Book Title: Purusharthsiddhyupay English
Author(s): Amrutchandracharya, Ajit Prasad
Publisher: ZZZ Unknown
Catalog link:

Page #1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ > For Private & Persona Page #2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ J. L. Jaini Memorial Series No. VI. THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS VOLUME IV PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA (JAINA-PRAVACHANA-RAHASYA-KOSHA) BY SHRIMAT AMRITA CHANDRA SURI EDITED WITH AN INTRODUCTION, TRANSLATION, AND ORIGINAL COMMENTARIES IN ENGLISH BY AJIT PRASADA, M.A.. LL.B.. Advocato High Court, E.c-Judge Bikaner High Court, Editor Jaina Gazette, Translator of Samayika Patha, etc., pramattayogAt prANavyaparopaNaM hiNsaa| PUBLISHED BY ABHINANDAN PRASADA JINDAL. B.A. THE CENTRAL JAINA PUBLISHING HOUSE. AJITASHRAM, LUCKNOW, U. P. (INDIA). 1933. Page #3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LUCKNOW: PRINTED BY K. D. SETH, AT THE N. K. PRESS. 1933. Page #4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ . Page #6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ TO MOTHER AND BABY I PRESENT This introduction to, translation of, and commentaries on PURUSHARTHA SIDDHYUPAYA A TREATISE OF HIGH AUTHORITY ON AHIMSA THE ROOT-PRINCIPLE OF JAINISM. ahiMsA paramo dhrmH| Page #7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Table of Contents. Page. Introduction ... 1- 35 23 Synopsis ...36-49 CHAPTER I. Exposition of Purushartha Siddhupaya , II. Right Belief ... ... 16 III. Right Knowledge ... 28 IV. Right Conduct ... Renunciation ... Alphabetical Index of Sanskrit Slokas General Index ... 25 25 Errata Page #9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #10 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #11 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ AJIT PRASADA (IN 1909) Page #12 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ By the Publisher. THE original text of Purushartha Siddhyupaya with its translation and commentaries, by the learned Editor, Mr. Ajit Prasada, appeared in the pages of the Jaina Gazette in the years 1913-1917. Kumar Devendra Prasada Jaina of Arrah, prepared a press copy, with great industry, and 9 forins of the book had been printed by the Indian Press of Allahabad, when Kumar Sahib died suddenly in March 1921. These forms were unfortunately damaged by white-ants. Its fresh publication was delayed from year to year, through one reason or another. From 1923 to 1929, Mr. Ajit Prasada was engaged in conducting and supervising a series of cases in the High Court at Patna, and at Calcutta, Bombay, Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Patna and elsewhere, in respect of Jaina places of pilgrimage at Sammed Shikhar, Rajgir and Pawapuri. In 1929 and 1930 he had little time to spare from the responsible duties of his office as High Court Judge at Bikaner. From 1930 he has been at Lahore conducting a large number of complicated First Appeals in the High Court, there, the conduct of which he took over to save Seth Prem Sagar, the son of his friend Dr. Sir Moti Sagar, from the importunate demands of clients for return of fees already paid. The publication has thus been delayed till now. I trust the expectant and indulgent reader will pardon the delay. I have much pleasure in mentioning the names of my brothers, Vira Nandan Jindal and Kailash Bhushan Jindal, the former having assisted me in the preparation of the General Index, and the latter in arranging an alphabetical Index of the Sanskrit Slokas, AJITASHRAM, LUCKNOW :) ABHINANDAN PRASADA JINDAL, B. A.. The 7th May, 1933. Publisher. Page #13 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #14 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION. The Doctrine of Ahimsa has been universally accepted, as a basic principle of all religions. Gautam Buddha, has been called the Lord of Compassion. The Allah of the Muslims is called Al-Rahman and Al. Raheem the Benificent, and the Merciful. Dayalu, Kripalu, are the names given to God by the Hindus. " Thou shalt not kill" is one of the ten commandments in the Holy Bible. Sage Tulsi Das, the immortal author of the Ramayana says : dayA dharma kA mUla hai, pApa mala abhimAna / tulasI dayA na chA~r3iye, jaba laga ghaTa meM prAna // " Compassion is the root of religion, pride the root of sin. Do not give up compassion, O Tulsi, as long as breath is within you." The great Rishi Veda Vyas exclaims : aSTAdazapurANAnAM vyAsasya vacanadvayam / paropakAraM hi puNyAya pApAya parapIDanam // " All the 18 Puranas have been condensed by Vyas in two phrases. The good of others leads to religious merit, causing pain to others is sin." Mahatma Gandhi in " Young India " dated the 6th August 1931, says that " in trying to enforce in one's life the central teaching of the Geeta, one is bound to follow Truth and Ahimsa. Perfect renunciation is impossible without perfect observance of Ahimsa in every shape and form." Through the successful efforts of Mahatma Gandhi in making non-violence in word, thought, and deed, the basis of all struggle for political liberty, freedom, and self-government the word Ahinsa has acquired a world-wide recognition. An Ahimsa League has been established in London with branches elsewhere. A world conference is being convened to devise means to stop war; which is against the basic principles of all religions. A disarmament conference is being held by all the nations. The great apostle of Ahimsa has been respect Page #15 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 2 ) fully invited and heartily welcomed by many leading Christian educational, and political bodies in England. He was unable to accept an invitation from America, but he visited the continent, carrying the message of Ahimsa far and wide. This apostle of Ahimsa is the first recipient of the Bronze Medal of the Community Church of New York for the most outstanding religious service in the world in the year 1931. :: In queer contrast to all this, however we find that every religion, except Jainism, has permitted, approved of, and encouraged Himsa, the antithesis of Ahimsa, in various forms, and many have expressly sanctioned it and given it the name of Sacrifice, from the Latin Sacrificium to sanctify, to make sacred, and called it Yajaa TT froin the Sanskrit root 7 to worship, consecrate, give, make an oblation, sacrifice. Animal Sacrifice. The fundamental reason assigned for animal sacrifices by the Hebrews was that no one should appear before Jehova empty-handed,(') just as it would be indecent to approach a king or a great man without some present, however trifling. Homer teaches that gods and kings alike a re persuaded by gifts. Not only in Canaan, but among the Greeks, there is evidence that cereal oblations had a great place in early ritual, though afterwards they became second in importance to ani. mal sacrifices, which yielded a more luxurious sacrificial banquet. With some people the idea of sacrifice is that the God has need of the worshipper and his gifts, just as the worshipper has need of the God and his help; and thus with a matterof-fact business-like people like the Romans, religion became very much a sort of bargain struck with the gods. In general however, we find an extraordinary persistence of the notion that sacrifices do in some way afford a physical satisfaction to the deity. The notion that the more ethereal elements of the sacrifice rise to heaven, the seat of the gods, in the savoury smoke that ascends from the sacrificial flame, was of later development. Among the Semites, sacrifices were not originally (1). Exodus xxiii-16. Page #16 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ burned. The God was not seated aloft, but was present at the place of sacrifice inhabiting a sacred stone. A refinement of the original usage was that the food, spread on the tables of the Gods, is eaten by his ministers, the priests. to whom he is supposed to make over the enjoyment of the banquet. In olden times the Gods themselves were held to partake of these gifts of food, just as the venerable dead were fed by meat and drink, placed or poured out upon their tombs. In the religions of savages, both gods and the dead have very material needs among which the need of nourishment has the first place. (1) Among Greeks of the seventh century B. C., sacrifices to water-gods, were simply flung into the river, or sea; and sacrifices to underground gods were buried, indicating the idea that the Gods were too ethereal to enjoy a sacrifice through any other sense than that of smell...... ... Primarily, a sacrifice is a meal offered to the deity, but ordinarily the sacrifice is a feast of which the Gods and the worshippers partake to. gether. The tendency was to give to all feasts, nay to all meals, a sacrificial character by inviting the Gods to partake of them. The Arabian invocation of the name of Allah over every beast killed for food is a relic of sacrificial formula. Among old Aryans, the sacrificial feast has had as its chief feature the Soma-ras, Wine, which "cheereth Gods and men (2) The sacrificial meal was common to all the nature religions of the civilized races of antiquity. With the breakdown of this type of religion, the sacrificial ritual went under corresponding modification, Human sacrifices are associated with cannibalism, which means eating the flesh of men of alien nation or of hostile kin.(8) The idea that God is the Lord of Creation, and hence the best, the most innocent, and the purest of his creatures should be offered to Him, accounts for the sacrifice of a son, of infants, of young boys, of human beings (ATA), of cows (TIA), of horses ( aAY ), of buffaloes, goats, . ( E N ), sheep, cocks, etc. (1) Herodotus V-92. (2) Judges IX-13. (3) Encyclopaedia Brittannica. Page #17 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Even in the present refined and civilized times, we find some rulers of Indian States and principalities celebrating the brightest day in the annals of Hindu tradition, the Vijaya Dashmi, the day of the conquest of Rama over Ravana, by a wholesale massacre of buffaloes and goats in the name of religion, and a feast on the flesh thus obtained is believed to be an act of religious piety, The Muslim festival of Baquar-Id or Id-ul-Zuha commemorates the sacrifice of his son by Abraham; and in India where the cow is held sacred as a mother by the Hindus, the cruel cow-slaughter has during the last 45 years or so, led to serious riots, resulting in considerable loss of human life, and injury to person and property. Before many an altar of Hindu goddesses, thousands of animals and fowls are slaughtered by the priests, and their flesh distributed to the congregation as a sacrament. Such slaughter has hardened the hearts of the Hindus also, and they do not hesitate to meet their Muslim brothers in mortal combat, on religious pretexts. Most heinous Himsis thus committed in the name of religion, and God, and goddesses. The notion that the victim of a religious sacrifice is a for: tunate being who suffers no pain, and attains bliss everlasting in the heavens on high, is obviously ill-founded. The moans and sufferings, the writhings and wrigglings of the victim are tangible, and the loud noises created by the beating of drums and cymbals, and the chanting of hymns and psalms only serve to deaden sensibility of the insufferable sight. The sacrificial post, the q, is an outstanding feature of the Ashrams of Hindu sages. Why should there be need of a post to tie the victim to, if the sacrificial slaughter was not forcible killing of one who was unwilling to die. Writing about the Durga Pooja sacrifices, Mr. Bipin Chandra Pal says: "Goats only were sacrificed in our house, as a rule. I had then no sense of the cruelty of the thing. No tender feel. ings for the poor dumb animal that, when forced down into Page #18 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 5 ) the artificial halter, used to look up to his tormentors with such pitiful gaze, with tears trickling down from the corners of its eyes, touched me then. "(1) Although human sacrifices before grim goddesses, by the Thugs, and the self-immolation of deluded devotees at the sharp revolving wheel at Kashi, and beneath the chariot of Jagannath at Puri, and of widows on the funeral pyre of their husbands, and the offering of human babies and tongues before goddesses are events of old history, we do occasionally hear of human sacrifices made in moments of religious frenzy. And animal sacrifices are daily offered in millions. Many a Hindu and many a Muslim sanctify all meat, obtained by killing, by reciting sacred words. Ahimsa League in London. 66 It is a happy sign of the times that a world League of Ahimsa has been established at London by the Revd. E. F. Udny, M. A., as President, Mrs. M. F. St. John James, as Vice-President and Honorary Secretary, and Dr. W. Leslie Pearse, L. D. S., R. C. S., D. D. S., as Chairman, and Mr. Percy Hill as Honorary Treasurer at Ahimsa House, 137 Elgin Crescent, London W. 11. Their Motto is Kill not for food, ornament or sport." The founders expect from a reformed diet the growth of a human and glorious civilization, where "they shall not hurt nor destroy. ......for the earth shall be full of knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea.(2) The President says that "never can man progress spiritually until he is willing to abandon cruelty. We cannot connect the word righteousness with the murder of the weak, and help. less. For lack of teaching of "Not-Hurting", the Christian religion has been and is sadly impoverished. There is reason to think that Christ himself expressly insisted on abstinence from flesh. Those who accept the idea of re-incarnation would not find it difficult to believe that existence did not begin with the first birth in human form, but that life throughout all kingdoms was for ever one and divine in essence. A later (1) "Memories of my Life and Times" by Bipin Chandra Pal, 1932, Page 125. (2) Isaiah xi-9. Page #19 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 6 ) generation would look back with horror and disgust at a practice which was now so general as hardly to excite comment or question. The benevolent intentions of many societies, seeking to relieve suffering of all kinds, were sadly hampered by the prevailing hardness of heart towards animals which hardened us even to our fellow men. It is no doubt an increditably hard task to place before an indifferent, and pre-occupied world the message that all life is one, human, sub-human, and super-human, one in essence and destiny, moving slowly but steadily, however unconsciously, towards a glorious destiny. There is one great ladder for all living beings, whether they walk the earth on two legs or on four, whether they thread the waters with fins or stretch their wings to the air. The world is not deliberately cruel. It is but custom and thoughtlessness that support a cruel practice(1). The Flesh Food. While the principle of Ahimsa is gaining ground in the West, and vegetarianism is flourishing, we find that the evil habit of taking animal food is on the increase, spreading far and fast in India. There is at present a craze for moving in high society, and eating and drinking form the chief attractions of the upper social circles. The days of Epicurus seem to have returned. It looks as if we live to eat, and not that we eat to live. Wherever one meets a friend, some dish or drink is as a rule offered, insisted upon, and a refusal is considered rude. And further the eatables must be of a nonvegetarian character, for fashion so dictates. No body ever thinks, reasons out, considers, or decides, what he should eat or drink, how many times, and at what hours in the day or at night. Precious hours of life are frittered away in eating, drinking, smoking, talking and thus keeping the mouth ever engaged. The trade of the butcher, the confectioner, the keeper of hotels, restaurants, cafes and refreshment-rooms is flourishing. Millions of living beings are daily killed to provide food and pleasure for the upper classes. The consequence (1) Revd. E. F. Udny, in the Ahimsa Journal. Page #20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ is distress, discontent, disease, death. It is idle to argue that meat diet is necessary for human strength. Medical opinion is clearly and definitely against it. Chemical analysis has proved to demonstration that there is more vitality in vegetarian than in animal food. It is said by some people that the abolition by Statute of the taking of animal life, would be detrimental to the progress of civilised society. India was at a high pitch of power and glory when cow-slaughter was prohibited by Akbar, the Great Moghul Monarch of India. In the vast territories of Bikaner State, covering an area of about 25,000 square miles, and in some other Indian States, the killing of a bull, cow or calf is a very serious offence punishable with imprisonment which may extend to 7 years, and the sale or even the import of beef, and the killing of pigeons and peacocks are criminal offences, In the face of these facts it does not stand to reason that human progress would suffer if meat, fish, and fowl were abolished by statute as food, at least in countries where nonflesh diet is available, Must Life be Killed? A Scientist writes : Little animals feast on microscopically small organisms. As is usual, where life is carried on in millions, the coral polyps go to fill the larder of fishes that thrive in their midst, the polyps being eaten when they thrust out their bodies with waving tentacles to gather in their own food supplies. Swallows, swifts, small bats, and dragon-flies prey on insects. The trout is also responsible for keeping down insect life, his particular fancy being mayflies. As a result of a test made over four hours, it was found that a trout 2 lbs, in weight ate 960 mayflies. And that was only one trout ! Tbe lions and tigers and other members of the cat family enjoy their meal of raw flesh, as also do crocodiles, centipedes, dogs, weasels, 'sea-lions, walruses, seals, and birds of prey like the golden eagle. Although it is disturbing to hear of the slaughter and Page #21 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 8 ) spilling of blood that goes on all day and every day in Nature's kingdom, so that appetites may be satisfied, still it must be remembered that under the present order of things, the flesh-eaters ere playing a big and useful part in keeping down numbers and in balancing the scales of prolific life. The argument that there are countries like the polar regions where no other food except flesh is available, is as irrelevant as the argument that life lives upon life, that wolves and tigers, cats and dogs, eagles and crows, fish and fowl, snakes and lizards etc., are all purely carnivorous; and hence Himsa is inevitable in the world. It may be inevitable in some circumstances; but those circumstances do not apply to us. We must look to our immediate surroundings. Irrelevant speculation, supposititious arguments, and discussions as to what happens elsewhere, what happened in the past, and as to what may possibly happen in the future, lead not only to a sheer waste of time and energy, are not only an abuse of intellect, but are positively injurious and harmful. Again, in a similar strain exclaims a carping critic, that the present cities have been turned into safe and secure, sanitary and sacred habitations as a consequence of the killing of wild and ferocious beasts, the destruction of death-dealing poisonous reptiles and the clearing a way of thick forests and vegetable undergrowth, which involved gross Himsa on an extensive scale; and that if man would cease io kill the ferocious beasts, the venomous reptiles, and the vermin which destroy human life, domesticated animals, agriculture, and horticulture, life would become intolerable and impossible. Such speculations are advanced, not only by men of science, but by men of religion, as well. They may or may not be excusable for the purpose of advancing honest scientific research, but they are quite out of place when indulged in by persons discussing religious principles. The essential truths, the universal principles, the basic axioms, do not admit of changing circumstances. They are eternal, everlasting, true in all circumstances, at ail times, under all conditions. Himsa would not cease to be Himsa by force-of circumstances. Its Page #22 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ resulting reaction, its Karmic effect, as regards duration, kind, intensity and mass may vary with circumstances but its nature is unchanging. Even if it be excusable, or slightly harmful, in certain circumstances, it is never commendable. What would happen if every living being in the world turned a Jaina, and ceased to commit Himsa ? This is again an idle question. It leads to nothing. It helps us in no way. It is no justification for the commission of Himsa. Please do not bother about the world. The world will take care of itself. You would do well to take care of yourself. Do what you think best in the circumstances in which you are placed ; and do not worry about the others, how your action affects them. Do not cause injury to any living being by a voluntary act, or through thoughtlessness. When you have adopted the care and caution necessary under the circumstances, do not worry about the result of your action. But consider well, think carefully, act cautiously in right earnest, and do not delude yourself into a false belief that you are doing so. Do not shut your eyes to what is obvious and plain. Do your duty, but do it humanely, considerately, honestly, without the least malice, and without the slightest intention of causing injury to another. This is the gospel of Ahimsa. And remember that men who indulge in Himsa and justify their actions on the ostensible plea of doing good to humanity in general, are really and actually moved by selfish desire of obtaining money, power, influence, popularity, name, fame, applause, advertisement, or some other personal benefit. Hunting. To call the cruellest form of killing by the name of "Sport" is an abuse of the word, a gross lie, and a despicable deception. What is fun to the boys is death to the frogs. Angling is fun indulged in on sacred Sundays. It is rather a desecration of the Sabbath, when creatures of water are baited out of their element and die an agonising death on dry land. The bringing down of chirping birds from their perches in trees by wounding them with stones thrown from a catapult., or with shots from a gun is cowardly cruelty, and Page #23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 10 ) no sport. The hunting of fox, deer, rabbit, etc., is equally cruel and cowardly. Big-game shooting is occasionally defended on the ground that the killing of ferocious animals saves men and beasts from their ravages. The pretext is false in fact. It is rarely that one goes with the sole object for shooting a man eating, or a sheep-carrying wolf or a poisonous snake. Even when the ayowed object of the hunter is protection of society from the ferocious wild animal, the real motives which impel him to such action are not humanitarian, but the desire of reward, the expectation of being called a brave man, or the excitement of the hunt. A person may have a justification for causing the death of a wolf, or a tiger when he is compelled to do so in order to save the life of a man, or a beast. But a lion-hunt, or tiger-shooting, as such, is a sin, though it may not be a crime under man-made law. A hunting expedition is an expensive pastime indulged in by persons in high position, who are not only personally secure from all possible harm, but have all comforts and luxuries provided for them, and for their sport the poor beast is beaten out of his retreat, goaded into a temper, and is fired at from a safe distance and it is then that the killers find a pleasure in watching the death agonies of the unfortunate animal, and exhibit its stuffed skin as a trophy or memento of their bravery. Shooting of thousands of birds by parties of pleasureseekers, even during the Christmas week, and on a Sabbath, is also called sport ; and records are made