Book Title: Proceedings of the Seminar on Prakrit Studies 1973
Author(s): K R Chandra, Dalsukh Malvania, Nagin J Shah
Publisher: L D Indology Ahmedabad
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Page #1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEMINAR ON PRAKRIT STUDIES (1973) L. D. SERIES 70 GENERAL EDITORS DALSUKH MALVANIA NAGIN J. SHAH EDITED BY K. R. CHANDRA HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PRAKRIT AND PALI SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES GUJARAT UNIVERSITY AHMEDABAD-9 भारतीय IS 2 0 L. D. INSTITUTE OF INDOLOGY AHMEDABAD 9 SIRE Sed Education International For Private & Personal use only Page #2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEMINAR ON PRAKRIT STUDIES (1973) L. D. SERIES 70 GENERAL EDITORS DALSUKH MALVANIA NAGIN J. SHAH EDITED BY K.R. CHANDRA HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PRAKRIT AND PALI SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES GUJARAT UNIVERSITY AHMEDABAD-9 L. D. INSTITUTE OF INDOLOGY AHMEDABAD 9, Page #3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Printed by Mahanth Tribhuvandasji Shastri Shree Ramanand Printing Press Kankaria Road, Ahmedabad-22. and Published by Nagin J. Shah Director L. D. Institute of Indology Ahmedabad-380009, FIRST EDITION May 1978 PRICE RIIPFESZAJIC Revisad R 730T Price Run 1. D. Indology Page #4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREFACE The L. D. Institute of Indology has great pleasure in publishing the Proceedings of the Seminar on Prakrit Studies, held at Ahmedabad from March 22 to 25 th, in 1973 organised by the Department of Prakrit, Gujarat University and financially assisted by the University Grants Commission. Dr. K. R. Chandra, Head of the Department of Prakrit and Pali, Gujarat University offered us the papers read at the Seminar for publication and shouldered the responsibility of editing them. He deserves our heartfelt thanks. We are extremely sorry for the delay, especially because some of the participants are no more to see the volume. My thanks are due to Dr. R. M. Shah for correcting proofs. I hope the rich material presented in this volume will in Prakrit Studies. L. D. Institute of Indology, Ahmedabad-380009. 1st May, 1978 rouse interest Nagin J. Shah Director. Page #5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONTENTS (iii) (iii) (iv) Preface Editor's Note Preparatory Committee Topics for Seminar Extension Lectures Messages Welcome Address : H. C. Bhayani Prakrit Studies : Their Literary and Philosophical Value : A. N. Upadhye Programme of Papers Read List of Non-Local Participants List of Local Participants Brief Report and Recommendations (xiii) (xv) (xxi) (xxv) (xxvii) (xxix) PAPERS 1. Vratakathā in old Marāthi : V. P. Johrapurkar 2. Contribution of Prakrit Literature to Biology of Ancient India : J. C. Sikdar 3. कुवलयमाला में लोकतत्त्व : प्रेमसुमन जैन 4. A Note on Lord Mahāvīra's Clan :D. D. Malvania 5. Suddayacariya, a Lost Romantic Tale in Apabhramsa : H. C. Bhayani 6. The Jātaka Literature in Pāli and its Socio-ethical Importance : N. H. Santani 7. Historico- Cultural Contribution of Jaina Ācāryas through Prakrit Sources: Rasesh Jamindar 8. On Studying the Prakrit Literature : K. K. Dixit 9. Paramāgamasāra of śruta Muni : Gokul Chanda Jain 10. A Comparative Study of Jhāņajjhayana by Jinabhadra and Dhyānastava by Bhāskaranandi : Suzuko Ohira 11. अपभ्रंश कवि विबुध श्रीधर और उनका बड्ढमाणचरिउ : राजाराम जैन 12. The Stuty of Prakrit Grammar for understanding the Tadbhava Words in Kannada : P. B. Badiger Page #7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 89 101 109 B. K 113 121 13. The Etymological Definitions and Pāli Synonyms : M. G. Dhadphale 14. प्राकृत तथा अपभ्रंश का ऐतिहासिक विकास : देवेन्द्रकुमार शास्त्री 15. Prakritic Influence Revealed in the Works of Pāṇini, Kātyāyana and Patañjali : S. D. Laddu 16. Role of Prakrit Dialects in Sanskrit Dramas : T. N. Dave 17. Applicability of the Rules of Prakrit Grammar to the Formation of Marāthī Words : N. A. Deshpande 18. Influence of Middle-Indo-Aryan in Kannada Literature B. K. Khadabadi 19. Some Obscure Passages in the Candalehă Sattaka : S. M. Shaha 20. Some Prakrit Forms from the Vasudevahindī not available in Pischel's Prakrit Grammar under Jain Mahārāștri : K. R. Chandra 21. Bhoja's Śrngāraprakāśa (Chs. XXV-XXVIII): Prakrit Text Restored : V. M. Kulkarni 22. Prakrit Studies : Some Problems and Solutions : G. C. Choudhari 23. Prakrit Studies and a Problem of Their Rehabilitation : A. S. Gopani 24. सोमप्रभाचार्यकृत 'सुमतिनाथचरित' : कथासामग्री एव भाषासामग्री : #THI 7. flt 25. f' *754 — 3&49 3111 faxra : 1. H. NIE : -97(Errata) 132 137 158 163 168 175 179 Page #8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEMINAR Page #9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #10 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Editor's Note It gives me pleasure and I feel quite relieved that the Proceedings of the Seminar in Prakrit Studies held at Ahmedabad in 1973, organised by the Department of Prakrit, School of Languages, Gujarat University, aided by the University Grants Commission, Delhi are, though delayed, being published and I am sure that this publication will enhance the knowledge. I am extremely grateful to the authorities of the L. D. Institute of Indology and its ex-director Shri Dalsukhbhai Malavnia who took upon the responsibility of publishing the Proceedings. I express my sincere thanks to Shri Dalsukhbhai Malaynja and Dr. H. C. Bhayani who have extended their valuable guidance in editing this volume. I am also thankful to Dr. Naginbhai J. Shah, Director and Dr. R. M. Shah, Research officer of this Institute for taking interest in publishing this volume. It is regrettable that some of the speeches delivered and the papers not be included as the authors that were read at the Seminar could preferred to publish them elsewhere or they could not return them in the finalised form. Moreover, a few such papers have been also included in it, which were not read at the Seminar by the scholars because of some personal inconviniences they could not be physically present at the Seminar. I express my gratefulness to all the scholars who have contributed their papers. It is also regrettable that some of the participants passed away before the publication of this volume. An eminent scholar like Dr. H. L. Jain, ardent desire to come though ailing had an over here and participate in the deliberations but unfortunately he passed away just a few days before the Seminar. Dr. A.N. Upadhye, the doyen of who had suggested to Our University for organising such and had been encouraging, advising and guiding me through out in the matters of organising the seminar and had actually helped in the smooth running of scholarly deliberations at the seminar, also passed away. Dr. Prakrit studies, a seminar Page #11 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (li) G. C. Chaudhary, Director of Research Institute of Prakrit, Jajoism and Ahimsa, Vaishali, who participated in the seminar also has expired. Dr. P. B. Pandit, an eminent linguist, Delhi University, who had delivered an extension lecture also pagsed away recently all of a sudden. We received many messages but some of them with good suggestions are printed here. We thank all others for their good wishes, K. R. Chandra Editor Head of the Department of Prakrit and Pali, School of Languages, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-9 Page #12 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Preparatory Committee 1. C Chairman : Dr. H. C. Bhayapi Professor & Head of the Deptt. of Linguistics, University School of Languages, Ahmedabad-9. Director : Dr. K. R. Chandra Professor-in-Charge, Prakrit and Pali, University School of Languages, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-9. 3. Members : (i) Dr. K. R. Chandrasekharan, Director, University School of Languages, Ahmedabad-9. (ii) Pt. D. D. Malavnia, Director, L. D. Institute of Indology, Ahmedabad-9. (iii) Pt. Bechardasji Doshi, Research Professor, L. D. Institute of Indology. Ahmedabad-9. (iv) Shri K.C. Parikh, Registrar, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-9. (v) Dr. E. A. Solomon, Head of the Department of Sanskrit, University School of Languages, Ahmedabad-9. (vi) Prof. V. M. Shab, Ahmedabad Arts College, Ghee Kanta Road, Ahmedabad-1. (vii) Prof. M. S. Patel Gujarat Vidyapith, Ahmedabad (viil) Prof. C. K. Sheth (ix) Shri R. D. Desai, 6-Amul Society, Ahmedabad-7. Topics for the Seminar in Prakrit Studies 1. Middle Indo-Aryan Narrative Literature and its unique importance for comparative and historical Folk-Tale studies. 2 Prakrits (including Apabhramsa) in relation to early literatures of New Indo-Aryan Languages. 3 Middle Indo-Aryan Heritage of Modern Indian Literature (Hindi Gujarati, Marathi, Kannada, Tamil etc.) Page #13 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (iv) 4. Prakrit & Apabhraga Languages and Literatures in their Historical and Geographical Perspective. 5. Use of Prakrits in classical Sanskrit works. 6. Influence of MIA Languages on Sanskrit. 7. Status of the Prakrits in the University curriculum in view of A. (i) Their importance sui-generis, (II) Their close relationship with other classical and modern Languages. B. Causes for the present day indifference to the Prakrit studies. C. Effective measures to remedy the situation. Proposed Extension Lectores 23rd March : Prakrits and the literature and culture of Gujarat by Dr. B. J. Sandesara, Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda, (It could not be arranged). 24th March : Prakrit Studies : Literary and Philosophical value by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Head of the Deptt. of P, G. Studies in Jainism and Prakrits, University of Mysore, Mysore. 25th March : Sounds and Spellings in Prakrits by Dr. P. B. Pandit, Head of the Deptt. of Linguistics, University of Delhi, Dolbi. is by DrP. . Pandie, Hond Page #14 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Dr. P. L. Vaidya General Editor: Mahabharata: Editor: Harivamsa MESSAGES Dr. H. L. Jain (M.A.,LL.B.) Professor of Sanskrit, Pali & Prakrit (Retd.) प्रिय डॉ. चन्द्रा, Dear Dr. Chandra, I thank you for your invitation to participate in the seminar on Prakrit studies from 22nd to 26th March, 1973 and also to deliver a general lecture. I very much regret that owing to bad health, I am not able to move out of Poona any more, but wish the seminar all success. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Poona-4. (India) Date 2-12-72 Yours Sincerely, Dr. P. L. Vaidya सेमिनार की सफलता के लिए शुभ कामनाएँ ! मुझे तुम्हारा दि. ६ -१२ का पत्र यथासमय मिल गया था और दि. ४-१ का पत्र भी अभी मिला । मुझे आत्मीय जनों की आग्रह - पूर्ण मांगों को अस्वीकार करने में बड़े दुःख का अनुभव होता है, और इसीलिये मैं एक ओर अपने स्वास्थ्य को तोलता और दूसरी ओर तुम्हें उत्तर देने में हिचकिचा रहा था । किन्तु तुम्हारे इस पत्र से मुझे कुछ बल मिला, यह कहने हेतु कि मेरा वर्तमान स्वास्थ्य मुझे मार्च में तुम्हारे पास पहुँच सकने का आश्वासन नहीं देता । अतएव मैं व्याख्यान के कार्यक्रम से क्षमा चाहता हूँ । प्राचार्य निवास शासकीय महाविद्यालय ता. १०-२-७३ यदि उस समय मेरा स्वास्थ्य अनुकूल रहा और तुम्हारे पास पहुँच सका तो मैं मिलने भेटने तथा सेमिनार में थोड़ा बहुत भाग लेने का सुख पाने का अवश्य प्रयत्न करूँगा । किन्तु अनिश्चय की अवस्था होने से मुझे किसी कार्यक्रम में न बाँधने की कृपा करें | भवदीय ही. ला. जैन Page #15 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (vi) 3-3-73 Dr. W. B. Bollee, 5205 St. Augustin-Hangelar Lilienthalstr. 17 Federal German Republic. Dear Professor Chandra, ......For the successful accomplishment I send you my best wishes. I hope it may result in some new projects to be taken up and old ones to be continued with fresh zeal. ...... There is not even a complete Vulgata, not to speak of a complete critical edition of the Ardhamāgadbı Canon. ......I propose to the Seminar to pass a resolution expressing the desirability to reprint the Āgamodaya Samiti Granthoddhāra and similar Series in which an Agama or auxiliary text was printed along with its curņi or tikā, the indispensable means to its proper understanding...... ......Would not seem the reprint of Lord Mahāvıra's Words the best way to commemorate His life's Mission ? The unsatisfactory situation of the Jain Holy Scriptures may be compared to that of the Buddhist Tipitaka which is available in several editions....... yours slocerely, W. B. Bollee 807 Williams Hall, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa, 19104 U. S. A., 5-3-73 Dear Dr. Chandra, Thank you for sending me the announcement of the Seminar on Prakrit Studies. I regret that I shall not be able to attend and see, once again, my colleagues and friends. I send you my best wishes for the success of this most important undertaking. Cordially, Sincerely Yours, Proffesor Ernest Bender Indo-Aryan Languaes and Literatures, University of Pennsylvania; Chief Editor, The Journal of the American Oriental Society, Page #16 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( vit ) Paris Date 6-3-73, Colette Calllat, Parc Eiffel, F 92310 Sevres. Universite De La Sorbonne Nouvelle (Paris III) U.E.R. des langues et civilisations de l'Orient de l'Inde, et de l'Afrique du Nord 13, Rue Santeuil, Paris-V: Dear Dr. Chandra, .... Please, accept all my congratulations and best wishes. I hope it will be possible to print the proceedings of this session, as has been done before : it is a great help for scholars abroad, and certainly calls attention to this field of Indology. ......I would be very glad to be informed about general suggestions as soon as possible. If you wish, it might perhaps be possible to give them some publicity at the next Coagres des Orientalistes, in Paris, next July. We are trying to organise a meeting on Pali and Prakrit Studies, and it might be an opportunity to inform the Paris participants about the work you have done and contemplating. Thanking you, I remain, with all best wishes, Yours sincerely, Colette Caillat THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Box 4, P. O,, Canberra. A.C.T. Australia, 2600 FACULTY OF ASIAN STUDIES Canberra, Date 6-3-73 Dear Dr, Chandra, ......I have followed the proceedings of the earlier seminars with great interest. ...... I hope that progress, particularly in Apabbramsa studies will continue rapidly and I would like to send you the very best wishes for the continued success of your seminars, Yours sincerely, Mrs. L. A. Hercus Reader, Department of South Asian and Buddhist Studies. Page #17 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Faculteit Der Letteren En Wijsbegeerte (viii) Dear Colleague Professor Chandra. ......I am delighted to hear that your country is keeping up the sound tradition of Its Seminars on Prakrit Studies. RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT, Gent, Blandijnberg, 2 12-3-1973. ......One regrets to ascertain that not all the centres of Indological studies have fully realized this fact that the truly scientific study of Modern Indian languages - and even that of Sanskrit, I daresay,-is altogether unthinkable without a proper knowledge of the Prakrits. I would like to add a word on the main desiderata of our discipline, Ernest BENDER (in: Current Trends in Linguistics, 5 (1969), p. 48) enumerated a few of them: comprehensive Prakrit and Apabhramsa dictionaries and grammars, a 'study in depth' of Jain Sanskrit, Periodical records listing the names (I would add: addresses) of scholars working in the MIA domain and giving information on their work. ......I cannot well see, even in the next decades, the creation of (quoting the said author's words) 'an extensive, fully documented Prakrit dictionary' (a kind of Super-Paia-Sadda-Mahaṇṇavo). But perhaps, in a not too remote future, the critical study of the Svetambara Canon will be brought to a degree of completion, a uniform critical edition of the Agama and of both a comprehensive Ardhamagadhi grammar and a critical Ardhamagadhi dictionary. ......Many a useful work is conceivable also in the overall field of MIA linguistics: MIA syntax, for one thing, in my opinion, badly needs more advanced investigation. Suniti Kumar Chatterji National Professor India in Humanities of ...... May I enclose my salute and best wishes to you and all the members of the Seminar which I hope will be a grand success! Sincerely Yours, Prof. Dr. Jozef Deleu Department of Indology University of Ghent, Belgium, Dear Dr. Chandra, ......I am sure the Seminar you are going to hold will be very useful. Could you not broach the question of having a Prakrit and Apabhramsa 'Sudharma 16, Hindusthan Park, Calcutta-29. 12-3-73 Page #18 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (ix) Lexicon on historical principles? ...... This dictionary should give Illustra. tive quotations of words from Prakrit and Apabhramsa literature as well as from Inscriptions in these forms of Middle Indo-Aryan. ......I can only wish your Seminar under the guidance of Dr. Bhayani, and yourself the fullest success. with all good wishes, Yours sincerely, Suniti Kumar Chatterji Gustav Roth Goettingen, (Germany) Date 12-3-1973 Dear Sir, ...... A wealth of linguistic materjal regarding Prakrit and Apabhraíša languages has come to light during the last twenty years. Thus the need is now felt as to have all this material listed in a bibliography. .... The argent necessity is felt that a dictionary of the Prakrits realizes. For such a work all available scholars, young and old, have to be mobilized. This is the only way to make the huge wealth of linguistic mate.. rial accessible which is of greatest importance for the history of the modern Indian languages, The leading Prakrit scholars in India and abroad should sit together and draw the lines on which such a work can fruitfully, be done....... On the happy Occasion of your Semioar kindly, receive my best wishes. Yours sincerely, Gustav Rotb Semipar Fur Indologie Der Universitat Kiel OlshausenstraBe 40/60 (Haus 15 v) 23 Kiel. den Tel. : 593 (1) Date 12-3-73. Dear Dr. Bhayani, I am grateful to Dr. K. R. Chandra, Director of the Seminar on Prakrit Studies for kindly inviting me to associate with the Seminar. Page #19 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ... A good deal of work in the field of Prakrit studies has been done by Indologists in German and French languages and our students should be made acquainted with these languages. A student of Linguistics, besides possessing knowledge of northern modern Indian languages should be familiar with the languages of South India. A compilation of up-to-date Prakrit and Apabhramsa lexicons is overdue which can be undertaken with assistance of young scholars. Reference books are badly needed on the subject. I am confident that the Seminar will prove a great success under your able guidance. In order to fulfil the objective of Seminar I wish the organisation to come out with a definite plan for future in the field of Prakrit studies. With warm regards and best wishes, Yours very sincerely, J. C. Jain FACULTY OF ORIENTAL STUDIES University of Cambridge K, R. Norman Sidgwick Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 9DA. Date 14-3-73 Dear Dr. Chandra, ......I was very interested to hear of all you are doing to rehabilitate Prakrit Studies in your universities. ......I should like to wish you and all the participants in the Seminar a most fruitful series of meetings. I hope that your deliberations will help to re-establish Prakrit in its rightful position in the universities, and that sufficient workers will be trained and enough financial aid will be forthcoming to produce the critical editions of Prakrit and Apabhramsa texts which are so much needed, and to make the grammars and dictionaries based upon them, Yours sincerely, K. R. Norman Lecturer in Indian Studies (Prakrit) Page #20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Dr. Sukumar Sen 10, Raja Rajkissen Street, Block No. 2, Suite No. 32, Caclutta-6. Dt. 14-3-73 Dear Dr. Chandra, ......I regret to say that it will not be convenient for me to attend the Seminar and join in your deliberations which I am sure will be fruitful. I trust the papers read there and discussions on them will be readily published for the benefit of the learned world. With kind regards, Yours Sincerely, Sukumar Sen ORIENTAL INSTITUTE Lokmanya Tilak Road, Post Box No. 75, Baroda. Date 17-3-73 Dear Dr. Chandra, Please refer to our previous correspondence. I had accepted your invitaion to deliver an extension lecture in the Prakrit Seminar. But I am sorry to inform you that unavoidable personal circumstances have prevon. ted me from going out of station.......Inconvenience caused to you is vory much regretted. ......I wish the deliberations of the Seminar a grand success. Yours sincerely B. J. Sandesara (Director) Prof. F. B. J. Kuiper Leiden University. Leiden Date 18-3-73 Dear Professor Chandra, ...... There can be no doubt about the important place of the Prakrit languages in the field of Indo-Aryan linguistics. The attention so far pald to this subject at most of the Indian and Western Universites stands in no proportion to its importance for historical Indian linguistics and the cultural history of India. Page #21 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( xii) Therefore, the fact that a fifth Seminar under the experienced guidance of yourself and Professor Bhayani has been organized and is to take place at the end of this month is a matter of great satisfaction to all those who are interested in the study of Indian languages. With my best wishes and my blessings for this Seminar I am, Sincerely yours, F. B. J. Kuiper Instituto Italiano Per IL Medio Ed Estremo Oriente 00185 Roma, Via Meruana, 248, Palazzo Brancaccio Telef. 735 631 Rome Dt. 29-3-73 Dear Dr. Chandra, I have returned home only a few days ago, and I have here found your very kind letter of March ist, by which you inform me about the Seminar on Prakrit Studies that bas taken place from March 22 to 26. It is of course very gratifying to learn that useful action is being taken for the promotion of Prakrit studies, and I therefore, extend you my warmest wishes for the best success and outcome of the learned debates that have taken place. With the assurance of my continued laterest in the matter, and best regards, Yours truly, Giuseppe Tucci - X Page #22 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Fifth Seminar on Prakrit Studies Welcome Address by H. C. Bhayani (Chairman, Preparatory Committee) Revered Panditji Sukhlalji, Mr. Vice-chancellor & Friends, On behalf of the preparatory committee, I have great pleasure in according a hearty welcome to you all to this Fifth Seminar on Prakrit Studies, which has been organized by Gujarat University with the financial aid of the University Grants Commission. Gujarat along with Rajasthan and Malwa has a long, vigorous and continuous tradition of cultivating Prakrits, and in many areas of Prakrit and Apabhramśa literatures the contributions of scholars from these regions have been most significant in bulk and quality. From Devardbigani, Sanghadasa, Haribhadra and Uddyotana, through Abhayadeva, Haribhadra and Hemacandra, down to Hargovinddas Sheth, Sukhlalji, Jinvijayaji, Bechardasji and Punya Vijayaji we have a long line of brilliant scholars and their excellent works. Leaving aside, what has been irrepairably lost, even if we look at the works still preserved at the famous manuscript Bhaṇḍāras at numerous places in Gujarat and Rajasthan, they highly impress us as witnesses to uninterrupted literary activity in Prakrit, spreading over centuries upon centuries. It is thorefore, in fitness of things that scholars and students of Prakrit are meeting here for their discussions and deliberations that would further research and tackle problems in the field of Prakrit studies. We all know and it has beea stressed repeatedly at all the previous Prakrit Seminars that even in the primary task of editing and publishing Prakrit texts we have a balance sheet of the little done and the vast undone. Even a casual survey of a single large collection, say like the one here at the L. D. Institute of Indology, would instantly bring home the yawning gulf between the required and the actually available resources, personnel etc. for this purpose. Secondly, we also know that very little of what has been published so far has been exploited and utilized properly for literary, cultural and linguistic histories. Under these circumstances, for achieving substantial progress, we shall serious thought to formulating a practical ten-year plan for bringing out the more important of unpublished texts. Of cousre, when we take into account various requirements problems of Prakrit have to give and Page #23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xiv) studios, we immediately realize that these cannot be considered in isolation, The question of achieving progress in our field is intimately linked up with the overall problems of the role of classical languages in the University studies and outside. We can well take up these matters in the concluding session of the Seminar. It is our good fortune that in spite of his advanced age and delicate health, Revered Panditji Sukhialji has kindly complied with our request to grace the Seminar with his presence and perform the inauguration, The blessings and advice of a veteran scholar of his stature would certainly serve to inspire and guide the work of the Seminar. • Many of you have come from long distances, putting up with consi. derable personal inconvenience and disturbing your current plans and programmes. It is happily ndicative of a deep concern for the advancement of Prakrit studies. We are thankful to you all and we earnestly hope that our meeting would be quite fruitful and rewarding and it will achieve the basic objectives of such a Seminar. With the means at our disposal we have tried to make suitable arrangements for the stay of the delegates, and we are grateful to Gujarat Vidyapith for their generous co-operation in this regard. We mention also with deep gratitude the advice and active assistance, we have received throughout from Prof. Dalsukhbhai Malavoja, the Director of L. D. Institute of Indology. In spite of our best intention and efforts, there are likely to be some faults of commission and omission on our part, for which we crave your tolerance and indulgence. I thank you once more for the ready response and kind co-operation that we have received from you. Page #24 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Prakrit Studies: Their Literary and Philosophical Value (Extension Lecture ) by Late Prof. Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Mysore. By Prakrit Studies we understand the studies in Prākrit languages and literature; and we are to assess their literary and philosophical value. They are an inseparable part and parcel of Indian languages and literature; so they cannot be isolated altogether, though a specialigt might concentrate more attention on some branch of studies or the other. To put it plainly, an earnest student of Prākrit languages has to study them in relation to Sanskrit on one hand and to Modern Indian Languages on the other. Prakrit languages clearly show different layers with reference to time and locality; and on them depends their closeness to Sanskrit or the other modern Indo-Aryan Language. There is a two-fold approach to the study of Prākrit. A modern linguist is interested in the formal study of language and its internal structure; and today, this branch of study is taking quick strides, especially in the U. S. A. A philologist is interested in the study of the text; he is concerned not only with the language and its structure, but also studies it as a piece of literature in which are reflected many aspects of the culture and civilisation, of the sum-total of the life of people who used that particular language or dialect. We have to adopt both these points of view in our Prakrit studies. When the Prâkrit grammarians define the term Prākrit, they are doing it in relation to Sanskrit; but it is accepted by all now that Prakrits basically are the spoken idiom of the common man. But, as is common, their usage in literature is erected by men of letters many of whom were well-versed in Sanskrit. So, when one reads Kāvyas like the Setubandha, Gaudavaho, Lilavai, Karsavaho and nost of the Prākrit sections in the so-called Sanskrit dramas, one finds here that the authors are working closely under the shadow of Sanskrit. In fact, they are thinking in Sanskrit but writing in Prākrit. A poet like Rajasekhara is a good illustration on the point. A study of such layers of Prakrit literature has to be done in relation to Sanskrit texts of that category. Here, the authors are all well trained in the precision of expression, in various metrical forms, in the use of Page #25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xvi) imagery and in embellishments of Sabda and Ariha. Prakrits have a greater advantage over Sanskrit in achieving Ślesa, because the same word can stand for more than one Sanskrit word, and can also have more than one meaning as in Sanskrit. Prākrit-Kâvyas are replete with poetic Imagery. There are upamās, utpreksas, etc., in plenty. It is well known that Vāk pati stands unequalled in his ut prekşas like Kalidasa who is unsurpassed in his upamas. Pravarasena and Vakpati, it is being detected, have lent many of their ideas and images to subsequent Sanskrit poets; it is only lately that these authors have falled into neglect, because Prakrits came to be neglected in our classical equipments. There is another branch of Prakrit literature dealing with two Purudrthas, Artha and Kāma, with more slant on the latter. The great representative of this branch is the Gahakoso of Hala. Every verse is a self-sufficient unit, depicting an idea or situation in words, remarkably colourful and catcbing, and, at the same time, full of poetic charm and grace of expression. These are popular songs, but Pandits attached to royal courts seem to have refined many of them; it is said that crores of such songs were current in society; and out of them only seven hundred were put together by Hāla, taking into account the urban taste. They pervade many aspects of rural life : the scenic background, the environments, the routine of life, the characters, the custom; etc. primarily reflect the village life and folklore, May be, the sentiment of love, in its various aspects, bad a catching influence on the composers; that is one reason why most of the Gathās are amorous in touch. The commentators are bent on reading sựngara in all these verses, directly or indirectly : perhaps that was their pastime. It is a remarkable event in our literary history that nearly all these songs are quoted by poeticians and rhetoricians : the Deyavāņi did not perhaps sustain so much amorous vagaries with the consequence that the Prākrit verses were quoted as a rule. The real reason appears to be that for śleşa and dhvani Prākrit presents more advantages; and Prākrit stanzas, as an illustration, could be followed by many even when some of them did not understand the underlying theory. In some of the texts on poetics these verses are so badly preserved that special efforts of scholars are needed to restore the correct text. As a secular text, the Gahakoso stands unparallelled in its popularity, like the Bhagavad Gita in the religious world: both of them have 700 verses. The very nature of the Koša has led to its inflation : many anony. mous Gins were being introduced here and there with the result that what was Saptagati has come to be Daśaśati and more. The Muktaka poetry is like a piece of pungent pickle which waters the mouth and heighteni the appetire for inre. Being often an arthāntara-nyāsas.. it contains a lot of wordly visuon Many gifted poets tried their band on Page #26 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xvil ) it; and there grew a small class of poets, often attached to the court and making their mark in the gathering of the learned : they are the Chappa. naayas, Vidagdhas or Sahrdayas. We have an anthology, Chappaņņaya-ga hao, which incorporates many ideas about the Dharma and Artha besides Kama. When authors of religious aptitude came to handle this Muktaka poetry, they used predominantly religious themes, because they were out to teach moral lessons. The Vajjalaggam is a good illustration. The Gathasahasri is not only religious, but full of dogmatic discourses. Just as Alankāra works quote Hala, one can find many verses of this type, generally arthantaranyasa, scattered throughout the narrative literature in Prakrit, for Instance, in the Kuvalayamala, etc. Io the Prākrit commentaries, in stories, Dharmakathas, biographies of great men, etc., we find, in plenty, folk-tales, parables and allegories which show a deeper sense of understanding human weaknesses and strong points and attempt to convey some moral lesson that men might behave better and be worthy citizens. We get plenty of them in works like the Carnis, Samaraiccakaha, Kuvalayamala, etc. The Dhürtakhyana of Haribhadra is a unique satire in Indian literature. The author is a gifted satirist; and he is out to dispel the credulity with which the epic writers have fed the human mind. Haribhadra wants us to be rational to the core; and truth cannot be searched and reached without being rational. The technique is remarkable and the results achieved by the author are worthy of a great geplus and a benefactor of rationality. This branch of literature, later on, assumed the form of religious propaganda. The folk-tale therolo went on increasing, and they by themselves are interesting specimon of literature. The Prakrit languages and literature essentially and basically preserve the common man's culture; and if the common man is to be addressed, the Prakrits are the best vehicle. That is why Mahāvīra, Buddha, Asoka and Kharavela chose Prākrit. Even in modern times, Mahatma Gandhi preferred simple Gujarati to speak to bis fellowmen. If one compares the percentago of Sanskrit words in the Gujarati, Marathi and Hindi Vorsions of the Atmakatha, the point will be quite clear. For detecting the common man's cultural traditions, perhaps Apabbramsa language and literature have greater value than other layers of Prākrits. When one scrutinises the proper names like Lacchide, Nābada, etc., found in Praśastis, apparently written in Sanskrit, one sees here the language of the people. If Prakrits were assigned to common characters in the plays, that was, to begin with, a reflex of the conditions in the society round about. Though a Brāhmaṇa, Vidūsaka speaks in Prākrit, that is an exception, because he is a caricatured chara. cter. If one carefully sees the Purānic tradition, one fods that the popular idlom is being gradually replaced by the Sanskrit. The village cults, and Page #27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xviii) : even village deities, gradually gave place to Sanskritic transformation. The Tamil Kottavi became Durgā and so on. There is often evidence for this in the Modern Indo-Aryan languages that names like Mahura and Jawn, quite known to foreigners, have additional parallels in Mathra and Jamna which are nearer to Sapskrit. Dr. S. K. Chatterjee has shown, in one of his papers, how the Prākritic forms persisting in M. I. A. are valuable in studying the Purāņic legends and their subsequent transformation. The language of the Purānas, the Buddhist Sanskrit texts and some Jaipa Sanskrit texts clearly show how Prākrits, and the common man's language are influencing them. A good deal of work is done in the fields of vocabulary; we can also study how the Sanskrit style in some popular works shows traces more common in Prākrit, for instance, the use of participles as predicates with the subject in the Instrumental. In understanding the beginning of Prakrits or M. I. A., some of the forms in the Aśokan inscriptions present difficulties; and the language of the Pali and Ardhamāgadhi canons has undergone changes in due course. The beginning of the modern Indo-Aryan has not started in all the areas at the same time and on the same lines. This means that to understand the linguistic developments of our Modern Indo-Aryan languages, we must give greater attention to Apabhramśa language and literature. Most of the linguists are still guided by Pischel's grammar. That is natural. But now we have many more Apabhramśa texts published after Pischel wrote his monumental grammar. Some of the Apabbraṁsa works are written in the South, some in Madhya Pradesh, some round about Delbi, some in Hariyana, some in Gujarat and some in Kashmir. They all show how Apabhramsa was a standard literary medium like Sanskrit and Prākrit. Of course, minor variations due to locality and dialect can be detected here and there. It was used in mystic couplets, bardic songs and epic poems. Somehow, as expected, many big Apabhramsa works are not discovered from Gujarat. The reasons for this have to be guaged. Such terms like Digambara and Śvetāmbara Apabhramsa are likely to lose their meaning with detailed study of literary Apabhramsa as a whole. It is high time that we analyse the language of works of Puşpadauta, Svayambbū, etc. almost up to Raidhu more exhaustively and see how we get more light to understand the growth of Modern Indo-Aryan in its various phases. That is how our studies of Prakrit languages and literature are valuable for understanding the growth of M. I. A. and popular culture to supplement what we learn from Sanskrit court poets who were more interested in the palace culture and upper classes. Now we might take into account the pbilosophical value of Piakrit Literature. Perhaps due to natural environmeats, leisurely living and sub Page #28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xix ) jective attitude towards life, our early philosophers laid more stress on knowing one's self than knowing objects outside. They started with the idea that if 'one' is known every thing else is known; but It was soon realized that to kaow 'one' fully all 'others' have to be known; and what is this knowing one's self after all ? If the one's self is not known in its highest purity and dignity, it is not knowing at all. Such questions seen in early Prakrit works like the Acõranga, etc., are an attempt to understand the mystery of the Atman, Anātman and Paramātman; or to put in popular expression Jiva, Ajiva and Moksa. It is interesting to collect details on these topics from the Ardhamāgadhi canon. Of course, one has to be careful in distinguishing between the old and new layers in the canon. Secondly, one is always tempted to arrange the desperate details in the pattern of the Tattvarthasūtra : there mayor may not be any justification for this. According to the canon, the Jiva is as much a fundamental fact as the Ajiva. We see in the Raya paseniya how vigorously it is established that Jiva is different from body. The knower and the object of knowledge are realities. The knower and the known constitute the eternal : that is how the question of the Creator is ruled out. The gross matter in its forms acts and reacts, moves and siops in the space, over all times, passing through changes; but it always maintains its existential character. This process explains change and continuity, the atmos combining and reacting in a continuous process. It is a form of matter, called Karman, that is there in association with Jiva from beginningless time and that determines the ability of the Ātman to know and its degrees of knowledge. The objective of this knower is to get rid of all that hinders his knowing ability; and thus to enable the Ātman to attain perfection in every respect, Jiva passing through rebirths is quite on par with matter passing through various Paryāays. Thus here is a realistic approach and this attempt to escape from the Karmas has given rise to ethics in details, The Prākrit literature develops these ideas in some form or the other in different works. More stress is laid on subjugating Raga and Dveșa. In earlier works like the Acaranga, etc., it is not mere philosophical speculation, but a way of life characterised by self-restraint (saṁyama) that is set forth; and one has to glean the philosophical concepts here and there. In Süyagadam various views father than systems are criticised. In the Pannavana and its parallel texts like the Șațkhandagama-sutra, we have elaborate study of Jiva and Karma. This can be further studied in later works. It is the correct understanding of the Jivas, their classification and their relative Paryāpti according to Indriyas, etc., that enables one to Page #29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xx) practise abstention from harm unto them. This is what is implied by paḍhamam naṇam tao daya. Life is the highest value, and it is the respect for its safety that is to guide us in our ethical values. We get fine reflection on these ideas in texts like the Dasaveyaliya. The theory of knowledge has a different pattern in the canon: The Nandi gives us a good exposition. What were seeds in earlier literature, have found fuller exposition later. It has to be remembered that the early Jain saints who wrote their philosophical texts has a common tradition of philosophical concepts; but their development has not taken place in one and the same place and along a single track. Eminent authors like Jinabhadra, Haribhadra, etc., worked in Western India; the authors like Kundakunda, Vaṭṭakera, Siddhasena and others worked in the South, The environments, local thoughtpatterns and reactions have given different tones to their thought. In this respect texts like the Visesavaśyakaabhāṣva, Pañcāstikāya, Pravacanasara and Sammai have special significance. The elaboration on the attainment of Liberation has brought ethical and ascetical overtones for their philosophy. Still an author like Siddhasena has developed Nayavada and Anekantavāda to such heights that rarely we find parallels elsewhere for tolerant understanding of reality. One often regrets that many of these texts have not been properly studied and their contents duly digested in the great stream of Indian Philosophy. Another significant aspect of Prakrit literature is its high moral tone. Very little is written by way of panegyric, pastime, flourish of language and to please the audience. The major portion of it is inspired by a high moral tone; and everywhere, with the transmigratiou and Karma doctrine in the background, the attempt is to teach the individual first to improve oneself by subjugating one's baser instincts like anger, vanity, deception, greed and infatuation, which generally arise out of one's attachment and aversion. Secondly, one is taught to behave worthily by respecting the sanctity of all life, of others' possessions and of others' personality. No doubt, this branch of literature has produced worthy men and women In our society of which any age should be proud. These are eternal values and lessons, and let us also be benefited by them. I offer my sincere thanks to the Organisers of this Seminar who gave me this opportunity to speak a few words on the literary and philosophical value of Prakrit studies. I shall welcome all suggestions and corrections from my younger colleagues gathered together here. - * Page #30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Seminar in Prakrit Studies Prakrit Department, School of Languages, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-9. * PROGRAMME OF PAPERS READ Venue : Adivasi Sagsbodhan Kendra, Gujarat Vidyapith, Abmedabad-14. 22-3-1973 I Inaugural Session (4-00 p. m.) (i) Prayer (ii) Reading of Messages by Dr. K. R. Chandra (ili) Welcome Address by Dr. H. C. Bhayani (iv) Address by Shri I, J. Patel, Vice-Chancellor (v) Inaugural Address by Pt. Sukh]alji (vi) Vote of Thanks by Dr. K. R. Chandra 23-3-1973 II Morning Session (1) Literary History and Calture Chairman : A. N. Upadhye Rapporteur : P. B. Badiger Vrata Katha in Old Marāțbi. Contribution of Prakrit Literature to Biology of Ancient India. कुवलयमालाकहा में लोकतत्त्व. 1. V. P. Joharapurkas, Jabalpur. 2. J. C. Sikdar, Abmedabad. 3. P. S. Jajo, Udaipur. 4. K. K. Sharma, Udaipur. 5. Mua Chandrodayvijay, Ahmedabad. लोकतत्त्व के अध्ययन में प्राकृत साहित्य का 969. प्राकृत के अध्ययन का महत्त्व. Page #31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( xxil ) 23-3-1973 III Afternoon Session (1) Literary History and Culture (Contd.) Chairman : A. N. Upadhye Rapporteur : P. S. Jain A Note on Lord Mahāvira's Clan. 6. D. D. Malavnia, Ahmedabad. 7. H. C. Bhayani, Ahmedabad. 8. N. H. Samtani, Banaras. 9. N. C. Shastri, Arrah. 10. R. Jamindar, Ahmedabad. Suddaya-cariya : A Lost Romantic Tale in Apabhramśa. The Jataka Literature in Pāli and its Socio-ethical Importance. Influence of Prākrit on Sanskrit Studies. Historio-Cultural Contribution of Jain Ācāryas through Prākrit Sources, (2) Importance and Teaching of Prakrit 1. K. M. Patel, प्राकृत भाषा-साहित्य : शैक्षणिक समस्याएँ Patan. तथा समाधान. 2. V. J. Chowkshi, Prakrits in the University Curriculum: Ahmedabad Causes and Remedies for Indiffere nce to their Studies. 3. D. G. Joshi, Some Measures to Remedy the PresentAhmednagar. day Indifference to Prākrit Studies. 24-3-1973 IV Morning Session (2) Importance and Teaching of Prakrit (Contd.) : : D. D. Malaynja P. S. Jajn Chairman Rapporteur 4. G. C. Choudhary, Vaisbali. 5. R. Jamindar, Ahmedabad, K. S. Shukla, Bhaynagar. Prākrit Studies : Some Problems and Solutions. Some Thoughts on the Problems of Prākrit Studies. Causes for Present-day Indifferenc to the Prākrit Studies. Page #32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xxlll ) (3) Philosophy and Religion : D. D. Malavnia : B. K. Khadabadi Paramāgamasära of Śrutamuni. ** A Comparative Study of Jhāņajjhayaņa and Dhyānastaya. प्राकृत भाषा और इतिहास. Chairman Rapporteur 1. G. C. Jain, Delhi, 2. Miss Suzuko Ohira, Mysore. 3. Pt. Becbardasji, Ahmedabad 4. M. L. Mehta, Varanasi, 5. K. B. Shastri, Dharwar, 6. J. P. Thaker, Baroda. 1. R. R. Jain, Bodh-Gaya. Prakrit Bhāsyas. कन्नड में जैन साहित्य. Interpretation of the Uttarādhyayana Sūtra, IIL-12. अपभ्रंश - कवि विबुध श्रीधर और उनका वड्ढमाणचरिउ. 24-3-1973 V Afternoon Session (4) Prakrit Language : P. B. Pandit : N. H. Samtani Chairman Rapporteur 1. P. B. Badiger, Mysore. The Study of Prākrit Grammar for Understanding the Tadbhava Words in Kannada. The Etymological Definitions and Pali Synonyms. Ābākamma : Possible Explanation of an Important Term of Piņdesaņa. प्राकृत तथा अपभ्रश का ऐतिहासिक विकास 2. M. G. Dhadphale, Poona. 3. R. P. Jain, Delhi. 4. D. K. Shastri, Neemuch. 5. K. C. Kasliwal, Jalpur. 6. S. D. Laddu, Poona. हिन्दी के विकास में अपभ्रश का योगदान. Prakritic Influences Revealed in the Works of Pāṇini, Katyayana and Patañjali, Page #33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xxlv (1) Extension Lecture by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Prakrit Studies: Their Literary and Philosophical Value 25-3-1973 VI & VII Morning and Afternoon Session. (5) Prakrit Literature Chairman Rapporteur 1. B. K. Khadabadi, Dharwar, 2. S. M. Sbaba, Poopa. 3. V. M. Kulkarni, Bombay. 4. N. M. Kansara, Ahmedabad. : H. C. Bhayani : (Smt.) Ratoa Shriyan Influence of Middle Indo-Aryan Literature on Kannada Literature. Some Obscure Passages in the Candaleha - sattaka. Bhoja's Śộngāraprakaśa, (Ch. XXVXXX): Prakrit Text Restored. Ratnakara's Version of the Prakrit Gathas quoted by Anandavardhana in bis Dhvanyāloka. The Jamadagoi - Parasurama Legend in Jain Narrative Literature. प्राकृत की अज्ञात और अप्रकाशित रचनाएँ 5. K. P. Jog, Poona. A. C. Nabata, Bikaner. K. V. Sheth, Ahmedabad. सोमप्रभाचार्यकृत सुमतिनाथचरित्र : कथासामग्री एवं भाषासामप्री. (2) Extension Lecture by Dr. P. B. Pandit, Sound and Spellings in Prakrit. VIII Concluding Session Presided by D. D. Malavnia Recommendations and Resolutions Vote of Thanks : K. R. Chandra. Page #34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ I List of Non-Local Participants 13. 1. Dr. A. N. Upadhye Prof. & Head of the Department of Jainology & Prakrits, University of Mysore, Mysore-6. 2. Dr. P. B. Pandit Prof. & Head of the Depart. ment of Linguistics, Delhi University. Delhi-6. 3. Dr. G. C. Chaudhary Director, Research Institute of Prakrit, Jainology & Ahimsa, Vaishali (Muzaffarpur). 4. Dr. Nemi Chandra Shastri Head of the Deptt. of Sanskrit, H. D. Jajn College, Arrah (Bihar). 5. Dr. Mohan Lal Mehta Director, P.V. Research Institute, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-5. 6. Dr. V. M. Kulkarni Director of Languages, Maharashtra State, Telang Memorial Hostel, 44 C-Road, Church Gate, Bombay-20. (BR) 7. Shri J. P. Thaker Oriental Institute, M. S. University, Baroda-2. 8. Dr. S. D. Laddu Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit, University of Poona, Poona-7. 9. Dr. Keshav P. Jog B/9, Teachers' Hostels, University of Poona, Poona-7. 10. Shri K. B. Shastri Municipal Colony, Dharwar. 11. Shri Agarchand Nabata Naharto ka Gavad, Bikaner (Raj). 12. Dr. N. H. Samtani Deptt. of Sanskrit & Pali, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-5. 13. Shri Devendra Kumar Shastri Govt. Post-Graduate College, Neemach, (M.P.). 14. Dr. Raja Ram Jain In-charge, Prakrit Section, Magadh University, Bodh-Gaya (Bihar). 15. Shri M. G. Dhadphale Head of the Deptt. of Sanskrit, Ferguson College, Poona-4. 16. Shri P. B. Badiger University of Mysore, Manasa Gangotri, Mysore-6. 17. Dr. K. C. Kasliwal Director, Mahavir Jain Sahitya Shodhak Sansthan, Mahavir Bhavan, Sawai Mansingh Highway, Jaipur. 18. Dr. V. P. Joharapurkar Mabakoshal Arts Mahavidyalay, Jabalpur, (M, P.). Page #35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xxvi) 19. Shri B. K, Khadabadi Karnatak Arts College, Dharwar. 20. Dr. Gokul Chandra Jain L-22, Navin Shahadra, Delbi-32. 21. Shri S. M. Shaba Lecturer in Prakrit, University of Poona, Poona-7. 22. Shri Prem Suman Jain Lecturer in Prakrit, University of Udaipur, Udaipur. 23. Prof. G. D. Sharma CH/38/4 Sector 28, Gandhinagar, (Gujarat). Shri Kanjibhai M. Patel Arts & Science College, Patan, (Gujarat). 25. Dr. Mrs. Suhasini Laddu Vinayak Prasad, 487, Tilak Road, Poona-30. 26. Dr. (Smt.) Ratna Shriyan Head of the Department of Sanskrit & Prakrit, 21, 8th, Cross, 6th Main, N. R. Colony, Bangalore. 27. Mr. Kyoshn Tsuchibashi 52, Mongushi, Higashino, Higashiyama-Ku Kyoto, JAPAN. C/o. P. V. Jain Research Instt. Varanasi-5. 28. Shri Rajendra Prasad Jain B-5/31, Safdarjang Enclave, New Delhi-16. 29. Miss Suzuko Ohira Ladies' Hostel, No. 231, University of Mysore, Mysore-6. 30. Dr. Dattatraya Ganesh Joshi 4331. Nawathe Wada, Gujar Galli, Ahmednagar, (C. Rly.). 31. Prof. K. S. Shukla Prof. of Sanskrit, Desai Street, Bhavnagar. 32. Shri Harnarayan U. Pandya K, M. Patel Arts & Sc. College, Kalol, (N. G.) 33. Shri K. K. Sharma Udaipur University, Udaipur. *34. Dr. H. L. Jain Co. P. K. Mody, Govt. P. G. College, Balghat. (M.P.) *35. Dr. H. S. Ananthnarayana Reader in Linguistics, Osmania University, Hyderabad-7. *36. Dr. A. S. Gopani 52, Dadabboy Road, P. O. Ville Parle (West) Bombay--56. (AS) *37. Dr. R. S. Tomar Vishwabharati, Shantiniketan. *38. Dr. B. J. Sandesara Oriental Institute, Baroda. *39. Dr. U. P. Shah Orlental Institute. Baroda. Page #36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( xxvii) *40. Dr. T. G. Mainkar Head of the Deptt. of Sanskrit, Bombay University, Bombay. *41. V. W. Paranjape Deccan College, Poona-6. *42. Dr. V. P. Jain P. G. Deptt. of Pali and Prakrit, Jabalpur University, Jabalpur. *43. Dr. Mahesh Tiwari Research Institute of Pali and Buddhism, Nalanda. (Bibar) *44. Dr. B. C. Jain P. G. Pali and Prakrit Deptt. Nagpur University, Nagpur. *45. Dr. N. A. Deshpande 202, Turel Pakhadi, Malad, Bombay-64. II List of Local Participants 01 School of Languages, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-9. 1. Dr. H. C. Bhayani, Head of the Department of Linguistics, 2. Dr. K. R. Chandra, Head of the Department of Prakrit and Pali, 3. Dr. Miss E. A. Solomon, Head of the Department of Sanskrit, 4. Dr. Yogendra Vyas, Deptt. of Linguistics, 5. Prof. Bholabhai Patel, Deptt. of Hindi, 6. Pt. D. D. Malavnia, Director, 7. Dr. N. J. Shah, Dy. Director, 8. Pt. Bechardasji Joshi, Sr. Research Officer, 9. Dr. J. C. Sikdar, Senior Research Officer, 10. Pt. A. M. Bhojak, Research Officer, 11. Shah K. V. Sheth, Research Student, *12. Dr. K. K. Dixit, Research Officer, *13. Shri R. M. Shah, Research Officer, of L. D. Institute Indology, Ahmedabad-9. *14. Dr. T. N. Dave, Retd. Professor of Sanskrit and Linguistics, Bhavbhuti, Oppt. Govt. H. Colony, Ahmedabad-15. 15. Prof. Shantibhai Acharya, Head of the Department of Linguistics, 16. Prof. Ramesh S. Betai, Head of the Depart. ment of Sapskrit, 17. Dr. Rasesh Jamindar, Deptt. of History and Ancient Indian Culture, Gujarat Vidyapith, Ahmedabad-14, Page #37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xxviii) *18. Prof. R. C. Parikh, Gujarat Vidyasabha, Ahmedabad, -9 19. Prof. V. M. Shah, (Retd.) 7, Deepak Nagar, Ahmedabad-7. 20. Prof. V. J. Chowksbi, (Retd.), Near Sanjivani Hospital, Ahmedabad-7. 21. Dr. N. M. Kansara, Head of the Deptt. of Sanskrit and Prakrit, Gujarat College, Ahmedabad-7. 22. Prof. N.R. Desai, Sanskrit and Prakrit Deptt. 23. Prof. Nagindas Parekb, Deptt. of Gujarati, *24. Dr. Indukala N. Jbaveri, Deptt. of Philosophy, H. K, Arts College, R.C. Marg, Ahmedabad-9. 25. Prof. M. R. Shah, Sanskrit and Prakrit Department, B.D. Arts College, Sankadi Sheri, Ahmedabad -1. * 26. Prof. M. C. Modi, (Retd.), Ahmedabad. 27. Prof. S. M. Jain, Prakrit Deptt., L. D. Arts College, Ahmedabad-9. * Names of Scholars who accepetd our invitation but due to some unavoidable circumstances could not participate in the Seminar. III List of Scholars Invited but were Unable to Attend. 1. Mu. Shri Jinvijayaji, Chittor. 2. Dr. P. L. Vaidya, Poona. 3. Dr. S. M. Katre, Poona. 4. Dr. S.K, Chatterjee, Calcutta. 5. Dr. Sukumar Sen, Calcutta. 6. Dr. A. M. Gbatage, Poona. 7. Shri Bh. J. Kashyap, Nalanda. 8. Dr. Biswanath Banerjee, Shantiniketan. 9. Dr. Nathmal Tantia, Nalanda. 10. Pt. Kailashchandra Shastri, Banaras, 11. Prof. H. R. Kapadia, Bombay. 12. Dr. M. A. Mahendale, Poona. 13. Dr. P. K. Modi, Balghat. 14. Prof. P. C. Shah. Junagadh. 15. Prof. V. C. Joshi, Baroda. 16. Dr. P. M. Upadhye, Bombay. Page #38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Brief Report Seminar on Prakrit Studies With the aid of the University Grants Commission the Seminar on Prakrit Studies was organised by the Prakrit Department of the School of Languages, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad from 22-3-1973 to 25-3-1973. 