maNahare / roso vi harai hiaa maapaMko vva mialaMchaNammi NisaNNo // [tasyA darzanasubhage praNayaskhalitajanito mukhe manohare / 1 [roSo'pi harati hRdayaM madapaGka iva mRgalAJchane niSaNNaH // atropamAtiraskAreNa rasavato harervacasi vAgArambharUpe rukmiNIpradatta pArijAtamaJjarIvilokanaprabhavaM satyabhAmAyA roSarAmaNIyakaM prAdhAnyataH pratIyate / Page #185 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 144 14) Priyayah pravrtti-dusanam upalambhah komala......gramya iti | Tesu komalo yatha aparikkhi adosaguNaM.. This very verse is again cited on p. 1046 with the introductory words upAlambhaktiryathA "The quotation on p. 1013 shows some letters missing in the fourth quarter (on p. 1013) and the quotation (on p.1046) shows some letters missing in the second quarter. The stanza may tentatively be restored as follows : ........ ..... - aparikkhia - dosa- guNaM avamaNNia cirapparUDha - vIsaMbha- rasaM / vahIraANurAaM tume vi maha rUsiuM jaNeNa Na viSNaM // 15) Duty-gopanam yatha - aparIkSya doSaguNaM avamatya cira-prarUDha - vizrambha-rasam / - avadhIryAnurAgaM tvayApi janena mahyaM ruSTvA na khinnam // 1 --prakrtistha kelIgottakkhalaNe vi kuppae ke avaM (kaiavaM) abhANaMtI / duddamassa musA parihAsaM jAA saccaM cia paruNNA || kelIgotraskhalane'pi kupyati kaitavam ajAnantI / durdamasya mRSA parihAsaM, jAyA satyameva praruditA // ] keLIgo0ta0khaLaNe etc. This gatha occurs in the Dasarupaka (IV. 60-61) and in Weber's edition (st No 967) of the GS. The gatha may be corrected in the light of these two corresponding citations as : 16) Sa (mana- vilaso) sakhyabhimukhya - visesanistho yatha vAharau meM sahIo... ...... (p. 1013) The GS reads 'duTTha uasu parihAsaM '. DR (Adyar edn) reads 'duddamassa musA parihAsaM' which is metrically defective. One could suggest a reading such as duddama mua parihAsa ( mua meaning muJca); alternatively one could suggest the reading : "duddama ua ( = pazya) parihAsaM " (p. 1022) Only the first quarter of the gatha is available in the printed text; the remaining three quarters are apparently lost in the MS itself. The full gatha must be the same as found in GS II. 31 since the idea embodied in the gatha agrees with the introductory remark of the SP quoted above. The full gatha runs as follows : (p. 1030) Page #186 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 145 vAharau maM sahIo tissA gotteNa kiM ttha bhaNieNa / thirapemmA hou jahiM tahiM pi, mA kiM pi NaM bhaNaha // [vyAharatu mAM sakhyaH, tasyA gotreNa kimatra bhaNitena / |sthirapremA bhavatu yatra tatrApi mA kimapyenaM bhaNata / / 17) Tesu vak.-pravrttijam suddham (mana..mottayitam) yatha- (p. 1031) "samghA me" etc. Now the verse, as it stands, is quite corrupt; further, the second and the third quarters of this verse are metrically defective. In its corrected form it would read as: saddhA me tujjha piattaNassa kaha taM ti Nea ANAmi / paNImo (1 de pasia) tumaM cia sikkhavesu jaha te piA homi / / [ zraddhA me tava priyatvasya kathaM tat iti naiva jAnAmi / / [prArthaye (1) tvameva zikSaya yathA tava priyA bhavAmi // For this verse Cf GS No 750 in Weber's edition. 18) Atha manasukhanubhavah 1---- tesu bahumato yatha - (p. 1033) abdhakharUsaNaM etc. The verse, as it stands, is obscure but even in its corrupt form, it strongly reminds us of the gatha No. 7.75 with which it must be identified : atthakkarUsaNaM khaNapasijjaNaM aliaannnnibNdho| ummaccharasaMtAvo puttaa paaI siNehassa // akasmAd roSaNaM kSaNaprasAdanam alIkavacananirbandhaH / / Lunmatsara (bahula) saMtApaH putraka, prakRtiH snehasya / / 1. The Gs and the SK (p. 624 v. 178) read : paavI 19) Mananuyogo yatha - (p. 1043) a0 kiai di0 ThiNinbha0chiovi etc. This verse, as printed, is corrupt. It contains more matras in its second quarter and less matras in its second half. Besides, some words in the second half appear to be corrupt beyond recognition. But the whole verse undoubtedly is to be identitfied with gatha No 899 in Weber's edition. The verse, in its corrected form along with its Sanskrit Chaya (which is not found in Weber's edition), is given below: alliai didviNibbhacchio vi vihuo vi laggae siae / pahao vi cuMbai balA alajjae kahaM Nu kuppissaM // rAlIyate dRSTi natsito'pi vidhUto'pi lagati sicaye / / Lprahato'pi cumbati balAt alajjakAya kathaM nu kopiSyAmi // Page #187 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 146 20) (Pravasah) nayaka-krto yatha - (p. 1055) "uNhaM jauNAe jalaM" etc. This verse is only slightly corrupt and is easily intelligible but as its Sanskrit Chaya is not recorded in the printed text I take it up here: The verse, when corrected, would read as follows : uNhaM jauNAe~ jalaM uNhA jauNAe~ veasakuDuMgA / uhA jauNA vi kA keNa vi mahuraM gae kaNhe / / uSNaM yamunAyA jalam uSNA yamunAyA vetsnikunyjaaH| LuSNA yamunA kRtA kenApi mathurAM gate kRSNe // 21) (Nayikayah priya-viyoga-sambhavana pravasa-sanka sa; ca pancadha... bhavisyantr ca. Tasu bhavisyanti yatha - (p. 1055) hontapiavirahadUsaha etc. This verse, I have not been able to trace to its source. It is not fully inte. lligible. As its Sanskrit chaya is not given in the printed text I take it up here. hontapiavirahadUsahasaMtApupphusiavaaNasohAo / caMdamuhio tti satthA jAAu piAu paccUse // rbhaviSyat-priya-viraha-duHsaha-santApotproJchitavadanazobhAH / / candramukhya iti sArtho jAtAH priyAH protyUSe // 22) (Priyajana-parityagah) alinganakrto yatha--- ApucchaNovaUhaNa etc. This verse, when corrected and rewritten, agrees with the gatha No 786 in Weber's edition : ApucchaNovaUhaNa-kaMTha-samosaria-bAhulaiAe / valaAi pahiacalaNe vahUe NialA via pahaMti // [aaprcchnopgRhn-knntth-smvst-baahultikaayaaH| 7 valayAni pArthikacaraNe vadhvAH nigaDA iva patanti / / / 23) Pravasa-carya/...tatra des opadhibhedesu...parakiyadeso yatha -(p. 1064) haddheNa ohagariaM etc. This verse, although corrupt, could easily be identified with Setu XI. 48: hattheNa vAha-garuia-dUra-palaM bAlotthaeNa vahanti / pia pesiaMgulIaa-maNi-ppahA-pAaDekka-vAsaM (? pAsa) va muhaM // histena bASpagurUkRta-dUrapralambAlakAvastRtena vahantIm / | priya-proSitAGgulIyaka-maNi-prabhA-prakaTaika-pAvamiva mukham // Page #188 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 147 24) (Pravacarya/sa Karyopadbibhedesu samanyavat yatha -- (p. 1065) ambharasUNAi etc. This gatba, when rewritten in a correct form, with slight difference agrees with GS. No. 870 : aMbarasUNAi NiraMjaNAi vairikaruNNapusiAi / virahuTuM kulavAliANa sAheti acchIi // [ambarazUnyAni niraJjanAni vijane ruditaproJchitAni / / LvirahotkaNThAM kalabAlikAnAM kathayanti akSINi // / 25) Viprayoge videsadau nayikavasthanam pravasa--vrttantah ... tatra debas tridhar-gramyah aranyah, Sadharanasca. Tesu...sadharano yatha- (p. 1069) pajjatayiAsUvella etc. This stanza, when rewritten, with minor corrections, agrees with the Lilava) (No 80): pattaviAsuvellagoMdi-panbhAra-NAmia-dalAI / pahiANa durAloAi hoti mAaMdagahaNAi // paryAptavikAsovvilla-maJjarI-prAgbhora-nAmita-dalAni / / pathikAnAM durAlokAni bhavanti mAkandagahanAni // / The printed text of the Lilavar reads 'miya' * Ms B' however, as noted by the Editor, reads NAmiya0 Page #189 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ bhojadeva viracitaH zRGgAra prakAzaH (prakAzAH 25-30) prAkRtapadyAnAM mAtRkAvarNakrameNAnukramaNI (mUlasthAna nirdezasahitA) aNuNaasuhaM Na pattaM ? 1039 aNuNamaNirAsagaruaM 11015 900 ( gAthA 4.48 ) aMgaNa taNuAra aMdhAra civas cuei ? ( agghAi chinai cuMbaI ) 1070 ( gAthA 7.39) aMtohutu ( 0 hutta ) dhajjai (? Dajjhai ) 893 ( gAthA 4.73 ) aikovaNA visAsU. 1065 ( gAthA 5.93 ) ai caMDi kiMNa pecchasi 1022 (tulanA gAthA ( vebara ) 908) aipINaghaNutthaM bhia (ve) 924) 997 (tulanA : gAthA aio 0 cie 0va ? 1028 akaaNNu tujjha kae 1025 ( gAthA 5.45 ) akhaMDie vi paNaea 1 1013 agadiANuNao 1 1043 ages gottakkhalaNe 1 1025 a0catAaNNajaNohi 1 1042 a0coDa vatthaddha (1996 = acchoDi avatthaddhata ) ( gAthA 2.60) a0cIi (? acchIi) tA DhakkissaM 1037 ajjaM gaotti ajja 1066 ( gAthA 3.8) a0jaM (? ajjaM) vaheNa kahaAha 1044 a0ja ( ? ajja ) sahi rAIsese 1 1039 ( gAthA 4.14 ) ajjamae gaMtavvaM 902, 968 ( gAthA 3.49) ajja mae gaMdavvaM 973 gAthA 3.49 ) ajjhAe NaveNakha 0 kha a ( 1 = ajjAe NavaNahakkhaa ) 905 ( gAthA 2.50 ) aNNa0 tihi tuha...1 1017 a00 pesie Nehe .. 1 1036 aNNAsaMkAe tamaMdhaAra ? 896 aNuNaava (?) saraM pAapaDaNUsavaM (tulanA gAthA (vebara ) 894) 1020 apasAiAe 1021 ( gAthA 3.77) aNuvattaNaM kilato 1031 aNuvattaNaM kuNaMto 1031 ( gAthA 3.65 ) aNuvattoM amhArisa ? 1030 (tulanA gAthA (vevara ) 945) aNNaM jaMbUmijjai 901 a0ta0sa (? aMtassa) paDi 906 aNNamAha kuviA ? 1029 attA taha ramaNajjaM 896 ( gAthA 1.8) attAdharaNevacchaM 906 adahA vi jaMto cia ? 903 addaMsaNeNa pemmaM avei 886 ( gAthA 1.81) a0dha0sa0 ( atthakka) rUsaNaM khaNa 1033 ( gAthA 7075) a0 0 sa (? atthakka) rUsaNaM khaNa 982 ( gAthA 7.75) a0 papa0ca0dapahAvi... 1034 apara0 jhasu (? avarajjhasu) etA he 995, 1036 aparikkhidadosaguNaM ? 1013,1046 appAI (hi) Ai tu deNa 952 ( tulanA gAthA ( vebara ) 859 ) a0 buMcaNa puNvaMvaNa... 1897 aMbo ( avvo) dukkaraAraa 1052 ( gAthA 3.73 ) abhisAraNaM Na geNhai 959 (setu 10.65 ) avara.... 1028 ( tulanA: gAthA 4.53) apa (va) rAha sahasA ? (ssA ) I 1036 ( tulanA gAthA ( vebara ) 903 ) ambharaNAi NirajaNAI 1065 (tulanA: gAthA ( vebara ) 870. amuNi0khaLa0 dhasuhe ? 994 aliakuNaa0pi (997 aliakuviaM pi) (tulanA : gAthA ( vebara ) 935 Page #190 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 149 ammaNuaM cevi jAhi 1064 aha sA tahiM tahiM via (? ccia) 905 (apabhraMzabhASAyAm ) (gAthA 4.18) alliai diTTiNibhacchio 1043 ah sAhiaNeNa ? 872 (tulanA gAthA (vebara) 899) aha so vilakkhahiao 1001 avarajjhasu khIsaddho (1vIsa) 1032 (gAthA 5.20) (gAthA 4.76) A0 ja (? ajja) sahi so juANo ? 9.1 avarAheNa UNa cira 0 bhaNasu ? 1013 a0LAaNuarNaHo ? 1016 avasara rottu via NimmiA 1030(tulanAH aLi ai di0 Thi Ninbha-cio ? 984 dhvanyAloka pR.351) =alliai didviNinmacchio (tulanA: gAthA avalaMbiamANaparaM 1019(gAthA 1.87) (vera) 899) avalaMviovaAraM ? 1040 AaNNei aDaaNA 896 gAthA 4.65) avaLa0vi0 jau (?avalaMbijjau) AaMbaMtakaolaM 998 (gAthA 2.92) dhIraM 952 setu10.79) Aassa kiMNu kAhaM 904 (gAthA 2.87) avadhi (? tthi) UNa sahi jaMpiAi 1017 Aa0 satiNukAhaM (?) (gAthA 258 Aassa kiM Nu kAhaM 951 (gAthA 2.87) aviaNNapecchaNije 872 (gAthA 1.93) ApucchaNAvaUhaNakaMTha (?) 1062 tulanA: avvo kajjeNa viNA ? 10 45 gAthA (vebara) 786) a (1A) saNNakuDuMge juNNa 894 ApR(1)cchaMtammi pie ? 