and preserved of the thousands bagged by members of the party. This can hardly be differentiated from the sinful pleasure experienced by boys who stone to death a crawling serpent or a scorpion seeking for a hole to creep in, who enjoy the tearing up of a mouse by a cat, or who steal the eggs or young ones of a bird. If there be any pleasure experienced in such killing, it can only be likened to the morbid feeling of satisfaction which Nadir Shah is said to have enjoyed when hordes of persons used to be brought in his presence bound all over and beheaded one after another. When asked who he was that he Page #24 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 11 ) should enjoy such a general massacre of the innocents-for if he was a god, he should protect his creatures, if he was a god's messenger, or a founder of religion he should protect his followers, and if he was a king he should protect his subjects, he said he was "God's Wrath " which had visited the people. Killing for Trade in Bone & Leather. The shooting of elephants for the sake of their tusks has assumed so serious proportions, that it is predicted that the elephant will be extinct in Africa within 50 years. Ivory is so valuable that people who have nothing else to do, turn to the game of elephant shooting and amass a fortune in a short time. Carried by greed, a group of aviators dropped several bombs from the sky on a herd of elephants. A number of them were killed outright, and many lay wounded. But most of the ivory was blown to bits by bombs, and the greedy aviators got much disappointment as a result of the cruel killing. Elephant meat also commands a high price in the local markets. Plucking feathers of live birds and the skinning of living animals, for the sake of their feathers and skins, are facts which can not be denied. These are some of the worst forms of cruelty which can be imagined. Kill the Killer. hill the harmful before ,, qtl lmwzy qbl lydh The doctrine harm is caused " is very often relied upon as a justification for killing. If a serpent, a tiger, a scorpion, or a wolf, suddenly appears, the first impulse with those who believe in the doctrine of "Killing the injurer before he injures" or with the vast majority of people, who are swayed by vague fear, is to kill. Fear stupefies the intellect and drowns all thinking faculty, It is a false idea, a baseless notion, which has, like many others, become too common indeed, that such an animal or reptile is the enemy of man; and that it is its nature to attack. In truth it never intends harm by nature or instinct. The fang of the serpent, the claws of a tiger, the jaws of a wolf or the sting of a scorpion are its protective weapons, designed for self-protection when attacked. They Page #25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 12 ) are undoubtedly carnivorous, and kill smaller beings for food. Like man they have not the means of obtaining food without causing injury. This is their bad Karma, but it is not irre. mediable. Man-eating tigers and man-attacking serpents have been mentioned by naturalists and others; but they have acquired these habits as the result of man's aggression against them. They will go their own way and will not harm any person, if such person has no intention of, and takes no step towards, causing them injury. They have been known to pass peacefully by the side or even over the body of a saint absorbed in concentration. The physical reaction, ordinarily caused by the touch of a serpent, scorpion, mosquito, wasp, or bee makes it apprehend harm to itself and it strikes in self-defence. Such a physical reaction does not happen in the case of a saint. A snake would not bite, even if it crosses a man's body if man would lie motionless and not convey to the snake an idea that he would cause it barm. And if man has the courage to look on steadily at a snake, it would be speedily hypnotised and would instead of causing harm, obey the dictates of man. If man entertains no ill-will towards other beings, none else is likely to cause him any harm whatsoever. Shri Kuladananda Brahmachari in the book Sree Sree Sadgurusanga Part III, pages 125-126 writes as follows: Mr. Anderson, a European gentlemen, saw a sage in the forest of Jayadebpur, where he went out for a hunt. The elephant, on which Mr. Anderson was riding, got frightened seeing a tiger and threw him down. Mr. Anderson fired twice or thrice at the tiger, but missed his aim. He then began to run followed by the tiger. He saw a naked sage in a copse and ran to him. The sage asked him to sit and waving his hand forbade the tiger to advance. The tiger sat at a distance, wagged its tail and growled for some time and then went away. Mr. Anderson was astonished to see the wonderful phenomenon and asked the sage how he was able to pacify the tiger. The sage replied : " One who has no Himsa, is never injured by tigers or Page #26 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 13 ) snakes. Because you have a feeling of Himsa in your mind, you are attacked by wild animals." Mr. Anderson from that day became a vegetarian and gave up shooting. He was seen by many people in Dacca and Chittagong when this change had come over him. In the same book, Part I, pages 151-152 Brahmachari Kuldananda writes about one Nanga Baba who occupied a mud hill in Fyzabad. During the course of a target practice by soldiers a notice was served on him announcing the time when the practice will be held and he was told that no one would be responsible for his death if he did not go elsewhere. The practice began and bullets whistled past his body on all sides, but he merely lifted his hand in front of his face, and no harm came to him. Colonel Crawley who was in charge of the operation, and who was witnessing everything froin a distance through binoculars, was astonished at the indifferent and calm attitude of the sage, and when everything was over, went to Nanga Baba and saluted him with reverence. Kill the Infidel. Another form of Himsa is that which arises from religious or superstitious persecution. Socrates was compelled to drink the cup of hemlock poison. Joan of Arc was burnt to death as a witch. The terrors of the Inquisition are matters of history. The crucifixion of Christ and the terrible persecution of the early Christian Fathers are also matters of record. So is the tragedy enacted at Karbala on the bank of the Euphrates, where Yazid cut off all supplies and prevented the 72 followers of Hasan and Husain from even taking water from the river, all of whom were killed, and their women folk taken as prisoners. The imprisonment of Vasudeva and Devaki, and killing of their 8 babies one after another by Kansa, their uncle; the attempt of Hiranya Kashyap to murder Bhakta Prahlad, the innocent boy devotee; the cruel murder of Hakikat Rai, the tortures inflicted on Sikh Gurus, Arjun Deo and others, are matters of Hindu tradition and history. The poisoning of Swami Dayanand Saraswati, the murders of Pandit Lekh Ram Page #27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 14 ) Swami Shardhanand, and Rajpal are recent happenings of the present times. The murderers have after a sentence of death by a Court of Law, and execution at the gallows, been applauded as martyrs. Kill the Enemy. Political Himsa, the killing of armies in battle, murder in mass, is justified as a necessity for national existence. On a declaration of war, each and every one of the countries engaged in war, consider that theirs is a just cause, and the hostile party is in the wrong. All the combatants pray to the same one God, to help them in destroying the homes and hearths of the hostile people, and pray for victory, which spells destruction of the opposing armies. Such is the excitement created by the priests, the clergy, the followers of the Prince of Peace, that even churches and hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries and museums, factories and workshops, shops and granaries, are not spared, nor are friends and relations. The crime committed at Kurukshetra ruined India that was. Mahabharata devastated Bharata Varsha, the land of Bharat. The battles of the Crusade, the wars of the Roses, the French Revolution the war of American Independence, the Havoc of 1857, the Revolution in Russia, the Great War, in which India and the leading great Powers of the world were engaged for five long years, have very largely contributed to Himsa on a huge scale, which though justified as political necessity, is Himga unpardonable. Municipal Slaughter. A very cruel slaughter and on a very extensive scale, is committed in the name of municipal and national economy, for the preservation of health and of property from pests. The whole-sale destruction of stray dogs and of rats is horribly cruel. Widespread campaigns for the extermination of locusts were organised by Provincial Governments and Indian States, in which high salaried officers, with high-sounding academic degrees, obtained from Foreign Universities, were engaged, and heavy allowances and retinues and expensive corps of subordinate officials Page #28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 15 ) were placed at their disposal, with costly appliances and apparatus. A local cess was imposed by Provincial Governments for this special purpose, and thus indirectly every person was inade to contribute to and share in the commission of this horrible Himsa. And it is not certain whether the value of the crops saved was less or greater than the amount of expenditure incurred in these big schemes. Again it is possible that statistics carefully made may prove to demonstration, that taking into consideration the vast extent of India as a whole, a flight of locusts, which is an occasional visitation, is not such a dire distress as it is imagined to be. The locusts are ephemeral insects, they do not live long, the period during which they cause damage of crops is limited, and the extent of damage occasioned would not produce a famine of grain, or some such calamity in the country; and it may also be possible that the excrement and dead bodies of locusts dying may prove fertilising agents and the next crops may more than compensate the damage. If man is careful and industrious enough, no pests will cause any such damage as is insufferable or very significant. Himsa in the name of Science. Himsa, again, is committed on an extensive scale in the name of science for the avowed benefit of mankind. Vivisection is extolled as a virtue because it is pursued by eminent scientists, and under the patronage of the Government of many countries. But if truth had its way, it should be declared to be a crime. The preparation of vaccination lymphs cause such amount of pain and agony to a young and healthy calf, that a person, whose heart retains its natural tenderness and has not been hardened by the continued callous practice, can hardly endure its sight. The "Abolitionist" of London, says: "Let us leave no stone unturned during 1932 to abolish this horrible practice of torturing sentient creatures for our supposed benefit. In Austria, vivisection institutions have been permitted only in Vienna, Graz, Styrea, Innsbruck, and Tyrol. And even there, vivisection merely for the purpose of illustrating physiolo Page #29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 16 ) gical processes is absolutely forbidden. And in cases where it is allowed, the lowest species of animals must be used, and only under anaesthetics. "In a vivisection Laboratory" is a book which gives 30 instances of the horrible experiments done in the name of science, by persons held in high esteem, who have received honours and rewards. Dr. Carrel and Dr. Banting, Nobel Prize recipients, cut out the organs of the body and kept the animals alive as long as possible. Sir John Rose Bradford cut out the kidney of fox terriers piecemeal, resulting in various symptoms--diarrhoea, vomiting, emaciation, etc., and the animals lived for varying periods, days, weeks, or months. Sir Victor Horsley and Dr. Blair Bell, of Liverpool, have cut out the parathyroids or pituitary glands of dogs, producing horrible deformities. Banting, in Canada in 1922, discovered Insolin (which appears to have increased the death-rate from Diabetes) by cutting out the pancreas of dogs. Mantegazza, an Italian who died in 1910, performed the experiment of piercing the feet with many nails for preparing material for his book " The physiology of Pain." Squirting poison in the brain, inoculation in the eyes, injections in the ears, inducing abscesses, and blows on the skull to create epilepsy, are experiments which have been performed by eminent scientists. There is a note, on page 5 of "The Abolitionist" dated January 1, 1932, of the serious fact that during the last 25 years no fewer than 243 children under five years died from vaccination, and yet only 94 of the saine age from small pox. The statistics given there prove to demonstration that inoculations by vaccines for diphtheria, scarlet-fever, measles, whooping-cough, typhoid, cancer, diabetes, thyroid, tetanus, for phthysis by tuberculin, and for syphilis by salvarsan, have increased the death-rate, and the discontinuance of inoculation has decreased it. The unanimous decision of the Royal Commission on Vivisection was that the tuberculin discovery of Professor Koch was a "Vast Failure". They added that an access of increased air and light, the avoidance of over crowding, and the provision of proper food will serve to : Page #30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 17 ) diminish the incidence and the mortality of the disease. Medical opinion is gaining ground that the inoculated and thus " protected" animals are serious carriers of disease because of the quantities of poison put into them. So are human beings who are inoculated. We run grave risk in transferring their blood to our veins. Infinitely more serious is the risk of transferring dormant diseases from cattle to humans by vaccinating with bovine lymph. This accounts for the enormous amount of bovine' consumption' in humans. And consumption and cancer are intimately related. Inoculations, and injection treatment for every sort of disease have come into fashion, and have become widespread because they inflate the bills of the surgeon and his clinical laboratory assistants, and the rich people take a pride in undergoing an expensive course of treatment. In many cases the Doctors imagine and thus create disease. Their earnings increase with the complications in treatment of diseases, and they exploit the rich who have more money than common sense. Diseases have increased in their variety, and in their extent, with the increase of the medical profession; just as litigation, false and dilatory pleas in law, hare flourished with the increase of the number of law courts and lawyers, and criminal returns have swollen up with the strengthening and encouragement of, the Police, and the improvement in prospects in that Department. It is a matter of every day occurrence that frogs, rabbits, etc., are killed in College Laboratories to educate young men in the science of Biology. How very strange and paradoxical it is that by causing death, people wish to learn the science of Life. Costly organizations called Research Institutes for Scientific investigations, established with the ostensible object of preventing diseases, like malaria, leprosy, goitre, cholera, plague, tuberculosis, are rather expensive experiments of doubtful utility, when the cost incurred in maintaining them is taken into consideration. Removing the economic distress of people is a surer method of prevention of disease. The Himsa Page #31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 18 ) committed in the intentional, pre-arranged, determined killing of millions of living beings is certainly gross and serious. The social and convivial custom of eating from the same dish, biting off from the same fruit, biscuit or cake, and drinking from the same cup is responsible for the spread of many contagious and infectious diseases. Kissing has by medical experts been pronounced to be a dangerous medium of dissemination of disease. The use of tinned provisions, preserved fruits, condensed milk, aerated and bottled waters, ice creams, teas and coffees, and the habit of smoking and drinking contribute in no small measure to bad health and disease. In European countries, and in Australia the newspapers are full of accounts of ravages to agriculture by birds, beasts and insects, and of discussions of scientific methods for killing these birds, beasts, and insects. One paper says that damage by mice to wheat crops in Melbourne has been worse than what happened in 1917, 15 years ago. Another suggests a poisoning scheme for the eradication of the dingo and the fox. The extent of damage, and the possible risk is more the creation of an active imagination, than a dangerous reality. Protect your property certainly ; and peaceful means will suggest themselves to you, if you do not permit yourself to be misled by pre-conceived notions of killing, which result from habitual meat-eating, shooting and hunting, and to which all schemes of wilful destruction are attributable. India has been an agricultural country. Its people have been leading a pastoral life. Every household had its cultivated land, and herd of cattle. And India never suffered from such imaginary fears as disturb the western scientist. Mice, rabbits, locusts, monkeys, crows, pigeons, and pests of sorts, have been causing damage to crops and grain-stores, and yet the produce and stocks have been plentiful. This reminds one of the remarks made by a European lady when she noticed an Indian cooking, and observed that an open fire entailed much loss of firewood energy, and as every household cooked for itself there was much loss of time and human energy which could be Page #32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 19 ) saved by establishing bakeries and restaurants, eating houses, and confectionaries. The remedy suggested is worse than the disease, even if the diagnosis be correct. Mass production of cooked food is really an evil which is responsible for many of the diseases and ill-health, so prevalent in the present age of expensive living and feverish activity. Simplicity of diet, simplicity in games, simplicity of amusements, simplicity of life in general were the special features of happy old India proverbially the land of Peace and Plenty, Strength ana Longevity. Notwithstanding the so-called progress in surgery, bacteriology, and vaccines, the fact remains that human longevity, human happiness, human health, human strength, and physical development has been going down from gene. ration to generation. The description of the statures of our ancestors as given in ancient books may be called myths and fictions, by the learned men of the present day, but it is a fact which must be admitted that the mummified bodies of the kings of Egypt and the fossils of ancient people are no dwarfish structures of the modern times. The descriptions given in the Illiad and the Odysey, in the Shahnama of Firdousi, in the ballads of Alha and Udal, and in the pages of Tod's Rajasthan prove to demonstration that our ancestors were certainly far superior to us in physical stature and prowess, in courage and endurance, in mental and spiritual power. In the Shahnama, Rustam is called bronze. bodied; and the warriors of olden times used to wear an armour the mere weight of which would be difficult for us to carry. The heavy swords some of which are exhibited in museums and armouries would not be easily lifted up by our strong men, what to say of their being wielded with such effect as to cut the warrior and the horse in twain. The wars, battles, and fights of our times are mere butcheries and wholesale destruction, without any element of personal courage and valour. Can one imagine a worse form of kil. ling than the bombing from aeroplanes, of hospitals, churches, prisons, cclleges, and cities, or the cannonading from long Page #33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 20 ) distance of miles. Meat-eating, wine-drinking, the habit of taking ice and aerated waters, smoking, eating too much and too often are the evils of the present day. It is a preconceived notion that strength of body comes from meat diet alone. Flesh diet may bring about brute strength and animal passions but real power proceeds from the mind and not from the body. It is the soul-force which counts, and not physical weight or muscular appearance. Kill, Kill, Kill, is the cry of the day. Millions of lives are killed every day in the name of religion as sacrifices, in the name of health, for food, in fun or sport, in the name of science, for experiments, for rejuvenation to supply glands to man and woman, in the name of sanitation, and prevention of diseases, or with the ostensible object of protection and prosperity of agriculture, horticulture, arboricul. ture, and fruitculture. And the result is that the world is deteriorating day by day, in physical prowess, intellectual strength, and spiritual development, Is Killing ever an Act of Mercy? There is yet another form of Himsa, however, which is commonly considered to be an act of mercy, and applauded as such, and it may well be considered here. It is a prevalent practice these days to shoot a horse, a cow, or a dog, which has been seriously injured or which has contracted a "dan. gerous or incurable" disease; and such killing is acclaimed an act of mercy. Is not the unfortunate animal killed because it is not profitable from a mercenary or economic point of view to spend money and attention over it, and the sight of its sufferings is too painful to be tolerated. If killing under such circumstances be an act of mercy, why should not charity begin at home, and why should it not be extended to one's own relations, friends and mankind in general. We hear of suicides under such conditions, which means moral weakness. We have heard that soldiers hopelessly wounded in battle, and passengers mortally injured in railway accidents have been thrown in a hollow and buried, or . Page #34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 21 ) hurled in a river or sea to be washed away; but barring such exceptional cases, every possible effort is made to preserve human life as long as possible. One can understand the practical difficulty in bestowing the same care, attention, and expense on animals as in the case of human beings, and it may be pleaded in extenuation; but to call such killing an act of mercy is to cheat one's own inner consciousness. It is Himsa, pure and simple. We have of course left out of consideration the other reason based on philosophy, the reality of things, that every soul is the maker, and the master of its destiny, its own tempter and seducer, and its own redeemer; and it must suffer and work out the resulting effects of its own previous acts, committed whether in the present or prior births, or conditions of its existence. No other soul can suffer for it vicariously, and no other can act as its redeemer or saviour. And further the destruction of the present body, diseased or injured, does not sever the connection between the soul and the body, for ever hereafter, and the next body which the soul on leaving the present one must immediately inhabit is not likely, in the circumstances, to be better, healthier, or stronger. Man's duty clearly is to help a soul in distress, to alleviate and mitigate its suffering by attention, service, and assistance, but not to destroy the body under the false notion that such a destruction would terminate the sufferings which the embodied soul has to endure as a matter of pre-ordained certainty. The agony is thereby really and truly speaking, intensified and prolonged. There is always the possiblity of life surviving the worst attacks of disease and the severest forms of injury in accidents; and the possible opportunity to the soul of redemption, reformation, regeneration, or at least improvement in that condition of life is rendered impossible, by killing the body. The Survival of the Fittest. Another argument in support of Himsa, commonly advanced, believed in, and acted upon is that 'life lives upon