45 participants from various other Universities were invited for the Seminar, of which 33 could attend. Besides there were nearly 20 local participants. Out of the eight sessions of the Seminar orginally planned, seven could be actually held. Excepting the first inaugural session all the rest were devoted to paper-reading. In all 36 papers were read and discussed under different heads. A list of the papers read session-wise along with the names of the participants is already given. The venue of the Seminar was the Adivasi Samshodhan Kendra of Gujarat Vidyapith. In its premises arrangements for the boarding and lodging of outside participants were also made by the Vice-chancellor of the Gujarat University. At the concluding session, after the paper-reading was over, various recommendations were made by the participants as a result of the dicussions at the Seminar. These recommendations are given below. Besides the paper-reading and discussions, two extension lectures on 'Literary and Philosophical value of Prakrits' and 'Sounds and Spellings in Prakrit', were delivered by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Head of the Department of Prakrit and Jainology, Mysore University, Mysore and Dr. P. B. Pandit, Head of the Department of Linguistics, Delhi University, Delhi. Third Extension lecture was also planned but Dr. B. J. Sandesara, Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda, who was to deliver the lecture, could not attend the Seminar and it was cancelled. We demanded a sum of Rs. 22000/- from the U. G. C. to meet the entire expenses of the Seminar which included the publication of proceedings of the seminar but the U. G. C. granted Rs. 14000/- for conducting the seminar only. Out of that amount we could utilise a sum of Rs. 11000/- only because instead of five days the seminar lasted four days only and the attendance of outside participants was a little below our expectation. We are quite grateful to the U. G. C. for the grant. We are also grateful to the authorities of the L. D. Institute of Indology, Ahmedabad, which generously met the expenses of the local participants in the Seminar and arranged a visit of the outside participants to their Institute. Page #39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xxx) We are thankful to the authorities of the Gujarat Vidyapith and Gujarat University which helped us promptly in organising the seminar. The Seminar was inaugurated by Pandit Sukhlalji, a veteran philosopher and Prakrit Scholar. In his address he stressed the importance of Prakrit Studies and advised all concerned to undertake a vigorous programme of studying and publishing Prakrit texts, the contents of which were highly important from the point of view of Indian history and culture. In the beginning on behalf of the preparatory committee Dr. H. C. Bhayani welcomed the participants. It was foliowed by the welcome address by Shri Ishwarbhai J. Patel, the Vice-chancellor of Gujarat University. Dr. K. R. Chandra, the Director of the Seminar read various messages containing good wishes for the success of the Seminar and various useful suggestions. At the end of the inaugural session Dr. K. R. Chandra moved a vote of thanks. Due to various circumstances it was not possible for us to hold the Seminar earlier or later than March though this time of the year was not so favourable for holding the seminar due to examinations and other commitments on the part of many participants. This is reflected in the fact that out of 45 invitees only 33 could actualy come from outside. Correspondingly the number of papers presented at the Seminar was reduced and consequently the Seminar lasted four days instead of five as originally planned. Even then on the whole the response to the seminar was very good and encouraging. Looking to the number of serious papers presented at the seminar and to the learned discussions it can be said that the meeting was very fruitful and essential objectives of the seminar were achieved. We may also specially mention the enlightened and experienced guidance which this seminar received throughout from Dr. A. N. Upadhye, the doyen of Prakrit studies. We are also thankful to Dr. G. C. Jain for arranging a slide-show on Jain Cultural Monuments. Thanks are also due to Shri Ratibhai Desai who took upon himself the entire responsibility of looking after the lodging and boarding arrangements of the participants. We have also to record that before the beginning of the paper-reading session a condolence meeting was held to mourn the passing away of Dr. H. L. Jain, an eminent scholar and Prof. G. C. Jhala. It is very sad to note that before the publication of this volume we lost Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Dr. G. C. Chaudhari, Dr. N. C. Shastri and Pandit Shri Sukhlalji who were associated with the Seminar and Dr. P. L. Vaidya who sent good wishes to us on this occasion. Page #40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (xxxi) Recommendations of the Seminar on Prakrit Studies At ths earlier Prakrit Seminars the aims, objectives and scope of Prakrit Studies have been clearly formulated in all their important aspects and details. Numerous steps to reorganize the studies in the context of present-day relevance and future requirements have been also suggested and priority plans have been indicated. The present seminar while accepting and stressing all those earlier recommendations, has to make the following specific recommendations to Universities, the University Grants Commission and various other Institutions interested in furthering Parkrit Studies for immediate implementation. (1) Every University should strengthen its Sanskrit and Prakrit or Pali as well as Modern Indo-Aryan language Depart nents by the addition of a teacher - a reader or a lecturer - specialized in Prakrit, so that the Department both in its research and instructional activities becomes fully efficient. (2) Some arrangement for training young scholars for editing and text-critical study of works in Prākrit and Apabhramsa is an urgent necessity. It is for U. G. C. to make available sufficient funds for this purpose. (3) It is urgently needed to institute at various Universities certificate and diploma courses in Middle Indo-Aryan languages (Pāli, Prākrit, Apabhramsa etc.) for graduates of other discipines. (4) An Advanced Centre of Prakrit Studies be established at an early date. (5) It is very desirable that with financial support from the U. G. C. certain short-term arrangements like summer schools, workshops etc. be made for training for basic tools and methodology of research in Prakrit. A starting can be made with the following subjects: (i) Editing of lexicography. (ii) Problems of lexicography. (iii) A composite programme of teaching classical languages (Sanskrit, Pāli, Prākrit and Apabhramsa), (iv) A number of doctoral and post-doctoral fellowships for special study of Prakrit and Pali be instituted at select Universities. Page #41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #42 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1. Vratakatha in old Marathi Dr. V. P. Joharapurkar, Jabalpur. Introductory Study of Jain literature in old Marathi - though very recent1 has revealed the existence of over 150 works of about 60 authors spread over four centuries (circa 1450 to 1850 A. D.). Out of these, 12 authors are known to have written 24 vratakathas. I had the opportunity of editing 12 stories out of these and the present article is based on their study. It may be noted here that these stories are not related to the vratas as known in the earliest phase of Jain literature (Ahimsa, Satya, Etc.), They illustrate the importance of fasts undertaken on some particular days for a number of years. Texts and Authors: The first vratakatha (which is also the earliest vratakatha in Marathi published so far) edited by me is Ananta Vratakathā of Abhayakirti composed in 1616 A. D.2 Six stories relating to Aditya, Ananta, Puṣpañjali, Nirdosa saptami, Kalasa daśami and Sugandha dasami vratas by Jinasagara (circa 1724 to 1744 A.D.) are included in complete works of Jinasagara edited by me. Five more stories edited by me and published recently under the title Pracina Marathi Katha Pañcaka are: Anantakatha of Cimana Pandita (circa 1650 A.D.), Sugandhadasami Katha of Sabaji (1665 A.D.), Nirdoșa-Saptami Katha of Mahicandra (circa 1662 A.D.), Aditya Katha of Punyasagara (circa 1650 A.D.) and Meghamālā Katha of Laxmicandra (1728 A.D.) Other Marathi vratakathās known so far are :-Adityakatha of Abhayakirti (1613 A.D.), Rukminikatha of Visalakirti (circa 1670 A.D.), Nandısvara and Garuḍapancami kathas of Mahicandra (circa 1692 A.D.), Jinaratrikatha of Laxmicandra (circa 1728 A. D.), Karmaṣṭamikatha of Soyara (1746 A.D.), Ravivratakatha of Yamāsā (1751 A.D.), Daśalakṣaṇakatha of Anantakirti (1775 A.D.), and Aditya, Dasalakṣana, Ratnatraya and Şoḍaśakarana kathās of Mabatisāgara (1772-1832 A.D.)5 Sources: Mahicandra in his Nirdosa Saptami Katha mentions that he followed Brahma Jinadasa's Rasa Bhāsa (Gujarati) version of a Sanskrit story. This seems to be incorrect as the Sanskrit version known so farthat of Śrutasagara-is slightly later than Jinadāsa's Gujarāti version. Another author-Sabāji-also mentions that his Sugandha-daŝami-Katha is a Marathi rendering of the Rasachanda of Jinadasa. Excerpts from other Vratakathas quoted by Dr. Akkole show that Mahicandra in his Nandisvarakathā and Anantakīrti in his Dasalakaṣaṇakathā also mention Jinadasa as their source, Page #43 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jinadāsa (circa 1450 A.D.) is known to have written 15 vratakathas in Gujaratie though only one-Sugandhadaśami Katha-has been published so far." He has not mentioned any earlier yratakatha, but it seems quite probable that he followed some Apabhraíša stories. One of these-Sugandha. daśamikatha of Udayacandra-is of the twelfth century A.D.8 Balacandra was a disciple of Udayacandra. His Niddukkhasattami Katha is available. His disciple Vinayacandra is known to have written Nijjhara-pancami Katha.9 In Prakrit, Nanapancamikahā of Maheswara is a good collection of ten stories of the tenth century A.D. 10 Two authors of the same period also wrote Vratakathās in Apabbramsa but these - Nayakumaracariu of Puşpadanta and Bhavisayatta kaha of Dhanapala - are better known as fullfledged Kavyas. The earliest Apabhramsa poet of eminence-Svayambhūdeva also wrote Pañcamicariu in the eighth century A.D. but unfortunately no manuscript of this work has been discovered so far. Folk Tales Incorporated : The stories of Ananta, Meghamālā and Kalasadašami are very simple--first two illustrate removal of poverty by observing the vratas while in the third one birth of children is said to be the result of the same. Other stories are more interesting as they contain some popular elements. In the Sugandha-daśami-katha we find a young girl ill-treated by her stepmother. She is married to the king by virtue of the merit acquired by observing the vrata in her previous birth. Dr. H. L. Jain has compared this story with the story of Cindrella well-known in western countries. The Adityayratakatha describes a young boy ill-treated by his sister-in-law. The king of Nāgas takes pity on him and he becomes the son-in-law of the king of Ayodhyā. Intervention of Nāgas to help a distressed person figures in many stories. The story of Vairotyā in the Nandila prabandha of Prabhāvaka-carita may be cited for example. In Nirdoşa-saptamikatha we find a lady whose merit by observing the vrata in her previous birth is so great that she knows not what sorrow is. Her neighbour sends a cobra to her but even that turns into a necklace studded with jewels. The story of Puş panjali-vrata is more in line with the pattern of Jain mythology. Here love of a young couple is traced to their previous birth. The earlier part of this story is somewhat unusual, Here a young girl consoles her father who is mourning the death of his wife. He becomes a monk following his daughter's advice but being attracted by wordly pleasures gives up penance. He is again admonished by his daughter and that makes him very angry. These vrata-stories thus contain many interesting elements. Peculiar Ritual : Besides usual Jina-worship, there are some peculiar features in the mode of observing the vratas. In Anantavrata, a thread with fourteen knots is prepared and each knot is associated with mythological Page #44 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ or religious significance. This thread of fourteen knots figures in the Anantavrata of Hindu tradition also.11 In the Adityayrata, nine 'fruits' made of wheat flour are offered. This is also common to the Adityahrdaya-vrata prescribed in the Hindu tradition, 12 In the Nirdoşasaptami, the Jina-idol is put in a pot and it is filled with milk upto its neck. In Hindu tradition of Mahārāștra, Ganesa-idol is sometimes put in a waterpot especially when some near relative is in danger. In the Meghamalayrata, a piece of cloth is hung over the Jina-idol and water is sprinkled over the cloth. It is imagined that this depicts a raining cloud as indicated by the name of the vrata. These peculiar features must have helped in popularising the vratas. Language and Style : All the stories studied here belong to the 17th and 18th century. Still some difference of language and style is noticeable among them. Jinasagara's stories have invariably classical Sanskrit metres. He uses more Sanskrit words than his predecessors. Earlier authors have used Ovi metre. Its popularity and simplicity is comparable with that of Anustubh in Sanskrit. One author-Cimana Pandita-wrote Ananta-vratakatha in the form of a song in which each stanza is of four lines and each line has three parts of 14, 6 and 12 Mātrās. All the authors follow the general trend of revival of Sanskrit words on a large scale, still many words retain their Prakrita-Apabhramsa form. Some of these appear to be common to Gujarati and Hindi. These are not used by non-Jain Marāthi authors. Some words of these two types are noted below (numbers in bracket indicate verses). Abhayakīrti :-Tbāu (10) for Sthāna, Povali (16) for Pratoli, Vasai (17) for Vasati (Jain temple), Gbāya (54) for Gbāta, Kuvaru (76) for Kumāra, Bakbāna (129) for Vyākhyāna, Bhadavā (142) for Bhadrapada, Sohajala (159) for Sojjvala, Ghevara (182) for Ghịtavara. Cimanā Pandita :-Rāvo (5) for Raja, Thira (16) for Sthira, Padagāha (29) for Pratigraba, Uchbāha (38) for Utsāba, Ujavana (45) for Udyäpana, Udima (49) for Udyama. Punyasagara :-Dohala (13) for Dohada, Kuda (43) for kūta, Bhaujaya (80) for Bhratịjāyā, Āsu (115) for Aśru, Mahocchava (152) for Mahotsava. Sābāji :- Macchara (116) for Matsara, Vosanga (124) for Utsanga, Patola (199) for Pattakula. Mabicandra :- Koda (20) for Kautuka, Seja (28) for śayya, Danka (47) for Damśa, Nhavana (99) for Snapada. Laxmicandra :-Rukha (25) for Rūkşa, Dārota (29) for Dvārapata, Khina (35) for Kșaņa, Poyada (52) for Podana. Page #45 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jipasāgara :-Ajāga (Aditya. 3) for Ajñāna, Vāvara (Aditya. 30) for Vyāpāra, Vānz (Ananta 9) for Vandhyā, Khāja (Ananta 61) for Khadya, Kidā (Nirdosa. 3) for Kița, Tarāla (Nirdoşa, 24) for Talavara, Erı (Puşpān. jali 13) for Itara, Jūza (Puşpāñjali 51) for Yuddha. 1. First article on the subject written by me appeared in the Marathi Monthly Sanmati (Bahubali-Kolhapur Dist.) in Nov. 55. The subject was taken up by my friend Dr. Akkole for his thesis for Ph. D. (Published by Suvichara Prakashana Mandala, Poona, in 1968). 2. Monthly Sanmati-May 1958. 3. Jivaraja Jain Granthamala, Sholapur, 1959. 4. Jivaraja Jain Granthamala, Sholapur, 1971. 5. The four stories of Mahatisāgara were published in Mahatikavyak unja in 1930. Some details of other unpublished stories are given by Dr. Akkole in his thesis mentioned earlier. Pt. Paramananda has given a list of Jinadāsa's works in Anekānta (Noy. Dec. 71, P. 227.) 7. It is included by Dr. H. L. Jain in his edition of Sugandha-dasamikathā (Bharatiya Jnanapitha, Varanasi 1966) 8. Included by Dr. H. L Jain in his edition mentioned above. Many more Apabhramsa, vratakathās are noticed by Pandit Paramananda in his Jaina-grantha-prasasti-sangraha, Vol. II which belong to fifteenth and sixteenth century. 10. Edited by Dr. Gopani in the Singhi Jain Series, Bombay. 1949. 11. History of Dharmashästra (P. V Kane) Vol. V Part I Page 153. 12. Ibid P. 268. Page #46 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 2. Contribution of Prakrit Literature to Biology of Ancient India. Dr. J. C. Sikdar, Ahmedabad. Prakrit literature is to be judged by its value to humanity and its estimation is to be determined by the principles as to what extent does it contributes to the progress of mankind by testifying sufficiently to the linguistic and literary development of its age and its importance to the society by conveying various aspects of Indian Culture, such as; sciences and arts, etc. Here an attempt has been made to bring to light the contribution of Prakrit literature to Biology of Ancient India by making an analysis of living substance (Jīvadravya)' as different from non-living substance (ajiva. dravya) 2 for solving the fascinating riddle of life, The survival of early men required a knowledge of such basic facts as which plants and which animals could be safely taken as food and medicine. In Prakrit literature the word 'Jivatthikae's is used to refer to any living substance, plant or animal, from nigodajiva* (micro-organism) up to the Pancendriya manusya'5 (the five-sensed human beings), just as the word 'organism'o in modern age is used to denote any living thing, plant or animal from amoeba up to man. The study of Biology began with the authors of the Jaina Agamic Prakrit literature on the basis of the doctrine of animism? and ahimsās (non-violence) in the hoary past, besides the requirement of food to sustain life with a sense of spiritual value of life of all beings. They kept in view the concepts of living substance as contained in the Vedice and post-Vedicto literature, describing the external and internal parts of plants and animals with their nomenclature, classifications, etc. Biology as an organised science can be said to have begun with the Greeksli in the west on the basis of the knowledge of such basic facts as which plants and which animals were useful as food and medicine. "They and the Romans described the many kinds of plants and animals known at the time."1% It expanded and underwent alteration greatly in the nine. teenth century and it has continued this trend at an accelerated pace in the twentieth century due to the discoveries and techniques of physics and chemistry. Page #47 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Some Generalizations : The idea that living systems are not distinguished from non-living ones by some mysterious vital force (paryāpti)13 has gained acceptance in Biology of Ancient India and in modern Biology, one of the basic tenets of which is that the phenomena of life can be explained in terms of Chemistry and Physics". 14 There appear to be no exceptions to the generalization that all life comes only from living things. Like the experiments of Pasteur, Tyndal and others,15 just century ago finally, the authors of Prakrit works provided convincing prooi that micro-organism, such as, nigodajīvas, prthivikavaj ivas, etc., i.e. bacteria are also incapable of originating from non-living material by spontaneous generation. It seems clear that nigodajīvas require the presence of pre-existing nigodajīvas, 1e just as the virus of modern Biology does so. Nigodajīvas do not arise de novo from non-nigodajivas, just as viruses do not do so from non-viral material.17 Elements of the idea that all of the many kinds of plants and animals existing at the present time were not created de novo and were externally cxisting and have descended from previously existing organisms are clearly expressed in the Jaina Agamic Prakrit literature, 18 but they have their gradations.19 In the writings of certain Greek philosophers before the Christian era, from Thales to Aristotle, 20 there are the implicit ideas of the descending of plants and animals from gradual modifications. This theory of organic evolution has also gained ground among the modern Biologists as one of the great unifying concepts of Biology, 21 The Prakrit studies of the development of many kinds of animals and plants from fertilized egg?? or embryo 33 to adult leads to the generaliza. tion that organisms tend to repeat in the course of their embryonic develop. ment, some of the corresponding stages of their evolutionary ancestors. According to this theory of recapitulation, embryos recapitulate some of the embryonic forms of their ancestors. 24 "The human being, at successive stages in development resembles in certain respects a fish embryo, then an amphibion embryo, then a reptition embryo and so on". 25 Inter-relations of Organism and Environment : A careful study of communities of plants and animals in a given area, as found in the Jaina Āgamic Prakrit literature, leads to the generalization that all living beings in a given region are closely interrelated with other and with the environment It includes the idea that particular kinds of plants and animals are not found at rendom over the earth but occur in inter-dependent communities of producer, consumer and decomposer organisms together with certain nonliving components. These communities can be recognised and characterized by certain dominant members of the group, usually plants, which provide Page #48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ both food 76 and shelter for many other forms. This eco-system is one of the major unifying generalizations of Biology. Cells, Structures and Functions : The Fabric of Life : As already pointed out, Biology is the science of living things, 'Paryapti'37 (Proto. plasm ?) appears to be the actual living material of all plants and animals. This vital force of protoplasm of the human body and of all plants and animals, according to modern Biology, exists, in cells, 28 the discrete portions, which are the microscopic units of structure of the body; each of them is an independent, fuctional unit. “The processes of the body are the sum of the co-ordinated functions of its cells. These cellular units vary considerably in size, shape and function. Some of the smallest animals have bodies made of a single cell, others such as a man or an oak tree are made of countless billions of cells fitted together”. 29 Characteristics of Living Substances : All living substances (Jwadravyas) have, to a greater or lesser extent, the properties of specific size80 and shape, 31 metabolism, 32 movement,88 irritability,34 growth,85 reproduction 36 and adaptation.37 Biologic Inter-relationships : At first glance, the world of living substances appears to be made up of a bewildering variety of plants and animals,38 all quite different and each going its separate way at its own pace. A closer study reveals, however, that all organisms, whether plant or animal, have the same basic needs for survival, the same problems of getting food 39 for energy, getting space to live, 40 producing a new generation41 and 30 on. In solving their problems, plants and animals have evolved into a tremendous number of different forms, 42 each adapted to live in some particular sort of environment. Each has become adapted not only to the physical environment,43 has acquired a tolerance to a certain range of moisture, wind, sun, temperature, gravity and so on but also to the biotic environment, all the plants and animals living in the same general region. Living organisms are inter-related in two main ways, by evolutionary descent45 and ecologically.46 One organism may provide food or shelter for another 47 or produce some substance harmful to the second, 48 or the two may complete for food or shelter. The Classification of Living Things : The authors of Prakrit Literature have tried to set up systems of classifications based on natural relationships,49 putting into a single group those organisms which are closely related in their evolutionary origin.50 Since many of the structural similari. ties 51 depend on evolutionary relations,52 classification of organisms is similar in many respects to the one of the principles based on logical structural similarities, 68 that is to say, species, genus, phyla. Page #49 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 8 Many plants and animals fall into easily recognisable natural groups, and their classification presents no difficulty, "but other forms, which seem to lie on the border line between two groups, according to modern Biology, and have some characteristics in common with each are difficult to assign to one or the other."54 Distinction Between Plants, Animals and Protists: The living world has been divided into two kingdoms, one of plants55 and one of animals,66 The word 'vaṇapphai'57 (plant) suggests trees, shrubs, flowers, grasses and vines-large and familiar objects of every day world. And the word 'pasu' 58 suggests both wild59 and domestico animals in a wider sence, such as, lions, tigers, cows, buffaloes, birds, frogs, fish, etc. Further thought brings to mind such forms of life, as ferns, mosses, mushrooms and pond scums, 62 quite different but recognizable as plants, and insects, 63 worms $4 (kṛmis), etc., that are definitely animals, According to some modern biologists, a third kingdom, the protista, be set up to include the singlecelled organisms that are intermediate in many respects between plants and animals, e.g. Euglena moves around like an animal but contains chlorophyll and can carry on photosynthesis like a plant. 65 Fundamentally, plants and animals, as mentioned in Prakrit literature, are alive in many ways, both are made of cells (nigoda body?) as structural and functional units and both have many metabolic processes in common. But there are some obvious ways and some obscure ways in which they differ. Plants may be classified into bacteria, 66 algae, 67 fungi, 68 herbs, 69 shrubs, 70 creepers (vines), grasses72 and trees,73 on the basis of general properties of green plant cells, the structure and functions of a seed plant, reproduction, etc. Microscopic bacteria (i. e. nigodajivas, pṛthvikayika-jivas upto Vanas patikayikas) and insects and animals of terrestrial74 and aquatic75 origin and aerial beings76 find mention in the Jaina Agamic Prakrit texts with their distinct classifications. It appears that plants and animals were classified into species and genus, etc., on the basis of certain principies, such as, birth, habitat, living, special structural features, utility, etc, i. e. evolutionary descent and ecology in general. The authors of Prakrit literature touched upon the problems of properties of green plant,77 plant digestion,78 plant circulation, respiration80 in plants, the structures81 and functions82 of a seed plant, the storage of food,83 types of plants,84 bacteria, etc., figures and sizess of earth quadrates, evolution of plant reproduction87 of bacteria, algae88 and fungi,89 the reproduction-asexual reproduction, 91 germination92 of the seed and evolutionary trends in the plant kingdom. Page #50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ The green plants are the primary producers of the living world. Without green plants, life except for a few chemosynthetic bacteria would disappear from the eartb. Plants have no specialized digestive system. An embryo plant cannot make its own food until the seed bas sprouted and the embryo has developed a functional root, leaf and stem system.o3 Prakrit literature makes an implicit suggestion that the nutrients of the plants are made within the cells of the plants or absorbed through the cell membrances.84 Water or nutrient is absorbed by the epidermal cells of the roots containing bacteria85 and moved to all parts of the plant. There takes place respiration in plants-cellular respiration in plants as explained by modern Biology. The authors of Prakrit literature differentiate the several parts of a plant, such as, root, stem, leaf, etc.97 The obvious function of root is to anchor the plant, to absorb water and minerals from the soils and to conduct these substances to the stem and to store99 food in it. The stem and its branches support the leaves, flowers and fruits.100 Each leaf is a specialized nutritive organ whose function is to carry on photosynthesis 101 Plants are of two types 102 : Subtile and gross ones and both of them are either fully developed or undeveloped. Either many have one body in common or each has its own body. Those who severally have their own body are of many kinds : trees, shrubby plants, shrubs, big plants, creeping plants, grass, paims, plants of knotty stems or stalks, mushrooms, waterplants, annual plants, and herbs. 103 The subtile plants are of one kind as there is no variety. They are distributed all over the world, gross plants are found in a part of the world only.104 Some of subtile plants are identical with bacteria, algae and fungi. An evolutionary sequence in plant reproduction appears to be evident ranging from subtile plants which reproduce largely by asexual means. The higher plants105 may produce no more than a few scores of seeds per plant, but each seed has a fairly good chance of growing into a natural plant. In plants only asexual reproduction106 takes place according to the Prakrit literature. But modern Biology shows that there take place both asexual and sexual reproductions in plant life. The life of some higher plants exists within the cover of seeds in a state of dormancy to be awakened at a proper time and season under the favourable conditions. The viability of the cereals, if preserved in a well protected granary, lasts in the maximum upto-three years, five years and seven years.107 A number of evolutionary trends appear to be evident in the plant kingdom. One of these is a change from a population that is mostly baploid individuals to one that is almost entirely diploid-an evolutionary trend toward a greater size and importance of the sporophyte ang a reduction in the size of the gametophyte generation, Page #51 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 10 Next the authors of Prakrit literature dealt with the Animal kingdom : the lower invertebrates, the higher invertebrates, the phylum Chordata, birds, the mammals, the organization of the body, blood, the circulatory system, foetal circulation and changes at birth, the respiratory system, the digestive system, metabolism and nutrition, the excretory system, the integumentary and the skeletal systems, the muscular system, the nervous system, the sense-organs, the tactile senses, organs of taste and smell, the eye, reproduction-asexual and sexual, human reproduction, embryonic develop. ment, nutrition and fertilization of the embryo and birth of the child, etc. To catalogue the vast array of animals the authors of the Jaina Agamic Prākrit literature bave used a classification system of animals, based upon observation of similarities of structure, sense-organs and development. According to the Uttarādhyayana Sutra, the movable beings are of three kinds, viz. (1) the fire-lives, (2) the wind-lives and (3) those with an organic body.108 They are further sub-divided into subtile and gross animals. Movable beings.09 with organic bodies (i.e. animals) are of four kinds : (1) those possessing two organs of sense, (2) those with three organs of sense, (3) those with four sense-organs and (4) those with five sense-organs. That is to say, they are classified into these groups by counting the senses actually determining the life habits. The two-sensed animals up to the four-sensed animals come under the category of the Invertebratelower and higher, with the problems of terrestrial and aquatic life, while the five-sensed animals including man come under the vertebrate of modern Biology. The animals (man and lower animals) having five organs of sense110 fall under the category of the phylum chordata which consists of the subphylum, vertebrate animals, such as, fish etc. The five--sensed lower animals of the vertebrata are classified first into two groups on the basis of reproduction : sammūrochima and garbhavyutkrāntikalit (generation aequivoca and those which are born from the womb) and Dext into three groups, viz. andaja, potaja and sammūrcchima.112 Either of sammūrochima and garbhavyutkrāntika animals are divided into three classes on the basis of their habitat, viz. jalacara (aquatic), sthalacara (terrestrial) and nabha (khe)cara (aerial).113 Terrestrial animals are of two kinds, viz. parisar pa and catus. pada (quadruped);114 parisar pa (reptiles) are of two classes, viz. (1) those which walk on their arms (bhujaga) e.g. lizard, etc. and (2) those which move on their breasts (uraga), e.g. spake etc. 115 Winged animals or birds which are the aerial animals are characterised by the presence of feathers, they are of four kinds, viz. those with memberanous wings, 116 (2) those with feathered wings, (3) those with wings in the shape of boxl1; and those which sit on outspread wings (carma pakṣī, loma pakși, samud gapakşi and vitata pakşi).118 Page #52 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 11 The quadrupeds (catușpada) come under the species of the mammals whose distinguishing features are the presence of hair, mammary glands and sweat glands, and the differentiation of the teeth into incisors, canines and molars. 119 They are of four kinds, viz. solidungular animals, e.g. horse, (2) biungular animals, e. g. cows, etc. (3) multiupgular animals, elephant, etc, and (4) animals having toes with nails, e.g. lions etc. (egakhura, dukhurā, gandipada and saņappaya).1 20 Men are of two kinds, viz, (4) men originating by generation aequivoca and men born from the womb (sañmūrcchima and garbhavyutkrāntika).131 The organization of the body of developed animal includes the transport system of the body, the blood and blood vessels that supply all cells with nutrients and remove the waste products of metabolism, the respiratory system, the digestive system, followed by metabolism and nutrition, the excretory system, the integumentary and skeletal systems, which protect and support the body, the muscular system which moves the various parts of the body-one on another, the nervous and endocrine systems together with the sense-organs by which animals obtain and process information regarding the external environment. Blood122 is generated in the foetus, six month old, developing in the mother's123 womb. This statement suggests that men and all the larger animals have developed some system of internal transport, a circulatory system consisting of the heart and blood vessels, the lymph vessels, and the blood and lymph. The reference to seven hundred sirās (neurons or nerves) and nine dhamanīs (arteries)124 in the foetus, together with pitta (hile) and soņita (blood) suggests the circulatory system of the developed animals that it includes the heart, 125 the blood vessels and the lymph vessels, in addition to the blood, lymph and tissue fluid, The foetus deveoping in the uterus obtains food and oxygen from the maternal blood by means of blood vessels in the placenta and umbilical cord (putrajiya-rasaharani).126 The blood of the foetus is manufactured within its own body. Within the placenta the capillaries of mother and foetus come into close contact, and substances pass from one to the other by diffusion or by active transport processes. Two umbilical arteries (mātrjiva and putrajıva-rasaharanil 27 grow out of the lower part of the aorta of the foetus and pass to the placenta. Blocd is returned to the child by a single umbilical vein. In Prakrit literature the term āņa pāna or 'ucchāśanicchāsa’128 is synonymous with breathing and means in baling and exhaling. The reference to ahāra paryāpti, śarīra paryapti, ete, and the metabolic process and nourishment of the foetus developing in the mother's womb suggests the digestive system and metabolism and nutrition of all larger Page #53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 12 animal including man,129 Food is any substance taken into the body that can be used for the release of energy for the building and repair of tissue. By the metabolic process the food substances, being taken into the body, get digested and absorbed from the intestine. They are either built into new tissue or oxidized to energy. There is no excretion of feces or urine or sputum or rheum or vomitting or bilious humour of the foetus developing in the mother's womb because all its waste products pass into the stream of the mother's blood.130 But in the case of born mer and lower animals it takes place and includes kidneys and their ducts, the skin, lungs, and digestive tract, etc. The reference to skin and the head, legs, and arms, five sense-organs, etc.131 indicates that the skin and the bony frame-work are both organ systems-groups of organs that act together to perform one of the primary like functions and determine the shape and the symmetry of the body and act as protective devices for the body. The mention of peś7132 produced from arbuda (cell bubble) of the foetus in the second month of the foetus and 500 peśīs193 in the seventh month shows that man and indeed most vertebrates are quite muscular animals whose ability to move depends upon the muscle fibres. There are 700 siras' (veins) and 9 dhamanis (arteries)134 which constitute the nerve system which integrates the activities of all the parts of the body, All beings amoeba to man have sense-organs 135 in the evolutionary process varying in numbers from one to five to help them in their struggle for life. Traditionally men have five sepse-organs: skin, taste, smell, sight and hearing.186 The survival of each species of animal requires that its individual members multiply and produce new individuals to replace the ones killed by predators, parasites, or old age or disease. The actual process of reproduction varies tremendously from one kind of animal to another, but two basic types of reproduction : sammūrochima and garbha. vyutkrāntika137 (asexual aud sexual) can be distinguished. Human reprodnction, 138 in common with that of most animals, is accomplished sexually by the union of specialized gametes: ova or eggs produced by the female and sperm produced by the male. After fertilization kalala (zygote) is formed within seven days, then comes into existence ‘arbuda' (slightly hard flat embryonic disc). Within next seven days, from arbuda tissues of muscles are formed, from pesis ‘ghana' is formed 1.e. (hard cylindrical embryo) In the 1st month the embryo measures one pala, in the 2nd month its muscles become a little hard; in the fifth month there takes place the segmentation of the embryo into five segm Page #54 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 13 6. Bis ents-2 arms, 2 legs and head. In the sixth month bile and blood develop in the body, then in the seventh month 700 veins, 500 tissues of muscle, 9 arteries, 9900000 pores without hair and 35000000 pores with hair, etc. In the eighth month the foetus fully develops for the birth.139 The child is born after the complete course of pragnancy of nine months, seven and a half days and nights 140 The division, growth and differentiation of a fertilized egg into the remarkably complex and interdependent system of organs, which is the adult animal, is certainly one of the most fascinating of all biologic phenomena, The study of these brief outlines of the world of life, plants and animals, shows the trend how the authors of Prakrit literature contributed to the devlopment of Biology of Ancient India in the hoary past in the absence of the verifying data of the experiments and research of modern Biologists. Their attempt in this fold is thought-provoking and wisdom-evoking. References 1. Bhagavati Sūtra, Šataka 25, Uddeśaka 2, Sūtra 720; Sthāṇānga Sūtra, 2.95, p. 86. Pannavaņā Satta, I. 3, p. 4. 2. Bhgava, Su., 25. 2. 720. Panna, Su., 1.3, p. 4; Jivābhigama Sutra, p. 5. 3. Bhaga, Sū., 20. 2. 665. 4. Ibid., 25. 5. 749. 5. Ibid., 33. 1. 844. Biology, C. A. Villee, p. 16. 7. Acārănga Sutra, Adhyayana I, Uddesaka 6, Sūtra 48, etc. "Se bemi samtime fasā pānā, tamjaha amdaya poyayā jarāua rasayā samse yayā sammucchimā ubbhiyayā uvavõiyā, esa samsāretti pavuccar" “Se hu munk parinnāyakamme" (54) Ibid. See SBE Vol. XXII, Pt. I, p. 11, Book I, Lecture 1. 6th lesson; "Pudhavi ya au agani ya vāu, tana rukkha biyā ya tasa ya pānā je andayā je ya jarāu pānā samseyayā je rasayābhihāna (1), etc. up to Nidhūya kammam na pavamcuvei, akkhakkhae va sagadam ti bemi" See SBE XLV, Pt. II, p. 293, 302; Sūtrakstānga Book I, Lecture 7. Su. 1-30 8. Bhaga. Su., 2. 1. 92; 95; 8.5. 328; 11. 9. 417; 11. 22. 435. 9 See the Indian Journal of History of Sciences, Vol. 5, No. I, 1970, Biology in Ancient and Medieval India, Dr. R. N, Kapil, pp. 125-132, 10. Ibid. 11. Biology, Pt. I. 12. Ibid. 13. Navatattva Prakaranam, V. 6., P, 12. Dharmavijayaji; Lokaprakāśa, Vinayavijayaji, Pt. I, 3rd Sarga, Vy. 15ff. Ibid., p. 9. 15. Ibid. 16. Bhaga. Su., 25. 5. 749. Nigodas are of two kinds, viz.. Nigodaka and Nigodakajiva (fine and gross nigodas). They are collections of infinite number of beings, making minute group, having common breathing in and out (respiration), sense-feeling. They, longing for development, continue evolution of life through the successive Jivapar yāyas (modes of life or being) and they provide the supply of beings in the place of those who have attained liberation. Thus the universe dose not become and will not become devoid of beings., Bhag. Sü. 12. 2. 443. 17. Biology, p. 9. 18. Bhaga. Sü., 12. 2. 443. Tattvārthādhigama Sutra, 5. 3. Dev. Lal. Surat. (Nityāya sthitänyarüpāņi ca), Page #55 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 19. Bhaga. Su. 12. 2. 442. 20. Biology, p. 10, See A History of Greek Philosophy, Vol I, II, III, by W. K. C. Guthru, Aristotle, 21. Ibid., p. 10. 22. Bhaga. Su, 7. 5. 282. 23. Ibid, 7. 5. 283. 24. Ibid., 1 7 61; Tandulaveyaliya V. 6, p 10. 25. Biology, p. 11. 14 According to the Bhaga. Su. (1. 7. 62), the like an umbrella or the side-ribs of human a humpbacked mango (ambakhujjae) 26. Bhaga. Su., 6.7.246; 6.5.330; 7.3.277; 5.3.324; 8.5.330; 21.2 691: 22.6.692; 23 1.693 etc. Sutra II. 3. 31. 27, Pajjatti Paryapti, Nava, Pra V. 6. p 12.; Gommatasara (Jivakända) vv. 118-19; Lokapra, Pt. I, 3rd Sarga, vv. 15 ff. 28. They may be identical with Nigod'sarira. 32 29. Biology, p. 16. 30. Bhaga. Su., 19, 3. 53; 5. 1. 717; Uttaradhyayana Sutra, 36 70 (Sukṣma-badara) Panna. Su. (Sūkṣma-bādara, etc.) Gommat. Sá (Jivakäṇḍa), v. 177. v. 183. Panna. Su. Samṭhāṇāidāracchakam, 983-959, p, 241, Bṛhatsamgrahani, Candrasuri, VV. 243-5. Müläcära, Pt. II, 12, V. 49, Vațakhera. Śri Vasunandisiddhanta Cakravartin, p. 207; Lokapra. I, 3, vv. 205-10, pp. 98-99; Gommata. (Jivakäṇḍa), 201. Nemicandra. Sutra, 11. 3. (Ahäranikṣepa) Bhaga. Su. 1. 7. 61-62; 7 3, 275 6. Panna. Su, Ahar padam, pajjattidaram, 2nd uddesaka, p. 406; Tandula pp. 3-10; Nava. Pra. v. 6, p. 12.; Lokapra. I, 3 vv. 15-21 ff; Gommata. (Jivakāṇḍa). Ch., III, vv. 119-121; Mulācāra, Pt. II, 12-4; Tarkarahasya-Dipika on Saddarśanasamuccaya (Jaina-matam), v. 49, Gunaratna. foetus in the mothers womb remains body; the emb.yo appears to be like 33, Aca Su. Book I, 9. 1. 14. Sutra. II, 2. 6. 8; 6 Stha, 2. 4. 10; Bhaga, 25. 4. 789. Uttara. Su. 36. 68. Jivabhi. Sü. p. 12. Mula. Pt. I, 30 (226), p. 295. Tattva, Su. 2. 12-14; Tarka, Gunaratna, v. 49. 34. Bhag. Su, 3. 9. 170; 2. 4. 99. Panna, Su. Indriyapadam 15, Puttbadaram, etc; Jivabhi. Sü. Jyotişka Uddeśaka: Tarka. D. Tika on V. 49. 35. Sutra. II, 3. 55-62, Bhaga. Su. 1. 7. 61-2; 7. 3. 276; Tandula V. vv. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, TarkaD. v. 49. 36. Sutra. II. 3. Bhaga. Su. 7. 5. 282; Stha.Su 3. 1. 129; 7. 3. 543. Uttara.Su. 36, 170. Jivä. Su 31.96; 1. 33, Panna.Su. 1. 58; 68. Mula. Pt. II, 12. 43, 44 45. Tattva.. 2. 32. TarkaD, v. 49. 37. Sutra. II. 3; BhagaSu. 7, 3 275 7. 5. 282; PannaSu. Sthanapadam; Jivabhi. Su. 1, 34, 35, 36. TarkaD. v. 49. 38. Sutra. II. 3, Sutras 48-63. Bhaga. Su 33. 1. 844; 7. 5. 282, etc. Uttara. Su. 36. 68-202. Panna Su Jivapaňňavaṇā 14. 138. Jivābhi Su. 3. 96; 1. 33, 34; 135. Gommţa. (Jivakäṇḍa) II, 70, 71, 72, etc. 40. Ibid. 41. Ibid 39. Sutra. II, 3, 40-62. 42. Uttara. Su. 36. 135; 144; 169; 178; 179; 186; 192; 202. 43. Sutra. II. 3. Bhaga. Su 7.5-282. Uttara. Su 36.171 ff Jivabhi Su 1.34; 35. Panna. Su. I, Ji apanṇavana, Jalacara-Sthalacara-Khecara-Manusya, Prajñāpanā 29-34. 44. Sutra. II. 3. 43-62. 45. Bhaga Su. 12. 2. 443; 25. 5. 749: 33 1. 844. 46. Sutra. II, 3. 43-62; Bhaga. Su. 7, 5. 282. "The habitat of an organism is the place where it lives, a physical area, some specified earth surface, air, soil, or water," Biology, P. 90. 47. Sutra. II, 3. 43-62 48. Bhaga, Sü. 8. 2. 316, Page #56 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 15 50. 49 E. G. Ekendriya-, Dvindriya-Trindriya-Caturindriya and Pancedriya organisms are classfied on the basis of natural relationships. Similarly Jalacara and Khecara organisms are classified according to their natural relationships, as they are closely related in their respective evolutionary origins. Sutra. II. 3; Jivabhi, Sū. 3. 1. 96; Bhaga. Sū. 7. 5, 282 (andaja, potaja and sammurcchima); Uttarā Sū. 36. 171 ff. Jivābhigama Su. 1. 33; 1. 34, 35; Panna Sū. Jivapannavanā (Jalacara, Sthalacara and Khecara and Manuş yaprjñāpana) 29-34. Aquatic, terrestrial and aerial organisms have been classified into these single groups as the members of each of them are closely related in their evolutionary origin 51. Bhaga. Sū. 8. 3. 324; 7. 3. 277; 7. 5. 282; Jivābhi. Sū. 3. 1. 91; 1. 33, 1. 34, 1-35, 1-36 Uttarā. Su. 36. 135, 144, 154, 169, 178, 179, 186, 193, 202. Panna. Sū. "Pancedriya, Jivapanpannavaņā. “Sthalacara-tirascam catu spadā parisar peti-Bhedadvay, p. 30; Catuspadānāmekak şuradvik şurădibhedacatuṣkam, p. 30. Gandipadūnām hasti-puyanaya (de) adināmakadambakan P. 31. Sanakhapadanan sinchavyāghrādināmakadambakan P. 31,; etc. See also "Tatrvārthadhigama Sutra, 2, 24, 34. Ibid. 53. Ibid. 54. Biology, 83. 55. Bhaga. Su. 33. 1. 844. 56. Ibid. 57. Ibid. 58. Ibid; 3. 1. 134; 11. 9. 417. 59. Ibid., 7, 8, 288. 60. lbid., 5. 3. 325, 61, Uttarā Su 36. 95. 62, Sūtra, II, 3, 55, 63, Uttară, Sü, 36, 137, 64, Ibid. 36. 128 65. Biology, P, 84. 66. Uttara, Sū. 36, 100 (sūk şmavanaspati) 67, Sevāla, Sütra, II, 3, 55, 68. Fungi may be identified with some of the subtile plant bacteria, growing on other objects; See Uttarā, Sū. 36. 92, Bhaga, Sū. 21. 7. 691; Hariyakāya, Uttarā Su. 36, 95, Uttara. Su. 36. 94. gumma, similar to guccha, e.g. Vrintaka-Soldnum but bring forth twigs or stems instead of stalks, e, g. Navamallkā Jasminum sambac, kanavira, etc, see S, B, E. XLV, P. 216. 71, Bhaga, Su, 21. 5. 691; 21. 6. 691: 23. 1. 693; 23. 4. 693, Uttară Su. 36. 94. Bhaga, Sü, 21, 5, 691; 21, 6, 691; 11, 9, 427; 12, 8, 459; 22, 4, 692 etc, Uttará Sū, 36, 94. (tana), 73, Bhaga. Su, 22. 2. 693; 22, 3, 692; 22. 4, 692; 23, 1, 693; 23. 3, 693; 23. 4. 693. 23, 5, 693. etc. Uttara Su 36. 94 (Rukkha) 74. Sutra II. 3. Bhaga, Sü. 7. 5. 282. Uttară, Su. 36. 71. Panna Sū. Tirikkhajoniya (Jivapannavanā), 61-91; p. 29. 75, Ibid. 76, Ibid. 77, Sutra, II, 3. 43; etc. Bhaga, Sū. 7. 3. 275. Uttară, Sü. 36. 92-99 ff, Panna, Sū. Vanaspatikāyajivapannāvana, 35--54. 5. Lokapra. I, 5th sarga, Vanaspati, 78. Sūtra. 11. 3. 43.; Lokapara 5. 107-108. Sūtra, II. 3. 36. 79. Lokapra. I, 5. 80; 83; 5. 33. Sūtra, II. 3, 43.; Panna Sū. Vanaşa patikayajivapanna vanā 54-84. Jivavicara 12; GommaS. 187. (Jivakānda); Bhaga. Sū. 7. 3. 275.6. Lokapra, 5 32. Sutra. II. 3. 43; Lokapra. 5. 75; 5. 32-33. 81. Sutra. II. 3. 46, "Rukkhesu mulattāe Kardattāe Khandhattāe tayattāe sălattāe pavālatrãe pattattāe pupphattāe phalattae biyattāe viuamti." 82. Bhaga. Su. 7. 3. 275-6; Sutra. II. 3. Lokapra. 5. 107-108. 83. Bhaga. Sū. 7. 3. 275-6. Satra. II. 3. 84. Uttarā. Sū. 36. 93–106. Paņpā. Su. Vanassa ikāya -Jivapannavanā. 72. 80. Page #57 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 16 88. 91. aga. Sú, 7. 3. 2"Vanassaikāyajivap6. 7. 246 85. Sūtra. 1. 7. Uttarā. Sū. 36-93 ft. Vanassikāya Jivapannāvanā, Bhaga. Su. 7. 3. 276. Gommata. (Jivakända), 189. 86. Gommaţa. Så. (Jivakända), 201 Ibid (Commentary) GommataSa. (Jivakānda). 193, Sevăla-aquatic plant Vallisneria. Sūtra, II. 3. 55. 89. Uttara, Sū. 36-93 ff. 90. Sūtra. II. 3. 43. Sūtra. II, 3. Acā. Sü. I. 1. 6. Bhaga. Sū, II. 9. 417; 12, 8, 459,; 21. 6. 691. Uttara. Sū. 36. 93 ff. Gommata. Sā, 86 (Jivakānda). 92. BhagaSu. 15. 1. 544 ; 6. 7. 246. 93. Lokapra, XX I. p. 361; 5. 74. 94. Sutra, II. 3; Lokapra. 5. 107-8, 95. Bhaga. Sū. 7. 3. 275. 96. Sūtra. II. 3 43; Lokapra 5. 75; p. 361. 97. Sūtra. II. 3, 43, etc. 98. Bhaga. Sū. 7. 3. 275-6; Sūtra. II. 3. Lokapra. I. 5. 107, 108. 99 Sūtra. II. 3. 100. Ibid. 101. Bhaga. Sü, 7. 3. 275. 102. See Uttarā. Sú 36-106, for all types of plants; Panna. Vanassaikāyajīvapannavanā, 103. Ibid. 104. Ibid. 105. Sūtra. 11. 3. 106. Ibid. 107. Bhaga. Sū. 6. 7. 246. 108. Uttara. Sü. 36. 108-127 etc. 109. Ibid. 36. 126. 110. Bhaga. Sū. 33. 1. 844 etc. Uttara. Sú:36. 155. Panna. Sū. Pañcendriyajivaprajñāpanā 59-147. 111. Uttarā. Sū. 36. 170. Jivābhi. Sū. 1. 33. 112. Bhaga, Sū.. 7. 5. 383. Jivābhi. Sü. 3. 1. 96. 113. Bhaga. Sū. 7. 5. 282. Uttarā, Sū. 36. 171. Jiväbhi. Su. 1. 34. 114. Uttară. Sū. 36. 179. Jivabhi., 1. 35. 115. Uttara. Su. 36. 181. Jivābhi. Su. 1. 35. 116. Bats (Carmapak şins). They should be placed under the head of Mammals. 117. Samudgapakişns (These birds are stated to live outside the Mānu şottara (a world inhabited not by men.) 118. Uttara. Sū. 187, Jivābhai. Sū. 1. 36. 119. Biology, p. 244. 120. Uttară, Sü, 36. 180. Jivābhi. Su., 1. 35. 121. Uttara. Sū. 36. 194. twin children born because of fission of egg are regarded as asexual reproduction in modern Biology. 122. Ācā. II. 4; Sutra. II. 2, Bhaga. Sū. 1. 7. 61; Tandula V. 2. lp. 6. 123. TandulaV. v. 2, p. 6. 124. Ibid. 2, p. 6. 125. Sūtra. II. 2. 126. Bhaga, Su. 1. 7. 61. Tandula V. pp. 8. 9. 127. Ibid. 128. Nava. Praka., p. 12. Jiyavicära, pp. 42. 43. 129. Sūtra., II. 3. Bhaga, Sū, 1. 7. 61; TandulaV; Lokapra. 3. 15-21. Nava. Praka., 130. Bhaga. Sū. 1. 7. 61; TandulaV., pp. 8-9. 131. Bhaga. Sü: 1. 7. 61. Tandula V. v. 2, p. 6. 132. TandulaV. 2, p. 6. 133. Ibid. 134. Ibid. 135. Tandulay. 3, p. 7. Bhaga. Sü: 16. 1. 466. 136Bhaga. Sū. 16. 1. 566. Tandula V. 3, p. 6. Panna, Sū, Indriyapada. 137. Bhaga. Su., 7. 5. 282. 138, Satra, II. 3. 139, Tandula V, 2, p. 6. 140. Bhaga. Sû. 1. 7. 62, Page #58 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ३. कुवलयमालाकहा में लोकतत्त्व डॉ० प्रेम सुमन जैन, उदयपुर प्राकृत साहित्य तर्कपूर्ण एवं विकसित चिन्तन का प्रचारक होते हुए भी जाने-अनजाने उन लोकतत्त्वों को भी स्वीकारता चलता है जो जैन-धर्म अथवा उसके महापुरुषों के जीवन की महिमा को प्रतिष्ठापित करते हैं। अनेक ऐसे जैनाचार्य हुए हैं, जिन्होंने संकट के समय मन्त्र, तन्त्र, योग एवं विभिन्न विद्याओं आदि का प्रयोग किया है। पिण्डनियुक्ति, वृहत्कल्पभाष्य, निशीथचूर्णि आदि प्राकृत टीका साहित्य में ऐसे कितने ही प्रसंगों का उल्लेख है, जो लोकमानस एवं लोकतत्त्वों से सम्बन्धित है । डा. जगदीशचन्द्र जैन ने लोकविश्वासों व रीति-रिवाजों के प्राकृत साहित्य से अनेक सन्दर्भ एकत्र किये हैं,' जिनका आधुनिक लोकसाहित्य विज्ञान के आधार पर अध्ययन किया जाना आवश्यक है । जैनागम टीका साहित्य में लोकतत्त्वों की प्रचुरता से एक बात स्पष्ट होती है कि इस समय तक प्राकृत साहित्य लोकजीवन से अधिक सम्बद्ध था तथा शिष्ट साहित्य की प्रवृत्तियाँ उस पर हावी नहीं हुई थीं। किन्तु आगे चलकर इस स्थिति में क्रमशः परिवर्तन दृष्टिगोचर होते हैं । समस्त प्राकृत साहित्य की लोकतात्त्विक प्रवृत्तियों का विश्लेषण कर पाना यहाँ कठिन है। अतः कुवलयमालाकहा के कथानक को लेकर ही इस सम्बन्ध में कुछ प जा सकता है । उद्योतनसूरि ने इस कथा को हर दृष्टि से सशक्त बनाने का प्रयत्न किया है। इस ग्रन्थ की अपनी अलग सांस्कृतिक उपयोगिता है । लोकतत्त्व की दृष्टि से इ दो प्रकार के तत्त्वों को खोजा जा सकता है--एक वे, जिनका खण्डन किया गया है और दूसरे वे, जो जाने-अनजाने कथाकार द्वारा स्वीकार किये गये हैं। तथा जिनको स्वीकृति इस युग के अन्य प्राकृत कथाकारों के द्वारा भी मिली है। कुवलयमाला में चण्डसोम, मानभट आदि की जो कथाएँ हैं उन पाँचों में पाप कार्यों के प्रायश्चित के लिये लोकविश्वास के आधार पर प्रभास आदि तीर्थों की वन्दना, वटवृक्षपूजन तथा गंगास्नान के लिए प्रमुख पात्र प्रवृत्त होते हैं । किन्तु उद्योतनसूरि ने धर्माचार्य धर्मनन्दन द्वारा इन सब धार्मिक विश्वासों का खण्डन करा दिया है । आचार्य का कथन है पाप मन वाले आत्मा को बाह्य जल से धोना उसी प्रकार निरर्थक है जिस प्रकार कुम्हार की स्त्री के प्रसूता होने पर लुहार की स्त्रो द्वारा घी पीना । यदि अङ्गप्रक्षालनमात्र से आत्मा पवित्र हो सकती तो गंगा के जल में रहने वाले मगर, मत्स्य, केवट आदि सर्वप्रथम स्वर्ग चले जाते । तथा ___ यदि यह माना जाय कि मन की पवित्रता के कारण तीर्थजल प्रभावक होता है तो दूर दक्षिण देश के लोग इतनी दूर गंगा में स्नान करने न जाते । चिंतन करके ही स्वर्ग चले जाते। Page #59 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ अतः तीर्थवन्दना और गंगास्नान से आत्मा को पवित्र करने की विचारणा विद्वान लोगों की नहीं है, अपितु मूढ लोगों में परम्परा से यह विश्वास प्रचलित हो गया है जुत्ति-वियारण-जोग्गं तम्हा एयं ण होइ विबुहाण । मूढ-जण-वयण-वित्थर-परम्पराए गयं सिद्धी ॥-कुव० ४९.४ इस परम्परागत विश्वास के कारण ही अज्ञानी जनता लोक में भ्रमण करती रहती है।' इस प्रकार की विचारधारा प्रायः सभी जैन रचनाओं में व्याप्त है। आचार्य हरिभद्र ने भी समराइच्चकहा में नरबलि एवं हिंसक धार्मिक अनुष्ठानों की निस्सारता प्रतिपादित की है। छठे भव में नायक जब स्वयं देवी के समक्ष बलि देने प्रस्तुत हो जाता है तो देवी प्रगट होकर हिंसक बलि लेने से इंकार कर देती है । और भी ऐसे निषेधात्मक प्रसंग इस युग के प्राकृत साहित्य में खोजे जा सकते हैं । लोकतात्त्विक दृष्टि से विचार करने पर तत्कालीन समाज में इस प्रकार के धार्मिक विश्वासों के अस्तित्व का पता चलता है, जो उस आदिम लोक-मानस का प्रतिनिधित्व करते हैं जिसमें मूल प्रवृत्ति-भय के कारण इन धार्मिक अनुष्ठानों का जन्म हुआ था । लोकतत्त्वों के निर्माण में धार्मिक विश्वासों का महत्वपूर्ण योग रहो है। किन्तु जैन चिन्तकों का धर्म किसी भय अथवा अज्ञान पर आधारित नहीं है। शुद्ध तत्त्वज्ञान एवं तार्किक ढङ्ग से विकसित हुआ है। अतः जैन धर्म सम्बन्धो साहित्य में क्रमशः धार्मिक अनुष्ठानों से सम्बन्धित लोकतत्त्वों को कम स्वीकृति मिली है यद्यपि भारतीय समाज के अङ्ग होने के कारण प्राकृत कथाकार तथा जैन श्रावक इनसे सर्वथा मुक्त नहीं हो सके हैं। कुवलयमालाकहा के प्रमुख कथानक में २७ अवान्तर कथाएँ हैं। उनमें से अधिकांश में लोककथाके तत्त्व उपलब्ध हैं, जो स्वाभाविक हैं। विशेष बात यह दृष्टिगोचर होती है कि इन कथाओं के माध्यम से आदिम लोकमानस का स्वरूप भी उभर कर सामने आता है। उसकी अभिव्यक्ति इन चार प्रकार के लोकतत्त्वों द्वारा होतो है :--- १ टोना विचारणा-लोकमानस जब किसी कारण द्वारा कोई कार्य होता हुआ अनुभव करता है तो उसकी एक धारणा बन जाती है कि ऐसा होने पर ऐसा होता है । माता द्वारा देखे गये स्वप्नों के आधार पर बालक के भविष्य का अनुमान लगाना इसी प्रकार का लोकविश्वास है । यद्यपि इसे स्वप्नविज्ञान के रूप में जाना जाता रहा है। उद्योतनसूरि एवं हरिभद्रसूरि ने अपनी कथाओं में माता के स्वप्नों की पूर्ण व्याख्या की है । टोनाविचारणा के अन्तर्गत रहस्य, कौतूहल, अप्राकृतिक, अतिप्राकृतिक, अद्भुत आदि तत्व स्वीकार किये जा सकते हैं । कुवलयमाला में इस प्रकार के निम्न लोकतत्त्व उपलब्ध होते हैं : १-कुवलयचन्द्र के घोडे का आकाश में उड़ जाना, २-राक्षस द्वारा लोभदेव का जहाज समुद्र में डूबा देना, ३-मोहदत्त को दिव्यध्वनि द्वारा आगाह करना और Page #60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 19 ४- वज्रगुप्त द्वारा वैताल को साधना करना, दिव्य अस्त्र-शस्त्रों का प्रयोग करनां इत्यादि । 10 समराइच्चकहा इस प्रकार के लोकतत्त्वों से भरी पड़ी है । लीलावईकहा में भी चित्रांगद को शाप देकर राक्षस बनाना, पुनः राजकुमार बनजाना, अनेक सिद्धियों का चमत्कार दिखाना आदि इस कोटि के लोकतत्त्व उपलब्ध हैं । २. -- प्राकल्पना-आदिम लोकमानस यथार्थ और कल्पना में प्रायः भेद नहीं कर पाता था । इस कारण वह स्वप्नजगत् को भी सत्य मानकर चलता था । शरीर और छाया को एक मानता था तथा मृतक को भी जीवित जैसा मानकर आचरण करता था । ये विश्वास आलोच्य युग में भी व्याप्त थे । कुवलयमाला में सुन्दरी को कथा द्वारा इस लोकतत्त्व का प्रतिनिधित्व हुआ है, जिसमें वह अपने मृत पति के साथ वैसा ही आचरण करती रहती है, जैसा वह उसकी जीवित अवस्था में उसके साथ करती थी" । यद्यपि कथा का दूसरा पक्ष राजकुमार अनंग का आचरण इस लोकविश्वास का युक्तिपूर्वक खण्डन भी करता है । इस प्रकार के आचरण को मोह कहकर उसके द्वारा संसार से विरक्ति उत्पन्न करवायी गयी है ।. 1 ३- अनुष्ठानिक विचारणा- कुवलयमालाकहा में इस लोकतत्त्व से सम्बन्धित अनेक प्रसंग प्राप्त होते हैं । कथा के प्रारम्भ में ही राजा-रानी द्वारा पुत्रप्राप्ति की विभिन्न प्रकार की मनौतियाँ मनायी जाती हैं। राजा दृढवर्मा देवी के समक्ष अपना सिर काटकर अर्पित करने के लिए भी तैयार हो जाते हैं । तभी देवी प्रगट होकर उन्हें सन्तानलाभ का वरदान देती है । सन्तान प्राप्ति के लिए संभोग क्रिया को ही पर्याप्त कारण स्वीकार न करना लोकमानस की प्रमुख प्रवृत्ति रही है । विशेष विधि के अनुष्ठान से अभीष्ट की सिद्धि होगी -- यह विश्वास अनेक लोकतत्त्वों के रूप में प्रगट हुआ है । स्वर्ग-नरक में विश्वास, शकुन-अपशकुन का विचार तथा कर्मसिद्धान्त का प्रतिपादन इनमें प्रमुख हैं । उद्योतनसूरि ने इन सब पर विस्तार से अपने विचार प्रगट किये हैं । लोभदेव समुद्र को देवता मानकर पूजता है, सागरदत्त जमीन से धन निकालते समय वृक्ष है । इतना ही नहीं आचार्य यह भी बतलाते हैं कि कौन-सा कार्य करने से व्यक्ति किस स्वर्ग जायेगा तथा किस नरक में । उसका शरीर कैसा होगा, सुख और दुःख की अनुभूति कितनी होगी इत्यादि अनेक कारण-कार्य के विधान इस ग्रन्थ में हैं, जो आनुष्ठानिक विचारणा नामक लोकतत्त्व का प्रभाव कहा जा सकता है । की पूजा करता वास्तव में जैनदर्शन भले ज्ञान-मीमांसा पर विकसित हुआ हो, तत्त्वज्ञान में वह वैज्ञानिक भी हो, किन्तु कर्मसिद्धान्त के प्रतिपादन में वह लोक - मानस से जुड़ा है । अन्तर इतना है कि सामान्यतया लोक में धार्मिक अनुष्ठानों द्वारा फल की प्राप्ति आराध्य की कृपा पर निर्भर मान ली जाती हैं, जबकि जैनधर्म के अनुष्ठान व्यक्तिसापेक्ष हैं । व्यक्ति का प्रयत्न प्रत्येक कार्य के लिए एक ठोस कारण है । फिर भी दिव्य, अतिमानवीय एवं अतिप्राकृतिक शक्तियों का सहयोग प्राकृत साहित्य की कथाओं में अवश्य स्वीकारा गया है । ४ - आत्मशीलता- - आदिम लोक-मानस समस्त सृष्टि को अपने सदृश स्वीकारता था । जड़ पदार्थों में भी वह आत्मा का अस्तित्त्व मानकर उन्हें अपने कार्यों में सहयोगी Page #61 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 20 मानता था । इस लोकतत्त्व के कारण ही लोककथाओं में वृक्ष, पहाड़, नदी, पशु-पक्षी सबं समान रूप से मानवों की तरह कार्य करते हुए पाये जाते हैं, पत्थर एवं काष्ठ की प्रतिमाओं में विभिन्न देवताओं की प्राणप्रतिष्ठा इसी प्रवृत्ति का परिणाम है । कुवलयमाला में भी चंडसोम आदि पांचों व्यक्ति अपनी-अपनी स्वर्णप्रतिमा का निर्माण इसलिए करते हैं ताकि अगले जन्म में भी वे एक-दूसरे को प्रतिबोध दे सकें। ग्रन्थ की स्वयम्भूदेव की कथा में भी पक्षियों का व्यवहार एक मानवीय संयुक्त परिवार के जीवन सदृश प्रस्तुत किया गया है । संभवतः पृथ्वी, जल, अग्नि, वायु एवं वनस्पति जैसे प्राकृतिक एवं सामान्यतया जड़ माने जाने वाले पदार्थों में जैन दर्शन द्वारा चेतनता स्वीकार करना आदिम लोक-मानस की प्रवृत्ति का ही परिणाम हो । जिसे आज विज्ञान ने भी स्वीकृति दे दी है। इस प्रवृत्ति के कारण जैन धर्म उतना ही प्राचीन कहा जा सकता है, जितना आदिम लोकमानस । इस प्रकार न केवल कुवलयमालाकहा, अपितु प्राकृत अपभ्रंश जैसी लोक भाषाओं में निबद्ध जैन धर्म की अनेक रचनाएँ लोकतात्त्विक दृष्टि से अध्ययन करने योग्य हैं। लोक संस्कृति के विभिन्न उपकरणों-भाषा, विश्वास, जीवन-पद्धति, मुक्तचिन्तन आदि को आत्मसात् करने के कारण प्राकृत साहित्य लोकसाहित्य की कोटि में रखा जा सकता है, भले ही उसके रचयिताओं के द्वारा कोई विशिष्ट उद्देश्य इसके द्वारा पूरा होता रहा हो। पादटीप १. जैन आगम साहित्य में भारतीय समाज- पृ. ३३९-३६० २. इण्ट्रोडक्शन टू कुवलयमाला-डॉ० ए०एन० उपाध्ये तथा कुवलयमालाकहा का सांस्कृतिक अध्ययन-ले० का शोध-प्रबन्ध ३. जह अप्पा पाव-मगो बाहिंजल-धोवणेण किं तस्स । जं कुंभारी सूया लोहारी किं घयं पियउ || -वही, ४८.२७ ४. जह अंग-संगमेणं ता एए मयर-मच्छ-चक्काई । केवट्टिय-मच्छंधा पढम सग्गं गया णंता ॥-वही, ४८.३२ ५. महव परिचिंतियं चिय कीस इमो दूर-दक्खिणो लोओ । आगच्छइ जेण ण चितिऊण सग्गं समारुहइ ॥-वही, ४९.१ ६. गरवर ण-याणइ च्चिय एस वगओ इमं पि मूढ-मणो । जं मूढ-वयण-वित्थर-परंपराए भमइ लोयं ।।-वही, ५५. २५ ७. हर्बर्ट स्पेन्सर, हयूगोएलार्ड मेचेर. प्रो. रिजवे, लेंग, फ्रेजर, कोथ आदि के सिद्धान्त । ---दृष्टव्य-लोक साहित्य विज्ञान, पृ-६०-६४ । ८. कुवलयमाला को अवान्तर कथाओं का लोकतात्त्विक अध्ययन, लेखक का निबन्ध-सत्येन्द्र अभिनन्दन ग्रन्थ । ९. कुव० परि० ४१; समरा० प्रथम भव को कथा । १०. हरिभद्र के प्रकृत कथासाहित्य का आलोचनात्मक परिशीलन डा० नेमिचन्द्र शास्त्री - पृ० २४४-२८६ ११. कुवलयमाला में मणिरथकुमार की कथा । Page #62 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 4. A Note on Lord Mahavīra's Clan. D. D. Malvania, Ahmedabad. In Pali texts Nigantha Natha putta (or Nataputta) and in Sanskrit Buddhist texts Nirgrantha (Nigrantha Jñati putra (Jnāta putra) is used for Lord Mahāvsra (see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary ). In Jaidāgama texts also we have Naya putta, Nayasuya, Naya putta, Mabāvira etc. According to the comm. of Samyuttanikāya 'Nata' was the name of his father but Malalasekera says that Nata is the name of the clan, and most of the Jaina texts and commentators are unanimous in saying that Nata is the clan of the Kşatriyas. Recently Mupi Nathmalji has opined that the Prakrit word Nāya or Nata should be sanskritized as Naga. He may be correct to a certain extant as far as Prakrit word is concerned but when we see the word Nata or Natha used in Pāli, there remains no possibility of sanskrtizing it as Naga. Still we can keep this question of sanskritizing the word Naya open and find out some solution. In Ācārānga II we find «Nāyānam khattiyānam (116) which shows that Nayas, were Kșatriyas. This is corroborated by Kalpasūtra (20) also. But in Ācāranga I which is the earliest text of the Jaina Canon Lord Mahāvıra is called 'Mahana' not once but four times at the end of all the four sub-sections of the ch. IX wherein ascetic practices of the Lord are described-qh Fact Sujetra ATEŪTOT HATI This statement may be right if we see the story in Bhagavatisātra (9. 33. 380) where the Lord says, daruici HEUTT AF 3FFAMTT I STEP daruदाए माहणीए अत्तए ।' Will it not be proper if we say that only after the introduction of the story of interchange of embryo the Lord was known as Ksatriya ? It can be assumed also that in order to validate the change of embryo this story in Bhagavati is inserted but that possibility is not there because in that case the question of relation of Trisalā should arise which is not there. Here we may mention the other possibility also. The Buddha and the Mabāvira-both of them have propagated that only the right type of a Bhikṣu can be called a Brāhmin or Mahaņa. In this sense the Lord may have been called a Mahaņa. Page #63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Now let us see what information we get from the Jaina literature about the clan of the Lord and the Naya kula. It is certain that amongst the Vedic this Naya kula was not well known. Hence we find its mention very rare in the Vedic Purānas.2 And it is surprising to note that even in Jaina literature the Nayavamsa is given the prominent place in later times. An attempt is made to relate it with the famous Ikşväkuvamsa or to separate it from the same. This shows that the authors were not certain about the real position of the clan Naya, There are two clear traditions regarding the prominent Vañías. One is represented by Jaina Canonical literature and its Niryukti etc. and other is of the Jaina Purāņas. This will be clear from the following table. Āyaśyaka Niryukti. (193) Ugga Bhoga Raiņna Khattiya + These constituted the retinue of Rsabha. Višeşāvasyaka. (1610, 1829), „ X Naya, * Harivamsa. * * * * Koraya . i : : : :: Bhada Bhagavati. (20.8) (9. 