1062 (tulanAH vajjAlagga.472) Ama Na tuzavarAho 1029 (tulanAH gAthA asatIi baMdhavaSaNavi aDa? 900 (vebara)942) asamatto vi samappai 1006 (tulanAH sarasvatI pR.675-76.3 40) Ama jaro me maMdo 1030 (gAthA 1.51) asasi UsasaMtehi ? 899 / Ama pia...Rtuh ? 992 ahaaM vioataNuI 950 (gAthA 5.86) ArakkhaMtI AhiA ? 1032 aha AgaNo(?o)ti (tti) Na Aloe ccia pie Thavio ? 1041 paria? 1040 (harivijaye ) AsAiaM aNAe (?aNNAeNa) 919 (tulanA aha jalaliTimma (Nihimmi) ahiaM 1069 gAthA (vebara) 958 sarasvatI pR. 549. (setu 5.1) aha Navara tattha doso 1039 lIlAvaI .62) AsAsei pariaNaM 1067 (gAthA 3.83) aha diTTha vakkamammi 1058 (a) (hari- ia sAvarAhapiaama ? 996 vijaye ) iha jA maNammi UsA ? 969 (usANiruddha 1) aha bhaNai aalasAmI? 913 IsAmaccharagurue 984 aAhe samaaM upapo0Dha ? 984 IsAmacchararahiehi 1024 (gAthA 6.6) aha sambhAvimago (? saMbhAviamaggo)1033 Isa jaNaMti vadati 889 (tulanAH gAthA (gAthA 1.32) aha sA tahiM kahiM cia (tahiM tahiM ccia) ukaiava(1kai ava)rahia pemma 1049 (tulanAH 878 (gAthA 4.18) gAthA 2.24) 234) Page #191 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 150 ukkaMThANicchAA ? 1065 (tulanA; gAthA ehi gamAgamakheo ? 952 (vebara) 838) eMto vi Na saccavio 998 (tulanA : sarauggAhia paMhu0ThA ? 1006 svatI pR.372.126) ujjAgaraa kasAia 919 (gAthA 5.82) o0 ciNasu (= ucciNasu) paDia kusumaM uNNamasu suhaa eakaha ? 1032 905 (tulanA : gAthA (vebara) 959) uNhaM jauNAe jalaM ? 1055 o0cei jA kusuMbha 1893 u0pa0La LovaNeNa (? 951 = upphulla loa- ovijjau chaNadiahe ? 1067 Na) (tulanA : gAthA (vevara) 828) osae vasaMta kAsaa? 896 upapekkhAgaadaiaM? 1068 (tulanA : gArthA osarai dhuNai sAhaM 894 (gAthA)6.31 (vebara) 834) kaaviccheo sahi bhaMgi ? 1029 (tulanA : u0mAluti (? ummUlaMti) va hiaaM 995 gAthA (vebara) 913) (tulanA : gAthA (vebara) 914) kaavippio Na mANiNi ? 1013 ummUlaMti jaha tIra ? 899 kaiavaparaMmuhANaM ? 1010 ummULaaMti ( ? ummUleMti va hiaaM 1025 kajjalamalalli aMgaThiM ? 1070 (gAthA 2.46) kaja viNA vi kaamANaDaMbarA ? 102 1,10 - urapelliavahakArelli 905 (tulanA : sara- ___ 45 (tulanA : gAthA (vebara) 9.29) svatI 451.84) kaDu0 juA (? kaMDujjuA) varAI 1022 ujvahai daiagahiAharo ? 1040 (tulanA : (gAthA 4.52) gAthA (vevara) 933) kaNNe paDiaM hiae ? 1060 tulanA : gAthA uha (? ua) saMbhamavikkhittaM 904 (gAthA (vevara) 831) katto saMdesamuhaM ? 960 eaM cia maha NAmaM ? 1032 (tulanA : kalakaMThI kalarao ? 1039 gAthA (vebara) 905) kalahoLu (? kalahou) jjalagoraM ? 890 ekkaM paharUviNNaM 1009 (gAthA 1.86) kallaM kira kharahiao 1059 (gAthA 1.46) e0to (1 eMto) vi palAaMto ? 958 kallANi jai...11059 (apabhraMzabhASAyAm ) e. gha ahaM cea piMANa ? 1033 kassa Na saddhA garuattaNammi 11037 (tulanA e050 cia (? etthaccia) vasasi tumaM ? gAthA (vebara) 745) 1032 kassa vi Na hoi roso 905 (tulanA : gAthA edahamette gAme 898 (gAthA 6.53) (vebara) 886 : dhvanyAloka 1.4-5 (pR. emea akaapuNNA 1969 (tulanA : sarasvatI _pR0615.141) kaha Nu gaA kaha diTThA ? 952 (tulanA : esAe (1) majjAAmuddha ? 899 sarasvatI pR. 637.232: gAthA vebara) ehiipio tti NimisaM 1002 (tulanA : 857) gAthA 4.85 sarasvatI pR0 690.401) kahavi laggA loaNa 1960 ehii so vi pau0to (pauttho) 1003 (gAthA kaMThaggahaNe Na sa? 1001 (tulanA : gAthA 1.17) (vebara) 843) Page #192 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ kaMDujjuA varAI 1025 ( gAthA 4.52 ) kaMtu 0 gaghaNu 0 khi0 teNa (? = kaM tuMgathaNukkhitteNa ) 951 ( gAthA 3.56) kAci taha paDhama samAama 1905 kAraNa gahio ki mae ? 1034, 1039 (tulanA : gAthA ( vebara ) 779) kAlaati suokhahe 1891 kiM evi mahurasa0 1952 kiM bhaNaha meM sahIo 11042 prathama caraNamAtram, gAthAsaptazatyAm 7.17 ) ki bhagaha sahio (1 sahoo) mAmara 950 ( gAthA 7.17) kiM ruasa oNaha ( a) muhI 894 (gAthA 1.9) kiM svasi kiM viva (1 a ) soasi 1019 ( gAthA 6.16) kIrai guNo vi doso 1990 1018 kIsa imesu bahuso ? 1011 kIsa maliAvaaMsaM 19011 kIsa miliApa saMvaa 1 1027 kulabAliAe pecchaha 1055; 1067 tulanA : gAthA (vevara ) 871 dazarUpaka 2.15 -16 vajjAlA .467 kuviA a saccabhAmA 999 ( harivijaye, tulanA : sarasvatI pR. 647.263) kUrassa kAraNaTThe ? 935 keNa maNe bhaggamaNoraheNa 1059 ( gAthA 2. 11) kettiametta hoii 903 ( prathama caraNamAtra gAthAsaptazatyAm 6.81) kelI gottakkhalaNe 997, 1022 tulanA: dazarUpaka 4.60-61, pR. 234 sarasvatI pR. 622- 172 gAthA ( vebara ) 967. koDa pariThavi ANaNa 1 1070 (setubandhe 1) khe 05 0 ti a0 paNe 11038 151 gaNaM ca mattamehaM 902 ( gauDavaho. 406 ) gaNhA maNo halia0 si 1895 gamiA kalaMbavA 1070 (setu 1.15 ) gahakalloi 0 ti tumaM 1903 gahaNa * ghapaNa * migarua 1 11005 gammihisi tassa pAsa 902 ( gAthA 7.7) gAmavaDassa piucchA 900 ( gAthA 3.95 ) gAmApa... sasesAnu ? 880 gAmaM zuNaNialiaka0Na 1898 gimhaM gamei kahakahavi 1 1068 gottakkhaNavilakkho 1988 gottakhaliamma pie 11028 gola tU cavato 894 ( gAthA 2.71) ghariNI ghaNarathaNa pellaNa 1060 ( gAthA 3.61 ) caMda tumaM Na gaNijjasi 1903 caMdamuhi caMdadhavalA 953 ( gAthA 3.52 ) caMdAmaaDijIvia 1 1038 caMdo vi caMdavaNe 953 ( tulanA : gAthA (vebara ) 850) citehiaMgasaMgo ? 896 cuMbaI vAsa NimuhI ? 897 cuMbaNavaliaM diDhakaM 920 (tulanA: sarasvatI pR. 549.233 cuMba sahatautaM (? sahassa huttaM ) 11034; 1044. coriara asaddhAlui 892 ( gAthA 5.15 ) chaNapaDivaAe pahade / 1065 jaibha iri0tavesa 1 952 jaio piona dIsai 1037 (tulanA: sara svatI pR. 687.390 gAthA ( vebara ) 901 ) jai deva tumaM pasaNNo 1036 ( tulanA: gAthA (vebara ) 844) jai puttaa bahuehiM 1020 (tulanA : gAthA (vebara ) 895) jai maggia 0Na sariaM 1898 Page #193 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 152 jAgha Na uja0 girao ( ? jattha Na ujjA- jamucchiAe Na suo 1067 (tulanAH sara garao 982,1033 (tulanAH gAthA (vevara) svatI pR 676.344 gAthA (vebara)711) 829) jaMvadaNakhaiviNao ? 908 (zUdrakakathAyAM harijalaviNaaba jasikAmaM 1 1027 matIvRttAnte) jaha icchA taha ramiaM 900 (nulanAH sarasvatI jaM vi aliovaAraM ? 1010 pR. 700.443 prathamacaraNamAtram ) ThANe ThANe valiA 897 (tulanA : gAthA jaha jaha asthamai ravi ? 1039 __ (vebara) 876) jaha jaha tIe bhavaNaM ? 1006 DhakaMtI aharaM AAreNa ? 906 jaha jaha vAei pio (gAthA 4.4) Dhakkesi caliavalaNa ha0dhe ? 1020 jaha diavirAmo Nava 1064 (tulanAH gAthA NaaNaNaabhaNi Na desi ? 1013 (ve) 839) gaipU (? U) ra sa0ca (? ccha) he 1021 jA aNuNa Na geNhai ? 1039 __ (gAthA 1.45) jAa sahatthavakkivA ? 1070 NaccaNasalAhaNaNi he 872 (gAthA 2.14) jANai jANAveu 1008 (gAthA 1.88) Na piaI0 jhapaI... ? 994 jANimi kaAvarAhaM 921, 1037 (tulanAH NayaNapaholibAha ? 990 __gAthA (vebara) 902) Navi taha aNAlavaMtI 985,1007 jAmi ahiahiaavaharisA ? 1029 (gAthA 6.64) jAva a Na dehi ohiM ? 1063 vi taha gharammi daDDhe ? 1067 jAva Na uTTha manidhaNa ? 879 Na vi taha takkhaNasuamaNNu ? 1000 (tulanA jAva Na lakkhei paro ? 1013 ___ gAthA (vebara) 915) jehiM cia jIvijjai ? 930 Na vi teNa tahA taviA ? 1043 jo kahavi sahIhi muhaM 1041 (gAthA 2.44) Na sahai kAlakkhevaM ? 1006 jo tIe ahararAo 991 (gAthA 2-6) Na sahi aNuNaabhaNiaM? 993 jaM ja0dha a0ghisAraM (1880 jattha asthi __NahapaapasAhiaMgo 988,1002 (tulanA : sAraM) hemacandra kA.zA. pR.56.24) gAthA (vebara) jaM jaM taNagaaM pi ? 898 937) jaM jaM piu (hu) laM aMgaM 1021 ( gAthA NAAo ti pe0 khebha (?) 951 NA kuNaMti (?Na kuNaMto) cia mANaM 988 jaM jaM pulaemi disaM 873 (gAthA 6.30) _ (gAthA 1.26) jaMjhA (?jhaMjhA)vAottiNie? 1068 (tulanAH NAvekkhio guruaNo 934 (zAkuntala 5.16) gAthA 2.70, prathamacaraNamAtram) Nikkiva jAAbhIrua 937 (gAthA 1.30) jaMtaame0taM tIiNi 0vodu ? 989 NiddAbhaMgo ApaMDurattaNaM 1016 (gAthA 4.74) jaM tuha kajjaM taM cea? 952 (tulanA: gAthA NippacchimAi asaI 895 (gAthA 2.4) (vebara) 861) NimmaviamaMDaNANa vi ! 1002 jaM pIaM maMgalavAsaNAra ? 1067 (tulanA: NIai a0ja Nilipi (? NIAI ajja gAthA (vebara) 837) Nikkiva) 976 (gAthA 4.28) Page #194 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 153 NIsAsAgamadhUsaro ? 991 NIhasavevirasihaM ? 1068 NUmaM (? meM) ti je pahutaM 981 (gAthA 1. 91) takkhaNajaNiaparipasabha ? 994 ta0 Na0 sa ja sahi aNo 1 999 taNuAiA varAI 1 982 (tulanA : gAthA __ (vebara) 919) taNu pi aNi vaDaaM ? 1011 taralacchi caMdavaaNe 1009 (tulanA : gAthA (vebara 925) taha kaha viDusuraasahaM ? 904 taha baMdhaNaaNurAe ? 990 taha mANo mANahaNAe~ 993 (gAthA 2.29) taha mANo mANatIe (? mANahaNAe) 1034 gAthA 2.29) taM kattha garbha tuha taruNa ? 900 taM cia asohaamANo ? 994 taM tiasakusumadANi (? dAma) 1024 (tulanAH / / sarasvatI 678.351 harivijaye) tAlUrabhabhAulakhaDia 898 (gAthA 1.37) tA sokkhaM tAva raI ? 1036 (tulanA : ___ gAthA (bebara) 931) tIe dasaNavaNaaMhakhalaNa ? 1007 (= tIe dasaNasuhae) (tulanA : sarasvatI pR. 724. 485-harivijaye ) tIe vialaMtadhoraM? 1041 tujjha piaNAura0 jhiai ? 1032 turiapahAiadimi ? 958 tuha virahujjugirao 931 (gAthA 5.87) tuha Na ANe hiaaM965 (zAkuntala 3.15) tu dhiro (2 tugo thiro) visAlo (tulanA : ___ vajjAlagga .361) (gAthA (vebara) 935) teNa Na marAmi maNNUhi 995 (gAthA 4.75) to ia piANuvattaNa 1 1009 toNi NiapemmapaDipasAa ? 991 to dhAlavjApaNaA bhaNai ? 995 to se ku0bhaMta0 cchi ahia 1041 (harivijaye) to amANarahehiNi ? 1040 thori (?) suehi ruNaM 1028 (gAthA 6. 28) daia gamia0 vaNavAdi 1 996 daiAloapaattA 1 1041 darcha ciraM Na Laddho ? 901 daTThaNa ta0LavANaM ? 875 dAraTThaviasuradumaM ? 1047 (harivijaye) dAvateNa tuha muhaM 1026 (tulanA : gAthA (ve) 920) diTTammi gharaparohaDa 1 896 diDhamaNNudUmiAe 1040 (gAthA 1.74) dIsasi piAi jaMpasi 1032 (gAthA 5.89) dukkhaMtariamaNasuha 1 998 duiMsa eNa IsA ? 935 dullahajaNANurAo 956 (ratnAvalI 2.1) dUi Na ei caMdo pi puNgavo (? caMdo vi __ uggao) (tulanA : gAthA (vebara) 854) duI gaA cirAai 951 (tulanA : gAthA (vebara) 855) dUImuhaaMdapuloirie ? 952 (tulanA : gAthA (vebara) 858) dUmei a me hiaM 1 989 dUragaa0piNia0te 1 1015 dUsahakaAvarAha ? 1024 dUsahamaMtupaaMto ? 1027 doa0dho apasario ? 1040 dohaM cia hiaaraM viA ? 1009 dhammia bhama vIsattho 899 (bhama dhammia vIsattho (gAthA 2.75) dhario amarisapasaro ? 986 Page #195 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 154 dhIrakhaliaNiaMtA ? 1027 dhIreNa mANabhaMge ? 998 dhIra dhariaM pi gai0 dUra ? 995 dhU (? dU)i tuma cia NiuNa (?NiuNA) 950 (gAthA 2.81) dho (1tho) ArUDhamahuA (1mahumaA) 989, 1044 (tulanAH sarasvatI pR. 670. 321) dhoosaratarosaM ? 1040 paacchAmio patthAnijamedimeekkaM 1 937 vRhatkathAyAM kaliGga paiNAvaNNijjate 1988 (tulanAH gAthA (vebara) 868) paimAhappaLi (1Ni) saNNA 975 (setu 11. 28) pai (1vai ) vivaraNiggaadalo 875 (gAyA paNaa0khalaNavilakkhaM ? 1005 paNaaparipUraNeNa viraa(?viaa)bhUsia ? 1047 (harivijaye?). paNamaha mANassa halA 1045 (tulanAH gAthA (vebara) 893) pattia jaha uppaNNA ? 1017. pattia Na pattiaMtI 987 (gAthA 3.16) pabhava ti0 ciae...? 1030 (tulanAH sara svatI pR. 607 109) pammuTTapANiAe ? 1068 pariatIva NisaM 11005 (tulanAH sarasvatI pR. 616.145) pariaDDhiAi doNi vi ? 