life', and 'the fittest must survive'; and that the lower forms Page #35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 22 ) of life were created by God for the use and benefit of the higher forms, and for Man, the Lord of Creation, to be used for food and otherwise. It is further said that even the most rigid vegetarian and the strictest follower of Jainism can not live without causing injury to some sort of life. The Jains, it is said, believe that water, air, fire, earth and vegetables have life, and it is not possible for them, however much they may profess a concern for saving life to abstain from causing injury to such forms of life, and to other life organisms such as ants, flies, worms and vermin in the ordinary affairs of life. The Significance of Ahimsa. Persons who argue in this strain, have no idea of the full significance of Ahimsa, and of the manner in which it is to be practised, Before meeting the argument, it is therefore necessary to explain the full significance of Ahimsa, and the course of discipline which would enable one to progress by gradual steps in the observance of its practice. This is the aim and object of the book Purushartha Sidhyupaya. To discuss Ahimsa from the Jaina point of view. Himsa means violence, injury, harm, deprivation, pain, suffering, mutilation, disfigurement, in any shape or form. It is defined as injury to the vitalities, caused through want of care and caution. The vitalities in a living body are enumerated as ten, the three forces of thought, speech, and body, the five senses, of touch, taste, smell, hearing, and sight, respiration, and age or duration of life. Every embodied living being possesses at least four of these ten vitalities, the body, the sense of touch, respiration and age. An embodied soul which possesses this minimuin number of vitalities is called irrational one sensed, such as vegetable-bodied beings. The irrational two-sensed soul possesses six vitalities, viz., the power of speech, and the sense of taste also, such as a worm. The three-sensed soul has seven, the sense of smell being added to these, e.g. an ant. A four-sensed soul posseses eight vix, the sense of sight as well, like a fly. The five . Page #36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 28 ) sensed soul has nine, the sense of hearing being added to these, e. g., irrational animals. All rational animals and human beings have all the 10 vitalities. If existing separately, by itself, neither the soul, nor the body is susceptible to any injury at all. Injury is caused to the vitalities in an embodied soul, which feels pained at such injury. The amount of injury caused, and of the pain thereby occasioned would depend upon the number of vitalities, and the scope and capacity of the vitalities to which injury is caused. The above-numerated ten are material vitalities-Dravya Prana. As distinguished from these, a soul has conscious vitalities, Bhava Prana, which are the very attributes of Jiva, such as consciousness, peacefulness, happiness, power. And with reference to the conscious vitalities, the Himsa caused is called Bhiva Himsa, as distinguished from Dravya Himsa which arises from causing injury to the material vitalities. Every evil thought, every evil word, and every evil act causes Himsa. "Do to others as you expect others to do unto you." Don't do to others, what you do not approve for yourself," should be the guiding principles in all affairs of Jife. Bhava Himsa is caused by entertaining impure thoughtactivities such as anger, pride, deceit, greed, sorrow, fear, disdain, sex-desires. Such thought activities injure the real nature of the soul, purity, perfection, direct knowledge of all substances, in all their varying conditions, at one and the same moment, infinite power, unruffled peacefulness, and bliss everlasting and unmixed. Dravya Himsa proceeds from Bhaya Himsa, which precedes it. The thought is a father to the act. An evil thought vitiates the purity of the Soul, and is followed by a sinful act, varying in its degree of evil, with the vicious intensity of the thought. Equanimity, nonattachment, self-absorption, self-realization would make the commission of Dravya Himsa an impossibility. . Ahimsa means abstention from Himsa. Ahimsa in its full significance has been realized, preached, and practised Page #37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 24.) only by, and in the Jaina religion. Jainism is synonymous with Ahimsa. It is Ahimsa Dharma, the religion of Ahimsa. "Ahimsa Parmo Dharmah '-Ahimsa is the Highest Religion-- is emblazoned on the banner of Jainism. Its philosophy and conduct are broad-based on the solid foundation of Ahimsa, which has throughout, and consistently, been followed to its logical conclusion. It is the first and foremost of the five vows, which a Right-believer, on the path of Right Conduct, follows. The other four are abstention from falsehood, from unpermitted possession or user of another's property, from sexual intercourse, and from possession of temporalities. The five vows are followed in the completest form, and to their fullest extent, by saints, viz., persons who have cut off all connection with temporal objects, have adopted asceticism, and are ever engaged in austerities, study, discourse, contemplation, meditation, and self-realisation. They are followed in a lesser degree, and to an extent varying with his spiritual advancement by every Rightbeliever, who has entered upon the path of Liberation. Jainism is a practical religion and ensures worldly peace, prosperity and progress. A good Jain may happen to be engaged in a worldly pursuit of any kind. He may be a king a statesman, a military commander, a soldier, a trader, an artisan or an agriculturist, and yet he is in a position to adopt the vow of Ahimsa and other vows, to the extent of his limitations and capacities, situation and circumstances in life, and be a good and true Jain. The profession and practice of Ahimsa is not, as has been wrongly assumed or asserted by misinformed, ill-informed, or un-informed authors, writers, and speakers, incompatible or inconsistent with social progress, municipal administration, political development, human comforts, health, hygiene, commerce and agriculture. It has already been said that for a Jain house-holder, the practice of Ahimsa, is a question of degree, and would vary with his capacity, and limitations, physical and spiritual. Page #38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 25 ) The principle, the truth, the article of faith, is "to live and let live." When belief in the principle of Ahimsa is truly and firmly established, a Right-believer who has not developed his capacities so as to follow it completely, and to the fullest extent, will yet refrain from causing Himsa as far as possible, while engaged in the usual daily pursuits of his avocation in life. He gives up the commission of Himsa, deliberately, and he is as careful as he possibly can be, in avoiding its commission in the performance of the daily duties of life. He renounces the use of flesh and wine, which cannot be obtained without the commission of Himsa, as food. He would not knowingly and on purpose cause injury to any living being, howsoever low in the scale of vitalities. But a Jain householder, following the discipline of his order, the smaller vows, called Anu-Vratas, may be guilty of Himsa unwittingly, or unavoidably caused, or caused without design or pre-meditation. So far as a householder is concerned, Himsa is divided, into various kinds. It is either Arambhaja, viz., that which arises from engagements in occupations, in spite of all care and caution, or Anarambhaja otherwise called Samkalpi, viz , that which is committed intentionally or knowingly e. g., hunting, offering sacrifices, killing for food, amusement, or decoration, or out of mischief, enmity, malice, or jealousy. Intentional Hurting. Samkalpi Himsa is entirely renounced by a householder and may well be avoided by every thinking person, without any injury, harm, or serious inconvenience to himself. If he is placed in circumstances, where he cannot avoid the commission of Himsa, his act would be Himsa all the same, but the degree of culpability would vary with the varying circumstances. Let us take a few cases by way of illustration, and leave the inquisitive disciple, or the thinking scholar to discuss the rest with persons who are their superiors in knowledge and conduct. There is a festering wound in the body, full of maggots. Page #39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 26 ) One would remove the maggots as carefully as he can, wash the wound and dress it up. While going on an urgent business, one finds a swarm of ants, or earth-worms on the ground in front. He would try to avoid crushing them by deviating from the path, and if that be impracticable, he would tread gently and carefully, and avoid hurting the living beings as far as is possible. A fly is caught in a spider's web, and he runs to sting it to death. A Jain householder would do what he can to extricate the fly by breaking the web. This act is Ahimsa, protection of life, though some little injury has been caused to the spider in the damage to its web, and in the loss of its food. A person is suffering from a disease caused by bacilli. A Jain Doctor would not mind giving such medicine as he knows would kill the germs. His act would certainly be Himsa, but Himsa of two-sensed beings and thus of a triling degree when compared to the Ahimsa, the good, resulting from protecting a five sensed person. Again his motive in giving the medicine is not to kill the germs but to save the patient, and that determines the resultant Karmic effect. Innumerable germs exist in the human body and they die in consequence of a fast, for want of nourishment. Observance of a fast would thus be Himsa in a way, but the avoidance of Himsa in ways innumerable, while fasting, more than outweights the technical Himsa. What is indefensible from any point of view is a host of bad habits which very many people copy quite thought. lessly, such as crushing a fly or a mosquito to death, the use of fly-paper, or flit, throwing out a rat to a dog or a cat, stoning frogs, shooting birds with a catapult, or other. wise, stealing eggs, abusing, slapping or kicking one in an inferior or dependant position. Such are the commonest acts of Himsa which are committed every moment, through sheer bad habit ; and these should be stopped early at home and in school. Jain Ahimsa while a basic principle of religion is the foundation for all ethics, morality, good social, municipal, Page #40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 27 ) national, and inter-national relations, and must always be kept in view, to guide ever and anon in every word, thought, or deed. The extent to which Ahimsa can be practised would of course depend upon the varying circumstances of life. It leads to action, and not to inaction. The action must how. ever be well-considered, and performed with due care and caution, without any ill-will, malice, anger, greed, deceit, pride, or passion. It would tend to an all-round progress, in all departments of life, and spheres of action. A good Jain householder, would be a good and successful citizen, soldier, or king, mindful of his duty to others, and to himself. According to the Jaina scripture known as Padma Purana, Shri Ram Chandra, the hero of the Ramayana, attained Moksha, or Nirvana, became a worshipful Arhat, and is a worshipable Siddha, because of having followed the discipline of a saint, and having thereby got rid of all Karmic contact, although he killed many men in his encounter with Ravana, the king of Ceylon, and in other skirmishes. Such killing was Himsa, but the Karmic contamination was not deep because of absence of malice, and such as there was, was neutralised by austerities, control of speech and action, meditation and concentration of mind. Hanuman, the great General and Commander-in-Chief of Shri Ram Chandra's army also attained Emancipation. So did millions of others. The five Pandava brothers who were the victorious heroes of the greatest war of epic India, a war which caused the destruction of the flower of Indian chivalry, counted in millions, were also good Jaina rulers of territories. They adopted the vows of sainthood, and after severe austerities, and deep meditation attained the highest and purest point of soul purity-the Divinity. The Emperor Chandra Gupta Maurya was a good Jain monarch of historical times. He sat on the Magadha throne in 322 B. C. and conquered the North-west country up to the Hindukush. His territories extended up to Kathiawar in the west, and included the Punjab, United Provinces and Page #41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 28 ) Behar. He also adopted the vows of a Jain saint at the feet of Bhadra Bahu Swami and performed austerities of the order. This is proved to demonstration by the rock inscriptions at Shravana Belgola in Mysore. Chamunda Raya was a brave General and a great minister of the Jaina King, Rayamalla, who reigned in the tenth century and belonged to the Ganga dynasty ; the ancestors of which dynasty ruled at Ayodhia, and were descended from the ancient Ikshwaku family, founded by Rishabha-deva, the first Tirthankara. He belonged to the clan of Brahma Kshatriya. He won many battles, and received many titles, such as samara dhurandhara, " the Leader in battle," vIra mArtaNDa "the Sun among the brave," T S fat "a Great lion in battle," aris 97T"Sceptre of death for the host of enemies," aldiz, "The Sun among the powerful-armed," FHT TITA" Parashurama in battle." He was a great scholar also. He wrote a commentary on Gommatsara in the Canarese language in presence of the author Shri Nemi Chandra Siddhanta Chakravarti. He also composed Chamunda Raya Purana in Canarese, and Charitra Sara, a treatise on the practices of ascetics, in Sans. krit. He took the vows of a layman from the Great Saint Ajilsena. The beautiful temple at Chandragiri, Shravana Belgola, district Hasan, Mysore, was constructed by him. King Kharvel of the dynasty of Maha-Megha-Vahan was also a good Jain monarch, who ascended the throne in his 16th year. His victories and his charities are recorded in the rock inscription at Hathi Gupha near Bhuvaneshwar, Orissa Province. The Parmar and Solanki Rajputs of Osia, near Jodhpur were converted to Jainism some 2,400 years ago. Maharaj Kumarpala of Anhilpur, Patan, Gujrat, was also a Jain monarch, a devout disciple of Shri Hem Chandra Acharya. His territories extended up to Kolhapur in the south, Kashmir in the north, Magadha in the east and Sindh in the west. In Patan, the capital of his kingdom, there were 1800 multi-millionaires. He was not only learned and boun. Page #42 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 29 ) tiful, but led a controlled and regulated life. After the queen's death, he did not marry again and observed the vows of sexual purity. The Jain temples at Taranga Hill were built by him. He ruled from 1143 to 1174, having ascended the throne at the age of 50. He gave one crore of rupees annually to alleviate the distress of poverty.stricken people. In recognition of his exemplary personal merit of character he was given many titles by his subjects, such as part FECT "Brother to the wives of others," sagiat "the Giver of life," vicAra caturmukha "All-round thinker," dInoddhAraka *Uplifter of the fallen," ITFT" Saint-king." In 983, he constructed the great and wonderful image of Shri Bahubali, called Gommata Swami or Gommateshwara which is cut out of a rock, is 57 feet high, with every limb and minor limb, in exquisite proportion. The Bhandarees of Jodhpur who trace their descent from the Chouhan Rajputs of Ajmere were converted to Jainism in 992 by Yashobhadra Suri. They were learned scholars, wise administrators and brave soldiers, loyal to the Jodhpur Raj. Raja Amogh Varsha, of Malkhed, in the territory of Hyderabad Deccan, ruled from 815 to 877, and then adopted the vows of a Jaina saint. Bachhraj, the founder of the Bucchawat clan, who came with Rao Bikaji and helped in establishing the kingdom of Bikaner in 1488, was a Jain Rajput. Arambhi Himsa. Arambhaja or Arambhi Himsa may again be sub-divided as Udyami, Graharambhi, and Virodhi. Udyami is Himsa unavoidably committed in the exercise of one's profession. Permissible professions according to Jaina writers are (1) the profession of a soldier, ufe (2) of a scribe He, (3) of agriculture kRSi, (4) trade vANijya, (5) of an artisan zilpa, (6) intellectual faur. Graharambhi Himsa is that which is unavoidably committed in the performance of necessary domestic purposes, such as preparation of food, general bodily and household cleanliness, construction of buildings, wells, gardens, and keeping cattle. Page #43 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 80 ) Virodhi Himsa, Virodhi Himsa is unavoidly committed in defence of person and property, against thieves, robbers, dacoits, assas. sins, assailants, and enemies, in meeting their aggression and in causing the least possible injury necessary in the circum. stances in which one may find himself. Complete Ahimsa in its highest aspect is practised by one who has renounced all worldly pursuits, and has adopted the discipline of a saint's life. A true believer in the house. holder's stage, abstains from Samkalpi Himsa, but is not able to completely avoid Arambhi und Virodhi Himsa, although he tries his best to avoid it as far as possible, and makes a steady progress in such endeavour. It would thus be clear that the dictates of Jainism and the practice of Ahimsa is not only quite consistent with, but is helpful in material progress and prosperity, social, economic and national advancement. It is an entirely mistaken notion that Ahimsa makes cowards of men, or that Jain Ahimsa has led to the weakening of the Indian nation, and to the fall of the Indian Empire. Jainism, a Practical Religion. Jainism is a practical religion. It is a religion which can be practised while one is engaged in the daily transactions of life in this world. It helps in the everyday affairs of mundane life. It adds to the success of a businessman, of a man in power and responsible position, of an artisan, and an artist, and of a labourer in the street, and of a man who is placed in the lowest, the dirtiest, and the worst position in life. It is a religion which cannot only be professed but lived. A Jain, while professing and practising Jainism, may well be a victorious king, a successful states. man, administrator, executive or judical officer, a successful factory manager, an inventor, a scientist, a doctor, a soldier, an engineer, a tradesman, a lawyer, a fartner, a labourer, an artisan, or an artist. Apostles of Ahimsa as already shown have been rulers of vast territories, have fought battles, have vanquished armies, . Page #44 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 31 ) and have founded empires. They have awarded merited punishment to murderers, robbers, ravishers, thieves, swindlers, and criminals of sorts. The land in their charge used to be proverbially fertile, and the people happy and prosperous. If a country is attacked, the Government will certainly resist the invasion, will fight battles, in which many may be killed, and many more wounded, property destroyed and general peace and prosperity threatened. A citizen may also cause injury to his assailant in order to defend his person and property. And all this will be acting within the principle of Ahimsa as practised by a householder. The injury in such cases is not caused with the primary intention, desire or design to cause harm. The motive is the decisive factor. Some carping critics of Ahimsa go to the length of saying that why should one believing in the doctrine of Ahimsa eat anything at all, for the procuration and preparation of food of any sort whatsoever inevitably causes some sort of injury to some living beings; why should one take any medicine at all, for a medicine kills living moving bacteria which cause illness; and why should one breathe at all, for with every breath one inhales a number of living germs which are destroyed on entering the body. As has been said above, a householder's vow of Ahimsa goes only so far as it is practicable, in the varying circumstances of each individual case, But one must always exercise his intelligence in deciding for himself, in an honest manner. He must not under-estimate his own power of endurance, he must not entertain imaginary apprehensions. In short he must not deceive himself. He must act after due care and caution. And even a saint, observing the vow of Ahimsa, and the other vows, to the fullest extent, has of necessity to cause some sort of Himsa, in movements of the body, in eating and drinking, breathing; but that is unavoidable, and by gradual spiritual advancement he reaches a stage when all movements of body, speech, and mind cease to be, and when full knowledge and self-realisation is acquired. This book, Purushartha Sidhyu paya, lays down the path which leads to such supreme acquisition. It is a closely Page #45 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 32 ) reasoned-out discourse, practical throughout, methodical, and graduated to the capacity of every living being howsoever situated. It is not only a discourse on the importance of Ahimsa as a basic rule of conduct, to be universally adopted, by all, at all times, in all climes, and in all circumstances, but is sufficient to solve all problems which agitate man's mind, such as what substance the universe is composed of, what are the natural qualities and functions of each of these substances, what is life, why does it transmigrate, how can it attain the highest purity and perfection. After the usual preliminary salutation, the author lays down the basic rule of universal application, which belps in the complete understanding of things namely, that everything has to be looked at from two points of view, the real and the practical standpoint. Then soul or life is defined, and thereafter the mutual action and re-action between Life, and non-Life, Jiva and Ajiva, Purusha and Prakriti, Atma and Karma. The three Jewels of Jaina Philosophy-Right Belief, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct are then lectured upon. Himsa is described in great detail, and its various implications and effects discussed at length. The Real and Practical Right Conduct is then discussed, and it is shown that the principle of Ahimsa underlies all meritorious actions, and all efforts for the acquisition of the goal of life-Divinity. A synopsis of the contents of the book is given to faci. litate a grasp of the lessons inculcated in the great Discourse. Conclusion. Every pilgrim on the Path must therefore be constantly careful to avoid all passionate thought-activities. Every action of his will then be performed with due care and caution, and the commission of Himsa would be avoided altogether. The acquisition of internal purification follows the practice of self-control, or conquest over the cravings of the body, and the ravings of the mind, a supreme subjection of Page #46 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (33) sense desires, mastery of passions, and governance of emotions. One who has acquired sufficient spiritual development to adopt the discipline of a Jaina saint, is above irritation and vexation. He is indifferent to all abuse, injury, torture or dishonour. He has supreme compassion, for the whole humanity, or rather for all living beings, human and sub.human. When engaged in deep concentration of mind, there is hardly any perceptible movement of body, speech, or mind, and all Himsa is avoided. But, even when not so engaged, a Jain saint would be above commission of any Dravya Himsa at all. A Jain saint takes food not for the Telish of it, nor for acquiring physical strength. He takes it simply to sustain the body, which is an instrument for the purification of the soul encased therein. He would walk very carefully, looking up 4 cubits of ground in front, with all caution, so as to avoid injury to the tiniest living being, and would take a meal offered to him in all humility and with deep reverence by a householder who