33) Sthânānga. (497) Prajiāpana (104) Kal pasūtra (17) Bịhatkalpa* (3265) : * * : Ikkhāga : : : : : : Rakkhasa ** : . : : . Ikkhāga :* : Soma Paumacariya5 Vijjahara Vanara . Harivaṁsa In the Avaśyakaniryukti it is said that Ikkhäga Varsa began with Rsabha (181). So after Niryukti we find it mentioned as an important Vamsa in Jaina literature but question is-if it is a seperate Vaṁsa, what is the relation between it and the Nayakula ? The authors are not unanimous about the answer. In Bhagavatı etc. and even in Visesavaśyaka as we have seen two are separately mentioned. But Umāswati and other commentators like Abhayadeva (zlato 153) are of the opinion that Naya is a branch of the Ikkhāga : Umāsvāti says? :-Gat all fa c ta: Jaar 4-7f78183 The comm. on this is-fra ATA TESTET: Taft fatisgara:' It should be noted here that even fast gooria (4.550) mentions Naha Varsa quite different from Ikkhāgakula. It speaks of these Vamsas : Kuru, Nāba, Ugga, Page #64 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Yadava and Ikkhāku. Avaśyakacurņi explains the Nata as 'a: उसभसामिस्स सयणिज्जगा ते गातवंसा' - p. 245. Here we can see an attempt to relate the Naya kula with Rsabha. It will be interesting to note the meaning given to Ugga etc. by the Avaśyakaniryukti-Uggas were arakkhi-guards, Bhogas guru-preceptors, Raiņņas were Vayamsa-friends and the rest were Khattiyas (193). So the Ava. cu. follows the Ava. N, when it includes relatives of Rsabha in the Nayas. not Commentator Abhayadeva also follows him when he says ज्ञाताः इक्ष्वाकुdafaar: (Comm. on Nāyādhammakaḥā, p. 153.) Jinasena does mention Naya or Jñata but mentions Siddhartha, the father of Lord Mahavira as belonging to the Ikṣvākus (Harivamsapuraṇa, 2. 4. 13.), so also is done by the author of Cauppannamahāpurisacariya (p. 271). 23 Observation of the above given table shows that Harivamsa was included in the list of the prominent Vamsas for the first time by Kalpsutra and it is quite clear that after the inclusion of Kṛṣṇa story in the Jaina Canonical literature it was necessary to include the Harivamsa in the list. The Jaina puranas have it from the beginning. One more striking fact is to be noted that the Rainna and the Khattiyas are removed from the list and the other ones are included. This also is a deliberate attempt to follow the Vedic North Indian tradition instead of the tradition which was followed by the people of the Bihar-East India, as such practice is not seen in the older Jaina text where we find Suyagada 1 13. 10 Here we see that the mahana and Khattiya are seperately mentioned differentiating them from Ugga and Lecchat. Same tradition is followed by Ava. Ni, having a minor change, but not giving the place of reputation to the Vedic Puranic Vamsas. 1. Anusandhāna Patrikā 1. 1. २. प्राचीन चरित्रकोष (हिन्दी) पृ० "जे माहणे खत्तिय जायए वा तहुग्गपुत्ते तह लेच्छई वा । जे पवईए परदत्तभोई गोत्ते न जे थब्भइ माणबद्धे || 5. 6. २३६. 3. Uvaväia also has this list. see Bhagavati 9.33. 382. In the concerned gathã number six is given so 4. References the comm, Koravva as one. Dr. Chandra A Critical study of Paumacariyam, pp. 199, 226. See also Vasudevahindi, p 161 Cauppannamahāpurisacariya p. 37 and Ava. Cu, p. 152. But according to Paumacariya Rṣabha etc. are of Ikkhāgakula. (94, 8) and the same says that Ikkhagakula originated with the son of Bharata (5, 9). 7. Can the word 'a' be taken to mean famous ? counts Naya and Page #65 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 5. Suddayacariya, a Lost Romantic Tale in Apabhramśa Dr. H. C. Bhayani, Ahmedadad. Vira, an Apabhramsa poet of Malwa, enumerates in his Jambūsamicariya (completed in 1020 A. D.) the following four works of his father, poet Devadatta:1 Varāmga-cariya (in Paddhadt metre) Suddaya-Vira-kaha Santiņāha-caccari Aħbadevi-rasaya None of these works has been recovered so far. Most probably all the four were in Apabhramśa. The themes of these works, except that of the second one, are well-known in the Jain literary tradition. We know of nume. rous works in Prakrit, Apabhramsa, Sanskrit and Old Gujarati (either in any one of these or in several languages) pertaining to the lives of Varāmga, śāntinātha and Ambādevi. But Suddaya-Vira-kaha is obscure. Samdesarāsaka of Abdala Rahamana (composed probably in the thirtteenth century), while describing the city of Mulasthāna (i. e present-day Multan in the Eastern Punjab), refers to the public recitation of the epics, epic tales and popular tales along with performances of dance and opera. Along with Bhārata, Rāmāyaṇa and Nalacarita, we find there mentions of Sudavaccha, which is explained in the Sanskrit Tippanaka on the Samdesarāsaka as Sudayavaccha-katha "the tale of Sudayavaccha.' In the Index to the Sandeśarāsaka I had suggested that this tale of Sudaya. vaccha was the same as the popular tale of Sadevamta and Sāvalimgā wellknown in the oral tradition and early literature of Gujarat and Rajasthan. The Saṁdeśarāsaka reference establisbes its currency in the Punjab region. Further, Padumāvata of Jāyasi (17th century) refers to a tale of Sadaivaccha and Mugudhavati. If this tale was the same as for a version of) the Sudavaccha, its currency in other regions also is indicated. Another reference to the tale of Suddaya or Sudavaccha sheds some light on the general character of that tale. In the Apabhramsa poem Sudamsanacariya completed in 1044 A. D., Nayanandin extols the biography of Sudarśana in the following terms:4 रामो सीय-विओय-सोय-विहरं संपत्त रामायणे जादा पंडव धायरट्ठ सददं गोतंकली भारहे । डेडाकोडिय-चोर-रज्ज-णिरदा आहासिदा सुद्दए णो एक्कं पि सुदंसणस्स चरिदे दोस समुब्भासिदं ।। Page #66 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ The text of the third line here seems to be corrupt in few places, but the general meaning is quite clear. The poet says: The Rāmāyaṇa story is not enjoyable because of the sufferings of Sita due to separation. The Bharata story is marred by the constant family feud of the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The tale of Suddaya teems with incidents involving gambling dens, Kolis, robbers, police guards and similar low characters. As against these narratives the life-story of Sudamsaṇa cannot be alleged to have a single fault. Like the author of the Samdeśarāsaka, Nayanandin also bears witness to Suddayacariya being one of the most popular fales, comparable with "The Rāmāyaṇa and the Mahabharata'. It seems to have been a tale of adventures full of popular characters and interesting incidents. Nayanandin's allusion is amply born out by some later versions of the Suddayakaha preserved in Old Gujarati. Further the references by Vira and Nayanadin point to the great popularity of this tale in the Malwa region in the tenth and eleventh century. This is self-explanatory in view of the fact that the hero is a prince of Ujjayinī. Sadayavatsa-Vira-Prabandha of Bhima in Old Gujarati was composed c. 1400 A D. Regarding the extent of the text there is considerable variation among the manuscripts. Roughly the work has round about seven hundred verses. The work in mostly composed in the Caupai and Duba metres, but numerous other metres also are used for variation, etc. Besides there are some thirtyfour Gathas in Prakrit. It is obvious that at least some of these Gathas were borrowed from some early Prakrit version of the tale, as mostly they repeat in short what is said in the Gujarati verses. 6 preceding Old The tale narrates the loves and adventures of Sudavaccha, who was a Prince of Ujjayini and son-in-low of Salivahana, the ruler of Pratiṣṭhāna. Rescuing a woman from a mast elephant, machinations of a minister, exile, wandering in strange countries, princesses pining for the heroes, omens and portents, helpful robbers, godesses, hunchbacks, courtesans, battles, wrestlers, goblins, witches, cemeteries, deserted cities and all the rest of the hot romantic stuff, and numerous well-known motifs fill up the tale. There is also a Sanskrit version of the tale in prose and verse prepared by Harṣavardhana in 1471. But it is just a recast of Bhima's Old Gujarati work. Later on the tale of Saday-Vatsa and Sävalimga underwent such development and alteration as to become altogether a different tale. This new version of the tale is represented in the Sadayavaccha-Savalinga Caupar of Kesava Muni alias Kirtivardhana, which was completed in 1623 A D. 4 Page #67 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 26 Another such work of unknown authorship and date, but linguistically assignable to the seventeenth century is called Sadayayaccha-SāvalimgiPanigrahana Caupar. Both these works have been given in the appendix by Manjulal Majmudar in his edition of Bhima's poem. Agarchand Nahta has given us a survey? of different early and late versions of the tale current in Rajasthan and Gujarat. Lastly, there is one more reference to the tale of Suddaya, once again from an Apabbraṁsa poet. And if this tale is the same as the one we are considering here then the date of the earliest literary composition about the adventures of Suddaya can be shifted back by a century. The reference concerns the great Apabhram a poet Svayambhūdeva, the author of the epics Paumacariya and the Righanemicariya. In the latter work, which has not been published so far, we find the following verse, which expresses exhaustion on the part of the poet after continuous life-long literary activity.8 काऊण पोमचरियं सुद्दयचरिय च गुण-गणग्घवियं । e-HE-ETOT Aš ginag-all The poet here says that after having composed the Paumacariya and the Suddayacariya full of literary merits, my Sarasvati (literary powers) seems to have become exhausted in the present task of clearing delusions regarding the Harivamsa narrative. Here it is quite likely that Svayambhu's Suddayacari ya was a poem dealing with the tale of Suddayavira. Of course we cannot be definite about this as Pk. Ap. suddaya stands also for Sk. Śūdraka and we have references to several Śūdraha-kothas composed in Prakrit ard Aratharisa10. But it should te rcted that Siajambtü bas composed works on Ramāyaṇa and Mahabhārata and his third work Suddayacariya might have handled the popular tale of Suddaya. We have already taken note of two Apabhramsa poets, Nayanandin and Abdala Rahamāņa, talking about the Rāmāyaṇa, the Mahabhārata and the Suddaya tale in the same breath. Let us hope that we may recover some day the old Prakrit and Apabhramsa works on this highly romantic tale of Sudayavatsa. References 1. Jambūsāmicaria of Virakavi edited by V. P. Jain, 1968, Samdhi 1, Kadavaka 4, also Introduction, pp. 11, 14. Hence Kochad (Apabhramsa-sahitya, 1956, p. 148) has missed it. Paramanand Jain Shastri (Jain-Grantha-Prasasti-Sangraha, Part-2. 1963, Introduction p. 59, text p. 6, Index, p. 165) has misunderstood it as Vira-kahā. V. P. Jain has either simply mentioned it (loc., cit., Index, P. 386) without any comment or has rendered it incorrectly and with a query as 'Suddhayavira-Kathā ?'. Page #68 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 27 3. Samdesurāsuka, edited by Jinavijaya Muni and H. C. Bhayani, 1946, verses 43–44. 4. Sudamsanacariya of Nayanandin, edited by Hiralal Jain. 1970, Sāmdhi 2, verse 2 in the opening. In place of the readings dedakodiya and suddhae in the cited verse, I would prefer iemākoliya, suddae. The Tippaņa has some different readings and has misunderstood a few words. The gloss on suddae, viz. vacchasudaye śāstre is somewhat confused. It should be sudayavacche and it was not a śāstra. Jain wrongly thought that the name of the work was Suddhaya. Paramanand Jain Shastri too has failed to make out the name and has vaguely rendered suddaya as loka śāstra 'secular treatises.' See op. cit. Introduction, p. 48. 5. Suda yavatsa-vira-prabandha edited by Manjulal Majmudar, 1964. 6. It may be also noted in this connection that the Gāthās at vv. 180 and 181 are the same as Vajjālagga 54 and 51 respectively with a few variants, 7. Sadayavatsa-sā valimgāki prem-kathā', Rajasthāna-bhārati, 3, 1. See also H. C. Bhayani, Anusamdhan, 1972, pp. 241-243. 8. Paumacariya of Svayambhu edited by H. C. Bhayani, Part-I 1952, Introduction, pp. 28, 43-45. 125 (v. 65).. 9. The poet expired sometime after he wrote this. The remaining portion of the epic was completed by his son Tribhuvana. See Paumacariya, Part-I, Introduction pp. 44-45. 10. V. Raghavan, Bhoja's Singaraprakasa, 1963 pp 624, 819, 820. H. C. Bhayani, ‘About the Language of the Sudrakakathā,' Journal of the Oriental Institute, XVIII, 1969, p. 316. Page #69 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 6. The Jataka Literature in Pāli and its Socio-ethical Importance N, H. Samtani, Banaras The Jalaka' or former birth-stories of the Buddha, included in the Khuddaka nikāya in Pāli Canon are important not only from the literary point of view but also they constitute a great contribution towards the social and moral advancement of mankiad. Although they became important vehicles of Bhddhist teachings, they are mostly secular in origin and teach human values in the most splendid manner. There are about 550 birth-stories of the previous existences of Buddha. Jataka book, however, of the Pali Canon contains only verses. It is the Jataka Commentary which gives these 550 stories in details. Some birthstories of the Buddha are scattered throughout the Nikāyas of the Suttapitaka. In them the Buddha (or Bodhisattva as he is called before becoming Buddha) is depicted not as a bird or animal as in the tales of Jātakacommentary but as a famous sage or teacher of old time. All the Jātakas, canonical and non-canonical, represent generally Bodhisattva preparing himself for the attainment of Buddhahood by the practice of certain definite virtues afterwards called 'Pāramitas, or Perfections'. Generally each birth-story designed to illustrate Bodhisattva's practices of particular perfection. In a Jataka story the Bodhisattva is the main figure. Generally he is a hero of the story and does some good deed, but even if he is a secondary character he impresses by some virtuous action. Buddhists made full use of the art of story-telling. As Winternitz points out: “One had only to make a Bodhisatta out of some human, animal or divine being which occurred in the story, and any story, however worldly and however far removed from the sphere of Buddhist thought, could become a Buddhist story”. He further adds: “Now the Buddhist monks would not have been true Indians if they have not taken into account the need, so deeply rooted in the soul of Indian people, of hearing and relating stories and if they had not utilised this need to gain followers for their religion. In fact not only the Buddhist monks but the preachers of all sects in India, have always done what the Christian monks of the west did centuries later."'1 Page #70 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 29 It is also interesting to note that some orthodox monks in the earlier period of Buddhism do not seem to have been greatly in favour of this story-telling for many passages of the canon, do not approve of the loud conversation of the monks, who tell stories of kings, robbers, ministers, arms, wars, women, spirits, sea-faring adventure. Actually all this storytelling business is called 'frivolous talk' (sambhinna-pralāpa)?. It is difficult to say that Jatakas give us a full picture of earlier narrative literature and the conditions of civilization at the time of Buddha. It may be true in only limited sense for some of the sayings and legends may indeed belong to Buddhist and pre-Buddhist period. For greater mass of verses and legends, no greater antiquity than the 3rd century B, C. can conscienciously be urged, and as Winternitz puts it-“much of the prose assuredly belongs to the Christian era.3" Jātakas contain fables, many of which like other Indian fables in general aim at teaching niti or worldly wisdom. Only a few of them have the moral tendency as evinced in the ascetic poetry and only few of them are genuinely Buddhist. Attempt at Buddhistisation is found in few of them. There are moral narratives, pious legends, all of which are partly Buddhist in origin and many of them belong to common property of Indian asce. tic poetry. Winternitz is of the opinion that far more than one half of all the Jätakas, if we omit the Commentary, is not of the Buddhist origin, 4 It may be noted that Buddhist monks were recruited from all classes, hence there were many among them who were quite familiar with the popular tales and anecdotes of the workers, artisans and especially merchants, others who knew well the old ballads and heroic songs of the warriors and yet others, who had often heard the sacred legends and myths of the Brahmins and forest hermits,5 When they became monks they endeavoured as far as possible to connect the memories with the monkish and purely religious tradition. And this element has made these Jalakas more important. Directly and indirectly the Jātakas have also enriched the literature of many other people, and have therefore been of immense importance in universal literature. Some scholars are of the opinion that the entire fairy tale literature of the world is of Buddhist origin. This may not be true but largely, the Brahmins, Jains and other sects might have contributed to Indian narrative literature, Buddhism, however, pushed forward far beyond the borders of India and became a world religion, thus spreading and diffusing Indian civilization and literature far and wide in the coun. tries of the East and West. It has rightly been suggested that Jatakas are of inestimable value, not only as regards literature and art, but also from the point of view of the history of civilization. Though they cannot serve as documents for Page #71 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 30 the social conditions at the time of the Buddha, but at the most, for the period of 3rd century B.C., and for the greater part, especially in their prose, only for the fifth or sixth century A.D.; yet so much has remained uochanged in India throughout the centuries, that the picture of civilization in the Jatakos may nevertheless be regarded as very "ancient.” In any case, the narratives of Jataka book afford us a glimpse into the life of all classes of the Indian people, of which other books of Indian literature rarely give us information.? Jatakas (to which 'avadānas' can also be added) are the basic scriptures of Bodhisattva ideal because instead of merely arousing our interest with a dissertation on Bodhisattva doctrine they inspire us, by showing, with shattering simplicity and truth, how the Bodhisattva actually lives, how, not in one life only but through hundreds of lives, he sweats and suffers for the ultimate good of sentient beings.8 “Jātakas are the divine songs of the Bodhisattva ideal” as Lama Anagarika Govinda put it, and it is a song in form which speaks directly to the human heart and which, therefore, is not only understandable to the wise but even to the simplest mind.” And we find, upto the present day, Jätakas have not lost their human appeal and continue to exert a deep influence upon the religious life in all Buddhist countries. In Ceylon, Burma, Siam and Cambodia crowds of people listen with rapt attention for hours when Bhikkhus during the full moon nights recite the stories of the Buddha's former lives and even in Tibet as the Lama reports tears come to the eyes of sturdy caravan men, when sitting around the camp fire, the Bodhisattva's suffering and sacrifice are told. For these people. Jātakas are not literature or 'folklore' but something that happens in their very presence and profoundly affects their life 10 Bhikshu Sangharakshita remarks: “One must read Jalakas, if one wants to be moved, as one reads poetry, that is to say with a willing suspension of disbelief' on whatever one, on mere intellectual grounds, is unable to accept. The beauty of Milton's “Paradise” moves us regardless of whether we accept or do not accep: the Biblical account of creation. 11 In the Vessantara-Jataka, one of the best known and most widely appreciated of all stories of Buddha's former births, Prince Vessantara in fulfilment of his vow to give whatever he is asked to give, not only surrenders his ancestral kingdom but even his own wite and children. Here the question may be asked whether Vessantara had the right to dispose his wife and childeren in this manner. The question is irrelavant. The purpose of this Jataka is not to assert that a man's family is a species of movable property, to be given or sold at will, its purpose is to show that absolute non-atiachment to worldly things is an integral part of Bodhisattva ideal.12 Page #72 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 31 In another Jātaka the Bodhisattva sacrifices his body for the sake of starving tigress13 who is unable to nourish her young. Human life is not less valuable than animal life but the Jātaka inculcates absolute selfabnegation, To the modern man such a story may appear unreasonable and exaggerated because he judges from purely intellectual, i. e. external point of view, according to which the sacrifice appears to be out of proportion to its cause. The preservation-or rather prolongation-of the life of some wild beasts does not seem to be worth the sacrifice of a human life. The Buddhist, however, sees this story in quite a different light. To him it is not the factuai or objetive reality that matters, but the motive, the power of compassion, which caused the Bodhisattva to act in this way, irrespective of external consequences. The spiritual and symbolical meaning of the deed goes far beyond the frame of its apparent cause. That the lives of the tigress and her cubs are saved, is not of such fundamental importance as that the Bodhisattva experiences within himself their suferring and despair in all its terrible reality, and that he proves by his deed that there is no more difference for him between his own suffering and the suffering of others.14 In this supreme sacrifice he overcomes the illusion of his own self, and thus he lays the foundation for his later Buddhahood. Now, let us see what is contained in Jātakas. We find some hypocracy is exposed. In Jataka No. 128 we find hypocritical cat devour. ing the mice, while pretending to be like a pious ascetic.15 In No. 278 Mahisa Jataka we find Bodhisattva is born as a buffalo, and as such exhibits unbounded patience. An impertinent monkey climbs on his back befouls him, seizes him by the hords and does all kind of mischief to him. Then the monkey does the same to another buffalo and is killed by him. In this way the Bodhisattva preserves his virtue of patience and yet the monkey is punished. Highly sarcastic is the anecdote of the monkey, who has stayed for sometime in the palace of king, who then sets him free. When he reaches his companions again, they surround him and wish to know how things go on in the world of human beings, of whose daily life he must have seen a great deal. The monkey describes the life of man in two verses. "The gold is mine, the precious gold; so cry they night and day. These foolish folk cast never a look on the holy way. There are two masters in the house; one has no beard to wear. But has long breasts, ears pierced with hcles, and goes with plaited hair. His price is told in countless gold; he plagues all people,” Page #73 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Some of the moral tales have an avowed pedagogical aim and look as though they have been composed for children of this kind is for instance Salikedārajataka (No. 484) where Bodhisattva as a wise parrot, not only eats rice from the field, but also carries some away in his beak, and in answer to query for his reason for doing so, replies : “I pay a debt, I give a loan, I lay down a treasure” meaning that he brings food to his old parents, nourishes his young ones and gives food to other weak birds.” Some of the Jātakas e.g. Mahānāradakassa pā-jātaka (No. 544) contain such dialogues as are found in Upanishads and Mabābhārata. Here virtue is praised and theory of karma is explained with full description of hell, ctc. Thus, these sublime stories abound in examples of self-sacrifice, com. passion, supreme charity, etc. These stories gave great stimulus to later movement of Mahāyāna where the aim of Bodhisattva is to live for others and work for others. We find in Mahāyāna the concept of punyasambhāra of the Bodhisattva where Bodhisattva accumulates punya which results from constant right action not only in this birth but in various births. It is the invisible cosmic force of karma ( punya ) that confers happiness on the individual. The Buddhists developed a precise qualitative view of punya. All that is noble, beautiful, auspicious, glorious and desirable in this world is the result of punya. In the end, it may be pointed out that despite emphasis on compassion in these Jataka stories (or in the Bodhisattva ideal), the Bodhisattva is not an effiminate or weakling. He is the great hero, the embodiment of not only of wisdom and compassion, but also of virya or "vigour' which signifies energy and strength, In brief, these Jātaka stories tell us not only to inculcate the best virtues among ourselves but point out that individual perfection is not the aim but we should rather work for others, live for others, and think of no individual salvation till the last tear on the face of beings is wiped out in this world, References 1. Winternitz : History of Indian Literature, Vol. II, p. 114. 2. Cf. yathā vā paneke bhonto samaņa brāhmaṇā saddh7de yyāni bhojanāni bhunjitvā te evarūpam tiracchānakatham anuyutta viharanti seyyathidam-rājakathcm, corakathan -..evamrūpāya tiracchānakathāya paivirato Samano Gotamo-Digha, Vol. I, p. 7. Cf, also Sambhinna-pralāpaḥ katamaḥ ? tadyathă-rājakathā, corakathā, yuddhakathā, madyakathā, dyütakathā, strikathā, akhyāyika-katha.-A. Su, p. 38 Winternitz, op. cit. p. 121 4. Ibid. p. 125 Page #74 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 7. Winternitz, op. cit. p. 156. 8. Sangharakshita : Survey of Buddhism, p. 436. 9. "Origins of the Bodhisattva Ideal", Stepping Stonas, Vol. II, p. 244. 10. Ibid. 11. Sangharakshita : op. cit. 12. Sangharakshita : op. cit. p. 437. 13. Cf. Jätakamala, if ; Bodhisattvāvadāna-Kalpalată, Vol. II, p. 53. 14. Anagarika Govinda, op. cit. p. 243-45. 15. yo ve dhammadhajam karvă, nigūlho papam acare vissāsayltvà bhatāni bilaram nāma tam vatam / Jātaka 128, p. 461. Cf. also : dharmadhvaji sada labdhaschădmiko lokadambhakah / bidalavratako jñeyo himsrah sarvābhisandhakah / Manu 4, 195. 16. Cf. Bodhisatto khantimetrānudayasampadāya tam tassa anācaram na manasā akāsi. Jāsaka No. 278, p. 285. 17. Hiran Aam me suvannam me esā rattim-divā katha dummedhānam manussānam ariyadhammam apassatam 11 dve dve gahapatayo gehe eko tattha amassuko lambatthano venikato atho ankitakanniko kito dhanena bahună so tam vitudate janam // Jātaka No. 219, p. 185; Eng. tr. in verse by. W. H. D. Rouse, quoted in Winternitz, op. cit. p. 135. Page #75 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 7. Historio-Cultural Contribution of Jaipa Ācāryas through Prakrit Sources Dr. Rasesh Jamindar, Ahmedabad. The purport of this small paper is to high-light the historio-cultural significance of Prakrit by reviewing briefly some important works of Jaina Munis. Prakrit literature, as we all know, is also one of the varied sourcematerials of Indian history. While such literature has more or less a religio-regional bias, it is certainly most useful material when archaeological evidences are very meagre or none. The significance of Prakrit sources is that they are connected with almost every phase and part of this vast country. These works do not restrict to only one or two subjects or to only religious philosophies but embrace various branches of literature such as toponymy, logic, politics, grammar, dialectics, astronomy, astrology, medicine, cosmology, epigraphy. temple architecture, sculpture, etc. These sources are highly critical, standard. authentic and contain abundant historical information as given below with a few examples : Tilova pannatti of Yativrsabha (2nd cent.) is an early Prakrit text on cosmology. This work throws light on many things such as nature, shape, size and divisions of Universe, ancient geography, politics, history of ancient India, commencement of Saka rule, their dynastic chronology & eras, Jaina doctrine, puränic traditions and so on. This is also very useful for studying the development of matbs. in ancient times. Siddhasena Diwakar's Sanmati-Tarka-Prakarana (4th cent.) gives authentic and critical exposition of many different philosophical streams of India prevailing before his times. This is a comparative work of philosophical trends of different religions, written by one of the early Jain logicians. There are many Paumacariyas of which that of Vimalasari is available and very welknown ; while that of Mallavādisūri is not available in original but it is the oldest among all the Jaina versions of Rāma-carita. These Paumacariyas do give different aspects of social traditions of the times of Rāma's India. They also shed some light on the conditions of the society of ancient India. Angavijjā written by an unknown author or authors, is a Prakrit work of importance for reconstructing India's history of the first four centuries after Christ. Though it mainly deals with Falādeśa this book has much more Page #76 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 35 data other than astrology. Written in both prose and poetry its 60 adhyāyas give many useful information regarding the things which come under the moon and sun. In short it is an encyclopaedic work and deserves our full cultural attention to undertake its comparative study for highlighting the materials it contain. Loka-Vibhaga of Sarvanandi (5th cent.) helps us in reconstructing the Pallava chronology by fixing the initial date of Simhavarman, as this book was written in his 22nd regnal year. It also throws light on the currency of Saka Era, the first ever known example în literature. Padmanandin's (7th cent). Jambudvipa-prajñapti-sangraha is another work on cosmology, giving much useful information about ancient geography and Jaina traditions. Kuvalayamala (8th cent.) of Uddyotanasuri is a book on romance in Prakrit. This supplies useful politico-historical material. It mentions Jābālipura (modern Jalor) king Śri Vatsaraja (Gurjar king) and such other things. Nitivakyamṛta of Somadeva (10th cent.) is an excellent treatise on the science and art of politics in India. Different Jain Caritas & Puranas often touch the politics, through which we get information about current political theories, origin of different dynasties etc. Adipurana of Jinasena (9th cent.) deserves such attention and appreciation, who was a religious Guru and adviser to the Rastrakūta king Amoghavarsha 1st. Such Gurus of the later period have also contributed in reconstructing the history of different regions of the country by collecting and editing the epigraphic data. There are many such books in different languages. Many Jaina Munis were not only the expounders of religious dogmas but they also acted as the leaders of the society and advisers to kings & their heirs. Striking example is of Hemacandracārya. Ganga, Chavda, Hoysala etc. were some of the kingdoms created by at the instances of Jaina Gurus. Let me, at the end, suggest a few points for the consideration of this congregation: 1. First and foremost is to speed up the work of cataloguing of MSS of many Bhandaras which are still untouched and awaiting careful editing; as well as they also need getting printed as early as possible and making them accessible to the researchers. 2. It is necessary to undertake comparative study of Jaina Prakrit works highlighting the vastness of materials they contain and to bring them to the notice of the scholars is an imperative need of the moment. Page #77 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 36 3. As mentioned earlier there are many Pattavalis of different Sanghas of different age of wbich some have already been given due attention and have been published, while there are still many which are buried in Bhandāras unnoticed. A close and comparative research work of these Pattavalis should be taken up with utmost priority so as to help bringing out many interesting details about political history of the country through the ages and thereby solving many problems. 4. Comparative study of Jain Prakrit works will help us in solving many chronological and socio-historical problems. 5. The editing of these MSS requires proper attention for the understanding of the development of paintiogs, epigraphy and calligraphy. 6. It is also necessary to study the axiological aspects of these works to apprise the modern generation with their usefulness in understanding different subjects of both the humanities and the sciences and to familiarise them about their origin & development. Page #78 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 8. On Studying the Prakrit Literature Dr. K. K. Dixit, Ahmedabad One might make plea for a serious study of the Prakrit literature on several grounds, considerably independent of each other. Of these, worthy of special consideration are three viz. (I) The fact that the Prakrit languages stood closer to the popular languages of the day than did Sanskrit, the most celebrated classical language of India. (II) The fact that the modern Indian Languages (belonging to the Aryan group) stand closer to the Prakrit Languages than they do to Sanskrit. (III) The fact that a very large number-if not actually the majority-of Prakrit works are a composition of Jaina authors while these Jaina Prakrit texts are, for some reason or other, some of the most important Jaina texts. Let these three grounds be taken up one by one. (I) The vast Prakrit Literature is a standing and solid testimony to the experiment made in this country in the past to employ near-popular languages for the purposes of cultured communication light-literary as well as theoretical. To say that the Prakrít languages were near-popular languages only means that they stood closer to the contemporary popular languages than did Sanskrit which then was the most developed and most frequently employed language of cultured communication. On the other hand, it also obviously means that the Prakrit languages were not themselves popular languages. For pieces composed in actual popular languages of those times must have been of the form of folk-composition circulated orally among the illiterate masses at large. As against them, the Prakrit works were the composition of learned scholars who would pick up their Prakrit from the grammatical texts just as they would pick up their Sanskrit from Pāṇini. So it was possible for a Sanskrit dramatist writing in any part of the country to make his characters speak Sauraseni, Maharaştri, Māgadhi or the like as was prescribed by the authorities on Sanskrit drama. Even so, the Prakrit-experiment deserves a more serious and sympathetic appreciation than is usually meted out to it. This experiment is neglected unduly because in the course of history it was heavily overshadowed by the much more successful Sanskrit-experiment. But that is what happened in the past whereas our times should find it possible to take a balanced view of the total situation. For our Page #79 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 38 times have conceded to the popular languages the right to be the sole vehicle of cultured communication: that is why in Europe Latin and in our country Sanskrit eventually came to be replaced by the national language of our times. Thus it is that a modern student of the lingulstic scene should find it instructive to learn how the near-popular Prakrit Languages sought to perform in olden times in India functions which the popular languages are seeking to perform to-day throughout the world. (II) In relation to the modern languages of India (belonging to the Aryan group) the Prakrits act not only as an example of how to compete with high-flown language like Sanskrit but also as a relatively close ancestor. In view of what has already been said that should be only natural, For the modern languages of India are respective daughters of the popular languages of olden times, and if the Prakrit languages stood closer to the contemporary popular languagues than did Sanskrit then the corollary ought to be that the Prakrit Languages are a closer kin to the modern languages of India than is Sanskrit, Thus it is that a modern student of Indian linguistic scene should find it instructive to learn how the Prakrit languages exhibited tendencies that gradually got crystallized in this way or that in this modern Indian language or that. rich (III) For students of Jainism the Jaina Prakrit Literature is a source of certain highly unique material. Thus are (1) a good number of really old poetic pieces and pieces of speculation found preserved in the Ardhamagadhi Canon of the Svetämbara Jainas (occasionally subjected to commentation in Prakrit). (2) The Digambara text Satkhaṇḍagama stands at the head of a vast Karma-literature composed in Prakrit by the Digambaras as well as Śvetambaras. (3) A large number of more or less works have been composed in Prakrit Śvetambaras as well as Digbmbaras. highly successful light-literary (including Apabhramśa) by the all serious In view of the fact that the Jaina Prakrit literature is the most stupendous and most solidly built part of the Prakrit literature a general acquaintance with the Jaina Prakrit literature is a must for students of Prakrit just as a general acquaintance with Prakrit is a must for all serious students of a modern Indian language. This necessitates the consideration of a point of cardinal importance and that as follows. are The Brahmanical and the Jaina are our two exclusive sources for procuring Prakrit texts but the Brahmanical such sources inadequate in the extreme. For one thing, the Brahmanical authors never developed the tradition of undertaking theoretical discussions in Prakrit; and as for the Page #80 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 39 independent light-literary works composed by them in Prakrit, they are mostly lost-what we are left with being but stray survivals like Gathāsaptaśati, Ravaṇavadha, Gauḍavadha. What has survived in really good measure are the Prakrit passages composed by the Brahmanical authors while writing a dramatic work; (these passages have survived precisely because they are an integral part of a dramatic work with fairly strong survival value). To this total output of Prakrit composition, available or extinct, that emanated from the Brahmanical camp is to be contrasted the corresponding performance of the Jainas. As has already been hinted, the Jainas undertook considerable theoretical discussion through the medium of Prakrit and much of it survives upto this day; similarly, they composed a vast mass of light literary works in Prakrit and much of it too survives upto this day. Hence it is that one seeking to peruse in its entirety the available Prakrit literature is bound to be overwhelmed by the preponderance of Jaina works within its body. As a matter of fact, this is one reason why Prakrit studies, in spite of their obvious numerous advantages, have made so little headway even during our times. For an average student of a modern Indian language would rather console himseif that no literary works representing an early evolutionary stage of his mother-tongue is now available rather than take the trouble of going through a Jaina text that is actually such a work. A good selection of Jaina Prakrit texts, theoretical as well as light-literary, made with a view to specially helping the non-Jaina reader is a desideratum. Page #81 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 9. Paramāgamasăra of Sruta Muni Dr. Gokul Chandra Jain, Delhi. This paper gives a brief account of a small Prakrit text named Para. māgamasāra. As far as I know, this text is not published as yet. I have requested Dr. A. N. Upadhye to include it in the Manikacandra Jaina Granthamālā. Two paper manuscripts, perhaps both copied from one and the same older manuscript, are preserved in the Ailaka Pannalal Saraswati Bhavan, Beawar (Rajasthan). The description of these Mss. is as follows : A. Manuscript No. 633 of the said Bhandara is a paper Ms. of Paramāgamasāra. It has eight folios of 7" x 12" each written on both sides except leaf No. 1 which is written on one side only. Each folio is numbered on one side. Its script is Devanagari. There are 12 lines on a page. Each line contains fifty-five to sixty letters: The Ms. begins with : 371 नम : सिद्धेभ्य: । अथ श्रुतमुनिविरचितपरमागमसारे लिख्यते । घाइचउक्कविरहिया श्रीमच्छ्रतमुनिविरचितपरमागमसार : समाप्त : । etc. The last line reads : इति The date of copying the Ms. is mentioned as follows:- श्री शुभमिति श्रावण शुक्ल ९, दिन बुधवार विक्रम संवत् १९८९ को लिखकर समाप्त भयो सो सदा जयवन्त होउ । श्री शुभमस्तु । हस्ताक्षर ताराचंद जैन मुकाम महलका जिला मेरठ । Letters, not the writing are beautiful but the copyist did not know the Prakrit language, and as such the text is corrupt at many places. B. Another paper Ms, preserved in the same Bhaṇḍāra, has thirty leaves each of 41" x 8" size written in Devanagari scripts. Each leaf contains twenty or twenty-two letters. It begins with: ॐ नमः सिद्धेभ्य: । घाइचउक्कविरहिया etc. and ends with :- इति श्रुतमुनिविरचितपरमागमसार : समाप्त : । This Ms, is undated but seems to be of the same age as that of Ms. A. One more Ms. written on palm leaves is said to be preserved in the Jaina Matha of Moodbidri, South Kanara. I have been trying to procure it. Two Mss. of the Kannada version of Paramagamasara are also preserved in the Jaina Matha, Moodbidri (K. P. T. G. S. No. 132, 133, 134). The Paramagamasara contains two hundred and thirty Gāthās in all, out of which twenty-five, including two Sanskrit verses, have been quoted from other texts. First seven gāthās are devoted to mangalacarana or salutation to pañcaparameṣthis. Then in one gatha (no. 8) the author Page #82 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ tells about writing the Paramāgamasāra. Two gātbās explain the subject matter of the text as follows:-- पंचत्थिकाय दव्व छक्क तच्चाणि सत्त य पदत्था। णव बंधी तक्कारण मोक्खा तक्कारणं चेदि ।। ९ अहियारो अहविहो जिणवयणनिरूविदा सवित्थरदो । वोच्छामि समासेण य, सुणुह जणा दत्तचित्ता हु।। १० Thus it is clear that the subject matter of Paramägamasära is nava Padārthas or nipe categories of Jaina metaphysics and 194 gātbās are devoted to this purpose. Next fcur gathas from 195 to 198 may be called antyamangala. Rest of the gātbās from 199 to 205 contain the author's prasasti in which the date of completing Paramāgamasāra, its author and his guru-parampara are given as follows: सगगाले हु सहस्से बिसयतिसट्ठी गदे दु बिसवरिसे । मग्गसिरसद्दसत्तमि गुरुवारे गंथ संपुण्णो ।। अणुवदगुरुबाले दू महव्वदे अभयचंदसिद्धंती । सत्थेभयसूरि पभाचंद खलु यमुणिस्स गुरु ।। श्री मूलसंघदेसियगणपुत्थयगच्छ कोडकुदाणं । परमण्णइंगलेसरबलिम्हि जादस्स मुणिपहाणस्स ।। सिद्धन्ताहयचंदस्स य सिस्सा बालचंदमुणिपवरो । सो भवियकुवलयाणामाणंदक। सदा जयउ ।। सदागमपरमागमतक्कागमणिरवसेसवेदी ह । विजिदसयलण्णवादी जयउ चिरं अभयसूरि सिद्धती ।। णय-णिक्खेव-पमाणं जाणित्ता विजियसयलपरसमयो । वरणिवाणिवलंदियपयपम्मा चारुकित्तिमुणि ।। वरसारत्तयणि उणो सुद्धप्परओ विरहियपरभावो । भवियाण पविबोहणपरो पहाचंदणाममुणी ॥ The Paramagamasara was completed in the saka year 1263 on Thursday the seventh day of bright Magasira, śrutamuni, the autbor of Paramāgamasāra, was the disciple of Balacanda and Abhayacanda Siddhānti, He had accepted the anuvratas from Balacanda and mahāvratas from Abhayacanda. He had learnt śāstras from Abhayasuri and Prabhācanda. Srutamuni belonged to Mulasangha, Desiya gana, Pustaka gaccha, Kodakunda-amnaya of Tiglesvarabali. Fortunately the description given by Śrutamuni is cnofirmed by inscriptional records. I have noted it in the preface to my edition of Karmaprakrti of Abhayacanda (pages 6-7), published by Bhāratiya Jñānapith, Page #83 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 10. A comparative study of Jhānajjhayaņa by Jinabhadra and Dhyānastava by Bhāskaranandi Miss Suzuko Ohira, Mysore. There seems to have been a fashion in writing the work of Jaina dhyāna in one hundred verses in Prakrit, Sanskrit or Apabhramsa For instance, we have Jhānajjhayaņa, better known as Dhyānasalaka (105 verses) by Jinabhadra (Pt. Malvaniyä ascribes it to Bhadrabāhu), Samadhitantra or Samadhiśataka (105 verses) by Pujyapada (Kundakunda also is said to have written Samadhi. tantra), Jogasaynga by Haribhadra, Jogasāra or Dohāsāra (108 verses) by Joindu, Samyaśataka (106 verses) by Vijayasimhasüri, and Dhyānastara (100 verses) by Bhaskaranandi. Dhyāna occupies a specific position in Jaina ācāra, which is one of the internal tapas constituting the causes of samvara and nirjara; two kinds of auspicious dhyāna, namely, dharmya and śukla, ar: regarded to be the mokşakäranas. Naturally a number of treatises have been written on this subject partly or independently, in verse or in prose, and in various languages. Subhacandra and Hemacandra's treatises are now considered as the standard works of Jaina yoga. From the Āgamic literature (e. g. Sthânānga) to this medieval age, certain aspects of Jaina dhyāna, e. g. concept and classification, seem to have gone through some changes in due course in the cross currents of thoughts. Jinabbadragani, who is the author of Višeşāvaśyakabhāşya and possibly also of Jiyakappa, is said so have lived in the 6th century according to some, or before 750 A. D. according to the others. Haribbadra who commented on Jhānajjhayana is said to be the student of Jinabhadra. Bhaskaranandi, who possibly flourished in the 12th century AD, is a Digambara author; he wrote a commentary on Tattvārthasūtra of Umāsväti. There is at least four centuries of distance between these two authors, and some similarities and differences are evidenced in their views and treatments of dhyāna, which are attempted to be presented briefly in this paper. Jhānajjhayana dedicates its mangalācarana to lord Mahavira, who is reverentially addressed as rogisvara and saranya. The definition of dhyāna and the classifications of dhyātr and dhyāna are then introduced. The rest of 100 verses beginning with the 6th śloka are devoted to the exposition of four Āgamic kinds of dhyana, i. e. ārta (6-8), raudra (19-27), dharmya (28 - 63, 65-68, 93) and śukla (61-61, 69-92, 94), together with the eleven verses of epilogue. Dhyanastava salutes the siddhas, the omniscients. The definition Page #84 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 43 and purpose of dhyāna, qualification of dhyāt, are then briefly introduced. It is followed by the description of the two kinds of classification of dhyāna, one Agamic and the other non-Agamic, namely, pindastha, padastha, rūpastha and rūpātīta (8-37), then, by the exposition of Reality and the theory of Knowledge (38–76). Three jewels are epitomized as the cause of liberation (77-92), and the work ends with eulogical hymn including its prasasti. The derivative classification of dhyāna by four sthas which first appears in Joindu's Jogasāra 97, is, according to Dr. Upadhye, possibly adopted from non-Jain source; something of this pattern is found in the Tantraloka of Abhinavagupta. It was possibly not known to Jinabhadra. Dhyānastava does not subordinate these four sthas to the dharmya dhyāna as Jñānārņaya and Yogaśāstra do, but treats them under the object of meditation as an independent category. The concepts of these four sthas are likewise premature and in a crude form, are apparently indicating the position of Dhyānastava in the midway towards the later development. Jhāņajj hayana exclusively devotes itself to the exposition of the four Agamic categorical concepts of dhyāna according to the traditional beadings, i. e, the object of meditation, meditator, method and result. Dhyānastava spares more than half of the entire work for the exposition of the Jaina dogmatics, i e, metaphysics and epistemology, and explains dhyāna in the more objective plane, bringing it into the system of Jaina tenets. Its mode of presentation of the materials is comparable to Dravyasangraha in 58 Prakrit verses, only if the order of the contents of the latter is slightly rearranged. Jhānajjhayana uses abundant metaphors and similes. Similarly, Dhyānastava is affluent with the tone of personal adoration of Lord, giving the taste of lyricism to the stiff doctrinal subject of this work. As to the attitude of the author, Jinabhadra takes more practical approach to the subject, while Bhaskaranandi brings it up on the more theoretical level, Now let us look into the conceptual comparison of the two works : (1) Definition of Dhyāna Jhanajjhayana-2 defines dhyāna, jam thiramajjavasāņam tam jhanam' (That which is steady in the effort of meditation is dhyāna). Haribhadra explains it 'sthira-niścalam, adhyavasānam-mana-ekāgratalambanam-ityarthah'. This is stated against citta or discursive thought, which can be bhāvanā, anuprekşā or cinta. This is further clarified by the verse 3, 'antomuhuttamettan cittavatthānamekavatthummi'. Dhyānastaya-6 defines dhyāna as nānalambanacintayā yadekarthe niyantranam' (Restraining thought activities clinging to various objects to one point), which can be supplied by Tattvārthasūtra Ix, 27, 'uttamasamhananasyaikāgracintānirodho dhyānamāntarmuhūrtat (Restraint of discursive thought to one point for object] which dhyāna is lasts Page #85 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 44 up to antarmuhur a for a person with the best physical formation of joints). Bhaskaranandi also adds in his vṛtti, 'sthiracintātmakasyātmano dhyānasyeṣṭatvāt' (Because the self characterized by unwavering thought is expressly meant as dhyana). Jhaṇajjhayaṇa-3, says that this definition applies to those in the chadmastha stage, but for the Jinas, dhyana is meant as 'yoganirodha' or the total suppression of the threefold activities, which Occurs in the last two stages of sukla dhyana, upon which they enter nirvana. This is similarly stated in Dhyānastava 20-23. However, Jhaṇajjhayana lucidly defines dhyana in two divisions, one for the chadmasthas, and the other for Jinas. Dhyānastava gives one general definition of dhyana after Tattvärthasutra and treats Jinas' dhyana in the last two stages of sukla dhyāna. (2) Purpose of dhyana Jhaṇajjhayana 5 and 95 summarize that arta and raudra dhyānas are the samsarakarana and dharmya and sukla are nirvanakaraṇa, which are likewise mentioned in Dhyanastava-8. Dharmya and the first two stages of sukla dhyana are stated by Jinabhadra to bear fruits of subha-asrava-samvaranirjara, and amarasukha (93-4), while its last two stages lead to parinirvāṇa (94). Therefore, he says, dhyana is the cause of mokṣa (96), aad its purpose is the purification of a soul or the removal of its karmas (98). Dhyanastava claims that the aim of dhyana is the attainment of perfection or the realization of the innate self with its attributes such as infinite knowledge. Therefore, if the meditating self does not shine forth in its inherent nature of knowledge, it is not called dhyāna (3-5). The natures of self in the three kinds, i,e,, external, internal, and supreme, are mentioned in the verses 33-37. The purification of a soul from its karmas and the attainment of the perfection of self aim at the same goal, and the process or the method for it is considered as dhyana. Dhyanastava-92 reads that three jewels constitute the cause of liberation, which can be compared with Yogaśastra 1,15 that three jewels, i.e. knowledge, faith and conduct constitute yoga. (3) Agamic divisions of dhyana dharmya dhyana Arta and raudra dhyana are treated as the divisions of dhyana in the traditional classification, as they are fit for the definition of dhyana. However, the rational thinker like Hemacandra eliminates these two from the category of dhyana, as these ought to be discarded by aspirants on the path to liberation. This is really an important aspect of his exposition. Often the word dhyana is referred to dharmya and ŝukla dhyanas alone, neglecting the undesirable first two. Arta and raudra dhyanas are treated basically alike in both works, with more detailed explanation in Jhanajjhayaṇa. And the case is similarly true with śukla dhyana, therefore dharmya dhyana alone is here taken up. Jhanajjhayana relates dharmya dhyana under the ten heads, i.e., (1) bhāvanā (2) desa Page #86 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 45 (3) kala (4) asana (5) alambanā (6) kramaņa (7) anu prekşā (8) leśyā (9) linga and (10) phala. Among them, bhavana and kramana through phala are likewise treated in Dhyānasatva or Tattvarıhasūtra and its vrtti. Although there are no regulations prescribed in the Agamas as to deša, kala and asana for dhyāna, says Jhānajjhayana 35-41, it is suggested to the untrained monks to choose the lonely places free from women, beasts, eunuchs etc.; both novices and experts in dhyāna are free to choose any time and posture as fit. Dhyānasatva does not refer to these topics. Alambana or condition of dharmya dhyana mentioned in Jhānajjhayanı-42, i.e., văcanā, praśna parāvariana and anucinta are found in Tattvarthasūtra-IX 25 as the divisions of sadhyāya, one of the internal ta pas. Jhanajjhayaņa adds sāma yika etc. to it, which are included in Tattvärthasūtra IX,18 as the divisions of caritra. Dharmya dhyāna is said in Jhanajjhayana 63 to occur to those of kşīņa and upaśāntamoha which are commented by Haribhadra as kņa paka-nirgranthas and upaśamaka-nirgranthas. They are those on the upašamašrent and kşa pakaśreni who can be those in the fourth to the seventh stages of gunasthana, Dhyanastava 15-16 read that it occurs to those in the fifth to the seventh stages prior to ascending those two śrenis. Bbāskaranandi mentions that it occurs to those in the fourth to the seventh stages in his vặti IX.38 after Pujyapāda and Akalanka, with a critical comment that it occurs to laymen in the fourth and fifth stages from the figurative point of view alone. amayikaritra. Dhupasant Bibliography : Jhānajjhayana, Jinabhadra's manual of meditation, edited with Haribhadra's gloss, translated into English with explanatory notes, by S. K Ramachandra Rao. Oriental Research Trust Madras, 1971. . Dhyānastava by Bhāskaranandi. Tattvärthavrtti or Sukhabodha by Bhāskaranandi, ed. by A, Shantiraja Sastri. University of Mysore, Mysore, 1944 (University of Mysore Oriental Library publications, Sk. Ser. 84). Dravyasangraha by Nemicandra, comm. Mohanlāl Kávyatirtha, Sarala Jaina Grantha Bhandára, Jabalpur. Jaina sahit ya kā byhad it ihāsa, Vol. 4, by M Mehta and H. R. Kāpadiyā. Pārsvanātha Vidyāśrama sodha Samsthāna. Vārānasi, 1965. (Pārsvanātha Vidyāśrama granthamālā 12). Page #87 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ११. अपभ्रंश-कवि विबुध श्रीधर और उनका वड्ढमाणचरिउ डॉ राजाराम जैन, बोधगया मध्यकालीन भारतीय संस्कृति और इतिहास, आधुनिक भारतीय-भाषाओं के क्रमिक विकास तथा उनका भाषा-वैज्ञानिक अध्ययन और विविध साहित्यक विधाओं के सर्वांगीण प्रामाणिक अध्ययन के लिए अपभ्रंश भाषा एवं उसके साहित्य का अपना विशेष महत्त्व है। उसमें उपलब्ध विस्तृत प्रशस्तियाँ, ऐतिहासिक सन्दर्भ, लोक-जीवन के विविध चित्र, समसामयिक सामाजिक परिस्थितियाँ, राजनीति, अर्थनीति एवं धर्मनीति के विविध सूत्र, हासपरिहास एवं विलास-वैभव के रससिद्ध चित्राङ्कन इस साहित्य के प्राण हैं । अपभ्रंश के प्रायः समस्त कवि आचार और दार्शनिक तथ्यों तथा लोक-जीवन की अभिव्यञ्जना कथाओं एवं चरितों के परिवेशों में करते रहे हैं । इस प्रकार के चरितों और कथानकों के माध्यम से अपभ्रंश-साहित्य में मानव-जीवन तथा जगत को विविध मूक-भावनाएँ एवं अनुभूतियाँ मुखरित हुई हैं, क्योंकि वह एक ओर पुराण-पुरुषों के महामहिम आदर्श चरितों से समृद्ध है, तो दूसरी ओर सामन्तों, वणिक पुत्रों अथवा सामान्य वर्ग के व्यक्तियों के सुख-दुखों अथवा रोमांसपूर्ण कथाओं से परिव्याप्त है । ____ अपभ्रंश साहित्य की इसी श्रृंखला में विबुध श्रीधर का भी महत्त्वपूर्ण स्थान है । उनके द्वारा विरचित वडूढमाण चरिउ अपभ्रंश साहित्य में उपलब्ध महाकाव्य शैली की प्रथम महावीरचरित सम्बंधी रचना है । विबुध श्रीधर के सर्वांगीण विस्तृत जीवन-परिचय को जानने के लिए पर्याप्त सन्दर्भसामग्री उपलब्ध नहीं है । कवि ने अपने 'वढमाणचरिउ' को अन्त्य-प्रशस्ति में उसका केवल रचनाकाल हो दिया है, जो वि. सं. ११०९' है । इस रचना में उसने अपनी परवर्ती अन्य दो रचनाओं के भी उल्लेख किए हैं जिनके नाम हैं- चन्दपह चरिउ एवं संतिजिणेसर चरिउ । किन्तु ये दोनों ही रचनाएँ दुर्भाग्य से अद्यावधि अप्राप्त हैं । ग्रन्थ-प्रशस्ति में समकालीन राजाओं अथवा अन्य किसी ऐसी घटना का उल्लेख नहीं मिलता, जिससे कि उसके जोवनकाल पर कुछ विशेष प्रकाश पड़ सके । वड्ढमाण-चरिउ की प्रत्येक सन्धि के अन्तमें दी गई पुष्पिका में कवि ने अपने लिए विबुह सिरि सुकइसिरिहर [विबुध श्री सुकवि श्रीधर ] कहा है । इससे स्पष्ट है कि उक्त कवि श्रीधर 'सुकवि' एवं 'विबुध' उपाधि से भी विभूषित थे। अपभ्रंश एवं संस्कृत साहित्य में उक्त वड्ढमाण चरिउ के अतिरिक्त सात अन्य ऐसी रचनाएँ और भी उपलब्ध हैं, जिनके कर्ता भी श्रीधा नामके ही हैं । इनकी भिन्नता अथवा अभिन्नता विचारणीय हैं । उनकी रचनाएँ निम्नप्रकार हैं -- १. पासणाहचरिउ-के कर्त्ता श्रीधर]-वि. सं. ११८९. सुकमालचरिउ- (के कर्ता श्रीधर)-वि. सं. १२०८. ३. भविसयत्तकहा-(के कर्ता श्रीधर) वि. सं. १२३०. ४. भविसयत्तचरिउ (के कर्ता श्रीधर) वि. सं. १५३० ५. विश्वलोचनकोष-(के कर्ता श्रीधर) Page #88 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 47 ६. भविष्यदत्तपंचमीकथा-(के कर्ता श्रीधर) ७. श्रुतावतारकथा-(के कर्ता श्रीधर) उक्त ७ श्रीधरों में से सातवें श्रीधर विबुध उपाधि से विभूषित अवश्य हैं, किन्तु उनका समय अनिश्चित है । रचना नवीन प्रतीत होती है । उनके श्रुतावतार-कथा के वर्णनों में कई ऐतिहासिक त्रुटियाँ भी पाई जाती हैं, जो अनुसन्धान की कसौटी पर खरी नहीं उतरती । पांचवें विश्वलोचनकोष के श्रीधर सेनवंश के विद्वान प्रतीत होते हैं, क्योंकि वे सेन विशेषण से विभूषित हैं । ग्रन्थ-प्रशस्ति से विदित होता है कि इनके गुरु को, था । इन श्रीधरसेन ने नागेन्द्र एवं अमरसिंह आदि के कोषों का सार लेकर विश्वलोचनकोष की रचना की थी । इनका जन्म अथवा रचना काल जानने के लिए सन्दर्भ सामग्री अनुपलब्ध है । उक्त दोनों रचनाएँ संस्कृत की हैं इनसे यह विदित होता है कि अन्य श्रीधरों से ये दोनों श्रीधर भिन्न हैं । छठवीं 'भविष्यदत्तपंचमी कथा' भी संस्कृत रचना है । उसकी प्रशस्ति में कविपरिचय सम्बन्धी कोई सन्दर्भ-सामग्री प्राप्त नहीं होती । दिल्ली के एक शास्त्र-भण्डार में उसकी एक जीर्ण-शीर्ण प्रतिलिपि प्राप्त हुई है जिसका प्रतिलिपि काल वि० सं० १४८६ हैं । इससे तो यह स्पष्ट है कि ये श्रीधर वि.