1067 pariu ciA (? pariucchiA ? paDiutthiA) Na jaMpai 982 (tulanAH sarasvatI pR. 624. 179 gAthA (vebara) 923) pariuciA Na kaMpasi ? 1004 ( tulanAH zTaM, pra. pR. 982 sarasvatI pR. 624. 159 gothA (vebara) 923) pahi ullUraNa saMkA 899 (gAthA 2.66) palihIpADaapuNNA ? 968 pAapaDaNANa muddhe 1020; 1045 ( gAthA pauma0pahadiaMkaM ? 89. paccakkhamaMtuAraa 987 (tulanAH gAthA(vevara) 938) paccUsAgaa rajiadeha 1002 (gAthA 7. pAapaDio Na gaNio 1020 (gAthA 5. paccsAgaaNavarA ? 1025 ( tulanAH gAthA 7.53) pajjatayi AsUvella ( ? 1069 tulanAH lIlAvaI 80 pa0ThaMtimaaNapasara0 ? 990 paDamu0LiavAsoho ? 900 paDibhiMdaha hoMtavara ? 1025 paDivakkhassa vi purao ! 1046 (tulanAH gAthA (vebara) 927) paDivakkhe dUmijjai ? 1015 paDhama vAmaNavihiNA 889 (gAthA 5.25) paNaakuiANa doNha vi 982 (gAthA 1.27) paNaakulaaNado0Na vi (? 1034 tulanA : gAthA 1.27) pAapaDiaM abha0ve (?) 1030 (gAthA 4.90) pAtahA sahI Na dUI ? 902 pAlei a0 chabha0laM (?-phAlei acchabhalla ) 891 (gAthA 2.9) piaamaviu0Na (?viiNNa) casaaM 1027 (tulanAH gAthA (vebara) 917) piapAsAhi Nia0 to (?Niatto) 952 (setu piaviraho appiadasaNaM 984; 1031. (gAthA 1.24) Page #196 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ piapaharaNa (? saMbharaNa - paloGkRta 1069 ( gAthA 3.22) piasaMgamo aha0vAe 1903 puNo vi paNaabhaMgo ? 960 TippaNIH bhrAntyA padyAkAreNa mudrito'yaM gadyakhaNDa: / mAlatImAdhave (pR. 91-92 suru - devaghara - saMskaraNam ) purao ciMtaavaLaA ? 1005 pullaM taniraMtarataruNa ? 901 pUratu paNaabhaMge gaA ? 1052 pecchai a so piaaM mu0hi ! 1015 pecchasiM aNimisaNa aNo 983 (tulanA: zTaM. pra. pR. 632) peccha mA pAsi miMdaha 11030 pe0 du0desesu parohaDe ? 902 pemsa virohia saMdiTThia 993 ( gAthA 1. 53) phalahI vAhaNapuNNA 892 ( gAthA 2.65 ) ba0dhAvi0chai paMsuli 1 898 bahiNiggaabhahipaaNe 1952 bahuaMkalaMkahariaM ? 903 bahupupphabharoNAmi 897 ( gAthA 2.3 ) bAho 0lapuri... 11027 bha0 ja0 savituha sa0ga ( 1 898 =bhabjaM tassa vi tuha sagga) ( gAthA 2.67) bhaNa bhaNa jaM0 paDibhAai (1 1035 =bhaNa bhaNa jaM jaM paDihAi) (tulanA: gAthA (vebara) 904) bharimo se saaNavarammuhIe 1045 ( gAthA 4.68) bhiuDIe puloissa 1038 ( tulanA: gAthA (vebara) 743) bhiuDI Na kaA kaDuaM 998 (tulanA : gAthA (vebara) 921) bhiuDIe vAhAro 1 1037 155 bho gaMgArolapaacchasu 937 ( vRhatkathAntargate kaliGgasenAlambhe) ma0jha0 samuhAvarAhaM 1 987 majjha cicaa vaNijjaM 1990 majjhaNa (10ha) parithaassa vi 1070 ( gAthA 4.99) maNe dai daDDhaM 1 1065 maMtUNa vi haravijiaM 1990 mANummattAe mae 1021 ( gAthA 6.22) mANoAmANoccaM 1 1044 mANo mAe doe 110 36 mA muddha poDhachoha ? 878 mA vacca pakiphalAdira 1 (901 mA vacca pupphalAvira ) ( gAthA 4.55 ) mA velavesu bahuaM ? 1022 (tulanA : gAthA (vebara) 907) muhametteNa varAo 1903 raNAarassa sAhemi 899 ( tulanA : gAthA ( vebara) 760 ) raviggahammi kuMThIM 981 (tulanA : sarasvatI pR 628.193) raNaraNaa rajjadovvala 1 1067 ( tulanA: gAhAra aNakosa. 383) rasa ajjhaakaadhikAra 1 1005 rAyaviruddha va kahaM 1070 ( gAthA 4.96 ) ai ruaMtIe mae 1054 ( tulanA : gAthA ( vebara ) 848 ) rUsasi ru0 Thia 1 1010 re aviaddha raviaDaM 1 1005 lacchIe muddhakuvalaa 1890 lolaa suraarukoraNa 1 1041 ( harivijaye 1 ) vaccihi so gharaM se 1 959 ( tulanA : gAthA ( vebara ) 918) Page #197 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 156 sa0jhauahaamANo? 1015 saddhA me tujha piattaNassa 1031 (tulanA / gAthA (vebara) 750) sa0bhAvasiNehavevite ? 1022 sarisapaDivakkhapurao 1028 sasidi0Navasa0dha0kho ? 1006 sasimuhi muhassa lacchI 935 sahiaNa ha0 dhAhimuhaM ? 959 sahiaM gattakhalaNaM 1034 sahiaM mANakkhalaNaM ? 1017,1028 sahi erisaccia gaI 1019 (gAthA1.10) (sahitA a0cautti ? 1001 / sahi tAva accau cciaM? 1003 sahi pAesu civa. ti ? 1045 sahi sAhasu sabbhAveNa 1052 (gAthA vaaNea palaMaMtasI ! 901 va0chaiNaite0 chanukubho ? 896 vaMdaM kIrANa nahe ? 886 vahuAe NaiNiuMje ? 904 vAora0dapaNava0 iriva ? 990 vAharau meM sahIo 1030 ( tulanA : gAthA 2031 ) vAhittA paDivaaNaM Na dei 895 ( gAthA 5.16 ) bAhippaMtI vahuaM 1 1026 vijjhAvei paIvaM 1066 (tulanA gAthA (vebara) 836) vIsaMmaNivvisaMke? 1013 veArijjasi mudhde 1022 ( tulanA : gAthA (vebara) 909) vedaNikhAtaM kisalaM ? 905 vedhA lapi 0 a0pu0va0 ? 958 vevirasiNNa karaMguli 889 ( gAthA 3.44 ) veseNa Naghi dukha ? 992 vesosi nIasula 992 ( tulanA : gAthA 6.10 ) vairijjaMto purva kaehi (? 901-parigato puvakaehi kammehi) ( lIlAvaI. 569) saaNe ciMtAmaiaM 910 (gAthA 2.33) saamaNe ciMtAmiliaM ( =saaNe ciMtAmaiaM) 1068 (gAthA 2.33) sakAgaharahasu0taM ( =sakaaggaharahasuttA) 1009 (gAthA 6.50) saccaM jANai daLu 917 (gAthA 1.12) sa0 sa0NA 50NA ( =saccaM saNNA dhaNNA ) 888 sa cia rAmeI tuma0 1 993 sAsavesavevi? 958 saMkeaUsuamaNo ? 893 (tulanA : zTaM. pra. pR. 792,815) saMkeakuDuguDDINa ? 893 (tulanA vajjAlagga saMgamasuhAsamabha 1 960 saMvaDhiasaMtose 1 1006 sA kusumehi guruiA ? 990 sA tuha kaeNa bAlaa 889 (gAthA sAmAi sAmalIe 895 (gAthA 2.80) sAmAmAsagosa 1 975 sAhi0pa0tisavirotUNa ? 998 sAhasu vilAsiaNijje ? 992, 1018 sAhasu vilAsiNaaNaM 1 1029 silirigulime gAme ? 893 sIAvioadukkhaM 1053 (setu 12.22) suppau taio vi gao 950 (gAthA 5.12) subhau0 ciaM jaNaM ( ? =suhalacchaaM jaNaM ) 1031 (gAthA 1.50) Page #198 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 157 suhaa muhutta suvau (? su0 vau) 1033 hu0 Nila0 samosara (? =huNilajja samosara) (tulanA : gAthA (vebara) 906) 985,996,1026 (tulanA : sarasvatI suhaA vi suMdarI vi hu 1021 (tulanA : pR. 589.49 gAthA (vebara) 940) ___ gAthA (vebara) 926) hou Na suaM cia maeNea ? 1032 suhalAlasAhiM avaaa ? 951 hojja javaNe so diaho ? 1004 (tulanA : so0 tuM haM 0la0 bhai (?=sottu suhaNa zTaM. pra. pR. 784) hotapahiasma jAa 1060 (gAthA 1.47) labbhai ) 1036 (tulanA : gAthA (vebara) hotapiavirahadUsaha 1 1059 (naSTAdyAkSarA gAthA :) so muddhamao maatahiAhiM 897 (tulanA : cceuM / ? 919 sarasvatI, pR. 365.111 ......kirdhnnvaavnnviadd| 900 haNghasakiLAhaAe ? 1002 ......khiDio vAhAro / 1037 haddheNa ? (hattheNa) ohagariaM 1064 (tulanA ......gahikhe vaaNa ? 1036 setu 11.48) ......jA......taM / / halA caMDi......gamissidi 937 (zAkuntale sapallahanthiaM sukhAA phiajaaaa|| 1067 prathamAGke gadyAtmakaH saMvAdo'yam ) phaaiaoskaalpddisidhdhiiraar| me pe0 caibhaNadha caMdaahAadhie juaijaNo / / haliamuAmuhasasi (?) 892 hasiehiM upAlabbhA (? uvAlaMbhA) 985 ......pucchaMtI mahaciassa (? piassa cari(gAthA 6.13) AI / (tulanA: gAthA 7.77) hArIhAusahAvahula 1902 ...vaaNipi0 jai hAlAhalaM visabhasaja / hiai khuDa kai goDDI 1.69 (tulanA : hema- jaMhiaaM......tAhe / / 10.4 vAacitiaMvisaMvai / 1006 candra-prAkRta-vyAkaraNe 4.395 vRttau) hiaehi.......(1 917 = e ehi kiMpi ......sduumiasvtti...| 1046 ....saMvAhati jaMNiA jaMja / 971 __ kIe ni) (gAthA 7.2) ......sesajjaANo (1931 -agaNiahimacuNNajoahatthAoM 1044 ( tulanA : sesajuANA (gAthA 1.57) gAthA (vevara) 899) ......lA mae jIvidaM gharaMdIe 1 993 bhojadevaviracitaH zRGgAraprakAzaH (prakAzAH 25-30) prAkRtapadyAnAM mAtRkAvarNakrameNAnukramaNI (mUlasthAnanirdezasahitA) __ vRddhipatram agahiadaiANuNao ? 1043 tulanA : aNNaM jaMbU mijjai ( 1 aNNaM taM zUmijjai) / 901 lIlAvaI . 499 aNNamaNAhaM kuviA (? aNNua NohaM kuviA 1029 -gAthA 2.84 tulanA : sarasvatI 641 aliakuNa pi (1 aliakuvi pi 997 tulanA : gAthA (vebara) 941 alliai dihiNibbhacchio 984,1043 tulanA : gAthA (vebara 898) avarAheNa UNa cira bhaNasu ? 1013 =avahAreUNa ciraM bhaNasu 1208 a (A)saNNakuDuge juNNa 894 tulanA : zRGgAraprakAza 629 bajjAlagga. 472 Page #199 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ aha sAhiaNeNa 1 872 IsAmacchara gurue 984 - setu 11.16 katto saMdesasuhaM 960 tulanA : jaiA irittavesa 952 ( dvitIyArdha) kaMThaggahaNe Na saaM 1 1001 tulanA : gAthA ( vebara ). 849 kAuati suoravaheri 1 891 tulanA : uari daradiTTha- gAthA 1.64 kettiamettaM hohii 903 tulanA : gAthA 6.81 ( prathamacaraNamAtram ) : gAthA 5.99 ( bhaggapi asaMgama... ) khujjati jar3hatehi 1899 cuMbaI vAsiNNamuhI 897 tulanA : zrRGgAraprakAza 817 jaiyA irittavesa 1 952 jaMtaamettaM tIi Ni0 vodu tIrai Ni0 vodu - gAthA Dhakkesi cali avalagaha0 tulanA : gAthA ( vebara ) 928 NAAo *ti pe0 khebha 1951 so gaagaa| tti pecchaha gAthA ( vebara ) . 856 ta 0Na sa ja sahiaNo 1999 989 - jettiamettaM 1.71 1 1020 tulanA : taM naM dhija sahiaNo 729 to ia piANuvattaNa 1009 1209 tulanA : lolaasura arukAraNa 1041 to ia suraarukAraNa to se kubbhaMta 0cchimahia 1041 tulanA : to se runbhaMta cci 840 158 1209 to se rubhaMta cchia daTThUNa ta 0 lavANaM ( ? taM juvANaM ) 875 - vajjAlagga. 617 dUI muhaaMda puleoirie 1952 tulanA : gAthA ( vebara). 853 dhIreNa mANabhaMge (? bhNge| ) 840 998 tulanA : sarasvatI 727 dhAoM ( ? thoo) saMtare saM 1040 tulanA : sarasvatI pR. 727 ( harivijaye ) pecchasi aNimisaNaaNA 983 tulanA : DhAGgAraprakAza 632 ( prathamacaraNamAtram ) gAthA (vevara ) 943 bhaNa sahio tammi 11037 sacci rAmei tumaM 993 tulanA : gAthA (vevara ) . 759 saMkeaUsuamaNo ? 893 tulanA : zRMgAraprakAza 792, 815 alaGkAraratnAkara pR. 190, u. 602 saMkeakuDuMguDDINa ? tulanA : gAthA (vebara) 874 dhvanyAloka pR. 282 suhalAlasAhiM avaaa 1951 tulanA : sura asuhalAlasAhi - 1200 sadUmi asavatti ? 1046 tulanA : tIe savisesadUNia ( - sarasvatI 678 ) ... lA mae jIvidaM gharaMdIe 993 tulanA : gAthA ( vebara ) . 