has not prepared it specially for the saint; and this meal he takes off his hands, standing, in a small quantity, and never more than once at midday, in 24 hours. For rest, or sleep he reclines on the bare ground, for a short time, and does not change the position of his body frequently. He has a vow of total silence at night, and also in the day while taking meals, and while engaged in meditation or study. He delivers religious discourses in a calm, placid, manner without any malice, excitement, or prejudice. His whole life is dedicated to peace and purity, and for the good of all. The great saint Amrita Chandra Suri no doubt recommends the highest full vows of a saint to a Right Believer, because as a rule one should always aim at the highest. If however one's capacity does not permit him to scale so high, he may proceed on the path of progress by a graduated course of self-discipline, the layman's path, which is also divided into eleven degrees, graduated according to the increasing capacities of the disciple, the Shravaka. There are six daily duties prescribed for a Shravaka the performance of which Page #47 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 34 ) is of considerable help in spiritual advancement towards the higher discipline of a saint. The six duties are, the worship of the perfect ones, the Arhats; attendance upon spiritual leaders; study of the sacred Scriptures; meditation once, twice or three times a day; in a calm quiet place; temperance in eating drinking, bodily covering, and daily engagements, and charity. Charity according to Jaina teachings comprises giving food and medicine to those who need them, imparting knowledge to the ignorant, and affording protection to all living beings. This treatise treats of Ahimsa in all its varying aspects. It proves to demonstration that all evil thoughts, all evil acts, every immorality, and every sin and crime is covered by the term Himsa. Even where no harm is caused to another by such thought, intention, word or act, the purity of the soul of the persons who entertain such thought, utter such word, or commit such act is certainly injured, and that in itself is Himsa, and as such must be avoided, just like the crime of suicide. Causing harm to another, may possibly be justified or extenuated in particular circumstances, but voluntarily causing injury to the self has no justification or extenuation. The book lays down a clear method, a royal roud, a prac. tical path. The path is simple, easy, straight, and not winding, mazy, steep, narrow or strait. It would be a pleasure to follow it. A person who has not taken to a course of phy. sical exercise, is staggered at the mention of a Sandow's performances and feels sceptic on hearing what a Ram Murti can achieve. He would not believe unless he saw, that a fourcylinder car, in full action, can be stopped from moving by the unaided physical resistance of a mere man. It is difficult to fix limits to the development of bodily strength, and the expansion of spiritual Power is only limited by space and substance. The process of expansion may seem difficult, arduous, hard, impracticable to one from a distance, but when one has entered upon the practice of discipline, there is for him an ever.increasing joy in the consciousness of everincreasing power, and knowledge, and every effort makes the succeeding attempt more pleasant and joyful. Page #48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 35 ) A Jain ascetic is not an idle fanatic who mortifies his body, and soils his soul. He lives a life of extreme activity, and joy. His asceticism has a fascinating charm, and what. seems a torture of the body to the ignorant is a delicious enjoyment of constantly increasing power and knowledge. The joys of Yoga, of communion with the Highest, are only known to those who have experienced them. They are above all earthly pleasures ; they lead to heavenly happiness, and ultimately to the realisation, the attainment of God hood, Siddha-Sthana, Parmatma-Pada, where the soul is identified with limitless, perfect, direct, completest knowledge, of all that is, that was, that shall be, simultaneous, in all their varying forms and conditions, is supremely self-satisfied, is Omniscient and Omnipotent, for ever and ever, in the unend. ing eternity of Time and Space. ANANT CHATURDASHI: The 13th September, 1932. AJIT PRASADA. Page #49 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 36 ) SYNOPSIS OF THE BOOK. Introductory. Verse. 1. Obeisance to the supreme Life. 2. Obeisance to the many-sided Philosophy. 8. The title of the book literally true ; it points out the method of attaining the object of human existence. 4. The masters have full knowledge of the various points of view from which a subject may be ascertained. The Real and Practical Points of View, 5. The world in general is indifferent to the real aspect of things. 6. The relative or practical aspect is only for the guidance of the ignorant. A discourse is not to be limited to this preliminary aspect. 7. The danger is that an ignorant person may take the relative aspect as the real. 8. The student should know both the aspects of things, and view them in their entirety. Life Defined. 9. The Life or soul, is the conscious I. It is free from touch, smell, taste, and color, having attributes and conditions and the triple aspect of appearance, disappearance and constancy. 10. Since eternity, it is the author of its own destiny, and suffers or enjoys the result of his action in word, deed, or thought. 11. On being disillusioned, it attains everlasting consciousness, infinite knowledge, power and bliss. Karmic Action. 12. Fine particles of matter are converted into Karmas, because of the influence of the thought-activities of the soul. 13. And the material Karmas in their turn, influence the thought-activities of the soul. 14. The soul, thus appears, to the ignorant, as identi. fied with its thought-activities, and this illusion sets up the wanderings of transmigration. Page #50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 37 ) The Right Discourse. 15. Get rid of perversity, realize thy-self and atta in the highest. 16. The path to attain this is above criticism and is un. common indeed. Begin with and aim the Highest. 17. If, even after repeated attempts the disciple is unable to adopt the high path of total renunciation, then he should be taught the lower discipline of a lay disciple. 18. But the preceptor should always aim high and not begin with the lower discipline. 19. For he should not prevent the rapid progress of the disciple. 20. And the lay disciple should also follow strictly the triple path of Right Belief, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct. Right Belief. 21. Right Belief must first be acquired; for it is thereafter that knowledge and conduct become Right. 22. It is an unshakeable belief in the real nature of the essentials, soul, non-soul etc. 23. It should be free from doubt. 24. It should not be disfigured by expectations, 25. By Disgust, 26. By Superstition, and 27. By Fault-finding, 28. The Right-believer should be firm, and should strengthen others who are vacillating, 29. Have affection for co-religionists, 30. And a desire to enhance the glory of the Faith. Right Knowledge. 31. Thereafter acquire Right Knowledge. 32. Which, though simultaneous with Right Belief is yet distinguishable from it, 33. And has to be striven for, 84. As an effect following Right Belief. 85. Being free from doubt, preversity, and vagueness. Page #51 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 38 ) 36. It comprises correct reading, writing and pronouncing of letters and words, correct understanding, both combined, at proper time, with reverence, propriety of behaviour, zeal, and desire for its propagation. Right Conduct. 37. Right conduct must ever be followed. 38. It is Right Knowledge which makes conduct Right. 39. Right conduct is the restraint of all censurable movements. 40. It is of two kinds. 41. The complete conduct of a saint, and the partial discipline of a disciple. Himsa. 42. Himsa includes all evil. Falsehood etc., are only the details. 49. Himsa is injury to the material or conscious vitali. ties by activity of mind, body or speech, through passion. Injury to the Self. 44. The existence of attachment and other passions is Himsa ; and their absence is Ahimsa. 45 In the absence of passion, and practice of careful Right Conduct, there never is Himsa, even if any injury is caused. 46. In the absence of care and caution, and under in. fluence of passion, Himsa is ever committed, whether there is injury or not. 47. Because the very nature of the self is thereby injured, whether any other being is or is not. Injury to Others. 48. Non-Abstinence from Himsa, and indulgence in Himsa, both comprise Himsa. When there is careless activity of mind, body, or speech, injury to the vitalities in inevitable. 49. Nevertheless, all external circumstances, leading to Himsa should be avoided. 50. It is foolish to be indifferent to external conduct, and ignore all rules of practical discipline. . Page #52 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 39 ) Various Views of Himsa. 51. Without actually committing Himsa, one may be liable for its consequences, like as a murderer failing in his attempt; and one may commit Himsa, and yet be not liable to suffer for it, e. g., a skilful surgeon, under whose hands a patient happens to die, in spite of all his care and attention. 52. Trifling Himsa may some time entail (as in the case of a cruel hunter) serious consequence, and grievous Himsa may cause (as in the case of a virtuous King defending his people against a cruel enemy) a small result, to one who commits it. 53. Two persons jointly committing Himsa are affected differently. A servant with his master under a sort of compulsion, a soldier obeying the commands of his officer to fire, is not so guilty as the commander, if he himself is adverse or indifferent to the act. 54. It is the intention which matters, and thereby Himsa affects differently before commission, at the time of commission, after commission, or because of the attempt to commit, e. g., when a scheme to injure is not carried into execution, is executed, is gloated upon after commission, or is frustrated in the attempt. 55. One commits and many (approvers and encouragers) reap, and many commit, but one (the commander) reaps the consequences of Himsa. 56. To one (who instigates Himsa) the consequence is evil, to another who disapproves or prevents Himsa it is good. 57. To one (who regrets the protection afforded to a victim) Ahimsa brings evil; to another (who affords protection) Himsa brings good result. 58. In this multiplicity of points of view, the masters alone can guide and help. 59. And a misguided person may cause harm to himself.60. Having thus considered the above details, the disciple should always avoid Himsa. The Eight Basic Vows. 61. First of all give up wine, flesh, honey, and the 5 Page #53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 40 ) Udambar, fruits of Gular, Peepal, Bar, Pakar, and Anjeer. Wine. 62. Wine stupefies the mind, piety is lost sight of, and Himsa is the consequence. 63. It is the birth-place of numerous lives. 64. Pride, fear, disgust, ridicule, ennui, grief, sex-passion, anger etc., are all forms of Himsa, and are caused by wine, Flesh. 65. Flesh is procured by killing life. Himsa is obvious there. 66. The flesh of those who are dead is the birthplace of numerous spontaneously-born lives. 67. Whether raw, cooked, or otherwise, spontaneouslyborn lives are constantly being generated there. 68. And he who uses such flesh is responsible for killing groups of such lives. Honey. 69. Every drop of honey signifies injury to bees, and is hence prohibited. 70. Even if obtained without such jnjury, it is the birthplace of spontaneously.born lives. Renounce the Eight Non-Eatables. 71. Honey, wine, butter, flesh, are all the result of Extreme fermentation and the birth-place of lives. 72. The fruits of Gular, Anjeer Peepal, Pakar and Bara are birth-places of mobile lives. 73. Even when dry, and free from lives, there is Himsa in using them, because of the keen desire for such prohibited things, which injures the purity of the self. 74. A Jain disciple would renounce all the above noneatables. Partial Ahimsa. 75. Those who do not feel strong enough to renounce Himsa of immobile beings, should at least give up Himsa of mobile lives. 76. Such renunciation to be complete is nine-fold, viz., by self, through agent, by approval, and in each case by body, speech or thought. Imperfect renunciation is of Page #54 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 41 ) various kinds. 77. Himsa of immobile lives should also be avoided so far as possible. 78. Again, one who follows Ahimsa should not, at the same time feel vexed at the improper conduct of other ignorant people, but should try to enlighten them. Some Common Misapprehensions Regarding Himsa. 79. Do not be misled by the idea that there is no wrong in committing Himsa "for the sake of religion," the laws of which are inscrutable. 80. Or for the purpose of pleasing the Gods. 81. Nor kill for guests, deserving of respect. 82. Nor kill a life with higher vitalities, in preference to a life with lower vitalities. 83. Nor kill those which kill others, with the idea that the destruction of one leads to the protection of others. 84. Nor kill them on the ground that you thereby prevent them from committing Himsa. 85. It is a mis-conception to kill one in distress on the ground that such killing will relieve him from suffering. Alleviate his suffering, help him, but do not destroy him. 86. Do not kill one who is happy, in the false belief that happiness is rarely attained, and when once attained it will continue if the person is killed when in a happy condition. 87. Do not kill your preceptor, in the false belief, that by killing him while he is in deep concentration of mind, he will attain eternal bliss. 88. Do not kill, in the false belief that, by killing you release the soul from its imprisonment in the body, and you set it free. 89. Do not kill yourself to offer your flesh to one who is starving. 90. Do not yield to delusions such as set forth above. Falsehood. 91. Wrong statement through carelessness is falsehood. Page #55 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 42 ) 92. It may be (1) denial of the actual existence of a substance with reference to its position, time or nature. 98. (2) affirmation of what does not exist, with reference to position, time and nature 94. (3) where it is wrongly described. 95. (4) Speech condemnable, sinful, or disagreeable. 96. Condemnable speech is such as back-biting, harsh, unbecoming, non-sensical, or otherwise uncanonical. 97. Sinful speech is what leads to piercing, cutting, beating, ploughing, trading, stealing and such acts of Himsa. 98. That which causes uneasiness, fear, pain, hostility, grief, quarrel or anguish of mind is disagreeable speech. 99. Himsa is inevitable in such cases, because of careless indulgence. 100. But a religious dicourse would not be such even if it be distasteful or cause pain to the listener, because of the absence of thoughtless indulgence 101. Those who are unable to refrain from such sinful untruth as is unavoidable in arranging for articles of use, should renounce all other untruths, for ever. Theft. 102. Theft is the appropriation of what is not given. It causes injury and is Himsa. 103. For property is dear as life. 104. And there is thoughtless indulgence. 105. It is not so, when saints take in Karmic molecules, for there is no passionate indulgence there, 106. Those who are unable to refrain from taking water from well etc., should abstain from appropriating other things. Sexual Purity. 107-108. in sexual intercourse there is obvious Himsa, due to the killing of mobile germs in the act. 109. Sexual indulgence otherwise has root in desire, and hence is Himsa. 110. If unable to live without a wife, let other females be abjured. Page #56 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 43 ) Attachment of Temporalities. 111. Affectionate regard for external objects is due to illusion and is attachment-clinging to externals. 112. Even if one has renounced all tangible property, the feeling of attachment itself is a clinging to externals. 113. All clinging to externals arises from attachments. 114. There is no attachment in the drawing in of Kar. mic molecules by saints, and it is not therefore a clinging to externals. 115. Possession is external and internal. 116. Internal possessions are 14:- (1) Wrong belief; Desire for sexual enjoyment with (2) man ; (3) woman, (4) both ; (5) laughter; (6) indulgence; (7) ennui ; (8) sorrow; (9) fear; (10) disgust; (11) anger ; (12) pride; (13) deceit; (14) greed. 117. External possession is of living or non-living objects. 118. A bjuring all possession is Ahinsa ; and all appropriation is Himsa. 119. Internal, as well as, external appropriation is Himsa. 120-123. There is a difference in the intensity of feeling. A deer has a liking for grass ; and a cat kills a host of mice. One is fond of milk, and the other of sugar. The difference is obvious. 124-126. Acquire belief in the principal categories, get rid of wrong belief, and of passions of the first degree ; then suppress those of the second degree. Then adopt the vows, and subdue all internal attachment, through humility, contentment, and meditation. 127. External possession should ever be avoided altogether. Its existence shows non-control. 128. If unable to do so, one should begin by setting limits to them. Night Eating. 129. Himsa is inevitable in eating at night. Therefore renounce it. 130. Absence of such a vow shows influence of passion Page #57 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 44 ) and desire. Why take food night and day. 131-133. Taking food at night only, and not in the day shows strong desire for good relish, at leisure. Himsa is in evitable when food is prepared or taken in the absence of sunlight. Lamp light draws insects to food-stuffs. 184. By renouncing night-eating through mind, body and speech, Ahimsa is much advanced. Three-fold Path. 135. Liberation comes soon to those desiring self-advancement, when they exert ceaselessly in the threefold path of right belief, right knowledge and right conduct. Supplementary vows. 136. Practise these vows. They lend strength to the elementary vows. Direction Limit. 137. Fix a limit to your movements in the 10 directions, the eight points of compass, and up and down. 138. This brings you the merit of Ahimsa with regard to what is beyond such limits. Space Limit. 139. Then fix a further limit with reference to villages, markets, streets, houses, etc. 140. This secures Ahimsa in regard to what is beyond such confines. Unnecessary Indulgence. 141. Never think of hunting, victory, defeat, battle, adultery, theft etc. They lead to sin. 142. Do not give sinful advice to those engaged in art, trade, writing, agriculture, crafts, service and industry. 143. Do not without necessity, dig ground, uproot trees, trample lawns, sprinkle water, pluck flowers, leaves or fruit, or do such other acts. 14. Do not give instruments of Himsa such as knife, poison, fire, sword, plough, bow. 145. Do not listen to, recite, or teach bad and absurd stories. 146. Do not gamble. 147. Renounce all such unnecessary sinful habits, and Page #58 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 45 ) strengthen the vow of Ahimsa. Equanimity. 148. Be equanimous, indifferent to love or hate, pain or pleasure, loss or gain. 149. Practise this attitude of equanimity, at the end of each night and day, and oftener. 150. The observance of equanimity secures the observance of vows in completeness because of the absence of all sinful activities. Fasting. 151. Fasting once a week helps the practice of (Samayik) equanimity. 152-156. Commence fasting at middle of the day previous to the 8th and 14th days of each fortnight; give up all work, all affection, even for one's own body; retire to a secluded spot, observe due restraint of body, speech and mind; pass the day in spiritual meditation; observe equanimity, vanquish sleep by self-study; and pass the night on a clean mat. After the necessary duties of nature in the morning, perform worship with clean offerings, pass the day, the night, and half of the next day in the manner stated. This is the proper observance of a fast. 157. Such observance for 48 hours secures the merit of Ahimsa in completeness, for that period. Limitation of objects of enjoyment. 158-159-160. By renouncing all objects of enjoyment, Himsa is avoided. Falsehood is avoided by control of speech; and theft by abstinence from all appropriation. Sexual purity follows abstinence from sexual intercourse. There is no attachment left even for the body. The stage of the saint with perfect vows is thus practically reached. 161. The use of articles which are enjoyed once, such as fruits and food, or which are repeatedly enjoyed such as clothes or furniture should also be given up. 162. And so the use of Anant-Kaya vegetables containing infinite number of lives. 168. And so the use of butter, the birth-place of numer. ous lives. Page #59 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 46 ) 164. Enjoyment of permissible objects should also be limited. 165. And a limit fixed within such limits also. 166. This results in the observance of Ahimsa par-excellence. Food offering to unexpected guests. 167. The best guest is a naked saint: and pure food offered to him is for mutual good. 168. Such offering should be of pure food, with respectful welcome, offer of a high seat, washing the feet, worship, and bowing with pure body, speech and mind. 169. And regardless of worldly benefit, with forbearance, sincerity, absence of jealousy, sorrow, joy, or pride. 170. The food offered should be such as is helpful to studies, and to the due observance of austerities, and is not likely to cause fondness, disgust, incontinence, intoxication, pain, fear etc. The grades of recipients. 171. The recipients may be true believers without vows, with partial vows, and those with full vows. 172. A gift is the antithesis of greed, which is Himsa, and is therefore an act of Ahimsa. 173. One who does not offer food to such a recipient must be a greedy person. 174. And offering of food in the manner stated above, is Ahimsa. Renunciation of the Body. 175. The last thought should be of a calm renunciation of the body. 176. And this thought should ever be present long before@death supervenes. 177. It is not suicide, when on the certain approach of death, one prepares to meet it calmly. 178. It would be suicide if one were to put an end to his life, under an impulse such as fear, greed, weakness, hallucination. 179. This is Ahimsa, because all passions have been duly subdued. Page #60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 47 ) 180. One who observes the disciplinary vows ceaselessly, attains the eternal bliss of liberation, Transgressions of vows. 181. There are 70 defects detailed, five with reference to Right Belief, and to each of the five vows, and to each of the eight disciplinary vows. Defects of Right Belief. 182. Scepticism, expectation, disgust, praise of wrong believers, and thinking admiringly of them are the defects of Right Belief Defects of the 5 vows. 183. Mutilating, beating, tying up, over-loading, withholding food or drink, are the 5 transgressions of, Ahimsa. 184. False preaching, disclosing secrets, forgery, breach of trust, and divulging inference drawn from conduct or gestures, are short-comings of Truth. 185. Adulteration, abetment of theft, receiving stolen property, illegal traffic, and use of salse weights and measures are 5 transgressions of Non-stealing. 186. The 5 defects of sexual purity are intense sexual desire, unnatural sexual indulgence, arranging marriage of those outside the family, association with immoral women, married or umarried. 187. Exceeding limits of property to be appropriated, are transgressions of the vow of limited possession. Defects in the disciplinary vows. 188. By exceeding the direction limits, or boundaries, or forgetting them, one transgresses the direction limit vow. 189. Sending, detaining, throwing out things, speaking out, and communicating beyond limits by signs, are shortcomings in the vow of space-limit. 