स. १४८६ के पूर्व हो चुके थे किन्तु वास्तविक परिचय प्राप्त करने के लिए साधन-सामग्री का अभाव है। ऐसा विदित होता है कि ये श्रीधर भी अन्य श्रीधरों से भिन्न होंगे । चतुर्थ श्रीधर के भविसयत्त-पंचमी-चरिउ का लेखन काल ग्रन्थकार ने स्वयं ही अपनी ग्रन्थ-प्रशस्ति में १५३० वि. सं. अंकित किया है । इसके लेखनकाल को देखकर इन कवि श्रीधर को अन्य श्रीधरों से भिन्नता निश्चित है । इसकी अन्त्य प्रशस्ति में कवि श्रीधर मुनि उपाधि से विभूषित हैं तृतीय श्रीधर की रचना 'भविसयत्तकहा की अन्त्य-प्रशस्ति में लेखक ने उसका लेखन काल वि. सं. १२३० स्पष्ट कर दिया है तथा लिखा है, "चंदावर नगर में स्थित माथुरकुलीन नारायण के पुत्र तथा वासुदेव के बड़े भाई सुपट्ट ने कवि श्रीधर से कहा कि “आप मेरी माता रुप्पिणी के निमित्त पंचमीव्रत फल-सम्बन्धी 'भविष्यदत्त कथा' का . निरूपण कीजिए।" द्वितीय श्रीधर ने अपने 'सुकुमालचरिउ' में उसका लेखनकाल वि०सं० १२०८ अंकित किया है तथा ग्रन्थ-प्रशस्ति के अनुसार उसने उसकी रचना 'बलडइ' ग्राम में राजा गोविन्दचन्द्र के समय में की थी । यह रचना पीथेपुत्र कुमर की प्रेरणा से लिखी गई थी। अन्तर्बाह्य साक्ष्यों के आधार पर प्रथम रचना 'पासणाह चरिउ' के कर्ता श्रीधर की अभिन्नता 'वढमाण चरिउ' के कर्ता श्रीधर के साथ निश्चित है । 'पासणाह चरिउ' की प्रशस्ति के अनुसार उसका रचनाकाल वि० सं० ११८९ है ।। उक्त श्रीधरों का तुलनात्मक अध्ययन करते समय कई जटिल समस्याएँ उठ खड़ी होत हैं । उक्त समस्त कृतियों का रचनाकाल वि० सं० ११०९ से १५३० के मध्य (अर्थात् ४२१ वर्षों के भीतर) ठहरता है । अतः यह कहना तो असंगत ही होगा कि वे सभी कृतियों किसी एक कवि की रह होगी । Page #89 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 48 सबसे अधिक उलझन उत्पन्न की है, कवि श्रीधर के प्रमुख विशेषण 'विबुध' शब्द ने । वड्ढमाण चरिउ, वि० सं० ११०९, सुकुमालचरिउ वि० सं० १२०८ एवं भविसयत्त कहा वि० सं० १२३० की पुष्पिकाओ में कवि श्रीधर के नाम के साथ 'विबुध' विशेषण मिलता है। इससे प्रतीत होता है कि ये तीनों कवि अभिन्न हैं । 'पासणाह चरिउ' की पुष्पिका में यद्यपि कवि ने अपने को 'वुह सिरिहर' ही कहा है, 'विबुह सिरिहर' नहीं, जबकि "वड्ढमाण चरिउ'' के कर्ता विबुहश्रीधर से उसकी अभिन्नता सिद्ध है । दोनों रचनाओं में कवि के माता-पिता के नाम समान हैं । उक्त 'भविसयत्त कहा' एवं 'भविसयत्त चरिउ' के रचनाकाल में यद्यपि ३०० वर्षों का अन्तर है फिर भी उन दोनों के आश्रयदाता बिल्कुल एक समान हैं । यह एक आश्चर्य का विषय है । इस विषय में गम्भीर शोध-खोज की आवश्यकता है। मेरी दृष्टि से उक्त दोनों ही रचनाओं में आश्रयदाता की वंशावली के सादृश्य को एक विशेष संयोग (accident) मात्र कहकर टाला नहीं जा सकता । ऐसा प्रतीत होता है कि लिपिक के प्रमाद अथवा भ्रम से रचनाकाल के उल्लेख में कहीं गड़बड़ी हुई है। चूंकि ये दोनों रचनाएँ मेरे सम्मुख नहीं हैं अतः इस दिशा में विशेष कह पाना शक्य नहीं । दोनों की प्रशस्तियों के अनुसार इन रचनाओं के आश्रयदाताओं का विवरण निम्न प्रकार है:भविसयत्त कहा [१२३० वि० सं०] | भविसयत्त चरिउ [१५३०वि० सं०] माथुरकुलीन श्रीनारायण [पत्नीरूपिणी] | माथुरकुलीन श्री.......[पत्नी माढ़ी] सुपट्ट (वासुदेव के बड़े भाई ) साहारणु णारायणु (रुप्पिणी) पट्ट वासुदेव जसदेव लोहणु लक्खणु उक्त दोनों 'चनाओं के शीर्षक एवं प्रशस्ति-खण्डों के तुलनात्मक अध्ययन से निम्न तथ्य . सम्मुख आते हैं । १. कथावस्तु दोनों का एक है । दोनों ही रचनाएँ अपभ्रंश भाषा में हैं । किन्तु शीर्षक में कुछ परिवर्तन है-एक में भविसयत्त के साथ 'कहा' एवं दूसरे में 'चरिउ' शब्द संयुक्त है। २. आश्रयदाता दोनों के एक हैं । अन्तर केवल इतना है कि एक में दो पीढियों का तथा दूसरी में तीन पीढ़ियों की चर्चा है । ३. कवि का परिचय दोनों ही कृतियों में अनुपलब्ध है । ४. 'भविसयत्त कहा' (वि० सं० १२३०) में कवि के लिए 'कवि' तथा 'विबध' ये दोनों विशेषण मिलते हैं तथा "भविसयत्त चरिउ” में विबुध के साथ-साथ (पुष्पिकामें) 'मुनि' विशेषण भी मिलता है। उक्त समताओं को ध्यान में रखते हुए यदि ये दोनों रचनाएँ १२३० की सिद्ध हो सके तो 'वड्ढमाणचरिउ' एवं पासणाह चरिउ के कर्ता के साथ इनकी समता बैठाई जा Page #90 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ सकती है । यद्यपि उस समय यह प्रश्न खड़ा होगा कि एक ही कवि एक ही विषय पर एक ही भाषा में एक ही आश्रयदाता के निमित्त दो-दो रचनाएँ क्यों लिखेगा ? किन्तु ऐसा कोई नियम नहीं है कि कोई कवि एक ही विषय पर एक ही बार रचना करे ? एक ही कवि विविध समयों में एक हो विषय पर एकाधिक रचनाए लिख सकता है । 'भविसयत्त कहा' में श्रीधर को 'विबुध' एवं 'कवि' कहा गया है तथा 'भविसयत्त चरिउ' में उसे विबुध के साथ साथ 'मुनि' की उपाधि भी प्राप्त है । हो सकता है कि श्रीधर उस समय 'मुनिपद' धारण कर चुके हों । अतः एक रचना उसने आश्रयदाता की प्रेरणा से मुनि बनने के पूर्व की हो तथा दूसरी रचना अपनी प्रतिभा प्रदर्शित करने हेतु तथा पंचमीत्रत कथा को ओर अधिक सरस बनाने हेतु परिवर्तित शैली में उसी आश्रयदाता की प्रेरणा से मुनिपद धारण करने के बाद की हो । वस्तुतः इसके परीक्षण में बड़ी सावधानी की आवश्यकता है । उक्त संगतियों एवं असंगतियों को ध्यान में रखते हुए यदि विवादास्पद समस्याओं को पृथक रखना चाहें तो यह प्रायः निश्चित है कि 'वडूढमाणचरिउ', 'पासणाहचरिउ' 'सुकुमाल चरिउ एवं 'भविसयत्त कहा' के लेखक अभिन्न हैं । इस दृष्टि से कवि का रचनाकाल वि० सं० ११०९ से १२३० स्थिर हो सकता है । विबुध श्रीधरने अपनी कृतियों में अपना विस्तृत परिचय नहीं दिया। उनके 'वड्ढमाण चरिउ' से ज्ञात होता है कि उनके पिता का नाम गोल्ह तथा माता का नाम वील्हा था । वे असुहर ग्राम के निवासी थे४ । कविकी दूसरी रचना 'पासणाह चरिउ' की प्रशस्ति से उपर्युक्त सूचनाओं के साथ-साथ यह भी ज्ञात होता है कि कवि हरियाणा देश का निवासी अग्रवाल जैन था । वह यमुना नदी पारकर 'ढिल्ली' आया था, जहाँ राजा अनंगपाल के मंत्री नट्टलसाहू की प्रेरणा से कवि ने पासणाहचरिउ की रचना की थी५ । वड्ढमाण चरिउ में उल्लिखित पूर्ववर्ती रचनाएँ चंदप्पह चरिउ एवं संतिजिणेसर चरिउ अद्यावधि अनुलब्ध ही हैं। उनके उपलब्ध होने पर उनकी प्रशस्तियों से सम्भवतः कवि-परिचय पर और विशेष प्रकाश पड़ सकेगा। विबुध श्रीधर कृत वड्ढमाणचरिउ की कुल तीन हस्तलिखित प्रतिलिपियाँ उपलब्ध हैं जो राजस्थान के ब्यावर, दूणी एवं झालरापाटन के शास्त्र-भण्डारों में सुरक्षित हैं । ये प्रतियाँ अपूर्ण हैं । उनमें अन्तिम पत्र न रहने से उनका प्रतिलिपिकाल ज्ञात न हो सका । फिर भी अनुमानतः ये ३०० से ४०० वर्ष के बीच की प्रतियाँ प्रतीत होती हैं । इनमें से ब्यावर की प्रति में ८६४२ पत्र हैं । प्रति पृष्ठ ११-११ पंक्तियाँ एवं प्रति पंक्ति में लगभग १६-१६ शब्द एवं ४२ से ४५ तक वर्ण हैं । इसका कागज कुछ मटमैला और पतला है । उसमें काली एवं लाल स्याही का प्रयोग हुआ है और प्रति जीर्णोन्मुख है। कवि श्रीधर ने वड्ढमाण चरिउ के लेखन-कार्य में प्रेरक एवं आश्रयदाता का परिचय देते हुए अपनी ग्रन्थ-प्रशस्ति में लिखा है-"जायस कुलावतंस श्री नरवर एवं सोमा के पुत्र नामचन्द्र ने एक दिन कवि से कहा कि हे कवि श्रीधर, जिस प्रकार आपने संसार में संताप को दूर करने वाले चन्द्रप्रभ एवं शान्ति जिनेश्वर के चरितों की रचना की हैं, उसी प्रकार अन्तिम तीर्थंकर वर्द्धमान के चरित को भी रचना कर दीजिये ।” कवि ने उस आग्रह को स्वीकार कर 'वर्धमान-चरित' की रचना कर दी । अपनी अन्त्य प्रशस्ति Page #91 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 50 में कवि ने उक्त नेमिचन्द्र के रामचन्द्र, श्रीचन्द्र एवं विमलचन्द्र नामक तीन पुत्रों के नामोस्लेख भी किये हैं। __ उक्त आश्रयदाता नेमिचन्द्र वोदउनगर के निवासी थे । कवि ने असुर-ग्राम में बैठकर यह रचना की थी । उक्त वोदाउ उत्तरप्रदेश का वर्तमान जिला 'बदाऊँ' प्रतीत होता है । कवि हरयाणा निवासी था । सम्भवत: असुहर ग्राम भी हरयाणा में होना चाहिए । बहुत सम्भव है कि यह असुहर ग्राम घिसता-पिटता एवं रूप परिवर्तन करता हुआ आजकल का हिसार नगर ही हो । विबुध श्रीधर ने अपनी रचना में पूर्ववर्ती किसी ग्रन्थ या ग्रन्थकार का उल्लेख नहीं किया फिर भी अध्ययन करने से प्रतीत होता है कि कवि महाकवि असग एवं पुष्पदन्त के वर्द्धमान चरितों से प्रभावित रहा है, किन्तु अपभ्रंश के क्षेत्र में वर्द्धमान चरित सम्बन्धी विबुध श्रीधर कृत वड्ढमाण चरिउ सर्वप्रथम स्वतन्त्र रचना है तथा परवर्ती अपभ्रंश कवियों में 'वड्ढमाण कव्वु' के प्रणेता जयमित्र हल्ल (अपरनाम हरिचन्द, वि० सं० १५ वी शती), 'सम्मइजिण चरिउ' के प्रणेता महाकवि रइधू (अपरनाम सिंहसेन वि० सं० १४४०-१५३०) तथा 'वड्ढमाण कहा' के प्रणेता कवि णरसेन (वि० सं० १४ वीं१५ वीं शती) ये कवि श्रीधर के चिर ऋणी रहेंगे । विबुध श्रीधर ने अपने 'वडूढमाण चरिउ' को २५०० ग्रन्थ प्रमाण कहा है उसमें कुल सन्धियाँ १० एवं कडवक संख्या-२३१ हैं । उक्त वडूढमाण चरिउ की कथावस्तु का मूलाधार दिगम्बर मान्यता प्राप्त कथावस्तु है। कवि ने प्रथम आठ सन्धियों में भगवान महावीर की पूर्वभवावली प्रस्तुत कर अन्तिम दो सन्धियों में उनके पांचों कल्याणकों का वर्णन किया है । वर्णन-प्रसंगः-- 'वडूढमाण चरिउ' में देश, नगर एवं ग्रामों के प्रचुर वर्णन मिलते हैं । इन वर्णनों में अप्रस्तुत-योजना द्वारा उनके उत्कर्ष की अभिवृद्धि की योजना के साथ ही अनेक स्वाभाविक चित्रण भी प्राप्त होते हैं । ग्राम्य जीवन की झांकियाँ तो अनुपम ही हैं । धान के लहलहाते खेत, उनकी मेढ़ों पर शुक भगाती हुई ग्राम्य-कन्याएँ, मधुर कण्ठ से गीत गाती हुई हालिनियाँ, गोधन से परिपूर्ण ग्राम, दधिमन्थन-रव तथा गोप-गोपिकाओं के विविध हास-विलास के जीवन्त चित्र अंकित हैं। इसी प्रकार नगर एवं देश-वर्णनों में भी कवि को उड़ाने कुलाचे भरती हुई प्रतीत होती हैं । (१ । ३) इसी प्रकार कवि ने मगध, विदेह, राजगृह, कुण्डग्राम आदि के वर्णन भी किये हैं, जिनमें वहाँ के प्राकृतिक सौन्दर्य, धन-धान्य, राजभवन, ऐश्वर्य आदि के मनोहारी वर्णन चित्रित हैं। इनके अतिरिक्त प्रातः एवं सन्ध्या वर्णन (७ । १५-१६), वन- उपवन, नदी, सरोवर आदि के भी अलंकृत शैली में वर्णन किए हैं। उनमें उपमा, उत्प्रेक्षा, अतिशयोक्ति आदि अलंकारों की छटा दर्शनीय है । चक्रवतियों, सम्राटों एवं राजाओं के वर्णन-प्रसंगों में कवि ने उनके शौर्य एवं पराक्रम की खुलकर चर्चाएँ की हैं । उस माध्यम से कवि ने शत्रु-राजाओं को ललकारें, योद्धाओं की दर्पोक्तियाँ, रणबांकुरों की हुंकारें एवं तुमुल-युद्ध के वर्णन-प्रसंगों में वीर, रौद्र एवं बीभत्स रसो की उद्भवनाएँ की हैं (५१७) । Page #92 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ कवि श्रीधर ने युद्ध सम्बन्धी सुन्दर वर्णन तो किये ही हैं और साथ ही साथ युद्ध में प्रयोग किए जाने वाले विविध प्रकार के शस्त्रास्त्रों के नामोल्लेख भी किए हैं । इससे मध्यकालीन युद्ध-विद्या एवं युद्ध-सामग्री पर अच्छा प्रकाश पड़ता है (३।२०, ५।७-२२)। 'वडूढमाण चरिउ' का अध्ययन करनेसे यह विदित होता है कि ग्रन्थकार बहुज्ञ था। किसी भी प्रासंगिक विषय पर वह उसकी गहराई तक जाने का पूर्ण प्रयत्न करता है। वह जब चक्रवर्तियो एवं सम्राटों के विषय में अपनी लेखनी चलाता है तो उनकी परिभाषाओं, कार्यप्रणालियों एवं राजनीति के विषय में भी गहरी चर्चा करता है। चक्रवर्ती राजा के पास होने वाले चेतन एवं अचेतन सात रत्नों एवं नवनिधियों के उल्लेख एवं उनके फलों का भी उसने निर्देश किया है । कवि का यह वर्णन निश्चय ही मध्यकालीन भारतीय इतिहास एवं संस्कृति की दृष्टि से विशेष महत्त्वपूर्ण है (८1५1८-१३) विद्यासिद्धि भारतीय साधना एवं संस्कृति का प्रमुख तत्त्व रहा है। समाज को चमत्कारों द्वारा प्रभावित करने का यह एक बड़ा भारी साधन था । प्रतीत होता है कि कवि के समय में भी उक्त विद्या-सिद्धि का पर्याप्त प्रचार था (४।१८-१९) राजनीति के क्षेत्र में भी कवि ने कुछ मूलभूत सिद्धान्तों की चर्चा की है । उसके अन्तर्गत कविने साम (४।१४) एवं भेद नीतियों (४।१५) को प्रमुखता दी है। प्रसंगवश उसमें सन्धि नीति (५।१) का भी उल्लेख किया है । क्योंकि इससे अकारण ही निरपराधियों का रक्तपात नहीं होता । एक प्रसंग में उसने राजा की तीन प्रधान शक्तियों-मन्त्र, उत्साह एवं बल (२।२) की भी चर्चा की है। राजागण जिस स्थान पर बैठकर गुप्त मन्त्रणा करते थे, कविने उसे 'मन्त्रगृह' (६।६) कहा है । प्रस्तुत काव्य में तीर्थकर महावीर के जन्माभिषेक, निष्क्रमण, तपश्चरण, विहार, बोधिलाभ एवं निर्वाण के प्रसंगों में नाना प्रकार की पौराणिक मान्यताओं का भी समावेश किया गया है (९३८)। . वड्ढमाणचरिउ के कर्त्ता की यह विशेषता है कि वह शब्दाडम्बर के घटाटोपों से दूर रहने का प्रयास करता है । रसों एवं अलंकारों की जबरदस्त ढूंस-ठाँस एव रहस्यवाद जैसे नीरस वादों से अपनी रचनाओं को दुरुह नहीं बनाता । जनकवि होने के कारण उसने गहन विषय लेकर भी उसे लोकानुकूल बनाकर उसे अत्यन्त सरस एवं सरल भाषा-शैली में प्रस्तुत किया है । वर्ण्य विषय को और भी अधिक स्पष्ट करने के लिए कवि ने लोकोक्तियों एवं मुहावरों का भी प्रयोग किया है, क्योंकि काव्य में इनका वही स्थान है, जो सोने के आभूषन में नगीने का (१।१७।१-२, २।१, ४६८, ४।१२, ५।३-४)। वड्ढमाणचरिउ में नायक के उदार चरितके साथ-साथ आचार, दर्शन एवं सिद्धान्त सम्बन्धी मान्यताएँ भी वर्णित हैं । कवि श्रीधर ने इसमें जैनागम का सार गागर में सागर की तरह भर दिया है । उक्त समस्त मान्यताएँ परम्परा प्राप्त ही हैं । कबि ने समवशरणप्रसंग में मुनि एवं गृहस्थाचार, सप्ततत्त्व, अनुप्रेक्षाएँ, मार्गणा, गुणस्थान, चार गतियाँ, सृष्टिरचना प्रभृति का विस्तृत वर्णन किया है। १-एयारह-सएहिं परिविगयहिं । संवच्छरसए णवहि समयहि । वड्ढ, १०॥४१॥८ २-चंदप्पह-संतिजिणेसराहँ । भव्वयण-सरोज-दिणेसराहँ । वड्ढ. १।२।६ ३-अनेकान्त.८।१२।४६५ Page #93 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 52 ४-अनेकान्त. ८।१२।४६५ ५-अनेकान्त. ८।१२।४६५ "सं. १४८६ वर्षे आषाढ़ वदि ७ गुरु दिने गोपाचल दुर्गे राजा डूंगरसिंह राज्य प्रवर्त्तमाने श्री काष्ठासंघ माथुरान्वये पुष्करगणे आचार्यश्री सहस्त्रकीर्ति देवास्तत् पट्टे आचार्य श्री गुणकीर्ति देवास्तच्छिष्य श्रीयशः कीर्तिदेवास्तेन निजज्ञानावरणीकर्म-क्षयार्थ इदं भविष्यदत्तपंचमीकथा लिखापितम् ।” [ प्रतिलिपिकार की यह पुष्पिका नया मन्दिर, धर्मपुरा, देहली के शास्त्र-भण्डार की जीर्ण प्रतिसे अंकित है ] ६ अनेकान्त-४।१२।४६५ ७ भविसयत्त चरिउ १।४ घत्ता-सुपटु अहिणंदउ जिणपयवंदिउ तवसिरिहरमुणि. (आमेरप्रतिसे दे. जै. ग्रं.प्र. संग्रह, पृ. १४५ ८ बारहसयवरिसहिं परिगएहिं, दुगुणिय पणरह वच्छर जुएहिं । भविसयत्तकहा ६।३० (दे. जै. ग्रं. प्र. संग्रह, पृ. ५०) ९ भविसयत्तकहा--१॥२-३. १० सुकुमालचरित-६।१३. ११ सुकु.-११२ १२-सुकुमाल-६।१२-१३-दे० १० ग्रं. प्र. सं. दिल्ली, १९६३ पृ. १०-११ १३ सणवासि एयारह सएहिं, परिवाडिए वरिसह परिगएहि । कसणट्ठमीहिं, आगहणमासि, रविवारि समाणिउ सिसिरमासि । सिरिषासणाह णिम्मलु चरित्तु, सयलामल-गुण रयणोह दित्तु । पास० १२१८ १४ गोल्हतणूरुहेण, वड्ढमाण० १।३।२, वील्हागभ समुभवदेहे-वडूढ० १०१४१।५ तियरणरक्खिय असुहरगामें-वडूढ० १०॥४१॥४. १५ पासणाह० १।२, ११४ ११९ १६ वडूढमाण-१०।४१ १७ इय वोदाउवणयरे मणोहरं-वडूढ० १०॥४११ १८ वड्ढ० १०।४१।४ १९ बड्ढमाण० १०४१।१६ Page #94 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 12. The Study of Prakrit Grammar for understanding. the Tadbhava Words in Kannada P. B. Badiger, Mysore. Languages, like cultures, are rarely sufficient unto themselves. The necessities of contact bring the speakers of one language into direct or indirect contact with those of neighbouring or culturally dominant languages. The contact may be friendly or hostile. It may move on the humdrum plane of business and trade relations or it may consist of borrowing literary influence or interchange of spiritual goods-art, science, religion etc. It would be difficult to point to a completely isolated language or dialect. Whatever the degree or nature of contact between neighbouring peoples, it is generally sufficient to lead to some kind of linguistic inter-influencing. Frequently the influence runs heavily in one direction. The language of a people that is looked upon as a centre of a culture is naturally far more likely to exert an appreciable influence on other languages spoken in its vicinity than to be influenced by them. The simplest kind of influence that one language may exert on another is the “borrowing" (or parellel changes to suit the genesis of borrowing languages) of words. The associated words are borrowed along with cultural borrowing. Each cultural wave brings to the language a new deposit of loan-words. In such a situation one can take a note of the extent to which the vocabularies of various people have filtered into those of other peoples. It is generally assumed that the nature and extent of borrowing depend entirely on the historical facts of cultural relation. It seems very probable that the psychological attitude of the borrowing language itself towards linguistic material has much to do with its receptivity to foreign words. The borrowing language reacts to the presence of foreign words, it may reject them, it may translate them or it may freely accept them. The borrowing of foreign words always entails their phonetic modifications. There are sure to be foreigo sounds or accentual peculiarities which do not fit the native phonetic habits. They are then so changed as to do as little violence as possible to their habits. Frequently, there are phonetic compromises. In view of the above facts, if we examine closely the Kannada vocabu. lary, we feel assured that it has borrowed largely from Sanskrit (more in Page #95 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 54 later years than in the early period) and Prakrit languages. We come across a larger number of Prakrit words in its stock. Kannada has been influenced by Sanskrit and Prakrit since its beginning. Kannada has borrowed many more words from Sanskrit in order to express the thoughts contained in the śāstras and Vedas, becauses it did not possess such a vocabulary that could correctly express them. Such a need compelled to make use of Sanskrit words with phonological and morphological changes. This tendency resulted in the abundant use of Sanskrit words in the early writings of Kannada With the advent of Jainism in Karnatak, Kannada came in close contact with Prakrit. The Jaina saints began to preach their religion in Kannada, They were compelled to use their technical vocabulary in course of their preaching. Thus in the early writing of Jaina poets in Kannada, a vast number of Prakrit words occupied permanent place. Besides, the ancient Kannada poets and writers were expert in Sanskrit, Prakrit and Kannada, They used both Sanskrit and Prakrit words in Kannada; The regional languages were naturally influenced by the Prakrit because it was a language of the common people and secondly, the writers used abundantly Prakrit words due to their phonetic feasibility. Moreover the Prakritic pronunciation better suited the Kannada phonetic tendencies. Thus the Kannada grammarians devoted a separate section in their works for such borrowed or loan-words under the title of Tadbhavas. These Tadbhavas in Kannada can be classified into three groups : phonologically modified Sanskrit words, Prakrit words and those Prakrit words which appear as if Kannada original words. Examples : bavi “well”, kavadi, "coweree” and guddali "pick-axe's etc. These are supposed to be Kannada words. These can not be given up because they can not be substituted with other equivalents. It seems that the Sanskrit words of this type entered into Kannada through Prakrit. Similarly, we find the flow of words from Telagu, Tamil, Marathi, Parsi, Hindustani, Urdu and English into Kannada. Kesiraja (1260 A.D.) has written a grammar of Kannada Language, known as “Šabdamanidar pana". After describing grammatical features, he has made an attempt to describe the Tadbhavas in the seventh chapter called "Apabhrasa-prakarana”. He uses the Apabhramśa in a general sense of the term like Patanjali. A close study of these Tadbhavas discloses a fact that he has put the Prakrit words in the name of Tadbhavas. These Tad. bhavas seem to have undergone the vocalic and consonantal changes so as to fit the native phonetic habits. The study of Prakrit Grammer enables to know how the Prakrit words are borrowed into Kannada, I have given beolw the vocalic and consonantal changes in Prakrit which correspond to those of Tadbhava words in Kannada : Page #96 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 55 1. Vocalic Changes : Kannada tỉna> tina śrngāra > singāra śrkhalā>sankhalā sankale>sankole, sanskrta>sakkada. mịttikā>muddigā>muddige angāra >ingāļa>ingaļa. jirka > jirige, danda > dandu, 6. Prakrit a. f changes to -a, -i -u. : tļņa>tiņa, śrrgāra >singāra, mộttika>muddigā, śrnkhalā >sankhala sanskrta > sakkada Initial - a changes to - i. angāra >ingāla Final - a changes to - e. and - u.: gihagihe, danda > dandu 2. Dipthongal Changes : a. ai changes to - e. saindhava >sendhava, vaidya>vejja. au changes to - 0, saurāṣtra >sorattha, maura>mora. 3. Anaptyxis : a. insertion of - a : yatna > jatana, indra>indara or inda, insertion of - i; śro>siri insertion of - u: padma > pauma 4. Consonantal changes : a. Sibilants; sa and sa change to - sa. sasi>sasi, rāśi>rāsi, samsaya dosa, vişaya visaya. Semi-vowel-ya initially changes to - ja. : yatna> jatana, yajña> janna, Jogin>jogi. saindhava >sendbava, vaidya> vejja>bejja. saurāştra >soratha > soratta> soraļa, maura>mora. yatna >jatana, indra>indara. śri>siri padmapaduma. saši>sasi, rāśi>rāsi, samsaya >samsaya, doşa> dosa, vişaya> visaya. yatna> jatana, yajña > janna, yogin>jogi. Page #97 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 56 5. Change of place of Articulation : Prakrit Kannada a. dental become retroflex : ta>ďa : sanghata > sanghāda sangbāta>sangbada na>ņa ; sthāna>ļhāņa. sthāva>thāņa>tāna b. tril becomes latral : ra>la : caraṇa>calaņa carana >calana 6. Voicing of Consonants : The tendency of voicing the surds is quite in agreement with the Prakrit used in South by Kundakunda and others. Later grammarians called this Sauraseņi feature. But linguistically this voicing precedes the elision of medial surds giving place to the constituent vowel or ya-śruti, a. ka>ga : asoka >asoga aśoka >asoga ca> ja ; kāca> gāja>gāju ţa>da : tada : ratna>radana ratna >radana pa>va : dipikā>divigā dipikā>divige vāpi>vāvi Vāpibävi 7. Changes of Conjunct-consonants : Most of the clusters tend to form geminated groups by the process of assimilation which is progressive and regressive. The consonants accord. ing to decreasing strength are : a) mutes, b) nasals and c) 1, s, v, y, r in order. The treatment of conjunct-consonapants as in Prakrit is the same in Kannada also. a. surd+surd : kta>tta : yukti>jutti tpa>ppa : utpața >uppada tpha >ppha : satphala >sapphala b. mute + pasal : tnanna: ratna>ranna c. mute+sibilants : vatsalā> vaccalā> vaccale apsaras>accharā>accarase d. sibilants + mutes : āścarya >accariya > accari kastüri>kattūri>katturi vişkira>vikkira, a kind of bird śāsvata>sāsata amavasya >amavassa >amāvāsa>amāvāse. e. liquids + mutes : parva > pabba >habba, sarva>savva>sabba, garbhagabbhagabba, dharma >dhamma, markața>makkada, karkasa> kakkasa. Page #98 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ f. liquids + semivowel : kārya>kajja, ārya>ajja. g. kșa : kșa changes to kkha and ccba which lose their aspiration in Kannada. pakşa>pakkha >pakka, kşira>khira>kira, akşi>acchi>acci, makși>macchi>macci, tīkşna> tikkha>tikka. 8. The process of palatalization : The process of palatalization is found to be very predominant. If the conjunct is made up of ta-varga and -ya, or to a limited extent -va, ca-varga takes place. This may be illustrated as follows: a. group with -y: tya >cca : nitya>nicca, jya >jja : rājya>rajja, dya>jja : vidyā>vijja>bijje b. group with -va : tva>cca : catva > cacca, jva>jja : jvara > jara c. group with -la : bilva > billa > billu palyayana> pallana >ballana. Taking into consideration the above Prakrit phonological changes which correspond to those of Tadbhava words in Kannada, it can be said that the study of Prakrit grammar will be useful in understanding the Tadbhava words in Kannada in particular and some morphological features in general. Page #99 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 13. The Etymological Definitions and Pali Synonyms Prof. M. G. Dbadphale, Poona 0.0. In my previous paper "Adhivacanas As A Class Of Pali Synonyms' submitted for the Seminar in Prakrit, held at Poona, I discussed how the adhivacanas become instrumental in producing newer synonyms in the Pali Canon. In this paper, I wish to discuss, how far and in what ways do the 'etymological definitions in the Pali Canon contribute to the increase of Pali synonyms. It will be seen that along with the adhivacanas, the nibba. canas also play a significant role in the coinage of newer synonyms, Pre. suming the analysis and the discussion of the adhivacanic mode which I have presented in my previous paper, I shall like to make a straight way beginning by citing a few typical examples of the Pitakan synonyms based on fresh etymologies. The verse 221 from the Theragātha runs as follows. (see in this context Thag. 140 also.) Brahmabandhu pure asiñ idani(m) kho'mhi brahmano / Tevijjo nhatako ca’mhi sottiyo ca'mhi vedagū // 0.1. The Elder Angaạikabhāradvaja bere uses some five adjectival terms, which, it is obvious, do no admit an interpretation in the Vedic-Brahmanic sense, for nobody will be justified in saying that the Elder has become a master of the three Vedas (tevijjo=Sk. traividyah) or that he has performed the ablution marking the completion of his religious studentship (nhătako Sk, snātakah) or that he has become a member of the Brahmin caste (brahmaņa), which was an impossibility. What then is the correct interpretation of these terms ? The term Brāhmaṇa is to be interpreted not as a Jativacana but as a gunavacana, meaning 'one who has driven out all his evil tendencies' (bahitapāpadhammo). Tevijja likewise speaks of 'one who bas realized threefold knowledge in the peculiarly Buddhist sense, to wit: Remembrance of former births, the Divine Eye and Extinction of all blases. It has no reference to the Brahmanic 'knower of the three Vedas' (traividyaḥ). 1.1. Now a question may arise : on what ground have we discarded the usual meanings of these terms and have given a different interpretation, equating them with a novel signification ? The answer is a plain one. Lord Buddha himself has elsewhere in his sermons, invested these terms with definite significations as pointed above, and it is quite legitimate, therefore, to interpret the terms in those peculiarly Buddhistic senses. One can refer in this context to the Chapter 19th of the Dhammapada (viz. Page #100 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 59 Dhamma thavagga) to find new etymologies and new interpretations of some old words and ideas. This Chapter from the Dhammapada is not an isolated instance. Such etymologies are scattered all over the Tipitaka and the examples can be classified under two main heads : (i) Re-etymologising of old words. (ii) Re-interpretation of old terms. In case of the words brahmana, samaṇa, pabbajita etc. one finds fresh and edifying etymologies presented, while in the case of the words like tevijja, vedagu etc. one finds fresh interpretations offered by the Buddha. 1.2. Since the Pali equates brāhmaṇa with bahitapāpadhamma, samaṇa with samacarita and pabbajita with pabbajitamala, these turn out to be synonymous expressions. In the words of REICHANBACH brahmana, samana, pabbajita etc. can be rightly called as abbreviative definitions1. A definition is an introduction of new terms as a function of known terms' as when we define a submarine' as 'a ship capable of going under water'. Logically all the definitions are absolute cases of the simple converse of A-propositions, both the subject and the predicate terms being distributed. They form equations. Thus the relation of equality effected by definitions is a special type of the relation of equisignificance i. e. of having the same meaning. It is thus a type of synonymy, a type which is exploited by QUINE in illustrating the logical truth of the proposition 'no unmarried man is married' implying the truth 'no bachelor is married'. The logical truth of such statements is formed by substituting one synonym (i. e. bachelor) in place of another synonym (i. e. unmarried man). Since the interchangeability criterion of synonymy is fulfilled in such examples, they prove to be adequate synonyms. 0771 1.3. When the Lord once establishes (either in his mind or publicly) the relation of equisignificance between bahitapupadhamma and brāhmaṇa, the usage of one in the place of the other becomes permissible in all the like contexts. It is only on the strength of such equations that the Elder Anganikabharadvaja could call himself a brahmana, a samana etc. Notable in this context is also the 5th Sutta (The Brahmana-Sutta) from the first Vagga of the Udana. The Elders Sariputta, Moggallana, Mahakassapa, etc., in all ten in number, were approaching the Lord. The Blessed One saw them coming from a distance and said, "Lo, Monks, the Brahmanas are approaching me" (Addasa kho Bhagava te ayasmante dürato'va agacchante, disvāna bhikkhu amantesi, ete, bhikkhave, brāhmaṇa, agacchanti, ete bhikkhave, brahmana agacchanti). A certain monk who happened to be a brahmin by birth could not understand this and asked to what extent one is a brahmin? (aññataro brāhmaṇa-jatiko bhikkhu Bhagavantaṁ etad-avoca, 'kittävatā nu kho bhante, brahmano hoti, katame ca pana brāhmaṇa-kāraka dhamma)', to which the Lord replied •T..! Page #101 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 60 Bahitua papake dhamme, ye caranti sada sata khīnasamyojana buddha, te ve lokasmir brahmana (The fanciful etymology based on the word-play, as implied in the above verse is also observable with a slightly different interpretation at Ndl. p. 72 where we read 'Sattanna dhammanam bahitatta brahmano,' at D. iii 94 (Roman) we have papam bahesun. Dha, iii. 84 has bāhitapapatta and DA. I. 244 glves 'ariya bahitapa patta brahmaņa). 1.4, The examples like the verse 388 from the Dhammapada, namelyBahita papo'ti brahmano samacariya samano'ti buccati | Pabbajayamattano malam tasma pabbajito'ti vuccati // are all, really interesting examples of resultant synonymy where one word tends to acquire the sense of the other. By a certain stipulation (in most cases prompted by ethical considerations) the terms like brahmana, nhataka, pabbalita etc. become almost the stenographs for the fuller expressions of bahitapapadhama, ninhatasabbapāpaka, pabbajitamala etc. respectively. In other words the Pali nibbacaniyas like these appear not as simple terms but as specific code_words. 2.0 So far only the logical aspect of this type of synonymy is consi. dered. The consideration led to the conclusion that the Pali nibbacanas are the steno-symbolic words formed under the influence of certain stipula. tiva definitions. These stipulative definitions, however, lead us to another and equally important consideration which is linguistic relating to phonetic and etymological aspects. For when the Buddha gave such stipulative definitions he showed some regard for, nay, even based these definitions on etymological grounds. To consider a few examples : (a) aguí na karoti kiñci loke nägo tadi pavuccate tathatta / ( (b) ninhaya sabbapāpakani kappam ne'ti tamāhu nhatako / ( (c) Samitatta hi pāpānam samaņo'ti pavuccati (Dh. 265 cd.) [See also SD, verse 119.1 In (a) there is an attempt of dissolving naga into natagu (sk. agas) thus equating it semantically with the Sanskrit anagas (= sinless). In (b) there is no word-play or semantic make-shift, but the sinana (= bathing or washing) as in the Vitthüpamasutta from M. Is conceived as ethical rather Page #102 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 61 than physical, i.e. washing away of the evils is intended. In (c) the attempt is to relate samana to sk. sama and not to śrama, the interchange of -sa-and-sa being possible only in Pali and Prakrits (one recalls how in the first act of the Mṛcchakatikam, Śakāra mistakes Vasantasena's santo'si for śranto'si).8 2.1. These are thus the examples of forced derivations and fanciful etymologies of which there is an abundance in Pali as in the Brahmanas, in the Nirukta of YASKĀCĀRYA and in the classical Sanskrit poetry, as when KĀLIDĀSA implies a connection of raja with-ranja rather than with-raja (Raja Prakṛtiranjanāt, Raghuvamsa IV. 12). The reaction of the scholars to such etymologies and derivations consists in treating them as 'crude attempts of deriving,' as 'fanciful etymologies', as 'folk-etymologies'-in short anything but 'scientific etymologies'. Along with the depreciation of these so-called etymologies from the purely scientific point of view, there also comes a generous and broad-minded appreciation of these from the point of view of 'peeping into the opinions of the authors of these etymologies', of 'knowing the public mind' as also the ancient ways of interpreting the connections between the phenomena' etc. Since our primary concern is with the question how the nibbacanas produce synonyms and not with the Pali etymologies as such, these considerations are not to the point. Suffice it is to note that in these etymologies the sounds are transposed very arbitrarily, the essential parts of the words are wholly ignored, the quantity of vowels in the cases of contraction are entirely neglected; all sorts of semantic makeshifts are availed of, in short all principles of sound etymologies are set aside. These etymologies touch upon quibbling, paranomasia, figura, etymologica (see infra 2.5) etc. It will, therefore, be certainly interesting to mark the successive stages through which the nibbacanas emerge as synonyms proper. Some five stages can be demonstrated, of course, with least pretension for accuracy. The overlapping is very unavoidable. The nibbacanas which pass through all or most of these stages can only attain the status of synonyms of what they stand for. The stages are (i) Puns and Quibbles, (ii) A purposive twist effecting a shift in the meaning and corresponding roughly to the chala in the Nyayaśastra, (iii) Establishment of pseudoetymological relations between the nibbacaniyas and the nibbacanas, (iv) Synonymous usage along with such etymologies and (v) Purely synonymous usage as divested of such etymologies. The following is a brief account of all these stages: 2.3. Puns and Quibbles: The puns and quibbles though meagre as compared to their occurrence in classical Sanskrit Literature are yet not wholly absent in Pali, The Dh. verse 97 is a fine specimen of 'double entendre' Assaddho akataññu ca sandhicchedo ca yo naro Hatavakāso vantaso sa ve uttamaporiso || Page #103 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 62 [Trans : The man who is free from credulity, who knows the uncreated, who has severed all ties, who has put an end to all occasions (for the performance of good or bad actions), who has renounced all desires, he, indeed, is exalted among men. - S. RADHAKRISHNAN.7 Here akataññū stands not for an ungrateful person but for one who knows the Nibbūna which is a-kata or uncreated and sandhiccheda also means not a thief' but one who has cut the knots of rebirth'. At another place we find the Buddha saying jocularly that the ajjhāyakas (Sk. adhyāyaka) are so called as they do not meditate (a-jjhāyaka-unmeditative). These puns and quibbles however have not raised to the status of synonyms and we do not find elsewhere in the Tipitaka the word akataññū used for the knower of the Nibbana' or the word Sandhiccheda used to mean "a liberated person'. 2.4. A Purposive twist effecting a shift in the Meaning: A bright example of this tendency is to be found at the beginning of Pārājika. The Brahmin Veranjaka comes to the Buddha asking whether the latter is really a venayika, appagabbha, jegucchi4 etc. as his adversaries report him to be. The Buddha instead of rejecting the charge says that there is a way (pariyāyo) by which even a righteous speaker can truly characrerize him as venayika etc. He then gives a different turn and a fresh and healthy interpretation of all these expressions, accepting the allegations to be true only in these specific meanings. Here the Buddha exploited the puas possible on the words venayika5 etc. But we do not find these expressions used eulogistically in the context of the Lord except in some very isolated instances like Upāli-sutta (M. II p. 59), where venayika ('the averter or diverter of passions', Miss. I.B. HORNER) is used in praise of the Lord. 2.5. Establishment of the pseudo-etymological relation etc : The glowing example to illustrate this variety is the Dhaniya-sutta from the Sn. This is a 'poetical duel' (see JAYAVIKRAME. UCR. Vol. VIII. No. 2. p. 88)between the two chief interlocutors, the herdsman Dhaoiya and Lord Buddha; the one rejoicing in his worldly security and the other in his religious conviction. The Buddha used invariably the words of the herdsman either giving a slight twist to the meaning or revaluing them from a religious point of view. Thus when the heardsman expresses his satisfaction because he is a pakkodhano and duddhakhiro. The Lord tells him that he rejoices equally because he is exactly the opposite of it, i.e. akkodhano and vigatakhilo. This means that the Lord purposely twists pakkod hano (really intended for 'one who has cooked his rice' pakka todano so as to extract from it the 'excess of wrath or anger' (pa+kodbano), taking advantage of the fluctuation common in Pali, between Page #104 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 63 da-and-dha-. Again when the Dhaniya says proudly that he is 'self-supporting' (attavetanabhato'hamasmi), the Lord plays with the word bhata and negates that he is not the servant of any one. (nahan bhatako'smi kassaci). The poem Itself does not add a single synonym for anything that is referred to in it but is very important as it shows much material on which the Buddha re-interpreted many of the old terms giving at the same time an apparent phonetic support to the procedure adopted. The fluctuations between da and dha, ra and la, the change of quantity of vowels (i.e. khīra becoming khila), the intentional play on words like kuți and bhatta and such other things were the material with which the Lord built newer etymological structures. The khettajina is apparently derived at one place (Sn. Sabhiyasutta, p. 348) from viceyya (equated with vijeyya) and khetta philosophically conceived as a vast (bramha) khetta of the human (manusaka) and divine (dibba) types khettāni viceyya kevalani dibbam mānusakan ca bramhakhettam sabhakhettamulabandhana pamutto khettajino tudi pavuccate tathatta Such fragmentary etymologies abound in Pali.. 2.6. Synonymous Usage along with such etymologies : In this fourth stage the word freshly etymologised is used in that particular sense but is still invariably accompanied with the particular fresh etymology. Thus for example Ye brahmanā bāhita papadhammā. Here the tone appears slightly diffident in the sense that a fear lurks in the mind of the user of the term Brāhmaṇa, that it might be erroneously understood in its older convention and hence is the haste of adding the newly established convention on the basis of the fresh etymology. This stage marks the process of synonym-making almost near completion, yet in need of a foot note like or paraphrasal explanation as for instance these brāhmaṇas, that is to say, those who have expelled their evils' etc. 2.7. Purely Synonymous Usage of the New Etymological Definitions : This is a final and finished stage. The user can confidently use the terms brahmana, nhātaka etc. purely in their newer etymological significations. This, we saw. Anganikabhāraddaja did (supra. 0.1). Now, in course of time, this newer etymological sense gained currency at such an extent that it became necessary to point out at some place that the word Brahmana used in their context was intended to denote a brahmin caste and not as usual bahitapāpatta. Thus we read at Pārājikā p. 222. id ha brāhmaṇo'ti jatiya brāhmaṇo ti vuttam hoti [Trans. Here in this particular Vinayic context the word brāhmana denotes 'a brahmin by caste.') Page #105 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 64 3.0 At this point, it will be proper, to discuss in brief, the term Nibbacana which is used all through the argument. Nibbacana has only one sense in Pali viz. etymology (rather derivation). It is a recognized mode of explaining a term and a concept, the commentators often use. The word dukkha is usually given as a stock example of this nibbacanic mode of explication. (See Vism, 494 (Roman) where BUDDHAGHOSA derives it it from du (bad, woeful) kha (ākāsa or space). The cognate term of nibbacana is nirruti which has such different usage as a vedanga, pronunciation dialect etc. (s. v. PTSD). It, of course, does mean in some contexts etymological interpretation', but this usage is relatively infrequent. When Atthasalini enumerate three dukas (1306-1308 viz. adhivacana, nirutti and paññatti) the reference is definitely to the etymological meaning'. The expositor (I.p. 69) explains the nirutti with a citation from S.III.87 (Roman) abhisamkharot'ti kho bhikkhave tasma samkhara'. [Trans.. samkhāras are those states which compose what is compound]. A characteristic of the nirutti is explained in words evam niddhāretvā sahetukaṁ katvā ruccamānā abhilāpā nirutti nāma (ibid) [Trans. Etymology is the derivation of words expressed together with the reason in word definition. MAUNG TIN] The nirutti thus explains the reason why the term is so called. The reason is of course etymological, i.e. derivational). In the definition of the nirutti the hetu is specifically mentioned and in the given example the hetu is expressly mentioned. But this should not be construed to mean that for being a proper nirutti the hetu must always be explicitly stated. It is stated in such examples as samitaṭṭā hi pāpānam tasmā samano'ti vuccati' while it is implied in the rest of the cases. The students of YASKA'S Nirukta will recall that YASKA while stating the derivations invariably proceeds with asking kasmat, i.e, why a particular thing is so called? V. K. RAJAVADE has discussed at great length this peculiarity in YASKA'S method [see his Ed. of Nir. pp. CX(XLV), CXI(XLV), CXII (XLVI) CXIII(XLVI). CXIV (XLVI-XLVII)]. He has also noted that YASKA has used kasmat after 42 derivable words, two of which are in the Maharaśṭra recension. DURGA'S comment on the word tasmat in this context, is also notable. Yeşu abhidhananirvacanaprarambhakeşu ācāryaḥ kasmät-sabdam uttararatra na kuryat teşu api vyakhyakale ayam samut padyaḥ | tatha hi vyakhyāsakalyam bhavati / In short, the word kasmat asking for the reason in the word derivation is very essential according to DURGA. He advises us to supply it wherever YASKA has not explicitly stated it." 3.1. To continue, the expositor comments that really speaking there is not much difference in meaning between three dukas, viz. adhivacana, nirutti and paññatti (see Expositor I.p.69). This is very right. The Mohavicchedini (Abhidhammamatika'tthavannana, p.111) further points out that the three dukas though converging in the meaning are yet stated differently only with a view to pointing out the difference in their origin and purpose. (Read. na Page #106 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 65 hi adhivacana-nirutti-panħattisu atthato koci bhedo atthi, nipphatti-nimittabhe. dadassanatthaṁ pana nesam vibhāgenapadattho dassito. The point which the Expositor wants to make is that when a word is given as a synonym of another word, the adhivacana marks its adhikara, the nirutti points out its derivation, and the panħatti, its signifying mode. This is why an amalgamation of the usage of these terms is perceptible as for example A.IV. 88-89 sukhassetam adhivacanam yadidam puññāni where subhasse'sa paħħatti can also be thought of. [The Expositor.I.p.69 says 'terms, signifying (one and the same idea) in various ways, e.g. takka, vitakka, sankappa, are called 'ex... pressions' (=nirutti)'. Here adhivacana and nirutti converge in meaning.] 3.2 Comparison of Adhivacanas and Niruttis : The formal distinction between the two is that the former is presented usually in the form 'B' is the adhivacana of A' (i.e. amukasse'tam adhivacanan) while the latter is generally introduced with 'tasma amuko'ti vuccati'. A more vital difference between the two pertains to their origin. The adhi. vacanas have their stand primarily on metaphors while the niruttis or nibba. cana are based on the slender phonetic semblance between the nibbacaniyas and the nibbacanas. In other words the adhivacanas acquire their status of synonyms through metaphorization while niruttis do it through some pseudo etymological relations. The differences between the two can be still more exactly stated by subjecting them to a specific difference under the generic heading of 'metaphoric activity'. (Here, the phrase 'metaphoric activity' is to be understood in its etymo. logical meaning, meta, - a change and phora - a motion. A change in the motion is the resultant where the motion is of course to be conceived as semantic rather than a physical one). The following diagram will clarify the position : Vocable Change in the Meaning Modus operandi (a) Kantaka(=a thorn) (piyarūpa & sātarūpa Metaphorization (pleasant and agree. able) (b) B(b)rahmana bahita papa Etymologization (A Brahmin by (a sinless person) based on pseudocaste) metaphor or pun. 4.0 The preceding discussion can be summed up with the following remarks: 4.1 The Buddha in his reformative zeal wanted to revalue many of the old terms like brahmana, nhataka, samaņa etc. This was a socio-religious ideal. He tried to achieve this by means of fresh interpretations (etymo. logical and otherwise) and presented many stipulative definitions in the course of his discourses, Page #107 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 66 4.2 Some justification for the new interpretations was thought essential and he adduced reasons for the peculiar interpretations he offered. The arguments were of the popular etymological type (sahetukam katvā vacanan. The way for such a procedure was always paved by the vast Brahmana Lit. and more especially by the Nirukta school of etymological exegesis. 4.3 These etymologies need not be examined scientifically as the Buddha never set before himself the task of supplying scientific etymologies. His interest in the language was pragmatical. He looked at the words only as means to convey the ethico religious import of his teachings. There are places in the Canon (see Db, verses 266, 268, 270 etc.) where the Buddha even shows a disapproval of true etymologies. To illustrate, it appears in Buddha's times the word ärya was connected by the then etymologists to the V (to attach) from which perhaps we have a cogpate in ari(attacker, an enemy). But the Buddha, a staunch non-violent as he was, could not concède to this and in bold defiance to the then prevalent ideas he said 'na tena ariyo hoti yena pāņāni himsati [Trans. A man is not noble (or elect) because he injures living creatures. S. RADHAKRISHNAN] and we in Pali the word ariya derived from ara (far off), meaning one who keeps himself far off from violence or depravities. [At A. IV. 145. (Roman) we have ari hattă ariyo hoti and a little later ārakatta kilesanaṁ...etc.) . 4.4 Thus, it can be appreciated that, after all, the Buddha did not misetymologise certain words as he re-etymologised them. The re-etymologising was achieved through a skilful employment of puns (pseudo metaphors), a poetic quality which POTEBNJA recognises under the name 'inner etymo. logy'. The purning unlike other tropes, is not merely a confrontation or a mecbanical sum of juxtaposed terms. It is 'Energy' in the Aristotalian sense. The Buddha is to be credited with the authorship of such 'inner etymologies.' 4.5 Following the footsteps of the Lord, the commentators perfected this art and we read the following from the VA (Samantapasūdika) about the brahmana; Bramham anati'ti brabmano, mante sajjhayati'ti attho / idameva hi jalibrámhanānam niruttivacanaṁ | Ariya fana hahitapā patta brahmana ti vuccanti Thus the vocable B(b)rāhmaṇa, to use the words of Balley, is "homonymes etymologiques' (two different words having the same sound). Brahmana has two derivations in Pali, one Brabmanical and the other Buddhistic. In most of the contexts the words ariya, brāhmana etc, are to be understood in their Buddhistic derivations (Ariya nirutti) alone 4.6 When the Buddha derived purindada from pure pure dānam adasi so called because he gave gifts from town to town or as 'pure danam adasi he was a giver of alms in the past. This alone is to be accepted as a right Page #108 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ etymology in the Buddhist context. For if we relate it to the Vedic puraṁdara and mark purindada as a mere distorted form of puramdara (vide PTSD s.v. purimdada we are missing some thing very important. In the first place, we of Indra are ignoring the complete metamorphosis in the character as is depicted in the Pali canon. If the deeds and character change, the names and epithets must also change and if these change, their significations should also change, the names then, are to be derived independently and diffe rently. What relevancy puramdara can have in Pali where there no more remain fortresses of the non-Aryans to be destroyed. The relevancy is only of the appraisal of Dana which elevates one to the position of purimdada. Puramdara is Vedic, puramdada is Buddhist. Thus, there is a real 'morphological diversity' for if they have a difference in meanings it is because they are different persons altogether. 4.7. One can go a still further and insist that it is not always wise to translate the Bhikkhu in oft-repeated 'sunatha bhikkhave' with an assiduously pointed reference to the original etymological sense of the word of 'begging alms', 'Oh, ye, almsmen' was never the address of the Buddha. Begging of alms is after all a very minor thing, recommended only for the subsistence.. The Buddha, always, looked at his men as those philosophers who not unlike him, saw peril in the existence (the bhikkhu being derived from bhi (fear, peril)+ikkhu (=one who sees), (samsare bhayamikkhati'ti bhikkhu, adinavadassavi). So now there will be always this tussle, for the etymologist will always say a bhikkhu (=a beggar) is 'one who begs' (bhikkhat'ti bhikkhu) and the Dhammapada will always insist, A na tena bhikkhu so hoti yavata bhikkhate pare | vissam dhammam samādāya bhikkhu hoti na tavata 67 (Trans. He is not a mendicant simply because he begs others (for alms). Receiving stale things, he does not become a mendicant thereof.) Shall we be justified in sticking to the historical etymological meaning of the word bhikkhu, disregarding completely all that Lord wanted to convey through this word ? Below is given a register of only a few important words, peculiarly derived in the Pali canoncial and commentorial literature. References to their actual occurances can be found out from PTSD which also gives the peculiar etymologies of these words. ajhayaka anuvidita arahā ariya ajaniya kusala khettajina caraṇavā tathāgata tevijja näga nahataka (nhātaka) paribbajaka pandita brāhmaṇa bhikkhu bhünahu loka viriyava vedagu venayika samana sabbaji sottiya Page #109 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 68 NOTES 1. For this see What is Language ? A new approach to Linguistic Description by ROBERT M.W. DIXON..1966 p. €6. 2. We should say Brāhmana=cf. bahitapāpadhamma. 3. See also DA I. P. 70'Samano'ti Bhagavato samitapāpatāya laddhavohāro. The Jain Agamas also give their own etymologies of Samana. (a) Samamaņai tena so samano (Thānanga.3) (b) So samano jai sumano bhāvena jai na hoi pāvamano (ibid.6) (c) Samayāe samano hoi (Uttarājjhayana 25,31) See also Abhidhānarājendrakośa which gives some more as sama anati iti etc. 4. appagabbha (=unobtrusive, free from boldness) occurs in the Vājasaneyi-Samhitā as : apagalbha vyrddhyai apagalbham; Jegucchi (=one who detests or avoides); bhūnahu (=puritanical), 5. This mode of interpretation is very much alike what the Sanskrit rhetoricians choose to call śleşa vakrokil, See MAMMAȚA'S Kávyaprakasa IX, the very first verse, yadukramanyathā vākyamanyathanyena yojyate śleşena......sā vakroktistatha dvidhä // (Trans : When what is said by one person in one sepse and is construed by another person in a different sense either through punning or through intonation, it is Equivoque 6. To-day what we have before us is only the written record of the Pali Canon. We do not know in what way the words used to be pronounced. But when the commen. tator (DA-I.p. 146.) derived araha or arahanta as (kilesarūpānam ar nam hatatra) (=a killer of the enemies in the form of deprivities) he had very probably the Support of the then prevalant pronunciation. The contemporary Jain Prakrit was already saying arihanta (namo arihantānam..) See also A.IV. 145 ārakatta kilesanan, armann hatattă araha -hoti. Again when the loka is derived at S.IV, 52 from lusia. et is because, as is suggested by LUDERS, the form in the Eastern Canon must have been loga (voiced-g-) and not loka, Lujjati kho, bhikkhu, tasmā loko'ri vuccati. The voiced-j- suggests the voiced -- (Trans : It crumbles away, brethren. Therefore, it is called 'the world') See Beobachtungen üben die sprache des Buddhistischen urkanons. Berlin 1954. p.66. 7. See also the derivation of duḥkha given by BHATTAKSIRASVĀMIN in his gloss on Amarakośa-duşțāni khāni asmin iti. The derivations are many times definitions aiming at giving in nut-shell the aspects of the thing defined (or derived the aspects as implied in that particular science or tradition, Mark the Vedanta-way of deriving the word alman, 'Yaccāpnoti yadadatte yaccătti vișayāniha / etc. It is from this point of view that we have to understand the derivation-cum-definitions of words like Bhagavā or Bhagavanta (NDI. 142=ND, 466; Vism. 210 sq; DA.I. 32.sq.) 8. There is a common complaint about the Niruktic and the Buddhistic derivations, namely, that both these traditions present not one but many (alternative) derivations of a word,-a procedure which makes each derivation doubtful. I refrain from say. ing anything about tha Niruktic derivations. But when the Pali commentators give many derivations, they do not mean these as possible or probable alternatives. They sincerely mean all these derivations, and they have some definite canoncial support for this. For, on many occasions, the canon itself tells us that the word is true in two or more senses of the term. Take, for example, the word Tathāgata. T. W. RHYS DAVIDS ahd STEDE grumble (s.v, P.T.S.D.) 'BUDDHAGHOSA (DAI. 59-67) gives eight explanations showing that there was no fixed tradition on that point, and that be bimself was in doubt. But we have only to remember that in she Lokasutta (Itiv.) Page #110 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Buddha himself has suggested four such derivations of Tathagata. In Thag. verse. 