930 0 0 0 Page #200 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 22. Prakrit Studies : Some Problems and Solutions Dr. G. C. Choudhari, Vaishali About two and half thousand years ago the popular dialects of North Jodia had a glorious time when lord Buddha and Lord Mahavir decided to preach their religions in the local dialects in preference to the literary language of the time. The Literary language viz. Sanskrit was limited to the elite but among the masses some or other form of the Prakrits was in vogue. The Buddha's and also Lord Mahavit's preference of the Prakrit, the spoken language of masses, was a great democratie step. Owing to this bold decision and its effective execution by them and their followers , a tradition of religious literature in the Prakrits set in and we could bave the bulk of the Pall and the Ardhamagadhi canons Besides these considerable secular literature also has survived in the Prakrits from very early period. In fact there has not been a time in which the literary genius of the people did not blossom through one or other of the popular dialects. Treatises on poetics like Dhvanyaloka and Kavyaprakasa are full of illustrations from the Prakrit. The fact that the writers of the treatises, the eminent pioneer Anandavardhana and Mammata, often illustrate their points with Prakrit verses, shows that in this field genius of people found novel modes of expression. The poetic quality of these illustrations is often high and jo many cases they vie with the finished verses of great masters like Kalidasa. Our ancient dramas also have given a share to the popular dialects. The tradition of the use of the Prakrits in extant Sanskrit dramas must have had a realistic base though in course of time it became stereotyped. The Prakrits also enjoyed royal patronage in the extensive territories of such influential dynasties as the Mauryas and the Satava hanas. The duty rescripts of Asoka engraved in different parts of his kingdom are in the Prakrits and the Satavahanag also used Prakrit in their inscriptions. Among the latter, one, probably Hala, set up a convention of exclusive use of Prakrit in his harem as we learn from the Kavyamimamga of Rajasekhara. In this way the Prakrit languages and Literature are very valuable for a complete and first hand knowledge of the ancient Igdian culture. Their importance in linguistic studies also is very great. The growth of the modern vernaculars can be properly understood in the context of the Prakrit and the Apabhrama ianguages. Not only this but also the languages of the south have borrowed a large number of words from the Prakrits. The Prakrit languages kept always growing and they did not generally tone down to any strict discipline of grammar. This growth of the Prakrits Page #201 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 160 necessitated the intervention of Sanskrit is a standard language for commentary. Prakrit literature of a previous period had to be interpreted in Sanskrit for the readers of a later period. In course of time this sort of interpretation tended to be abused and the readers in order to save efforts satisfied themselves with the Sanskrit renderings of the Prakrit texts. This proved a great set-back to the Prakrits and the original texts began to dwindle. But it is heartening to note that a revival is taking place in our present generation which is somehow alive to the great importance of the Prakrits, Establishment of Research Institutes and University departments for the study of the Prakrits and publication of numerous old Mss. are evidences in question. What is desired is that the growth should be well planned and enthuciasm of the people regulated. If we cast a glance on the growth of Institutions and also on the curricula for the study of the Prakrits and other classical languages we find that the Prakrits are dovetailed with Jajnological, Pali with the Buddhistic, Sanskrit with the Brahmanical and Arabic and Persian with the Islamic studies. Not only this but also the particolar languages are supposed to be taken care of by the particular religious communities alligned to them. And the latter also presume to exert all kinds of authority on the language under their charge. We have to see whether this dovetailing is congenial to the study of the Language or the religions in question. It is true that some religious literature of the Jainas is in Prakrit and some religious literature of the Buddhists is in Pali and so on. But a lot of Jaina religious Ilterature is in Sanskrit also and the same is the case with the Buddhist religious literature. So it is not fair to confine these religious thoughts to Prakrit and Pali. Similarly the Prakrits have much more than the Jaina religious literature and the Jaina religious literature itself has much more than sheer religion and it is the common inheritance of the whole fraternity of scholars interested in the field. So the dovetailing in the above fashion is likely to confine the scope of the subject instead of promoting its growth and popularity. Coming down to the particular case of the Prakrit studies at present, we find that a number of Institutions have been established for higher studies and research. But the researches done are generally substandard for the Institutions do not get good scholars. The subject is not being taught at the high school level and very few colleges have been teaching it at the un. dergraduate stage. So only a limited number of students offer to take up postgraduate studies and research. It is from among these that the Institutions have wllty-Dilly to choose their research scholaars. Efforts have been made Page #202 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 161 to popularise the subject at the undergraduate level but so far with little success. The fact is that uptil now the subject has not been given due recognition. The scholars in the field have to assert themselves to convince the society of the enormous importance of the subject. But mind you, It is a herculean task and needs the greatest degree of patience and perseverance for to drive home the importance of the Prakrits to a society which is generally lukewarm to all learning and particularly hostile to culture. It is very difficult indeed. But any way we have to take up this task for our survival. The Institutions in the field may take up the publication of popular series to bring out the earings of the subject upon modern vernaculars, ancient Indian culture, literature and religious thoughts. The problem before the few students who opt the subject is of employ. ment. In the present day circumstances our education has to be job oriented. But in this field students after having obtained a first class M. A. and also research degree cannot feel secure about some sort of employment. Under the circumstances only a few, mostly helpless ones, opt the subject and that also half-heartedly. So provision for employment for the students coming out with degrees in this subject has to be made. In fact the establishment of centres of advanced studies itself is an eloquent for argument working out the ways of employing the products of these Institutions. But so far little is being done. As the first step towards it the Government should introduce Prakrit as an elective subject in the examinations conducted by Public Service Commissions at the central and state levels. The Universities should be encouraged and also financed to srart departments for undergraduate and Post-graduate teaching in Prakrit. We see that the Univesities are opening departments for regional Innguages like Maithili and Bhojapurl in their bid to include the popular dialects in their curriculum. If the fact, that for a proper understanding of these languages one has to begin with the Prakrits and the Apabhramsas, is duly emphasised. They cannot but see the reasonability of having a post of a teacher of Prakrit in each of the departments of modern vernaculars. A serious handicap in growth of Prakrit, Pali and Sanskrit studies is also their isolation and mutual exclusion as evidenced in the syllabi of the universities and also in the establishment of isolated and far apart Institutions for the study of each. A student who aspires to specialise in one cannot afford to overlook some basic knowledge of the others. So the syllabi at the entrance stage has to be literally comprehensive. Similarly the Institutions for specialised studies in each can function more harmoniously in one campus as the constituent units of one complex. Recently the Government of Bihar have set up Institutions for higher studies in Pali 21 Page #203 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 162 Prakrit, Sanskrit, History, Hindi and Arabic. But the Institutions are scatterd at distant places. The aim of the Government would have been fully realised if these would have been in one campus with complete residential facilities. This would have also averted a great deal of wastage. Lastly, a word of warning. In their zeal to popularise the subject, scholars in the field should not make it very cheap At present it is generally seen that Prakrit education is stipendary. In such a system psudo students more interested in filling up their vacant hours, getting stipend and as a side issue, degrees also than in acquiring kno weedge infiltrate into the field. They presume that they are doing a favour to the subject by condescending to study it and so they deserve to be rewarded with an honourable degree without any streneous industry for the same. This trend has to be ruthlessly stopped if we want Prakrit studies to be duly recogni. sed and valued in the society. * Page #204 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 23. Prakritic Studies and a Problem of their Rehabilitation Prof. A. S. Gopani, Bombay. The problem of rehabilitating the study of Prakrit languages and literature in our universities demands urgent and serious consideration at this moment, especially when a new wave of change-over to Science and Technology is sweeping over the whole field of human activities producing in its wake a chilling Indifferance to the study of classical literature in which the moorings of our culture and civilization lay. ay Linguistic material contained in Prakrit works and brought to lightthanks to the pioneering efforts of Grierson-by the strenuous -- sustained labours of the Indian and Western scholars since then has enriched our knowledge and yielded information about the various dialects linked philologically with each other. A highly appreciative note of the sin. cere efforts done by some of our universities and the Research Institutes in this connection must also be taken. Copious cultural wealth come to sight for the scholars to make use of would otherwise have remained hidden unavailed of in the manuscripts. Though it must be painfully noted that at present the universities have become lukewarm to classical languages. This is a tendency detrimental and disturbing. Pischel's hypothesis that the Prakrits, mostly those of Asokan times were current at the time of the Vedic language even is supported by Geldner. It is necessary to emphasize in this connection that the records preserving these Prakrits should be read and studied for their proper evaluation, in their original form as Sanskrit chhaya is not always uniformly reliable. Really speaking, the origin of some of the erroneous etymologies, untenable on sound and scientific priociples of philology, in the Sanskrit Chhaya itself. The importance of these and other Prakrits allied to them is so self-evident, leave aside the huge bulk and a great variey of Prakrit literature and its historic antiquity, that a deep, comprehensive and comparative study of them all had been and is bound to be still, fruitful. It should be remem, bered in this context that the Jalna Canon and vast commentarial