190. The vow of avoiding unnecessary indulgence is transgressed by uttering obscene words, obscene gesticulation, misuse of articles of use, gossip and thoughtless conduct. 191. The vow of equanimity is broken by misdirection of speech, mind and body; lack of interest in, and forgetting due observances of equanimous control of self. 192. The five defects of the Fasting vow are using seats Page #61 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 48 ) and articles given up, passing excrements without care, forgeting the rules, and lack of interest. 193. The vow of limited use of articles of enjoyment is breached by eating things having life, or mixed with those having life, or being in contact with such, or food not wellcooked or aphrodisiacal. 194. The defects in the vow of food-offering are delegation of host's duty, placing food on or covering it with articles with life, not serving meal at proper time, and lack, of interest. 195. The vow of tranquil death is transgressed if there is a desire to live, or to die, attachment to friends, reminiscence of pleasures enjoyed, or desire for pleasures in future. 196. One with thorough control, soon attains eternal bliss by a thorough observance of the vows. Austerities. 197. Austerities are helpful to liberation; therefore practise them. 198. The external austerities for house-holders are: - Fasting, reducing diet, sleeping and resting in lonely places, giving up tasty things (milk, curd, ghee, oil, salt, sugar). 199. And the internal austerities are : - Respect, and service of saints, expiation renunciation, study, and con centration. 200 House-holders should also as far as possible follow the rules of conduct for saints. Six Essentials. 201, Equanimity, praising, bowing, repentance, renunciation, and attachment for the body are the 6 essential daily duties. led. Three Controls. 202. Body, mind, and speech should be properly control Five Careful Acts. 203. Careful movement, careful speech, careful eating, careful placing and removal of things, careful evacuation of excrements should also be observed. Page #62 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 49 ) Ten Observances. 204. Practise continuously the 10 observances : Forgiveness, humility, straight-forwardness, truth, contentment, restraint, austerities, charity, non-attachment, and sexual purity. Twelve Thoughts. 205. Transitoriness, helplessness, transmigration, loneliness, separateness, impurity, inflow, stoppage and shedding of Karmas, Universe, rarity of, and the true nature of, the Right Path. The 22 Sufferings. 206-208. Hunger, thirst, cold, heat, insect-bite, nudity, ennui, woman, walking, sitting, resting on hard earth, abuse, beating, begging, non-obtaining, disease, contact with thorns, dirt, respect and dis-respect, conceit of knowledge, lack of knowledge, slack belief. 209. Follow the three Jewels of Right Belief, Knowledge, and Conduct ceaselessly. 210. Adopt the order of saints as early as practicable. 211-214. The three Jewelled Path leads to liberation. If there is bondage of Karma, it is caused by passion. 215. Molecular bondage is due to soul's vibratory activity, and duration-bondage is caused by passion. 216. There can be no bondage, when there is Right BeliefKnowledge-Conduct. 217-220. It is vibratory activity and Passions which cause Bondage of Tirth ankara and Aharaka Karmas, in presence of the three Jewels. 221-222. The triple path leads to Liberation. The difference is in the Real and the Practical Aspect. 223-224. The self-absorbed soul is in the Highest State, pure and effulgent, eternally happy. 225. The essence of True Philosophy is obtained by adopting proper aspect of things. 226, The author's expression of his own humility, disclaiming all credit for the book, which consists of phrases. words, and alphabets, which are eternal. Page #63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #64 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ MADIRAY SAR THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS VOL. IV. Jagmandar Lal Jaini Memorial Series Vol. VI. zrIparamAtmane nmH| zrImadamRtacandrasUriviracitaH puruSArthasiddhyupAyaH (jinapravacanarahasyakoSaH) PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA. CHAPTER 1. Exposition of Purushartha-Siddhyupaya. tajjayati paraM jyotiH samaM samastairanantaparyAyaiH / darpaNatala iva sakalA pratiphalati padArthamAlikA yatra // 1 // - 1. Victory to that Supreme Intelligence, where, as it were in a mirror, is reflected the chain of all substances, in all their infinite conditions. Commentary. The word , supreme, indicates the highest conceivable degree of perfection and the word vulfai, Effulgence, is used to convey the idea of pure absolute luminous omniscience, the utter absence of any the slightest shadow of the darkness of ignorance. Glorious or Victorious, is an exclamation of unsuppressable Joy, experienced in the contemplation of the Almighty Omniscience. Page #65 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS The expression taraft, the chain of substances, conveys the idea of a well-ordained connection and thoroughly regulated interaction amongst all substances; and negatives the suggestion of confusion, chaos, or chance. The expression : 77-aqatati, in all their infinite conditions, shows that the infinite substances in the Universe are constantly, at every moment of time, undergoing change of condition, but the Omniscient sees and knows them all, as a whole, and in all their varying modes and circumstances, in past, present, and future. The words yua ga, as if it were in a mirror, show the purity and exactitude of knowledge, without any indistinctness, confusion or overlapping, and the absence of any effort, mental or otherwise. The pure, perfect and absolute knowledge is such that in it are reflected distinctly and simultaneously, at one and the same time, all possible and constantly changing conditions, past, present, and future, of all objects which exist, individually and collectively, analytically and synthetically, in all their minutest parts as well as in their whole; and without any effort or exertion, mental or otherwise. Effort connotes imperfection, and only ceases to exist when perfection absolute is attained, and knowledge and soul become identical. The auspicious opening verse demonstrates the basic doctrines of Jaina Philosophy, that all existence, though constantly changing, is an eternal entity, and not a mere illusion; that all ex capable of being definitely and positively known, and that Pure Consiousness, the Liberated Soul, is Omniscient. Jainism is thus distinguished from Illusionism, Atheism, and other systems of Philosophy. paramAgamasya bIjaM niSiddhajAtyandhasindhuravidhAnam / sakalanayavilasitAnAM virodhamathanaM namAmyanekAntam // 2 // 2. I bow to Anekant (Jaina Philosophy), which is the root basis of the Highest Scripture, which dispels the wrong notions about elephant, of persons born blind, and which removes the contradictions amongst all those who entertain one-sided or limited points of view. Page #66 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA Commentary. The phrase palgalaura, refers to the well-known illustration of the various different conceptions which a number of congenitally blind persons, who had not known an elephant, came to entertain of the shape of an elephant, when they happened to stumble against the animal. One who caught hold of the ear declared that the elephant was like a big palm-leaf fan. He who seized the leg insisted that the animal was like a pillar, while the one who caught the tail maintained that the elephant was like a big hard rope. And again the person who touched the trunk affirmed strongly that it was like an extraordinary big cobra, which hissed but did not bite. Each of them maintained that his own conception was the right one, and the others were wrong. The fact was that each of them had only grasped a portion of the body of the elephant, and formed only a partial conception, which though true, so far as it went, was not the whole truth. Each one of them had a limited, but not a perfect knowledge of the elephant as a whole. The man with eyes who could see the whole of the elephant all at once, explained to each one of the blind persons, that though correctly asserting a part, he was ignorant of the whole truth; and thus set at rest the wrangling amongst the imperfectly informed persons, who assailed each other as wrong and untrue, while not one of them knew the whole truth. The vast majority of philosophers are so very much engrossed in their own theories that they would not care to look beyond. Each is so very partial, one-sided and prejudiced, that he would not, like a person born blind, examine the other systems. Looking at things from different angles of vision, each has been disputing with the others, asserting his own system to be correct, and the others wrong. Such disputations among the various systems of philosophy are reconciled by the all-embracing all-encompassing Anekant, the Universal System, the all-comprehensive Science of Thought. After doing obeisance to the Supreme Intelligence, the Pure and the Highest Self, the Parmatma, the fountain-head of all knowledge, of all Scripture, of all Revelation, the author, here offers salutation to the Revealed Knowledge, the Highest System of philosophy, the Universal Truth, which reconciles, encompasses, assimilates all partial systems, incomplete, one-sided, and hence jarring and contradictory among themselves. Page #67 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS paramAgamaM prayatnena / lokatrayaikanetraM nirUpya asmAbhirupoGghriyate viduSAM puruSArthasiddhayupAyo 'yam // 3 // 3. After having carefully studied the Highest Scripture, which affords a matchless vision of the three worlds, 1 proceed to expound, for the sake of scholars, this (treatise) Purushartha-Siddhyupaya. Commentary. The word "one eye" conveys the idea of unequalled, matchless vision, such as cannot be had anywhere else, in any other system of Philosophy. The book is written for the sake of sensible earnest students. Neither this, nor any other book can do any substantial good to the foolish, prejudiced, bigoted, or obstinate person, who cannot, or would not, think widely and deeply. Purushartha Siddhyupaya.-This name is given to the treatise because it literally deals with the method of attaining the object of the Soul. The object of the Soul is the riddance of all imperfection, due to its contact with matter, and the consequential evolution into ultimate perfection, the inherent quality of the Soul. The book is the result of firm conviction and deep research derived from an extensive study of the most sublime and all-comprehensive Philosophy, the Highest Revelation made by the All-Knowing Arhat. mukhyopacAravivaraNanirastadustaravineyadurbodhAH / vyavahAranizcayajJAH pravartayante jagati tIrtham // 4 // 4. True philosophy is promulgated in the Universe, by those who, themselves conversant with the real and the practical aspects, dispel the difficult-to-be-removed ignorance of pupils by an exposition of both the absolute and the relative aspects of things. Commentary. The word at, literally means, a ford, a means of crossing over. Metaphorically it denotes a spiritual guide, or Philosophy, which enables one to cross over the ocean of recurring births in this world. Page #68 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA The adoption of a one-sided view, whether absolute, or relative, would be prejudicial and obstructive to right advancement and evolution. The Jain Philosophy explains all points in a two-fold manner. The Nishchaya, Mukhya, Shuddha, Satyartha, Bhutartha, or Dravyarthika Naya, is that aspect which views things from an absolute standpoint, unaffected by the influence of surrounding circumstances. Vyavahara, Upachara, Ashuddha, Asatyartha, Abhutartha, or Paryayarthika Naya contemplates the same objects in their vary. ing conditions under outside influences. This study of the two-fold aspect of substances, is essentially necessary for a full and perfect comprehension of an object. From the Nishchaya Naya, man viewed as the Jiva is pure consciousness, and is immaterial. Again, as encased in the body, it is from Vyavahara Naya, said to possess weight, colour and other attributes of matter. The preceptor should therefore be fully acquainted with all points of view, in order to discourse to various persons from the aspects in which they can grasp them. The master should be able to approach all intellects, high and low, to satisfy the most advanced student as well as to make things clear to a beginner. nizcayamiha bhUtArtha vyavahAraM varNayantyabhUtArtham / bhatArthabodhavimukhaH prAyaH sarvo'pi saMsAraH // 5 // 5. In this connection, Nishchaya is defined as the Real, and Vyavabara as unreal. Almost the whole world has its face against Knowledge of the real aspect. Commentary. The vast majority of people in the world are so very much engrossed in mundane pursuits, that they pay no attention, and bestow no thought to find out the reality of their own selves. And therefore they go deeper into the mire of mundane meanderings. abudhasya bodhanArthaM munIzvarA dezayantyabhUtArtham / vyavahArameva kevalamavaiti yastasya dezanA nAsti // 6 // 6. The high saints point out Vyavahara for the guidance of the ignorant. A discourse is of no avail to one, who knows Vyavahara only. Page #69 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS Commentary. A child is instructed in the truths of religion and morals by allegories and paraoles; but as his intellect grows, he begins to discuss those truths from a more serious and abstract point of view. But if one cannot go beyond parables or allegories, one will always remain a child in intellect. The learned preceptors commence by inculcating truths from the relative or Vyavahara point of view, and describe things as they ordinarily and seemingly appear. Gradually, however, they lead the pupil to the real aspect. If, however, no effort is made to grasp the real aspect, and attention is confined only to the relative side, there would be no real progress, and the disciple would ever remain envolved in mazes temporal, and unable to evolve the spiritual side; and thus all discourses will be lost upon him. It is therefore essentially necessary that one should know both the real and practical aspects of things. mANavaka eva siMho yathA bhavatyanavagItasiMhasya | vyavahAra eva hi tathA nizcayatAM yAtyanizcayajJasya // 7 // 7. Just as a cat represents a lion to one who has not known a lion, similarly Vyavahara alone is Nishchaya unto him who does not know what Nishchaya is. syaziniagani a: agen akda xafa ae$?TFY: 1 prApnoti dezanAyAH sa eva phaz2amavikalaM ziSyaH // 8 // 8. That student alone achieves the full benefit of teaching, who, having well understood both Vyavahara and Nishchaya, in their true nature, becomes neutral. Commentary. The student is here advised to approach his studies with open mind, and not to obstinately stick to pre-formed ideas. All prejudice and pre-inclination should be avoided. If one adopts the Nishchaya view only, one would altogether neglect the rules of conduct which serve as stepping-stones to spiritual . Page #70 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA progress. Again, if the Vyavahara view alone is adhered to, realisation of the true Self, Moksha, would become impossible of attainment. asti puruSazcidAtmA vivarjitaH sparzagandharasavarNaiH / guNaparpayasamavetaH samAhitaH samudayavyayadhAvyaiH // 6 // 7 9. Purusha (the soul) is pure consciousness. It is free from touch, smell, taste and colour, has its own attributes and conditions, and is possessed of manifestation, disappearance and continuity. Commentary. The author here proceeds to define the word Purusha, with which the name of this book, Purushartha Siddhyupaya begins. The definition of Purusha, soul, is threefold. Its positive aspect is consciousness, self-illumination, and full, perfect, absolute knowledge of all else that subsists, spontaneous, inherent, direct, without the intervention of any other medium. Its negative definition is its non-contact with attributes of Matter, such as smell, taste, touch, colour. Then again, in common with all other substances, viz., Matter, Space, Dharma, Adharma, and Time, it is possessed of immutable and distinctive attributes of its own, but is constantly undergoing changes of conditions. It has a triple aspect of manifestation, disappearance and continuity. To take some illustrations. A gold chain may be melted and formed into a ring, but it remains gold at all times, while changing its form. A piece of iron may in course of time change into red rust. This change of form is constant and continuous, though it may be imperceptible. The iron however retains all the inherent qualities of the metal iron at all times. Water may change into vapour and ice, but it retains the constituent properties of water at all times. A Jiva may take the body of a vegetable, or an insect, or animal, or may be born as man, in the dark hellish regions, or in the bright heavenly firmament, or attain Moksha. Its forms may change, its consciousness may be reduced to a nominal degree, but it would, as a property inherent in it, be ever present in all forms and conditions. Forms may change, appear and disappear, but the constituting properties remain constant, ever present. Page #71 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 8 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS This triple aspect of appearance, disappearance, and constancy, creation, destruction and permanence, also find place in Hindu Philosophy, though represented there in a mythological form as the three Gods, Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, who keep the universe going. It is a simple statement of a fact which characterises all substances. A substance is that which subsists distinctly, in its own entity and individuality as separate and distinguishable from other substances. This distinguishing feature, or features, constitute the very essence of the substance. Without them the substance cannot exist. These are its constant, invariable attributes, unchanging and unchangeable. And yet every substance is continually undergoing change, may be imperceptibly slow, but certain. This change is due to the action of the substance called Time. The common-place remark that Time changes everything, is a statement of a truth of Metaphysics. It is also a truth of Physics, so far as that Science goes. Matter is indestructible, but is constantly changing in form. Similarly, soul is eternal, uncreate, and undying, but is constantly undergoing visible change of form, so long as it is combined with subtle matter in Karmic condition When it is freed from all connection and contact with matter, and attains its own glory, even then in that Nirvanic condition, there is a constant change within itself. It is called six-fold Increase and Decrease, Shatguni Hani-vridhi. It is a fine and subtle metaphysical statement, which is very difficult to demonstrate within the limited compass of a small treatise like the present one. In the physical world, it is clear that all things are changing, may be imperceptibly slowly. Even the so-called sudden and violent changes are only so in a comparative sense. They are really the result of a slow and imperceptible work by forces, constantly and ceaselessly exerting themselves for centuries. This definition of Purusha, Jiva, Soul, will enable us to follow the subsequent lessons with ease and interest. The English word "Soul" does not correctly and fully convey the full significance of what we mean by the word "Jiva". "Atma", or "Purusha"; and, therefore, we shall henceforth use the Sanskrit word, Jiva, without giving its English equivalent. It has no sex, and we shall use the neuter pronoun for it when necessary. From the real point of view, all Jivas, whether in pure Nirvanic condition, or in the impure embodied state, are alike, inasmuch as they are all possessed of the above mentioned features in the potential sense. Page #72 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA From the practical point of view, however, Jivas confined in material bodies have varying degrees of consciousness. It is least apparent in the five lowest forms of life where it functions through the one sense of touch only, and has a physical body in the form of earth, water, fire, air and vegetation. This consciousness gradually developes and the Jiva begins to function through an increasing number of sense organs, and is placed in two-sensed, three-sensed, four-sensed, and five-sensed groups. pariNamamANo nityaM jnyaanvivrnaadisnttyaa| pariNAmAnAM sveSAM sa bhavati kartA ca bhoktA ca // 10 // 10. Undergoing, through illusory knowlege, constant changes since eternity, it causes and experiences its own thought activities. Commentary. There was no time when Pure Jiva was first polluted by the attachment of karmic matter. Pure Jiya is above all contamination, and is called Mukta Jiva, the liberated soul. It is omniscient and with infinite power. The Samsari Jiva, or the embodied soul, has ever been contaminated, beweighted, and pressed down by Karmic forces, the good and evil emotions, and thereby, from time eternal, it has been subject to varying thought-activities. These thought activities, though influenced by karmas, have their origin in vibrations, produced by the embodied Jiva : and, therefore, the Embodied Jiva must be held to be the doer of all karmas, responsible for all thought activities, and the enjoyer of the effects thereof, whether good or evil. The Jaina Philosophy postulates the eternal existence of Jiva; without a beginning and without an end. Jiva is called Purusha, Atma, Ego, I, Soul. Jiva means one who lives, has a conscious existence. It is distinguishable from Ajiva, non-Jiya, which is the other of the two primary substances, Jiva and Ajiva, which constitute the Universe all that is. There is an infinite number of Jivas in the Universe. Infinity is such a number that it is unaffected by all arithmetical processes. You may add to or subtract from infinity, any quantity, and the result is ever constant-infinity. Page #73 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 10 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS. In the Universe, Jivas exist in two conditions. There are the pure, uncontaminated Jivas, exhibiting all the attributes of Perfec. tion. They are Omniscient. They want nothing, they are above desire, and they are ever happy. They are Mukta Jivas. The Samsari Jivas or embodied souls are contaminated by combination with fine molecules of fine Karmic matter, which obscure their inherent attributes such as Omniscience, Peace and Beatitude. It is this Karmic combination, which is the inducing cause for attracting fresh Karmic matter to the soul, and keeping up the state of contamination. There is a limit to the period for which karmic matter can remain combined and bound up with a soul, but before the expiry of that period, the activities of body, mind and speech, and the passions and emotions, generated by the karmic molecules already in contact, create a condition which attracts other Karmic molecules for bondage with the soul, and thus the process of falling off of old, and the bondage of fresh karmas goes on and on. The Karmas are ever changing in their intensity, duration, kind and quantity. The stoppage of this process of bondage and the elimination of all karmas can be attained by effort, of which the ultimate result is Nirvana, Emancipation, Liberation from Karmas. A pure Jiva cannot possibly be affected by Karmas. No force, no influence, no power, however strong, can affect it. It exists, in a constant condition of Supreme happiness, in the enjoyment of Omniscience and other inherent attributes. srvvivttottiirnn yadA sa caitnymclmaapnoti| bhavati tadA kRtakRtyaH smykpurussaarthsiddhimaapnnH||11|| 11. When Jiva, having got rid of all illusion, attains everlasting consciousness, it then becomes one who has accom. plished all that was to be accomplished, and