490. Sarabhang also sugaests Yeneva maggena gato vipassi...tenañjasen agamasi Gotamo'. Do we complain against the modern speaker if in his speech he says that the word is true in both the senses of the term or all the senses of the term? Then that what does it matter if the Buddha and following him, the Buddhist commentators say a particular word is true in many of the senses of that term? There is one more thing. Sometimes a thing or a person is called by the same name by one for one reason and by other for another reason. The poet-Thera Vañgisa said that some called him Vañgisa because he was born in Bengal and some because he was 'master, of speech (vāca vanga). Read Vange Jato'ti Vangiso, vacane issaro'ti va Vangiso iti me nama abhavi (vi) lokasammatam || 9. Although through-out this discussion the word 'etymology' has been used, it is possible to argue that in-many cases what we find is not an etymology but etiology (Gr. aitia cause). Etiology is 'an assignment of a cause or reason for a custom, a name, an object etc, The Pali sahetukam vacanam katva and the Sanskrit kasmat used invariably by YASKACARYA while presenting the derivations also point out this etiological aspect. The derivations are supposed to be the explanations or reasons why a thing or a person etc. is called by a particular name. 10. But read C. E, GODGE. UCR. Vol. III No. I, p. 49. The earlier meaning of the word 'Purandara' and 'purabhid' was forgotten and a new meaning was attached to the mispronounced word 'purindada, 'Purindada' is thus to be regarded as a distorted form of Vedic 'Purandara'. See alsa GEIGER, PLL 44.3 and Saddanīti. pp, 506-507. Tattha Sakko'ti devaraja, so hi atthanam sahassam pi muhuttena cintanasamatthataya sa-para-hitam kātum sakkoti'ti Sakkoti vuccati; aññatra pana dhātūnama visaye taddhitavasena 'sakkaccam danam adasi'ti sakko'ti evam pi attham gahetva sakkasaddo niruttinayena sädhetabbo, vuttam hi Bhagavata (S. I. 230) Sakko. Mahāli, devānam indo, pubbe manussabhūto sakkacam dānam adāsi, tasma Sakko'ti vuccati'. A D DA Dh ᎠᏂᎪ Itiv M Nd1 Nd2 PLL P,T.S.D. S Sn Thag Thig UCR VA Vism - - - - www - - - Anguttaranikaya Dighanikaya Dighanikaya-aṭṭhakatha Dhammapada Dhammapada atthakatha Itivuttaka Majjhimanikaya Mahaniddesa Culaniddesa 69 Suttanipäta Theragatha Pali Language and Literature (W.E. GEIGER) Pali English Dictionary by T W RHYS DAVIDS and STEDE Samyuttanikaya Therigatba Univercity of Ceylon. Vinaya atthakathā a Visuddhimagga References from Saddaniti are to the page numbers of HELMER SMITH'S ed, of the text. Page #111 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ १४. प्राकृत तथा अपभ्रंश का ऐतिहासिक विकास डा० देवेन्द्रकुमार शास्त्री प्राचीन भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं के विकास क्रम में प्राकृत तथा अपभ्रंश भाषाओं का महत्वपूर्ण योग रहा है । ये भाषाएं विभिन्न युगों में बोली तथा भाषाओं में होने वाले परिवर्तनों की संसूचक | डा० चटर्जी ने ठीक ही कहा है कि वैदिक शब्द या संस्कृत, प्राकृत और भाषा का प्रयोग संक्षिप्त और सुविधा के लिए तथा भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं की तीन अवस्थाओं के लिए किया गया है, और " प्राकृत" तथा "भाषा" के मध्य में संक्रमण • शील अवस्था जो कि प्राकृत या मभाआ की ही एक अंग थी, सुविधा की दृष्टि से अपभ्रंश कही जाती है' । प्राकृत शब्द का अर्थ और उसकी व्याप्ति डा० जार्ज ग्रियर्सन, वाकरनागल, रिचर्ड पिशेल और प्रो० एन्टोने मैलेट प्राभृत भाषावैज्ञानिकों ने वैदिक युग की प्रादेशिक चोलियों के विकास से शिलालेखों की प्राकृत तथा साहित्यिक प्राकृतों का उद्भव एवं विकास माना है । वैदिक युग की प्राकृत बोलियों को प्राचीन या प्राथमिक प्राकृत (२,००० ई०पू० - ५,०० ई० पू० ) नाम दिया गया है । डा० ग्रियर्सन के शब्दों में अशोक (२५० ई. पू.) के शिलालेखों तथा महर्षि पतंजलि (१५० ई. पू.) के ग्रन्थों से यह ज्ञात होता है कि ई. पू. तोसरी शताब्दी में उत्तर भारत में आयकी विविध बोलियों से युक्त एक भाषा प्रचलित थी । जनसाधारण की नित्य व्यवहार की इस भाषा का क्रमागत विकास वस्तुतः वैदिक युग की बोलचाल की भाषा से हुआ था । इसके समानान्तर हो इन्हीं बोलियों में से एक बोली से ब्राह्मणों के प्रभाव द्वारा एक गौणभाषा के रूप में लौकिक संस्कृत का विकास हुआ। श्री पीटर्सन ने अपने लेख में बताया है कि प्राकृत वह संस्कृत है जिसे यहां के आदिवासी लोग अशुद्ध उच्चारण के रूप में बोलते थे । किन्तु जार्ज ग्रियर्सन उन से सहमत नहीं हैं । उनका स्पष्ट कथन है कि प्राकृत का अर्थ है-नैसर्गिक एवं अकृत्रिम भाषा । इसके विपरीत संस्कृत का अर्थ है- संस्कार की हुई तथा कृत्रिम भाषा । संस्कृत से प्राकृत सदा भिन्न रही है । प्राकृत बोल-चाल की भाषा थो । भाषा का स्वभाव आज भो प्राकृत है इसलिए उस के स्वभाव को प्रकृति कहते हैं । प्राकृत शब्द प्रकृति से निष्पन्न हुआ है । प्राकृत शब्द का मुख्य अर्थ स्वाभाविक है । प्राकृत लगभग तीन सहस्राब्दियों और उसके पूर्व की बोल-चाल की भाषा रही है । भाषा-विज्ञान में साहित्यिक भाषा को भाषा कहा जाता है । जिसमें कोई साहित्य रचना नहीं को जाती, जो केवल मौखिक रूप से प्रचलित रहती है उसे बोली कहते हैं । परम्परा १ - चटर्जी, सुनीतिकुमार : द ओरिजन एन्ड डेवलपमेन्ट २- ग्रियर्सन, सर जार्ज अब्राहम : भारत का भाषा सर्वेक्षण, आव द बेंगाली लैंग्वेज, कलकत्ता वि० वि०, १९२६, पृ०१७ अनु. -डा. उदयनारायण तिवारी, १९५९, पृ. २२४ से उद्धृत Page #112 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ गत रूप से भाषा और बोली दोनों ही अपने-अपने रूपों में प्रवर्तमान रहती हैं । भाषा हमें साहित्य से सीखने को मिलती है और बोली मां-बाप तथा जन समाज से । हमारे बोलने और लिखने की भाषा में प्रायः अन्तर रहता है। बोलने में हम असावधानी और शिथिलता भी बरत लेते हैं, किन्तु लिखने में संयम और साधु भाषा के प्रयोग का ध्यान रखते हैं । साधु तथा संयत भाषा के पक्षपाती शिष्टजन स्वाभाविक भाषा या बोली को गंवारू या उज्जड लोगों की भाषा समझते चले आ रहे हैं । इसे वे अपशब्दों से भरित तथा अपभ्रष्ट भी मानते हैं । भाषाविद स्टेनली रंडले का यह कथन उचित ही है कि बोली के सम्बन्ध में बड़ा भ्रम फैला हुआ है । लोग समझते हैं कि चोलियां लोक साहित्य के रूप में प्रचलित बनी हुई हैं, किन्तु वे असंगत रूप हैं और केवल अध्ययन की वस्तु हैं । अतएव अधिकतर लोगों की दृष्टि में बोली मानक भाषा (Standard Language) का अतिक्रमण है । प्रत्येक देश की कोई न कोई मानक भाषा होतो है । उर मानक भाषा के अपभ्रंश को बोली समझा जाता है । कार्नवाल और स्काटलैन्ड लोगों के विषय में कहा जाता है कि वे मानक अंग्रेजी की तोड़-मरोड़ कर बोलते हैं'। टकग्गली, आदर्श या मानक भाषा सदा स्थिर नहीं रहती । युग-युगों में घटित होने वाले परिवर्तनों के बीच भाषा का स्वरूप भी परिवर्तित होता रहता है । लगभग एक शताब्दी के पूर्व जो खड़ी बोली लोकनाट्यों तथा स्वांगों के रूप में प्रचलित थो वह आज भाषा ही नहीं राष्ट्रभाषा भी है। इसलिए अ"ज के भाषा-रूप की रचना में पहले के भाषिक रूप से बहुत भिन्नता है । इससे यह भी स्पष्ट है कि आधुनिक युग की बोलियां सम्प्रति स्वीकृत मानक या आदर्श भाषा-रूप का अतिक्रमण नहीं है । बोलियों का भी अपना इतिहास है। वे कई शताब्दियों के अन्तराल में फैल कर अपना विकास करतो हैं । बोलियों के विकास की यह एक प्रक्रिया है जो किसी एक देश में नहीं, वरन् संसार की सभी बोलियों के सम्बन्ध में घटित हुई है। यही प्रक्रिया संस्कृत के साथ घटित हुई, जो एक कृत्रिमपूर्ण साहित्यिक भाषा थी। प्राकृतिक बोलियों को प्राकृत कहा जाता था । यद्यपि ते संस्कृत-साहित्य से प्रभावापन्त रहीं. किन्त उन्होंने अपने अपने साहित्य का स्वयं निर्माण किया । वे संस्कृत का भ्रष्ट रूप नहीं थीं। हमारे जोवन की वास्तविकता सहज रूप में बोली के माध्यम से निःसृत होती है । अतएव आंचलिक वातावरण के चित्रण में क्षेत्रीय बोली का प्रयोग करना आवश्यक हो जाता है। यही स्थिति संस्कृत-काल में प्राकृत की थी । भारतीय इतिहास के गप्त-यग में राजदरवारों में प्राकत नाटिकाओं, सट्टकों के अभिनय के साथ जब संस्कृत नाटकों के अभिनय भी किए जाने लगे, तब संस्कृत नाटकों में प्राकृत का समावेश अनिवार्य हो गया । क्योंकि सामान्य र्ग के लोग प्राकृत हो बोलते-समझते थे । इसके लिए वैयाकरणों को विशेष प्रयत्न करने पड़े । यथार्थ में उस युग के संस्कृक वैयाकरणों को संस्कृत भाषा को प्राकत में ढालने के लिए विशेष नियम बनाने पड़े। इस कारण प्राकृत शब्दावली में तोड़-मरोड भी हुई और आगे चल कर वे प्राकृत-अपभ्रंश कहलाई जो वास्तव में बोली १-द्रष्टव्य : विल्सन, ग्रेहम (सं) : ए लिंग्विस्टिक रीडर, १९६७, पृ. ८६ २-वही, पृ. ८७ Page #113 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ थीं। इन प्राचीन भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं के अध्ययन से यह स्पष्ट प्रतीत होता है कि जब तक संस्कृत या वैदिक भाषा लोक जीवन और लोक-बोलियों को आत्मसात् करती रही, तब तक बराबर उस में विकास होता रहा किन्तु जब वह शास्त्रीय नियमों में भलीभांति आबद्ध हो गई, तभी उसका विकास रुक गया । इससे जहां वह वाणी अमर हो गई वहीं उसका प्रवाह अवरुद्ध होगया और वह मृतभाषा के नाम से अभिहित की गई। यथार्थ में संस्कृत को अमरत्व रूप महषि पाणिनि ने प्रदान किया। उनके पूर्व की संस्कृत भाषा के व्याकरणिक रूपों में अत्यन्त विविधता थी । डा. पुसालकर का कथन है कि भारतीय पुराणों की भाषाविषयक अनियमितताओं को देखते हुए यह लक्षित किया गया है कि जन बोलियों से प्रभावापन्न संस्कृत के ये पुराण आधे के लगभग प्राकृतत्व को लिये हुए हैं । इस से यही समझा जाता है कि मौलिक रूप में ये पुराण प्राकृत में लिखे गये थे, जिन्हें हठात् संस्कृत में अनूदित किया गया । प्राकृतिक प्रवृत्ति का प्रभाव वैदिक ग्रन्थों तक में प्राप्त होता है । परवर्तो काल में सहज रूप से प्राकृतों का प्रभाव धार्मिक ग्रन्थों, महाकाव्यों और पुराणों पर भी लक्षित होता है । प्राचीनतम भाषा लिखित भाषा के रूप में संसार का प्राचीनतम प्रमाण ऋग्वेद है । यद्यपि प्राचीन पाठ-परम्परा के अनुवर्तन से वेदों के मूल रूप का रक्षण होता रहा है, किन्तु भाषा वैज्ञानिक यह मानते है की रचना किसी एक समय में और एक व्यक्ति के द्वारा न हो कर विभिन्न युगों में संकलित हुई है । वैदिक रचनाएं पुरोहित-साहित्य हैं । "ऋग्वेद रिपोटी. शन्स" में ब्लूमफील्ड ने स्पष्ट रूप से बताया है कि ऋग्वेद में लगभग एक चौथाई से भी अधिक पाद-पुनरावर्त हुआ है । ऋग्वेद के प्रथम मण्डल और दशम मण्डल की भाषा में भी अन्तर लक्षित होता है। ऐतहासिक दृष्टि से ऋग्वेद की रचना एवं संकलना का समय १२०० ई० पू०-१००० ई. पू. के लगभग माना जाता हैं । इस काल से साहित्यिक परम्परा सतत एवं अविच्छिन्न रही है और भारतीय आर्यभाषा का क्रमिक विकास विभिन्न अवस्थाओं में विविध रूपों में समाहित हो कर विस्तृत हुआ है । टी. बरो के अनुसार ऋग्वेद १००० ई. प. के लगभग और अवेस्ता ६०० ई. पू. के लगभग की रचनाएँ हैं । ईरानी भाषा की प्राचीन स्थिति का प्रतिनिधित्व अवेस्ता तथा प्राचीन फारसी साहित्य के द्वारा किया जाता हैं और ये हो ग्रन्थ वैदिक संस्कृत की तुलना को दृष्टि से अत्यधिक महत्व के हैं । जरथु. स्त्रीय धर्म के मतानुसार अवेस्ता उन के द्वारा सुरक्षित पवित्र लेखों का प्राचीन संग्रह है, १-विल्सन, ग्रेहम (सं) : ए लिंग्विस्टिक्स रीडर, न्यूयार्क,१९६७ में प्रकाशित स्टेनली रुन्डले के प्रकाशित निबन्ध 'लैंग्वेज एण्ड डायलेक्ट', पृ. ८७ से उद्धृत In fact the grammarians of the day developed special rules for turning Samskirt into Prakrit, so that real Prakrit tended to be lost to the written language and the literary Prakrit became a definite mutilation of Samskrit. (p. 87) २- ए. डी. पुसालकर : वेयर द पुराणाज ओरिजनली इन प्राकृत, आचार्य ध्रव स्मारक ग्रन्थ. भाग ३, गुजरात विद्यासभा, अहमदाबाद, पृ० १०३ ३-द्रष्टव्य -बरो, टी. : द संस्कृत लैंग्वेज, हिन्दी अनु., पृ. ४३ Page #114 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ और इस के आधार पर वह भाषा भी अवेस्ता (भाषा) कहलाती है। यह कोरास्मिया प्रदेश में प्रचलित पूर्वा ईरानी विभाषा जान पड़ती है । भारतीय आर्य की पश्चिमी बोलियां कुछ विषयों में ईरानी से साम्य रखती थी । प्रो. एन्त्वान् मेयये ने ऋग्वेद की साहित्यिक भाषा का मूल सीमान्त प्रदेश की एक पश्चिमी बोली को ही निर्दिष्ट किया है । पश्चिम की इस बोली में 'ल' न हो कर केवल 'र' था। किन्तु संस्कृत और पालि में 'र' और 'ल' दोनों थे । तीसरी में 'र' न हो कर केवल 'ल' ही था, जो सम्भवतः सुदूरपूर्व की बोली थी। इस पूर्वी बोली की पहुंच आर्यों के प्रसार तथा भाषा विषयक विकास के द्वितीय युग के पहले-पहल ही आधुनिक पूर्वी - उत्तर प्रदेश और बिहार के प्रदेशों तक हो गई थी। यही पूर्वी प्राकृत तथा उत्तरकालीन मागधी प्राकृत बनी । इस में 'र' न हो कर केवल 'ल' था। वस्तुतः एक ही युग की ये तीन तरह की बोलियां थीं, जो परवर्ती काल में विभिन्न रूपों में परिवर्तित होती रहीं । आगे चल कर विभिन्न जातियों के सम्पर्क के कारण इन में अनेक प्रकार के मिश्रण भो हुए । असीरी-बाबिलोनी से आगत वैदिक भाषा में कई शब्द मिलते हैं । जहां तक फिन्नो-उग्री के साथ प्राचीन भारत-ईरानी के सम्पर्क का सम्बन्ध है, इस सम्बन्ध में अधिक प्रमाण उपलब्ध हैं तथा उन का विश्लेषण करना अधिक सरल है । भारत ईरानी काल के पूर्व भी भारोपीय तथा फिन्नो-उग्री में सम्पर्क होने के प्रमाण मिलते हैं । इन भाषाओं में शब्दों का आदान-प्रदान दोनों दिशाओं में रहा होगा । . .. वैदिक, अवेस्ता और प्राकृत वैदिक काल से ही स्पष्ट रूप से भाषागत दो धाराएं परिलक्षित होती हैं । इन में से प्रथम छान्दस् या साहित्य की भाषा थी और दूसरी जनवाणी या लोकभाषा थी । इस के स्पष्ट प्रमाण हमें अवेस्ता, निय प्राकृत तथा सर्वप्राचीन शिलालेखों की भाषा में उपलब्ध होते हैं । पालि-साहित्य को भाषा के अध्ययन से भी यह निश्चित हो जाता है कि उस समय तक कुछ ही भाषाएं तथा भाषागत रूप परिमार्जित हो सके थे। उस समय की विविध बोलियां अपरिष्कृत दशा में ही थीं । ऋग्वेद में विभिन्न प्राकृत बोलियों के लक्षण मिलते हैं । उदाहरण के लिए, प्राकृत बोलियों में प्रारम्भ से ही 'ऋ' वर्ण नहीं था । अतएव संस्कृत व्याकरण की रचना को देखकर प्राकृत-व्याकरण का विधान किया गया, तब यह कहा गया कि संस्कृत 'ऋ' के स्थान पर प्राकृत भाषा में 'अ', 'इ' या 'उ' आदेश हो जाता है । यह आदेश शब्द ही बताता है कि प्राकृत बोलियां किस प्रकार साहित्य में ढल रही थीं। व्याकरण बनने के पूर्व की भाषा और बोलो में परवर्ती भाषा और बोली से अत्यन्त भिन्नता लक्षित होती है । वेदों की कई ऋचाओं में 'कृत' के लिए 'कड', 'वृत' के लिए 'वुड तथा 'मृत' के लिए 'मड' शब्द प्रयुक्त मिलते हैं । 'पाइअ-सद्द-महण्णवो' की भूमिका में ऐसे तेरह विशिष्ट लक्षणों का विवेचन किया गया है, जिन से वैदिक और १-वहों, पृ. ६ २-चटर्जी, डा. सुनोतिकुमार : भारतीय आर्यभाषा और हिन्दी, द्वि. सं., १९५७, पृ. ६३ ३-द्रष्टव्य-चटर्जी सुनीतिकुमार : भारतीय आर्यभाषा और हिन्दी, द्वि०, सं०, १९५७, पृ० ४१ ४-टी० बरो : द संस्कृत : लैंग्वेज, हिन्दी अनुवाद, पृ० ३० Page #115 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ७४ प्राकृत भाषो में साम्य परिलक्षित होता है। वैदिक और प्राकृत भाषा में कुछ ऐसी समान प्रवृत्तियां मिलती हैं, जो लौकिक संस्कृत में प्राप्त नहीं होतों । श्री वी. जे. चोकसो ने इन दोनों में कई समान प्रवृत्तियों का निर्देश किया है' । वेदों की भांति अवेस्ता की भाषा और प्राकतों में कछ सामान्य प्रवृत्तियां समान रूप से पाई जाती हैं (१) संस्कृत का अन्त्य 'अस्', अवेस्ता में 'ओ' देखा जाता है । (२) अवेस्ता, प्राकृत और अपभ्रंश में स्वर के पश्चात् स्वर का प्रयोग प्रचलित रहा है । किन्तु वैदिक और संस्कृत में एक शब्द में एक साथ दो स्वरों का प्रयोग नहीं मिलता । .. (३) अवेस्ता में एक ही शब्द कई रूपों में मिलता है, यथा : आयु, अयु, हमो, हामो ; प्राकृत अपभ्रंश में भी इस तरह के शब्द-रूप विपुल मात्रा में मिलते हैं । ....... (४) ल्हमन ने प्राग्भारोपीय ध्वनि-प्रक्रिया का विचार करते हुए निर्दिष्ट किया है कि व्यतिरेकी ध्वनिप्रक्रियात्मक प्रामाणिक स्रोतों का निश्चय करने में एक आक्षरिक अपश्रुति भी हैं। सामान्य रूप से स्वरध्वनि के परिवर्तन को अपश्रुति कहते हैं । अपश्रुति मात्रिक और गुणीय दोनों प्रकार की कही गई है । प्राग्भारोपीय ध्वनि-प्रक्रिया में एक पद-ग्राम में विविध स्वरः ध्वनि-ग्रामों के परिवर्तन सभी भारोपीय बोलियों में लक्षित होते हैं और यही कारण है कि वे बोलियां मारोपीय भाषा की मूल स्त्रोत हैं। (५) अशोक के शिलालेखों तथा पालि ग्रन्थों के मूल अंशों में ऋ और लू स्वर उपलब्ध नहीं होते । वैदिक कालीन बोलियों की विकसित अवस्था में घोषभाव की प्रक्रिया का पता भी यहां से लगता है । अवेस्ता में कहीं कहां ऋ के स्थान पर र दिखलाई पड़ता है: यथा रतूम् गरमम् दरगम् आदि । इसका कारण स्वरभक्ति कहा जाता है । स्वरभक्ति पालि, प्राकृत और अपभ्रंश में भी पाई जाती है। टी० बरो के अनुसार ईरानी में भारत-यूरोपीय र, लू बिना किसी भेद र के रुप में मिलते हैं । ऋग्वेद की भाषा में मुख्यतः यही स्थिति है । किन्तु वास्तविकता यही है कि ईरानो, वैदिक, संस्कृत और पालि-प्राकृत में लू और र् दोनों मिलते हैं । ऋग्वेद की भाषा में "र" का मुख्यतः होने के कारण यही कहा जा सकता है कि ऋग्वैदिक बोली का मूलाधार उत्तर पश्चिमो प्रदेश में था, जब कि शास्त्रीय भाषा मध्य देश में बनी थी । इन दोनों को मूल विभाजन इस तरह का रहा होगा कि पश्चिमी विभाषा में र ठीक उसी तरह लू हो जाता होगा, जिस तरह ईरानी में (क्योंकि यह ईरानी के पास थी और साथ ही सम्भवतः परवर्ती प्रसार की धारा का प्रतिनिधित्व करती थी), जब कि अधिक पूर्वो विभाषा मूल मेद को सुरक्षित रखे थी । सभी प्राकृत भाषाएं सामान्य रुप से व्याकरणिक तथा कोशीय प्रवृत्तियों में वैदिक भाषा की श्रेणी में हैं जिन में प्राप्त होने वाली विशेषताएं संस्कृत में नहीं १-वो० जे० चौकसी : द विवागसुयम् एन्ड कम्पेरेटिव प्राकृत ग्रामर, अहमदाबाद, १९३३ । २-विन्फ्रेड पो० ल्हेमन : प्रोटो-इण्डो-युरोपियन फोनोलाजी, पाँचवां संस्करण, १९६६ पृ. १२ ३-टी० बरो: द संस्कृत लैंग्वेज, अनु० डा० भोलाशंकर व्यास, १९६५, वाराणसी, पृ० ९८-९९ Page #116 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ मिलतों । अतएव प्राकृत भाषाओं की जो अन्विति मध्ययुगीन तथा नव्य भारतीय आर्य बोलियों से है उससे कम किसी प्रकार वैदिक से नहीं है । इस प्रकार अवेस्ता, वैदिक और प्राकृत भाषाओं में कुछ बातों में साम्य परिलक्षित होता है, जिस से इन भाषाओं में एक अन्विति तथा एकरूपता भली भाँति जान पड़ती है प्राकृत और उसका इतिहास - तीर्थकर महावीर के युग में ई० पू० ६०० के लगभग १८ महाभाषाएं और ७०० लघु भाषाएं (बोलियाँ) प्रचलित थीं। उन में से जैन साहित्य में प्रादेशिक भेदों के आधार पर आवश्यक, औषपातिक, विपाक, ज्ञातृधर्मकथांग, राजप्रश्नीय आदि आगमग्रन्थों तथा कुकलयमालाकहा एवं अन्य काव्यग्रन्थों में अठारह प्रकार की प्राकृत बोलियों का उल्लेख मिलता है । निशीथचूर्णि में अठारह देशी भाषाओं से नियत भाषा को अर्द्धमागधी कहा गया है। उद्योतनसूरि ने "कुवलयमालाकहा” में विस्तार के साथ गोल्ल, मगध, अन्तर्वेदि, कीर ढक्क, सिन्धु, मरु, गुर्जर, लाट, मालवा, कर्णाटक, ताजिक, कोशल और महाराष्ट्र प्रभृति अठारह देशीभाषाओं का विवरण दिया है, जो कई दृष्टियों से अत्यन्त महत्वपूर्ण है । वेदों, स्मृतियों एवं पौराणिक साहित्य में अनेक स्थानों पर कहा गया हैं कि लोक में कई बोलियां बोली जोती हैं । शिष्य के अनुरूप ही गुरु को संस्कृत, प्राकृत तथा देशी भाषा आदि का शिक्षण देना चाहिए। “स्वभावसिद्ध' के अर्थ में “प्राकृत' शब्द का उल्लेख श्रीमद्भाग. वत तथा लिंगपुराण आदि पुराणों में लक्षित होता है ।" भरत कृत "गीतालङ्कार" में सब से अधिक ४२ भाषाओं का उल्लेख मिलता हैं । उन के नाम हैं : महाराष्ट्री, किरानी, म्लेच्छी, सोमकी, चोलकी, कांची, मालवी, काशिसम्भवा, देविका, कुशावर्त्ता, सूरसेनिका, वांधी, गुर्जरी, रोमकी, कानमूसी, देवकी, पंचपत्तना, सैन्धवो, कौशिकी, भद्रा, भद्रभोजिका, कुन्तल कोशला, पारा, यावनी, कुकुरी, मध्यदेशी तथा काम्बोजी, प्रभृति । ये बयालीस प्रसिद्ध बोलियां थीं, जिन में गीत लिखे जाते थे । किसी युग में गीतों का विशेष प्रचलन था । आचार्य भरत मुनि के समय में प्राकृत के गीत प्रशस्त माने जाते थे । उन्होंने ध्रुवा तथा गीतियों एवं लोकनाट्य के प्रसंग में विविध विभाषाओं (बोलियों) का वर्णन किया है, जिस में मागधी १-आर० पिशेल : कम्पेरेटिव ग्रैमर आव द प्राकृत लैंग्वेज, अनु० सुभद्र झा, द्वि० सं०, १९६५, पृ० ४-५ २-डा. जगदीशचन्द्र जैन : जैन आगम साहित्य में भारतीय समाज, वाराणसी, १९६५ पृ०, ३०४ ३-"जनं बिभ्रती बहुधा विवाचसं नानाधर्माणां पृथिवी यथौकसम् ।" -अथर्ववेद, का, __ १२, अ०१, सू० १-४५ ४- संस्कृतैः प्राकृतैः वाक्यैः शिष्यमनुरूपतः । . देशभाषाधुपायैश्च बोघयेत् स गुरु स्मृतः ॥ ५- वाल्मीकिरामायण, सुन्दरकाण्ड, ३०, १७, १९ “प्राक्तः कथितस्त्वेषः पुरुषाधिष्ठितो मया । "-लिंगपुराण, ३, ३९ ........ "विधिः साधारणो यत्र सर्गाः प्राकृतवैकृताः । "-श्रीमद्भागवत, अ० १० श्लोक०४६ Page #117 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ७६ गीतिओं को प्रथम स्थान दिया गया है ।' - इन गीतियों के विधान को देखकर और महाकवि कालिदास आदि की रचनाओं में प्रयुक्त गीतियों को बहुलता से यह निश्चय हुए बिना नहीं रहता कि आद्य लोक-साहित्य गीतियों में निबद्ध रहा होगा । मौखिक रूप में गीतियों का प्रवन सहज तथा सुकर है । "प्राकृत" का एक निश्चित भाषा के रूप में विस्तृत विवरण हमें आ० भरत मुनि के "नाट्यशास्त्र" में मिलता हैं । प्राकृत के सम्बन्ध में उन का विवरण इस प्रकार है : ... (१) रूपक में वाचिक अभिनय के लिए संस्कृत और प्राकृत दोनों पाठ्य लोकप्रचलित हैं। इन दोनों में केवल यही अन्तर है कि संस्कृत संस्कार (संवारी) की गयी भाषा है और प्राकृत संस्कारशून्य अथवा असंस्कृत भाषा है । कुमार, आपिशलि आदि वैयाकरणों के द्वारा जिस भाषा का स्वरूप नियत एवं स्थिर कर दिया गया हैं वह “संस्कृत" है किन्तु जो अनपढ़, देशी शब्दों से भरित एवं परिवर्तनशील है वह “प्राकृत" है । इस से यह पता लगता है कि वास्तव में भाषा का प्रवाह एक ही था, किन्तु समय की धारा में होने वाले परिवर्तनों के कारण प्राकृत लोकजीवन का अनुसरण कर रही थी, जबकि संस्कृत व्याकरणिक नियमों से अनुशासित थी । अभिनवगुप्त ने “नाट्यशास्त्र" की विवृति में इसी तथ्य को स्पष्ट किया है ।* (२) आ० भरतमुनि ने वैदिक शब्दों से भरित भाषा को अतिभाषा, संस्कृत को आर्यभाषा और प्राकृत को जातिभाषा के नाम से अभिहित किया है । जातिभाषा से उन का अभिप्राय जनभाषा से हैं । बोलियों के रूप में स्पष्ट ही सात तरह की प्राकृतों का निर्देश किया गया है । इन के नाम हैं : मागघी, अवन्तिजा, प्राच्या, शौरसेनी, अर्धमागधी, ल्हीक और दाक्षिणात्य । वास्तव में बोलियों के ये भेद प्रादेशिक आधार पर किए गए हैं । “प्राकृतकल्पतरु" में भी प्रथम स्तबक में शौरसेनी, द्वितीय स्तबक में प्राच्या, आवन्ती, बाहीक, मागधी, अर्धमागधी और दाक्षिणात्या का विवेचन किया गया है । इस विवेचन से यह भी स्पष्ट होता है कि मूल में पश्चिमी और पूर्वी दो प्रकार के भाषा-विभाग थे । बोलियां १-नाट्यशास्त्र, ३२, ४३१ । एतदेव विपर्यस्तं संस्कारगुणवर्जितम् । विज्ञेयं प्राकृतं पाठ्यं नानावस्थान्तरात्मकम् ॥ नाट्यशास्त्र, अ०१७, श्लो० २ "संस्कृतमेव संस्कारगुणेन यत्नेन परिरक्षणरूपेण वर्जित प्राकृतं, प्रकृतेरसंस्काररूपायाः आगतम् । नन्वपदंशानां को नियम इत्याह नानावस्थान्तरात्मकम्...देशीविशेषेषु प्रसिद्धया नियमितमित्येव ।" तथा-"देशीपदमपि स्वरस्यैव प्रयोगावसरे प्रयुज्यत इति तदपि प्राकृतमेव. अव्युत्पादितप्रकृतेस्तज्जनप्रयोज्यत्वात् प्राकृतमिति केचित् ।” -विवृति (अभिनवगुप्त) ३-नाट्यशास्त्र, १७, २७ ४-मागध्यवन्तिजा प्राच्या शौरसेन्यर्धमागधी । वाल्हीका दाक्षिणात्या च सप्तभाषाः प्रकीर्तिताः । -नाट्यशास्त्र, अ० १७, श्लो०४९ Page #118 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ इन से किंचित् भिन्न थों । रामशर्म ने विभाषा-विधान नामक तृतीय स्तबक में शाकारिकी, चाण्डालिका, शाबरी, आभीरिका, टक्को आदि के लक्षण एवं स्वरूप का प्रतिपादन किया है । इसी प्रकार तृतीय शाखा में नागर, वाचड और पैचाशो अपभ्रंश का विवेचन किया गया है। ... तीर्थंकर महावीर और भ० गौतमबुद्ध की भाषा के नमूने आज ज्यों के त्यों नहीं मिलते । अशोक के शिलालेखों (२५० ई० पू०), भारतवर्ष के विभिन्न भागों में प्राप्त प्राकृत के जैन शिलालेखों तथा पालि-साहित्य के कुछ अंशों में प्राकृत के प्राचीनतम रूप निबद्ध हैं । डा० चटर्जी ने भ० बुद्ध के समय को उदीच्य, मध्यदेशीय तथा प्राच्यविभाग की तीन प्रादेशिक बोलियों का उल्लेख किया है। इन के अतिरिक्त ई० पू० तीसरी शताब्दी की खोतन प्रदेशीय भारतीयों की पश्चिमोत्तरी गान्धारी प्राकृत तथा ईसा की प्रथम शताब्दी के लगभग प्रयुक्त तुर्किस्तान की निय प्राकृत एवं ई० पू० छठी शताब्दी के मध्य की काठियावाड़ से सीलोन पहुँचायी गयी प्राकृत विशेष रूप से उल्लेखनीय हैं ।' इस देश में ईसा पूर्व शताब्दी में मुख्य रुप से भारतीय आर्यबोलियों के चार विभाग प्रसिद्ध थे: . (१) उदीच्य (उत्तर-पश्चिमी बोली), (२) प्रतीच्य (दक्षिणी-पश्चिमी बोली), (३) प्राच्यमध्य (मध्यपूर्वी) और (४) प्राच्य (पूर्वी बोली) । अशोक के शिलालेखों तथा पतंजलि के महाभाष्य के उल्लेखों से भी यह प्रमाणित होता है । ___अल्सडोर्फके अनुसार भारतीय आर्यभाषाकी सबसे प्रानीनतम अवस्था वैदिक ऋचाओंमें परिलक्षित होती है। कई प्रकारकी प्रवृत्तियों तथा भाषागत स्तरों के अनुशीलनसे यह स्पष्ट है कि बोली ही विकसित हो कर संस्कृत काव्योंकी भाषा के रूप में प्रयुक्त हुई । अतएव उस में ध्वनि-प्रक्रिया तथा बहुतसे शब्द बोलियोंके समाविष्ट हो गए हैं । शास्त्रीय संस्कृत का विकास. काल चौथी शताब्दी से लेकर आठवीं शताब्दी तक रहा है । केवल ' संस्कृत-साहित्य में ही नहीं, वैदिक भाषा में भी बहुत से ऐसे शब्द हैं जो निश्चित रुप से ध्वनि प्रक्रियागत परिवर्तनों से सम्बद्ध प्राकृत के प्रभाव को निःसन्देह प्रमाणित करते हैं । भौगोलिक दृष्टि से शिक्षा ग्रन्थ में स्वरभक्ति का उच्चारण जिस क्षेत्र में निर्दिष्ट किया गया है, वह अर्धमागधी और अपभ्रंश का क्षेत्र है । प्राकृत के प्राचीन प्राच्य वैयाकरणों में शाकल्य, माण्ड० कोहल और कपिल का उल्लेख किया गया है। यद्यपि उन की रचनाएं अभी तक उपलब्ध नहीं हो सकी हैं, किन्तु मार्कण्डेय ने “प्राकृतसर्वस्व" में शाकल्य और कोहल के साथ ही भरत १-चटर्जी, सुनीतिकुमार : भारतीय आर्यभाषा और हिन्दी, द्वि० सं० १९५७, पृ०८३ २-सुकुमार सेन : ए कम्परेटिव अमर आव मिडिल इण्डो-आर्यन, द्वि० सं० १९६०, पृ०७ ३-लुडविग अल्सडोर्फ : द ओरिजन आव दी न्यू इण्डो-आर्यन स्पीचेज, अनु० एस० एन० घोषाल, जर्नल आव द ओरि० इ०, बड़ौदा, जिल्द १०, सं० २, दिस० १९६०, पृ० १३२-१३३ ४-सिद्धेश्वर वर्मा : द फोनेटिक आब्जर्वेशन्स आव इण्डियन ग्रैमेरियन्स, दिल्ली, १९६१, पृ०५० - Page #119 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ वररुचि, भामह और वसन्तराज का विशेष रूप से उल्लेख किया है। माण्डव्य का रामतर्कवागीश ने और कपिल का रामशर्मा तथा मार्कण्डेय ने नामोल्लेख किया हैं ।' यद्यपि प्राकृत के प्राच्य शिलालेख कम मिलते हैं, पर प्रवृत्ति भेद से डा० मेहन्दाले ने दक्षिणी, पश्चिमी, मध्यदेशीय और प्राच्यभेद माने हैं । भौगोलिक दृष्टि से इस प्रकार के चार भेद प्रवृत्तिगत भिन्नता के कारण अत्यन्त प्राचीनकाल से बराबर आज तक बने हुए हैं। प्राचीन वैयाकरणों ने भी इन भेदों का उल्लेख किया है । भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं के इतिहास को तीन अवस्थाओं में विभक्त करने का एक क्रम प्रचलित हो गया है । वास्तव में ये अवस्थाएं एक ही भाषा प्रवाह को तीन विभिन्न युगीन स्थितियाँ हैं जो नाम-रूपों के भेद से अलग-अलग नामों से अभिहित की गयीं। ऐतिहासिक काल-क्रम की दृष्टि से बोलियों की विभिन्न अवस्थाओं का विवेचन करना एक भाषाविद का कार्य है। डा० ए० एम० घाटगे ने क्षेत्रीय भेदों के अनुसार उत्तर-पश्चिम में उपलब्ध अशोक के शिलालेख मानसेहरा ओर शाहबाजगढी, खरोष्ट्री धम्मपद की प्राकृत बोली तथा पैशाची और उस की सम्भावित उपबोलियां, पूर्व में गंगा और महानदी की तराई में उपलब्ध अशोक के शिलालेख, सतनक के रामगढ़-शिखालेख तथा नाटकों में प्रयुक्त मागधो प्राकृत और उसके उपविभाग, पश्चिम में गिरनार, बौद्ध- साहित्य की भाषा पालि, सातवाहन तथा पश्चिमीय क्षत्रप राजाओं के शिलालेखों की प्राकत और महाराष्टी प्राकत मध्यदेश में शौरसेनी और पूर्व की ओर जैनागमों की अर्धमागधी एवं तादृश अशोकशिलालेखीय बोली परिलक्षित होती है। किन्तु इस विभाजन में कुछ बोलियाँ छूट जाती हैं । अतएव ऐतिहासिक कालक्रमानुसार किया गया वर्गीकरण अधिक अच्छा और सुनिश्चित है । प्राचीनतम अवस्था में अनेक शिलालेख, पालि, अर्धमागधी और पैशाची की गणना की जाती है । परवर्ती अवस्था में शौरसेनी, मागधी, जैन महाराष्ट्री और जैन शौरसेनी निर्दिष्ट की गयी हैं । अनन्तर उत्तरकालीन विकास में महाराष्ट्रो प्राकृत और विभिन्न अपभ्रंश बोलियां आती हैं। अशोक के लगभग चौंतीस अभिलेख मिलते हैं। अशोक के शिलालेखों मे पैशाचो, भागधों और शोरसेनी प्राकृत की प्रवृत्तियां लक्षित होती हैं । डा० नेमिचन्द्र शास्त्री ने "अशोककालीन भाषाओं का भाषाशास्त्रीय सर्वेक्षण' शीर्षक लेख में बताया है कि अशोक के समय की पश्चिमोत्तरीय-(पैशाच-गान्धार), मध्यभारतीय (मागध), पश्चिमीय (महाराष्ट्र), और दाक्षिणात्य (आन्ध्र कर्णाटक) बोलियां उस ससय की जनभाषाएं हैं । पश्चिमोत्तरीय वर्ग १-डा० सत्यरंजन बनजी : फ्रेग्मेन्टस आव द अर्लिएस्ट प्राकृत ग्रैमेरियन्स, श्री महावीर जैन विद्यालय सुवर्णमहोत्सव ग्रन्थ, भा० १, १९६८, पृ० २७०-२७४ २-डा० एम० ए० मेहन्दाले : हिस्टारिकल ग्रामर आव इन्स्क्रिप्शनल प्राकृत्स, परि. ___चय, पृ० १५ ३-द्रष्टव्य : निरुक्त (यास्क): द्वितीय अध्याय, षष्ठ पाद । ४-डा० ए० एम० घाटगे : हिस्टारिकल लिंग्विस्टिक्स एण्ड इण्डो-आर्यन लैंग्वेजेज बम्बई, १९६२, पृ०११२ ५-डा नेमिचन्द्र शास्त्री : परिषद्पत्रिका, भाषा-सर्वेक्षणांक, बर्ष ८, अंक ३-४, पृ० ७८ Page #120 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ की बोली में शाहबाजगढ़ी और मानसेहरा के अभिलेख, मध्यभारतीय बोली में वैराट, दिल्ली टोपरा, सारनाथ और कलिंग आभलेख, पश्चिमी में गिरनार और बम्बई में सोपारा के अभिः लेख एवं दाक्षिणात्य में दक्षिणी अभिलेख सम्मिलित हैं । पश्चिमोत्तरीय में दीर्घ स्वरों का अभाव, ऊम्म व्यंजनों का प्रयोग, अन्तिम हलन्त व्यंजनों का अभाव, रेफ का प्रयोग एवं प्रथमा विभक्ति एक बचन में एकारान्त शब्दों का अस्तित्व पाया जाता है। मध्यभारतीय बोली मैं 'र' के स्थान पर 'लू', प्रथमा एक वचन में एकारान्त रूप का सद्भाव, स्वरभक्ति का अस्तित्व, 'अहं' के स्थान पर 'हकं' का प्रयोग, 'तु' के स्थान पर 'तवे', 'तुम्हाण' अथवा 'तुज्झाण' के स्थान पर 'तुफाकं' एवं 'कृ' धातु के 'क्ता' के स्थान पर 'ट' का प्रयोग पाया जाता है । पश्चिमीय वोली में 'र' का प्रयोग, अधोवर्ती रेफ का शीर्षवर्तो रेफ के रूप में प्रयोग, प्रथमा एक वचन में ओकारान्त रूप, 'द्ध' के स्थान पर 'इढ' एवं सप्तमी विभक्ति के एक वचन में 'स्मि' के स्थान पर 'म्हि' का प्रयोग पाया जाता है । दाक्षिणात्य बोली में मूर्धन्य 'ण' का प्रयोग, तालव्य 'ज' का प्रयोग, स्वरभक्ति की प्राप्ति, 'त्म' के स्थानपर 'त्प', ऊष्म वर्गों का दन्त्य वर्ण के रूप में प्रयोग एवं 'तु' के स्थान पर 'तवे' का प्रयोग मिलता है । अशोक के शिलालेखों के अतिरिक्त दो अन्य प्राकृत अभिलेख भी उल्लेखनीय हैं । ये हैं-कलिंगराज खारवेल का हाथीगुम्फा अभिलेख और यवन राजदत हिलियोदोरस का बेसनगर अभिलेख । इन अभिलेखों में प्राचीन भारतीय आर्यभाषा से परिवर्तन की प्रवृत्तियां स्पष्ट लक्षित होती हैं। - ई० पू० १,००० से ६,०० वर्षों का काल भारतीय आर्यभाषा का संक्रान्तिकाल कहा जा सकता है। विभिन्न आर्य तथा आर्येतर प्रजाओं के सम्पर्क से इस दीर्घ काल की अवधि में एक ऐसा भाषा-प्रवाह लक्षित होने लगा था, जिसमें विभिन्न जातियों तथा भाषाओं के आगत शब्द आर्य बोलियों में समाहित हो गए थे और आर्यभाषा में एक नया परिवर्तन लक्षित होने लगा था । अतएव वैयाकरणों और दोर्शनिकों ने आर्य की साधुता की ओर लक्ष्य दिया । भाषाविषयक परिवर्तन के वेग को अवरुद्ध करने के लिए वैयाकरणों ने दो महान कार्य किए । प्रथम प्रयत्न में उन्होंने गणों की व्यवस्था की । महर्षि पाणिनि ने “पृषोदरादि'' गणों की सृष्टि कर शब्द-सिद्धि का एक नया मार्ग ही उन्मुक्त कर दिया। दसरे प्रयत्न में स्वार्थिक प्रत्यय का विधान कर देशी तथा म्लेच्छ भाषाओं से शब्दों को उधार लेकर अपनाने की तथा रचाने-पचाने की एक नई रीति को ही जन्म दिया । इन दोनों ही कार्यो से संस्कृत का शब्द-भण्डार विशाल हो गया और भाषा स्थिर तथा निश्चित हो गयी । सम्भवतः इसी ओर लक्ष्य कर मीमांसादर्शन में शबरमुनि कहते हैं कि जिन शब्दों को आर्य लोग किसी अर्थ में प्रयोग नहीं करते, किन्तु म्लेच्छ लोग करते हैं; यथा : पिक, नेम, सत, तामरस, आदि शब्दों में सन्देह है । ऋग्वेद में प्रयुक्त कई शब्द मुण्डा भाषा के माने जाते हैं । उदाहरण के लिए कुछ शब्द हैं : १-वहीं, पृ० ७८ से उद्धृत ...... २-"चोदित तु प्रतीयेत अविरोधात् प्रमाणेन ।” “अथ यान्शब्दान् आर्या न कस्मिश्चिदर्थे आचरन्ति म्लेच्छास्तु कस्मिश्चित् प्रयुञ्जते यथापिक-नेम-सत-तामरस आदि शब्दाः तेषु सन्देहः । -शबरभाष्य, अ० १, पा०३, सू० १. अ० ५ Page #121 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ .. कपोत-दुर्भाग्य दायक (ऋग्वेद १०,१६५,१), लांगल-हल (ऋग्वेद), वार-घोडे की पूंछ (ऋग्वेद १,३२,१२), मयूर (ऋग्वेद १,१९१,१४), शिम्बल-सेमल पुष्प (ऋग्वेद ३,५३, २२) इत्यादि जो प्रजिलुस्कीने ऐसे अनेक शब्दों की सूची दी है' । काल्डबेल ने भी संस्कृत में अधिगृहीत ऐसे अनेक शब्दों की एक लम्बी सूची विस्तृत विवरण के साथ दी है । यद्यपि संस्कृत वैयाकरणों की दृष्टि में इस प्रकार के शब्द तथा देशी उपादानों के सम्बन्ध में कोई दृष्टि नहीं थी और न उनमें से किसी ने इस बात का विचार ही किया था कि कितने शब्द या उनके मूल रूप (धातु) देशी हैं और कौन से आगत शब्द विदेशी हैं । परन्तु काल्डंबेल, गुण्डर्ट, सिलवां लेवी, प्रजिलुस्की, अमृत रो और ब्लूमफील्ड आदि विद्वानों की खोजों से अब यह निश्चित हो गया है कि भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं में बहुत बड़ी मात्रा में विदेशी उपादान लक्षित होते हैं । ब्लूमफील्ड ने कुछ शब्दों के अध्ययन से यह निष्कर्ष निकाला था कि पालि-प्राकृत में प्राग्वैदिक बोलियों के शब्द-रूप निहित हैं।-वेदों में शिष्ट भाषा का प्रयोग किया गया है । वैदिक युग की बोलचाल की भाषा प्राकृत ही थी, जो कुछ बातों में संहिताओं की साहित्यिक भाषा से भिन्न थी । अनेक वैदिक युग की बोलियों के शब्द आज भी विभिन्न प्रदेशों में प्रचलित हैं । इन प्राकृत बोलियों की एक प्रमुख विशेषता 'देशी' शब्दों की बहुलता है । ऋग्वेद आदि में प्रयुक्त "वंक (वक्र), मेह (मेघ), पुराण (पुरातन) तितउ (चालनी), जूर्ण (जना, पुराना) उलूखल (उदूखल, ओखली), उच्छेक (उत्सेक) और अजगर आदि प्राकृत बोलियों के शब्द उपलब्ध होते हैं। इन देशी शब्दों की ग्रहणशीलता 'देशी' की प्राचीनता को सिद्ध करती है । ज्यूल ब्लाख ने भो ‘देशी' को प्राकृत का प्राचीन रूप कहा है । उन के ही शब्दों में देशी प्राकृत का एक प्राचीन पूर्वरूप है, जो बहुत रोचक है । क्योंकि इससे उसे छोड़ कर अज्ञात भाषाओं के अस्तित्व का पता चलता है । 'देशी' केवल शैली और आज भी पायी जाने वाली भाषाओं की शब्दावली में लिये गये अंशों की और संकेत करती है। प्रसिद्ध भाषावैज्ञानिक बीम्स के अनुसार देशी शब्द सदा से लोकबोलियों में प्रयुक्त रहे हैं । साहित्य की भाषा में प्रायः उन के प्रयोग नहीं मिलते । प्रथम अवस्था . भाषा-विकास की प्रथम अवस्था में ऋग्वेद की भाषा में मुख्यतः 'र' पाया जाता है, किन्तु प्राकृत-बोलियों में 'ल' भी मिलता है । साथ ही भाषा के इतिहास से हम यह भी भलीभांति जानते हैं कि प्राचीन ईरानी भाषा में प्रत्येक भारोपीय 'ल' का परिवर्तन 'र' में हो गया था । वाकरनागल का यह कथन उचित ही प्रतीत होता है कि ऋग्वेद के प्रथम मण्डलों की अपेक्षा दशम मण्डल की भाषा में अत्यन्त परिवर्तन लक्षित होता है" । अतएव इस १-द्रष्टव्य : प्रि-आर्यन एण्ड प्रि-ट्रैविडियन, पृ०९-१० २-राबर्ट काल्डबेल : ए कम्पेरेटिव ग्रैमर आव द द्रविडियन आर साउथ-इण्डियन फेमिली आव लैंग्वेजेज, मद्रास. तृतीय संस्करण, १९६१, पृ० ५६७-५८८ ३-ज्यूल ब्लाख : भारतीय-आर्य भाषा, अनु० डा० लक्ष्मी सागर वार्ष्णेय. १९६३ पृ० १५ ४-सं. आर० सी० मजमदार : द वैदिक एज, जिल्द १, पृ० ३३५ . .. ५-वही, पृ० ३३६ Page #122 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ मण्डल की भाषा में 'कृणु' के स्थान पर प्राकृतिक धातु 'कुरु' का प्रयोग मिलता है । इसी प्रकार ऋग्वेद का 'चर्' अथर्ववेद तक आते-आते 'चल्' हो जाता है। यही नहीं, ऋग्वेद के उदुम्बल' (१०,१४,१२) तथा 'भद्रं भल' (ऋग्वेद, १०,८६,२३) 'मुद्गल' (ऋग्वेद, १०, १०२,९) और 'फाल' (ऋग्वेद, १०,११७,७) आदि शब्दों में लकार 'परवर्ती रचना जान पड़ती है । ऋग्वेद में कई विभक्ति-चिह्नों के प्राचीन और नवीन दोनों प्रकार के रूप मिलते हैं । अकारान्त तथा हलन्त शब्दों में प्रथमा और द्वितीया विभक्ति के द्विवचन में 'आ' और 'औ' दोनों विभक्ति-चिह्न मिलते हैं । ऋग्वेद में 'अ' वाले रूप 'ओ' वाले रूपों की अपेक्षा सात गुने अधिक हैं । अकारान्त शब्दों में प्रथमा बहुवचन में 'अस्' और 'असस्' दोनों विभक्ति-चिह्न मिलते हैं । किन्तु नपुंसकलिंग में प्रथमा बहुचन के 'आ' और 'आनि' ये भक्ति चिह्न है । पुराना 'आ' 'आनि' की अपेक्षा ऋग्वेद में तोन और दो के अनुपात में हैं । अथर्ववेद में स्थिति ठोक इसके विपरीत है। एडगर्टन ने संस्कृत ध्वनि-प्रक्रिया का ऐतिहासिक विकास निरूपित करते हुए स्पष्ट रूप से बताया है कि यद्यपि ऋग्वेद में 'र' की प्रचुरता है और 'ल' विरल है, जिससे आर्य-ईरानी से उसका निकट का सम्बन्ध निश्चित होता है । भाषा के परवर्ती विकास में 'ल' स्वच्छन्दता से प्रयुक्त मिलता है। भारोपीय और संस्कृत के सम्बन्ध में 'र' और 'ल' को लेकर कोई नियम निर्धारित नहीं किया जा सकता । क्योंकि संस्कृत में 'ल' बोली के मिश्रण के फलस्वरूप प्राप्त होता है २ । ऋग्वेद के 'इह' का प्राचीन रूप 'इध' प्राकृत में ही मिलता है, जो अवेस्ता 'इद' का समकालिक रूप है। ध्वन्यात्मक विशेषताओं को दृष्टि से हम विशेषकर संस्कृत तथा मध्य क्षेत्र की परवर्ती प्राकृत में पदान्त अस् के स्थान पर 'ओ' के बजाय 'ए' के परिवर्तन का संकेत कर सकते हैं । पूर्वी भारतीय आर्यभाषा की यह भेदक विशेषता थी और इस तरह के उदाहरण सूदूर पूर्व में भी मिलते हैं । ऋग्वेद में 'सूरे दुहिता' में इस प्रकार का एक वैभाषिक रूप सुरक्षित है। इसी प्रकार से द्वित्वीकरण की प्रवृत्ति भी प्राकृत के प्रभाव को प्रदर्शित करती है । अथर्ववेद प्रातिशाख्य में (३. २६) सभी पदान्त व्यंजन द्वित्व मिलते हैं । डा० वर्मा ने इन द्वित्व व्यंजनों का कारण प्राकृत-बोलियों का मिश्रण बताया है । यद्यपि प्राकृत में सभी व्यंजन पदान्त में द्वित्व नहीं मिलते, किन्तु कुछ बोलियों में ऐसे रूप अवश्य मिलते हैं। प्राकृत के नद, सद्द, हथ्थ, छडूड, घट्ट, घल्ल, आदि दित्व पदान्त व्यंजनों के रूप आज भी पंजाबी राजस्थानी, लहंदी, सिन्धो, कच्छी आदि बोलियों में सुरक्षित हैं । ऋकू-अथर्व-प्रातिशाख्य १-द्रष्टव्य : परिषद् पत्रिका, वर्ष ८, अङ्क ३-४, भाषा-सर्वेक्षणांक, पृ. ५७ २-फ्रेंकलिन एडगर्टन : संस्कृत हिस्टारिकल फोनोलाजी, अमेरिकन ओ. सो, १९४६, ३-टी० बरो : द संस्कृत लैंग्वेज, वाराणसी, १९६५ (अनु०-डा. भोलाशंकर व्यास) पृ० ५४ ४-सिद्धेश्वर वर्मा : क्रिटिकल स्टडीज इन द फोनेटिक आब्जर्वेशन्स आव इण्डियन ग्रैमेरियन्स, भारतीय संस्करण, १९६१, पृ. १०९ Page #123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ८२ और चारायणीय शिक्षा में कहा गया है कि अभिनिधान में एक स्पर्श दूसरे स्पर्श रूप परिणत हो जाता है । भाषा के वास्तविक उच्चारण में ऐसा प्रायः देखा जाता है। भाषा विज्ञान में इसे समीकरण कहा जाता है । 'सप्त' का 'सत्त' और 'तप्त' का 'तत्त' इसी प्रकार के उदाहरण हैं । अभिनिधान अपूर्ण उच्चारण की स्थिति में घटित होता है। इसी प्रकार वैदिक भाषा में पाई जाने वाली स्वरभक्ति प्राकृत की बोलियों में एक सामान्य प्रवृत्ति रही है । प्राकृत में प्रथम पुरुष सर्वनाम के लिए 'से' निपात का प्रयोग पाया जाता है, जो अवेस्ता 'हे, शे' तथा प्राचीन फारसी 'शझ्यू' से मिलता है और जो संस्कृत में उपलब्ध नहीं होता । वैदिक भाषा में अनेक शब्द प्राकृत के मिलते हैं, जिनमें से कुछ इस प्रकार हैं: ___ जुण्ण (सं. जुर्ण, जीर्ण), तूह-तट, घाट(सं. तूर्थ, तीर्थ, अप. तूह, जि. च. १, १०, म. पु. १७. १२. ८), सिढिल-ढीला (सं. शिथिर, शिथिल, अप. सिढिल, म. क. ५. २३. ८), णिड्ड (सं. नीड). कट्ट (सं. कृत्),-विकट्ट (सं. विकृत्), गल्ल (सं. गण्ड), दाढा (दंष्ट्रा) और उच्छेक (सं. उत्सेक) आदि । द्वितीय अवस्था विकास की दूसरी अवस्था में प्रथम ईस्वी के लगभग के पंजाब से खोतान में ले जाये गये धर्मपद के अंश तथा मध्य एशिया के खरोष्ट्री लिपि में लिखे हुए अभिलेख एवं उत्तर-पश्चिम भारत के खरोष्ट्रो अभिलेख अत्यन्त महत्वपूर्ण हैं । मध्यभारतीय आर्यबोली में अभिलिखित ये अभिलेख मध्य एशिया के निय स्थान से प्राप्त हुए हैं इसलिये ये निय प्राकृत के नाम से जाने जाते हैं । ये शान-शान राज्य की राजदरबारी भाषा में लिखे हुए हैं । इन की भाषा मूलतः उत्तरी-पश्चिमी है । इनका समय ईसा की लगभग तोसरी शताब्दी कहा जाता है । इनके अतिरिक्त अश्वघोष के नाटकों की प्राकृत भी इसी युग की देन है । अश्वघोष की प्राकृत बोलचाल के अधिक निकट है । भरतमुनि ने नाट्य में वर्णित विभिन्न पात्रों की बोली को भाषा कहा है; न कि प्राकृत । वस्तुत: अश्वघोष की भाषा, भास के नाटकों के कुछ प्राकृत अंश तथा भरतमुनि की नाट्यगीतियां संस्कृत के शास्त्रीय (classical) नाटकों से पूर्व की है । लोकनाट्य पहले आमतौर से प्राकृत में लिखे जाते थे । संस्कृत में लिखे गये नाटकों में भी पचास प्रतिशत के लगभग प्राकृत का समावेश है। इन में भी अभिनय केवल आम जनता की बोली में हाव-भावों के द्वारा किया जाता था । इसलिए भरेत मुनि ने प्राकृत की बोलियों का क्षेत्रीय भेदों के अनुसार विवरण दिया है । उनके समय में उत्तर में हिमालय की तलहटो से लेकर पंजाब तक और पश्चिम में सिन्ध से ले कर गुजरात तक प्राकृत प्रतिष्ठित थी। ईसा की प्रथम शताब्दी से १-वहीं, पृ. १३७ २-टी. बरो : द संस्कृत लैंग्वेज, अनु. डा. भोलाशङ्कर व्यास, वाराणसी, १९६५, पृ. ५५ ३-सुकुमार सेन : ए कम्पेरेटिव ग्रैमर आव मिडिल इण्डो-आर्यन, द्वि. सं. १९६० पृ. १३ ४-ज्यूल ब्लाख : भारतीय-आर्यभाषा, अनु० लक्ष्मीसगर वार्ष्णेय, १९६३, पृ. १० Page #124 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ८३ कहते हैं, वह प्राकृतों के विकास देश का अधिकांश धार्मिक साहित्य व्याकरण की भाषा के रूप रूढ ह लेकर जिस युग को संस्कृत की समृद्धि का काल का भी काल था । इन मध्यभारतीय बोलियों में ही लिखा गया । संस्कृत इस समय धार्मिक साहित्य और चुकी थी, जिस से उस का विकास रुक गया' । स्वयं महर्षि पाणिनि " बहुल' छन्दसि " कह कर वैदिक भाषा में प्रयुक्त विभिन्न रूपों (विभाषागत) का विवरण प्रस्तुत कर रहे थे । उन के अतिरिक्त महर्षि यास्क और पतंजलि भी वैभाषिक प्रयोगों का स्वच्छन्दता से उल्लेख करते हुए दिखलाई पड़ते हैं । विकास को इस धारा से नव्य भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं का विकास हुआ । नव्य भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं तथा बोलियों में ऐसे कई सौ शब्द हैं, जिनकी व्युत्पत्ति भारतीय आर्य उद्गमों से नहीं मिलती । हां, उन के प्राकृत पूर्व-रूपों का अवश्य सरलता से पुन निर्माण किया जा सकता है । उन का बाहरी रूप सामान्यतः युग्म व्यंजनों या नासिकयों एवं तत्सम्बन्धित स्पर्शो एवं महाप्राणों से बना हुआ बिलकुल प्राकृत जैसा है तथा उन से व्यक्त भाव भी न्यूनाधिक अंशों में मूलगत या प्राथमिक रहते हैं । उदाहरण के लिए अड्डा व्यवधान, परदा; अट्टक्क-रुकावट, खिल्ला - खीला, कोरा - अपरिष्कृत या खुरदुरा; खोट-धब्बा, खोस्स - भूसा, गोड्ड-पांव, गोद-गोद, मुङ्ग-मूंगा, ढूंढ-ढूंढ़ना, फिक्का - फीका; लोट्ट - लोटना; लुक्क छिपना, इत्यादि । इस प्रकार के लगभग ४५० भारतीय आर्य पुनर्गठित शब्द नेपाली कोष में दिये हुए हैं, जिन के मूल शब्द अभारतीय-यूरो पीय, अनिश्चित अथवा अज्ञात हैं। मध्य भारतीय आर्यभाषाओ में अन्य बोलियों तथा विदेशी भाषाओं के शब्दों का आदान प्रदान स्वच्छन्दता से हुआ है । संस्कृत के सम्बन्ध में भी जो यह कहा जाता हैं कि महर्षि पाणिनि ने आर्येतर प्रजाओं के परस्पर लेन देन के कारण आर्यभाषा में अपनाये जाने वाले विदेशी शब्दों को रोकने के लिए संस्कृत भाषा को कटोर नियमों में बांध कर उसे "अमर" बना दिया, यह किसी एक अंश तक ही ठीक है । क्योंकि हम देखते है कि वैदिक भाषा की अपेक्षा संस्कृत में विदेशी भाषाओं के शब्द बहुत हैं । आ. पाणिनि ने जहाँ गणपाठों का विधान कर भाषा को व्यवस्थित बनाया, वहीं "पृषोदरादि" तथा 'स्वार्थिक' प्रत्यय आदि का अभिधान कर आगत शब्दों के लिए प्रवेश द्वार भी निर्मित कर गए । अतएत केवल अन्य भाषाओं और देशी बोलियों के शब्द ही संस्कृत में नहीं अपनाये गये वरन् नये शब्दों का निर्माण और पुननिर्माण भी किया गया । भारत तथा बृह. उत्तर भारत में संस्कृत का विकास इन्हीं मूल प्रवृत्तियों के साथ लक्षित होता हैं । डा. सांकलिया के अनुसार संक्षेप में भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं का विकास इस प्रकार बताया जा सकता हैं : प्रथम प्राकृत ( ई. पू. ३,००-१०० ई.) अनन्तर संस्कृत (१,०० - ७,०० ई.) और तदन १-डा. आइ. जे. एस. तारापोरवाला : संस्कृत सिन्टेक्स, दिल्ली, १९६७, पृ० १३ २ -, चतुर्थ्यर्थे बहुल छन्दसि' (अष्टाध्यायी २ ३.६२), भाषायामुभयमन्वध्यायम् (निरुक्त १ अ., २ पा०, ४ खं . ) प्रथमायाश्च द्विवचने भाषायाम् (अष्टा. ७. २.८८ ), भाषायां सदवसश्रुवः (अष्टा. ३. २. १०८), प्रत्यये भाषायां नित्यम् ( कात्यायन वार्तिके), नेति प्रतिषेधायो भाषायाम् (निरुक्त १ अ.), सिद्धे शब्दार्थसम्बन्धे लोकतोऽर्थप्रयुक्ते शब्दप्रयोगे शास्त्रेण धर्मनियमः । ( महाभाष्य - पतंजलि ) ३ - डा० सुनीतिकुमार चटर्जीः भारतीय आर्यभाषा और हिन्दी, द्वि. सं. १९५७, पृ० १११ Page #125 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ८४ न्तर संस्कृत (७,००-१,२०० ई.) क्षेत्रीय भाषाओं के रूप में वृद्धिंगत होती जा रही थी। प्रारम्भिक दो शताब्दियों में सम्पूर्ण भारतवर्ष में अनवच्छिन्न रूप से संस्कृत-प्राकृत में अभिलेख लिखे जाते रहे । ३,२० ई० में गुप्तकाल में संस्कृत सुस्थिर रूप से पाटलिपुत्र में प्रतिष्ठित थी । मथुरा के अभिलेखों से भी पता चलता हैं कि ईसा की प्रथम शताध्दी तक विशुद्ध प्राकृत का प्रचलन रहा है । दूसरी शताब्दी से संस्कृत में अभिलेख लिखे जाने लगे थे । छठी शताब्दी से उनका विशेष प्रचार हो गया था । फिर भी प्राकृतों का प्रभाव उन पर बराबर लक्षित होता है । यथार्थ में इस युग में प्राकृत और संस्कृत का विकास समानान्तर रूप से हुआ । संस्कृत का अनुसरण करती हुई प्राकृत भी साहित्यक आसन पर समासीन हथी । यद्यपि साहित्यकारों के द्वारा प्राकृतों को कृत्रिम रूप से भो ढाला गया पर प्राकृत अपना देशीपन नहीं छोड़ सकी। फिर भी, संस्कृस साहित्य की तुलना में प्राकृत का साहित्य किसी बात में न्यून प्रतीत नहीं होता । सभी प्रकार की साहित्यिक रचनाएं इस भाषा में लिखी हुयी मिलती हैं । आ. पाणिनि के युग के अनन्तर प्राकृतों में दो बातें विशेष रूप से लक्षित होती हैं -नये शब्दों का अधिग्रहण और प्राचीन संगीतात्मक स्वराघात की अपेक्षा बलात्मक स्वर संचार । इस प्रकार यह एक भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं की परवर्ती अवस्था एक संक्रमण की स्थिति को द्योतित करती है । इस अवस्था से ही भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं के विकास में एक नया मोड तथा तथा महान परिवर्तन लक्षित होने लगता है। अतएव इस अवस्था से हो कर ही नव्य भारतीय आर्यभाषाएं उत्पन्न होने की प्रक्रिया में बीजांकुर की भाँति परिलक्षित होती हैं । उन का उद्गम सहसा तथा अप्रत्याशित रूप से नहीं हुआ । तृतीय अवस्था प्राचीन युग की प्राकृत ही अशोक के अभिलेखों की स्थिति से गुजरती हुयी लगभग दसवीं शताब्दी के मध्ययुगीन प्राकृत के रूप में मुख्यतः चार बोलियों में विभक्त की जा सकती है । पश्चिम में सिंध की घाटी में अपभ्रंश, दोआब में शौरसेनी, मथुरा में भी उस का केन्द्र था । इस के उपविभागों में गौर्जरो (गुजराती), अवन्ती (पश्चिमी राजस्थानी) और महाराष्टी (पूर्वी राजपूतानी) । प्राच्य प्राकृत मागधी और अर्धमागधी रूप में परिलक्षित होती है। अपश से सिंधी. पश्चिमी पंजाबी और कश्मोरी, शौरसेनी से पूर्वी पंजाबी और हिन्दी (जूनी अवन्ती) तथा गुजराती जबकि मागधी के दो रूपों में से मराठी और बंगाल की अन्य बोलियां निकली हैं । आधुनिक बोलियों के विकासोन्मुख होने का समय १,००० ई. है । अपने मौलिक अर्थ में "अपभ्रंश' का अर्थ है विपथगामी । पतंजलि ने इस का प्रयोग १- एच. डी. सांकलिया : इण्डियाज लैंग्वेज, ई. पू. ३,००-१९६० ई. बुलेटिन पूना, दिस. १९६८, पृ० १६ २-वहीं, पृ. १३ ३-ए. ए. मेक्डोनल : ए हिस्ट्री आव संस्कृत लिटरेचर, पंचम संस्करण, १९५८, दिल्ली, पृ. २६ ४-वहीं, पृ० २७ ५-आर्थर ए. मे डानोल : ए हिस्ट्री आव संस्कृत लिटरेचर, पंचम संस्करण, १९५८ पृ. १२७ Page #126 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ प्राचीन मध्य कालीन भारतीय भाषा के कुरूपों के लिए किया है, जो उस समय की संस्कृत में सामान्य थे, पर उन की दृष्टि में असाधु हैं' । लगता है कि वैयाकरणों ने शब्द-रचना की दृष्टि से ही किसी शब्द को असाधु माना होगा, क्योंकि अर्थ की ष्टष्टि से असाधुता का प्रश्न हो नहीं उठ सकता । “गो' के लिए गावी या गोणा शब्द अपभ्रंश में प्रचलित है तो इस से वैयाकरण को क्या कठिनाई है ? केवल यही कि वह संस्कृत इस शब्द को नहीं अपना सकता है, क्योंकि संस्कृत व्याकरण की रूप पद्धति के अनुसार वह निष्पन्न नहीं होता । अत एव शब्द रचना संस्कृत से भिन्न होने के कारण जो शब्द असाधु या भ्रष्ट है उन से भरित भाषा अपनश है। अपभ्रश नव्य भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं की वह अवस्था है जो मध्यकालीन तथा आधुनिक भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं के बीच एक सेतु के समान है । यह आधुनिक भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं की वह पूर्वरूप है, जिससे सभी नव्य भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं का निकास एवं उन्मेष हुआ । वास्तव में शब्द की प्रकृति ही अपभ्रंश है। आज "संस्कृत' शब्द का उच्चारण ही ठीक नहीं हो सकता और फिर “संस्कुरुत उच्चारण ठीक है या संमकिरत" इसका निर्णय कैसे किया जा सकता हैं ? कबीरदास तो स्पष्ट शब्दों में कहते हैं - कबिरा संसकिरत कूपजल, भाखा बहता नीर ।' भर्तृहरि ने परम्परा से आगत तथा प्रसिद्ध एवं रूढ़ स्वतन्त्र अपभ्रंश भाषा का उल्लेख किया है । केवल शब्दों की और संकेत होने से यह नहीं समझना चाहिए कि उनका लक्ष्य कुछ शब्दों को ओर ही है, वरन् ऐसे शब्द-रूपों तथा वाक्यों से भरित भाषा की और भी है । शास्त्र में तो संस्कृत से भिन्न सभी (प्राकृत भा) भाषाएं अपभ्रंश कही जाती रही हैं । इस का मुख्य कारण यही प्रतीत होता है कि इन अपभ्रंश बोलियों में प्रयुक्त देशी शब्द प्रामाणिकता की कोटि में नहीं आ सके । प्राकृतों की भांति अपभ्रंश भी मख्य रूप से उत्तरी-पश्चमी बोली से निकली, इसलिए वह किसी प्रदेश की प्रतिनिधि भाषा नहीं थी वरन भाषागत अवस्था विशेष का प्रतिनिधित्व आवश्य करता है। अपभ्रंश छठी शताब्दी के लगभग साहित्यिक भाषा के रूप में प्रतिष्ठित हो चुकी थी, तभी तो छठी शताब्दी के प्रसिद्ध काव्यशास्त्री भामह संस्कृत, प्राकृत की भांति अपभ्रंश का भी काव्याभाषा के रूप में उल्लेख करते हैं । यद्यपि अपभ्रंश का बोली के रूप में ई० पू० लगभग तीसरी शताब्दी में उल्लेख मिलता है। भरत मुनि ने उकारबहुला के रूप में जिस बोली का उल्लेख किया है और संस्कृत-साहित्य के समालोचकों-दण्डी, नमिसाधु, लक्ष्मीधर, आदि ने आभीरादिगिरः १-ज्यूल्स ब्लाख : इण्डो आर्यन, अनु. अल्फ्रेड मास्टर, पेरिस, १९६५, पृ. २१ Apabhram'sa-Its Original sense is something aberrant. Patanjali applies it to certain forms of old Middle Indian, in common use in the Sanskrit of this time, but from his point of view, incorrect." (pp. 21) २. नाप्रकृतिरपभ्रंश: स्वतन्त्रः कश्चिद् विद्यते । सर्वस्यैव हि साधुरेवापभ्रंशस्य प्रकृतिः । प्रसिद्धेस्तु रूढितामापद्यमानाः स्वातन्त्र्यमेव केचिदपभ्रंशा लभन्ते । तत्र गौरिति प्रयोक्तव्ये अशक्त्या प्रामादादिभिर्वा गाव्यादयस्तत्प्रकृतयोऽपभ्रंशाःप्रयुज्यन्ते ।-वाक्यपदीय, १, १४८, वार्तिक ३. शास्त्रे तु संस्कृतादन्यदपभ्रंशतयोदितम् ।-काव्यलक्षण (दण्डी, १, ३६) । ४. संस्कृतं प्राकृतं चान्यदपभ्रंश इति त्रिधा ।-काव्यालंकार, १,१६ Page #127 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ८६ कह कर जिस का परिचय दिया है और महाकवि कालिदास ने विक्रमोर्वशीय में अपभ्रंश के दोहों में भाषा का जो निदर्शन प्रस्तुत किया है, उससे अपभ्रंश का एक यथार्थ रूप हमारे सामने आता है । आ० नमिसाधु ने स्पष्ट रूप से आभीरी या अपभ्रंश भाषा के लक्षण मागधी में कहे हैं जो एक रूढ़ि मात्र थी। उन्होंने प्राकृत की प्रधानता होने के कारण अपभ्रंश को भी उसके अन्तर्गत गिनाते हुए अपभ्रंश के तीन मुख्य भेदों का निर्देश किया है-उपनागर, आभीर और ग्राम्य । संस्कृत काव्यशास्त्रियों के विवरण से यह स्पष्ट हो जाता है कि अपभ्रंश जनसामान्य की और एक ग्राम्य गंवारू भाषा थी । राजा भोज के युग में १०२२-६३ ई० प्राकृत की भांति अपभ्रंश का भी अच्छा प्रचार था । कहा जाता है कि स्वयं राजा भोज संस्कृत, प्राकृत और अभ्रंपश के अच्छे जानकार थे तथा तीनों भाषाओं में रचना करते थे । काव्य में भी तीनों भाषाओं का इस युग में सामान रूप से महत्व था । गुजरात में अपभ्रंश का विशेष प्रचार था। वहां के लोग केवल अपभ्रंश से ही सन्तोष का अनुभव करते थे । यही नहीं, लाट देश के वासी संस्कृत से द्वेष रखते थे और प्राकृत को रुचिपूर्वक सुनते थे। गौडदेशीय लोगों को भी प्राकृत अच्छी लगती थी । शालिवाहन राजा के काल में प्राकृत का विशेष अभ्युदय हुआ । प्राकृत से भरित होने के कारण अपभ्रंश की रचना भी अत्यन्त भव्य और सरस है । इसे मगध और मथुरा के लोग बोलते थे, जो कविजनों को भी इष्ट थी' । राजशेखर ने काव्य की मुख्य चार भाषाओं का निर्देश किया है। उसके अनुसार संस्कृत सुनने में दिव्य प्राकृत स्वभाव से मधुर, अपभ्रंश सुभव्य और भूतभाषा सरस है । काव्यमीमांसा के विवरण से पता लगता है कि अपभ्रंश का प्रचलन मारवाड़ में ही नहीं, सम्पूर्ण प्राचीन राजस्थान, पश्चिमो पंजाब, गुजरात तथा मालवा में भी था । मुख्य रूप से डा० तगारे ने अपभ्रंश के पश्चिमी, दक्षिणी और पूर्वी तीन भेद माने हैं । अपभ्रंश का लिखित साहित्य अभी तक उत्तर भारत को छोड़कर दक्षिण, पूर्व और पश्चिम तीनों भागों से प्राप्त हो चुका है । वाल्टर शुबिंग ने आचार्य कुन्दकुन्द के अष्टपा. हुड पर अपभ्रंश का प्रभाव लक्षित किया है । इसी प्रकार शैवागम साहित्य में प्राकृत तथा अपभ्रंश की प्रधानता है । अभी इस पर शोध-कार्य नहीं हुआ । किन्तु इस और विशेष रूप से लक्ष्य देना आवश्यक प्रतीत होता है । बास्तव में प्राकृत और अपभ्रंश ही इस देश की ऐसी भाषाएं हैं जो सहस्रों वर्षों से प्रवर्तित भाषाओं के इतिहास में विशेषतः आर्यभाषाओं की श्रृंखला के समान हैं । इनके बिना इस देश का भाषाविषयक इतिहास सदा अपूर्ण रहेगा। वाकरनागल ने बहुत पहले ही यह तथ्य हमारे सामने रखा था कि वैदिक युग में भी बोलियां थीं, इसका प्रमाण अपभ्रंश में मिलता है । सच बात यह है कि द्वितीय प्राकृत में व्याकरण सम्बन्धी अनेक ऐसे रूप मिलते हैं, जिनकी व्याख्या पाणिनीय संस्कृत द्वारा नहीं की जा सकती । इनमें से एक अपादान अथवा सप्तमी की विभक्ति 'हि' है जो पालि तथा प्राचीन 'सस्कृत' 'धि' से उद्भूत हुई है, साहित्यिक संस्कृत से नहीं । 'धि' का ही रूप प्रत्यय रूप से ग्रोक में 'थि' मिलता है । वैदिक युग में भी इस प्रत्यय का प्रयोग मिलता १. महाराजा भोज : सरस्वतीकण्ठाभरण, २,१३-१६ २. डा० जी० वी० तगारे : हिस्टारिकल ग्रामर आव अपभ्रंश, १९४८, पृ० १५-१६ Page #128 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ८७ है । किन्तु जिस परिनिष्ठित बोली से संस्कृत प्रादुर्भूत हुई है, उसमें इसका अभाव है ' (देखो प्रो० वाकरनागल : आल्टिण्डीशे ग्रामेटिक, पृ० २० ) स्पष्ट अपभ्रंश की ध्वनि प्रक्रिया प्राकृत को वर्णानुपूर्वी से भिन्न नहीं है और न अलग कोई प्रतीकात्मक पद्धति ही इस में पाई जाती है। आ० भरत मुनि तथा प्राकृत के वैयाकरणों के अनुसार संस्कृत से प्राकृत की वर्णमाला कुछ भिन्न है । बोलियों में सरलीकरण की प्रवृत्ति वैदिक युग से ही बराबर बनी रही है । अपभ्रंश में ह्रस्व ए और ओ का प्रयोग उसके बोली रूप को द्योतित करता है । संस्कृत में ए, ओ सन्ध्यक्षर हैं किन्तु अपभ्रंश में उनकी स्थिति भिन्न है । बोलियों में इनका प्रयोग स्वतन्त्र स्वर के रूप में होता रहा है । जब बोलियों का बराबर प्रभाव साहित्यिक संस्कृत पर पड़ रहा था तब उन में भी सन्धि की प्रवृत्ति मन्थर पड़ गयी थी । ऋक्संहिता में पादान्त और पादादि को सन्धि में भी यह वृत्ति रूप से लक्षित होती है कि इन दशाओं में मूल पाठ में सन्धि होती ही नहीं थी और पादान्त तथा पादादि में सन्धि का होना व्याकरण की दृष्टि से उचित नहीं है । डा० अल्सडोर्फ का कथन बिलकुल ठीक है कि अपभ्रंश की प्रवृत्ति अन्त्य स्वरों के ह्रस्वीकरण की ओर है । इससे अपभ्रंश की सरलीकरण की सामान्य प्रवृत्ति का ही संकेत मिलता है । ईसाकी प्रथम सहस्राब्दी के मध्य में आरम्भ हुई अपभ्रंश भाषा- परम्परा तुर्की ईरानी विजय के समय भी बराबर चल रही थी । कालिदास के विक्रमोर्वशीय में अपभ्रंश के कुछ दोहे मिलते हैं । यदि ये प्रक्षिप्त हों, अथवा आद्य द्वितीय प्राकृत की कालिदास-कालीन ४०० ई० अपभ्रंश के परिवर्तित रूप हों, तो साहित्यिक अपभ्रंश साहित्य का श्रीगणेश उक्त तिथि के आसपास गिना जा सकता हैं । अपभ्रंश की कुछ विशेषताएं, उदा० हो जाना, इसके भी पहले ईसा की तृतीय शताब्दी में ही पश्चिमोत्तरो प्राकृत में दृष्टिगोचर होती हैं । इस प्रकार अपभ्रंश प्राकृत की मूल परम्परा की मध्यकालीन भारतीय आर्यभाषा की वह अवस्था है, जो नव्य भारतीय आर्यभाषाओं की पुरोगामिनी है और आधुनिक आर्य बोलियों की सामान्य पूर्वरूप है । अन्तिम ओ का क्षयित होकर उ 3 अपने व्यापक अर्थ में अपभ्रंश भी रूप में साधु भाषा से विपथगामी है । सामान्य नाम है । वस्तुतः यह मध्यकालीन उस जनभाषा के लिये प्रयुक्त नाम है जो लगभग छठी शताब्दी से पन्द्रहवीं तक प्राकृतों की अन्तिम अवस्था में साहित्यिक भाषा के रूप में प्रयुक्त होती थी और जो हिन्दी, गुजराती, राजस्थानी, सिन्धी, पंजाबी और बंगला आदि की मूल रही है । १. सर जार्ज अब्राहम ग्रियर्सन : भारत का भाषा - सर्वेक्षण, खण्ड १, भा० १, अनु० डा० उदयनारायण तिवारी, १९५९, पृ०२३२ २ - कृष्ण घोष: प्राकृतिक सन्धि इन द ऋक्संहिता, इण्डियन लिंग्विस्टिक्स, जिल्द ९, भा०१. ३ - डा० सुनोतिकुमार चटर्जी : भारतीय आर्य भाषा और हिन्दी, द्वि०सं०, १९५७, पृ०११७ - पिशेल : कम्पेरेटिव ग्रैमर आव द प्राकृत लैंग्वेज, अनु० सुभद्र -झा, द्वि०सं०, १९६५, पृ०३१ ४-आर० किसी भी उस भाषा की धोतक है जो किसी परिणामतः यह सभी भारतीय लोकचोलियों का Page #129 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1. Prakritic Influences Revealed In the Works of Papini, Katyayana and Patanjali Dr. S. D. Laddu, Poona Introductory A large mass of Vedic variants that bear striking resemblances with the phonetic features of the later Middle-Indic dialects has been collected by Bloomfield and Edgerton in their Vedic Variants. This was followed by studies by Oertel, Wackernagel, Tedesco and Devasthali, on this aspect for the Vedic Sanskrit. These studies are convincing for the existence of dialects, contemporary with the Vedic texts and having phonological features that we know from the later attested MIA dialects. Skold's study of the Nirukta has led him to believe that Yaska spoke a language of that earlier stage of Middle-Indian which is characterized as the "Pali-Stufe " by German Scholars. He further states that the Sanskrit of Yaska and Panini was "the spoken language of the educated class, the brahmans, but which could not remain uninfluenced by the vernaculars."2 In Panini Emeneau finds "some clear evidence" of this nature which he easily expects in view of the chronological proximity of Panini to the Buddha who taught in the colloquial or MIA dialects. When we find a whole class of words assumed by Panini, the prṣodarādi-s, showing irregularities of formation and yet granted a special sanction by him, it is not difficult to agree with the conclusion of Emeneau. Katyayana (Kty), who followed Panini (P) some centuries later, has discussed in his Värttika (Vt)s about one-third of P's Sutras in the light of the state of Sanskrit current at his time. These were critically discussed in the Great Commentary by Patanjali (Ptj). There are several passages in the Mahabhāṣya (M) bearing references to the popular speech which exhibited a number of corruptions of the Sanskrit language. Thus, a single word go showed not less than four apabhramsa-s, carrying the same denotation (samānāyām arthagatau), into gāvi, gont, gota, and gopotalikā, while Devadatta, ājñāpayati ( through ajñapayati), vartate, vardhate, kṛś-,dṛś- and √svap- were uttered then by people respectively as Devadinna, aṇapayati, vattati, vadḍhati, √kasa-, √disa- and supa-. This sample of the invasion of corrupt expressions on the Sanskrit speech of the days is enough to show the contamination in speech which was then a mixture of correct and incorrect. expressions. So a dialect like Pali, according to R. G. Bhandarkar, must have been "the vernacular of the other classes." Although the object of Page #130 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 89 Grammar was to teach avoiding of such expressions belonging to the vulgar speech, it was inevitable to find a "two-way” infuence during the normally slow and steady process of linguistic transformation. Further, forms current in the popular dialects i.e. among the non-sista members of the society of a particular region and period could even win recognition from the šista-s of that region at a later period, the speed of the recognition depending upon the degree of vitality and prestige developed by the dialects. Attention to this fact was drawn long back by S. M. Katre in his address on “ The influence of Popular Dialects on Sanskrit."5 It is on this background of a continuous influence of features peculiar to the MIA being exercised on the Sanskrit language right from the Vedic stage, that the rules and other data provided by the earliest grammarians of Sanskrit, P, Kty, ( followed by a few others ) and Ptj are taken up here for a study, trying to discover such influences in the field of phonology on the Sanskrit as described by them, leaving aside those restricted to the Veda and the Nirukta (Nir) which have been earlier studied. At the beginning of M, Ptj says that lopagamavarnayikarajno hi samyag vedan pari palayisyati (1. 1. 15f.); again, on the Sūtra, 6.3.109 be points out (IlI. 174.1) that the irregularity in the forms like Prsodara-could be three-fold, viz. showing lopa, agama and ( varna-) vikara or “elision", «« increment” and “ modification ” respectively. Now, these are the most general categorie; under which alm )st all the phonological variations could fit in, (A) LOPA I. Loss of an intervocalic single unas pirated consonants 1. Emencau sees in maireya- listed by P ( 6.2.70 ) a loss of d from a word having madira- at its base.? 2. P derives datta by suggesting a substitution of ad to the a of da (7.4.46 but when datta is preceded by a vowel-ending upasarga, he de. rives forms like pratta by substituting 1 for a in da ( 7.4.47), and derives forms liko niita similarly but, further, lengthening the vowel i or 4 at the end of the upasarga (6.3.124 ). Now, leaving for our purpose P's guiding factor of economy, it can be seen that pratta and nitta probably show some much process where ad uniformly replaces ai pradata > pradadta > pradatta < pra-atta > (> pratta ) > pratta (-by regressive assimilation or para-rüpa of Vt; nidata > nidadta > nidatta > ni-atta > nitta ( by progressive assimilation or pūrva-rupa ) (>nitta ). 12 Page #131 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 90 II. Loss of the unas pirated portion of an intervocalic single aspirated consonants. 1. Imper. 2nd sg. dhi found in the Veda and Classical Sanskrit changes to hi in some roots in some situation. Cf. juhudhi, krīnihi (6.4.101). ... 2. Vedic sadha (as in sadhamada, sadhastha ) changes to Cl. saha (6.3.96). 3. nyagrodha- is derived by Ptj ( 1.433.2) from nyak- ruh-. ( The same word, as noted by Mehendale, 10 is derived from vruh- at AiB, 35.4 ).. 4. Vedic śubhita > suhita in M (1.31.10, 11.64.18 ). (Mehendale 11 notes AiBr 40.3 paraphrasing the Mantra word śudhita with suhita. ) 5. The Vedic forms sudhita, vasudhita, and nemadhita recorded among others by P (7.4.45 ) as irregular, were, according to the Kašika, replaced (possibly at the time of P) by suhita, vasuhita and nemahita respectively11.1 6 aho puruşa, at the base of aho purusika which is first attested in M (twice at 1.15.18. III. 340.15 ), is suspected by V. P. Limaye ( against Kaiyala's derivation to be developed out of adhahpuruşa” one who looks down upon others, or treats others with contempt."11.2 III. Syncopation ( and Haplology) : 1. dh + dh > dh ( 8.3.13 dho dhe lopah). Thus, lih + ta > lidh+ļa ( 8.2.31 ) >lidh+dha ( 8.2.40 ) > lidh + dha (8.4.41 ). 2. r tr=r(8.3.14 ro ri ). Thus, agnir + rathaḥ, punar + ramate etc. 3. Kty ( derives vaihinari from vahinara through vihinaraBut Kunaravāļava who followed him derives it form vihinananız- through vihinara - (M III. 317. 9f.). IV. Syncopation : 12 1. (a) Loss of 'a' when followed by 'a' The form kulata recorded by P (4.1.127 ) is derived by Ptj with the help of pararūpa sandhi (under ). (b) Loss af 'a' whep followed by 'e' 1. It is first p who grants sa action to such forms ( 6.1.94 ) as probably in prejati (< pra + ejati ) or upelayati (upa+elayati ). 2. In the case of combinations with eva, Kty ( restricts this Sandhi to the idiomatic use of eva which does not convey certainty. Ptj supplies i heva and adyeva as examples, kveva bhokşyase could be one more. Page #132 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 91 (c) Loss of a' when followed by 'o' 1. The same rule of P (6.1.94) gives sanction to such forms as probably upoşati ( nutna alternating with nu+tana (Kty: 2. pratna alternating with pra + tana (Kty: The latter form is post-Vedic. 3. Bharuja (Nir 2.2; bharujt, in AV-S 2.24.8 and AV-P 2.42.6) is derived by Kty (1.1.47,3) from bharj- with the insertion of u(m). 4. marici (Veda) also is derived by Kty there from marc- with the insertion of (m). 5. A large number of past passive participles and other forms are had, either necessarily or optionally, with the link-vowel, technically called it or iḍagama. Cf. pavita, pavitum, pavitavyam. 6. It is also seen sometimes before ra ( in the Vedic medhira or rathira, or before snu (3.2.136-38) as in alamkariṣṇu or bhaviṣṇu etc. 7. u as a link-vowel occurs sometimes before ka (5.1.103) as in kärmuka, before the primary ra (3.2:161f.) as in bhangura, bhasura, medura vidura, bhidura, chidura, or before the secondary ra (5.2.106) as in dantura, Page #133 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 92 11. "Y"-glide (sometimes with shortening of the preceding vowel.14 1. deyah + iha > devar iha ( 8.2.66) > deväy iha ( 8.3.17 ) >deva iha (8.3.19) shows that a hiatus-tilger' y is optionally put in expressions where the hiatus is preceded by aja, though it was elided in the speechcommunity represented by sākalya. This y was a glide or of light articulation (laghu prayatnatara) according to Śākatāyana (8.3.18 ), but not necessarily so according to P, implying thereby, as V. Bhattacharya feels, that the glide changed to a fully developed y when Pāņini wrote his grammar. 2. bho + acyuta > bhoy acyuta (8.3.17 ) or (according to Gārgya ) bho acyuta ( 8.3.20 ), suggesting the same implication as above. 3. deva + os > deva-y-oh, although in such cases Pfirst has a > e (7.3.104 ) and then e > ay ( 6.1.78 ). 4. rama + a > rama-y-a, although in such cases P first has a ne (7.3.105 ) and then e > ay. 5. tva/ma + a > tvay/may + a (7.2.89 ). 6. ni + aḥ > niy + aḥ; susri + aḥ > susriy + aḥ (6.4.77 ): sudhi + aḥ > sudhiy + ah ( 6.4.85 ); stri + aḥ > striy + aḥ (6.4.79 ); strı + am + striy # am (6.4.80 ). 7. da + aka > da-y-aka; da + in> da-y-in; da ta > da-ya; and cekriya, syargahvāya, tantuvāya, dhanyamaya, gosandaya, kşira payin etc., all showing the y(uk) agama (7.3.33 ) according to P. 8. ga + a-ti > gay + a-ti; ci-kşi + us > ci-kşi-y + us; a-da ti > a-da-y + i ( 6.4.77 ); i + eşa > iy eșa ( 6.4.78 ). III. 'V'-glide (sometimes with shortening of the preceding vowel ) 1. bhru + ak > bhrūv + ah; 1ū + aḥ > luv + ah; kata pru + aḥ > kata pruv + aḥ (6.4,77 ); bhū + aḥ > bhuv + aḥ ( 6.4.85 ); lolü + ah > loluy + aḥ (6.4.77 ). 2. u-okh + a > uv-okh + a (6.4.78 ). 3. apnu + anti > apnuv + anti ( 6.4.77 ); lulu + uh > luluy + uh (6.4.77). 4, abhū + an > abhu-v-an; babhū ta > babhū ---U-a (6.4.88 ). 5. bhū + adayah > bhū-v-adayaḥ done by P himself at (C) VIKARA C-1. Vowels (a) e ai > 116 P sanctions the shortening” of e or ai into i ( 1.1.48 ). So we get : Page #134 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 93 1. as a neuter stem, ati-ri ati-rai (by 1.2.47 ); and 2. reduplicated forms like piprese or jiheda ( by 7.4.59 ). 3. Although govinda ( attested in the Mahabharata 1.91.11, 5.68.12-13) as “ winner of cows ” is derived out of go- and vind- by Kty (, it is suspected by Bohtlingle and Roth ( PW 2.816 ) to have developed out of gopendra “ the chief herdsman” (through *go pinda ). Or is it, as V.P. Limaye suggests, 16.1 connected with govindū- of RV 9.96.19 or with vindufrom-vindur icchuḥ of P 3.2.169 ? (b) ofau > 417 By the same rule (1.1.48 ), P sanctions this kind of “ shortening ”. So we get : 1. as neuter stems, upa-gu < upa-go or ati-nu < ati-nau ( 1.2.47 ); 2. forms like dyi-gu at 2.1.23, tişthad-gu at 2.1.17, citra-gu etc. (all by 1.2.48 ); and 3. reduplicated forms like dudhauke or u-v-okha ( 7.4.59 ). (C-1) It was pointed out by some to Ptj that the followers of the Satyamugri and Rānāyaniya schools among Samavedins uttered è and , and hence they deserved to be accepted as the short counterparts of e and o respectively; they were again more homorganic (sasthanatara) than i and u which were enjoyed by P ( 1.1.48 ), and so better satisfied P's condition for a substitute (1.1.50 ) to be the closest possible to the original linguistic Item. Now, although Ptj answers this by saying that it was merely a stylistic peculiarity on the part of the reciters and that an ě or an > was not to be expected either in the Vedic or in the secular speech, yet it appears that there was this tendency in the pronunciation of a section of speakers at the time. We know this was a peculiarity of the Prakrit phonology.18 (c-2) ai > e; au > 018.1 Keith suspects the working of this phenomenon 18.2 in the eastern placenames allowed as correct by P (1.1.75 ), such as enipacaniya, bhojalafiya and gonardiya ( supplied by the Kašika ), side by side with forms normally showing ai and au by his other rules (1.1.73, 4.2.114 ). (d) ! > 219 1. P has noted this in reduplicated forms (7.4.66) as in cakre, vavyte etc. 2. Ptj has noted (1.259.14 ) the popular pronunciation of v krs- askas(e) ! > 120 Page #135 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 94 . 1. P has seen this in the case of roots or derivatives (7.1,100,101) as in kirati, kira, kirtayati. 2. Ptj bas noted (1.259.14 ) the popular pronunciation of vděs—as disa- (v. l. y disa-). (3) H. Berger explains20.1 vedh- probably as a borrowal from a vernacular showing it as a secondary strong root from Vidh- which, in turn, developed out of Vidh. (f) ! > 421 1. P has seen this in the case of roots beginning with a labial conso. nant ( 7.1.102 ), as in pupūrşati. 2. P notes this for the gen. sg. of q-ending forms (6.1.111 ), as id pituh, matuḥ etc. 3. P notes this for mat; ( 4.1.115 ), in forms like dvaimatura, sammatura or bhadramatura. (8) r > ri22 1. In the passive, benedictive and present active constructions, P notes the root-final changing to ri (7.4.28), as in kriyate or hriyate, hriyat, and adriyate or mriyate. 