litera. ture in Prakrit, a sizable part of wbich is unpublished even today will render substantial assistance, when published, in reconstructing the hitheto imperfect history of linguistics and in putting a seal of authenticity on the philological dates not established so far. In addition to the here is Apabhra, msa also. It was a medium of choice for the bards and the mystics and massive epics are written in it. Without a thorough knowledge of this language, it is not possible to trace the origin and growth of medieval Page #205 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 164 Indian languages which in their turn gave rise to modern Indian languages. We will be able to fill the existing gaps in the history of Rajashani, Hjodi and Gujarati only if we succeed in our attempt to bring out the Apabhramsa and post-Apabhramsa literature in full and coordinate studies under taken by different scholars in different directions reg. arding this. Instead of taking the conclusions arrived at by foreign scholars as gospel truths, Indian researchers should undertake independent study or should at least check up and verify the generalizations formulated by the foreign scholars. This will consolidate our gains in research Due to our indifference we have lost in the past many valuable manu: scripts of which Gunadhya's Bribatkatha is one. There are still many thousands of manuscripts in the north and the south. Enormity of the Prakrit and Apabbramsa literature can be very well known from the fact that the number of works written in them goes high above five thousand excluding those of the Jaina Canonical and Commentarial literature in Prakrit. To bring this national bidden wealth to light can be best done at the university level. Till now no regular and coordinate study of this vast and varied but neglected literature which has preserved our culture was seriously undertaken. This task is stupendous and therefore cannot be carried out by any single institution. There is no possibility of providing facilities on a larger scale unless various universities chalk out a programme of mutual cooperation and an agreed scheme of correlation. What I mean by this is that fully equipped departments without any unnecessary interference from any side should be opened in every university like those of Sanskrit, Humanities, Sociology, Economics etc. etc. for organizing teaching work, furnishing facilities for conducting research and arranging tours to various places where the Bhandaras are situated and where new finds are possible. We should hang our heads down in shame when we see foreign scholars ceaselessly and assiduously working on the manuscript material which they might have collected from the sanctuaries of 1:arning and scholarship in India during their study tours and offering very sound and scientific solutions of knotty problemes of research setting controversies at rest and arriving at conclusions worthy of universal acclaim and acceptance and helpful in formulating new chronologies or reconstructing the old ones as well as throwing light on many a dark spots in philology, linguistics, and literature while we ourselves are merely priding on sheer possession of such a material or a bliss of ignorance. We are in a position to do much if only we have a will and vision. There is no dearth of men, money and material. Only there ghould be awakening awareness. We should be convinced of a need Page #206 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 165 and as a matter of fact we are. This is a question of saying our national wealth. A plea constantly made and persuasively submitted to the authorities will one day be heard, welcomed and implemented. The universities should make up their mind to pool their resources for a common purpose-the purpose of saving Prakrit. They should become conscious of their responsibilities. That is to say, they should found and organise departments of Prakritic studies. If genuinte interest is not created for them, the only possible result will be extinction of the cultural wealth of the nation lying in the form of manuscripts in Prakrits. A tendency of Sanskrit first and Prakrit next should go. Both have equal status, chances and rights to live. It is a wrong notion the Sanskrit is richer than Prakrit. Any student or scholar, if only he be impartial, will have to admit that both have properties and features entitling them to an even treatment, I would not have so openly stated this but for the fact that a sizable portion of dramatic literature in Sanskrit which has got about half of its contents in Prakrit is offered in the form of editions containiog the Sanskrit rendering only thus depriving the student of the knowledge that there is also something like Prakrit worth studying as Sanskrit. This tendency, this injustice to an equally important and indepdent language must go once for all. This end can be achieved speadily and successfully only if separate departmeots, like those of Sanskrit etc. are opened in the universities. They can, then, well undertake the work of bringing out critical editions of Sanskrit-Prakrit dramas, Prakrit and Apabhramga texts, lexicons, grammars, tracing the historical growth of various Prakrits and modern Indian languages. This is an appeal in the name of research which, otherwise, will defeat its own purpose, In this context I remember the University Grants Commission which can certainly play a meaningful constructive role. However large sums of money U.G.C. spends on and for this it will be spending only meagre. Expenses incurred for the preservation of the cultural wealth of our nation are as vital, if not more, as those for the defence of the country. of course, there is a Prakrit Text Society and L.D. Institute of Indo. logy at Ahmedabad rendering yeomen service. But there should be at least a dozen of such publishing houses to cope with the huge bulk of many. script material in Prakrit. And It is here that the Universities can step in. So far as such research Institutes are concerned, progress can not be measured lo terms of monoy spont. It is a time-consuming undertaking. Moreover, one or two lostltutes cannot do this work. There should be coordination between all the Institutes so that the labours may not be tod and results reduplicated. If the need of such an effort is accepted the programmes and plans can be immediately drawn up. It is not difficult. Page #207 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 166 Let there be one supervising and directing centre such as the U.G.C. The universties by themselves will not be able to finance thsoe departments and that is why the active blessings of the U.G.C. are required. There is no hope from the chlleoes in this respect because the students are attracted to Science and Economics as they fetch them jobs more than to languages. Only those students who have made linguistic studies a mission of their life can take up research work at the postgraduate level and join later on these depatments. A band of devoted trainees will be thus ready. They may do some teaching in the form of contact work in order to keep their know. ledge fresh and increasing. This is the only fearsible way in which the scholars of Prakrit can possibly roalize their dream of digging out the hidden wealth of Prakritic studies. In this connetton let me also refer to the compartmentalization of the studies of classical languages as also of Avesta, old Persjan etc. Regional and religious factors should never be allowed to play any part wbile framing the curricula of classical languages. Students at the post-graduate level, offering classical languages, must bave an intimate knowledge of all the allied languages. Pattern of the curriculum should be such as would not allow a student who has taken up entire Sanskrit to escape from the study of Prakrit, Pall, Zend Avesta without harm to his Intelligence and interest. It is precisely this very phenomenon that comes in the way of Indian scholars in establishing equality with European scholars as regards classical scholarship. No orlental scholarship can be considered authentic and adequate without a proper knowledge of Sanskrit on one hand and Prakrit and Pali on the other. If the Indian scholars suffer from a lack of historical perspective it is becasue they welcome one (Sanskrit) and neglect the other (Prakrit). Time is ripe enough to revise our approaches and technique so that a better result becomes possible ultimately. Similarly, this curious fact is echoed with equal intensity in the field of modern Indian languages also. A student at the postgraduate level inten. ding specialization in a particular modern language must have intimate knowledge of other modern languages as well because otherwise his work, instead of becoming perfect, will suffer form lopsidedaess. So while making up again its mind to encourage and assist the univer. sities in the studies of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, the U.G.C. should see to it that the departments of languages - Ancient or Modern - do not function in disregard to each other. Religion-bound programme and region -bound porgramme should be scrapped. This means that a student of Sanskrit should also be quite well up ia Ptakrit and a student of Marathi in Gujaratai and vice-versa. This will widen the scope of research and propote a healthy approach. But it is not so easy as it appears on the face Page #208 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 167 of it to achieve this objective without completely overhaullog and reorionting the present system of postgraduate instructions and without inducting a change in the teachers' attitude which prefers, as it is convenient, to be conservative. Thus the only alternative left open for the rehabilitation of Prakrit studies, so far as the universities are concerned, is to awaken interest in and encourage such scholars as aspire to specialise in this branch of research by creating opportunities for them, by providing funds and by giving scholarships and fellowships. In conclusion, let me repeat, that Prakritic studies cannot be noglected that there is no hope to generate even a small amount of Interest at the graduate and undergraduate level in the colleges, that the students who have got a special aptitude for Prakritic studies should be trained at the postgraduate and should be offered job opportunites, that the indepen, dent departments for