is possessed of the success resulting from right exertion. Commentary. The ultimate object of human existence is to attain the perfect purity of the soul, its condition of inherent perfection. The obstacle to such attainment is ignorance, illusion, or Moha, and when that is removed, the inherent attributes appear and the latent becomes Page #74 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA patent. The latent potentialities become fully manifested, and the imperfect soul, becomes the perfect Soul, Parmatma. jIvakRtaM pariNAmaM nimittamAtraM prapadya punaranye / svayameva pariNamante'tra pudgalAH karmabhAvena // 12 // 11 12. Again, other molecules of matter, coming in contact with the stimulus of (impure) thought-activities emanating from the Jiva, themselves turn into the form of Karma. Commentary. This process of conversion into Karmic molecules, and combination with Jiva is automatic and contemporaneous, caused by the stimulus of impure thought activities, like the imprint of an image on a sensitive plate on exposure to light; or the conversion of water into vapour by the effect of the heat. pariNamamANasya citazcidAtmakaiH svayamapi svakairbhAvaiH / bhavati hi nimittamAtraM paudgalikaM karma tasyApi // 13 // 13. To a Jiva, modifying itself by its own (impure) thought activities, the material Karma (in operation) acts only as a stimulus. Commentary. It is the Jiva itself which undergoes a modification in its own impure thought activities. The operation of a Karma, already in bondage with it acts as a stimulating cause to such modification. Jiva and matter both have the capacity of modification. The modification, however, would not go beyond the scope of their res pective attributes. A Jiva would in spite of all modifications remain a Jiva, and would never get modified into matter; and so would matter never get modified into Jiva. But there is a sort of reciprocal connection of cause and effect between them, inasmuch as the impure thought activity of a Jiva is an auxiliary cause to the conversion of karmic molecules into Karmas, and the operation of boundup Karmas becomes an auxiliary cause for the impure thought activities of a Jiva. This reciprocal action is the cause of the ever-continuous existence of Jiva in mundane condition. Matter existing by Page #75 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 12 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS itself could never have been capable of turning into Karma, if there were no stimulus of the impure thought-activity of a Jiva; and a Jiva could never entertain an impure thought activity if there were no Karma affecting it. The continuance of such action is Samsara, and its discontinuance is Moksha. karmakRtairbhAvairasamAhito'pi yukta iva / evamayaM pratibhAti bAlizAnAM pratibhAsaHsa khalu bhavabIjam // 14 // 14. Thus, though Jiva is not identified with the thought activities caused by Karmas, yet to the ignorant it appears to be so identified. This illusion is verily the seed of Samsara. Commentary Illusion is the basic cause of the transmigration of Jiva in the world. This illusion consists in not understanding the true nature of Jiva and matter, and in identifying Jiva with the passions, affections and the various other conditions caused by Karmas. Love, hatred, lust, anger, greed, pride, and deceit are not the Svabhaya (true nature) of Jiva: they are produced by the influence of Karmas. The true nature of Jiva is pure consciousness, which, by the effect of Karmas, has become affected with attachment, hatred and the various other passions and affections. Ignorant persons taking what are only accidentals, to be the essentials of Jiva, entertain hatred. and other passionate tendencies, and are ever involved in the course of transmigration. viparItAbhinivezaM nirasya samyagavyavasya nijatatvam / yattasmAdavicalanaM sa eva puruSArthasiddhyupAyo'yam // 15 // 15. Having got rid of the above perversity and having well realized the nature of the Self, steadfastness therein is the means to the acquisition of the object of Jiva. Commentary, This is what is well-known as Samyak Darshan or Samyaktwa, Right Belief in the principles of the Jaina religion, The title of the book Purushartha Siddhyupaya has been literally explained and justified here. Page #76 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA SIDDHYUPAYA The object of writing this philosophical work as indicated in the name given to it is here explained, and the way to the attainment of the goal pointed out. The disciple should first get rid of the perversity of confusing the distinctive natures of Jiva and matter, and of identifying the one with the other. He should understand and fully realise the true nature of Jiva, and cultivate a steadfast belief therein. This steadfast belief and its application at every moment to the varying circumstances in life would help in the easy shedding off of Karmas, and in the stoppage of fresh inflow and bondage of Karmas, and thus lead to ultimate freedom or Moksha. A true believer would remain equable and unperturbed in the face of disease, distress, calamity or casualty. He would ascribe it to karmic influence and remain at peace in mind and body. He would entertain good thoughts and practise pure concentration of mind. Discipline, austerity and renunciation would be pleasant, health-giving, and invigorating to the mind and the body. He would develope his soul force, attain perfect self-realization, freedom from Karmicjthraldom, or Moksha. anusaratAM pdmettkrmbitaacaarnitynirbhimukhaaH| ekAntaviratirUpA bhavati munInAmalaukikI vRttiH||16|| 16. The life-routine of such saints as follow this path, as are ever averse to questionable conduct, and have adopted complete renunciation, is uncommon indeed. : Commentary. The most direct, and the quickest path to Moksha is the adoption of the life-discipline of a saint. Such a life-discipline is uncommon indeed. A saint has no attachment to, and no aversion for any thing or person. He has no desire. He has no property, no clothes, no house. His only possession is a wooden bowl for water for cleaning the body when necessary, and a soft brush for removing insects when moving about, sitting or lying down. He foregoes for life the luxury of a bath, and would not sleep on a bed. He lies down on the bare ground to give to the body the minimum rest required. He takes food simply to sustain life, and such food, simple and pure, must not be specially prepared for him. He takes it standing, off his hands. He is occupied in the study of, and discourse upon the scriptures. He practises concentration of mind, with, a view to self realization. Page #77 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 14 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS.. bahuzaH samastaviratipradarzitAM yo na jAtu gRhNAti / tasyaikadezaviratiH kathanIyA'nena bIjena // 17 // 17. He who, in spite of repeated dissertations, is unable to accept the path of absolute renunciation, should in that event, be lectured upon partial renunciation. Commentary. He, who is not prepared to adopt the order of saints should be persuaded to enter the life of a virtuous house-holder, who practises partial renunciation, and gradually prepares himself for the higher orders. yo yatidharmamakathayannupadizati gRhsthdhrmmlpmtiH|| tasya bhagavatpravacane pradarzitaM nigrahasthAnam // 18 // 18. The unwise (preceptor) who without discoursing upon the "order of saints" only lectures upon "order of the householder' is, according to the sayings of the worshipful, deserving of censure. akramakathanena yataH protsahamAno'tidUramapi shissyH| apade'pi saMpratRptaH pratArito bhavati tena durmatinA // 16 // ___19. Because, on account of the ill-regulated discourses of the unwise (preceptor), even the disciple, who had pitched up his resolution high, is made to content himself only with a low position and is thus misled. evaM samyagdarzanabodhacaritratrayAtmako nityam / tasyApi mokSamAgoM bhavati niSevyo yathAzakti // 20 // 20. And, for him also the three-fold path of liberation, consisting of right belief, right knowledge, and right conduct, is to be constantly followed according to his capacity. Commentary. Jaina saints lead an ascetic life of complete renunciation and severe austerities. A layman though unable to follow the rigorous Page #78 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 15 code of the saint, must follow the rules of conduct so far as his capa. city allows him to do so But he should not shrink from the three. fold path, and should not under-estimate his capacity. He may adopt a milder discipline to prepare himself for the higher one, The rules of religious conduct may thus be divided into those for saints and those for laymen. CHAPTER II. Right Belief. tatrAdau samyaktvaM samupAzrayaNIyamakhilayatnena / tasmin satyeva yato bhavati jJAnaM caritraM ca // 21 // 21. Again, one must, by all possible means, first attain right belief; because only on the acquisition thereof knowledge and conduct become (right). Commentary. Right belief means true and firm conviction in the principles. arrived at after full consideration, in accordance with the laws of reasoning, from all possible and reasonable points of view. The knowledge which a person possesses cannot be denominated right knowledge, unless it is preceded and accompanied by absolute conviction and firm belief. And the conduct becomes Right Conduct when preceded and accompanied by Right Belief and Right KnowIedge. jIvAjIvAdInAM tattvAnAM sadaiva kartavyam / zraddhAnaM viparItA'bhinivezaviviktamAtmarUpaM tat // 22 // 22. One should always have firm belief in Jiva, Ajiva, and the other principles, as they are, free from perverse notions. It is the nature of the Self. Commentary. From the practical point of view a right belief is a firm belief in the seven principles. From the real point of view it is an inherent attribute of Jiva itself. : The seven principles of Jainism solve all problems which agitate man's mind, such as, what substances the universe is composed Page #79 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 16 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS of, what are the natural qualities and functions of each of these substances, what is the reality of Jiva, why does it transmigrate, and how can it attain Nirvana, what am I, why am I here, what is to become of me, what is the reality of what I see around me, why is there pain and misery in the world, and how can they be got rid of, and how can happiness be attained ? These may well be here described. 1. Jiva has already been described in verses 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15. Religions differ widely in their conceptions in this respect. The Charvaka system propagated a sort of Epicurianism, under the conception that Jiva is a condition of matter, and that death is nothing but the separation of those material particles (earth, water, fire and air) which when combined in certain proportions formed the Jiva. Another religion teaches that Jiva is caged like a bird in the physical body, and can fly away, if this cage, the physical body, be broken. Another says that Jiva has no separate identity, but is only a form and part of the one Almighty God. Another maintains that Jiva is ever pure, and never became impure from any point of view. Another again inculcates that Jiva is not an independent ego, but works under the directions of One God, and enjoys and suffers the fruits of his good or bad deeds under the decree of that God. According to Jainism, Jiva substance is immaterial. Its differential attribute is consciousness. This attribute is inseparable, and is always found in a Jiva in all its modified forms. The degree of consciousness is always in proportion to its degree of purity from karmic contact. It has a separate and independent individuality of its own, and is itself responsible for its advancement or fall. It acts at its own will and the results of such acts, good or bad, automatically follow, without the intervention or decree of any God. It is one inseparable substance composed of many attributes with their various conditions. There are various points of view from which we can classify Jivas. One important classification is with reference to the degree of consciousness, belief, passionlessness, and spiritual happiness, evolved by it. There are 3 principal classes, here: - (a) Vahiratma, (6) Antaratma, (e) Parmatma (a) Vahiratma is that Jiva (in whatever form of life it may be) which has such perverse knowledge that it cannot recognize itself as a pure soul. It has no idea of its own real self and considers the physical body in which it is imprisoned, and the surroundings and Page #80 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 17 environments of that body as its own. Under this class come all those Jivas who have not acquired Right Belief. (6) Antaratma are those souls that have acquired Right Belief. and have come to realise their own identity and reality by having belief in the truth of the seven principles; and have made such progress in their conduct as is likely to lead to ultimate purity. All right believers, householders or saints, come under this head. Such souls can only be found in the higher forms of life, where they possess the five senses of touch, smell, taste, hearing, seeing and the mind. Such Jivas are found in human forms, among animals (possessed of the five senses and the mind) and amongst Hellish beings and Celestials. These Antaratmas may again be divided into 3 sub. classes. (i) Those who have acquired right belief only, but do not possess sufficient control over the foreign leanings of the soul, to be able to follow the discipline laid down for a layman or saint. (ii) Those who have acquired right belief and have adopted the conduct of a lay person, and are called Shravaks. (iii) Those that have acquired right belief and are engaged in austerities and other practices prescribed for saints. (c) Parmatma is the pure Jiva free from all defects, omniscient, with infinite power and peacefulness. Such Jivas are of two kinds (a) Sakal (with body) called Arhat, the worshipful; and (b) Nikal (without body) called Siddha, the Perfect. The Arhats retain a few external surroundings, which do not interfere with the inner reali. zation of inherent attributes of a Jiva. Such surroundings are, mere connection with the material body, for a limited time in pleasant environments and in the highest social position, and some glorious paraphernalia brought together by the celestials for purposes of devotion and propagation of the Doctrines to all beings. These outward surroundings are due to the operation of non-destructive Karmas, which are in the process of shedding off. Nikal Parmatma has no connection whatever with a material body and has become essentially pure. II. Ajiva or non-Jiva. - All the other substances in the universe, besides, Jiva, are Ajiva or non-Jiva. Ajiva includes 5 distinct substances (a) Pudgala, (b) Dharmastikaya, (c) Adharmastikaya. (d) Akasha, and (e) Kala. (a) Pudgala, matter. Its distinctive attributes are touch, taste smell, and colour. An atom forms the unit of this substance. In numbers it is infinite. An atom as conceived in modern science is Page #81 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 18 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS far grosser than the ultimate atom defined in Jainism and called Paramanu the indivisible, finest, and subtlest atom. The combination of two or more atoms forms a Skandha, molecule. In view of subtlety, or grossness the molecules of matter are divided into 6 classes (1) Sthoola-S thoola, Solids, which can be pierced or cut through e.g. stone, wood, paper, (2) Sthoola, liquids which rejoin when the separating cause is removed (3) Sthoola-Sukshma, molecules which are visible but cannot be grasped, not tangible, such as light, shade, (4) Sukshma-Sthoola, bodies which are not visible but are perceivable by other senses such as gases, sound (5) Sukshma, those which are not perceptible to sense, Karmic molecules. (6) SukshmaSukshma is the indivisibly fine and subtle atom conceivable only by saints possessed of the highest visual knowledge, (6) Dharmasti kaya. This substance also is immaterial like Jiva. It is the substance, which helps motion. It is one homogenous sub. stance pervading throughout. But for this substance (Dharma) the whole universe would be at a stand-still. It is the principle of motion. (c) Adharmastikaya. This substance is also immaterial. Its differential attribute is, that it passively helps cessation of motion. It is also all-pervading and co-extensive with Dharmastikaya in Universe. This also is of one continuous extent But for this substance, all things in the universe would be constantly moving. (d) Akasha, Space. This substance is also immaterial. Its differential attribute is, that it offers space to all substances. This substance also is of one continuous extent, is infinite and unbounded. The part of this substance which pervades in the universe is called Lokakasha and that which pervades beyond the universe is called Alokakasha. (e) Kala, time. This substance is also immaterial. Its differential attribute is, that is helps change. It covers every spatial unit. Each such part is called Kalanu, the atom-unit of time. They are innumerable in number, and are equal to the spatial units of the universe. III. Asrava is the inflow of material karmic molecules towards the soul. The vibrations of Jiva, through mind, body and speech occasion this inflow. IV. Bandha is the bondage of Jiva by Karmic molecules. Bandha is analysed into 4 divisions. a) Prakriti Bandha which has reference to the nature of the Karma bound up. It is divided into 8 main classes ; Page #82 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 19 1. Jnanavarniya Karma. This obscures the attribute of omniscience. It is due to this Karma that in different conditions and circumstances of life, Jiva exhibits a varying degree of knowledge. When the Jiva is rid of these material incumbrances, it regains its inherent quality of omniscience. 2. Darshanavarniya Karma. Contact with this Karma limits and reduces the inherent quality of Perfect Conation. 3. Mohaniya. This stands in the way of true realization of the Self, and keeps Jiva under the influence of illusion and passions. 4. Antaraya. It obstructs the attainment of infinite power. The above four Karmas are called Ghateeya Karmas, because they injure the very essential qualities of Jiva. The other 4 karmas, which are distinguished by the class name Aghateeya, only act as handicaps to the attainment of the final goal, moksha. The Arhat-pada, or Jivanmukta stage of evolution is reached on the riddance of the Ghateeya karmas. The next and final stage is the Siddha-pada. 5. Vedanfya karma. Pleasure and pain is experienced as the result of this karma. 6. Ayu-Karma. Keeps the Jiva encased in the body for a definite term, and prevents it from attaining Liberation. 7. Nam-Karma governs the form, dimensions, structure, strength etc., of the body, which a Jiva occupies. 8. Gotra Karma determines the high and low position in life. (6) Pradesha Bandha has referenee to the molecular combination of karmic matter with Jiva, and varies with the intensity of the vibrations of mind, speech or body which brings it about. (c) Anubhaga Bandha has reference to the strong or mild effect of Karma, which varies with the force of the passionate thought activity. (d) Sthiti Bandha determines the period of time during which a karma remains bound with Jiva. It varies with the intensity of the Kashayas which give rise to it. V. Samvara is the stoppage of the inflow of Karma. VI. Nirjara is the shedding off of karmic matter by meditation, and self-concentration. VII. Moksha is the absolute freedom from all contact with karmic matter. It is the condition of absolute purity of Jiva. A person who has acquired faith in the above seven principles should observe the eight rules of conduct discussed in the following Page #83 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 20 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS verses, which strengthen right belief and prevent deviation from the right path, sakalamanekAntAtmakamidamuktaM vstujaatmkhiljnyaiH| kimu satyamasatyaM vA na jAtu zaGketi kartavyA // 23 // 23. One should never entertain any doubt as to whether all these many-sided views of things proceeding from the omniscients, are true or untrue. Commentary. This is called Nishankita Anga. The true believer must never be sceptical. Our intellects are limited, our capacities are narrow and it is impossibe for us to realize the complete knowledge of everything that exists. We have therefore to take many things on trust. Inquiry should not be stifled but it should begin in a reverent manner. With a firm belief in the truth. as laid down by the Lords of Wisdom, the earnest inquirer should proceed to investigate in a steady manner the real nature of the subjects of his inquiry, and light will come to him in fuller and fuller blaze, until he will himself enter the Hall of Wisdom, and se e and know all. Belief must precede inquiry. As a foundation for right belief, the Seeker after Truth should to the best of his ability and ca apply his mental powers towards the understanding of the immediate truth of things near him, guided by the rules of common sense, logic and reasoning. iha janmani vibhavAdInamutra cakritvakezavatvAdIn / ekAntavAdadUSitaparasamayAnapi ca nAkAMkSeta // 24 // 24. The true believer should not desire worldy greatness in this life or for the position of a Chakravarti or Narayana in the life hereafter; nor should he cling to other faiths, disfigur. ed by the adoption of one-sided theories. Commentary. A true believer does not hanker after worldly pleasures and greatness. Heis enamoured of spiritual happiness, which is far beyond the gratification of senses. Page #84 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 21 There is some truth in every religion. The mistake, however is that partial truths are taken as whole truths. There is an undue clinging to one aspect of things and the other aspects are ignored and denied. A true believer does not obstinately stick to one-sided views. This is called Nikankshita Anga. kSuttRSNAzItoSNaprabhRtiSu nAnAvidheSu bhAveSu / dravyeSu purISAdiSu vicikitsA naiva karaNIyA // 25 // 25. He should not exhibit a feeling of disgust at the various conditions caused by hunger, thirst, cold, heat, etc. or at the sight of excrement etc. This is termed Nirvichkitsita Anga. Commentary. A true believer realises the true nature of things as they are ; and looks at everything with a dispassionate attitude. Physical conditions due to the operation of Karmas would induce in him a feeling of pity and not disgust. He would try to help one who is in distress, and would not simply turn his back in disgust. Foul excretions are mere physical conditions of matter, brought about by natural causes. He has no disgust for such conditions. He would however take proper action as suits the occasion. Cleanliness is a part of discipline. loke zAstrAbhAse samayAbhAse ca devatAbhAse / nityamapi tatvarucinA kartavyamamaDhadRSTitvam // 26 // 26. In this world, he who has faith in the Tattwas (the Seven principles) should never have a superstitious belief in a fallacious scripture, an unreal doctrine, or a false deity. ___Commentary. The true believer should keep his views ever clear, and uninflu. enced by pseudo-scriptures, plausible theories, and misrepresented deities. This is Amudha Drishti Anga. dharmo'bhivarddhanIyaH sadAtmano maardvaadibhaavnyaa| paradoSanigUhanamapi vidheyamupabRMhaNaguNArtham // 27 // Page #85 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 22 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS 27. To evolve the virtue of Upavrinhana, one should ever cultivate the true nature of Jiva by meditating upon ten. derness etc., and should also try to cover the defects of others. Commentary. This is the 5th of the 8 pillars supporting right belief. It is called Upavrinhana or Upaguhana A right believer should evolve his spiritual nature by the contemplation and practice of the ten rules of piety namely, the highest