2. The word krmi is found mentioned by Pti once as krimi which is frequent in the Inscriptions ( M 11.309.7, III. 179.17). (b) ! > e Io the Vedic littrature geha occurs only in the VS-K ( 30.9 ); later it is found once in the Mahabharata ( 3.287.7c) and then frequently in the Manusmrti. At P's time its occurrence must be rare. Yet he has specially derived it form vgrh- (3.1.144 ) showing how ? started getting corrupted into e in the current speech. Kty too has once used it. ( ). (i)(a + CC) > (a + GC) (Shortening of a when followed by a conjunct consonant ). 1. Āpisali as quoted by P (6.1.92) allowed the use of forms like uparkariyati and upalkartyati ( mentioned by Ptj, M. 1.63.12 ) side by side with uparkāriyati and upalkārtyati respectively. 2. Kty's speech contained forms like sakand hu which he derived from saka + andhu ( 3. Ptj further supplied simanta (only referring to the hair ). There were probably many such in vogue at his time, for be twice uses a regular term sakandhu-nyāya' to describe such ( II. 373.107., 111,259.15 ). 4. Common forms like pacanti, gacchanti, etc. seem to be derived (P. 6.1.97 ) through * pacanti etc. Page #136 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 95 5. According to Ptj (III. 96.12–14 ), maskarin recorded by P (6.1.154) is to be derived from *maskarin22.1 showing a sut-ugama. C-2. Single Consonants (a) p > 722.2 gopendra > *go pinda > govinda, referred to earlier, may be seen. (b) c > Ś If, as S. Sen says,28 savati corresponds to cyavati (7.4.81 ), it appears to be a parallel to the SB ( ) reference pointed out by Mehendale about s having corrupted into c.24 Now, say, is actually found in the famous M (1.9.25f.) and Nir (2.2) passage, savatir gatikarmă etc. (c)ś > 326 subhita (Veda > suhita has been noted earlier. S > h26 s of the First Future suffix tas and of the root as- changes to h before the termination e, as in kartahe or vyatihe (7.4.52 ). (d) > 127 1. Roots mruc - and mluc – are together mentioned by P ( 3.1.58 ). 2. Similarly, roots gruc- and gluc- are mentioned by him there. 3. The suffix āru (3.2.173 ) deriving the forms sarāru and yandaru is mentioned by P, and also the suffix alu (3.2.158 ) deriving sp;hayalu etc. 4. While graha meant only « seizure", glaha also derived from the same root, denoted in P's time “a die ” (3.3.70 ). 5. sphurati and sphulati are mentioned together by P (6.1.47) to derive sphära and sphala. 6. By 8.2.21 P sanctions pairs like girati : gilati, nigaryate : nigalyate, and by 8.2.22, pairs like paryanka : palyanka. 7. In some cases only forms with 1 are sanctioned by him 8.2.19 ), as in playate, palayate and perhaps also palyayate. His matula (4.1.49) also is mentioned by S. Sen in this connection.28 8. His root Vlajj- is taken to have been developed out of raj(y). 9. DhP shows ragh- and Vlagh- ( 1.113f. ). 10. Even before Ptj. the r: 1 alternation was sanctioned in the forms taruņa ; taluna by the Saunāgas ( II. 105.8, 209,8, 238.11 ). Page #137 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 96 11. By the time of Ptj. a number of such pairs were seen current. Thus, bhiruka beside P's bhiluka (on 3.2.174), plakşa: praksa (1.433.1), aśvavāla : asvavara, Müladeva: Muradeva, laghusyada: raghusyada, alam: aram, svanguli : svanguri, kapilaka: kapiraka, tilvilka: tilvirika, loman: roman, pāṁsula : pāṁsura, kalman karman, śukla: sukra ( on 8.2.18) and paliyoga: pariyoga (on 8.2.22). (e) Voicing. 1. P mentions libi side by side with lipi to derive the forms libikara and lipikara (3,2.21). : 2. The name Patañjali, probably a patronymic from Patañcala Kapya (of BĀrUp 3.3.1, 7.1), bears according to Weber and S. Sen,31 an MIA stamp. 3. Mañcaka is noted by Ptj as corrupted in his time into manjaka (I.14.20, II.201.3). 4. DhP shows ag- (130) beside Vak- (129) in identical sense. (f) Devoicing 1. As was pointed out by me elsewhere,32 the tendency of devoicing in the following cases: 1, kupya, recorded by P (3.1.114) as an irregular form, derived by Ptj from gup- (II.86.22 ); 2. sankara current with P (3.2.14) and Ptj and suggested by Kuṇaravāḍava (who preceded Ptj) to be a corruption from sangara (II.100.8f.) 3. payya-recorded as an irregular form by P ( 3.1.129) is derived by (Kty and) Pij from ma- (II.89.13). If that were correct, could this be regarded as a case of devoicing at the time of P ? (g. 1) Cerebralisation: Unconditional n33 1. The roots ✔pan-, No pan- (3.1.28; DhP 1.466f.), √bhan- (RV) : bhan- (DhP I. 474), mun- (DhP VI. 44) etc. 2. Kty ( has noted the form aṇapayati. 3. Ptj (1.20.12) has noted the form Devadinna. t #85 1. There is a root pat mentioned In DhP (1.318, X.212, 311 ). 2. Ptj has mentioned the pairs, varṇa-samghata : varṇa-samghata and pada-samghata pada-samghata (II.104.2-3). # (id) < 186 : Page #138 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 97 1. P has noted the forms vacața vacāla (5.2.125) denoting "a talkative person." (g.2) Cerebralisation: Conditional n n 1. There is a large section of rules about this (8.4.1-39) given by P pointing out the use of n as either obligatory or optional, some of which may be illustrated:- badartvana: badarivana (8.4.6) Jan-an- (8.4.1921), prahanmaḥ prahanmaḥ (8.4.23), antarhaṇama but, when a region is to be referred to, antarhanana (8.4.24), prayana (8.4.29) prako pana or prakopana (8.4.31), pranindana or pranindana (8.4.33). 2. Elsewhere P has mentioned (5.2.78) a form gramanı. S 3. Kty has added the forms, girinadi: girinadı (, nirvinna (, dūņasa ( etc. 4. Ptj has recorded, among other forms, gramaṇāya (II.79.17). ! < t < ḍ Page #139 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 98 2. Kty has noted the forms, fodan, sodasa (, dūdaśa and dudabha ( 3. Among instances of voc. sg. forms, Ptj mentions the stem ambalz.! beside the stem ambada (III. 340.7). dadabha Kits 2169 9oted the forms (d)dh < (d)dh 1. S. Sen points out that, while sadhri is given by P as a substitute to saha (6.3.95 ), in literature it is attested not like that but only In MIA as saddhin. Tbis latter appears to be a counterpart of the Sanskrit, sard dhi. 2. Kty has noted the forms sodha ( and dūdhya ( (g.3) Decerebralisation 1. On P's sankaja, prakafa and utkata ( 5.2.29 ), Ptj says that the meanings conveyed by these were respectively sangata, pragata and udgata (II.375 20f.). Does it suggest an actual usage in the speech than showing decerebralisation ? 2. krs- > kasa- noted by Pej is already mentioned. C-3. Consonant Clusters (a) jy > i 1. It is already mentioned that scholars are inclined to derive from rajy (through raji ). 2. Palsuleti derives sajj- also (from v saj-) through sajy. lais (b) sj > P's discovery of the root masj- (cf.7.1.60 ) and >bhrasj-, at the base of majj- and bhrajj- respectively (both arrived at by 8.4.53 and 8.4.40), has been hailed by scholars. (c) kş < khas P's record of khefa once (: kşetra ) has been already mentioned. (d) ps > cches While P mentions Ipsita often, bis Vicch- is certainly a Prakrit form of vipsa. (e) dy > PV In an interesting passage in M (1.11. 11 14), P records the style of some ritual scholars uttering the phrase yar va maḥ and tar va naḥ, though only in informal situations; while in formal (ritual) situations they would be particular to utter those 28 yad ya nah and tad va nah. Page #140 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (f) hm, hn, hy, hv, hl44 These clusters (the first two with P, 8.3.26f., and, in addition, the last three with Kty), when following an anusvāra, were pronounced then in two ways : either the anusvāra being retained, or it being changed to m, n, 9, , and 1 respectively. As has been shown by V. Bhattacharya45 and A. M. Ghatage, 46 this second tendency which began with P and spread at the time of Kty has become more and more frequent in the later stages of Indo Aryan and is the usual one in most NIA languages. Foot Notes 1 "Prakriticism in the Rgveda", Proceedings of the Seminar in Prakrit Studies, Uni versity of Poona, 1970, pp. 199–205. 2 The Nirukta, Lurd, 1926, pp. 132,134f. 3 "The Dialects of Old Indo-Aryan" (pp. 123-38; p. 129) from Birnbaum and Puhvel (ed.), Ancient Indo-European Dialects, 1966. 4 Collected Works, Vol. IV, P, 583. 5 ABORI 24.12,16 (1943). 6 Prākyta-Prakasa of Vararuci (pp), II.2; Siddha-Hema-Sabdanusāsana (SHS), 8.1.177. 7 Loc. cit. 8 pp 11.27; SHS 8.1.187. 9 Cp. Burrow, The Sanskrit Language, 2nd. ed., 1965, p. 348. 10 Some Aspects of Indo-Aryan Linguistics. 1968, p. 17. . 11 Loc. cit. 11.1 va sudhita, vasuhita and nemahita are not attested: see V. P. Limaye, Critical Studies on the Mahābhāşya (CSM), V.I.S. & I.S., Hoshiarpur (to be published shortly). p. 679. 11.2 See CSM, p. 638. ahopuru șa is not attested in early Literature; it is derived by Nágela (in the Udd yota at 7,2.67) by resort to 2.1.72 of P. According to Kaiyaţa (11th c.A.D.) on M above and Vardhamana (1140 A.D.) on Kärikā 120 of the Ganaratnamahodadhi, it forms a member of the manojādi-gana referred to by Pat 5,1.133 and thus gives the form ahopuru sikā with the suffix vun and earrying the sense of "the attitude or action of (proudly) considering oneself to be manly." However, neither the Kasika (7th c.A.D.) nor Birwe (p. 344f. of Der Ganapatha zu den Adhyayas IV and V der Grammatik Paninis, 1961) record it within the Gana; but Bòhtlingk does include it there (p. 130* of Panini's Grammatik, reprint 1964). 12 Noted by Vidhushekhara Bhattacharya, "Panini's Grammar and the influence of Prakrit on Sanskrit", IL 3.157-59 (1933). 13 PP 111.59-66;SHS 8.2.100-15. 14 SHS 8.1.180. See V. Bhattacharya, op.cit. This is called yanvyavadhana by Sanskrit Grammarians; see G. B. Palsule, The Sanskrit Dhātupațhas : A Critical Study, 1961, p. 24, fn.59. 15 See Palsule, op.cit., pp. 23f. 16 PP 1.34.38; SHS 8.1.146, 149f. 16 1 CSM, P. 189f. 17 PP 1.44; SHS 8.1.160f. 18 Cp. PP. 1.5; SHS 8,1.78,82, Page #141 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 18.1 PP 1.35,41; SHS 8.1.148, 159. 18.2 A History of Sanskrit Literature, reprint, 1961, p. 24. 19 PP 1.27; SHS 8.1.126. 20 PP 1.28; SHS 8.1.128. 20.1 MIS 1.48f. (1955), as quoted by Gonda, Old Indian, 1971. p. 173, fn. 9. 21 PP 1.29; SHS 8.1.131. 22 PP 1.30; SHS 8.1.140-42. See also Wackernagel, Altindische Grammatik, Band I,p.199. 22.1 For the original 'ma' in this form, see Limaye, CSM, p. 498. 22.2 PP 2.15; SHS 8.1.465. 23 "Three Lectures on Middle Indo-Aryan". JOI 11.193-216 (1962): p. 200 24 Op. cit., p. 20. 25 PP II.43; SHS 8.1.260. 26 PP II.46; SHS 8.1.263. 27 PP II.30; SHS 8.1.254. 100 28 Op.cit., p. 198. 29 Burrow, op.cit., p. 84; Palsule, op.cit., p. 183. 30 IS (1873) 13.316, fn. 2. 31 Op.cit., p. 200. 32 "A Linguistic Phenomenon from the Mahabhāṣya", read at the 26th session of the A.I.O.C. Ujjain, 1972. 33 PP II.42; SHS 8.1.228. 34 S. M. Katre, (1) op.cit., p. 19; (2) Some problems of Historical Linguistics in Indo Aryan, 2nd ed., 1965, p. 155. 35 SHS 8.1.205. 36 PP II.22f., SHS 8.1.197f., 202. 37 Op.cit. p. 198. 38 In personal communication. 39 Burrow, op..cit., p. 56. 39.1 Not attested although at the base of ambālikā; see Limaye, CSM, p. 669. 40 Loc. cit. 41 Op. cit., p. 183. 42 PP III.29; SHS 8.2.3. 43 Cp. SHS 8.2.21. 44 PP III.8; SHS 8.2.74, 76. 45 Loc. cit. 46 "Pronunciation of Sanskrit in Clusters with h", ALB 25.103-05 (1961). Page #142 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 16. Role of Prakrit Dialects In Sanskrit Dramas Dr. T. N. Dave; Ahmedabad No literature in the world has several dialects spoken by characters in any one Drama. Curiously enough, Sanskrit dramas have more than one dialect in each of them. The hero, the heroine, the servants, merchants speak different dialects in one and the same Sanskrit drama. Prof. Weber has tried to explain this phenomenon as being due to the existence of high degree of social stratification existing in Indian Society of the time when dramatic literature came into existence in India. The small differences of the beginning, were later exaggerated in dramas, and we arrive at the picture we dow see about the dialects in Sanskrit dramas. The difference between the several dialects used in the dramas and Sanskrit was, in the initial stages, so small that all characters and all members of the audience perfectly understood all the dialects spoken on the stage. The difficulty of incomprehensibility did not exist, as all were intelligible forms of one IA. The palpable differences grew in dimensions as centuries passed We have decided to study this question from three different angles, viz. (i) From the point of view of the Pkt. Grammarians, (2) from that of the Dramaturgists and (3) from the actual practice of the poets who wrote dramas. From the long period of about 1500 years of the active life of Prakrits we have selected representative authours of the three branches for our study. Vararuchi, Hemachandra and Markandeya from the Grammariads; Bharata, Dhananjaya and Vishvapātha from the Dramaturgists; and about a dozen poets from Bhasa to Jayadeva of 18th century. Of the three groups, the Grammarians are most reliable as their interest in language was genuine and they were properly qualified for the work. The Dramaturgists have only superficial knowledge of dialects and were interested only in knowing to what areas the different dialects belonged, and whom to assign these dialects among the dramatic characters. The study of play-wrights will reveal what use they have made of the information about the various dialects made available by the above two sources, I The Grammarians : Though no grammasian assigns definitely the different dialects to the different areas, the names that they have given to Pkts are sufficient indication of their locality. Thus, we can take for gran. ted that Saurasens belonged to the western Indian region of the Saurasenas. Mogadhi was spoken in the East, i.e. Magadba, Mahārāștri in MaharastraPajšācı in the Pišāca country or Durdistan. Paišācí being a mountain dialect was split up into several sub-dialects of which Kashmiri was the Page #143 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 102 chief representative. This is the earliest Geographical lay-out, after that obtained from Asokan Edicts, we have about Pkt. Later, langnages were added, their areas were more specifically ear-marked, and so on. From 4, their number grew to 6 in Hemachandra's time, and in Märkandeya we find innumrable dialects and subdialects with various peculiarities of their own. Although from literary point of view Mabārāṣṭri (or the Prakrit) is held to be the standard form, and other forms like Saur. Mag., Pais. are derived from it, the historical development tells a different tale. Historically, Pais., is the oldest form; Šaur. and Mag. come next to it as twin sisters of East and West; while Mahārāṣṭri developed last. This is very easy to prove by linguistic arguments: (1) The intervocalic single unaspirated stops remained in fact in Pais. but were either softened or elided in Mag. and Saur. while they were completely lost in Mabaraṣṭri E.g. the OI mātā 'mother', remained 'mata' in Paiś, but became 'mada' or (pida etc.) in Sauraseni & Mag., while in Maha. we find māā, pia, etc. This happened to -k-,-g-,-c-,-j-, -t-, -d-, -p-,-y-,-v-. (2) The intervocalic aspirated stops voiced and unvoiced have been retained in Pai.; while the unvoiced aspirates have been softened, i.e.-kh-> -gh-,-th-> -db-, th->-dh-etc. E.g. Pais. katbā; Śaur. kadhā, Māg. kadhā but in Mah. their stop element is totally lost and only the aspiration remains as Skt-katha >Mab. kahā; Skt. sakba Mah.-sāhā; Skt. Magha>Mah.-Maha etc. Similarly intervocalic -t--tb- -ḍ- remain intact in Pais, but are softened to -d-,-db- and 1.(4) The original dentals are mostly preserved in Pais., but are cerebralised in Saur., Mag, and Mah. (5) Original N remans in Paiś. but becomes -- in the other dialects. (6) The original p, ph and b do not change in Paiś. but are changed to v, h and v respectively in Mag, Saur., and Mah. (6) The original r of the Vedic dialects remains r in Pais, while it becomes 1 in Mag. (7) The three Skt. sibilants are changed to s in Pals., and Saur. and Mah. follow it, while Mag. changes it to $. (8) Morplologically, the suffixes-aniya- remains intact in Pais, while other Pkts. have-anijja-, similarly -tıya> -tijja, etc. This shows that Pais. stands on the same land as Pāli so far as the change of intervocalic stops is concerned. The treatment of conjuct stops in Pals, is almost the same as that in Pali. The other Pkt. dialects have foll. owed the suit. Thus, historically considered, Pais. represents an earlier stage, the Magadhi and Saur. show next later and the Mahārāṣṭri shows the last stage in the dialectical development. I have not touched Chulikā Pais. as it is insignificant and apparent development of Pais, and is not used at all in Sanskrit dramas. The net result of the study of Pkts, in Gram, is that we have obtained a reliable information about the lay-out of Prakrits, Page #144 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 103 which is to be very useful to us when we study the question of distribu. tion of dialects among the various characters in dramas. The lay-out is, In short, as follows :- (1) Pais. covered the modern Dardistan from Kashmir to N. W. Frontier Provinces, Peshawar (which is now in Pakistan). Šaur. covered the whole of West India jncluding modern Sind, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Matbura, Brindaban etc. The Māg. covered modern Bengal, Bangladesh, Bibar, Orissa, Bundelkband, Patna-almost the whole of Eastern India. The Ardh-Māg. was a small but important area between Sauraseni and Māgadby. The Mahārāştri spread as for as Vindbya and reached Avanti, Madhya Pradesha, Vidarbha and Konkaņa. Later it became the standard Pkt. and was an all-India medium for Pkt. Poetry. II. Dramaturgists: Nātya-šāstra : Of 37 chapters and 9000 kārlkas in the work, the section on Language is only a part of one (17th) chapter and is finished in 60 karikās. Language is merely a pathya (stuff for recitation from their point of view. Thejr interest in languages ends as soon as they can identify it and assign it to one or more of the actors and actresses. However, the classifications of languages and the discovery of special dialects are their original contribution. Classification: There is language for gods, animals, trees and mountains. Language is all pervading. This is their Philosophical aspect which is of no use to us. We take the next classification ; Languages are devided into two groups : (a) Bhāṣās (or major dialects) and (b) Vibbāşās (minor dialects). The former are developed and have literature, the latter are used for speaking by uncultured tribes and people and have no written literature, but only some oral stanzas, Bhāṣās are 7: Māgadbi, Avantikā, Prācya, Śaurasens, Ardhamāgadhi, Bāhlikā and Dākşiņātya. The Vibhāṣās are also 7;-Śabarı, Abhiri Cāņdāli, Khası, Drāvidi, Audri, Vanacars. The second list is original contribution of N. $. to the language group. Distribution :- (a) Bhaşās: Māg: for people working in harems of kings. Pracyā: for Ceta (megsenger), song of harlots (rajaputras), and wanderers. Saur: for Nāyikā, Queens, ber friends; This is the general dialect of the women folk in plays, Daks: for warriors, leading citizens, gamblers, drunkers. Bablika : for North Western Indlans, of country Balkh. Prācu or Avantikā for Viduşaka. (6) Vibhaşas : Khasi for Khaşa-tribesmen, nomads. Pancalı: for untouchables, Candālas. Sābarı: for people of hunting tribes, 1.e., Śabaras. Ābbirokti: for goat herds and shepherds, and those dwelling in huts away from town. Page #145 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 104 Drāvidi for South Indian tribal people, south of Vindya mountain.. Audri : Tribes of Orissa, working for mud-houses. Māgadhi, (different from the Māg. bhāsa) ; for pit-diggers, mine-workers, Raksasas and camel tamers, Sakāri : a special sub-dialect of Eastern Māgadhi. At another place some special classes of men are mentioned. They are called linga-sthas, i.e. wearing specific uniforms, etc. They are Sadhus, Sanyāsys, sramanakas, Buddhistic bhikkhus and Bbikkhuņis. Their speech is governed by other rules presently to be mentioned. Under this class come also Kāpalikas, harlots, tapasvins, Apsarasas, N. S. mentions Bala-bhāşā for childrens but gives no further details. Rules for use of dialects ; () Certain characters speak the higher dialects and never condescend to speak the lower one : Kings, Ministers, Pari vrājakas speak Skt. (ii) Certain low-type characters speak their own dialects and never shift to a higher one; as Candalas, Sābaras, Audras. (iii) Certain cbaracters generally speak a higher dialect, occasionally turn to the lower one due to circumstances; Crowned Queens, Harlots, etc. They ordinarily speak Saur, but under the influence of drink, intoxication, turn to a lower Pkt. Apsarasas speak Skt. in heaven, but on earth they speak saur. (iv) Certain characters speaking a lower dialect ordinarily, speak the higher dialect like Sanskrit or Sauraseni, in order to impress the other and to show their proficiency. Dancing girls, spies and detectives, wearing different dresses and wandering in different localities speak different languages to suit their purpose. (v) The Vidusaka always speaks Āvanti or Präcyā no matter from what ever part of India he comes. (vi) The questions of sex, prestige, learning and social status are involved while distributing the dialects for the stage. Thus the considerations for chosing a dialect for a character are different from those that we fiad in actual daily life, though they are more or less based on the natural distribution of dialects. i III Writers of Dramas : Let us now see how play-writers have in their actual practice placed different dialects in the mouths of different types of people. For this purpose we have selected about a dozen representative dramas covering the whole period of about 1500 years of the life and activity of Sanskrit plays. They are (arranged chronologically) as follows: Bhāsa : Sw: Kālidāsa: Māl, Vik, śāk, Ŝudraka's Ms; Višākbadatta's Mudrā; Bhavabhuti : Malats-Mā., Bhata Nārā : Venisam, Harsa: Ratnā., Murāri's Anargh; Jaydeva's Prasanna; and Rajas. Karpūra-mañjarı. Page #146 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 105 A study of Prakrits found in the Skt. plays reveals the fact that the Pkts. have undergone three stages in their development. The earlier dramas like those of Bhāsa, Kalidāsa, etc. show that the intervocalic stops are not always elided. There is no Prakrit poetry in Bhāsa; in Kalidasa Pkt. poetry in seen twice : Hamsapadikā's song in Sāk.; and the gātha of Malavika's dance. They are in proper standard Prakrit. Prakrit speeches are short. But when we come to the most thriving period between Kalidasa and Harşa a very large number of Prakrit dialects are found. In Mrccba. for example there are as many as 16. The class dialects multiplied as the classification of the lower class of society grew more and more prolific. After this fertile period, the number of Pkt. dialects shrinks again, the speeches became short and even characters like Sitā who normally speaks Śaur. shifts to Sanskrit and recites ślokas not in Pkt. but in Skt. The predominance of Sanskrit has virtually killed Prakrits in the last period. But Rājagekhara's Karpūra-m, is a class by iteslf. It is an entirely Pkt. play where even Kings and Ministers speak Pkt. But even in this play we miss the variety and freshness of the dialects that we meet with in Mpccha. We shall now briefly note the specialities of the role the Pkts. have been made to play. In the interest of the brevity of this paper, I shall not mention those cases of the use of Pkt, which are covered by the general rules discussed above. We shall confine our attention only to the striking peculiarities of the role the Pkts, are made to play; and that too as briefly as we can 1. Sw:- Only three Pkt. djalects are used, Vāsavadatta and Padmā. yats speak Śaur., the servants, men and women speak lower type which can be identified with Pais, and Mag. 2. Kalidasa's plays are full of Pkt, varieties : (a) Malv. : The Parivrājikā, though a woman, speaks Skt.; due to her holy status, Haridatta and Gañadāsa, both ācāryas, speak Skt. Mālavikā speaks "Saur, but sings her song in Mahārāştrı (i. e. standard Pkt.), Bakulā. vale and Nipunika, her close friends, speak Saur. Vidüşaka as usual speaks Avantikā. Two women speak tribal varieties. Pratybāri, a Greek maid servant speaks sābarı. (b) Vikr: The Apsarasas speak Saur, as they are on the earth, in heaven they speak Skt. Of the two pupils of the sage, the senior being learned speaks Skt., the junior speaks Pkt. Saur. The woman from the hermitage who escorts Urvasi's son speaks Pkt, though coming from a Page #147 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 106 Asrama. Ayus, the young boy, a fresh product of Asrama education speaks Skt. The Vaitālikas, the Devadūtas, kañcukin speak Skt. as they have to be in touch with the king. Nipunika, Parijana, Sahajanya, and Ceti speak varteties of Magadhi. (c) Śak: Out of 48 characters, the large majority speak various types of Pkts. Sakuntala, her two friends and the mother Gautami speak excellent Saur. The army officers, the celestial beings like Marica and male dwellers of the asrama speak Skt. Aditi speaks Saur. Men members of Kanva's aśrama, Śarangarava, Kāśyapa, Śaradvata, Purohita at the king's court speak Skt. The door-keepers, Karbhaka, the Police men, the fisherman speak different forms ranging from Saur. to Magadhi and Pais. according to their status. Kalidasa has made the little son of Śak. to lisp in Balabhāṣā, the broken Saur, and has described it phonetically as having indistinct phonemes (avyaktavarṇa-ramaṇīya). As Kalidasa is fond of children, he has introduced a boy-character in Vikr. Only 16 persons speak Skt. and 31 speak various Pkts. Mrcch This play has about 40 characters of which only 8 speak Skt. Others speak various kinds of Pkt. In fact, this play is a mine of Pkt. dialects. There are at least 13 dialects detected by me, though the Commentator says there are more. Vasantasena, the heroine, and Radanikā speak elegant Śaur. Madanika, Dhūtā (Carudatta's wife), Vṛddha (Vasantasena's mother) speak ordinary Saur. The cetis, the umbrella-bearer speak inferior Magadhi. Among the male characters Viduṣaka (Maitreya) speaks Avanti, Ceta, Vardhamanaka, Samvahaka, the gamblers, drunkards the elephant-tamers and a large number of inferior characters speak various shades of Pkt. ranging from Magadhi to inferior Paisaci. The two Canḍālas (executors) have their Magadhi. Amongst men, the two merchants, and the clerk of the court speak superior Śaur. while the sweeper speaks low Magadhi. The Buddhist monk, against the rules, speaks Pkt. not Skt. The Judge, the prof. of house-breaking (fa) true to his dignified profession speaks Skt. But the most interesting dialect is that of Sakara. It is a highly exaggerated form of Magadh1 abounding in palatal sibilant (); in style the same idea is repeated in different words as Kim yasi, dhavaśi, palayaśi etc. His similies and mythological references are entirely misdirected; he says Śvetaketu was a Paṇḍava, son of Radha; Ravana, the son of Indra, and born of Kunti through Rama-a very absurd set of statements. His verses are not in standard Pkt, and unlike other Pkt. poems his verses are in long metres like Sardalavikriḍita. There are two cases of change in dialect. The sutradhara who speaks Skt, immediately reverts to Pkt. when he wants to talk with his wife. He says eso 'smi kavyavaśāt prākṛtabhāṣi samvṛttaḥ. Page #148 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 107 Mudrā : There are many men characters who speak Pkt. of various types and a large number of cases where the speaker shifts from Skt, to Pkt. and vice-versa. This play being full of spies and detectives, who under various guises have to mix with the public and to speak different languages is interesting from that point of view. The snake-charmer, e.g. speaks three dialects---Skt. before Rākşasa, Pkt, in the streets, and Mahārāştri in his poetical composition. The two officers who play the part of executioners, have to speak Cāņdāli, besides his own Pkt. The Buddhist monk speaks Pkt. though according to rule he should speak Skt. Candana. dāsa's wife speaks ordinary Saur. and his little son speaks the Bala-bhāsa of Saur. MālatıM:- The Abbottess Kāmandaki, though a woman, speaks Skt. as she is the head of the Abbey. Her servant Avalokitā speaks Saus. Mālatı as minister's daughter speaks Pkt. but changes to Skt. as that privilege is granted by NS. Senior members of the Church Kapālakuņdalā, Buddharakşitā, Lavangikä speak Skt., while Käpālika Aghoraghaņța speaks Skt, als Saudāmsñi, though a woman speaks Skt. while her friends speak Pkts. Veņi: 19 characters speak Pkts. and 13 speak Skt. Draupadi, Bhānumati, Suvadanā, Mātā Gandhari speak elegant Pkt. Saur. wbile Cetis, Sakhis, speak Māg. The Rākşasi, a unique character speaks Paisācı, Here are represented 3 levels of Pkt speakers: (1) The higher, as illustrated by Draupadi; (2) The middle as in case of Sakbis and (3) The lowest, in case of Rākşası. Ratna : In this small Nātikā, women of higher status like Săgarika, Susangatā, Vasundhara and Ratnávali, speak Saur; their close associates, like Kāñcanamālā, Nipuņikā speak mixed Sauraseni-Magadbı; the inferior women like Madanikā, speak Magadhi. The Magician (aindrajallka) speaks two languages Skt. and Pkt. Vidūşaka, as usual speaks Avanti Pracyā. Anargh: This play heralds the decline of the Pkt. role in Skt. plays. The Skt. speaking characters out number the Pkt. speaking ones. Only one character of noble rank speaks Saur. But she also changes to Skt. twice and recites long Skt. verses, which is not usual. Other characters are low. Batu. Pasumedhra, Kalahamsa, etc. speak mixed jargons difficult to name. Only Sūrpanakba, a Raksasa woman speaks Paig. Prasann. R. : This long play has 47 characters of which 10, almost all of minor importance, speak Pkt. Some characters like door-keepers. speak Skt., unusually. Some characters which should speak Pkt. are made to talk in Skt. A few fanciful characters like the rivers Ganga, Yamuna, Sarayü, Godavari, Tungabhadrā and the ocean Sagar are introduce which Yamunā speaks Pkt. Others speak Skt. Sıta breaks twice in Skt. Page #149 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 108 verse. Trijatā, a Rākşası, speaks Skt. Mandodars speaks clegant Saur, but sings one verse in Skt. The God Sun. the forefather of kings of solar dynasty speaks Skt. This play ignores and transgresses dany rules laid by Dramaturgists. Abbreviations and References : (a) Languages. Au, = Audri Av. = Avantikā or Avanti Bah. - Bäblikā Daks = Dakşiņātyā Dr. = Dravidi Kh. = Khāsı Māg. = Magadhi Mah. = Mahārāşğrı MI. - Middle Indian Pais - Paišāci Pānc. – Pāñcali Pkt. - Prakrit Prác = Prācyā Sak = sakārı Śaur = Śauraseni Skt. = Sanskrit (b) Works : Var, = Prāksta Prakāśa of Vararuci Hem. Hemacandra : Siddhahema, ch, VIII Mar. = Mārkandeya's Prākṣtasaryasva N.S. or Nāț. = Nātyaśāstra of Bharata Das. = Dasa--rūpka of Dhananjaya Sāhi. = Sahitya Darpana of Visvanatha (c) Dramas: 1 Anargh = Anargha-Rāghavam 1 Kar. - Karpura-Mañjari 3 Māl. = Malatimadhavam 4 Mālv, = Mălayikāgnimitram 5 Prsn. = Prasanna-Rāghavam 6 Ratn - Ratnāvalı 7 Śak. = Sakuntalam 8 Sw. = Swapnayāsavadattam 9 Mr = Mrcchakatikam 10 Veni = Veņisambāram 11 Vik, = Vikramoryasiyam Page #150 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 17. Applicability of the Rules of Prakrit Grammar to the Formation of Marāthi Words Dr. N. A. Deshpande, Bombay Maraths shares certain features of the Prakrit languages. The peculiarity of the Paiśācî language of having 'oa' only, and not 'ña', has influenced certain words in Maraybı, like ‘ūna' (379) from “uşņa’ (3607, 'sune' (aa) from suaya' (Tu). The Māgadbi trend of 'ra' being replaced by 'la', and 'sa' by 'sa' (u), is to be met with in such Marāļhi words like 'pelane' (Ta), 'Josi' (start) etc. The tendency in Ardhamāgadhi to shorten vowels is to be found in Marāthr; e.g. the word 'kumara' (AT). The tendency of intial 'da' (E) changing to 'da' (5) is common to Ardhamāgadhi, Marathi and Mahārastri; 'daś(EU) becomes 'das' (TA), 'dobalaka' (TEMÅ) changes to 'dobāļā' (ETELT). Infiuence of Apabhramsa is also noted in certain Marathi words. Most of its words, as is well-known, are derived from Sanskrit either directly or through the Prakrits. Grammarians like Vararuci, Hemacandra and Trivikrama have laid down, in their Sūtras, the rules which govern the change of Sanskrit words into Prakrit ones. An attempt is made be. low to show how a number of rules applicable to the formation of Prakrit words can also be made applicable to the formation of Marathy words. About the TF vowels, Hemacandra says that an am at does not coalesce with the previous vowel (1.8); but then also points out certain exceptions to this rule. The Marātby words like 'r' derived from Sk. (277777', through Pkt, 62727277', '71' from Sk. 67924, through Pkt, barat, 'सतार' from Skt. 'सूत्रकार' and Pkt. 'सुत्तआर', 'मिरे' from Skt. 'मरिच' through Pkt fafar', 'AR' from Sk. 'Aur', through Pkt. 6737T', and it from Sk. Fafa' (Pkt.' 'Pop') are examples of this exception. The Marāțhs word 97 (in words like that') is derived from Sk. HTT', through Pkt. 7877'. Here the 3' in 7377') is changed to (Hemacandra 1.48). Then, (a+57) the word is har', Lasertion of an 'I T' in certain words is stated by Hemacandra in 1,26. Some of the Marathy words in which such an 347fart is inserted are Har' (from Sk. #9), fia' (from Sk. ART), 'zo' (from Sk. Beat), 'ga' Sk. 3 ) etc, Page #151 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 110 In 1.61, Hemacandra gives the change of '' to ''. This phenomenon is found in Marathi words like 'ओंजक' ( from Sk, अञ्जलि). In I.72, Hemachandra illustrates the optional change of 'a' to 'g' in words like 'सदा'. In the Marathi words like 'इंदोळा' (also हिंदोळा) derived from Sk; आंदोलक (Pkt. आंदोलअ) we find the first 'आ' changed to 'इ'. In 1.92, Hemacandra notes certain words in which short 'g' changes to long ‘इ’, The Marathi words 'कीव' ( from Sk. कृपा, Pkt, किवा ), 'गीव' (from Sk., Pkt. f) and 'y' (from Sk., Pkt. f) are examples, where such a change is seen. Hemachandra illustrates the change of '' to '' in 1.86. The Marathi words 'मेहूण' ' ( from Pkt. मिहुण) 'वेडावणे' ' ( from Pkt. विडंवण), 'शेंडी' (from Pkt. far) are words in which the '' changes to ''. The change of '' or '' to 'a' is covered by Hemcandra in 1.88ff. The_Marathi_words like 'हळद' (Pkt. हलद्दी ), पडसाद' (Pkt. पडिस६), 'पुनव' (Pkt. पुण्णिवा), 'बहीण' ( Pkt. भइणी) are illustrations of this change. The shortening of the long '' to short '' is found in words like 'किडा' (from Pkt. कीडअ), 'पिडा' ( from Pkt. पीडा ) or 'पिळणे' (from sa). This shortening of the long '' to short '' is laid down by Hemcandra in 1,101. The change of '' to '3' (Hemacandra 1.107ff.) or ' to 'a' is noticed in Marathi words like 'q' (from Pkt. go, Apabhramsa Sk. पुणु, पुनः), 'जथा' (from Pkt. जूथअ, Sk. यूथक), 'चड' (frora Pkt. चूडअ, Sk. चूडक) are illustrations of this change. In I.117 Hemacandra tells about the change of ' to 'a', in the word ''(changing to '' in Pkt.) we have a similar word in Merathi viz. 'मोहरे' from Sk. मुखर and Pkt मुहर, The change of ' to 'f' as is seen in words like ' changing to 'F' (Hemacandra I.141) is seen in Marathi words like 'f' from Sk. ऋतु. in certain Sk. words like,, etc. changes to '' in Pkt, as can be seen from Hemacandra I.181. The same rule holds good in the case of the Marathi words like '', and '', which have ''in them in place of ' in the words from which they are derived víz. Sk. कुशल (Pkt. कुसल ), and Sk. क्रीत (Pkt. किरीत ) respectively. Page #152 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 111 The change of '*' to y noted by Hemacandra in 1.182 in words like Apa', is also seen in the Marāțbi words like 'IT' (from Sk. 1%), 'con' (from Skt. सकल) and 'अनेग' (Sk. अनेक) The Marathi word 'a', is derived from Sk. Buah. Hemacandra gives the example of the Sk. word sfer, in which, when it changes to Pkt., the changes to 'F' (1.194). The change of a to z is found in certain that words like 'ara' from Sk miatt, as noticed by Hemacandra in IV. 262. The Maraths word 'दोदिल' derived from Sk. तुन्दिल (Pkt. तोन्दिल) shows how in Marathi also we find this trend of the change of sai to'g'. Hemacandra, in 1.217, enunciates the change of to iz in words like 'ata' etc. The Marāțhi word 'afaa' derived from the Sk. word gifs (Pkt. area) is an illustration of this phenomenon. Here the (in gen) changes to 'g' (Elfãsa), The same is the case with the Marathi word 'डोहाळा' derived from the Sk. word दोहद (Pkt. दोहल), The Marathi word elust is derived from the Sk. word gaala, As in words like cao (Hemacandra 1.203), here the 'z' changes to see The change of q' to mentiomed by Hemacandra in 1.232, is to be seen in the Marāțbı words like '180' from the Pkt. word 967' (Sk. qa), and e' from the Pkt. word qe (Sk. arg). The rule of the change of q' to fa enunciated by Hemacandra in 1.231 is to be noticed in the formation of the Marāļhi word 'eta'. It is derived from the Sk. word 926 '. The q' in the word a ' changes to a'. So we have '; and then #aziz' with the changing to (341' according to 1.177. The change of 77 to fa' (II.126) is found in words like argun' (from Pkt. 2goft, Sk. fort). In the word 'afet', (a change in the form of argut'). we find, how, like Pkt., Marāțbi also seems to use a' for '' (1.240) (with a change in meaning of course). The '' in some Sk. words like 'FHE' changes to paccording to Hemacandra ,242. This rule finds itself illustrated in the Marātby words like 'जेवण', derived from the Pkt. word 'जेम्मन' (Sk. जमन), 'सावळा' from the Pkt. word 'सामल' (Sk. श्यामल) aud 'कुंवर' or 'कोवार' from Pri. 'कुमर' (sk. Hr). Page #153 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 112 The Marathi word ' is derived from the Sk. word 'a'. The rule that is applicable here is 1.183, according to which '' in the words like 'किरात' changes to 'च'. According to this rule it would be 'चन्दुअ', Then, by 1.57ff. ' changes to '; and then by I.217' changes to '', Pkt. वाऊल) For the formation of the Marathi word 'वाउडा' (Sk. वातुल, we can apply Hema. I.251. The last ('' and '' being treated as identical) changes to '', as in the case of words like 'किरि', 'भेर' etc. enumerated by Hemacandra in this Sutra. Examples of prothesis are noted by Hemacandra in II.110ff. This phenomenon is present in a number of Marathi words, used especially by the rustlc; e.g. ‘मारग' (Sk. मार्ग), 'घरम' (Sk धर्म), 'भगत' (Sk. भक्त) etc. So also metathesis or ' noted by Hemacandra in II.116ff. in case of words like 'करेणू', 'अचलपुर' etc. is to be seen in certain Marathi words like काख- खाक, अडाणी - अनाडी, नुकसान - नुसकान, दुन्ध-धुन्द etc. Thus, the examples given above show that many of the rules used for the formation of Prakrit words-their derivation from Sanskrit words-can be applicable to the formation of Marathi words. They also show that though every Marathi word is not necessarily derived through the Prakrits, those Marathi words, which are directly derived from Sanskrit, can be so derived by the application of the rules used in the derivation of Prakrit words from Sanskrit words, and that as far as the Prakrit languages and later Indian languages like Marathi, which owe a majority of their words to them, are concerned, they all have similar tendencies in the formation of their words. Page #154 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 18. Influence of Middle Indo-Aryan Literature on Kannada Literature Dr. B. K. Khadabadi, Dharwar It was a sublime virtue of the Jaina teachers and authors that wherever they migrated and settled down, they learned the regional language, cultivated it to a literary one, if it was not so then, and enriched it through their instructional and literary activities. It exactly happened so in South India and particularly in respect of Kannda. It was at the beginning of the present century that Bühler pointed out that the foundation of literary Kannada, together with that of Tamil and Telugu was laid down by Jajna monks. Later Winternitz observed the same fact at same length. The root of laying down the foundation of literary Kannada may be said to go back actually to the great migration of the Jaina Sangha headed by Bhadrabāhu and Candragupta and establishment of the first Jain Colony at Śravanabelgola. The members of such Sangha and, later, many a Jaina teacher and author were Prakritists. Hence it was natural that Prakrit or Middle IndoAryan literature influenced Kannada literature to a considerable extent. In such process the non-Jaina Middle Indo-Aryan literature also influenced Kannada literature here and there. As things stand to this date Kannaḍa literature, found in inscriptional form, dates back from the 5th century A.D. There must have been some line of literary development connecting the earliest type of literary activity and this inscription. But unfortunately Time has hopelessly erased it. From 450 A.D., the date of this inscription, to the middle of the 9th century A.D., the date of Kavirajamärga, the earliest available Kannada work, Kannada literature is found so far in the form of inscriptions alone. At this context it is so very interesting to know that the earliest available and decipherable epigraphic records in India, including those in Karnatak are written in Prakrit alone. Hence it is just possible that the literary form of the early Prakrit inscriptions in Karnatak might have served as a model to or influenced the early Kannada inscriptions, a number of whith surely have not come down to us. A comparative and intensive study of the 1 The Indian Sect of the Jainas, English Tr. by Burgess, London 1903, p. 22 2 History of Indian Literature, Vol II, Calcutta 1933, pp. 594.595. 3 This is the inscription of Kakusthavarman at Halmiḍi of c. 450 A.D. and is the earliest datable one: Sources of Karnatak History, Vol. I, by S. Shrikantha Sha stri, Mysore University, 1940, Intro., p. XX 15 Page #155 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 114 Asokan edicts and other Prakrit inscriptions in Karnatak, including those found at Sannathi and Belvadgi, on one hand, and the available early Kaonada inscriptions, on the other, would yield some tangible result. I could however, note some Prakrit terms in some of Sravanabelgoļa inscriptions of c. 700 A.D. : moni (S.B. 8,20), risi (S.B. 13) saddhamma (S.B. 29) etc.5 The Kavirajamārga is first available Kannada work and is supposed to have been composed br Nrpatunga (814-877 A.D:), the Rāstrakı and disciple of Ācārya Jinasena. It is a woek on rhetorics and, hence, presupposes earlier forms of literature. It tells us that prior to the 9th cent. A.D. Kannada possessd rich varied literary forms in prose, poetry and mix. ture of both by eminent scholars like Vimala, Udaya, Nagarjuna, Durvioita, Śrivijaya, Kavīśvara, Lokapala etc. The works of these scholars, unfortunately, have not come to light so far. It is possible that some of their works were influenced by the prior Prakrit literature or some of the authors were also Prakrit scholars. It is interesting to note here that one of these literary figures viz. Durvinīta (c. 600 A.D.), a king of the Ganga dynasty, is said to have readered the Paisācı Bębatkatbā of Guņādbya into Sanskrit. Now it can be conjectured that this eminent Kannada Prose-writer (gadyakāra) might have also rendered the Brhatkathā into Kannada, wbich was lost but still remained, as we shall see below, in an oral tradition from which some of rare storymotifs appear to have been picked up and included in works like the Vaddārādhane. And K.M.Munshi's views regarding the oral tradition of the Brhatkathā in Indian folk-literature very well support this line of thought here. The early prose works like the Vaddārādhane and Cāvumdarāya-Pu. rāņa are highly influenced by the Middle Indo-Aryan literature. The Vaddāradhane, composed by some unknown Jaina (Digambara) monk (0.925AD) is an Aradhanā (Kavac3) Kathakośa containing 19 stories which are based on the 19 gabas (1539-1557) in the Bhagavatl Ārādhana of siyaKotyācārya. It had as its sources one or more Prakrit commentaries on the Bhagavati Ārādhana and are mainly influenced by them. Anong 131 quo. 4 Vide Studies in Prakrit Inscriptions, by Dr. G. S, Gai, Proceedings of the Seminar in Prakrit Studies, Poona University, 1970, pp, 115-123. 5 Epigraphia Carnatica, Vol. II 6 Kavirajamārga, Bangalore, 1898, verses 27-32. 7 This work is not extant. This information is available from some copper-plate Inscriptions, Vide Kavicarite, Bangalore, 1961 pp. 12-13. 8 Gujarat and its Litrature, ch. V 9 Thece gāhās refer to the Sholapur edition. Page #156 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 115 ted verses in it 62 ace in Prakrit (including Apabhramsa). The rest are in Sanskrit and Kannada, It bas preserved some are story motifs10 which appear to have been picked up from some written or, more probably, oral tradition of Guņādhya's Bịhatkathā. Moreover, an Interesting feature of tbis narrative work is its having some tendencies of the prose narrative texts of the Ardhamāgadbị Canon like the Nāyādhammakabão, Antagadadasao, A0uttarovavāiyadasao, Nirayāvaliyāo, etc. and some of the narrative parts of its exegetical literature, where strict adherence to the Jaina cosmographical setting for each story, emboxment of sub-tales in the main or frame-story stereo-typed descriptioas, synonymous repetitions are liberally used. Moreo. ver, several Prakrit words and phrases are found used in their natural set. tings along with the Kannada words in sentences or clauses in the course of the text : vakkhānisu, jāpisu, javajjivam. chatthatthamadasamaduvalasa etc. After reading the text one feels that the author's Prakrit sources and other Midole Indo-Aryan literature (in Jaina Śaurasens, Ardhamagadhi, Apabbramsa and even Palśācı) he bad used or assimilated, had developed in him a special liking for the diction of the Prakrit literary speech. The Cavumdaraya Purāņa of the great Cāvumdarāya (c.778 A.D.) who wrote a Kannada Commentary on the Gommațasāra of his teacher Acārya Nemicandra, also shows the influence of Middle Indo-Aryan literature (in Jaina Saurasenl, Ardhamāgadbs and Apabhramsa) but not to the etenxt as that of the Vaddārādbane. Similarly some of the early Campū works like the Adipurāna of Pampa (941 A.D.), the Santipurāņa of Ponna (950 A.D.) and the Ajitapurāņa of Ranga (993 A.D.), all Jaina works, indicate some direct or indirect infi. uence of Prakrit literature. In these woks are found backformations from Prakrit like pāguda, carige, vigurvisu etc., the birth of which appear to have been owing to such author's being influenced by their some Prakrit sources along with the Sanskrit ones. Moreover, these early Campū works, beginning from Pampa, were influenced by the Apabhramśa metre Pajjhadia'11 which was adapted to Kannada suitabiy, Pampa was the first known poet to adapt this Apable rarśa metre which later came to be known as 'Raghata' or Ragale'12 with its three varieties Utsäha, Mandānila and Lalita. This "Ragale' metre in Kannada continued to hold its sway on the minds of the later poets to such an extent that with further adaptations it finally appeared as "Saraļa Ragale' and continued to be used till the recent days of the 20th century when the 10 Like the hybrid motif of promise to return' used iu ihe sud-sub-tale of Sudáme which is emboxed in the subtale of Kanne in the Story of Sukumara Swami. 11 This is described in 1--125 in the Prākta Paingala na, Varanasi, 1959, p. 112. 12 Nagavarma has used these terms for the first time in his Chhando'mbudhi, 3.22. Page #157 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 116 Jhanapitha Award winner Ramāyaṇadarsanam of Kuvmepu is also composed in this very metre,18 Coming back to Pampa he must have sufficiently read the Apabhramša poetry and adapted it suitably in his works. At this context it is interesting to know that in those days the Prakrit poets also read the works of the Kannada poets with the same zeal and sympathy: Dhavala, an Apabhramsa poet of the 10th Cent. A.D. appreciates in his Harivaṁša Purāņa the work of a Kannada Poet Asaga (c. 900 A.D.) in glowing terms16 : “Asagu mahakai jem sumanoharu Virajiņindacariu kilu sundaru / Kettiya kabami sukai gaņa āyara Jem kavva jahim viraiya sundara || Now there are some scholars who are koown by reference only and who are said to have composed works both in Kannada and Prakrit and also in Sanskrit. Unfortunately these works are not extant. Tumbalūrācārya ôr Śrīvardhadeva (c.650 A.D.) was an authority on the Siddhanta and wr. ote in Prakrit. Sanskrit and Kannada the voluminous Cudamani Commentary on the Tattvārtha-mahasāstra.16 Syāmakundācārya (e. 600 A.D.) com. posed a Prabhịta in Prakrit, Sanskrit and Kannada.16 Bhrājisnu wrote a huge Kannada Commentary on the Ārādbanāl? (The Bhagavati Āradhanā or Malarādhana) on wbich Rāmacandra Mumuksu based his Sanskrit Punyaśrava Kathakośa. All these works must be having the influence of the concerned branches of Prakrit literature, Then there are some interesting self-refused titles of scholars that ind. icate the possible Prakrit literary influence on their respective works: Balacandramuni (c.1170A.D.) is known as "Samasta Saiddhāntika Cakravarti',18 Nemicandra (c. 1170 A.D.) as 'Caturbhāşā Kavi Cakravarti',"' Subhacandra (c.1200 A.D.) as "Şadbhāṣā Cakravarti'20 Mágbanandi (c. 1253 A.D.) as «Caturanuyogakusala' and 'Siddhāntabdbi-vardhana-sudhakara'21 ans - 13 Vide Kannadachhandovikasa, by Dr. D.S. Karki, Hubli, 1962, pp. 160-173. 14 Kavicarite I, Appendix II, p. 29 15 ) Referred to by Devendra in his Rājāvaļikathe ; Kavicarite I, pp. 8-9 (ii) Bhatta, kalanka (1604 A.D.) calls it the greatest work in the Kannada language.. 16. Referred fo by Indranandi in his Šrutávatára, Kavicarite I, p. 10 1: Referred to by Rāmacandra : Vide this author's Paper Observations on some Sou. rces of the Punyaśrava Kathakośa', Journal of the Karnatak University (Hum Vol. XIV. 18 Kayicarite I, pp. 284-85. 19 Op. cit., p. 287 20 Op. cit., p. 370 21. Op. cit., p. 433 Page #158 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ vaýarņi (c.1319) as 'Saratrayavedi'.12 A peculiar phase of influence of Prakrit literature on Kannada literature can be seen in the production of several Kannada Commentaries on Prak. rit (Jaina) works. Unfortunately almost all such Commentaries, except a few are still in manuscript from. The following Kannada Commentaries on the respective Prakrit works would give us an idea of the extent of interest of Kannada scholars in Prakrit literature:23 Prakrit Work Samayasāra Author Kannada Commentary Author & date Kundakunda Ācārya Tikā Balacandra (c. 1170 A.D.) Pancastikaya Pravacanasara Pancastikaya Mokkhapahuda Padmaprabba (c. 1300) Balacandra Padmaprabha Kanakacandra (c. 1300) Bahubali Vrtti Baraba Aņupeba Tıka Malacara » » Tīkā Tika Meghacandra Kesavavarni (1359) Rayanasara Gommatasara Nemicandra Ācārya Vrtti Dravyasangraha Vštti & Tīkā... Vrtti Tikā 27 Cavundaraya (978) Keśavayarņi Balacandra Keśavavarni Prabhācandra (c. 1300) Padmaprabba Balacandra Kammapaya di Visa parūvaņa Tibbangi Vrtti 22 Op. cit., p. 469 23 The data collected in the following table is based on (i) Kavicarite I & II. (ii) Kannada Präntlya Tidapatriya Grantha Suci, by K. Bhujabali Shastri, Varanasi, 1948 and (iii) Karnataka Kavicariteya Anukta Křtisuci, by S. Shivanna, Mysore University, 1967. In the following table commentator's name and date are given. If he is repeated his date is not given under his name. Want of information is suggested by a long dash. Page #159 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 118 » Tika Labdhisāra Payadisamukkittaņa Puvvānupeha » Vștti ... Megbacandra (-) Padmanandi Balacandra Paramappa payāsu Yogindradeva Tīkā Jogasaru Siddbāntasara Asavasantati Ārahaņāsāra Jinacandra Śrutamuni Devasena Vrtti & Tīkā... Tīkā Prabhācandra Bälacandra Keśavavarni Santikirti (1755) Maghanandi (c. 1253) Padārtbasāra Sangraha grantba ,, Sastrasārasa muccaya Now some obseryations may be offered on the contents of tbis table : The commented Prakrit works are mostly in Jaina Ŝauraseos; two are in Apabhramsa; the Siddhanta sāra, being concerned with the twelve Angas, may be linked with Ardbamāgadhi to some extent; and Maghanandiś works, being of the nature of sangraha granthas with Kannada Commentary, concern with different Prakrit dialects and Sanskrit too. Kundakunda and Nemicandra are the most commented authors. The earliest known Kannada Commentator is Cāvumdarāya (978 A.D.) and the latest one is Santikīrti (1755 A.D.). Besides these Kannada Commentaries on Prakrit works there are found a number of such ones wherein the commentators' names are absent. It is aiso possible .that many of these may be just the copies of the above noted ones. 24 At this context it is worth noting that in those days the Kannada Commentaries on Prakrit works were held in high esteem in the world of scholars as is seen in the following facts : Rămacandra Mucuksu partly based bis Sanskrit Punyaśrava-Kathakośa25 on Bbrājişnu's Kannada Commentary on the Ārādhana and Keśavavarņi's Kannada Commentary on the Gommațasara was rendered into Sanskrit.26 Besides these Kannda Commentaries on Prakrit works, there is found a Kannada 'tātparya' of Pavayaņasāra by Padmapandi27 and the Kannada translation of Jñanacandra Carita of Vāsavacandramuni by Pujyapadayogi 24 As found in Pt. Bhuja bali Shastri's Suci, 25 As noted above. 26 As noted by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Jřāna Pitha Patrika. Oct. 1968, p. 4. 27 Pt. Bhujabali Shastri's Suci. Page #160 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 199 (c. 1600 A.D.):28 Moreover, Samayasāra, Tribhuvanakośa, Karmaprakşti, Yo. gasāra, Paramāgamasāra etc. are the other Kannada translations of Prakrit works of the same names. Then the numerous Kannada Purānas, Caritas29 and Kathās like the Jaina Kathäsangraba, Dharma Kathāsangraha and Vrata Kathāsangrabado could hardly escape the influence, direct or indirect, of the concerned Pra. krit literary works. Really this is an interesting field for such a kind of study. At this stage I may just refer to an instance of the fact that a very bigh value of Prakrit religious literature weighed on the mind of the Jaina community in Karnatak which is seen in the unparalelled careful way the great Şațkbandagama works have been preserved in Kannada script and protected, till today, in the Bhandara of the Jalpa matha in Müdabidri. Now considering the secular literature, the Kannada Līlāvaty of Nemi. candra (c. 1170 A.D.), a romance, is influenced in respect of its Māyabh. ujanga Episode by the Karpüramañjarī Sattaka of Rajasekhara. We have already seen above that the Ragale' metre in Kannada literature in general is a lovely gift from Apabbraṁsa in which the great works like the Mahapurāņa of Puşpadanta were composed in the Kannada region itself. Lastly coming to the folk-songs82 it may just be said that Hālas Gābāsattasai or other Prakrit lyrical songs must have influenced the early Kannada folk-songs which have come down to us from tongue to tongue. It is, of course, very difficult to trace such in. fluence in the Kannada folk-songs of today for some of the basic human feelings and aspirations are more or less the same in different periods and places and "a folk-song theo is always grafting the new on to the old.""88 Yet some of the Kannada folk-songs available today can curiously be compared with those in the Gabāsattasas: The folk-songs māvana magale' etc. and 'geneyanna kalakodu' etc. collected by Dr. B. S. Gaddigimath, 34 very well copmpare in spirit with gabā Nos. 161 and 56 respectively. 35 28 Kavicarite II, App. I p. 604. 29 Most of which are still in manuscript form. 30 Noted from Pt. Bhujabali Shastri's Suci, 31 Vide this author's paper: Rājasekbara and Nemicandra, Journal of Karnatak Uni versity (Hum)., Vol. VI. 32 Kannada is also rich in folk literature of varied forms from early times. Nrpatunga proudly tells us that the illiterate Kannada people too possessed skilled poetic talent. 33 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. IX, 14th edition, p. 448. 34 In Kannada Janapada Gītagaļu, Karnatak University, Dharwar, 1963. 35 Nirnaya Sāgara edition. Page #161 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 129 Thus the Middle Indo-Aryan Literature in Jaina Saurasent, Ardhamagadbi, Apabbraṁśa, Paisācs and Mabārāştri, has influenced, at times indirectly, the Kannada literature in varied ways and in different degrees in different periods of its history86 and made it rich and colour. ful. And the Jaina teachers and scholars have a prominent role in this process right from the days of its foundation, 36 This study, howover, is not claimed 4s exhaustive. Page #162 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 19. Some Obscure Passages in the Candalehā S. M. Shaha, Pune While bringing out the Second Edition of the Candaleha the editor Dr. A. N. U padhye observed : "In this edition it will be seen that substantial additions are made in the Notes by way of explanations of a number of difficult contexts in this play.”] Further, he added : "If I could make my Notes so exhaustive the major credit should go to the learned notes of Prof. M.V. Patawardhan..." Now while I had the occasion to teach this Saffaka to my students, I came across some passages which still remained in need of proper or satisfactory explanation, despite the meticulous care of Dr. A.N. U padhye. I, therefore, borrowed Prof. M.V. Patawardhan's translation and Notes in the manuscript form (which he kindly lent we) and tried to solve the difficulties felt by me. Never the less, there still remained some obscurities which I try to solve here. These obscurities may be divided under the following groups : (i) those pertaining to the poetic conceits (Sanketas) adopted by Rudrad āsa, the author of Candalehā, (ii) those arising out of the peculiarities of Prakrit language, viz. its innate capacity of pun, its translatability in Sanskrit in more than one way, etc, (iii) those pertaining to textual readings, (iv) those pertaining to syntax, and (v) those pertaining to etymologies. I hope that the discussion of these difficulties, may lead to a satisfactory translation of this remarkable Sattaka, which still remained a desideratum. First, I take up the case where Rudradāsa appears to have followed a poetic conceit which was shared in common by many Sanskrit poets. But Dr. Upadhye and Prof. Patawardhan have, I am afraid, not noticed it through inadvertence, and, therefore, their notes and translation have left it as a doubtful passage, 16 Page #163 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 122 The benedictory verse in the play reads as पणमह सुइ-राअ-हंसएसु हर-णअणेसु मुहंबुऊसुएसु । पअ-कमल-पहाविअं उमाए पढम-णइम्मि अवंग-भिंग-मालं || (CI. I.2) In this verse, salutation is offered to the row of bees in the form of Uma's side-glances. The adjectival phrase 'पअ-कमल-पहाविअं' qualifies the substantive 'अवंग-भिंग-मालं'. It means that the row of Uma's side.glances rushed towards the lotus-like feet. And since there is no specific mention of a person whose feet are meant, the meaning has remained a bit obscure. Dr. Upadhyes has understood that the poet intends Siva's feet, while Pro Patawardhan feels a little uncertain about this, as his notes and translation show. Yet, in his translation, he could not help wondering, if the poet meant Uma's feet. In my opinion, this benedictory verse, closely resembles in idea, with the benedictory verse of the Ratnavali. I quote the verse : पादाग्रस्थितया मुहुः स्तनभरेणानीतया नम्रता __ शम्भोः सस्पृहलोचनत्रयपथं यान्त्या तदाराधने । हृीमत्या शिरसीहितः सपुलकस्वेदोद्गमोत्कम्पया विश्लिष्यन्कुसुमाञ्जलिगिरिजया क्षिप्तोऽन्तरे पातु वः ॥ (Ratnavali. I. 1) At this first meeting with her husband, Parvati eagerly hastened towards him, but turned back through natural bashfulness; She began to look down to her own feet ! This shows how it is appropriate to say that in Candaleha the poet describes the side-glances of Umā which rushed towards her own feet. I now take up another passage which expresses a peculiar concept of Drakrit poets and which has not been satisfactorily explained by the two scholars. The passage reads like this एण्हि एदस्स वीरुक्करसिरमणिणो कित्ति-जोण्हाहि ताहिं थोराआरा चओरा ससहर-मणिणो णिच्च-णीसंदमंता । उवेला सिंधु-वेला सई कुमुअ-गणा होति णिद्दा-दलिद्दा थेरादो णदठ-लज्जा विहरइ हरिणा चंचलच्छी अ लच्छी ॥ (CI. IV. 19) Page #164 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 123 Dr. Upadhye renders the fourth line of the verse as follows : "Lakṣmi with tremulous eyes spcrts with Hari, without any sense of shame of the presence of Brahman". He adds a comment that this effect 'is somewhat obscure's and that the other effects described in the verse are natural and conventional! As against this, Prof. Patawardhan remarks, "The sense of the fourth line is not clear." He asks a question : "The moon-light of the king's fame pervades the world, but how is it, and why is it, that Lakṣmı does not feel any bashfulness in sporting with Hart even in the presence of Brahmadeva ?" To me, it seems that the moon-like fame of the king is shining continuously throughout the day and night. Had it not been so, the poet would not have said that the night-blooming lotuses would not have lost sleep in the day-time That is to say, they retained their bloom all the while. It suggests that the king's moon-like fame has upset the normal course of the Nature, and there is thus a continuous night-like effect-the sun does not appear to come up the horizon. Under the spell of this illu. sion, Brahma who is seated on the lotus growing out of Visņu's navel, would ever remain in a state of sleep. Hence Lakṣmi eontinues to indulge in sporting with Visnu without auy sense of shame in the presence of Brahmā. For this interpretation I take the support of a verse from Vajjalaggam which reads as follows: विवरीयरया लच्छी बंभं दट्ठूण नाहिकमलत्थं । हरिणो दाहिणणयणं रसाउला कीस झपेइ || (Vajjalaggam, Section of Riddles,'- Verse 611; 64.1) Prof. Patawardhan has himself rendered the verse as follows: "Laksmi, practising inverted coitus (on Visņu) and overpowered by emotional excitement on seeing Brahmadeva poised on the lotus growing of Viṣṇu's navel, closes the right eye of Hari (Vişņu)- but say, why ?" A relevant passage from Ratnadeva's commentary on this verse may be found useful in explaining my idea. The passages runs thus: " इदमुत्तरमत्र कथयन्ति पूर्वविदः । लक्ष्मीः किल कामार्ता ब्रह्माणमपि नाभिकमलस्थित दृष्ट्वा सुरतसुखं त्यक्तुमपारयन्ती लज्जामज्जद्वदनकमला कथमसौ परमेष्ठी मामेवं कुर्वाणां द्रक्ष्यतीति चिन्ताचान्तचित्ता, “हुँ ज्ञातम्, अस्य भगवतो नयनद्वयी किल सूर्याचन्द्रमसौ । तहिं यत्र सूर्यस्तत्र कमलं विकसति, तस्मिंश्चास्तमयमाने पयोजमपि संकुचति । अतो नाभिपाथोरुहं नारायणदक्षिणनयन सूर्याच्छादनेन संकुचेदिति (दक्षिण) नयनं पिदधे भगवत्युदधिजेति । ” Page #165 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 124 In the notes on this verse of Vajjalaggam, Prof. Patawardhan gives the following quotation of Weber in this reference : “And thereby (i,e by covering the right eye of Vişnu ) she covers the sun bimself, so that now the lotus-flower becomes contracted or closed, and Lakşmi can now indulge in the fazla enjoyment with Harī, without any exposure"? Mammața in his Kavyaprakaśa, also comments on this verse as follows: "अत्र हि हरिपदेन दक्षिणनयनस्य सूर्यात्मकता व्यजते । तन्मीलनेन सूर्यास्तमयः तेन पदमस्य संकोचः, ततो ब्रह्मणः स्थगनम् । तत्र सति गोप्याङ्गस्य अदर्शनेन अनियन्त्रणं निधुवन विलfaay 1" Secondly, I take up a passage which contains such a word that is capable of yielding more than one Sanskrit equivalent and this would, conse. quently, lead to some difficulty of interpretation. And, what is more, one of the Sanskrit equivalents of the word is a technical term in the Nat yaśāstra and, I have no doubt that Rudradāsa had this sense in his mind. Let me read the original passage and then explain; "3713770-19347-es-tig-ha-Af1901-*#70- ... NOT WISTEMI I Prof. Patawardhan derives 3113170 from 37gatur meaning 'the waving of light' and renders the passage thus: " It is (i, e. the sound of dancing=0301-031631) mixed with the tinkling sound of the jewelled bangles placed (word) on the wrists of the act. resses (dancing girls), who have started the waying of the light." Dr. U padhye also presents the same meaning of 371STTOT with some reservation as shown by his question mark in the notes ! The Prakrit word ओअरण may be rendered in Sanskrit as (i) उपकरण (ii) अपकरण (as the printed chaya gives) and (iii) 37aat. Out of the three Sanskrit equivalents we may drop 37470 (i.e, instrument) at the very outset since it has no relevance here. 379 means 'carrying away', 'scattering' etc. But this too is meaningless. since it does not explain what the actresses were carrying away or scattering so that the movements of their hands caused the tinkling sound of the jewelled bangles. This may be cited as an example where the printed chaya has failed to give a satisfactory rendering of the original Prakrit accept what Dr. U padhye and Prof. Patawardhan have said that 3113 Tur is derived from spamut. But I do not agree to their interpretation of graacor as 'waving of light.' It appears to me that Rudradāsa here indicates the अवतरण as ths second part of the preliminaries (पूर्वरङ्ग) of the performance of plays. It is one of the nine items of the gets which were performed be. hind the curtain at the beginnig of a dramatic performance. According to Page #166 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 125 the Nafyasastra (v.17)8 the placing of the singers in their proper positions is called the अवतरण. It follows the first item of the पूर्वरङ्ग, viz.प्रत्याहार which means the arranging of the musical instruments. Our passage clearly refers to this usual preparation of the dramatic troupe of actors or actresses in the Green-room. It appears to me more likely that Rudradāsa bas well kept in view the dictates of Bharata and, therefore, referred to the second item of the tits to which I have referred to earlier. I must add that Bharata defines saatu as the placing of the singers. We can general se the meaning of the term 'singers' as factors or actresses' Since they used to play their part and sang as well when occasion demanded. It is quite natural that when a band of dancing-girls or actresses starts taking proper position behind the scene, the jingling sound of their bangles adds to the 70-ak i, e. the sound of dancing or acting. By the way, let me point out that the Nați in the prastāvana of the Śakuntala also sings a song. It will be evident from this that the meaning of saatu as 'waving of light' as given by the two scholars, fails to explain the passage adequately. There is one more instance where the peculiarity of the Prakrit lang. uage and Rudradāsa's fondness for adopting words of dramatic science with a deliberate play on word is clearly noticeable. The passage reads thus : सो सट्टओ सहअरो किल णाडिआए ताए चउज्जवणिअंतर-बंधुरंगो । चित्तत्थ-सुत्तिअ-रसो परमेक्क-भासो faci4911fa-1f247 #feet gele 11 (CI. I. 5) Here the phrase चित्तत्थ-सुत्तिअ-रसो is rather difficult of rendering. चित्त may mean fee or fan; But the term 37 is capable of yielding more than one meaning and an exact sense which is suitable to the context should be decided with a great care. It can be equivalent of any as well as fait (fax-171-37ef:). But if we pay attention to the fact that Rudradāsa is defining or describing saffaka as a type of drama in this verse, we can easily rule out other meanings and fix only that meaning which specifically throws light on the characteristics of a Sattaka. Dr. Upadhye translates the phrase "wherein the sentiment of love is woven through varied situations;'9 While Prof. Patawardhan makes a valuable addition to the meaning by translating the word far as 3ya gear and rendering the whole passage as 'wherein Page #167 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 126 the emotional element (of love) is woven on marvellous situations. I would like to interpret atef as a plot and hence fearah means a wonderful plot. The translation will be: “Wherein the emotional element of love) is developed through a wonderful plot." I may add that this meaning is justified if we take into consideration Visvanātha's10 description of Saţtaka also in his Sahitya.dar pana. I must, however, admit here that my translation does not differ very much from that given by each of the two scholars. Nevertheless, it has achieved a slight improvement, For, while Dr. Upadhye stresses over the sentiment of love, he overlooks the element of 37 : So also does Prof. Patawardhan throws the sentiment of love into the background and is not quite certain (or rather, is a bit doubtful) about the element of a. My translation shows how Rudradāsa has kept in view Viśvanātha's definition of a Saffaka and thus some positive improvement, Thirdly, I take up a passage where I find the texual-reading adopted by Dr. Upadhye is not preferable to a reading which he has discarded. In addition, the printed chaya of the reading also causes some confusion. I would, therefore, quote the passage and its Sanskrit chaya and explain what I mean, The passage and the chayu read thus : fa-farr37-an-gia-igia-galicaTf7:371 - 7301-mora igo-facaexf31-AR-at-f9574-#-AETT...531 773720 i (CI, I, 17.5) [दिशाविराव[वेग] मुह्यत्संचरन्मुग्धाभिसारिकाचरणझणझणायमाननू पुरविरावमुखरीकृतमारfaetü THAIETT... Helaat ] (ibid.) Prof. Patawardhan says that this passage is obscure and offers a ten. tative translation : "...and which is charming with the victory-proclaiming drum of the bero viz, cupid-the drum which is resounding with the jingling sound of the anklets, tinkling because of the movements of the lovely Abhisā. rikas, moving out (to meet their lovers by previous appointment), being powerfully affected ( 41), by the force (or fury) of the exciting) sounds in the various quarters..." Here the Vidūşaka is drawing the king's attention towards the great city which looks charming, enchanting and hilarious at the advent of the spring. People are celebrating the spring festival. They are in gay, free, Page #168 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 127 festive and amorous mood. Abhisātikās also being affected by the light atmosphere, are passionately rushing towards their lovers, The variant reading Fealaat of the Ms. Ka' in the place of the reading for fara preferred by the editor suits better in the above context and helps to remove the obscurity in understanding the passage. Here the Prakrit word 'F' (i. e. ft) is derived from the Sanskrit word 'fa' meaning "the sky'; We may take fattat for the Sanskrit word auto meaning ‘change or loss of colour'. At the close of a day, the sky loses its various colours and finally plunges into the ocean of darknegs. As per literary convention it is twilight or a little later an Abhisarika goes to meet her lover at a rendezvous. Hence 'fee-fact-a-ra-gia- Tea ' etc may be rendered as follws: "...Jingling sound of the anklets of the charming Abhisărikas being overwhelmed by passion moving immediately as the sky lost its brilliance (i. e, as it became dark)." In the above explanation, I have expressed, though faintly, my dissa. tisfaction with the printed chaya. There are, however, more instances where the chāyā needs to be corrected11. But just I pass over that part. Now I take up yet another passage where I believe a proper reading of the text was necessary and where a problem of syntax is involved. The passage under question is this: "कदिवअ-गुणग्गहण-गव्व-वंचिदे विपंचिए, अगणिज्ज गुणं अमिअ-गुणाअं इमाए 3quartåt o fe å \” (CI. 11. 22 2) In this passage, the phrase 'अगणिज्ज गुणं अमिअ गुणाअं इमाए' is apparently obscure In order to overcome this obscurity, Dr. Upadhye12 prefers a reading of (from the Ms. Ka) to form and makes fuJU (vocative) an epithet of fagfy. Prof. Patawardhan disapproves of this reading because, according to him, fue JU' would be a repetition of faget and he appears to be right. He, on his own part, amends to SAC and suggests that 37fa31 J037 should be altogether dropped. But I am afraid, he is taking too much liberty with the text in order to overcome the obscurity. In these circumstances, a third reading may be suggested as a possible alternative-"...377651 Jul 374 3 37 ATC...' (87777afta 11 37 T: 978: etc.). While construing this phrase, I treat stofur (Acc. pl.) (on the lines of Prof. Patawardhan) as an object of squad. True, this construction appears to contain a repetition of the same idea, Page #169 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 128 f. e. innumerable qualities. But the word of 3TUJUT24 which I have suggested may be translated into Sanskrit as अमितगुणायाः and अमृतगुणायाः as well. This newly suggested reading might remove tha obscurity without much alteration in the text; for it is only possible that the copyists may introduce an 3176 where it was not necessary. What now remains is a few cases of etymologies which the two scholars have shown as mere obscurities. Let me venture to offer some of them. Take for example, the passage ' f ha 33779 na fa' (CI. II. 8-15) The chaya runs-paga H07441 Transfer | Dr. Upadhyels interprets afas g1 in a 'round about way' and adds that its etymology is not clear. He further states that it is the way of putting things in the fashion of a Dravida; and it can be compared with afael TA, an idiomatic phrase in Marathi. Prof. Pataward han hypothetically suggests that qual may be equated to art and translates, "why are you going by the way of the Dravida ?" In this context let me point out that late Prof. K. P. Kulkarni in the Marathi Etymological Dictionary (Edition II, P.453) while annotating a word “Drāvida' has stated that the term 'Drāvida' con. notes what is strange, abnormal and everything that is opposed to Aryan, The Maratbi idioms as द्राविडी प्राणायाम and द्राविडी कासोटा are based on this concept and they point out the same meaning of doing a thing in Dravida fashion, i, e. in round about, twisted manner or in curved or bent form. That is a devlation from the direct, straight or normal Aryan manner. But I feel that the word 73 371 (403) appears to have no connection with the Marāļhi idiomatic use. It seems to have a Dravidian origin. A Tamil root mațanku (mafanki) means, to becɔme bent, as an arm or a leg, to bend, to turn about, to be twisted, to bo diverted etc. A Tamil noun matankal also means bending, being bent etc. A Tamil word manti means kneeling (bending on one knee) as an-archer. In Malayāļam manfuka means to be seated on heels. In Kannada mandi means what is bent, the knee; In Tulu mand: means bending(kneeling) on one knee. With these words we may compare a Sanskrit word mandūki which means a part of an elephant's hind leg. Though it is difficult to guess from which particular Dravidian Language the Prakrit fogor que has originated; It appears as the closest to Malayālam oz. "oz' is changed to ' in Telagu and Tulu gfog. Rudra. dasa halled from Kerala, where Malayāļam was prevalent; and therefore, मण्डक or मण्डका seems to be derived from (मण्टुक> मण्दुक> मण्डक मण्डअ or qocat.) Page #170 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 129 Now, I try to offer an etymology of a word af, satisfactory translation of the passage concerned. The passage runs : "पोरथम-कब लिआ - परिग्गहो एब्व बिसुणेह गुरुकुलवासं । " By far, Dr. Upadhye means 'a piece of cloth over a sore wound, a bandage'. He further adds, 'Here it appears to signify some thing like a cloth-bag for books'.14 Prof. Patawardhan suggests that it might indicate a wooden support for holding a book while reading. If we take into consideration the etymology of af Prof. Patawardhan's suggestion regarding the meaning of seems to be quite justified. The word f appears to be of Dravidian origin. Most probably it has developed from Tamil root 'Kavar' meaning 'to bifurcate, to branch off, to fork, to seize, and to grasp.' The Tamil word 'Kavalai' means forking of branches. The Kannaḍa root 'Kaval' is a counterpart of the Tamil root Kavar meaning to become bifurcated or forked; 'Kavar' is also noun and means bifurcation, couple, pair etc. There is Sanskrit root which also means to grasp, to devour, to eat etc. One does not know if it is derived from the Tamil root 'Kavar', since the meaning indicated by 'Kavar' seems to be more primary and original than that of 'a'. Again the Paia-Sadda-Mahanṇavo gives कवलिआ (स्त्री.) as a Desi-word and translates as 'ज्ञान का एक उपकरण' - (आराधना प्रकरण, गा. ८). At present I could not consult आराधना प्रकरण but if it treats a wooden-support along with (a scriptural text) as an instrument of knowledge, this may serve as an additional evidence. The Marathi root which means to embrace, to grasp with two arms, also gives the same meaning throwing light on the function of af grasps or holds a book with its two arms. 15 which and thereby Cl. 11. 20.7) Hence though Prof. Patawardhan retains the word 'fr' in his translation as it is and gives its meaning as a wooden support for holding a book in a bracket along with an alternate meaning 'cloth bag' suggested by Dr. Upadhye, we may give the definite translation of the passage in question as follows: "The very manner in which a person holds the wooden support for holding a book while reading suggests his residence in the preceptor's house. Lastly, I give here, an etymology of a word a 'जो खलु लाहिल्लो रिवुणो सिरी-करघरी-केस - गहेसुं बला'... ( Cl. IV. 17b) 17 from the passage Page #171 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 130 The chaya runs: '7: 63, GHITA fiat: » afina96! 21...' Prof. Patawardhan translates, “who is successful in forcibly seizing the hair of captured royal glory of the enemy" and remaks, "The word 'fect' is obscure in meaning. It is rendered as afer in the chāyā. aft: + apa:+ a prisoner, a captive. fecraft (sit a&t)-meaos, perhaps, the enemy's glory (royalty) taken prisoner or captive or captured'. So far as the etymology of the is concerned, I offer the following suggestions : (i) #79*<#Trast<$r819< *1712&. [ Sanskrit #rize here reminds me of the Tamil word 7 which means the fenced houso (prison-house)]. (ii) Accordiug to the Dešinamamala of Hemacandra (II, 15). #TA is synonymous with aret. In the commentary of the same verse (1, e. I1,15) Hemacandra says, “THÌ gocar fl" i. e, a lady captivated by force. It is possible that #7777 may be a scribal error for the original word #777). Dr. Upadhye has already detected a lot of scribal errors of various types in the Prakrit text. (ili) #aft #ragt (FTRT ZET: JAI: *1981)? (Is it like ‘atfor: tala: 7641: qozelfa uralgi etc. ?) Foot Notes : • While I prepared this paper, I had unhesitatingly troubled my colleague Dr. K. P. Jog for getting some knotty points clarified; and he readily offered his help. 1 UPADHYE, Candaleha, Second Edition, Preface, p. XI, Bombay, 1967. 2 Ibid. 3 Op. cit. Notes, p. 81. 4-5 Ibid, p. 97. 6 M. V. Patawardhan, Vajjalag gań, p. 167. 7 Ibid., Explanatory notes. 8 कुतपस्य तु विन्यास: प्रत्याहार इति स्मृतः । agraarui a 17191 faaaa | Nātya'śāstra, v. 17. 9 OP. Cit. Notes, P. 81 10 372 H H 1...7 a fax + 4 5 czarya ra: 11 etc. -VIŚVNĀTHA, Sahitya-dar pana, VI. 276-7. 11 For example, in the chāyā of III, 6 a, p. 50, of Candalehă, there should be [5971: instead of all as an equivalent of '1837' which suits better to the context. 12 OP. cit. Notes, P. 91 13 lbid. P. 88 Page #172 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 131 14 OP. cit. Notes P. 91 15 I record with gratitude that Prof. Dr. H. C. Bhayani supplied me the following re ferences and meaning of this word. .. (1) # # (a) catatata, ed. by Mrgendramuni, p. 252, line. 18. (p) 977 of tartar, 10, 27-28. (ii) #95 in 997at, 24, 19-20; 25-26; 25, 1-2. Meaning: A cardboard with two or three folds and used to keep papers, manuscripts, etc. inside it'. : was, however, not able to check up these words personally. Page #173 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 20. Some Prakrit Forms from the Vasudevahindi not available in Pischel's Prakrit Grammar onder Jain Mabārāstri Dr. K. R. Chandra, Ahmedabad Dr. Pischel has collected a rich variety of Prakrit forms under various Prakrit dialects in his Prakrit Grammar. But a study of the Vasudevahindi reveals that a number of JM forms have been left unrecorded and this was due to unavailability of sufficient JM literature to him at that time. Dr. Alsdorf has already discovered some forms from the VH which are unrecorded under JM by Plschel. But still some more forms can be traced in the VH? which are unrecorded by Dr. Alsdorf and also do not find mention under JM in Pischel's Grammar though they are assigned to some other Prakrit dialects. A. Forms that are noted by Pischel from Amg. only. (i) artit as Acc. plu. of arg (Fifa) used as Masc. ; Pischel (381) records this form from Amg. oply. The VH also has this form. [azgot ar si atlatait JEU 340195 - 20.25, 478 AMTST resfu SIFA 21.1] (ii) Ara as Nom. plu. of FIE : Pischel (380) records it from Amg. only. But in the VH there is available this form. (Area Farer 550 ...... 72797A1721— 89.18 ] (iii) meat as Acc. plu .of HIE : Pischel (381) records qaat as Acc. plu. of qy from Amg. only. In the VH, we find a similar form in plaat EBM ATT HETT Aado Aka n 5% afT f - 39.16, # zafa-87.23] (iv) ZEFET Inst. sg.: Pischel (404) notes it from Amg. oply. 1. See Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies. Vol. VIII, pp. 319 ff. 2. This sludy covers only first 113 pages of the VH Page #174 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 133 [तस्स पिया आसुक्कारमरणरोगेणं कालधम्मुणा संजुत्तो- 75-25 ] (v) -ओ as Ablative sg. termination of Fem. base : Sec Pischel (386) कोसंबीओ आगच्छामि-42.23, उज्जेणीओ आवंतेण-43-21, निग्गओ सहाओ107.11 (vi) भयवओ as Gen. sg. : See Pischel (396). [तं सोऊण भयवओ वयणवित्थर-3.16, See also 5.5, 25.14. 1 (vii) अम्मयाओ and अम्मतातो as Voc. Plu. of अम्मा-तात : ___See Pischel (366 b and 372). [एवं अम्मतातो ! अहमवि- 6.1, एवं अम्मयाओ ! अहं संपयं- 6-14 ] (viii) तुब्भे as Inst. plu. of II: [अज्जय ! तुब्भे वाससयं परिभमंतेहिं अहं अज्जियाओ लद्धाओ- 110.20 ] (ix) तुभ as Gen. sg. of II : See Pischel (421). [इयरेण साहुणा भणिय-दच्छामि तुभ भाउगं पब्वयंत- 20.28, तुमं पुत्त ! दारयस. मीवे, सेसा तुम्भं अवसाणे- 109.8] (४) तुन्भं as Gen. plu. of II : See Pischel (422). __[भयवं मा बीहेह, जं अम्ह होहिति तं तुभ पि होहिति 43.8, तेण भणिया तुभं किं मरियन्व-92.14, Ste also 49.10,56.25] (xi) एत्तो, इत्तो as pure Abl. sg. of एतद् : See Pischel (425). [ण एत्तो अइरियं दटूठव्वं-5.9, जइ इत्तो मे निग्गमो होज्जा- 10.1 ] (xii) Instrumental forms of 3477 stem : Pischel (430) records that 377 stem has been retained in the Inst. only and indeed only in the prose of Amg, In this connection he refers to JM (Erz. ) also but without any example. In the VH we find the Inst. forms of अन. Page #175 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ [Inst. sg. of Mas. -94.8, Inst. plu. of Mas, fang-89.28, Inst. sg. of Fem. y of Fem. कहिओ अणाहिं चारणादेसो पणयं च - 83.10] -103.15, Inst. plu. (xiii) Forms of कयर : Pischel (433) records the forms of from Amg. only. [चितियं च णाए – कयरो मण्णे एस देवो - 78.13, देव ! एत्थ अम्ह कयर खेत्तं — 91.7, अण्णा कण्णा कयरो विसिरूवा - 103.5] B. There are in the VH available some forms which are noted by Pischel from other languages but not from JM. (i) Lengthening of ending short vowel of Masc. base in Voc. sg.: Pischel (71, 363, 366 b) notes that the ending short vowel of Mas. bases is lengthened in some cases. He gives examples only from, Amg, S. M., Mg. and Ap. [तओ भणइ उसभदत्तो-जाया ! अस्थि ते विउलो अत्थो - 6.3] (ii) as Gen., sg. of II: Pischel (421) notes it from Amg. S and M. [rar! arfer à fas-6.3 See 32.3, 59.13, 95.8, 90.18, 89.29 also.] (iii) of as Acc. Sg. of 134 (Fem): Pischel (431) notes it from Amg. Ś. and M. [वच्छामो, दच्छिह णं - 82.23] (iv) of as Acc. sg. of (Mas.) Pischel (431) notes if from Amg. Mg. Ś. M. and Ap. [ एस मे खुड्डड्गो, सोयरिका ! मा णं पीडेह -22-21, See also 6.28, 21.13, 24.16 48.23, 55.8, 14, 98.1] (v) एवं as Acc sg. of इदं : Pischel (431) notes qui from Mg. S. and M. [ तो सा एणं सोऊण आसुरुत्ता - 28.3] (vi) gas Acc. sg. of Neut. Pischel (429) records this form from Mg. only. [ सुणह इदं - 22.5) PA Page #176 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 135 (vil) से as Acc. plu. of III : Pischel ( 423 ) notes it from JS. only, [खमसु से - 88.30 ) (viii) ते as Inst. sg. of II : Pischel (421) says that the interpretation of ते as Inst. sg. is sometimes necessary and for that he gives examples from S only. In the VHwo find a number of such examples purely used for Inst. sg. (अप्पणा चेव य ते कओ दोसो - 29. 14, कीस ते एस तिलपूलओ. आणिओ -32. 25, सुटु ते सुओ धम्मा- 4.5, न ते पुणो तस्स दरिसणं दायवं - 51.25, किं चिंतियं ते- 99. 22, See also 28. 8, 14. 30, 7. 29 ] (ix) ताण as Gen. plu. of III Mas. and Neut. : Pischel ( 425 ) notes it from Mand Ap. Fļom JM he notes aro but in the VH we find au also. [ताण य अहं पुत्तो अगडदत्तो - 36.5) C. The following forms have been noted by Pischel from Maharaşırı only but we find them in the VH also, (1) पच्छ ओ ( adverbial use of पच्छ) See Pischel ( 69 ) [से मे पच्छओ चेव वत्तइ - 6.9 ] (ii) तुमाओ as Abl. sg. of II : See Pischel (421) [को वा मे तुमाओ विसिहो नत्तुओ --110. 25 (iii) तुमे as Loc. sg. of II: Sce Pischel (421) [तुमे पराजिए तुब्भेहिं सम्वेहिं निग्गन्तव्वं इओ -86. 3) (iv) इमो as Nom. sg. Masc. of इदं See Pischel ( 429) [इमो सरीरसमुदाओ - 23. 18] (v) कम्मि as Loc. sg. of क : See Pischel ( 428 ) [इमो सरीरसमुदाओ...... कम्मिइ समए पडिहिइ ---23. 18] Page #177 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 136 D. Verbal Forms : (i) णिजह Passive form ofणी: It is noted by Pischel (536) from M. only [जस्सेसा समीवं निज्जइ भाणुस्स- 94.6] (ii) महंत Present Participle of अति + या : [अइंतो य कण्हो -107. 16] Pischel ( 493) has noted it from M. only. (iii) एज्जा as Optative termination of I sg. : Pischel (+60) notes quas termination of I from Amg. only and in the case of JM. he notes एज्ज only. [अहं पि तुम्भेहिं समे उज्जेणी वच्चेज्जा -43. 3, जया पुण (अहं) पंचिंदियविसयसंपलग्गो भवेज्जा - 6. 15] (vi) -ताणं as the Participle of absolutive : Pischel (583) restricts it to Amg. only. .. [षयमहुणा तस्स मुहं भरेत्ताण कयं से वणराहणं - 53. 27 ] (v) Use of Passive base for Active voice : Pischal ( 550 ) says that Passive is sometimes used in the sense of Parasmaipada. He does not record any example from JM. He has noted examples from Amg. M. and Ap. In the VH there is [लोगो ......समणसमीवमुवगम्मति -85. 13] Page #178 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Prakrit verses in works on Sanskrit poetics have received less attention than what they deserve from Sanskrit scholars and editors of these works. Scholars believed that the number of these Prakrit verses might not be large, as a good many of them are repeated from early standard works. When I first undertook the work of restoring the text of corrupt verses in Prakrit, given as illustrations in these works, I myself was not aware of the stupendous nature of the work I would be required to do. No doubt, a large number of these verses are quoted in common by various writers on poetics; still the fact remains that the total number of Prakit verses cited as illustrations far exceeds our general belief. Bhoja's Sarasvatikanthabharaṇa (SK) alone quotes 350 Prakrit stanzas; and his Śṛngaraprakasa (SP) earns the distinction of quoting the largest number of Prakrit verses. The first 24 chapters of SP out of 36, which are so far published, contain 780 Prakrit verses. Chapters XXV to XXX of the SP which were available to me for my present study quote not less than 694 Prakrit verses. In all we have 1480 Prakrit verses in the first 30 chapters of SP. I have already published my study of the Prakrit verses occurring in the first 24 chapters. 21. Bhoja's Sṛngāraprakāśa (Chapters XXV-XXX) Prakrit Text Restored Dr. V. M. Kulkarni, Bombay In this paper I present study of the Prakrit verses occurring in Chapters XXV to XXX (both inclusive). With a view to saving space I confine my discussion to very obscure Prakrit verses and as regards the remaining ones I refer scholars to the sources indicated in the Index given at the end of this paper. 1) Vide my papers: The Śṛngaraprakāśa; Prakrit Text Restored. 1) Shivaji University Journal, vol. I, 1968 2) -do -do- vol IV, 1971 3) - Bombay University Journal vol XXXIX,No75, 1970 I acknowledge with thanks the following suggestions made by Prof. M. V. Patwardhan after going through these papers: 18 - Shivaji University Journal, vol IV; 1971 Page #179 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 138 1)..........(tatra viniyogavidhya pekşita-seşabhāva-pratipadakāni śruti-lingādi şat pramāṇani- Paropakārabhāvo vis-sah samākhyāto yatbā - (pp 887 -- 888) स० च सण्णा घण्णा etc. Now, this gathā, in its present form, is obscure. It may tentatively be rewritten as follows : सच्च सण्णा धण्णा जा तइआ केसवेण गिरिधरणे । गुरुभारवावडेण वि तसवलिअच्छं चिरं दिहा ॥ rसत्यं संज्ञा धन्या या तदा केशवेन गिरिधरणे । 1 Lगुरुभारव्यापृतेनापि व्यस्रवलिताशं चिरं दृष्टा ||J अत्र धन्येति समारव्याबलात् सदैव तस्याः प्रियप्रसादपात्रत्व एव विनियोगः । 2) Virabavisūraṇam yathāafwat............. 70 g 11 (p 901) These four lines, as prlated in the text, lead us to believe that they form the four quarters of one single stanza. On a closer look it is, however, seen that they are in the Aryā metre (with 12, 18, 12 and 15 matrās in the four quarters respectively) and actually form two independent stanzas. i) P.5, II.B. 1 "The remaining three quarters of the gātha( OH 01934 etc.) show close similarity with GS III. 15 (st 215 according to Weber's edn, 1881). There the fourth quarter reads कुवि . (=कुपितम् ) which is decidedly better than the reading Frost (=5434 ) of the Śțrgāraprakāśa.” Bombay University Journal, vol XXXIX, No. 75, 1970 : ii) p 25," Stanza No. 22 # af akcufgoot etc. The first quarter of this stanza is identical with Vajjālagga No 432.For 479=GT PE Cf GS IV.69". iii) p 26, St No. 24 : Cf GS V. 93. iv) p 26, St No. 26 : Cf Vajjālagga No 472. v) p 27, St No. 30 : Cf st No 743 in Weber's edition (1881) vi) p 28, St No. 37 : Cf St No 720 in Weber's edition (1881) and st No 284, Vajlalarga. vii) p 31 st No 49 : GITHUBTetc. Cf GS VI. 50 viii) p 33 St No. 55 : Brørssy etc. Cf St. No 958 in Weber's edition for The second half. ix) p 38 șt No. 81 HEAT AT HIETA3 etc. Cf. GS V.97 for the quarter. Page #180 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 139 पेरिज्जंतो पुवकए हिं कम्मे हि केहिं वराओ । सुहमिच्छंतो दुल्लहज गाणुर ए जणो पडइ ॥ प्रेर्यमाणः पूर्वकृतैः कर्मभिः कैरपि वराकः । 1 Lसुखमिच्छन् दुर्लभजनानुरागे जनः पतति ॥ This stanza is found in the Lilāval (v. No 569). As the next verse follow; this without any introductory words such as "yathā vā", which Bhoja frequently adds, when giving an additional example, one would expect to find this next verse also in the Lilavaj in the same context. The printed edition of the Lilāvaī, however, does not contain it. This verse when corrected would read as : आरंभो जस्स इमो णीसासाआससोसिअसरीरो । परिणाही (? परिणामो) कहं होइइ ण आणिमो दड्ढपेम्मस्स ।। आरंभो यस्यायं निःश्वासायासशोषितशरीरः। 7 Lपरिणामः कथं भविष्यति न जानीमो दग्धप्रेम्णः ॥J variant Now this verse is found quoted in the Vajjālagga with a few readings : आरंभो जस्स इमो आसन्नासाससोसियसरीरो । परिणामो कह होसइ न याणिमो तस्स पेम्मस्स ॥ The words underlined present variant readings; atas and gifts are just two different forms identical in meaning. ण आणिमो andन याणिमों are (almost) identical. The reading आसन्नासास however, is not happy. Ratnadeva, the commentator, renders it as आसन्नाश्वास and Prof. M. V. Patwardhan syas in his Notes : "आसन्न आसन्नजण, आसन्नाणं आसन्नजणाणं आसासेहिं (आसासेहिउच्छवासैः) It would be better to read आसन्नूसास". The reading णीसासाआस of the SP is decidedly far better and eminently suits the context. From the point of view of grammatical construction the reading ata found in the Vajjalagga seems to be more appropriate. The reading दपेम्मस्स conveys in a telling manner the विरह-बिसूरण (distress or sorrow caused by separation) which is being illustrated. 3) (Candrikā--nirvedo) yathā vā -- (p 903) केत्तिअमेत्तं होहिइ माए - - - - This verse is obscure with a couple of letters missing in the second half. The first part of the first half is identical with the GS VI. 81. The verse as a whole presents the same idea embodied jo identical words except the Page #181 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 140 opening words of the GS V. 91. The gātba may be corrected as follows: केत्तिअमेत्तं होहिइ माए जोण्हा-जलं णह-सरम्मि ! जं चंद-पणालोज्झर-णिवह-पड़तं ण णिहाइ ॥ कियन्मानं भविष्यति मातः (१ सखि) ज्योत्स्नाजलं नभःसरसि ।। [यच्चन्द्र-प्रणाल-निझर-निवह-पतन् न निस्तिष्ठति ॥ 4) [-Nisrstartha] Tasyah samagra--buddhi--gunayogat yatha-- (p. 917) हिअएाह किंपि तस्स etc. The verse, as it stands, presents difficulties. It could, however. be corrected in the light of an almost identical gātha quoted in the tenth chapter of the Kavyaprakasa to illustrate the figure "Aksepa". एहि किं पि कीए वि कएण णिक्विव भणामि अलमहवा । अविआरिअकज्जारभआरिणी मरउ ण भणिस्सं ॥ [अयि एहि किमपि कस्या अपि कृते निष्कृप भणामि अलमथवा।] Lअविचारितकार्यारम्भकारिणी म्रियतां न भणिष्यामि ।। This gathā is very much the same as the GS VII, 2 (with a few variant readings in the first half). 5) [Sandesadānam yatha.-) (p.950) धूह तुम चिअ णिठण etc. This verse is obviously corrupt with some letters missing in the fourth quarter. This verse, even in its corrupt form could easily be identified with the Vajjālagga, 413 and the GS II. 81. In the light of these two gatbas the verse could be restored as follows : दुइ तुमं चिअ णिउणा कक्खडमउआइ जाणसे 'वोत्तु । कंडुइअपंडुरं जह ण होइ तह ते कुणिज्जासु ॥ दूति त्वमेव निपुणा कर्कशमृदुकानि (=मृदूनि ) जानासि वक्तुम् ।। Lकण्डूयितपाण्डुरं यथा न भवति तथा त्वं कुर्याः ।। 1 कुसला (VL,Gs) 2 बोल्लु (GS) 3 करेज्जासु (GS) 6) Gamagama--cinta yathā .. (p. 951) The text here is, no doubt, corrupt but on a closer look it reveals its metrical character. It is not a prose passage although it is so presented in theprinted text. The first line very closely resembles the gatha (No 918) in Weber's edition, and keeping it in view it may be rewritten as follows: ___ Page #182 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 141 पश्चिहिइ सो घर से लहिहिइ ओआसमेहिइ सआस । भणिहिइ जं भणिअवं, पच्चुत्तं किं णु पाविहिइ । विजिष्यति स गृहं तस्याः लप्स्यतेऽवकाशम् एष्यति सकाशम् ।। Lभणिष्यति यद् भणितव्यं प्रत्युक्त किं नु प्राप्स्यति ।। The second line is also a gātba and is, when corrected, identical with the GS No II.87: आअस्स किं णु काहं कि वोच्छं कहं णु होहिइ इम ति । पढमुग्गअसाहसआरिआइ हिअअं थरहरेइ ॥ आगतस्य किं नु करिष्यामि कि वक्ष्यामि कथं नु भविष्यति इदम् इति ।। Lप्रथमोद्गतसाहसकारिकाया हृदयं थरथरायते । 7) Duta-vyaharo yatha - जइआइरिन्तवेसविअ etc. (p. 952) This stanza, as printed, appears to form one independent unit. The first two lines and the last two lines, however, form two different verses. I have not been able to trace the first verse to its source correct it but the second verse is adopted from the Ravanavaho (X.79) : अवलंबिजउ धीरण हु सो एहिइ अइग्गए वि पओसे । इअ दूईहि तुलिज्जइ पढमाणिअपिअअमो विलासिणिसत्थो ।। अवलम्ब्यतां धैर्य न खलु स एष्यति अतिगते ऽ पि प्रदोषे ।। Lइति दूतीभिः तुल्यते प्रथमानीतप्रियतमो विलासिनीसार्थः ॥ । 8) (Data-puraskaro) nayakakrto yatha - - -- -- yatha va - (p. 960) पुणो वि पणअभंगौ........जेण । एवं मंतेसि.......मे हिअअं ॥ Now, on the face of it, this passage, though printed as a metrical one, is 10 prose and all efforts to search for it in Prakrit poetic works would be in vain. From the context I could trace it to the following passage in the Malati-Mādbava (Act VII. 1-2 pp. 91-92 (ed. by Prof. Devavdbara and Suru) मदयन्तिका : ( सहि किं पुणो वि ) पणअभंगेण कदावराहो अजणो । जेण एवं मतेसि । पिअसहि तुम लवंगिआ अ सौंपदं मे हिअ । Page #183 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 142 r(सखि किं पुनरपि ) प्रणयभङ्गेन कृतापराधोऽय जनो येनैव Lमन्त्रयसे । प्रियसखि त्वं लवङ्गिका च सांप्रत मे हृदयमू । । 9) Nayikavadhanam yathā --- (p 968) पळिही पाडअपुण्णा etc. अज्ज मए गंतव्वं etc. The Sanskrit Chāyā of neither of these verses is recorded in the the printed text. The first verse is very obscure. The second verse is easy of identification. In fact, this very verse is cited on p. 902 with the introduc. tory words "dhvanta. pratiksa yatha' and on p. 973 with the introductory words" utsaba-sakti-vivecanam yatha" and in both these contexts the Sanskrit Chāyā is given below the Prakrit verse. The correct text of the Prakrit verse, along with its Sanskrit Chaya, is given here below : अज्ज मए गंतव्वं घणंधारे वि तस्स सुहअस्स । अज्जा णिमीलिअच्छी पअपरिवाडि घरे कुणइ ।। | अद्य मया गन्तव्यं धनान्धकारेऽपि तस्य मुभगस्य ।। | आर्या निमीलिताक्षी पदपरिपाटी गृहे करोति । This gatha is found in the Gs (III.49). 10) Aharyanuragajanma aharyo yatha ---- (p 997) अलिकुण अ ०पि The text of the rest of the verse is not given. Even the opening words of the verse are corrupt. I should however, tentatively identify this verse with the gatha No 941 in Weber's edition. For the idea embodied in the gatha seems to be in agreement with the variety of imaoa' that is here illustrated by Bhoja : अलिअकुवि पि कअमंतुअं व में जेसु सुहअ अणुणेंतो । ताण दिअहाण हरणे रुआमि ण उणो अहं कुविआ ॥ [अलीककुपितामपि कृतमन्तुकाम् इव मां येषु सुभग अनुनयनू ।। [ तेषां दिवसानां स्मरणे रोदिमि न पुनर, कुपिता ॥ 11) Prosita-visayo (māno) yatha) ---- (p.1001) सहिता अवचरु० त्तिThis verse, as it stands, makes little sense. It is again cited on p. 1003 with the introductory remark : "prosita-patikasrayo yatha". There too the text is corrupt. Tentatively I restore it as follws : Page #184 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 143 सहि ताव अच्छउ च्चिअ , अलाहि किं वाहुएण लेहेण । ऐआरिसं लिहंताण एंति पहिआ विएसाआ ॥ [ सखि तावत् आस्तामेव, अलं किं बाहुकेन लेखेन ।। [एतादृशं लिखताम् एन्ति पथिका विदेशात् ।। 12) Alambana-prakImakesu parihasālambano yatha ----- (p. 1004) परिउचिआ ण कंपसि etc. The gātbā, as printed, is unintelligible with some letters missing and some words making no sense. The whole verse, however, is to be identified with the gāthā (No 923) in Weber's edition. The gathā, in its corrected form and with its Sanskrit Chāyā, is given below : परिउच्छि आ ण जपसि चुंबिज्जती बला मुहं हरसि । परिहासमाणविमुहे पसिअच्छि मणं मह दूमेसि ।। परिपृष्टा न जल्पसि चुम्ब्यमाना बलात् मुख हरसि । [परिहासमानविमुखे प्रसृताक्षि (अथवा, मृगाक्षि) मनो मम दुनोसि ॥ We have the readings पडिउत्थिआ and पडिपच्छिआ as well. It may be noted in passing that the Sarasvatskanthabharana p 624, v. 179, (especially, the first half of this verse,) contains a similar idea : पडिउच्छिआ ण जपइ, गहिआ विप्फुरइ चुंबिआ रुसइ । [परिपृष्टा न जल्पति, गृहीता विस्फुरति चुम्बिता रुष्यति ।। 13) [Mananubandho......] tatraiva vaividhyam yatha - (p. 1007) तीए दंसवण अहखलण....... Now, this verse, as it stands, is very obscure but Bhoja's another work on poetics, viz, the Sarasvatikanthabharana (p. 724 v. 485) helps us to identify the verse and its source (Harivijaya) The following passage may be read with interest : तत्र रतावुपमायाः संकरो यथा तीए दंसणसुहए पणअक्खलणजणिओ मुहम्मि मणहरे । रोसो वि हरइ हिअअ मअपंको व्व मिअलंछणम्मि णिसण्णो ॥ [तस्या दर्शनसुभगे प्रणयस्खलितजनितो मुखे मनोहरे । 1 [रोषोऽपि हरति हृदयं मदपङ्क इव मृगलाञ्छने निषण्णः ॥ अत्रोपमातिरस्कारेण रसवतो हरेर्वचसि वागारम्भरूपे रुक्मिणीप्रदत्त पारिजातमञ्जरीविलोकनप्रभवं सत्यभामाया रोषरामणीयकं प्राधान्यतः प्रतीयते । Page #185 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 144 14) Priyāyah pravrtti-dusanam upālambhah komala......gramya iti | Teşu komalo yatha अपरिक्खि अदोसगुणं.. This very verse is again cited on p. 1046 with the introductory words उपालम्भक्तिर्यथा "The quotation on p. 1013 shows some letters missing in the fourth quarter (on p. 1013) and the quotation (on p.1046) shows some letters missing in the second quarter. The stanza may tentatively be restored as follows : ........ ..... - अपरिक्खिअ - दोस- गुणं अवमण्णिअ चिरप्परूढ - वीसंभ- रसं । वहीरआणुराअं तुमे वि मह रूसिउं जणेण ण विष्णं ॥ 15) Duty-gopanam yatha - अपरीक्ष्य दोषगुणं अवमत्य चिर-प्ररूढ - विश्रम्भ-रसम् । - अवधीर्यानुरागं त्वयापि जनेन मह्यं रुष्ट्वा न खिन्नम् ॥ 1 --prakṛtistha केलीगोत्तक्खलणे वि कुप्पए के अवं (कइअवं) अभाणंती । दुद्दमस्स मुसा परिहासं जाआ सच्चं चिअ परुण्णा || केलीगोत्रस्खलनेऽपि कुप्यति कैतवम् अजानन्ती । दुर्दमस्य मृषा परिहासं, जाया सत्यमेव प्ररुदिता ॥ ] केळीगो०त०खळणे etc. This gathā occurs in the Daśarūpaka (IV. 60-61) and in Weber's edition (st No 967) of the GS. The gāthā may be corrected in the light of these two corresponding citations as : 16) Sa (mana- vilaso) sakhyabhimukhya - viśesanistho yatha वाहरउ में सहीओ... ...... (p. 1013) The GS reads 'दुट्ठ उअसु परिहासं '. DR (Adyar edn) reads 'दुद्दमस्स मुसा परिहासं' which is metrically defective. One could suggest a reading such as दुद्दम मुअ परिहास ( मुअ meaning मुञ्च); alternatively one could suggest the reading : "दुद्दम उअ ( = पश्य) परिहासं " (p. 1022) Only the first quarter of the gathā is available in the printed text; the remaining three quarters are apparently lost in the MS itself. The full gathā must be the same as found in GS II. 31 since the idea embodied in the gathā agrees with the introductory remark of the SP quoted above. The full gatha runs as follows : (p. 1030) Page #186 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 145 वाहरउ मं सहीओ तिस्सा गोत्तेण किं त्थ भणिएण । थिरपेम्मा होउ जहिं तहिं पि, मा किं पि णं भणह ॥ [व्याहरतु मां सख्यः, तस्या गोत्रेण किमत्र भणितेन । |स्थिरप्रेमा भवतु यत्र तत्रापि मा किमप्येनं भणत ।। 17) Tesu vak.-pravrttijam suddham (mana..mottayitam) yatha- (p. 1031) “सम्घा मे" etc. Now the verse, as it stands, is quite corrupt; further, the second and the third quarters of this verse are metrically defective. In its corrected form it would read as: सद्धा मे तुज्झ पिअत्तणस्स कह तं ति णेअ आणामि । पणीमो (१ दे पसिअ) तुमं चिअ सिक्खवेसु जह ते पिआ होमि ।। [ श्रद्धा मे तव प्रियत्वस्य कथं तत् इति नैव जानामि ।। [प्रार्थये (१) त्वमेव शिक्षय यथा तव प्रिया भवामि ॥ For this verse Cf GS No 750 in Weber's edition. 18) Atha mānasukhānubhāvaḥ 1---- teșu bahumato yathā – (p. 1033) अब्धखरूसणं etc. The verse, as it stands, is obscure but even in its corrupt form, it strongly reminds us of the gatha No. 7.75 with which it must be identified : अत्थक्करूसणं खणपसिज्जणं अलिअअणणिबंधो। उम्मच्छरसंतावो पुत्तअ पअई सिणेहस्स ॥ अकस्माद् रोषणं क्षणप्रसादनम् अलीकवचननिर्बन्धः ।। Lउन्मत्सर (बहुल) संतापः पुत्रक, प्रकृतिः स्नेहस्य ।। 1. The Gs and the SK (p. 624 v. 178) read : पअवी 19) Mānānuyogo yatha - (p. 1043) अ० किअइ दि० ठिणिन्भ०छिओवि etc. This verse, as printed, is corrupt. It contains more matras in its second quarter and less mātrās in its second half. Besides, some words in the second half appear to be corrupt beyond recognition. But the whole verse undoubtedly is to be identitfied with gatha No 899 in Weber's edition. The verse, in its corrected form along with its Sanskrit Chāyā (which is not found in Weber's edition), is given below: अल्लिअइ दिद्विणिब्भच्छिओ वि विहुओ वि लग्गए सिअए । पहओ वि चुंबइ बला अलज्जए कहं णु कुप्पिस्सं ॥ rआलीयते दृष्टि नत्सितोऽपि विधूतोऽपि लगति सिचये । । Lप्रहतोऽपि चुम्बति बलात् अलज्जकाय कथं नु कोपिष्यामि ॥ Page #187 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 146 20) (Pravasah) nayaka-krto yatha - (p. 1055) "उण्हं जउणाए जलं" etc. This verse is only slightly corrupt and is easily intelligible but as its Sanskrit Chāyā is not recorded in the printed text I take it up here: The verse, when corrected, would read as follows : उण्हं जउणाएँ जलं उण्हा जउणाएँ वेअसकुडुंगा । उहा जउणा वि का केण वि महुरं गए कण्हे ।। उष्णं यमुनाया जलम् उष्णा यमुनाया वेतसनिकुञ्जाः। Lउष्णा यमुना कृता केनापि मथुरां गते कृष्णे ॥ 21) (Nayikayah priya-viyoga-sambhavanā pravasa-sanka sa; ca pancadha... bhavisyantr ca. Tasu bhavisyanti yatha - (p. 1055) होन्तपिअविरहदूसह etc. This verse, I have not been able to trace to its source. It is not fully inte. lligible. As its Sanskrit chayā is not given in the printed text I take it up here. होन्तपिअविरहदूसहसंतापुप्फुसिअवअणसोहाओ । चंदमुहिओ त्ति सत्था जाआउ पिआउ पच्चूसे ॥ rभविष्यत्-प्रिय-विरह-दुःसह-सन्तापोत्प्रोञ्छितवदनशोभाः ।। चन्द्रमुख्य इति सार्थो जाताः प्रियाः प्रोत्यूषे ॥ 22) (Priyajana-parityagah) alinganakrto yatha--- आपुच्छणोवऊहण etc. This verse, when corrected and rewritten, agrees with the gatha No 786 in Weber's edition : आपुच्छणोवऊहण-कंठ-समोसरिअ-बाहुलइआए । वलआइ पहिअचलणे वहूए णिअला विअ पहंति ॥ [आप्रच्छनोपगृहन-कण्ठ-समवस्त-बाहुलतिकायाः। 7 वलयानि पार्थिकचरणे वध्वाः निगडा इव पतन्ति ।।। 23) Pravasa-carya/...tatra des opadhibhedesu...parakiyadeso yatha -(p. 1064) हद्धेण ओहगरिअं etc. This verse, although corrupt, could easily be identified with Setu XI. 48: हत्थेण वाह-गरुइअ-दूर-पलं बालोत्थएण वहन्ति । पिअ पेसिअंगुलीअअ-मणि-प्पहा-पाअडेक्क-वासं (? पास) व मुहं ॥ हिस्तेन बाष्पगुरूकृत-दूरप्रलम्बालकावस्तृतेन वहन्तीम् । | प्रिय-प्रोषिताङ्गुलीयक-मणि-प्रभा-प्रकटैक-पावमिव मुखम् ॥ Page #188 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 147 24) (Pravacarya/sa Karyopadbibhedesu samanyavat yatha -- (p. 1065) अम्भरसूणाइ etc. This gātbā, when rewritten in a correct form, with slight difference agrees with GS. No. 870 : अंबरसूणाइ णिरंजणाइ वइरिकरुण्णपुसिआइ । विरहुटुं कुलवालिआण साहेति अच्छीइ ॥ [अम्बरशून्यानि निरञ्जनानि विजने रुदितप्रोञ्छितानि ।। Lविरहोत्कण्ठां कलबालिकानां कथयन्ति अक्षीणि ॥ । 25) Viprayoge videsadau nayikavasthānam pravasa--vrttantah ... tatra debas tridhar-gramyah aranyah, Sadhāranasca. Tesu...sadharano yatha- (p. 1069) पज्जतयिआसूवेल्ल etc. This stanza, when rewritten, with minor corrections, agrees with the Lilava) (No 80): पत्तविआसुवेल्लगोंदि-पन्भार-णामिअ-दलाई । पहिआण दुरालोआइ होति माअंदगहणाइ ॥ पर्याप्तविकासोव्विल्ल-मञ्जरी-प्राग्भोर-नामित-दलानि ।। पथिकानां दुरालोकानि भवन्ति माकन्दगहनानि ॥ । The printed text of the Lilavar reads 'मिय' • Ms B' however, as noted by the Editor, reads णामिय० Page #189 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ भोजदेव विरचितः शृङ्गार प्रकाशः (प्रकाशाः २५-३०) प्राकृतपद्यानां मातृकावर्णक्रमेणानुक्रमणी (मूलस्थान निर्देशसहिता) अणुणअसुहं ण पत्तं ? १०३९ अणुणमणिरासगरुअं ११०१५ ९०० ( गाथा ४.४८ ) अंगण तणुआर अंधार चिवs चुएइ ? ( अग्घाइ छिनइ चुंबई ) १०७० ( गाथा ७.३९) अंतोहुतु ( ० हुत्त ) धज्जइ (? डज्झइ ) ८९३ ( गाथा ४.७३ ) अइकोवणा विसासू. १०६५ ( गाथा ५.९३ ) अइ चंडि किंण पेच्छसि १०२२ (तुलना गाथा ( वेबर ) ९०८) अइपीणघणुत्थं भिअ (वे) ९२४) ९९७ (तुलना : गाथा अइओ ० चिए ०व ? १०२८ अकअण्णु तुज्झ कए १०२५ ( गाथा ५.४५ ) अखंडिए वि पणएअ १ १०१३ अगदिआणुणओ १ १०४३ अग्es गोत्तक्खलणे १ १०२५ अ०चताअण्णजणोहि १ १०४२ अ०चोड वत्थद्ध (१९९६ = अच्छोडि अवत्थद्धत ) ( गाथा २.६०) अ०चीइ (? अच्छीइ) ता ढक्किस्सं १०३७ अज्जं गओत्ति अज्ज १०६६ ( गाथा ३.८) अ०जं (? अज्जं) वहेण कहआह १०४४ अ०ज ( ? अज्ज ) सहि राईसेसे १ १०३९ ( गाथा ४.१४ ) अज्जमए गंतव्वं ९०२, ९६८ ( गाथा ३.४९) अज्ज मए गंदव्वं ९७३ गाथा ३.४९ ) अज्झाए णवेणख ० ख अ ( १ = अज्जाए णवणहक्खअ ) ९०५ ( गाथा २.५० ) अण्ण० तिहि तुह...१ १०१७ अ०० पेसिए णेहे .. १ १०३६ अण्णासंकाए तमंधआर ? ८९६ अणुणअव (?) सरं पाअपडणूसवं (तुलना गाथा (वेबर ) ८९४) १०२० अपसाइआए १०२१ ( गाथा ३.७७) अणुवत्तणं किलतो १०३१ अणुवत्तणं कुणंतो १०३१ ( गाथा ३.६५ ) अणुवत्तों अम्हारिस ? १०३० (तुलना गाथा (वेवर ) ९४५) अण्णं जंबूमिज्जइ ९०१ अ०त०स (? अंतस्स) पडि ९०६ अण्णमाह कुविआ ? १०२९ अत्ता तह रमणज्जं ८९६ ( गाथा १.८) अत्ताधरणेवच्छं ९०६ अदहा वि जंतो चिअ ? ९०३ अद्दंसणेण पेम्मं अवेइ ८८६ ( गाथा १.८१) अ०ध०स० ( अत्थक्क) रूसणं खण १०३३ ( गाथा ७०७५) अ० ० स (? अत्थक्क) रूसणं खण ९८२ ( गाथा ७.७५) अ० पप०च०दपहावि... १०३४ अपर० झसु (? अवरज्झसु) एता हे ९९५, १०३६ अपरिक्खिददोसगुणं ? १०१३,१०४६ अप्पाई (हि) आइ तु देण ९५२ ( तुलना गाथा ( वेबर ) ८५९ ) अ० बुंचण पुण्वंवण... १८९७ अंबो ( अव्वो) दुक्करआरअ १०५२ ( गाथा ३.७३ ) अभिसारणं ण गेण्हइ ९५९ (सेतु १०.६५ ) अवर.... १०२८ ( तुलना: गाथा ४.५३) अप (व) राह सहसा ? (स्सा ) ई १०३६ ( तुलना गाथा ( वेबर ) ९०३ ) अम्भरणाइ णिरजणाई १०६५ (तुलना: गाथा ( वेबर ) ८७०. अमुणि०खळ० धसुहे ? ९९४ अलिअकुणअ०पि (९९७ अलिअकुविअं पि) (तुलना : गाथा ( वेबर ) ९३५ Page #190 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 149 अम्मणुअं चेवि जाहि १०६४ अह सा तहिं तहिं विअ (? च्चिअ) ९०५ (अपभ्रंशभाषायाम् ) (गाथा ४.१८) अल्लिअइ दिट्टिणिभच्छिओ १०४३ अह् साहिअणेण ? ८७२ (तुलना गाथा (वेबर) ८९९) अह सो विलक्खहिअओ १००१ अवरज्झसु खीसद्धो (१वीस) १०३२ (गाथा ५.२०) (गाथा ४.७६) आ० ज (? अज्ज) सहि सो जुआणो ? ९.१ अवराहेण ऊण चिर ० भणसु ? १०१३ अ०ळाअणुअर्णःओ ? १०१६ अवसर रोत्तु विअ णिम्मिआ १०३०(तुलनाः अळि अइ दि० ठि णिन्भ-चिओ ? ९८४ ध्वन्यालोक पृ.३५१) =अल्लिअइ दिद्विणिन्मच्छिओ (तुलना: गाथा अवलंबिअमाणपरं १०१९(गाथा १.८७) (वेर) ८९९) अवलंविओवआरं ? १०४० आअण्णेइ अडअणा ८९६ गाथा ४.६५) अवळ०वि० जउ (?अवलंबिज्जउ) आअंबंतकओलं ९९८ (गाथा २.९२) धीरं ९५२ सेतु१०.७९) आअस्स किंणु काहं ९०४ (गाथा २.८७) अवधि (? त्थि) ऊण सहि जंपिआइ १०१७ आअ० सतिणुकाहं (?) (गाथा २५८ आअस्स किं णु काहं ९५१ (गाथा २.८७) अविअण्णपेच्छणिजे ८७२ (गाथा १.९३) आपुच्छणावऊहणकंठ (?) १०६२ तुलना: अव्वो कज्जेण विणा ? १० ४५ गाथा (वेबर) ७८६) अ (१आ) सण्णकुडुंगे जुण्ण ८९४ आपृ(१)च्छंतम्मि पिए ? १०६२ (तुलनाः वज्जालग्ग.४७२) आम ण तुशवराहो १०२९ (तुलनाः गाथा असतीइ बंधवषणवि अड? ९०० (वेबर)९४२) असमत्तो वि समप्पइ १००६ (तुलनाः सरस्वती पृ.६७५-७६.३ ४०) आम जरो मे मंदो १०३० (गाथा १.५१) अससि ऊससंतेहि ? ८९९ । आम पिअ...ऋतुह् ? ९९२ अहअं विओअतणुई ९५० (गाथा ५.८६) आरक्खंती आहिआ ? १०३२ अह आगणो(?ओ)ति (त्ति) ण आलोए च्चिअ पिए ठविओ ? १०४१ परिअ? १०४० (हरिविजये ) आसाइअं अणाए (?अण्णाएण) ९१९ (तुलना अह जललिटिम्म (णिहिम्मि) अहिअं १०६९ गाथा (वेबर) ९५८ सरस्वती पृ. ५४९. (सेतु ५.१) अह णवर तत्थ दोसो १०३९ लीलावई .६२) आसासेइ परिअणं १०६७ (गाथा ३.८३) अह दिट्ठ वक्कमम्मि १०५८ (अ) (हरि- इअ सावराहपिअअम ? ९९६ विजये ) इह जा मणम्मि ऊसा ? ९६९ (उसाणिरुद्ध १) अह भणइ अअलसामी? ९१३ ईसामच्छरगुरुए ९८४ अाहे समअं उपपो०ढ ? ९८४ ईसामच्छररहिएहि १०२४ (गाथा ६.६) अह सम्भाविमगो (? संभाविअमग्गो)१०३३ ईस जणंति वदति ८८९ (तुलनाः गाथा (गाथा १.३२) अह सा तहिं कहिं चिअ (तहिं तहिं च्चिअ) उकइअव(१कइ अव)रहिअ पेम्म १०४९ (तुलनाः ८७८ (गाथा ४.१८) गाथा २.२४) २३४) Page #191 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 150 उक्कंठाणिच्छाआ ? १०६५ (तुलना; गाथा एहि गमागमखेओ ? ९५२ (वेबर) ८३८) एंतो वि ण सच्चविओ ९९८ (तुलना : सरउग्गाहिअ पंहु०ठा ? १००६ स्वती पृ.३७२.१२६) उज्जागरअ कसाइअ ९१९ (गाथा ५.८२) ओ० चिणसु (= उच्चिणसु) पडिअ कुसुमं उण्णमसु सुहअ एअकह ? १०३२ ९०५ (तुलना : गाथा (वेबर) ९५९) उण्हं जउणाए जलं ? १०५५ ओ०चेइ जा कुसुंभ १८९३ उ०प०ळ ळोवणेण (? ९५१ = उप्फुल्ल लोअ- ओविज्जउ छणदिअहे ? १०६७ ण) (तुलना : गाथा (वेवर) ८२८) ओसए वसंत कासअ? ८९६ उपपेक्खागअदइअं? १०६८ (तुलना : गार्था ओसरइ धुणइ साहं ८९४ (गाथा)६.३१ (वेबर) ८३४) कअविच्छेओ सहि भंगि ? १०२९ (तुलना : उ०मालुति (? उम्मूलंति) व हिअअं ९९५ गाथा (वेबर) ९१३) (तुलना : गाथा (वेबर) ९१४) कअविप्पिओ ण माणिणि ? १०१३ उम्मूलंति जह तीर ? ८९९ कइअवपरंमुहाणं ? १०१० उम्मूळअंति ( ? उम्मूलेंति व हिअअं १०२५ कज्जलमलल्लि अंगठिं ? १०७० (गाथा २.४६) कज विणा वि कअमाणडंबरा ? १०२ १,१० - उरपेल्लिअवहकारेल्लि ९०५ (तुलना : सर- ___ ४५ (तुलना : गाथा (वेबर) ९.२९) स्वती ४५१.८४) कडु० जुआ (? कंडुज्जुआ) वराई १०२२ उज्वहइ दइअगहिआहरो ? १०४० (तुलना : (गाथा ४.५२) गाथा (वेवर) ९३३) कण्णे पडिअं हिअए ? १०६० तुलना : गाथा उह (? उअ) संभमविक्खित्तं ९०४ (गाथा (वेवर) ८३१) कत्तो संदेसमुहं ? ९६० एअं चिअ मह णामं ? १०३२ (तुलना : कलकंठी कलरओ ? १०३९ गाथा (वेबर) ९०५) कलहोळु (? कलहोउ) ज्जलगोरं ? ८९० एक्कं पहरूविण्णं १००९ (गाथा १.८६) कल्लं किर खरहिअओ १०५९ (गाथा १.४६) ए०तो (१ एंतो) वि पलाअंतो ? ९५८ कल्लाणि जइ...११०५९ (अपभ्रंशभाषायाम् ) ए. घ अहं चेअ पिंआण ? १०३३ कस्स ण सद्धा गरुअत्तणम्मि ११०३७ (तुलना ए०५० चिअ (? एत्थच्चिअ) वससि तुमं ? गाथा (वेबर) ७४५) १०३२ कस्स वि ण होइ रोसो ९०५ (तुलना : गाथा एदहमेत्ते गामे ८९८ (गाथा ६.५३) (वेबर) ८८६ : ध्वन्यालोक १.४-५ (पृ. एमेअ अकअपुण्णा १९६९ (तुलना : सरस्वती _पृ०६१५.१४१) कह णु गआ कह दिट्ठा ? ९५२ (तुलना : एसाए (१) मज्जाआमुद्ध ? ८९९ सरस्वती पृ. ६३७.२३२: गाथा वेबर) एहिइपिओ त्ति णिमिसं १००२ (तुलना : ८५७) गाथा ४.८५ सरस्वती पृ० ६९०.४०१) कहवि लग्गा लोअण १९६० एहिइ सो वि पउ०तो (पउत्थो) १००३ (गाथा कंठग्गहणे ण स? १००१ (तुलना : गाथा १.१७) (वेबर) ८४३) Page #192 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ कंडुज्जुआ वराई १०२५ ( गाथा ४.५२ ) कंतु ० गघणु ० खि० तेण (? = कं तुंगथणुक्खित्तेण ) ९५१ ( गाथा ३.५६) काचि तह पढम समाअम १९०५ कारण गहिओ कि मए ? १०३४, १०३९ (तुलना : गाथा ( वेबर ) ७७९) कालअति सुओखहे १८९१ किं एवि महुरस० १९५२ किं भणह में सहीओ ११०४२ प्रथम चरणमात्रम्, गाथासप्तशत्याम् ७.१७ ) कि भगह सहिओ (१ सहोओ) मामर ९५० ( गाथा ७.१७) किं रुअस ओणह ( अ) मुही ८९४ (गाथा १.९) किं स्वसि किं विव (१ अ ) सोअसि १०१९ ( गाथा ६.१६) कीरइ गुणो वि दोसो १९९० १०१८ कीस इमेसु बहुसो ? १०११ कीस मलिआवअंसं १९०११ कीस मिलिआप संवअ १ १०२७ कुलबालिआए पेच्छह १०५५; १०६७ तुलना : गाथा (वेवर ) ८७१ दशरूपक २.१५ -१६ वज्जाला .४६७ कुविआ अ सच्चभामा ९९९ ( हरिविजये, तुलना : सरस्वती पृ. ६४७.२६३) कूरस्स कारणट्ठे ? ९३५ केण मणे भग्गमणोरहेण १०५९ ( गाथा २. ११) केत्तिअमेत्त होइइ ९०३ ( प्रथम चरणमात्र गाथासप्तशत्याम् ६.८१) केली गोत्तक्खलणे ९९७, १०२२ तुलना: दशरूपक ४.६०-६१, पृ. २३४ सरस्वती पृ. ६२२- १७२ गाथा ( वेबर ) ९६७. कोड परिठवि आणण १ १०७० (सेतुबन्धे १) खे ०५ ० ति अ० पणे ११०३८ 151 गणं च मत्तमेहं ९०२ ( गउडवहो. ४०६ ) गण्हा मणो हलिअ० सि १८९५ गमिआ कलंबवा १०७० (सेतु १.१५ ) गहकल्लोइ ० ति तुमं १९०३ गहण • घपण • मिगरुअ १ ११००५ गम्मिहिसि तस्स पास ९०२ ( गाथा ७.७) गामवडस्स पिउच्छा ९०० ( गाथा ३.९५ ) गामाप... ससेसानु ? ८८० गामं शुणणिअलिअक०ण १८९८ गिम्हं गमेइ कहकहवि १ १०६८ गोत्तक्खणविलक्खो १९८८ गोत्तखलिअम्म पिए ११०२८ गोल तू चवतो ८९४ ( गाथा २.७१) घरिणी घणरथण पेल्लण १०६० ( गाथा ३.६१ ) चंद तुमं ण गणिज्जसि १९०३ चंदमुहि चंदधवला ९५३ ( गाथा ३.५२ ) चंदामअडिजीविअ १ १०३८ चंदो वि चंदवणे ९५३ ( तुलना : गाथा (वेबर ) ८५०) चितेहिअंगसंगो ? ८९६ चुंबई वास णिमुही ? ८९७ चुंबणवलिअं दिढकं ९२० (तुलना: सरस्वती पृ. ५४९.२३३ चुंब सहतउतं (? सहस्स हुत्तं ) ११०३४; १०४४. चोरिअर असद्धालुइ ८९२ ( गाथा ५.१५ ) छणपडिवआए पहदे । १०६५ जइभ इरि०तवेस १ ९५२ जइओ पिओन दीसइ १०३७ (तुलना: सर स्वती पृ. ६८७.३९० गाथा ( वेबर ) ९०१ ) जइ देव तुमं पसण्णो १०३६ ( तुलना: गाथा (वेबर ) ८४४) जइ पुत्तअ बहुएहिं १०२० (तुलना : गाथा (वेबर ) ८९५) जइ मग्गिअ ०ण सरिअं १८९८ Page #193 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 152 जाघ ण उज० गिरओ ( ? जत्थ ण उज्जा- जमुच्छिआए ण सुओ १०६७ (तुलनाः सर गरओ ९८२,१०३३ (तुलनाः गाथा (वेवर) स्वती पृ ६७६.३४४ गाथा (वेबर)७११) ८२९) जंवदणखइविणओ ? ९०८ (शूद्रककथायां हरिजलविणअब जसिकामं १ १०२७ मतीवृत्तान्ते) जह इच्छा तह रमिअं ९०० (नुलनाः सरस्वती जं वि अलिओवआरं ? १०१० पृ. ७००.४४३ प्रथमचरणमात्रम् ) ठाणे ठाणे वलिआ ८९७ (तुलना : गाथा जह जह अस्थमइ रवि ? १०३९ __ (वेबर) ८७६) जह जह तीए भवणं ? १००६ ढकंती अहरं आआरेण ? ९०६ जह जह वाएइ पिओ (गाथा ४.४) ढक्केसि चलिअवलण ह०धे ? १०२० जह दिअविरामो णव १०६४ (तुलनाः गाथा णअणणअभणि ण देसि ? १०१३ (वे) ८३९) गइपू (? ऊ) र स०च (? च्छ) हे १०२१ जा अणुण ण गेण्हइ ? १०३९ __ (गाथा १.४५) जाअ सहत्थवक्किवा ? १०७० णच्चणसलाहणणि हे ८७२ (गाथा २.१४) जाणइ जाणावेउ १००८ (गाथा १.८८) ण पिअई० झपई... ? ९९४ जाणिमि कआवराहं ९२१, १०३७ (तुलनाः णयणपहोलिबाह ? ९९० __गाथा (वेबर) ९०२) णवि तह अणालवंती ९८५,१००७ जामि अहिअहिअअवहरिसा ? १०२९ (गाथा ६.६४) जाव अ ण देहि ओहिं ? १०६३ वि तह घरम्मि दड्ढे ? १०६७ जाव ण उट्ठ मनिधण ? ८७९ ण वि तह तक्खणसुअमण्णु ? १००० (तुलना जाव ण लक्खेइ परो ? १०१३ ___ गाथा (वेबर) ९१५) जेहिं चिअ जीविज्जइ ? ९३० ण वि तेण तहा तविआ ? १०४३ जो कहवि सहीहि मुहं १०४१ (गाथा २.४४) ण सहइ कालक्खेवं ? १००६ जो तीए अहरराओ ९९१ (गाथा २-६) ण सहि अणुणअभणिअं? ९९३ जं ज०ध अ०घिसारं (१८८० जत्थ अस्थि __णहपअपसाहिअंगो ९८८,१००२ (तुलना : सारं) हेमचन्द्र का.शा. पृ.५६.२४) गाथा (वेबर) जं जं तणगअं पि ? ८९८ ९३७) जं जं पिउ (हु) लं अंगं १०२१ ( गाथा णाआओ ति पे० खेभ (?) ९५१ णा कुणंति (?ण कुणंतो) चिअ माणं ९८८ जं जं पुलएमि दिसं ८७३ (गाथा ६.३०) _ (गाथा १.२६) जंझा (?झंझा)वाओत्तिणिए? १०६८ (तुलनाः णावेक्खिओ गुरुअणो ९३४ (शाकुन्तल ५.१६) गाथा २.७०, प्रथमचरणमात्रम्) णिक्किव जाआभीरुअ ९३७ (गाथा १.३०) जंतअमे०तं तीइणि ०वोदु ? ९८९ णिद्दाभंगो आपंडुरत्तणं १०१६ (गाथा ४.७४) जं तुह कज्जं तं चेअ? ९५२ (तुलना: गाथा णिप्पच्छिमाइ असई ८९५ (गाथा २.४) (वेबर) ८६१) णिम्मविअमंडणाण वि ! १००२ जं पीअं मंगलवासणार ? १०६७ (तुलना: णीअइ अ०ज णिलिपि (? णीआई अज्ज गाथा (वेबर) ८३७) णिक्किव) ९७६ (गाथा ४.२८) Page #194 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 153 णीसासागमधूसरो ? ९९१ णीहसवेविरसिहं ? १०६८ णूमं (? में) ति जे पहुतं ९८१ (गाथा १. ९१) तक्खणजणिअपरिपसभ ? ९९४ त० ण० स ज सहि अणो १ ९९९ तणुआइआ वराई १ ९८२ (तुलना : गाथा __ (वेबर) ९१९) तणु पि अणि वडअं ? १०११ तरलच्छि चंदवअणे १००९ (तुलना : गाथा (वेबर ९२५) तह कह विडुसुरअसहं ? ९०४ तह बंधणअणुराए ? ९९० तह माणो माणहणाएँ ९९३ (गाथा २.२९) तह माणो माणतीए (? माणहणाए) १०३४ गाथा २.२९) तं कत्थ गर्भ तुह तरुण ? ९०० तं चिअ असोहअमाणो ? ९९४ तं तिअसकुसुमदाणि (? दाम) १०२४ (तुलनाः ।। सरस्वती ६७८.३५१ हरिविजये) तालूरभभाउलखडिअ ८९८ (गाथा १.३७) ता सोक्खं ताव रई ? १०३६ (तुलना : ___ गाथा (बेबर) ९३१) तीए दसणवणअंहखलण ? १००७ (= तीए दसणसुहए) (तुलना : सरस्वती पृ. ७२४. ४८५-हरिविजये ) तीए विअलंतधोरं? १०४१ तुज्झ पिअणाउर० झिअइ ? १०३२ तुरिअपहाइअदिमि ? ९५८ तुह विरहुज्जुगिरओ ९३१ (गाथा ५.८७) तुह ण आणे हिअअं९६५ (शाकुन्तल ३.१५) तु धिरो (2 तुगो थिरो) विसालो (तुलना : ___ वज्जालग्ग .३६१) (गाथा (वेबर) ९३५) तेण ण मरामि मण्णूहि ९९५ (गाथा ४.७५) तो इअ पिआणुवत्तण १ १००९ तोणि णिअपेम्मपडिपसाअ ? ९९१ तो धालव्जापणआ भणइ ? ९९५ तो से कु०भंत० च्छि अहिअ १०४१ (हरिविजये) तो अमाणरहेहिणि ? १०४० थोरि (?) सुएहि रुणं १०२८ (गाथा ६. २८) दइअ गमिअ० वणवादि १ ९९६ दइआलोअपअत्ता १ १०४१ दर्छ चिरं ण ळद्धो ? ९०१ दट्ठण त०ळवाणं ? ८७५ दारट्ठविअसुरदुमं ? १०४७ (हरिविजये) दावतेण तुह मुहं १०२६ (तुलना : गाथा (वे) ९२०) दिट्टम्मि घरपरोहड १ ८९६ दिढमण्णुदूमिआए १०४० (गाथा १.७४) दीससि पिआइ जंपसि १०३२ (गाथा ५.८९) दुक्खंतरिअमणसुह १ ९९८ दुइंस एण ईसा ? ९३५ दुल्लहजणाणुराओ ९५६ (रत्नावली २.१) दूइ ण एइ चंदो पि पुण्गवो (? चंदो वि __ उग्गओ) (तुलना : गाथा (वेबर) ८५४) दुई गआ चिराअइ ९५१ (तुलना : गाथा (वेबर) ८५५) दूईमुहअंदपुलोइरिए ? ९५२ (तुलना : गाथा (वेबर) ८५८) दूमेइ अ मे हिअं १ ९८९ दूरगअ०पिणिअ०ते १ १०१५ दूसहकआवराह ? १०२४ दूसहमंतुपअंतो ? १०२७ दोअ०धो अपसरिओ ? १०४० दोहं चिअ हिअअरं विआ ? १००९ धम्मिअ भम वीसत्थो ८९९ (भम धम्मिअ वीसत्थो (गाथा २.