the Prakritic studies should be opened in the upis versities and these should be financially helped by the U.G.C., that the Pundits of the orthodox type and the private intitutes such as the LD. Institute and Prakrit Text Society should be encouraged and financially helped as much as possible by the U.G.C. To rehabilitate Prakritic studies, organising Prakrit Seminars such as the present one should be a permanent feature. Page #209 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 24. somaprabhAcAryakRta 'sumatinAtha caritra': kathAsAmagrI evaM bhASAsAmagrI DaoN. kanubhAI vra. zeTha, ahamadAbAda prastAvanA madhyakAlIna prAkRta sAhitya meM caritragraMtha vizeSa rUpa se jaina racanA prakAra hai / sAmAnyataH isa prakAra ke kAvya meM amuka jaina siddhAnta athavA dhArmika-naitika mAnyatA ke dRSTAnta hetu kisI tIrthakara kA athavA kisI yazasvI pAtra ke caritra kA varNana hotA hai / inameM caritranAyaka ke aneka pUrvabhavoM kA varNana kiyA jAtA hai, jinameM lokapracalita athavA sAhityaprApta dRSTAnta kathAoM evaM paramparAgata lokakathAoM ko samAviSTa kara liyA jAtA hai / prAkRta sAhitya meM jaina tIrthaMkaroM ke caritra kA nirUpaNa karanevAle anekoM caritragraMtha prApta hote haiM / prAkRta sAhitya meM tIrthakara caritraH navIM-dasavIM zatAbdI se bArahavIM-terahavIM zatAbdI taka aneka tIrthaMkaroM ke caritra prAkRta bhASA meM padyAtmaka athavA gadyAtmaka aura kaI bAra gadyapadyAtmaka rUpa meM likhe huai prApta hote haiM / inameM vardhamAnasUrikRta 'AdinAtha caritra' [IsvI 1103], somaprabhAcAryakRta 'sumatinAtha caritra' [IsvI 1177 se bhI pUrva], devasUrikRta 'padmaprabhusvAmIcaritra [IsAkI 13vIM zatI], lakSmaNagaNikRta 'supArzvanAthacaritra [I. sa 1143], yazodeva kRta 'caMdraprabhasvAmI. caritra [IsvI 1112], ajitasiMhakRta 'zreyAMsanAthacaritra' [IsvI 1116], candaprabhakRta 'vAsupUjyasvAmIcaritra' [IsvI 1143], nemicandrakRta 'anantanAthacaritra' [IsvI 1104], jinezvara kRta 'mallinAthacaritra, zrIcandrakRta 'munisuvratacaritra' [IsAkI 12vIM zatI], maladhArI hemacandrakRta 'neminAthacaritra' [IsvI 1170], devabhadrasUrikRta 'pArzvanAthacaritra' [IsvI 1112], guNacandragaNikRta 'mahAvIracaritra' ityAdi graMtha ullekhanIya haiM / ina caritroM meM vipula pramANa meM kathAsAmagrI prApta hotI hai / prastuta lekhameM yAvat aprakAzita somaprabhAcAryakRta 'sumatinAthacaritra' meM prApta kathAsAmagrI evaM bhASAsAmagrI kA nirdezamAtra hI kiyA hai / sumatinAthA kathA sAmagrI 'kumArapAla pratibodha' [IsvI 1185] ke kartA vijayasiMhasUri ke ziSya somaprabhAcAryane prAkRtabhASAmeM pAMcaveM tIrthaMkara ke caritra kA nirUpaNa karate hue caritrakAvya ke rUpameM 'subhatinAthacaritra' [9821 zloka pramANa kI racanA kI hai| isameM jaina dharma ke siddhAMtoMkA pratipAdana karanevAlI yA vivecana karanevAlo aneka loka pracalita dRSTAMtakathAoM evaM kiMvadaMtiyoMkA samAveza kiyA gayA hai / prastuta caritrameM prApta aneka kathAoM, kathApakRtiyoM aura kathAghaTakoM ke viSaya meM, khAsa tora para madhyakAlIna gujarAtI sAhitya se samAnatA rakhanevAlI kathAsAmagrI ke prasaMga meM tulanAtmaka dRSTi se adhyayanArtha aMgulInirdeza kiyA gayA hai / aneka sthAnoM para bhArata ke bAhara prApta kathA-sAmagrI ke prasaMga meM bhI sUcanA dI gaI hai / _ anyatra aneka sthAnoM para prApta hone vAlo kathae~ jaise puNyahIna, puNyasAra, varadatta, jayavarmA, kuberadatta, naMdana, samudradatta, amarasena--vayarasena, sundara, sudatta, zIlavatI, nayasundara, Page #210 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 169 rAjarSi, vipulamatI Adi kI kathAaiM yahA~ para bhI dI gaI haiM / ye apabhraMza evaM gujarAtI ityAdi bhASAoM meM likhita kaI kRtiyoM meM mukhya rUpa se prAcIna gujarAtI meM racI gaI kRtiyoM ke viSaya meM sumatinAthacaritra ke kathAvastu ko mukhyataH tIna vibhAgoM meM vibhakta vibhAga 1. bahuta sI prAkRta kathAe~ sAMgopAMgataH thor3e se parivartana ke sAtha anuvAdita rUpa meM avatarita huI haiM jo prAcIna gujarAtI meM rAsa, caupAI, prabaMdha ityAdi ke svarUpa meM dekhane ko milatI haiM / udAharaNa ke taura para - strI caritra kA nirUpaNa karanevAlI madana- ghanadevakathA, pramAdaguNa para likhI gaI puNyamArakathA, dAnaviSayaka kSullakamunikathA, saMsAra ke aneka vicitra saMbaMdhoM para racita kuberadatta - kuberadattAkathA atilobha para likhI gaI amarasena - vayarasenakathA, zIla kI mahimA darzAnevAlI zIlavatIkathA, parastrIviramaNa para racita raNavIrakathA Adi ko hama le sakate haiM / ina para prAcona gujarAtI meM bhI rAsa, caupAI, caritra, prabaMdha jaisI racanAaiM eka se adhika kavi athavA kartA dvArA likhI gaI haiM, aura yaha prAkRta kathA - sAhitya kA prAcIna gujarAtI kathA - sAhitya para par3e hue prabhAva kA dyotaka hai / uparyukta kathAoM ke eka se adhika rUpAntara prApta hote haiM / unameM se nimna likhita kathAoM ke rUpAntara ullekhanIya haiM: kathAaiM saMskRta, prAkRta, milatI haiM / yahA~ para vicAra kiyA gayA hai / kiyA jA sakatA hai / 9. pramAda viSayaka dRSTAMta ke taura para upalabdha puNyasArakathA ke pAMca rUpAntara prAcIna gujarAtI meM prApta hote haiM / (1) sAdhumerukRta puNyasArakumArarAsa [ I. sa. 1444 ] ( 2 ) ajJAtakRta puNyasArarAsa [ I. sa. 16vIM zatI ] (3) puNyakIrtikRta puNyasArarAsa [ I. sa. 1609] (4) tejacandrakRta puNyasArarAsa [ I. sa. 1643 ] (5) amRtasAgara kRta puNyasArarAsa [ I. sa. 1750 ] 2. atilobha viSayaka amarasena -vayarasena kathA gujarAtI meM atyadhika prasiddha huI hai / phalasvarUpa isake nimnalikhita ATha rUpAntara prApta hote haiM / 1538 ] (1) rAjazIlakRta amarasena - vayarasena caupAI [I. sa. (2) kamalaharSakRta amarasena - vayarasena caupAI [ I. sa. 1584 ] (3) saMghavijayakRta amarasena-vayarasena AkhyAnaka [ I. sa. 1623] 1661 ] 1660 ] ( 4 ) jayaraMgakRta amarasena - vayarasena caupAI | I. sa. (5) dayAsArakRta amarasena - vayarasena caupAI [ I. sa. (6) dharmavardhanakRta amarasena - vayarasena caupAI [ I. sa. (7) tejapAlakRta amarasena-vayarasena caupAI [ I. sa. (8) jIvasAgara kRta amarasena- vayarasena caupAI [I. sa. 1712] 22 1668 ] 1688 ] Page #211 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 170 3. zIla kI mahimA darzAne vAlI 'zolavatIkathA' bhI prAcIna madhyakAlona gujarAtI meM lokapriya huI hai / isa kathA para nimnalikhita pA~ca kRtiyA~ prApta hotI haiM / (1) kavi jayavaMtasUrikRta zrRMgAramaMjarIcaritra-zIlavatIcaritra rAsa [ I. sa. 1558 ] (2) muni devaratnakRta 'zIlavatI caupAI' [I. sa. 1643 ] (3) muni dayAsArakRta 'zIlavatI caupAI' [ I. sa. 1648 ] (4) kavi kuzaladhIrakRta 'zIlavatI catuSpadikA' [I. sa. 1666] (5) kavi jinaharSakRta-'zIlavatI rAsaprabaMdha' [ I. sa. 1702] yaha saba isa kathA kI lokapriyatA kA sUcaka hai| [isa kathA kI vikAsayAtrA ke viSaya meM vistRta carcA lekhaka dvArA taiyAra kie gae zrRMgAramaMjarIcaritrarAsa nAmaka mahAnibandha meM kI gaI hai / ] 4. bhAva ke binA dAnAdi saba vyartha hai-isako prarUpita karanevAlA muni kSullaka kA kathAnaka bhI prAcIna madhyakAlIna gujarAtI meM prApta hotA hai / isa sambandha meM ye tIna kRtiyA~ ullekhanIya haiM / (1) padmarAjakRta kSullakakumAra rAjarSicaritra [I. sa. 1611] (2) mAnasiMhakRta kSullakakumAra caupAI [I. sa. 1616 ] (3) meghanidhAnakRta kSullakakumAra caupAI [I. sa. 1532] 5. 'puruSasiMha kathAnaka' meM saMsAra ke viSaya-sukha kI kSaNikatA kA varNana karane vAlA 'madhubindudRSTAMta' prApta hotA hai / isa dRSTAMta kA jaina paramparA meM vyApaka taura se pracAra-prasAra huA hai| 'vasudevahiNDI' [ 5 vIM zatI se prArabhma kara ke saMskRta-prAkRta meM isake anekoM rUpAntara milate haiN| jainetara paramparA meM isakA mUla mahAbhArata meM prApta hotA hai jo isakI lokapriyatA prakaTa karatA hai / yaha dRSTAMta bhI madhyakAlona gujarAtI meM racita yazovijayajI ke 'jambusvAmIrAsa' meM dikhAI detA hai| [isake anekoM rUpAntaroM kI carcA prAkRta ke prakhara paMDita pro. hIrAlAla kApaDiyAne unake 'jaina satyaprakAza' meM likhe gaye lekha meM kI hai| tatpazcAt anya aneka rUpAntaroM ke saMbaMdha meM DaoN ra. ma. zAhane unake sAdhAraNakavikRta 'vilAsavaI kahA' nAmaka mahAnibandha kI prastAvanA meM carcA kI hai-yahA~ para yaha ullekhanIya hai / vibhAga 2. dUsare vibhAga meM aneka aisI prAkRta kathAoM ko ginAyA jA sakatA hai jinakI mukhya ghaTanAe~ to vahI rahI haiM parantu mAtra unameM nAma kA antara athavA koI anya alpa bheda kiyA gayA hai| aisI kathAoM ne prAcIna madhyakAlIna gujarAtI rAsa, caritra, caupAI Adi kathAtmaka sAhitya meM sthAna prApta kiyA hai| inameM nimna kathAoM kA udAharaNa ke lie ullekha kiyA jA sakatA hai: Page #212 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 171 (1) atilobha ke dRSTAMta ke rUpameM milanevAlI nidhisAra kI putravadhU RddhimatI kI kathA alpa bheda tathA nAma bheda ke sAtha madhyakAlIna gujarAtI meM yazovijayajIkRta 'jambusvAmI rAsa' ke antargata milane vAlI devadatta kI putravadhU durgilA kI kathA ke rUpa meM milatI hai| (2) binA vicAre kiye gaye kArya para dRSTAMta rUpa se milane vAlI 'somadeva-mitravatI kathA' kucha alpa bheda tathA nAmabheda ke sAtha prAcIna-madhyakAlIna gujarAtI meM prApta aMjanAsundarI tathA mRgAMkalekhA kI kathA ke sAtha samAnatA rakhatI hai| ina donoM hI kathAoM kA nirUpaNa karane vAlI kramazaH ATha aura bona kRtiyAM prApta hotI haiN| vibhAga 3. tIsare vibhAga meM kathAoM meM milane vAlI [samAnatA rakhane vAlI] kathAprakRtioM ko ginAyA jA sakatA hai / sumatinAthacaritra meM upalabdha aneka kathAoM ke antargata vividha kathA-prakRtiyA~ evaM kathAghaTaka prApta hote haiM / yahA~ para khAsa taura se prAcIna-madhyakAlIna gujarAtI kathAsAhitya meM milane vAle aneka sAmyoM ke rUpAMtara saMkSipta rUpa meM die gae haiN| sAMskRtika parivartanoM ke sAtha kayA-prakRti athavA kathAghaTaka ke vikAsa kA tulanAtmaka abhyAsa aneka dRSTiyoM se rasaprada hotA hai-yaha svAbhAvika hI hai / (1) megharAjAkI rAnI maMgalAdevI ke garbha meM pAMcaveM tIrthaMkara-sumatinAtha Ate haiN| usa samaya vahA~ ke cakrI caMdramaNi kI do patniyoM ke bIcameM dhana aura putrake bAreM meM vivAda upasthita hotA hai| usa vivAda kA saccA nipaTArA tIrthaMkara ko mAtA maMgalAdevI karatI haiM / isa prasaMga meM 'do striyA~ aura bAlaka' nAmake kathAghaTaka kA prayoga milatA hai / prastuta kathAghaTaka kA bhArata aura bhAratabAhya pradeza ke kathAsAhitya meM vyApaka rUpa meM pracAra-prasAra huA hai / jaina paraMparA meM yaha AgamasAhitya meM- naMdIsUtra kI malayagiri kI TIkA [I. sa. 12 vIM zatAbdI meM prApta hotA hai| [usakI carcA ke liye dekhie, 'aika ArakhyAyikA kA mUla', DaoN. majulAla majamudAra, lokagUrjarI, ahamadAbAda, 1968, aMka-5, pR. 557-561] / prAcIna gujarAtI meM bhI eka gadya AkhyAyikA meM yaha dRSTAMta milatA hai| yaha dRSTAMta kathA, bAibala ke 'prAcIna karAra' meM 'rAjA solomAna kA nyAya' ke rUpameM ullekhita hai| isa dRSTAMtake anya ijharAyalI aura