forgiveness, tenderness, straight-forwardness, purity, truth, self-control, austerities, charity, non-attachment and chastity. He should not have the habit of searching for and proclaiming the faults, defects and discrepancies of others. He should, however, try his utmost to remove such shortcomings in a manner which may be best suited and least painful to the person concerned. kAmakrodhamadAdiSu calayitumuditeSu vartmano nyAyAt / zrutamAtmanaH parasya ca yuktyA sthitikaraNamapi kAryam // 28 // 28. In case of deviation from the path of righteousness, under the influence of anger, pride, the sexual passion etc., he should strengthen his own knowledge and that of others by argument. Commentary. Steadiness, sthitikarana-anga is the 6th pillar of right belief. One should always drive away the inroads of scepticism on himself or others by constant reasoning and argument, and should never yield to sceptical thoughts. anavaratamahiMsAyAM zivasukhalakSmInibandhane dharme / sarveSvapi ca sadharmiSu paramaM vAtsalyamAlamvyam // 26 // 29. One should ever cherish feelings of deep affection for religion, which brings about the treasure of spiritual happiness, and for the principle of non-injury, and also for co religionists. Commentary. Vatsalya Anga, is the 7th pillar of Right Belief. Page #86 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 23 AtmA prabhAvanIyo ratnatrayatejasA satatameva / dAnatapojinapUjAvidyAtizayaizca jindhrmH||30|| 30. One should ever make his own self radiant by the light of the three jewels, and should add to the glory of Jain. ism by exceptional charity, austerity, worship of Jina, the Conqueror, and by learning. Commentary. The three jewels are, as has already been said, right belief, right knowledge, and right conduct. Prabhavana Anga is the 8th pillar of Right Belief. -:0:CHAPTER III. Right Knowledge. ityAzritasamyaktvaiH samyagjJAnaM nirUpya yatnena / AmnAyayuktiyogaiH samupAsyaM nitymaatmhitaiH||31|| 31. Those who have thus attained right belief, mastered the system of Jaina Philosophy and the rules of logic, and are ever intent on self-evolution, should devote themselves to the acquisition of right knowledge, after having understood it with diligence through scriptures, arguments, and contemplation. Commentary. Samyaktva, right belief has already been defined and explained at length in the preceding chapter. In this chapter, the author deals with Samyak-Jnana. Knowledge acquired previous to the attainment of Right belief could not be called Right knowledge. pRthagArAdhanamiSTaM darzanasahabhAvino'pi bodhasya / lakSaNabhedena yato nAnAtvaM sambhavatyanayoH // 32 // 32. Although Right Knowledge is contemporaneous with Right belief, still it should be separately meditated upon because there is distinction between the two on account of their different characteristics. Page #87 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 24 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS Commentary Right belief and Right knowledge both are two distinct attributes of Jiva. They respectively are obscured by two distinctive Karmas, wrong belief, mithyatya, and knowledge obscuring, Jnanavarana. On the attainment of Right belief, the knowledge then existing becomes Right knowledge; but because of the existence of knowledge-obscuring karma in operation, it is not perfect. Therefore it is necessary to make constant endeavours for advancement of knowledge as long as omniscience is not evolved. samyagjJAnam kArya samyaktva kAraNaM vadanti jinaaH| jJAnArAdhanamiSTaM samyaktvAnantaraM tasmAt // 33 // 33. The Conquerors have called Right knowledge the effect and Right belief the cause. Therefore, it is desirable to be striving after knowledge on attaining Right belief. kAraNakAryavidhAnaM samakAlaM jAyamAnayorapi hi / dIpaprakAzayoriva samyaktvajJAnayoH sughaTam // 34 // 34. Although Right belief and Right knowledge are contemporaneous, there is yet a clear relation of cause and effect between them, just as there is between a lamp and its light. Commentary. Lamp and light go together ; still the lamp precedes the light, and light cannot be said to precede the lamp. In the same way there is the relation of cause and effect between Right belief and Right knowledge, though both are almost simultaneous. Right knowledge cannot precede Right belief, and from this point of view Right knowledge is called the effect and Right belief the Cause. kartavyo'dhyavasAyaH sadanekAntAtmakeSu tattveSu / saMzayaviparyayAnadhyavasAyavivikramAtmarUpaM tat // 35 // 35. Effort should be made to understand the existing many-natured principles. Such knowledge free from doubt, Page #88 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 25 perversity, and vagueness, is really the very quality of the self. Commentary. From the practical point of view, continuous effort for the ac. quisition of knowledge of the existing truths is right knowledge, which must be free from doubt, perversity and vagueness. From the real point of view, such Right knowledge is the very attribute of the soul, and is exposed on removal of knowledge-obscuring Karma. granthAbhiyapUrNa kAle vinayena sopadhAnaM c| bahumAnena samanvitamanihavaM jJAnamArAdhyam / / 36 // 38. Let there be a devotion to knowledge, with a correct use of the words, with a full acquaintance of their mean ings, with a combination of both, at proper times, with due respect, in proper manner, accompanied with great zeal and without concealment. Commentary. The 8 pillars of Right belief have been described in Chapter II. Here are set out the 8 pillars of Right Knowledge. 1. Grantha-Reading, writing and pronouncing every letter and word correctly. 2. Archa- Understanding the meaning and full significance of words, phrases and the text. 3. Ubhaya - Reading, writing and speaking with full and proper understanding of the import of what is read, written and spoken. 4. Kala -- Observance of regularity, punctuality, and propriety of time. Improper and unsuitable occasions should be avoided. 5. Vinaya Reverent attitude. 6. Sopadhana-Propriety of behaviour 7. Bahumana - Zeal. 8 Aninhava - No Concealment of knowledge, or of its sources. If knowledge is pursued in the manner stated above, it will be properly and progressively acquired and promulgated. CHAPTER III. Right Conduct. vigalitadarzanamohaH smNjsjnyaanviditttvaathaiH| nityamapi niHprakampaiH samyakcAritramAlambyam // 37 // . :0 : Page #89 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 26 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS 37. Those who have got over wrong belief, have come to know the full significance of the Tattwas through accurate knowledge, and who are firm and unshakeable, must always follow Right Conduct. Commentary. After right belief, and Right knowledge, the third, but the most important path to the goal of Moksha is Right Conduct, the three together forming what is collectively known as Ratna Traya, the "Jewels three" of Jainism Right belief and Right knowledge would not lead to Moksha, which is attainable only after the destruction of all karmic contact and this can only be accom. plished through Right Conduct. nahi samyagvyapadezaM caritramajJAnapUrvakaM lbhte| jJAnAnantaramuktaM cAritrArAdhanaM tasmAt // 38 // 38. Conduct which follows ignorance can never be designated as 'Right"; therefore, the acquisition of Right Con luct is lectured upon subsequent to "Knowledge". Commentary. From the real point of view, Right Conduct is an inherent attribute of Jiva, in its pure condition. From the practical point of view, the adoption of such rules of discipline, as restrain all censurable movements of speech, body and mind, as weaken and destroy all passionate activity and as lead to non-attachment and purity, mean and are included in Right Conduct. cAritraM bhavati yataH samastasAvadyayogapariharaNAt / sakalakaSAyavimuktaM vizadamudAsInamAtmarUpaM tat // 36 // 39. Thus, by restraint of all censurable movements, is attained such clear and unattached conduct, as is above all passion. This is the very nature of the self. hiMsAto'nRtavacanAtsteyAdabrahmataH parigrahataH / kAsnyaikadezaviritezcAritraM jAyate dvividham // 40 // 40. As distinguished by total or limited abstinence from injuring, falsehood, theft, unchastity, and worldly attachment, Conduct is of two kinds. . Page #90 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA Commentary. Conduct from the practical point is Full, when there is total abstention from the 5 faults stated above. This is practised by the saints and is called Maha-vrata. It is Partial when such abstention is limited. This is the layman's discipline and is termed Anuvrata. nirataH kAtalyanivRttau bhavati yatiH samayasArabhUto'yam / yA tvekadezaviratirniratastasyAmupAsako bhavati // 41 // 27 41. When engaged in complete abstention one becomes a saint, the personification of pure Jiva. He who is engaged in partial restraint only, would be a disciple, AtmapariNAmahiMsana hetutvAtsarvameva anRtavacanAdi kevalamudAhRtaM hiMsaitat / ziSyabodhAya // 42 // 42. All this indulgence is "Himsa" because it injures the real nature of Jiva. Falsehood, etc., are only given by way of illustration, for the instruction of the disciple, yatkhalu kaSAyayogAtprANAnAM dravyabhAvarUpANAm / vyaparopaNasya kAraNaM sunizcitA bhavati sA hiMsA // 43 // 43. Any injury whatsoever to the material or conscious vitalities caused through passionate activity of mind, body or speech is Himsa, assuredly. Commentary. Under the influence of passion, a person injures the natural purity of Jiva; and, as a result of the working of the passions, he loses his life-forces, or life itself, and similarly, causes pain to others, or even the deprivation of vitalities or of life itself. Passion is thus the moving cause which leads to Himsa. The word Prana means vitality, It is of two kinds. Bhava Prana, conscious vitalities, are the attributes of Jiva such as consciousness, peacefulness, happiness, power viz., Dravya Prana are material vitalities. They are 10, the 5 senses of touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing, the three forces of body, speech, and mind, and breathing and age. The conscious vitalities are possessed by all Page #91 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 28 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS Jivas alike, With reference to the possession of material vitalities. Jivas differ and are divided into the following six classes. 1. Ekendriya, one-sensed, such as earth-bodied, fire-bodied, airbodied, vegetable-bodied. They have 4 vitalities, age, breathing, body force, and sense of touch. 2. Dvendriya, two-sensed, such as worms, conch, shell. These have 6 vitalities, the previous four, and speech-force and sense of taste, 3. Treendriya, three-sensed, e. g., bug, ant, scorpion, lice. They have 7 vitalities; sense of smell is added to the above six. 4 Caturendriya, four-sensed, e. g., wasp, moth, fly, bee They possess the sense of sight also besides the above 7, and have thus eight vitalities. 5. . Panchendriya Asaini. Irrational, five-sensed, such as a kind of serpent found in water. They have nine vitalities, the sense of hearing being added to the preceding eight. They are rarely found. 6. Panchendriya, Saini. Rational five-sensed. They include hellish, celestial and human beings, beasts, birds, fowl. fishes, serpents, etc., They have ten vitalities, mind-force being added to tae above nine. Influenced by passion, one injures his own conscious vitalities as well as the material ones; he may further injure the vitalities of others. Passion thus necessarily leads to Himsa. aprAdurbhAvaH khalu rAgAdInAM bhavatyahiMseti / teSAmevotpattirhisati jinAgamasya sNkssepH||44|| 44. Assuredly, the non-appearance of attachment and other (passions) is Ahimsa, and their appearance is Himsa. This is a summary of the Jaina Scripture. yuktAcaraNasya sato raagaadyaaveshmntrennaa'pi| na hi bhavati jAtu hiMsA prANavyaparopaNAdeva // 45 // 45. There never is Himsa when vitalities are injured, if a person is not moved by any kind of passions and is carefully following Right Conduct. Commentary. A saint duly observing the rules of conduct walks along, carefully looking ahead, and intent on avoiding injury to the crawling Page #92 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 29 creatures. If by chance any insect is then injured or trampled under foot, he will not be responsible for Himsa. vyutthAnAvasthAyAM rAgAdInAM vshprvRttaayaam| mriyantAM jIvo mA vA dhAvatyagre dhruvaM hiMsA // 46 // 46. And, if one acts carelessly, moved by the influence of passions, there certainly advances Himsa in front of him whether a living being is killed or not. yasmAtsakaSAyaH san hantyAtmA prathamamAtmanA''tmAnam / pazcAjjAyeta na vA hiMsA prANyantarANAM tu // 47 // 47. Because under the influence of passion, the person first injures the self, through the self ; whether there is subse. quently an injury caused to another being or not. Commentary. If a person actuated by passion runs on carelessly, with no thought of avoiding injury, he would be liable for Himsa, whether any living being is killed or not; in as much as he has certainly injured his own conscious vitalities. hiMsAyAmaviramaNaM hiMsopariNamanamapi bhavati hiNsaa| tasmAt pramattayoge prANavyaparopaNaM nityam // 48 // 48. The want of abstinence from Himsa, and indulgence in Himsa, both constitute Himsa ; and thus whenever there is careless activity of niind, body, or speech, there always is injury to vitalities. Commentary. Whenever there is passionate and careless thought activity there is Himsa, most certainly, because injury is caused to one's own vital. ities. He who has not taken a vow of Ahimsa, must necessarily have an inclination towards Himsa, whether he indulges in it or not. This attitude makes him liable for Himsa. sUkSmApi na khalu hiMsA paravastunibandhanA bhavati puNsH| hiMsAyatananivRttiH pariNAmavizuddhaye tadapi kAryA // 46 // Page #93 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 30 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS 49. A mere contact with external objects, will not make a person guilty of Himsa. Even then, for the purification of thought, one ought to avoid external causes leading to Himsa. Commentary This is caution and admonition, conveyed to those extremists who would not dissuade one from contact with worldly objects, in the belief that if one's own thoughts are pure, unalloyed and unattached, nothing external can affect him prejudicially. This is a mistake. There always is a possibility of fall, and all temptations should be avoided. Mere possession of a sword would not make one guilty of HimsaSuch possession, however, affords a likely opportunity for an injurious use of the sword. Therefore to prevent all possibility of dis. position to injure, one should not entertain desire for possession of such objects as are likely to cause injury. nizcayamabudhyamAno yo nizcayatastameva sNshryte| nAzayati karaNacaraNaM sa bahiH karaNAlaso bAlaH // 50 // 50. He, who,ignorant of the real point of view, takes shelter therein in practice, is a fool, and being indifferent to external conduct, he destroys all practical discipline. Commentary. One who has not grasped the full significance of the real point of view, but thinks that he has understood it, or acts under the illusion that Jiva is always pure, is neither the doer nor enjoyer of Karmas, and has no concern with the activities of mind, body and speech, lives a wanton life and altogether ignores all rules of conduct whether for saints or laymen. Such a misguided person is constantly guilty of Himsa, because he never attempts the riddance of passions and sense-desires. The real point of view is meant only for meditation of the pure self, and self-realization. When not engaged in Self-meditation, the activities of mind, speech and body should be guided and controlled by the prescribed rules of discipline, and one should follow the practical point of view. avidhAyA'pi hi hiMsAM hiMsAphalabhAjanaM bhvtyekH| kRtvA'pyaparo hiMsAM hiMsAphalabhAjanaM na syAt // 51 // Page #94 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 51. One who does not actually commit Himsa, becomes responsible for the consequences of Himsa; and another who actually commits Himsa, would not be liable for the fruit of Himsa. 31 Commentary. All depends on the nature and intensity of thought and intention. If one is ever thinking of causing harm to another, he is guilty even though he does not actually cause any injury; and another who intent upon not causing any injury, becomes the unconscious instrument of Himsa, would not be penalised for such a result. A burglar who fails in robbing an honest citizen is punished as a felon, and a surgeon, even though his patient may die during an operation skilfully performed, with all attention, is not responsible for such death. ekasyAlpA hiMsA dadAti kAle phalamanalpam / anyasya mahAhiMsA svalpaphalA bhavati paripAke // 52 // 52. To one, trifling Himsa brings in time serious result; to another grievous Himsa at time of fruition causes small consequence. Commentary. The degree of Himsa varies with the motive which causes it. The building of a temple may occasion injury to innumerable beings, but the person who builds carefully with compassionate attention commits only such Himsa as is unavoidable. Again, take the cause of what we call a sportsman, who goes out hunting for the sake of pleasure only. He pursues a timid innocent deer, who runs about among bushes and fields for shelter. Yet the hunter bent on killing the inoffensive creature relentlessly follows him on, and utters a shout of triumph when he overtakes and kills him. He seizes his dead body and gloats in the thought of having a delicious dish of venison in the company of friends, and a deer's skin for decoration and other uses. The amount of evil Karma generated and acquired by the temple builder, is much less than what the hunter becomes responsible for, though the former has killed living beings beyond reckoning, and the latter only one. The reason is the comparative degree of passion which actuates the action. Page #95 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 32 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS ekasya saiva tIvraM dizati phalaM saiva mandamanyasya / vrajati sahakAriNorapi hiMsA vaicitryamatra phalakAle // 53 // 53. Even when simultaneously committed by two persons the same Himsa at the time of fruition, curiously enough, causes severe retribution to one, and a mild one to another. Commentary. One goes out to kill another, and takes his servant with him. Both master and servant join the murder. The master all along feels an excitement, pleasure, and satisfaction in having got rid of one whom he hated. The servant, however, for fear of losing his job unwillingly joins the master in the foul deed, and all along regrets, curses himself and repents for his weakness in serving such a master, and in joining such a foul deed. Both are equally guilty, but the degree of culpability varies because of the degree of evil intentions entertained by them. The master will bind karmas, sterner, grosser, of greater intensity, and of longer duration than those which will bind the servant. In effect the same Himsa committed by both, will affect them differently. prAgeva phalati hiMsA'kriyamANA phalati phalati ca kRtA'pi / Arabhya kartumakRtA'pi phalati hiMsAnubhAvena // 54 // 54. Because of intention, Himsa is culpable sometimes before it is committed, sometimes at the time of commission, sometimes even after it has been committed, and sometimes for attempt to commit it, even when it is not committed, because of the intention to commit Himsa. Commentary. A person has been contemplating and devising schemes to commit murder, but for some reason is incapacitated from carrying out his intention, another commits murder, a third commits murder, and thereafter continues to gloat over his act; and a fourth attempts but fails in the attempt to murder. All the four are culpable, and have to suffer for Himsa. It is the intention which makes one culpable. ekaH karoti hiMsAM bhavanti phalabhAgino bahavaH / bahavo vidadhati hiMsA hiMsA hiMsAphalabhugbhavatyekaH // 55 // Page #96 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 33 55. Himza is committed by one, and there are many who suffer the consequences; many commit Himsa, and only one suffers the consequence for Himsa. Commentary. A person commits murder. The many persons who look approyingly on, take interast in and applaud the deed, have to suffer the consequences thereof. Again a whole army fights and kills, but the responsibility for all the carnaga committed under his orders lies with the king. kasyApi dizati hiMsA hiMsAphalamekameva phlkaale| anyasya saiva hiMsA dizatyahiMsAphalaM vipulam // 56 // 56. Himsa gives to one at the time of fruition, the con. sequence of Himsa only'; to another that same Himsa gives considerable Ahimsa reward. Commentary. A number of persons happen to witness lynching by a mob. One of them sympathises with the victim and puts forth his best efforts to save him from the fury of the assailants. Another excites and encourages the mob in the lynching. The latter is guilty of Himsa, and the former acquires the merit of Ahimsa. hiMsAphalamaparasya tu dadAtyahiMsA tu pariNAme / itarasya punarhisA dizatyAhiMsAphalaM nAnyat // 57 // 57. In result, Ahimsa gives to one the consequence of Himsa; to another Himsa gives the benefit of Ahimsa. It is not otherwise. Commentary. A person protects and saves an innocent victim of oppression. Another declaims against this act of Ahimsa, and wishes that the victim were not so protected and saved. By such thought he becomes liable for Himsa. Again if the person who interferes to protect and save an innocent victim fails in his attempt, he would acquire the merit of Ahimsa, though Himsa has been caused by some one else. Page #97 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 34 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS iti vividhabhaGgagahane sudustare nAm / guravo bhavanti zaraNaM prbuddhnyckrsnycaaraaH|| 58 // 58. In this forest of various points of view, difficult to be traversed, only the masters who have a thorough acquaintance with the application of different view-points, can help those who are ignorant of the Path. atyantanizitadhAraM durAsadaM jinavarasya nayacakram / khaNDayati dhAryamANaM mUrdhAnaM jhaTiti durvidagdhAnAm // 56 // 68. The wheel of Jain view-points, extremely sharp. edged, and ditficult to be warded off, would, when used by misguided intellects, cut off (their) heads, quickly. avabudhya hiMsyahiMsakahiMsA hiMsAphalAni tatvena / nityamavagRhamAnaurnajazaktyA tyajyatAM hiMsA // 6 // 60. Having thus correctly understood what is meant by Himsa, its consequence, its victim, and its perpetrator, persons who embrace (the doctrine) should always avoid Himsa, to the best of their capacity. mayaM mAMsaM kSaudraM paJcodumbaraphalAni yatnena / hiMsAvyuparatikAmaimokravyAni prathamameva // 61 // 61. Those who desire avoiding Himsa, should, first of all take care to renounce wine, flesh, honey, and the five Udumbar fruits. Commentary. ___The five Udumbar trees are Gular, Anjeera, Banyan, Peepal. and Pakar, all belonging to the fig class. mayaM mohayati mano mohitacittastu vismarati dharmam / vismRtadharmA jIvo hiMsAmavizaGkamAcarati // 62 // Page #98 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 35 62. Wine stupifies the mind; one whose mind is stupified forgets piety; and the person who forgets piety commits Himsa without hesitation. rasajAnAM ca bahUnAM jIvAnAM yoniriSyate madyam / mayaM bhajatAM teSAM hiMsA saMjAyate'vazyam // 63 // 63. And wine is said to be the birth place of many creatures which are generated in liquor; those who are given up to wine, necessarily commit Himsa. abhimaanbhyjugupsaahaasyaartishokkaamkopaadyaaH| hiMsAyAH paryAyAH sarve'pi ca shrksnnihitaaH||64|| ___84. Pride, fear, disgust, ridicule, enmui, grief, sexpassion, anger, etc., are forms of Himsa ; and all these are concomitants of wine. na vinAprANavighAtAnmAMsasyotpattiriSyate yasmAt / mAMsaM bhajatastasmAtprasaratyanivAritA hiMsA // 65 // 65. Flesh cannot be procured without causing destruction of life; one who uses flesh, therefore commits Himsa, unavoidably. yadapi kila bhavati