७५) धरिओ अमरिसपसरो ? ९८६ Page #195 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 154 धीरखलिअणिअंता ? १०२७ धीरेण माणभंगे ? ९९८ धीर धरिअं पि गइ० दूर ? ९९५ धू (? दू)इ तुम चिअ णिउण (?णिउणा) ९५० (गाथा २.८१) धो (१थो) आरूढमहुआ (१महुमआ) ९८९, १०४४ (तुलनाः सरस्वती पृ. ६७०. ३२१) धोओसरतरोसं ? १०४० पअच्छामिओ पत्थानिजमेदिमेएक्कं १ ९३७ वृहत्कथायां कलिङ्ग पइणावण्णिज्जते १९८८ (तुलनाः गाथा (वेबर) ८६८) पइमाहप्पळि (१णि) सण्णा ९७५ (सेतु ११. २८) पइ (१वइ ) विवरणिग्गअदलो ८७५ (गाया पणअ०खलणविलक्खं ? १००५ पणअपरिपूरणेण विरअ(?विअअ)भूसिअ ? १०४७ (हरिविजये?). पणमह माणस्स हला १०४५ (तुलनाः गाथा (वेबर) ८९३) पत्तिअ जह उप्पण्णा ? १०१७. पत्तिअ ण पत्तिअंती ९८७ (गाथा ३.१६) पभव ति० चिअए...? १०३० (तुलनाः सर स्वती पृ. ६०७ १०९) पम्मुट्टपाणिआए ? १०६८ परिअतीव णिसं ११००५ (तुलनाः सरस्वती पृ. ६१६.१४५) परिअड्ढिआइ दोणि वि ? १०६७ परिउ चिआ (? परिउच्छिआ ? पडिउत्थिआ) ण जंपइ ९८२ (तुलनाः सरस्वती पृ. ६२४. १७९ गाथा (वेबर) ९२३) परिउचिआ ण कंपसि ? १००४ ( तुलनाः श्टं, प्र. पृ. ९८२ सरस्वती पृ. ६२४. १५९ गोथा (वेबर) ९२३) पहि उल्लूरण संका ८९९ (गाथा २.६६) पलिहीपाडअपुण्णा ? ९६८ पाअपडणाण मुद्धे १०२०; १०४५ ( गाथा पउम०पहदिअंकं ? ८९. पच्चक्खमंतुआरअ ९८७ (तुलनाः गाथा(वेवर) ९३८) पच्चूसागअ रजिअदेह १००२ (गाथा ७. पाअपडिओ ण गणिओ १०२० (गाथा ५. पच्च्सागअणवरा ? १०२५ ( तुलनाः गाथा ७.५३) पज्जतयि आसूवेल्ल ( ? १०६९ तुलनाः लीलावई ८० प०ठंतिमअणपसर० ? ९९० पडमु०ळिअवासोहो ? ९०० पडिभिंदह होंतवर ? १०२५ पडिवक्खस्स वि पुरओ ! १०४६ (तुलनाः गाथा (वेबर) ९२७) पडिवक्खे दूमिज्जइ ? १०१५ पढम वामणविहिणा ८८९ (गाथा ५.२५) पणअकुइआण दोण्ह वि ९८२ (गाथा १.२७) पणअकुलअणदो०ण वि (? १०३४ तुलना : गाथा १.२७) पाअपडिअं अभ०वे (?) १०३० (गाथा ४.९०) पातहा सही ण दूई ? ९०२ पालेइ अ० छभ०लं (?-फालेइ अच्छभल्ल ) ८९१ (गाथा २.९) पिअअमविउ०ण (?विइण्ण) चसअं १०२७ (तुलनाः गाथा (वेबर) ९१७) पिअपासाहि णिअ० तो (?णिअत्तो) ९५२ (सेतु पिअविरहो अप्पिअदसणं ९८४; १०३१. (गाथा १.२४) Page #196 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ पिअपहरण (? संभरण - पलोङ्कृत १०६९ ( गाथा ३.२२) पिअसंगमो अह०वाए १९०३ पुणो वि पणअभंगो ? ९६० टिप्पणीः भ्रान्त्या पद्याकारेण मुद्रितोऽयं गद्यखण्ड: । मालतीमाधवे (पृ. ९१-९२ सुरु - देवघर - संस्करणम् ) पुरओ चिंतअवळआ ? १००५ पुल्लं तनिरंतरतरुण ? ९०१ पूरतु पणअभंगे गआ ? १०५२ पेच्छइ अ सो पिअअं मु०हि ! १०१५ पेच्छसिं अणिमिसण अणो ९८३ (तुलना: श्टं. प्र. पृ. ६३२) पेच्छ मा पासि मिंदह ११०३० पे० दु०देसेसु परोहडे ? ९०२ पेम्स विरोहिअ संदिट्ठिअ ९९३ ( गाथा १. ५३) फलही वाहणपुण्णा ८९२ ( गाथा २.६५ ) ब०धावि०छइ पंसुलि १ ८९८ बहिणिग्गअभहिपअणे १९५२ बहुअंकलंकहरिअं ? ९०३ बहुपुप्फभरोणामि ८९७ ( गाथा २.३ ) बाहो ०लपुरि... ११०२७ भ० ज० सवितुह स०ग ( १ ८९८ =भब्जं तस्स वि तुह सग्ग) ( गाथा २.६७) भण भण जं० पडिभाअइ (१ १०३५ =भण भण जं जं पडिहाइ) (तुलना: गाथा (वेबर) ९०४) भरिमो से सअणवरम्मुहीए १०४५ ( गाथा ४.६८) भिउडीए पुलोइस्स १०३८ ( तुलना: गाथा (वेबर) ७४३) भिउडी ण कआ कडुअं ९९८ (तुलना : गाथा (वेबर) ९२१) भिउडीए वाहारो १ १०३७ 155 भो गंगारोलपअच्छसु ९३७ ( वृहत्कथान्तर्गते कलिङ्गसेनालम्भे) म०झ० समुहावराहं १ ९८७ मज्झ चिचअ वणिज्जं १९९० मज्झण (१०ह) परिथअस्स वि १०७० ( गाथा ४.९९) मणे दइ दड्ढं १ १०६५ मंतूण वि हरविजिअं १९९० माणुम्मत्ताए मए १०२१ ( गाथा ६.२२) माणोआमाणोच्चं १ १०४४ माणो माए दोए ११० ३६ मा मुद्ध पोढछोह ? ८७८ मा वच्च पकिफलादिर १ (९०१ मा वच्च पुप्फलाविर ) ( गाथा ४.५५ ) मा वेलवेसु बहुअं ? १०२२ (तुलना : गाथा (वेबर) ९०७) मुहमेत्तेण वराओ १९०३ रणाअरस्स साहेमि ८९९ ( तुलना : गाथा ( वेबर) ७६० ) रविग्गहम्मि कुंठीं ९८१ (तुलना : सरस्वती पृ ६२८.१९३) रणरणअ रज्जदोव्वल १ १०६७ ( तुलना: गाहार अणकोस. ३८३) रस अज्झअकअधिकार १ १००५ रायविरुद्ध व कहं १०७० ( गाथा ४.९६ ) अइ रुअंतीए मए १०५४ ( तुलना : गाथा ( वेबर ) ८४८ ) रूससि रु० ठिअ १ १०१० रे अविअद्ध रविअडं १ १००५ लच्छीए मुद्धकुवलअ १८९० लोलअ सुरअरुकोरण १ १०४१ ( हरिविजये १ ) वच्चिहि सो घरं से १ ९५९ ( तुलना : गाथा ( वेबर ) ९१८) Page #197 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 156 स०झउअहअमाणो? १०१५ सद्धा मे तुझ पिअत्तणस्स १०३१ (तुलना । गाथा (वेबर) ७५०) स०भावसिणेहवेविते ? १०२२ सरिसपडिवक्खपुरओ १०२८ ससिदि०णवस०ध०खो ? १००६ ससिमुहि मुहस्स लच्छी ९३५ सहिअण ह० धाहिमुहं ? ९५९ सहिअं गत्तखलणं १०३४ सहिअं माणक्खलणं ? १०१७,१०२८ सहि एरिसच्चिअ गई १०१९ (गाथा१.१०) (सहिता अ०चउत्ति ? १००१ । सहि ताव अच्चउ च्चिअं? १००३ सहि पाएसु चिव. ति ? १०४५ सहि साहसु सब्भावेण १०५२ (गाथा वअणेअ पलंअंतसी ! ९०१ व०छइणइते० छनुकुभो ? ८९६ वंदं कीराण नहे ? ८८६ वहुआए णइणिउंजे ? ९०४ वाओर०दपणव० इरिव ? ९९० वाहरउ में सहीओ १०३० ( तुलना : गाथा २०३१ ) वाहित्ता पडिवअणं ण देइ ८९५ ( गाथा ५.१६ ) बाहिप्पंती वहुअं १ १०२६ विज्झावेइ पईवं १०६६ (तुलना गाथा (वेबर) ८३६) वीसंमणिव्विसंके? १०१३ वेआरिज्जसि मुध्दे १०२२ ( तुलना : गाथा (वेबर) ९०९) वेदणिखातं किसलं ? ९०५ वेधा लपि ० अ०पु०व० ? ९५८ वेविरसिण्ण करंगुलि ८८९ ( गाथा ३.४४ ) वेसेण णघि दुख ? ९९२ वेसोसि नीअसुल ९९२ ( तुलना : गाथा ६.१० ) वैरिज्जंतो पुर्व कएहि (? ९०१-परिगतो पुवकएहि कम्मेहि) ( लीलावई. ५६९) सअणे चिंतामइअं ९१० (गाथा २.३३) सअमणे चिंतामिलिअं ( =सअणे चिंतामइअं) १०६८ (गाथा २.३३) सकागहरहसु०तं ( =सकअग्गहरहसुत्ता) १००९ (गाथा ६.५०) सच्चं जाणइ दळु ९१७ (गाथा १.१२) स० स०णा ५०णा ( =सच्चं सण्णा धण्णा ) ८८८ स चिअ रामेई तुम० १ ९९३ सासवेसवेवि? ९५८ संकेअऊसुअमणो ? ८९३ (तुलना : श्टं. प्र. पृ. ७९२,८१५) संकेअकुडुगुड्डीण ? ८९३ (तुलना वज्जालग्ग संगमसुहासमभ १ ९६० संवढिअसंतोसे १ १००६ सा कुसुमेहि गुरुइआ ? ९९० सा तुह कएण बालअ ८८९ (गाथा सामाइ सामलीए ८९५ (गाथा २.८०) सामामासगोस १ ९७५ साहि०प०तिसविरोतूण ? ९९८ साहसु विलासिअणिज्जे ? ९९२, १०१८ साहसु विलासिणअणं १ १०२९ सिलिरिगुलिमे गामे ? ८९३ सीआविओअदुक्खं १०५३ (सेतु १२.२२) सुप्पउ तइओ वि गओ ९५० (गाथा ५.१२) सुभउ० चिअं जणं ( ? =सुहलच्छअं जणं ) १०३१ (गाथा १.५०) Page #198 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 157 सुहअ मुहुत्त सुवउ (? सु० वउ) १०३३ हु० णिल० समोसर (? =हुणिलज्ज समोसर) (तुलना : गाथा (वेबर) ९०६) ९८५,९९६,१०२६ (तुलना : सरस्वती सुहआ वि सुंदरी वि हु १०२१ (तुलना : पृ. ५८९.४९ गाथा (वेबर) ९४०) ___ गाथा (वेबर) ९२६) होउ ण सुअं चिअ मएणेअ ? १०३२ सुहलालसाहिं अवअअ ? ९५१ होज्ज जवणे सो दिअहो ? १००४ (तुलना : सो० तुं हं ०ल० भइ (?=सोत्तु सुहण श्टं. प्र. पृ. ७८४) होतपहिअस्म जाअ १०६० (गाथा १.४७) लब्भइ ) १०३६ (तुलना : गाथा (वेबर) होतपिअविरहदूसह १ १०५९ (नष्टाद्याक्षरा गाथा :) सो मुद्धमओ मअतहिआहिं ८९७ (तुलना : ......इओ च्चेउं । ? ९१९ सरस्वती, पृ. ३६५.१११ ......कइरधणवावणविअड। ९०० हण्घसकिळाहआए ? १००२ ......खिडिओ वाहारो । १०३७ हद्धेण ? (हत्थेण) ओहगरिअं १०६४ (तुलना ......गहिखे वअण ? १०३६ सेतु ११.४८) ......जा......तं ।। हला चंडि......गमिस्सिदि ९३७ (शाकुन्तले सपल्लहन्थिअं सुखाआ पहिअजाआ।। १०६७ प्रथमाङ्के गद्यात्मकः संवादोऽयम् ) पहाइअओसकाळपडिसिधधीरार। मे पे० चइभणध चंदअहाअधिए जुअइजणो ।। हलिअमुआमुहससि (?) ८९२ हसिएहिं उपालब्भा (? उवालंभा) ९८५ ......पुच्छंती महचिअस्स (? पिअस्स चरि(गाथा ६.१३) आई । (तुलना: गाथा ७.७७) हारीहाउसहावहुल १९०२ ...वअणिपि० जइ हालाहलं विसभसज । हिअइ खुड कइ गोड्डी १.६९ (तुलना : हेम- जंहिअअं......ताहे ।। १०.४ वाअचितिअंविसंवइ । १००६ चन्द्र-प्राकृत-व्याकरणे ४.३९५ वृत्तौ) हिअएहि.......(१ ९१७ = ए एहि किंपि ......सदूमिअसवत्ति...। १०४६ ....संवाहति जंणिआ जंज । ९७१ __ कीए नि) (गाथा ७.२) ......सेसज्जआणो (१९३१ -अगणिअहिमचुण्णजोअहत्थाओं १०४४ ( तुलना : सेसजुआणा (गाथा १.५७) गाथा (वेवर) ८९९) ......ला मए जीविदं घरंदीए १ ९९३ भोजदेवविरचितः शृङ्गारप्रकाशः (प्रकाशाः २५-३०) प्राकृतपद्यानां मातृकावर्णक्रमेणानुक्रमणी (मूलस्थाननिर्देशसहिता) __ वृद्धिपत्रम् अगहिअदइआणुणओ ? १०४३ तुलना : अण्णं जंबू मिज्जइ ( १ अण्णं तं शूमिज्जइ) । ९०१ लीलावई . ४९९ अण्णमणाहं कुविआ (? अण्णुअ णोहं कुविआ १०२९ -गाथा २.८४ तुलना : सरस्वती ६४१ अलिअकुण पि (१ अलिअकुवि पि ९९७ तुलना : गाथा (वेबर) ९४१ अल्लिअइ दिहिणिब्भच्छिओ ९८४,१०४३ तुलना : गाथा (वेबर ८९८) अवराहेण ऊण चिर भणसु ? १०१३ =अवहारेऊण चिरं भणसु १२०८ अ (आ)सण्णकुडुगे जुण्ण ८९४ तुलना : शृङ्गारप्रकाश ६२९ बज्जालग्ग. ४७२ Page #199 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ अह साहिअणेण १ ८७२ ईसामच्छर गुरुए ९८४ - सेतु ११.१६ कत्तो संदेससुहं ९६० तुलना : जइआ इरित्तवेस ९५२ ( द्वितीयार्ध) कंठग्गहणे ण सअं १ १००१ तुलना : गाथा ( वेबर ). ८४९ काउअति सुओरवहेरि १ ८९१ तुलना : उअरि दरदिट्ठ- गाथा १.६४ केत्तिअमेत्तं होहिइ ९०३ तुलना : गाथा ६.८१ ( प्रथमचरणमात्रम् ) : गाथा ५.९९ ( भग्गपि असंगम... ) खुज्जति जढ़तेहि १८९९ चुंबई वासिण्णमुही ८९७ तुलना : श्रृङ्गारप्रकाश ८१७ जइया इरित्तवेस १ ९५२ जंतअमेत्तं तीइ णि० वोदु तीरइ णि० वोदु - गाथा ढक्केसि चलि अवलगह० तुलना : गाथा ( वेबर ) ९२८ णाआओ ●ति पे० खेभ १९५१ सो गागआ। त्ति पेच्छह गाथा ( वेबर ) . ८५६ त ०ण स ज सहिअणो १९९९ ९८९ - जेत्तिअमेत्तं १.७१ १ १०२० तुलना : तं नं धिज सहिअणो ७२९ तो इअ पिआणुवत्तण १००९ १२०९ तुलना : लोलअसुर अरुकारण १०४१ तो इअ सुरअरुकारण तो से कुब्भंत ०च्छिमहिअ १०४१ तुलना : तो से रुन्भंत च्चि ८४० 158 १२०९ तो से रुभंत च्छिअ दट्ठूण त ० लवाणं ( ? तं जुवाणं ) ८७५ - वज्जालग्ग. ६१७ दूई मुहअंद पुलेोइरिए १९५२ तुलना : गाथा ( वेबर). ८५३ धीरेण माणभंगे (? भंगे। ) ८४० ९९८ तुलना : सरस्वती ७२७ धाओं ( ? थोओ) संतरे सं १०४० तुलना : सरस्वती पृ. ७२७ ( हरिविजये ) पेच्छसि अणिमिसणअणा ९८३ तुलना : ढाङ्गारप्रकाश ६३२ ( प्रथमचरणमात्रम् ) गाथा (वेवर ) ९४३ भण सहिओ तम्मि ११०३७ सच्चि रामेइ तुमं ९९३ तुलना : गाथा (वेवर ) . ७५९ संकेअऊसुअमणो ? ८९३ तुलना : शृंगारप्रकाश ७९२, ८१५ अलङ्काररत्नाकर पृ. १९०, उ. ६०२ संकेअकुडुंगुड्डीण ? तुलना : गाथा (वेबर) ८७४ ध्वन्यालोक पृ. २८२ सुहलालसाहिं अवअअ १९५१ तुलना : सुर असुहलालसाहि - १२०० सदूमि असवत्ति ? १०४६ तुलना : तीए सविसेसदूणिअ ( - सरस्वती ६७८ ) ... ला मए जीविदं घरंदीए ९९३ तुलना : गाथा ( वेबर ) . ९३० ० ० ० Page #200 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 22. Prakrit Studies : Some Problems and Solutions Dr. G. C. Choudhari, Vaishali About two and half thousand years ago the popular dialects of North Jodia had a glorious time when lord Buddha and Lord Mahavir decided to preach their religions in the local dialects in preference to the literary language of the time. The Literary language viz. Sanskrit was limited to the elite but among the masses some or other form of the Prakrits was in vogue. The Buddha's and also Lord Mahavit's preference of the Prakrit, the spoken language of masses, was a great democratie step. Owing to this bold decision and its effective execution by them and their followers , a tradition of religious literature in the Prakrits set in and we could bave the bulk of the Pall and the Ardhamāgadhi canons Besides these considerable secular literature also has survived in the Prakrits from very early period. In fact there has not been a time in which the literary genius of the people did not blossom through one or other of the popular dialects. Treatises on poetics like Dhvanyaloka and Kavyaprakāśa are full of illustrations from the Prakrit. The fact that the writers of the treatises, the eminent pioneer Anandavardhana and Mammata, often illustrate their points with Prakrit verses, shows that in this field genius of people found novel modes of expression. The poetic quality of these illustrations is often high and jo many cases they vie with the finished verses of great masters like Kalidasa. Our ancient dramas also have given a share to the popular dialects. The tradition of the use of the Prakrits in extant Sanskrit dramas must have had a realistic base though in course of time it became stereotyped. The Prakrits also enjoyed royal patronage in the extensive territories of such influential dynasties as the Mauryas and the Sātavā hānas. The duty rescripts of Asoka engraved in different parts of his kingdom are in the Prakrits and the Satavahanag also used Prakrit in their inscriptions. Among the latter, one, probably Hāla, set up a convention of exclusive use of Prakrit in his harem as we learn from the Kavyamımāmgā of Rājasekhara. In this way the Prakrit languages and Literature are very valuable for a complete and first hand knowledge of the ancient Igdian culture. Their importance in linguistic studies also is very great. The growth of the modern vernaculars can be properly understood in the context of the Prakrit and the Apabhrama ianguages. Not only this but also the languages of the south have borrowed a large number of words from the Prakrits. The Prakrit languages kept always growing and they did not generally tone down to any strict discipline of grammar. This growth of the Prakrits Page #201 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 160 necessitated the intervention of Sanskrit is a standard language for commentary. Prakrit literature of a previous period had to be interpreted in Sanskrit for the readers of a later period. In course of time this sort of interpretation tended to be abused and the readers in order to save efforts satisfied themselves with the Sanskrit renderings of the Prakrit texts. This proved a great set-back to the Prakrits and the original texts began to dwindle. But it is heartening to note that a revival is taking place in our present generation which is somehow alive to the great importance of the Prakrits, Establishment of Research Institutes and University departments for the study of the Prakrits and publication of numerous old Mss. are evidences in question. What is desired is that the growth should be well planned and enthuciasm of the people regulated. If we cast a glance on the growth of Institutions and also on the curricula for the study of the Prakrits and other classical languages we find that the Prakrits are dovetailed with Jajnological, Pāli with the Buddhistic, Sanskrit with the Brahmanical and Arabic and Persian with the Islamic studies. Not only this but also the particolar languages are supposed to be taken care of by the particular religious communities alligned to them. And the latter also presume to exert all kinds of authority on the language under their charge. We have to see whether this dovetailing is congenial to the study of the Language or the religions in question. It is true that some religious literature of the Jainas is in Prakrit and some religious literature of the Buddhists is in Pāli and so on. But a lot of Jaina religious Ilterature is in Sanskrit also and the same is the case with the Buddhist religious literature. So it is not fair to confine these religious thoughts to Prakrit and Pāli. Similarly the Prakrits have much more than the Jaina religious literature and the Jaina religious literature itself has much more than sheer religion and it is the common inheritance of the whole fraternity of scholars interested in the field. So the dovetailing in the above fashion is likely to confine the scope of the subject instead of promoting its growth and popularity. Coming down to the particular case of the Prakrit studies at present, we find that a number of Institutions have been established for higher studies and research. But the researches done are generally substandard for the Institutions do not get good scholars. The subject is not being taught at the high school level and very few colleges have been teaching it at the un. dergraduate stage. So only a limited number of students offer to take up postgraduate studies and research. It is from among these that the Institutions have wllty-Dilly to choose their research scholaars. Efforts have been made Page #202 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 161 to popularise the subject at the undergraduate level but so far with little success. The fact is that uptil now the subject has not been given due recognition. The scholars in the field have to assert themselves to convince the society of the enormous importance of the subject. But mind you, It is a herculean task and needs the greatest degree of patience and perseverance for to drive home the importance of the Prakrits to a society which is generally lukewarm to all learning and particularly hostile to culture. It is very difficult indeed. But any way we have to take up this task for our survival. The Institutions in the field may take up the publication of popular series to bring out the earings of the subject upon modern vernaculars, ancient Indian culture, literature and religious thoughts. The problem before the few students who opt the subject is of employ. ment. In the present day circumstances our education has to be job oriented. But in this field students after having obtained a first class M. A. and also research degree cannot feel secure about some sort of employment. Under the circumstances only a few, mostly helpless ones, opt the subject and that also half-heartedly. So provision for employment for the students coming out with degrees in this subject has to be made. In fact the establishment of centres of advanced studies itself is an eloquent for argument working out the ways of employing the products of these Institutions. But so far little is being done. As the first step towards it the Government should introduce Prakrit as an elective subject in the examinations conducted by Public Service Commissions at the central and state levels. The Universities should be encouraged and also financed to srart departments for undergraduate and Post-graduate teaching in Prakrit. We see that the Univesities are opening departments for regional Innguages like Maithili and Bhojapurl in their bid to include the popular dialects in their curriculum. If the fact, that for a proper understanding of these languages one has to begin with the Prakrits and the Apabhramšas, is duly emphasised. They cannot but see the reasonability of having a post of a teacher of Prakrit in each of the departments of modern vernaculars. A serious handicap in growth of Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit studies is also their isolation and mutual exclusion as evidenced in the syllabi of the universities and also in the establishment of isolated and far apart Institutions for the study of each. A student who aspires to specialise in one cannot afford to overlook some basic knowledge of the others. So the syllabi at the entrance stage has to be literally comprehensive. Similarly the Institutions for specialised studies in each can function more harmoniously in one campus as the constituent units of one complex. Recently the Government of Bihar have set up Institutions for higher studies in Pāli 21 Page #203 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 162 Prakrit, Sanskrit, History, Hindi and Arabic. But the Institutions are scatterd at distant places. The aim of the Government would have been fully realised if these would have been in one campus with complete residential facilities. This would have also averted a great deal of wastage. Lastly, a word of warning. In their zeal to popularise the subject, scholars in the field should not make it very cheap At present it is generally seen that Prakrit education is stipendary. In such a system psudo students more interested in filling up their vacant hours, getting stipend and as a side issue, degrees also than in acquiring kno weedge infiltrate into the field. They presume that they are doing a favour to the subject by condescending to study it and so they deserve to be rewarded with an honourable degree without any streneous industry for the same. This trend has to be ruthlessly stopped if we want Prakrit studies to be duly recogni. sed and valued in the society. * Page #204 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 23. Prakritic Studies and a Problem of their Rehabilitation Prof. A. S. Gopani, Bombay. The problem of rehabilitating the study of Prakrit languages and literature in our universities demands urgent and serious consideration at this moment, especially when a new wave of change-over to Science and Technology is sweeping over the whole field of human activities producing in its wake a chilling Indifferance to the study of classical literature in which the moorings of our culture and civilization lay. ay Linguistic material contained in Prakrit works and brought to lightthanks to the pioneering efforts of Grierson-by the strenuous -- sustained labours of the Indian and Western scholars since then has enriched our knowledge and yielded information about the various dialects linked philologically with each other. A highly appreciative note of the sin. cere efforts done by some of our universities and the Research Institutes in this connection must also be taken. Copious cultural wealth come to sight for the scholars to make use of would otherwise have remained hidden unavailed of in the manuscripts. Though it must be painfully noted that at present the universities have become lukewarm to classical languages. This is a tendency detrimental and disturbing. Pischel's hypothesis that the Prākrits, mostly those of Asokan times were current at the time of the Vedic language even is supported by Geldner. It is necessary to emphasize in this connection that the records preserving these Prākrits should be read and studied for their proper evaluation, in their original form as Sanskrit chhāyā is not always uniformly reliable. Really speaking, the origin of some of the erroneous etymologies, untenable on sound and scientific priociples of philology, in the Sanskrit Chhaya itself. The importance of these and other Prakrits allied to them is so self-evident, leave aside the huge bulk and a great variey of Präkrit literature and its historic antiquity, that a deep, comprehensive and comparative study of them all had been and is bound to be still, fruitful. It should be remem, bered in this context that the Jalna Canon and vast commentarial litera. ture in Prakrit, a sizable part of wbich is unpublished even today will render substantial assistance, when published, in reconstructing the hitheto imperfect history of linguistics and in putting a seal of authenticity on the philological dates not established so far. In addition to the here is Apabhra, msa also. It was a medium of choice for the bards and the mystics and massive epics are written in it. Without a thorough knowledge of this language, it is not possible to trace the origin and growth of medieval Page #205 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 164 Indian languages which in their turn gave rise to modern Indian languages. We will be able to fill the existing gaps in the history of Rājashānı, Hjodi and Gujarati only if we succeed in our attempt to bring out the Apabhramśa and post-Apabhramśa literature in full and coordinate studies under taken by different scholars in different directions reg. arding this. Instead of taking the conclusions arrived at by foreign scholars as gospel truths, Indian researchers should undertake independent study or should at least check up and verify the generalizations formulated by the foreign scholars. This will consolidate our gains in research Due to our indifference we have lost in the past many valuable manu: scripts of which Guņādhya's Bribatkathā is one. There are still many thousands of manuscripts in the north and the south. Enormity of the Prākrit and Apabbramśa literature can be very well known from the fact that the number of works written in them goes high above five thousand excluding those of the Jaina Canonical and Commentarial literature in Prākrit. To bring this national bidden wealth to light can be best done at the university level. Till now no regular and coordinate study of this vast and varied but neglected literature which has preserved our culture was seriously undertaken. This task is stupendous and therefore cannot be carried out by any single institution. There is no possibility of providing facilities on a larger scale unless various universities chalk out a programme of mutual cooperation and an agreed scheme of correlation. What I mean by this is that fully equipped departments without any unnecessary interference from any side should be opened in every university like those of Sanskrit, Humanities, Sociology, Economics etc. etc. for organizing teaching work, furnishing facilities for conducting research and arranging tours to various places where the Bhaņdāras are situated and where new finds are possible. We should hang our heads down in shame when we see foreign scholars ceaselessly and assiduously working on the manuscript material which they might have collected from the sanctuaries of 1:arning and scholarship in India during their study tours and offering very sound and scientific solutions of knotty problemes of research setting controversies at rest and arriving at conclusions worthy of universal acclaim and acceptance and helpful in formulating new chronologies or reconstructing the old ones as well as throwing light on many a dark spots in philology, linguistics, and literature while we ourselves are merely priding on sheer possession of such a material or a bliss of ignorance. We are in a position to do much if only we have a will and vision. There is no dearth of men, money and material. Only there ghould be awakening awareness. We should be convinced of a need Page #206 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 165 and as a matter of fact we are. This is a question of saying our national wealth. A plea constantly made and persuasively submitted to the authorities will one day be heard, welcomed and implemented. The universities should make up their mind to pool their resources for a common purpose-the purpose of saving Prākrit. They should become conscious of their responsibilities. That is to say, they should found and organise departments of Prākritic studies. If genuinte interest is not created for them, the only possible result will be extinction of the cultural wealth of the nation lying in the form of manuscripts in Prakrits. A tendency of Sanskrit first and Prākrit next should go. Both have equal status, chances and rights to live. It is a wrong notion the Sanskrit is richer than Prākrit. Any student or scholar, if only he be impartial, will have to admit that both have properties and features entitling them to an even treatment, I would not have so openly stated this but for the fact that a sizable portion of dramatic literature in Sanskrit which has got about half of its contents in Prakrit is offered in the form of editions containiog the Sanskrit rendering only thus depriving the student of the knowledge that there is also something like Prākrit worth studying as Sanskrit. This tendency, this injustice to an equally important and indepdent language must go once for all. This end can be achieved speadily and successfully only if separate departmeots, like those of Sanskrit etc. are opened in the universities. They can, then, well undertake the work of bringing out critical editions of Sanskrit-Prakrit dramas, Prakrit and Apabhramga texts, lexicons, grammars, tracing the historical growth of various Prākrits and modern Indian languages. This is an appeal in the name of research which, otherwise, will defeat its own purpose, In this context I remember the University Grants Commission which can certainly play a meaningful constructive role. However large sums of money U.G.C. spends on and for this it will be spending only meagre. Expenses incurred for the preservation of the cultural wealth of our nation are as vital, if not more, as those for the defence of the country. of course, there is a Prākrit Text Society and L.D. Institute of Indo. logy at Ahmedabad rendering yeomen service. But there should be at least a dozen of such publishing houses to cope with the huge bulk of many. script material in Prākrit. And It is here that the Universities can step in. So far as such research Institutes are concerned, progress can not be measured lo terms of monoy spont. It is a time-consuming undertaking. Moreover, one or two lostltutes cannot do this work. There should be coordination between all the Institutes so that the labours may not be tod and results reduplicated. If the need of such an effort is accepted the programmes and plans can be immediately drawn up. It is not difficult. Page #207 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 166 Let there be one supervising and directing centre such as the U.G.C. The universties by themselves will not be able to finance thsoe departments and that is why the active blessings of the U.G.C. are required. There is no hope from the chlleoes in this respect because the students are attracted to Science and Economics as they fetch them jobs more than to languages. Only those students who have made linguistic studies a mission of their life can take up research work at the postgraduate level and join later on these depatments. A band of devoted trainees will be thus ready. They may do some teaching in the form of contact work in order to keep their know. ledge fresh and increasing. This is the only fearsible way in which the scholars of Prakrit can possibly roalize their dream of digging out the hidden wealth of Prakritic studies. In this connetton let me also refer to the compartmentalization of the studies of classical languages as also of Avesta, old Persjan etc. Regional and religious factors should never be allowed to play any part wbile framing the curricula of classical languages. Students at the post-graduate level, offering classical languages, must bave an intimate knowledge of all the allied languages. Pattern of the curriculum should be such as would not allow a student who has taken up entire Sanskrit to escape from the study of Prakrit, Pall, Zend Avesta without harm to his Intelligence and interest. It is precisely this very phenomenon that comes in the way of Indian scholars in establishing equality with European scholars as regards classical scholarship. No orlental scholarship can be considered authentic and adequate without a proper knowledge of Sanskrit on one hand and Prakrit and Pāli on the other. If the Indian scholars suffer from a lack of historical perspective it is becasue they welcome one (Sanskrit) and neglect the other (Prakrit). Time is ripe enough to revise our approaches and technique so that a better result becomes possible ultimately. Similarly, this curious fact is echoed with equal intensity in the field of modern Indian languages also. A student at the postgraduate level inten. ding specialization in a particular modern language must have intimate knowledge of other modern languages as well because otherwise his work, instead of becoming perfect, will suffer form lopsidedaess. So while making up again its mind to encourage and assist the univer. sities in the studies of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, the U.G.C. should see to it that the departments of languages - Ancient or Modern - do not function in disregard to each other. Religion-bound programme and region -bound porgramme should be scrapped. This means that a student of Sanskrit should also be quite well up ia Ptākrit and a student of Marāthi in Gujaratai and vice-versa. This will widen the scope of research and propote a healthy approach. But it is not so easy as it appears on the face Page #208 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 167 of it to achieve this objective without completely overhaullog and reorionting the present system of postgraduate instructions and without inducting a change in the teachers' attitude which prefers, as it is convenient, to be conservative. Thus the only alternative left open for the rehabilitation of Prakrit studies, so far as the universities are concerned, is to awaken interest in and encourage such scholars as aspire to specialise in this branch of research by creating opportunities for them, by providing funds and by giving scholarships and fellowships. In conclusion, let me repeat, that Prakritic studies cannot be noglected that there is no hope to generate even a small amount of Interest at the graduate and undergraduate level in the colleges, that the students who have got a special aptitude for Prakritic studies should be trained at the postgraduate and should be offered job opportunites, that the indepen, dent departments for the Prakritic studies should be opened in the upis versities and these should be financially helped by the U.G.C., that the Pundits of the orthodox type and the private intitutes such as the LD. Institute and Prakrit Text Society should be encouraged and financially helped as much as possible by the U.G.C. To rehabilitate Prākritic studies, organising Prākrit Seminars such as the present one should be a permanent feature. Page #209 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ २४. सोमप्रभाचार्यकृत 'सुमतिनाथ चरित्र': कथासामग्री एवं भाषासामग्री डॉ. कनुभाई व्र. शेठ, अहमदाबाद प्रस्तावना मध्यकालीन प्राकृत साहित्य में चरित्रग्रंथ विशेष रूप से जैन रचना प्रकार है । सामान्यतः इस प्रकार के काव्य में अमुक जैन सिद्धान्त अथवा धार्मिक-नैतिक मान्यता के दृष्टान्त हेतु किसी तीर्थकर का अथवा किसी यशस्वी पात्र के चरित्र का वर्णन होता है । इनमें चरित्रनायक के अनेक पूर्वभवों का वर्णन किया जाता है, जिनमें लोकप्रचलित अथवा साहित्यप्राप्त दृष्टान्त कथाओं एवं परम्परागत लोककथाओं को समाविष्ट कर लिया जाता है । प्राकृत साहित्य में जैन तीर्थंकरों के चरित्र का निरूपण करनेवाले अनेकों चरित्रग्रंथ प्राप्त होते हैं । प्राकृत साहित्य में तीर्थकर चरित्रः नवीं-दसवीं शताब्दी से बारहवीं-तेरहवीं शताब्दी तक अनेक तीर्थंकरों के चरित्र प्राकृत भाषा में पद्यात्मक अथवा गद्यात्मक और कई बार गद्यपद्यात्मक रूप में लिखे हुऐ प्राप्त होते हैं । इनमें वर्धमानसूरिकृत 'आदिनाथ चरित्र' [ईस्वी ११०३], सोमप्रभाचार्यकृत 'सुमतिनाथ चरित्र' [ईस्वी ११७७ से भी पूर्व], देवसूरिकृत 'पद्मप्रभुस्वामीचरित्र [ईसाकी १३वीं शती], लक्ष्मणगणिकृत 'सुपार्श्वनाथचरित्र [ई. स ११४३], यशोदेव कृत 'चंद्रप्रभस्वामी. चरित्र [ईस्वी १११२], अजितसिंहकृत 'श्रेयांसनाथचरित्र' [ईस्वी १११६], चन्दप्रभकृत 'वासुपूज्यस्वामीचरित्र' [ईस्वी ११४३], नेमिचन्द्रकृत 'अनन्तनाथचरित्र' [ईस्वी ११०४], जिनेश्वर कृत 'मल्लिनाथचरित्र, श्रीचन्द्रकृत 'मुनिसुव्रतचरित्र' [ईसाकी १२वीं शती], मलधारी हेमचन्द्रकृत 'नेमिनाथचरित्र' [ईस्वी ११७०], देवभद्रसूरिकृत 'पार्श्वनाथचरित्र' [ईस्वी १११२], गुणचन्द्रगणिकृत 'महावीरचरित्र' इत्यादि ग्रंथ उल्लेखनीय हैं । इन चरित्रों में विपुल प्रमाण में कथासामग्री प्राप्त होती है । प्रस्तुत लेखमें यावत् अप्रकाशित सोमप्रभाचार्यकृत 'सुमतिनाथचरित्र' में प्राप्त कथासामग्री एवं भाषासामग्री का निर्देशमात्र ही किया है । सुमतिनाथा कथा सामग्री 'कुमारपाल प्रतिबोध' [ईस्वी ११८५] के कर्ता विजयसिंहसूरि के शिष्य सोमप्रभाचार्यने प्राकृतभाषामें पांचवें तीर्थंकर के चरित्र का निरूपण करते हुए चरित्रकाव्य के रूपमें 'सुभतिनाथचरित्र' [९८२१ श्लोक प्रमाण की रचना की है। इसमें जैन धर्म के सिद्धांतोंका प्रतिपादन करनेवाली या विवेचन करनेवालो अनेक लोक प्रचलित दृष्टांतकथाओं एवं किंवदंतियोंका समावेश किया गया है । प्रस्तुत चरित्रमें प्राप्त अनेक कथाओं, कथापकृतियों और कथाघटकों के विषय में, खास तोर पर मध्यकालीन गुजराती साहित्य से समानता रखनेवाली कथासामग्री के प्रसंग में तुलनात्मक दृष्टि से अध्ययनार्थ अंगुलीनिर्देश किया गया है । अनेक स्थानों पर भारत के बाहर प्राप्त कथा-सामग्री के प्रसंग में भी सूचना दी गई है । _ अन्यत्र अनेक स्थानों पर प्राप्त होने वालो कथएँ जैसे पुण्यहीन, पुण्यसार, वरदत्त, जयवर्मा, कुबेरदत्त, नंदन, समुद्रदत्त, अमरसेन--वयरसेन, सुन्दर, सुदत्त, शीलवती, नयसुन्दर, Page #210 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 169 राजर्षि, विपुलमती आदि की कथाऐं यहाँ पर भी दी गई हैं । ये अपभ्रंश एवं गुजराती इत्यादि भाषाओं में लिखित कई कृतियों में मुख्य रूप से प्राचीन गुजराती में रची गई कृतियों के विषय में सुमतिनाथचरित्र के कथावस्तु को मुख्यतः तीन विभागों में विभक्त विभाग १. बहुत सी प्राकृत कथाएँ सांगोपांगतः थोड़े से परिवर्तन के साथ अनुवादित रूप में अवतरित हुई हैं जो प्राचीन गुजराती में रास, चौपाई, प्रबंध इत्यादि के स्वरूप में देखने को मिलती हैं । उदाहरण के तौर पर - स्त्री चरित्र का निरूपण करनेवाली मदन- घनदेवकथा, प्रमादगुण पर लिखी गई पुण्यमारकथा, दानविषयक क्षुल्लकमुनिकथा, संसार के अनेक विचित्र संबंधों पर रचित कुबेरदत्त - कुबेरदत्ताकथा अतिलोभ पर लिखी गई अमरसेन - वयरसेनकथा, शील की महिमा दर्शानेवाली शीलवतीकथा, परस्त्रीविरमण पर रचित रणवीरकथा आदि को हम ले सकते हैं । इन पर प्राचोन गुजराती में भी रास, चौपाई, चरित्र, प्रबंध जैसी रचनाऐं एक से अधिक कवि अथवा कर्ता द्वारा लिखी गई हैं, और यह प्राकृत कथा - साहित्य का प्राचीन गुजराती कथा - साहित्य पर पड़े हुए प्रभाव का द्योतक है । उपर्युक्त कथाओं के एक से अधिक रूपान्तर प्राप्त होते हैं । उनमें से निम्न लिखित कथाओं के रूपान्तर उल्लेखनीय हैं: कथाऐं संस्कृत, प्राकृत, मिलती हैं । यहाँ पर विचार किया गया है । किया जा सकता है । ९. प्रमाद विषयक दृष्टांत के तौर पर उपलब्ध पुण्यसारकथा के पांच रूपान्तर प्राचीन गुजराती में प्राप्त होते हैं । (१) साधुमेरुकृत पुण्यसारकुमाररास [ ई. स. १४४४ ] ( २ ) अज्ञातकृत पुण्यसाररास [ ई. स. १६वीं शती ] (३) पुण्यकीर्तिकृत पुण्यसाररास [ ई. स. १६०९] (४) तेजचन्द्रकृत पुण्यसाररास [ ई. स. १६४३ ] (५) अमृतसागर कृत पुण्यसाररास [ ई. स. १७५० ] २. अतिलोभ विषयक अमरसेन -वयरसेन कथा गुजराती में अत्यधिक प्रसिद्ध हुई है । फलस्वरूप इसके निम्नलिखित आठ रूपान्तर प्राप्त होते हैं । १५३८ ] (१) राजशीलकृत अमरसेन - वयरसेन चौपाई [ई. स. (२) कमलहर्षकृत अमरसेन - वयरसेन चौपाई [ ई. स. १५८४ ] (३) संघविजयकृत अमरसेन-वयरसेन आख्यानक [ ई. स. १६२३] १६६१ ] १६६० ] ( ४ ) जयरंगकृत अमरसेन - वयरसेन चौपाई | ई. स. (५) दयासारकृत अमरसेन - वयरसेन चौपाई [ ई. स. (६) धर्मवर्धनकृत अमरसेन - वयरसेन चौपाई [ ई. स. (७) तेजपालकृत अमरसेन-वयरसेन चौपाई [ ई. स. (८) जीवसागर कृत अमरसेन- वयरसेन चौपाई [ई. स. १७१२] 22 १६६८ ] १६८८ ] Page #211 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 170 ३. शील की महिमा दर्शाने वाली 'शोलवतीकथा' भी प्राचीन मध्यकालोन गुजराती में लोकप्रिय हुई है । इस कथा पर निम्नलिखित पाँच कृतियाँ प्राप्त होती हैं । (१) कवि जयवंतसूरिकृत श्रृंगारमंजरीचरित्र-शीलवतीचरित्र रास [ ई. स. १५५८ ] (२) मुनि देवरत्नकृत 'शीलवती चौपाई' [ई. स. १६४३ ] (३) मुनि दयासारकृत 'शीलवती चौपाई' [ ई. स. १६४८ ] (४) कवि कुशलधीरकृत 'शीलवती चतुष्पदिका' [ई. स. १६६६] (५) कवि जिनहर्षकृत-'शीलवती रासप्रबंध' [ ई. स. १७०२] यह सब इस कथा की लोकप्रियता का सूचक है। [इस कथा की विकासयात्रा के विषय में विस्तृत चर्चा लेखक द्वारा तैयार किए गए श्रृंगारमंजरीचरित्ररास नामक महानिबन्ध में की गई है ।] ४. भाव के बिना दानादि सब व्यर्थ है-इसको प्ररूपित करनेवाला मुनि क्षुल्लक का कथानक भी प्राचीन मध्यकालीन गुजराती में प्राप्त होता है । इस सम्बन्ध में ये तीन कृतियाँ उल्लेखनीय हैं । (१) पद्मराजकृत क्षुल्लककुमार राजर्षिचरित्र [ई. स. १६११] (२) मानसिंहकृत क्षुल्लककुमार चौपाई [ई. स. १६१६ ] (३) मेघनिधानकृत क्षुल्लककुमार चौपाई [ई. स. १५३२] ५. 'पुरुषसिंह कथानक' में संसार के विषय-सुख की क्षणिकता का वर्णन करने वाला 'मधुबिन्दुदृष्टांत' प्राप्त होता है । इस दृष्टांत का जैन परम्परा में व्यापक तौर से प्रचार-प्रसार हुआ है। 'वसुदेवहिण्डी' [ई.स. ५ वीं शती से प्रारभ्म कर के संस्कृत-प्राकृत में इसके अनेकों रूपान्तर मिलते हैं। जैनेतर परम्परा में इसका मूल महाभारत में प्राप्त होता है जो इसकी लोकप्रियता प्रकट करता है । यह दृष्टांत भी मध्यकालोन गुजराती में रचित यशोविजयजी के 'जम्बुस्वामीरास' में दिखाई देता है। [इसके अनेकों रूपान्तरों की चर्चा प्राकृत के प्रखर पंडित प्रो. हीरालाल कापडियाने उनके 'जैन सत्यप्रकाश' में लिखे गये लेख में की है। तत्पश्चात् अन्य अनेक रूपान्तरों के संबंध में डॉ र. म. शाहने उनके साधारणकविकृत 'विलासवई कहा' नामक महानिबन्ध की प्रस्तावना में चर्चा की है-यहाँ पर यह उल्लेखनीय है । विभाग २. दूसरे विभाग में अनेक ऐसी प्राकृत कथाओं को गिनाया जा सकता है जिनकी मुख्य घटनाएँ तो वही रही हैं परन्तु मात्र उनमें नाम का अन्तर अथवा कोई अन्य अल्प भेद किया गया है। ऐसी कथाओं ने प्राचीन मध्यकालीन गुजराती रास, चरित्र, चौपाई आदि कथात्मक साहित्य में स्थान प्राप्त किया है। इनमें निम्न कथाओं का उदाहरण के लिए उल्लेख किया जा सकता है: Page #212 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 171 (१) अतिलोभ के दृष्टांत के रूपमें मिलनेवाली निधिसार की पुत्रवधू ऋद्धिमती की कथा अल्प भेद तथा नाम भेद के साथ मध्यकालीन गुजराती में यशोविजयजीकृत 'जम्बुस्वामी रास' के अन्तर्गत मिलने वाली देवदत्त की पुत्रवधू दुर्गिला की कथा के रूप में मिलती है। (२) बिना विचारे किये गये कार्य पर दृष्टांत रूप से मिलने वाली 'सोमदेव-मित्रवती कथा' कुछ अल्प भेद तथा नामभेद के साथ प्राचीन-मध्यकालीन गुजराती में प्राप्त अंजनासुन्दरी तथा मृगांकलेखा की कथा के साथ समानता रखती है। इन दोनों ही कथाओं का निरूपण करने वाली क्रमशः आठ और बोन कृतियां प्राप्त होती हैं। विभाग ३. तीसरे विभाग में कथाओं में मिलने वाली [समानता रखने वाली] कथाप्रकृतिओं को गिनाया जा सकता है । सुमतिनाथचरित्र में उपलब्ध अनेक कथाओं के अन्तर्गत विविध कथा-प्रकृतियाँ एवं कथाघटक प्राप्त होते हैं । यहाँ पर खास तौर से प्राचीन-मध्यकालीन गुजराती कथासाहित्य में मिलने वाले अनेक साम्यों के रूपांतर संक्षिप्त रूप में दिए गए हैं। सांस्कृतिक परिवर्तनों के साथ कया-प्रकृति अथवा कथाघटक के विकास का तुलनात्मक अभ्यास अनेक दृष्टियों से रसप्रद होता है-यह स्वाभाविक ही है । (१) मेघराजाकी रानी मंगलादेवी के गर्भ में पांचवें तीर्थंकर-सुमतिनाथ आते हैं। उस समय वहाँ के चक्री चंद्रमणि की दो पत्नियों के बीचमें धन और पुत्रके बारें में विवाद उपस्थित होता है। उस विवाद का सच्चा निपटारा तीर्थंकर को माता मंगलादेवी करती हैं । इस प्रसंग में 'दो स्त्रियाँ और बालक' नामके कथाघटक का प्रयोग मिलता है । प्रस्तुत कथाघटक का भारत और भारतबाह्य प्रदेश के कथासाहित्य में व्यापक रूप में प्रचार-प्रसार हुआ है । जैन परंपरा में यह आगमसाहित्य में- नंदीसूत्र की मलयगिरि की टीका [ई. स. १२ वीं शताब्दी में प्राप्त होता है। [उसकी चर्चा के लिये देखिए, 'ऐक आरख्यायिका का मूल', डॉ. मजुलाल मजमुदार, लोकगूर्जरी, अहमदाबाद, १९६८, अंक-५, पृ. ५५७-५६१] । प्राचीन गुजराती में भी एक गद्य आख्यायिका में यह दृष्टांत मिलता है। यह दृष्टांत कथा, बाइबल के 'प्राचीन करार' में 'राजा सोलोमान का न्याय' के रूपमें उल्लेखित है। इस दृष्टांतके अन्य इझरायली और तिब्बती रूपान्तर भी प्राप्त होते हैं। [See The Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. XIV, No. 4, pp. 344-354] (२) प्रस्तुत कृति में प्राप्त निधिकुंडल-पुरंदरयशा नामक अवांतर कथा में भविष्य के भव के वर्णन में प्राप्त ललितांग-उन्मादन्ती कथा में चार विवाहार्थिओं की कथा है । इस एक सुंदरी और चार विवाहार्थिओं के कथाघटक का मूल संस्कृत-प्राकृत में, आवश्यक-चूर्णि [कर्ता जिनदासगणि, ई. स. ६७६] में प्राप्त ‘एक कन्या और तीन पति' वाली कथा में देख सकते हैं । यह कथाघटक सोमदेवभट्टकृत संस्कृत 'कथासरित्सागर' में प्राप्त वैताल पंचविंशतिका में मिलता है। प्रस्तुत कथाघटक का गुजराती रूपान्तर गुजराती कवि शामलकृत 'वैतालपच्चीसी' की २२ वीं वार्ता में है। [इसको चर्चा के लिये देखिये प्रो. हीरालाल र. कापडिया, 'जैनसत्यप्रकाश' वर्ष १३, अंक ८९, पृ. १५७-१५८] Page #213 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 172 (३) गुरुनिश्रा के बारे में प्राप्त 'विपुलमती कथा' में 'अशक्यको शक्य कर दिखाने की चुनौती को स्वीकार करनेवाली पत्नी' नामक कथाप्रकृति मिलती है । स्त्री के बनावटी या वास्तविक अभिमान को तोड़ने के लिये पति उसको अपना सामर्थ्य सिद्ध करके दिखाने की चुनौति देता है । स्त्रो इसे स्वीकार कर पति की मांग के अनुसार असाधारण वस्तु को अपनी चतुराई और दक्षता से सिद्ध कर देती है । यह कथाप्रकृति का समान्य रूप है। प्रस्तुत कथाप्रकृति प्राचीन भारतीय साहित्य में संस्कृत, प्राकृत और प्राचीन गुजराती साहित्यमें उपलब्ध है। भारत-बाह्य यह कथाप्रकृति एशिया और यूरोप जैसे देशोमें भी प्रचलित है। प्राचीन गुजराती में प्रस्तुत कथाप्रकृति सर्व प्रथम कवि अभयसोम कृत 'मानतुंग-मानवती रास' [ई. स. १६७७ ] में मिलती है । इसमें मानवती अपने पति मानतुंग की ओरसे दो गयी चुनौती को सिद्ध कर दिखाती है । बादमें यह कथा-घटक मध्यकालीन गुजराती कवि शामलकृत सिंहासन बत्तीसी' के अन्तर्गत स्त्री-चरित्र की कथा में मिलता है । इसी कथाप्रकृति वाली एक अर्वाचीन कथा 'स्त्री-चरित की नवीन बातें' के अन्दर मिलनेवाली 'ननु भट्ट और उसकी पत्नी गुणसुंदरी की कथा' में भी यह कथापटक प्राप्त होता है। [देखिए, स्त्रीचरित्र की नवीन बातें : प्र. महमदभाई और महमद कागदी] भारतबाह्य उपलब्ध रूपान्तरों में बोकेशियाकृत डेकोमेरोन के अन्तर्गत बान्ड और गीलटाकी कथा [ई. स. १३वीं सदी] तथा शेक्सपीयर कृत 'ओल वेल्स घेट ऐन्डस वेल' नामक नाटक में भी यह कथा-प्रकृति दिखाई देती है। यहाँ इन सब रूपान्तरों का तुलनात्मक अभ्यास किया गया है । [इसकी चर्चा डॉ. जनकभाई दवे ने की है । देखो श्री महावीर जैन विद्यालय, सुवर्ण महोत्सव ग्रंथ, मुंबई, १९६७, भाग १, पृ. १९६-२०८] (४) प्रस्तुत ग्रंथ में प्राप्त राजसिंहकुंवर-सुमति कथा में दोनों पात्र एक सरोवर के समीप विश्राम करते हैं । उसी समय एक विद्याधरी आती है और स्त्री-स्वरूप प्राप्त राजसिंह कुंवर को औषधि-लता द्वारा पुन: पुरुष बना देती है । इस कथाप्रसंग में दिव्य विद्या या दिव्य वस्तु [औषधि ] द्वारा रूपपरिवर्तन करने का कथाघटक संस्कृत-प्राकृत कथाओं में अनेक जगह मिलता है । संस्कृत में यह सोमदेवभट्टकृत 'कथासरित्सागर' के शशांकवती लंबक के बाईसवें तरंग में मनुस्वामी की कथा में प्राप्त होता है। प्रस्तुत कथाघटक वाली कथाएँ प्राचीन गुजराती में भी प्राप्त होती हैं । उदयभानुकृत 'विक्रमसेन रास' में जडीबूटी के प्रभाव से रूपपरिवर्तन करने का प्रसंग आता है, यह उपयुक्त कथा प्रसंग की समानता रखे हुए है। शिवदासकृत रूपसेन-चतुष्पदिका नाम को एक अन्य रचना में भी जड़ीबूटी द्वारा रूपपरिवर्तन का उल्लेख मिलता है। [इसकी चर्चा के लिए देखिए शिवदासकृत रूपसेन-चतुष्पदिका-डो. कनुभाई ब. शेठ, फार्बस गुजराती सभा, मुंबई, १९६८, पृ ४-१०] उपर्युक्त कथाघटकवाली कथाऐं भारत और भारतबाह्य देशों के साहित्य में एक या दूसरे Page #214 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 113 रूप में प्राप्त होती है। लोकवार्ताओं का आदान-प्रदान मौखिक परंपरा या अन्य साधनों द्वारा पृथ्वी के एक कोने से दूसरे कोने में हुआ है उसका यह द्योतक है । भारतीय लोककथा-साहित्य का ऐतिहासिक और सांस्कृतिक दृष्टि से अन्वेषण करनेवालों के लिए सुमतिनाथचरित्र और अन्य तीर्थ कर-चरित्र साहित्य एक अगाध अमूल्य निधि रूप है । यहाँ पर प्रस्तुत की गई चर्चा से इस बातका समर्थन हो जाता है । प्राचीन गुजराती में प्राप्त कथासामग्री का साम्य भी उस पर प्राकृत कथा-साहित्य के व्यापक प्रभाव का सूचक है । भाषा सामग्री : अनेक भाषा प्रयोग एवं शब्दप्रयोग 'सुमतिनाथचरित्र' की जैन महाराष्ट्री प्राकृत भाषा में अनेक ऐसे प्रयोग हैं जो प्राचीन मध्यकालीन गुजराती भाषा के अभ्यास के लिए महत्त्वपूर्ण हैं । उनके कुछ उदाहरण देखिए : (१) अप्पडिसिद्धमणुमयं (२१३७)। अप्रतिषिद्ध को अनुमत कहा जाता है । (२) उच्चिद्रं पि हु भत्तं भक्खिज्जइ नेहलोहेण (१९३२) । मिष्टान्न के लोभ से लोग जूठा भी खा लेते हैं। (३) उवएसेण वि पायं नराण दुपरिच्चया पयई (२४२५) । उपदेश से भी मनुष्य की प्रकृति प्रायः बदली नहीं जा सकती । (४) एक्कं सुवन्नं अन्नं च सुरहि को न इच्छइ (३५९)। सोने और सुगंध को एक साथ कौन नहीं चाहता ? (५) एगत्थ वसइ अक्खंडपुन्नगुणनियलिया लच्छी (८२८)। अखंड पुण्य-गुण से बंधी हुई लक्ष्मी एक ही पुरुषके पास रहती है । (६) ओसहं विणा वाहि-विगमो (७७६)? क्या औषध के विना व्याधि हटती है ? (७) किं कूवु खणिज्जइ घरि पलित्ति (२२४०) ! क्या नब घर में आग लगती है तब दूंआ खोदा जाता है ! (८) खयम्मि खारो तए खित्तो (९१४)। घाव पर नमक डालने जैसी तेरी बात है । (९) खायई करंषयं जो सो सहइ विलंबयं पुरिसो (१५८)। जो आदमी करंबक (दध्योदन गुज. राज.-करबो) खाता है उसको विलंब सहना पडता है। ३. *अप्रचलित शब्दः(१) अंगुसेल (५७६) मेरु पर्वत (२) एक्किगा (८५२) मूत्र (३) कम्मणिज्ज (८५०) रसोई घर Page #215 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ * (४) कलिंज (५) कुच्छर (६) चलणसोयं 174 ( ३५७ ) वांस ( ३१५ ) कमल ( १७० ) पगचंपी (७) चुल्लनप्पो (६१८) चाचा (८) धरणिगोचर ( २०६ ) स्थलचर मनुष्य (९) पहरअ ( ३७४ ) पहरेदार (१०) भइह ( ७२० ) माजी, पदभ्रष्ट (११) वृत्ताणत्तय ( ३१५ ) नौकरी विविध प्रतियों परसे पं. नगीनदास के. शाह के द्वारा तैयार किये गये सोमप्रभाचार्यकृत 'सुमतिनाथचरित्र' का समीक्षित पाठ एवं भाषान्तर आदि की प्रेस - नकल का प्रस्तुत लेख में उपयोग किया गया है जिसके लिए मैं उनका आभारी हूँ । Page #216 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ २५. 'संधि' काव्य - उद्भव और विकास डॉ. र. म. शाह, अहमदाबाद आचार्य हेमचन्द्रसूरि के साथ अपभ्रंश युग का समापन और नव्य भारतीय भाषाओं का उदय दृष्टिगोचर होता है । इस संधिकाल में रचा गया साहित्य आज तक पाटन, खंभात, जेसलमेर, अहमदाबाद आदि के जैन ज्ञानभंडारों में सुरक्षित कई हजारों ताडपत्रीय एवं कागजी हस्तप्रतियों में उपलब्ध होता है। इस साहित्यमें संस्कृत और प्राकृत ग्रंथो के साथ अनेक अपभ्रंश और उत्तरकालीन अपभ्रंश अथवा आद्य गूर्जर भाषाबद्ध कई लघु रचनाएँ जैसे कि रास, फागु, चर्चरी, चौपई आदि भी प्राप्त होती हैं। इन उत्तरकालीन अपभ्रंश रचनाओं में 'संधि' नामक बीस-पचीस लघु काव्यों की अनेक हस्तप्रतियाँ हमारा ध्यान आकर्षित करती है । इन संधियों का अध्ययन आज तक नहिवत् हुआ है । इसका सेक्षित परिचय कराना इस वक्तव्य का उद्देश्य है। जिस तरह संस्कृत महाकाव्य सर्गों में और प्राकृत महाकाव्य आश्वासों में विभक्त होता है, इसी तरह अपभ्रंश महाकाव्य संधियों में विभक्त होता है । अपभ्रंश का उपलब्ध साहित्य देखने से इस बात का शीघ्र ही पता लगता है कि अधिकतर महाकाव्य 'संधिबंध' महाकाव्य हैं। दो-चार से लेकर सौ से भी अधिक संधियों में विभक्त अपभ्रंश चरितकाव्य, कथाकाव्य और पौराणिक महाकाव्य हमें मिलते हैं। इनकी हरेक संधि अनेक कडवकों में विभक्त होती है । 'संधिबंध' काव्यों के प्रारंभ में यह कडवक आठ पंक्तियों का होता था और संधि के प्रारंभ का तथा प्रत्येक कडवक के अंत का पद्य 'ध्रुवा' या 'घत्ता' नाम से प्रसिद्ध था। उपलब्ध काव्यों में हम देखते हैं कि पांच से लेकर पचीस-तीस कडवकों की एक संधि प्रायः होती है। उपरि-निर्दिष्ट 'संधि' या 'संधि-काव्य' का बाह्य रूप इस संधिबंध महाकाव्य की एक संधि जैसा ही होता है । इस संधि काव्य में आद्य गाथा और कडवकान्त गाथा का वृत्त कडवक केवृत्त से भिन्न होता है। कडवकों की संख्या दो से लेकर पन्द्रह तक होती है और प्रत्येक कडवक में आठ से लेकर बारह तक पंक्तियां होती हैं । कडवक का वृत्त अधिकतर 'पद्धडिया' होता है, किन्तु बीच-बीच में 'मदनावतार' भी मिलता है । घत्ता का वृत्त प्रायः 'षट्पदी-छगुणिया' है । इस तरह ‘संधिबंध' की एक ही संधि में संधिकाव्य संपूर्णतः समा जाता है । इन संधिकाव्यों में विषय की दृष्टि से धार्मिक अथवा पौराणिक महापुरुष के जीवन का कोई उदात्त प्रसंग, आगमादिक की कोई लघु धर्मकथा अथवा प्रासंगिक उपदेशवचन होता है । ___ ग्यारहवीं शताब्दी में प्राकृत भाषा के महाकाव्यों और चंपूकाव्यों में अपभ्रंश के अनेक पद्यखंड मिलते हैं, और नेमिचन्द्रसूरि-रचित आख्यानकमणिकोशवृत्ति (ई. स. ११०० ) में १. 'पद्य प्रायः संस्कृत-प्राकृतापभ्रंश-ग्राम्यभाषा-निबद्ध-भिन्नान्त्य-वृत्त-सर्गाऽऽश्वास-संध्यवस्कंध-बंध ___ सत्संधि-शब्दार्थ-वैचित्र्योपेतं महाकाव्यम् ॥' (-हेमचन्द्राचार्य, काव्यानुशासन ८.६) २. संध्यादौ कडवकान्ते च ध्रुवं स्यादिति ध्रुवा ध्रुवकं घत्ता वा ।। कडवक-समूहात्मकः सन्धिस्त स्यादौ । चतुर्भिः पद्धडिकादैश्छन्दोभिः कडवकम् । तस्यान्ते ध्रुवं निश्चितं स्यादिति ध्रुवा, ध्रुवकं, घत्ता चेति संज्ञान्तरम् ॥' (हेमचन्द्राचार्य छंदोऽनुशासन - ६.१ ) ३. इन छंदों के स्वरूप आदि के लिए देखिए-छन्दोऽनुशासनम्-३.७३, ४.८३, ७.१७ एवं स्वयम्भूच्छन्दस्-६.१२९, ८.११ Page #217 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 176 सोमप्रभाख्यान और चारुदत्ताख्यानक नामक दो आरपान तथा देवचन्द्रसूरि रचित मूलशुद्धिप्रकरणवृत्ति ( ई. स. १०८९ अनु ) में सुल साख्यान नामक एक आख्यान एक एक संधिमें रचे गये संधि-काव्य हो हैं । संधिकाव्य का उद्भव इस तरह ११वों शताब्दी में ही हो चुका था । परन्तु बाद की रचनाओं पर तत्कालीन स्थानीय भाषाका प्रभाव बढता गया और हमने संधिकाव्यों की जो सूचि यहां पर दो हैं उन सबकी भाषा तत्कालीन लोकभाषा के प्रभाव से रंगी हुई अपभ्रंश भाषा है। हम उनमें प्राचीन गजर भाषाकी आद्य भूमिका की छाया देख सकते हैं । कतिपय प्रकाशित संधि काव्यों से एव विविध ज्ञानभंडारों के अद्यावधि प्रकाशित सूचिपत्रों की सहायता से उपलब्ध संधिकाव्यों की सूचि यहाँ पर प्रस्तुत की गई है - कर्ता रचना समय ई. स. ११८२ रत्नप्रभसूरि जिनप्रभसुरि ई. स. १२५० अनु० संधि १. ऋषभ-पारणक संधि २. वीर-पारणक ३. गजसुकुमाल ४. शालिभद्र ५. अवंतिसुकुमाल ,, ६. मदनरेखा ७. अनाथी मुनि ४. जीवानुशास्ति , ९. नर्मदासुदरी , १०. चतुरंग भावना " ११. आनंद श्रावक ,, १२. अंतरंग १३. केशो-गौतम १४. भावना १५. शील १६. उपधान १७. हेमतिलकसूरि ,. १८. तप १९. अनाथी महर्षि , २०. उपदेश विनयचन्द्र रत्नप्रभ गणि रत्नशेखरसूरि-शिष्य (१) जयदेव जयशेवरसूरि-शिष्य (3) ई. स. १३०० ई. स. १३२५ ई. स. १४०० पूर्व ई. स. १४००-१४५० अज्ञात विशालराजसूरि-शिष्य अज्ञात हेमसार ई. स. १५०० पूर्व १. देखिए 'शोध अने स्वाध्याय': डॉ. हरिवल्लभ भायाणी, १९६५, पृ० ३२-३३. Page #218 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 177 इनमें से कतिपय कृतियाँ प्रकाशित हुई हैं, परंतु अधिकतर अभी सभी कृतियों का अंतरंग परीक्षण करके यहाँ पर निष्कर्षरूप में निम्न ' कर्ता एवं रचना समय :- इन संधिकाव्यों के रचयिता सभी जैन हैं, इतना ही नहीं अपितु वे जैन मुनि एवं आचार्य हैं । इस से सिद्ध होता है कि जैनेतर कवियों ने शायद संधि-काव्य प्रकार को अपनाया ही नहीं अथवा तो उनकी रचनाएँ उपलब्ध नहीं हैं । उपरोक्त बीस रचनाओं में से भी प्रथम दस तो दो ही कवियों की रचनाएँ हैं । प्रथम पाँच के रचयिता है प्रसिद्ध जैनाचार्य रत्नप्रभसूरि, जिन्होंने धर्मदासगण - रचित उपदेशमाला की वृत्ति रची थी । 'दोघट्टी' वृत्ति के नाम से प्रसिद्ध उनकी इसी वृत्ति के अन्तर्गत ही ये पाँचों काव्य रचे गये मिलते हैं । इस वृत्ति की रचना ई. स. ११८२ में हुई थी । रत्नप्रभसूर संस्कृत, प्राकृत एवं अपभ्रंश तीनों भाषाओं की साहित्यरचना में सिद्धहस्त थे । ' दोघट्टी वृत्ति में उपरोक्त संधियों के उपरांत अनेक अपभ्रंश पद्यखंड आते हैं । अप्रकाशित हैं। इन सामग्री दी गई है । दूसरे पाँच संधिकाव्य जिनप्रभसूरि नामक आचार्य के रचे हुए हैं । वे आगमगच्छ के आचार्य थे और उनकी उत्तरकालीन अपभ्रंश या आद्य गुजराती की अनेक रचनाएँ पाटन के भंडारों में प्राप्त होती हैं। वे ई. स. की १३ वीं शताब्दी के प्रारंभ में विद्यमान थे 1 ग्यारहवीं 'आनंद श्रावक' : संधि के रचयिता विनयचन्द्र सूरि थे । उनकी अन्य दो प्राचीन गुजराती रचनाएँ प्रकासिद्धू हो चुकी हैं - १. नेमिनाथ चतुष्पदिका और २. उवएसमालाकहाणय-छप्पय । तदुपरांत उनकी मुनिसुव्रतस्वामि-चरित, कल्पनिरुक्त (र. १३३५) एवं दिपालिकाकल्प (सं. १३४५) नामक कृतियाँ प्राप्त हैं। संधि १२, १४ और २० के कर्त्ताओं के नाममात्र प्राप्त हैं । संधि १३, १५ - १६ और १८ में कर्ताओं के गुरुओं के नाम ही उल्लिखित हैं । ये तीनों नाम तपागच्छ के प्रसिद्ध आचार्यों के नाम हैं। बाकी की संधि १७ और १९ के कर्ता अज्ञात हैं । इन सब संधियों ( १२ से २० तक) के रचना समय का अनुमान उस संधि की हस्तप्रति के लेखन समय एवं भाषा आदि के लक्षणों से किया गया है । विषय वस्तु : - रत्नप्रभसूरि द्वारा रचित प्रथम दो संधियाँ क्रमशः प्रथम और अंतिम तीर्थंकरके जीवन की महत्त्वपूर्ण तपश्चर्या, तत्पश्चात् पारणा और पारणा कराने वाली भव्य आत्माओं के जीवन का वर्णन करती हैं । अन्य तीन संधियाँ क्रमशः गजसुकुमाल, शालिभद्र और अवंतिसुकुमाल नामक उच्चकुलोत्पन्न युवकों का महावीर के प्रति आकर्षण, दीक्षा, तपश्वर्या और केवल - प्राप्ति एवं निर्वाण के प्रसंगों को प्रस्तुत करती हैं । १. रत्नप्रभसूर के परिचय के लिए देखें -रत्नाकरावतारिका, संपा. पं. दलसुखभाई मालवणिया भा. ३ प्रस्तावना पृ. २१ २. देखें पत्तनस्थ प्राच्य जैन भाण्डागारीय ग्रन्थ सूची, संपा. सी.डी दलाल, गा. ओ. सीरीश, बरोडा, १९२९ ३. प्राचीन गुर्जर काव्य संग्रह, संपा. चीमनलाल दलाल, गा. ओ. सीरीझ, वडोदरा, १९२०. ४. आनंद श्रावक संधि संपा. रमणिकविजयजी, महावीर जैन विद्यालय सुवर्ण महोत्सव ग्रंथ - १, मुंबई १९६८. - Page #219 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 178 जिनप्रभसूरि द्वारा रचित मदनरेखा संधि और नर्मदासुन्दरी-संधि में प्रसिद्ध सोलह जैन महासतियों में से दो के जीवनचरित्र हैं। अनाथि-संधि में उत्तराध्ययन सूत्र के बीसवें महानिर्ग्रन्थीय अध्ययन की कथा दी गई है । जीवानुशास्ति और चतुरङ्ग-भावना संधि उपदेशात्मक हैं। विनयचन्द्र द्वारा रचित 'आनंद श्रावक संधि' भगवान महावीर के उपासक आनन्द नामक गृहपति की कथा का निर्वहन करती है । उनकी कथा सातवें अंग ग्रन्थ 'उवासगदसाओ' के प्रथम अध्ययन में आती है । रत्नप्रभगणि-विरचित 'अंतरङ्गसंधि' एक रूपकात्मक काव्य है, जिसमें अंतरङ्ग शत्रु मोह रूपी राजा को पराजित करके जिनेन्द्र ने भव्यजीवों को कैसे बचाया उसका नाध्यात्मक चित्रण किया गया है। १३वी संधि में भगवान पार्श्वनाथ के प्रमुख गणधर केशी और भगवान महावीर के पट्टशिष्य गणधर गौतम का संवाद मिलता है । उत्तराध्ययन के २३वें अध्ययन में प्राप्त इस कथा को यहाँ पर मनोहर काव्य-स्वरूप मिला है । १४वीं भावना-संधि जैन-धर्म-प्रसिद्ध १२ भावनाओं का वर्णनात्मक काव्य है । जयशेखरसृरि-शिष्य द्वारा रचित दो संधियों (१५-१६) में क्रम से शील-चारित्र्य की महत्ता और उपधान नामक एक जैन तप का माहात्म्य दर्शाया गया है । १७वीं हेमतिलकसरि संधि में १४वीं शताब्दी के वडगच्छ के पट्टधर हेमतिलकसूरि की संक्षिप्त जीवनगाथा मिलती है । १८वीं तप संधि में जैन धर्म में तप का क्या माहात्म्य है यह दिखाया गया है। १९वीं संधि में ७वीं संधि के नायक अनाथि मुनि की सुन्दर काव्यात्मक कथा मिलती है। २०वीं संधि में नाम के अनुसार साधारण उपदेश दिया गया है । इस तरह सभी संधि-काव्य जैन शास्त्रों एवं पुराणों में वर्णित पात्रों एवं प्रसंगों को लेकर रचे गये हैं और उनका हेतु है धर्मोपदेश । इन काव्यों में उपलब्ध अनेक संदर्भ पश्चिम भारत-खास करके गुजरात-राजस्थान के मध्यकालीन इतिहास और संस्कृति के अभ्यास में महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान दे सकते हैं। इन कान्यों का विशुद्ध रूप में प्रकाशन अपभ्रंश और प्राच्य-अर्वाचीन गुर्जर भाषा के अध्ययन के लिए अत्यन्त आवश्यक है। nal Use Only Page #220 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Errata शुद्धि पत्रक Page Incorrect Correct No. Line No. From Top Bottom 9 also regrettable through out x 13 19 °लय (xiii) (xix) (xx) (xxii) (xxvii) (xxvii) . x 15 at the atmos transmigratiou Historio Joshi but were wordly reptition other others as complete sence principies movabie memberanous aequivoca nionth putrajiva ete. fold fales in Sālivāhana robbors godesses Rahamāna Sudāyavatsa designed childeren atlachment precisc effiminate Historio sadful to note throughout 'लय, बालाघाट in the atoms transinigration Historico Doshi but who were worldly reptilian each other others, as, compete sense principles movable membranous acquivoca months putrajīva etc, field tales Śālivāhana robbers goddesses Rahamāna Sudayavatsa is designed children attachment precise effeminate Historico Page #221 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 180 contains Cāvadā precisely to contain Chāvdā preciseiy so lord 64-61 form, are which dhyāna is antarmuhür a -asyestatvat' dhyāna Dhyanasafva IX.38 Lord 64-65 form, is dhyāna, which antarmuhurta -atvestatvat' dhyānas Dhyānastava IX. 36 ,1961. 1968 साहित्यिक 1965 साहित्यक होत रह होगी होती ही रही होंगी बुह, -श्रीधर णारायणु (सप्पिणी ओर वोदउनगर -श्रीहर णारायणु (पत्नी : रुप्पिणी) और वोदाउनगर असुहरकवि की असुर ये कवि हुई रसों रसो आभूसन grammer no loglcal --papadhama characrerize heardsman it from nirruti enumerate uttararatra former is nibbacana आभूषण grammar not logical --papadhamma characterize herdsman from nirutti enumerates uttaratra former nibbacanas Page #222 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 6569 67 70 71 72 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 17 7 11 X 11 6 X X 17 20 X 14 X 19 X 1 X 17 12 X X 99 6 8 3 X 3 X 7 12 3 10 4 10 3 33 16 17 × × × X X X 7 X X 13 3 X X 6 X 3 X 4 X ^ 15 X X 1323 22 X X X 16 X 8 X X X X X X X × × × X X X we diffe puramdada occurances प्राभृत उज्जड ते अपम्र श की पुनरावर्त Samskirt ध्वनि पो० वांधी बोधयेत् गीतिओं मागधी प्रानीनतम ओर मे भागधो शारसेनी मैं 181 'क्ता’ जो और डदुम्वल ऋकू उपलब्ध दंष्ट्रा ह पुन निर्माण शताब्दी संस्कृ टष्टि अपभ्रंश और we find diffe purimdada Occurrences प्रभृति उजड्डु वे अपभ्रंश कि पुनरावर्तन Samskrit ध्वनि पी. बांधी बोधयेत् गीतियों मागधी प्राचीनतम और में मागधी शौरसेनी में 'फ' / जाँ ओर उदुम्बल उपलब्ध दंष्ट्रा हो पुनर्निर्माण शताब्दी संस्कृत दृष्टि अपभ्रंश ओर "" Page #223 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 182 काव्याभाषा अभ्र पश और घोतक काव्यभाषा अपभ्रंश ओर द्योतक *** : WIB (> pratta) (prat (< prätta) > pra +) W* *** > devă + a > -y-ā / am + bhrūv piprese Bohtlingle govindū - enjoyed V kas - par yanka raj(y) I deva + ai > -y + ai (7. 3. 113.) am > bhruv piprese Boehtlingk govindu - en joined kasaparyanka raj(y).29 * * * *-wDA CON ZX * - hasama Page #224 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 183 104 113 childrens establishment whith first 114 br children the establishment which the first by work rich and Literature 978 extent works authors' 113 the 116 117 woek rich Litrature 778 etenxt woks author's ihe sudKuvmepu reference -refused -dachhandopecullar influence from on to Kaļakodu for : Harī eontinues be situations, throws Abhisātikās an-archer aft:tarct:+ points was sludy 425 119 125 126 subKuvempu references -dareferred --da chandopeculiar the influence form one to Kaļakondu read : Hari (everywhere) continues be an situations.' throw Abhisărikās an archer बन्दिबन्दी points I was study 426 it See Vajjālagga होहिइ घनान्धकारे विएसाओ आयन्ति 127 128 130 131 132 133 134 135 138 Sce Vajlālagga 142 143 2 4 x X धनान्धकारे विएसाआ एन्ति Page #225 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 184 5 X 143 147 154 159 160 161 163 -prakIrņakeşu pravācaryā/sā -bhidesu ९६८ Apabhrarna nsve alligned Scholaars earings Include . They indifferance wealth use of hidden in the hitheto dates the here genuinte indepdent hers universties chlleoes depatments fearsible connetion Ptākrit Gujarāti intitutes कथापकृतियों -prakīrṇakeşu Pravāsacaryā : sā -bhede su S&C (ITAT 2.84) Apabhramsa have aligned Scholars bearings Include , they indifference wealth, use of, hidden and lies in the hitherto data these there genuine independent here universities colleges departments feasible connection Prākrit Gujarati institutes कथाप्रकृतियों एक नहींवत् के वृत्त 165 166 167 168 171 175 नहिवत् केवृ त्त 176 एव एवं Page #226 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ For Private & Personal use only