tibbatI rUpAntara bhI prApta hote haiN| [See The Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. XIV, No. 4, pp. 344-354] (2) prastuta kRti meM prApta nidhikuMDala-puraMdarayazA nAmaka avAMtara kathA meM bhaviSya ke bhava ke varNana meM prApta lalitAMga-unmAdantI kathA meM cAra vivAhArthioM kI kathA hai / isa eka suMdarI aura cAra vivAhArthioM ke kathAghaTaka kA mUla saMskRta-prAkRta meM, Avazyaka-cUrNi [kartA jinadAsagaNi, I. sa. 676] meM prApta 'eka kanyA aura tIna pati' vAlI kathA meM dekha sakate haiM / yaha kathAghaTaka somadevabhaTTakRta saMskRta 'kathAsaritsAgara' meM prApta vaitAla paMcaviMzatikA meM milatA hai| prastuta kathAghaTaka kA gujarAtI rUpAntara gujarAtI kavi zAmalakRta 'vaitAlapaccIsI' kI 22 vIM vArtA meM hai| [isako carcA ke liye dekhiye pro. hIrAlAla ra. kApaDiyA, 'jainasatyaprakAza' varSa 13, aMka 89, pR. 157-158] Page #213 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 172 (3) gurunizrA ke bAre meM prApta 'vipulamatI kathA' meM 'azakyako zakya kara dikhAne kI cunautI ko svIkAra karanevAlI patnI' nAmaka kathAprakRti milatI hai / strI ke banAvaTI yA vAstavika abhimAna ko tor3ane ke liye pati usako apanA sAmarthya siddha karake dikhAne kI cunauti detA hai / stro ise svIkAra kara pati kI mAMga ke anusAra asAdhAraNa vastu ko apanI caturAI aura dakSatA se siddha kara detI hai / yaha kathAprakRti kA samAnya rUpa hai| prastuta kathAprakRti prAcIna bhAratIya sAhitya meM saMskRta, prAkRta aura prAcIna gujarAtI sAhityameM upalabdha hai| bhArata-bAhya yaha kathAprakRti eziyA aura yUropa jaise dezomeM bhI pracalita hai| prAcIna gujarAtI meM prastuta kathAprakRti sarva prathama kavi abhayasoma kRta 'mAnatuMga-mAnavatI rAsa' [I. sa. 1677 ] meM milatI hai / isameM mAnavatI apane pati mAnatuMga kI orase do gayI cunautI ko siddha kara dikhAtI hai / bAdameM yaha kathA-ghaTaka madhyakAlIna gujarAtI kavi zAmalakRta siMhAsana battIsI' ke antargata strI-caritra kI kathA meM milatA hai / isI kathAprakRti vAlI eka arvAcIna kathA 'strI-carita kI navIna bAteM' ke andara milanevAlI 'nanu bhaTTa aura usakI patnI guNasuMdarI kI kathA' meM bhI yaha kathApaTaka prApta hotA hai| [dekhie, strIcaritra kI navIna bAteM : pra. mahamadabhAI aura mahamada kAgadI] bhAratabAhya upalabdha rUpAntaroM meM bokeziyAkRta Dekomerona ke antargata bAnDa aura gIlaTAkI kathA [I. sa. 13vIM sadI] tathA zeksapIyara kRta 'ola velsa gheTa ainDasa vela' nAmaka nATaka meM bhI yaha kathA-prakRti dikhAI detI hai| yahA~ ina saba rUpAntaroM kA tulanAtmaka abhyAsa kiyA gayA hai / [isakI carcA DaoN. janakabhAI dave ne kI hai / dekho zrI mahAvIra jaina vidyAlaya, suvarNa mahotsava graMtha, muMbaI, 1967, bhAga 1, pR. 196-208] (4) prastuta graMtha meM prApta rAjasiMhakuMvara-sumati kathA meM donoM pAtra eka sarovara ke samIpa vizrAma karate haiM / usI samaya eka vidyAdharI AtI hai aura strI-svarUpa prApta rAjasiMha kuMvara ko auSadhi-latA dvArA puna: puruSa banA detI hai / isa kathAprasaMga meM divya vidyA yA divya vastu [auSadhi ] dvArA rUpaparivartana karane kA kathAghaTaka saMskRta-prAkRta kathAoM meM aneka jagaha milatA hai / saMskRta meM yaha somadevabhaTTakRta 'kathAsaritsAgara' ke zazAMkavatI laMbaka ke bAIsaveM taraMga meM manusvAmI kI kathA meM prApta hotA hai| prastuta kathAghaTaka vAlI kathAe~ prAcIna gujarAtI meM bhI prApta hotI haiM / udayabhAnukRta 'vikramasena rAsa' meM jaDIbUTI ke prabhAva se rUpaparivartana karane kA prasaMga AtA hai, yaha upayukta kathA prasaMga kI samAnatA rakhe hue hai| zivadAsakRta rUpasena-catuSpadikA nAma ko eka anya racanA meM bhI jar3IbUTI dvArA rUpaparivartana kA ullekha milatA hai| [isakI carcA ke lie dekhie zivadAsakRta rUpasena-catuSpadikA-Do. kanubhAI ba. zeTha, phArbasa gujarAtI sabhA, muMbaI, 1968, pR 4-10] uparyukta kathAghaTakavAlI kathAaiM bhArata aura bhAratabAhya dezoM ke sAhitya meM eka yA dUsare Page #214 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 113 rUpa meM prApta hotI hai| lokavArtAoM kA AdAna-pradAna maukhika paraMparA yA anya sAdhanoM dvArA pRthvI ke eka kone se dUsare kone meM huA hai usakA yaha dyotaka hai / bhAratIya lokakathA-sAhitya kA aitihAsika aura sAMskRtika dRSTi se anveSaNa karanevAloM ke lie sumatinAthacaritra aura anya tIrtha kara-caritra sAhitya eka agAdha amUlya nidhi rUpa hai / yahA~ para prastuta kI gaI carcA se isa bAtakA samarthana ho jAtA hai / prAcIna gujarAtI meM prApta kathAsAmagrI kA sAmya bhI usa para prAkRta kathA-sAhitya ke vyApaka prabhAva kA sUcaka hai / bhASA sAmagrI : aneka bhASA prayoga evaM zabdaprayoga 'sumatinAthacaritra' kI jaina mahArASTrI prAkRta bhASA meM aneka aise prayoga haiM jo prAcIna madhyakAlIna gujarAtI bhASA ke abhyAsa ke lie mahattvapUrNa haiM / unake kucha udAharaNa dekhie : (1) appaDisiddhamaNumayaM (2137) / apratiSiddha ko anumata kahA jAtA hai / (2) uccidraM pi hu bhattaM bhakkhijjai nehaloheNa (1932) / miSTAnna ke lobha se loga jUThA bhI khA lete haiN| (3) uvaeseNa vi pAyaM narANa dupariccayA payaI (2425) / upadeza se bhI manuSya kI prakRti prAyaH badalI nahIM jA sakatI / (4) ekkaM suvannaM annaM ca surahi ko na icchai (359) / sone aura sugaMdha ko eka sAtha kauna nahIM cAhatA ? (5) egattha vasai akkhaMDapunnaguNaniyaliyA lacchI (828) / akhaMDa puNya-guNa se baMdhI huI lakSmI eka hI puruSake pAsa rahatI hai / (6) osahaM viNA vAhi-vigamo (776)? kyA auSadha ke vinA vyAdhi haTatI hai ? (7) kiM kUvu khaNijjai ghari palitti (2240) ! kyA naba ghara meM Aga lagatI hai taba dUMA khodA jAtA hai ! (8) khayammi khAro tae khitto (914) / ghAva para namaka DAlane jaisI terI bAta hai / (9) khAyaI karaMSayaM jo so sahai vilaMbayaM puriso (158) / jo AdamI karaMbaka (dadhyodana guja. rAja.-karabo) khAtA hai usako vilaMba sahanA paDatA hai| 3. *apracalita zabdaH(1) aMgusela (576) meru parvata (2) ekkigA (852) mUtra (3) kammaNijja (850) rasoI ghara Page #215 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ * (4) kaliMja (5) kucchara (6) calaNasoyaM 174 ( 357 ) vAMsa ( 315 ) kamala ( 170 ) pagacaMpI (7) cullanappo (618) cAcA (8) dharaNigocara ( 206 ) sthalacara manuSya (9) paharaa ( 374 ) paharedAra (10) bhaiha ( 720 ) mAjI, padabhraSTa (11) vRttANattaya ( 315 ) naukarI vividha pratiyoM parase paM. nagInadAsa ke. zAha ke dvArA taiyAra kiye gaye somaprabhAcAryakRta 'sumatinAthacaritra' kA samIkSita pATha evaM bhASAntara Adi kI presa - nakala kA prastuta lekha meM upayoga kiyA gayA hai jisake lie maiM unakA AbhArI hU~ / Page #216 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 25. 'saMdhi' kAvya - udbhava aura vikAsa DaoN. ra. ma. zAha, ahamadAbAda AcArya hemacandrasUri ke sAtha apabhraMza yuga kA samApana aura navya bhAratIya bhASAoM kA udaya dRSTigocara hotA hai / isa saMdhikAla meM racA gayA sAhitya Aja taka pATana, khaMbhAta, jesalamera, ahamadAbAda Adi ke jaina jJAnabhaMDAroM meM surakSita kaI hajAroM tADapatrIya evaM kAgajI hastapratiyoM meM upalabdha hotA hai| isa sAhityameM saMskRta aura prAkRta graMtho ke sAtha aneka apabhraMza aura uttarakAlIna apabhraMza athavA Adya gUrjara bhASAbaddha kaI laghu racanAe~ jaise ki rAsa, phAgu, carcarI, caupaI Adi bhI prApta hotI haiN| ina uttarakAlIna apabhraMza racanAoM meM 'saMdhi' nAmaka bIsa-pacIsa laghu kAvyoM kI aneka hastapratiyA~ hamArA dhyAna AkarSita karatI hai / ina saMdhiyoM kA adhyayana Aja taka nahivat huA hai / isakA sekSita paricaya karAnA isa vaktavya kA uddezya hai| jisa taraha saMskRta mahAkAvya sargoM meM aura prAkRta mahAkAvya AzvAsoM meM vibhakta hotA hai, isI taraha apabhraMza mahAkAvya saMdhiyoM meM vibhakta hotA hai / apabhraMza kA upalabdha sAhitya dekhane se isa bAta kA zIghra hI patA lagatA hai ki adhikatara mahAkAvya 'saMdhibaMdha' mahAkAvya haiN| do-cAra se lekara sau se bhI adhika saMdhiyoM meM vibhakta apabhraMza caritakAvya, kathAkAvya aura paurANika mahAkAvya hameM milate haiN| inakI hareka saMdhi aneka kaDavakoM meM vibhakta hotI hai / 'saMdhibaMdha' kAvyoM ke prAraMbha meM yaha kaDavaka ATha paMktiyoM kA hotA thA aura saMdhi ke prAraMbha kA tathA pratyeka kaDavaka ke aMta kA padya 'dhruvA' yA 'ghattA' nAma se prasiddha thaa| upalabdha kAvyoM meM hama dekhate haiM ki pAMca se lekara pacIsa-tIsa kaDavakoM kI eka saMdhi prAyaH hotI hai| upari-nirdiSTa 'saMdhi' yA 'saMdhi-kAvya' kA bAhya rUpa isa saMdhibaMdha mahAkAvya kI eka saMdhi jaisA hI hotA hai / isa saMdhi kAvya meM Adya gAthA aura kaDavakAnta gAthA kA vRtta kaDavaka kevRtta se bhinna hotA hai| kaDavakoM kI saMkhyA do se lekara pandraha taka hotI hai aura pratyeka kaDavaka meM ATha se lekara bAraha taka paMktiyAM hotI haiM / kaDavaka kA vRtta adhikatara 'paddhaDiyA' hotA hai, kintu bIca-bIca meM 'madanAvatAra' bhI milatA hai / ghattA kA vRtta prAyaH 'SaTpadI-chaguNiyA' hai / isa taraha 'saMdhibaMdha' kI eka hI saMdhi meM saMdhikAvya saMpUrNataH samA jAtA hai / ina saMdhikAvyoM meM viSaya kI dRSTi se dhArmika athavA paurANika mahApuruSa ke jIvana kA koI udAtta prasaMga, AgamAdika kI koI laghu dharmakathA athavA prAsaMgika upadezavacana hotA hai / ___ gyArahavIM zatAbdI meM prAkRta bhASA ke mahAkAvyoM aura caMpUkAvyoM meM apabhraMza ke aneka padyakhaMDa milate haiM, aura nemicandrasUri-racita AkhyAnakamaNikozavRtti (I. sa. 1100 ) meM 1. 'padya prAyaH saMskRta-prAkRtApabhraMza-grAmyabhASA-nibaddha-bhinnAntya-vRtta-sargA''zvAsa-saMdhyavaskaMdha-baMdha ___ satsaMdhi-zabdArtha-vaicitryopetaM mahAkAvyam // ' (-hemacandrAcArya, kAvyAnuzAsana 8.6) 2. saMdhyAdau kaDavakAnte ca dhruvaM syAditi dhruvA dhruvakaM ghattA vA / / kaDavaka-samUhAtmakaH sandhista syAdau / caturbhiH paddhaDikAdaizchandobhiH kaDavakam / tasyAnte dhruvaM nizcitaM syAditi dhruvA, dhruvakaM, ghattA ceti saMjJAntaram // ' (hemacandrAcArya chaMdo'nuzAsana - 6.1 ) 3. ina chaMdoM ke svarUpa Adi ke lie dekhie-chando'nuzAsanam-3.73, 4.83, 7.17 evaM svayambhUcchandas-6.129, 8.11 Page #217 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 176 somaprabhAkhyAna aura cArudattAkhyAnaka nAmaka do ArapAna tathA devacandrasUri racita mUlazuddhiprakaraNavRtti ( I. sa. 1089 anu ) meM sula sAkhyAna nAmaka eka AkhyAna eka eka saMdhimeM race gaye saMdhi-kAvya ho haiM / saMdhikAvya kA udbhava isa taraha 11voM zatAbdI meM hI ho cukA thA / parantu bAda kI racanAoM para tatkAlIna sthAnIya bhASAkA prabhAva baDhatA gayA aura hamane saMdhikAvyoM kI jo sUci yahAM para do haiM una sabakI bhASA tatkAlIna lokabhASA ke prabhAva se raMgI huI apabhraMza bhASA hai| hama unameM prAcIna gajara bhASAkI Adya bhUmikA kI chAyA dekha sakate haiM / katipaya prakAzita saMdhi kAvyoM se eva vividha jJAnabhaMDAroM ke adyAvadhi prakAzita sUcipatroM kI sahAyatA se upalabdha saMdhikAvyoM kI sUci yahA~ para prastuta kI gaI hai - kartA racanA samaya I. sa. 1182 ratnaprabhasUri jinaprabhasuri I. sa. 1250 anu0 saMdhi 1. RSabha-pAraNaka saMdhi 2. vIra-pAraNaka 3. gajasukumAla 4. zAlibhadra 5. avaMtisukumAla ,, 6. madanarekhA 7. anAthI muni 4. jIvAnuzAsti , 9. narmadAsudarI , 10. caturaMga bhAvanA " 11. AnaMda zrAvaka ,, 12. aMtaraMga 13. kezo-gautama 14. bhAvanA 15. zIla 16. upadhAna 17. hematilakasUri ,. 18. tapa 19. anAthI maharSi , 20. upadeza vinayacandra ratnaprabha gaNi ratnazekharasUri-ziSya (1) jayadeva jayazevarasUri-ziSya (3) I. sa. 1300 I. sa. 1325 I. sa. 1400 pUrva I. sa. 1400-1450 ajJAta vizAlarAjasUri-ziSya ajJAta hemasAra I. sa. 1500 pUrva 1. dekhie 'zodha ane svAdhyAya': DaoN. harivallabha bhAyANI, 1965, pR0 32-33. Page #218 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 177 inameM se katipaya kRtiyA~ prakAzita huI haiM, paraMtu adhikatara abhI sabhI kRtiyoM kA aMtaraMga parIkSaNa karake yahA~ para niSkarSarUpa meM nimna ' kartA evaM racanA samaya :- ina saMdhikAvyoM ke racayitA sabhI jaina haiM, itanA hI nahIM apitu ve jaina muni evaM AcArya haiM / isa se siddha hotA hai ki jainetara kaviyoM ne zAyada saMdhi-kAvya prakAra ko apanAyA hI nahIM athavA to unakI racanAe~ upalabdha nahIM haiM / uparokta bIsa racanAoM meM se bhI prathama dasa to do hI kaviyoM kI racanAe~ haiM / prathama pA~ca ke racayitA hai prasiddha jainAcArya ratnaprabhasUri, jinhoMne dharmadAsagaNa - racita upadezamAlA kI vRtti racI thI / 'doghaTTI' vRtti ke nAma se prasiddha unakI isI vRtti ke antargata hI ye pA~coM kAvya race gaye milate haiM / isa vRtti kI racanA I. sa. 1182 meM huI thI / ratnaprabhasUra saMskRta, prAkRta evaM apabhraMza tInoM bhASAoM kI sAhityaracanA meM siddhahasta the / ' doghaTTI vRtti meM uparokta saMdhiyoM ke uparAMta aneka apabhraMza padyakhaMDa Ate haiM / aprakAzita haiN| ina sAmagrI dI gaI hai / dUsare pA~ca saMdhikAvya jinaprabhasUri nAmaka AcArya ke race hue haiM / ve Agamagaccha ke AcArya the aura unakI uttarakAlIna apabhraMza yA Adya gujarAtI kI aneka racanAe~ pATana ke bhaMDAroM meM prApta hotI haiN| ve I. sa. kI 13 vIM zatAbdI ke prAraMbha meM vidyamAna the 1 gyArahavIM 'AnaMda zrAvaka' : saMdhi ke racayitA vinayacandra sUri the / unakI anya do prAcIna gujarAtI racanAe~ prakAsiddhU ho cukI haiM - 1. neminAtha catuSpadikA aura 2. uvaesamAlAkahANaya-chappaya / taduparAMta unakI munisuvratasvAmi-carita, kalpanirukta (ra. 1335) evaM dipAlikAkalpa (saM. 1345) nAmaka kRtiyA~ prApta haiN| saMdhi 12, 14 aura 20 ke karttAoM ke nAmamAtra prApta haiM / saMdhi 13, 15 - 16 aura 18 meM kartAoM ke guruoM ke nAma hI ullikhita haiM / ye tInoM nAma tapAgaccha ke prasiddha AcAryoM ke nAma haiN| bAkI kI saMdhi 17 aura 19 ke kartA ajJAta haiM / ina saba saMdhiyoM ( 12 se 20 taka) ke racanA samaya kA anumAna usa saMdhi kI hastaprati ke lekhana samaya evaM bhASA Adi ke lakSaNoM se kiyA gayA hai / viSaya vastu : - ratnaprabhasUri dvArA racita prathama do saMdhiyA~ kramazaH prathama aura aMtima tIrthaMkarake jIvana kI mahattvapUrNa tapazcaryA, tatpazcAt pAraNA aura pAraNA karAne vAlI bhavya AtmAoM ke jIvana kA varNana karatI haiM / anya tIna saMdhiyA~ kramazaH gajasukumAla, zAlibhadra aura avaMtisukumAla nAmaka uccakulotpanna yuvakoM kA mahAvIra ke prati AkarSaNa, dIkSA, tapazvaryA aura kevala - prApti evaM nirvANa ke prasaMgoM ko prastuta karatI haiM / 1. ratnaprabhasUra ke paricaya ke lie dekheM -ratnAkarAvatArikA, saMpA. paM. dalasukhabhAI mAlavaNiyA bhA. 3 prastAvanA pR. 21 2. dekheM pattanastha prAcya jaina bhANDAgArIya grantha sUcI, saMpA. sI.DI dalAla, gA. o. sIrIza, baroDA, 1929 3. prAcIna gurjara kAvya saMgraha, saMpA. cImanalAla dalAla, gA. o. sIrIjha, vaDodarA, 1920. 4. AnaMda zrAvaka saMdhi saMpA. ramaNikavijayajI, mahAvIra jaina vidyAlaya suvarNa mahotsava graMtha - 1, muMbaI 1968. - Page #219 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 178 jinaprabhasUri dvArA racita madanarekhA saMdhi aura narmadAsundarI-saMdhi meM prasiddha solaha jaina mahAsatiyoM meM se do ke jIvanacaritra haiN| anAthi-saMdhi meM uttarAdhyayana sUtra ke bIsaveM mahAnirgranthIya adhyayana kI kathA dI gaI hai / jIvAnuzAsti aura caturaGga-bhAvanA saMdhi upadezAtmaka haiN| vinayacandra dvArA racita 'AnaMda zrAvaka saMdhi' bhagavAna mahAvIra ke upAsaka Ananda nAmaka gRhapati kI kathA kA nirvahana karatI hai / unakI kathA sAtaveM aMga grantha 'uvAsagadasAo' ke prathama adhyayana meM AtI hai / ratnaprabhagaNi-viracita 'aMtaraGgasaMdhi' eka rUpakAtmaka kAvya hai, jisameM aMtaraGga zatru moha rUpI rAjA ko parAjita karake jinendra ne bhavyajIvoM ko kaise bacAyA usakA nAdhyAtmaka citraNa kiyA gayA hai| 13vI saMdhi meM bhagavAna pArzvanAtha ke pramukha gaNadhara kezI aura bhagavAna mahAvIra ke paTTaziSya gaNadhara gautama kA saMvAda milatA hai / uttarAdhyayana ke 23veM adhyayana meM prApta isa kathA ko yahA~ para manohara kAvya-svarUpa milA hai / 14vIM bhAvanA-saMdhi jaina-dharma-prasiddha 12 bhAvanAoM kA varNanAtmaka kAvya hai / jayazekharasRri-ziSya dvArA racita do saMdhiyoM (15-16) meM krama se zIla-cAritrya kI mahattA aura upadhAna nAmaka eka jaina tapa kA mAhAtmya darzAyA gayA hai / 17vIM hematilakasari saMdhi meM 14vIM zatAbdI ke vaDagaccha ke paTTadhara hematilakasUri kI saMkSipta jIvanagAthA milatI hai / 18vIM tapa saMdhi meM jaina dharma meM tapa kA kyA mAhAtmya hai yaha dikhAyA gayA hai| 19vIM saMdhi meM 7vIM saMdhi ke nAyaka anAthi muni kI sundara kAvyAtmaka kathA milatI hai| 20vIM saMdhi meM nAma ke anusAra sAdhAraNa upadeza diyA gayA hai / isa taraha sabhI saMdhi-kAvya jaina zAstroM evaM purANoM meM varNita pAtroM evaM prasaMgoM ko lekara race gaye haiM aura unakA hetu hai dharmopadeza / ina kAvyoM meM upalabdha aneka saMdarbha pazcima bhArata-khAsa karake gujarAta-rAjasthAna ke madhyakAlIna itihAsa aura saMskRti ke abhyAsa meM mahattvapUrNa yogadAna de sakate haiN| ina kAnyoM kA vizuddha rUpa meM prakAzana apabhraMza aura prAcya-arvAcIna gurjara bhASA ke adhyayana ke lie atyanta Avazyaka hai| nal Use Only Page #220 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Errata zuddhi patraka Page Incorrect Correct No. Line No. From Top Bottom 9 also regrettable through out x 13 19 deglaya (xiii) (xix) (xx) (xxii) (xxvii) (xxvii) . x 15 at the atmos transmigratiou Historio Joshi but were wordly reptition other others as complete sence principies movabie memberanous aequivoca nionth putrajiva ete. fold fales in Salivahana robbors godesses Rahamana Sudayavatsa designed childeren atlachment precisc effiminate Historio sadful to note throughout 'laya, bAlAghATa in the atoms transinigration Historico Doshi but who were worldly reptilian each other others, as, compete sense principles movable membranous acquivoca months putrajiva etc, field tales Salivahana robbers goddesses Rahamana Sudayavatsa is designed children attachment precise effeminate Historico Page #221 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 180 contains Cavada precisely to contain Chavda preciseiy so lord 64-61 form, are which dhyana is antarmuhur a -asyestatvat' dhyana Dhyanasafva IX.38 Lord 64-65 form, is dhyana, which antarmuhurta -atvestatvat' dhyanas Dhyanastava IX. 36 ,1961. 1968 sAhityika 1965 sAhityaka hota raha hogI hotI hI rahI hoMgI buha, -zrIdhara NArAyaNu (sappiNI ora vodaunagara -zrIhara NArAyaNu (patnI : ruppiNI) aura vodAunagara asuharakavi kI asura ye kavi huI rasoM raso AbhUsana grammer no loglcal --papadhama characrerize heardsman it from nirruti enumerate uttararatra former is nibbacana AbhUSaNa grammar not logical --papadhamma characterize herdsman from nirutti enumerates uttaratra former nibbacanas Page #222 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 6569 67 70 71 72 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 17 7 11 X 11 6 X X 17 20 X 14 X 19 X 1 X 17 12 X X 99 6 8 3 X 3 X 7 12 3 10 4 10 3 33 16 17 x x x X X X 7 X X 13 3 X X 6 X 3 X 4 X ^ 15 X X 1323 22 X X X 16 X 8 X X X X X X X x x x X X X we diffe puramdada occurances prAbhRta ujjaDa te apamra za kI punarAvarta Samskirt dhvani po0 vAMdhI bodhayet gItioM mAgadhI prAnInatama ora me bhAgadho zArasenI maiM 181 'ktA' jo aura Dadumvala RkU upalabdha daMSTrA ha puna nirmANa zatAbdI saMskR TaSTi apabhraMza aura we find diffe purimdada Occurrences prabhRti ujaDDu ve apabhraMza ki punarAvartana Samskrit dhvani pI. bAMdhI bodhayet gItiyoM mAgadhI prAcInatama aura meM mAgadhI zaurasenI meM 'pha' / jA~ ora udumbala upalabdha daMSTrA ho punarnirmANa zatAbdI saMskRta dRSTi apabhraMza ora "" Page #223 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 182 kAvyAbhASA abhra paza aura ghotaka kAvyabhASA apabhraMza ora dyotaka *** : WIB (> pratta) (prat (< pratta) > pra +) W* *** > deva + a > -y-a / am + bhruv piprese Bohtlingle govindu - enjoyed V kas - par yanka raj(y) I deva + ai > -y + ai (7. 3. 113.) am > bhruv piprese Boehtlingk govindu - en joined kasaparyanka raj(y).29 * * * *-wDA CON ZX * - hasama Page #224 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 183 104 113 childrens establishment whith first 114 br children the establishment which the first by work rich and Literature 978 extent works authors' 113 the 116 117 woek rich Litrature 778 etenxt woks author's ihe sudKuvmepu reference -refused -dachhandopecullar influence from on to Kalakodu for : Hari eontinues be situations, throws Abhisatikas an-archer aft:tarct:+ points was sludy 425 119 125 126 subKuvempu references -dareferred --da chandopeculiar the influence form one to Kalakondu read : Hari (everywhere) continues be an situations.' throw Abhisarikas an archer bandibandI points I was study 426 it See Vajjalagga hohii ghanAndhakAre viesAo Ayanti 127 128 130 131 132 133 134 135 138 Sce Vajlalagga 142 143 2 4 x X dhanAndhakAre viesAA enti Page #225 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 184 5 X 143 147 154 159 160 161 163 -prakIrnakesu pravacarya/sa -bhidesu 968 Apabhrarna nsve alligned Scholaars earings Include . They indifferance wealth use of hidden in the hitheto dates the here genuinte indepdent hers universties chlleoes depatments fearsible connetion Ptakrit Gujarati intitutes kathApakRtiyoM -prakirnakesu Pravasacarya : sa -bhede su S&C (ITAT 2.84) Apabhramsa have aligned Scholars bearings Include , they indifference wealth, use of, hidden and lies in the hitherto data these there genuine independent here universities colleges departments feasible connection Prakrit Gujarati institutes kathAprakRtiyoM eka nahIMvat ke vRtta 165 166 167 168 171 175 nahivat kevR tta 176 eva evaM Page #226 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ For Private & Personal use only