mAMsaM svayameva mRtasya mhissvRssbhaadeH|| tatrApi bhavati hiMsA tadAzritanigotanirmathanAt // 66 // 66. If the flesh be that of a buffalo, ox, etc., which has died of itself, even then Himsa is caused by the crushing of creatures spontaneously born therein. AmAsvapi pakkAsvapi vipacyamAnAsu mAMsapezISu / sAtatyenotpAdastajAtInAM nigotAnAm // 67 // 67. Whether pieces of flesh are raw, or cooked, or in the process of cooking, spontaneously-born creatures of the same genus are constantly being generated there. Page #99 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 36 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS Commentary. Here the word Nigota means such mobile creatures which are spontaneously born in large numbers in decaying matter, solid or liquid. AmA vA pakkAM vA khAdati yaH spRzati vA pizitapezIm / sa nihanti satatanicitaM piNDaM bahujIvakoTInAm // 68 // 68. He who eats, or touches, a raw, or a cooked piece of flesh, certainly kills a group of spontaneously-born creatures constantly gathering together. madhuzakalamapi prAyo madhukarahiMsAtmakaM bhavati loke / bhajati madhumUDhadhIko yaHsa bhavati hiMsako'tyantam // 66 // 69. Even the smallest drop of honey in the world very often represents the death of bees; the fool who uses honey is a great destroyer. svayameva vigalitaM yo gRhNIyAdvA chalena madhu golaat|| tatrApi bhavati hiMsA tadAzrayaprANinAM ghAtAt // 70 // 70. Even if one uses honey which has been obtained by some trick from honey comb, or which has itself dropped down from it, there is Himsa in that case also, because of the destruction of creatures of spontaneous birth born there. madhu mayaM navanItaM pizitaM ca mhaavikRtystaaH| valbhyante na tinA tadvarNA jantavastatra // 71 // 11. Honey, wine, butter, and flesh are extreme fermentations. Those with vows would not eat them. Therein (are born) creatures of the same genus. yonirudumbarayugmaM pakSanyagrodhapippalaphalAni / trasajIvAnAM tasmAtteSAM tadbhakSaNe hiMsA // 72 // Page #100 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 37 72. The two Udumbaras (Gular and fig) and fruits of Pipal, Pakar, and Banyan are birth places of mobile beings. Therefore Himsa of those creatures is caused by eating them. yAni tu punarbhaveyuH kAlocchannatrasAni zuSkANi / bhajatastAnyapi hiMsA viziSTarAgAdirUpA syAt // 73 // 78. Again, if they, the above five fruits be dry, and free from mobile beings, on account of eflux of time, even then in using them there is Himsa, caused by the existence of an excessive desire for them. Commentary. A person would not even think of eating such prohibited things, unless he has strong desire for them, and one who has a strong uncontrollable desire is certainly injuring his pure character, and is likely to be tempted into the use of the forbidden things. The practice of drying vegetables for use is reprehensible, because of the strong desire for the thing itself. aSTAvaniSTadustaraduritAyatanAnyamUni parivartya / jinadharmadezanAyA bhavanti pAtrANi shuddhdhiyH||74 // 174. Those pure intellects, who renounce the above eight things, which cause painful and insufferable calamity, render themselves worthy of Jain discipline dharmamahiMsArUpaM saMzRNvanto'pi ye parityaktum / sthAvarahiMsAmasahAstrasahiMsAM te'pi muJcantu // 75 // 16. Those who, even after listening to the doctrine of Ahimsa, are not able to renounce the Himsa of immobile beings, should at least give up the Himsa of mobile beings. kRtakAritAnumatairvAkAyamanobhiriSyate navadhA / autsargikI nivRttirvicitrarUpApavAdikI sveSA // 76 // 76. Renunciation of nine-fold commission, by self, through agent, and approval, by body, speech, and mind, is Page #101 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 38 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS Perfect Renunciation (Autsargiki Nivritti). Imperfect renunciation (Apavadiki Nivritti) is of various kinds. Commentary. One, who has perfectly renounced Himsa, will not utter a word which is likely to give pain to another; will not do any act which may cause injury to another, will not harbour any thoughts pre. judicial to another, will not make anybody else utter words likely to cause pain to another, nor commit acts likely to injure another, nor entertain feelings of ill-will towards another; and will not approbate or encourage others who by words, deeds, or thought cause pain to another. This nine-fold renunciation is Perfect Renunciation. If the renunciation is limited in respect of mobile, or immobile ,or of any one or more of the nine kinds of commission, it would be Imperfect. stokaikendriyaghAtAgRhINAm sampannayogyaviSayANAm / zeSasthAvaramAraNaviramaNamapi bhavati karaNIyam // 77 // 77. Householders possessed of appropriate articles of enjoyment have to injure a limited number of one-sensed beings. They should desist fron causing destruction of other immobile beings. Commentary. Jainism is a practical religion, and consistent with temporal activity and prosperity. It does not inculcate laziness, or inertness. It is not the fatalism of the idle do-nothing-fellow. Jainism teaches a self imposed discipline, with due regard to one's own capacities and surroundings. What it does lay stress upon is the indisputable principle that one should never act nagligently, unnecessarily, with: out any sense of responsibility. It requires one not to incur the easily avoidable sin of indulging in unnecessary or thoughtless acts, harmful to self and to others. With this one principle in view, a householder may engage in all proper pursuits of a business life. amRtatvahetubhUtaM paramamahiMsArasAyanaM labdhvA / avalokya bAlizAnAmasamaJjasamAkulairna bhavitavyam // 78 // Page #102 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 78. Those who have been impressed with the highest Ahimsa-elixir, which leads to immortality, should not be distressed on seeing the improper behaviour of the ignorant. 39 sUkSmo bhagavAn dharmo dharmArtha hiMsane na doSo'sti / iti dharmamugdha hRdayairnajAtu bhUtvA zarIriNo hiMsyAH // 76 // 79. "Sacred religion is very subtle, and there is no wrong in committing Himsa for the sake of religion." (People) should not allow themselves to be thus deceived in the name of religion, and should never kill embodied beings. dharmo hi devatAbhyaH prabhavati tAbhyaH pradeyamiha sarvam / iti durviveka kalitAM dhiSaNAMna prApya dehino hiMsyAH // 80 // 80. Never entertain the wrong idea that religion flour. ishes through gods, and that therefore everything may be offered to them. Do not kill embodied beings, under such perverted judgment, Commentary. It is a perverse notion that religion sanctions Himsa, or that the gods are pleased at sacrifices of living beings offered in their name. Gods are good, and religion is peacegiving; and can never encourage or sanction what gives pain to a living being. pUjyanimittaM ghAte chAgAdInAM na ko'pi doSo'sti / iti saMpradhArya kAryaM nA'tithaye sattvasaMjJapanam // 81 // 81. Animals should not be killed for guests in the belief that there is no harm in killing goats, etc., for the sake of persons deserving respect. bahutvaghAta - janitAdazanAdvarameka sattvaghAtottham / ityAkalayya kAryaM na mahAsattvasya hiMsanaM jAtu // 82 // 82. With the idea that a meal prepared from the slaugh ter of one livingbeing is preferable to that produced by Page #103 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 40 THH SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS the destruction of many lives, one should never kill a living being of a higher grade. Commentary. In these 4 verses, the author meets the various excuses which are adopted by flesh-eaters. Killing of animals for the sake of sacrifices, for the entertain. ment of guests or persons of rank, has been deprecated in verses 79, 80, and 81. In verse 82, the author meets another argument which is sometimes raised. Some people urge that the Jainas believe that there is life in all vegetables; and further that there are innumer. e, and even infinite Jivas in some vegetables. Vegetable food would therefore lead to the killing of innumerable lives, and it would be preferable to kill one animal for food rather tlian cut up and cook a number of vegetables. This argument is misleading and false. It ignores the fact that the body of an animal has innumer. able mobile and immobile beings therein. The presence of innumerable amabae in a drop of blood is a matter which has been proved to demonstration by science : microscopic examinations also show the presence of infinite germs in faeces, urine, and in all parts of the body. Thus there is comparatively speaking the least Himsa in injuring the motionless one-sense living beings belonging to the vege table kingdom. The higher the number of vitalities possessed by a Jiya, the greater is the Himsa in killing it. rakSA bhavati bahUnAmekasyaivAsya jIvaharaNena / iti matvA kartavyaM na hiMsanaM hiMsrasatvAnAm // 23 // 83. Beings which kill others should not be killed in the belief that the destruction of one of them leads to the protec. tion of many others. Commentary. This plausible argument is often raised by sportsmen. They defend hunting on the ground that by doing so they protect humanity from the ravages of ferocious animals. The wanton shooting of birds and fowls, of pig and fox, of deer and rabbit, and fishing are obviously indefensible. Lion hunt is a pastime. The hunters go in large parties for the excitement of sport, and not for freeing man. kind from the possible attack of the lion. In fact, the poor lion is beaten and brought out from his seclusion for being shot at for the Page #104 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA fun of the big men who level their guns at him from a safe distance and take pleasure in watching his death agonies. The rare case of a person going out to kill a man-eating tiger now requires to be discussed. In his case also, it may safely be said that the feelings which actuate him are the hope of a reward, praise, renown, the expectation of being called a bold man, and excitement of sport, rather than the pure desire of saving his fellow men. The argument is, in fact, an apology and an excuse. To proceed further. You cannot make some happy by destroying others. The feelings of enmity, hostility, and revenge are the cause of pain and misery, dread and fear. It has been known that serpents and tigers have approached and gone past the saintly ascetics who, wrapped up in their meditations had in them no fear of, and no hostility towards them. The serpent or the tiger attacks man, not because, as is wrongly supposed, it is his nature to do so, but because it apprehends harm from man and strikes in self-defence. If man, the most intelligent of all creatures, himself cast aside all fear and looked at a serpent or a tiger fearlessly, eye to eye, it would simply be magnetised or hypnotised, would obey his will and never think of injuring him. This is the scientific explanation of the miraculous fact that raculous fact that tigers and serpents, bears and scorpions, crawled at the blessed feet of the Munis and Rishis of yore. bahusatvaghAtino'mI jIvanta upArjayanti guru pApam / ityanukampAM kRtvA na hiMsanIyAH zarIriNo hiNsraaH||84|| 84. "These kill many lives, and accumulate grave sin" Doing this act of mercy, those who injure others should not be killed. Commentary. This is also a fallacious argument. Killing does not mean an extinction of life for ever. The only way to stop the accretion of bad karmas is by self-restraint. Loss of life is only a loss of the opportunities for spiritual advancement. By killing such living beings, you incur sin, and retard the spiritual progress of your self and of those whom you kill. bahaduHkhAH saMjJapitAH prayAnti tvacireNa duHkhavicchittim / iti vAsanAkRpANImAdAya na duHkhino'pi hntvyaaH||8|| Page #105 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 42 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS 85. "Those in great suffering will on being killed soon obtain relief from agony." Do not even kill the distressed one by having grasped the sword of such misconception. Commentary. The wrong notion that by killing a dog, or a horse, permanently disabled, or suffering from incurable wounds, you would relieve him of his pain, and would thus do good to him is very commonly prevalent. In Egypt, some people considered it a pious religious duty to stab their old parents to death, in the belief that by doing so, they relieved them of the miseries and infirmities of old age. This false belief arises from an ignorance of the law of Karma. The pain and suffering which a living being, has to endure and go through is inevitable, and a necessary consequence. There is no possible escape from it. It must be undergone now, or hereafter, in this life or the next. The bad Karmas which bring it about must be worked out. You cannot reduce the effect of Karmas. The chief influencing cause in the killing is that you cannot bear to see the misery of the suffering living being and wish to put an end to the disagreeable sight or the piteous moans by the cheap process of killing him outright. Such an act is Himsa. It is wrongly called and believed to be an act of mercy or commiseration. One may well help the distressed by nursing or helping otherwise. Veterinary hospitals should take as much care of the sub-human class, as other hospitals do for humanity. All hospitals should be free. There should be no fee charged for medicine, attendance, or surgical operations. This is the primary duty of individual citizens, municipal corporations, and of the State. Its neglect is a culpable omission. zazu genanaiafa gfari zar: gfea QA | gfa aknusarim: yieai anava area: 11 58 || 86. It is difficult to obtain happiness. The happy shall, if killed, continue to be happy. Do not please adopt the weapon of this (false) reasoning for killing those who are happy. Commentary. Happiness and misery depend upon one's own acts and thoughts. We cannot make the happy state, one is in, continue by killing him. Cessation of one form of existence does not mean the wiping out of Page #106 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA all evil Karmas previously acquired, and the continuance of the good Karmas in operation at the time he is killed. upalabdhisugatisAdhanasamAdhisArasya bhUyaso'bhyAsAt / svaguroH ziSyeNa ziro na kartanIyaM sudharmamabhilaSatA // 87 // 87. A disciple desirous of piety should not cut off the head of his own preceptor when he, by means of constant prac tice, has attained such perfection of concentration, as leads to a good condition of life. Commentary. Here is another illustration of Himsa committed by misguided fanatics in the name of religion. Some persons believe that if the soul of a person in deep concentration. and thus in close communion with the super-soul, is separated from the body while in that condition, he will attain ever-lasting bliss. This is a false belief. 43 The person in concentration, may, if he is sufficiently spiritually advanced, continue the concentration throughout and enjoy the bliss of communion. If he is not so advanced, death can not add to his spiritual advancement. The killing is not only useless, but positively harmful as bringing evil Karmas in bondage. dhanala pipAsitAnAM vineyavizvAsanAya darzayatAm / jhaTiti ghaTacaTakamokSaM zraddheyaM naiva khArapaTikAnAm // 88 // 88. Do not believe in the doctrine of " pot-breaking im mediate salvation" inculcated by Kharpatikas, impelled by their thirst for small riches; into inducing such belief in their pupils. Commentary. The sect of Kharpatikas now extinct, believed that the soul was imprisoned in the body, just like a light covered by a pot. When the pot is broken, the light becomes free and spreads out in all directions. The body being destroyed the soul would be free. This doctrine was inculcated by wicked priests in order to get rid of their votaries who stayed with them, and whose belongings were on their death likely to come into possession of the priests. Much crime was once committed in the name of religion, and the unsuspecting credulity of ignorant people was exploited by criminal sophists. dRSTvA paraM purastAdazanAya kSAmakukSimAyAntam / nijamAM sadAnarabhasAdAlabhanIyo na cAtmApi // 86 // Page #107 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS 89. One should not kill himself by zealously giving one's own flesh as food to another starving person, seen approaching in front. Commentary. Self-sacrifice, literally speaking, was also at one time considered an act of religious piety, It is undoubtedly Himsa, Attempt at suicide is a criminal offence. ko nAma vizati mohaM nayabhaGgavizAradAnupAsya gurUn / viditajinamatarahasyaH zrayannahiMsAM vishuddhmtiH||6|| * 90. What person is there who, having a clear intellect, having served teachers well-versed in the various points of view, having realized the essence of the Jaina religion and having adopted Ahimsa, would yield to the delusions (set forth above.) Commentary. Verses 43 to 90 deal with Ahimsa. It is either Autsargiki Nivritti. or Apavadiki Nivritti. Autsargiki is defined in verse 76, as complete Ahimsa in 9 ways, by self, through another, or by approbation, and in each case through mind, body, or speech. That which is not complete, is Apavadiki, and its degrees and forms are innumerable, varying from the slightest to that which just falls short of being complete. Himsa is also classified as Samka! pi or Arambhi. Samkalpi is what which is committed with the sole intention of Himsa, without any justifying reason whatsoever behind it. Arambhi is committed unavoidably, by house-holders in the performance of various duties and occupations. Saint Amitgati, an Acharya contemporary with Saint Amrit Chandra the author of this book, in the 6th Chapter of Shravakachara says : hiMsA dvedhA proktArambhAnArambhajavato dakSyaiH / grahavAsato nivRtto vedhA'pi trAyate tAM c||6|| grahavAsasevanarato mandakaSAyaH prvrtitaarmbhH| bhArambhajAM sa hiMsAM zaknoti na rakSituM niyatam // 7 // Himsa has, by the learned, been said to be of two kinds, Arambhaja, arising from occupations, and Anarambhaja, not due to any occupation. He who has renounced the life of a householder, certainly avoids both kinds. One with mild passion, while living the life of a house-holder, cannot of course avoid Arambhaja Himsa when performing various occupations. Page #108 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 45 Hunting, offering animal sacrifices, killing for food, amusement or decoration are illustrations of Anarambhi or Samkalpi Himsa, which may be translated as "Intentional Injury." It can be avoided by every thinking person without any difficulty or harm to himself. Arambhi Himsa may be sub-divided as Udyami, Graharambhi, and Virodhi. Udyami is Himsa unavoidably committed in the exrcise of one's profession. Permissible professions are of 6 kinds, vis., (1) the profession of a soldier, aft, (2) the profession of a writer, Afh (3) that of agriculture sia (4) trade arroz, (5) industry ITET. (6) art faci. Grah-Arambhi Himsa is that which is unavoidably committed in the performance of necessary domestic purposes, such as preparation of food, keeping the house, body, and clothes clean, construction of buildings, wells, gardens, and keeping cattle. " Virodhi" is Himsa unavoidably committed in defence of person and property, against thieves, robbers, dacoits, assailants, and enemies, in meeting their aggression, and in causing the least possible injury, necessary in the circumstances, in which one may find himself. The cases discussed in verses 79 to 89 are all covered by Samkalpi Himsa and have no concern with Arambhi Himsa or any of the 3 kinds set out above. One who has renounced all household connection and has adopted the discipline of a saint, practises complete Ahimsa A true belie. ver in the householder's stage, abstains from Samkalpi Himsa, but is unable to abstain from Arambhi, although he tries his best to avoid it as far as possible, and is ever making progress in such endeavour. yadidaM pramAdayogAdasadabhidhAnaM vidhIyate kimpi| tadanRtamapi vijJeyaM tadbhedAH santi ctvaarH||11|| 91. Wherever any wrong statement is made through Pramada Yoga (careless activity of body, mind, or speech), it is certainly known as falsehood. It is divided into 4 kinds. svakSetrakAlabhAvaiH sadapi hi yasminniSidhyate vastu / tatprathamamasatyaM syAnnAsti yathA devadatto'tra // 12 // 92. A statement by which the existence of a thing with reference to its position, time, and nature is denied, is the Page #109 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 46 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS first kind of falsehood ; for example. to say " Deva Datta is not here," (when he is present). asadapi hi vasturUpaM yatra prkssetrkaalbhaavaistaiH| udbhAvyate dvitIyaM tadanRtamasminyathAsti ghttH||3|| 93. Where a thing does not exist, with reference to the position, time, and nature of other objects, and it is said to exist, the statement is the second kind of falsehood e. 9., to say " pitcher is here" (when it is not actually there). vastu sadapi svarUpAtpararUpeNA'bhidhIyate yasmin / anRtamidaM ca tRtIyaM vijJeyaM gauriti ythaashvH|| 64 // 94. The third kind of falsehood is that, where an existing thing is represented as something different from what it really is, for example, when a horse is said to be a cow. garhitamavadyasaMyutamapriyamapi bhavati vacanarUpaM yt| sAmAnyena tredhA matamidamanRtaM turIyaMtu // 65 // 95. Speech of 3 kinds, Garhita, condemnable; Savadya, sinful, or Apriya, disagreeable, is ordinarily speaking, said to be the fourth kind of falsehood. paizunyahAsagarbha karkazamasamaJjasaM pralapitaM ca / anyadapi yadutsUtraM tatsarvaM garhitaM gaditam // 66 // 96. Garhita speech is said to be all that, which is back. biting, harsh, unbecoming, nonsensical, or otherwise uncanonical. chednbhednmaarnnkrssnnvaannijycauryvcnaadi| tatsAvayaM yasmAtprANivadhAdyAH pravartante // 17 // 97. All speech which makes another engage in piercing, cutting, beating, ploughing, trading, stealing, etc., is Savadya, sinful as it leads to destruction of life, etc. : Page #110 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA aratikaraM bhItikaraM khedakaraM vairazokakalahakaram / yadaparamapi tApakaraM parasya tatsarvamapriyaM jJeyam // 68 // sarvasminnapyasmin pramattayoge kahetukathanaM yat / anRtavacane'pi tasmAnniyataM hiMsA samavasarati // 66 // 98. Know all that as Apriya, which causes uneasiness, fear, pain, hostility, grief, quarrel, or anguish of mind to another person. tau pramattayoge nirdiSTe sakalavitathavacanAnAm / heyAnuSThAnAderanuvadanaM bhavati nA'satyam // 100 // 1175 99. Pramatta Yoga, the one (chief) cause (of Himsa ) is present in all these (speeches) here. Therefore Himsa comes in, certainly, in falsehood also. 47 100. Pramatta Yoga having been stated to be the cause of all false speech, a sermon, preaching the renouncement (of vices) and the performance of religious duties, would not be a falsehood, (even if it should be distasteful, or cause mental pain to the listener). Commentary. Intention is always the determining factor in each case. The preceptor who speaks in strong terms against vices and sins, may thereby cause uneasiness or pain of mind to those addicted to such bad habits, but, as his speech is sincere, duly considered, and not unrestrained, it would not be covered by the definition of a false speech, as given in verses 95 and 98 above. bhogopabhogasAdhanamAtraM sAvadyamakSamA moktum / ye te'pi zeSamanRtaM samastamapi nityameva muJcantu // 101 // 101. Those who are not able to give up such Savadya untruth, as is unavoidable in arranging for articles of use, should renounce all the other untruth, for ever. Page #111 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 48 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS Commentary, Savadya speech unavoidably necessary in arranging household matters would not ordinarily speaking be called falsehood. It is included in untruth because it causes some Arambhi Himsa. A householder may not be able to give up such Savadya untruth as is specified here; but he must give up all other kinds of Savadya and other kinds of untruth. avitIrNasya grahaNaM parigrahasya pramattayogAyat / tatpratyeyaM steyaM saiva ca hiMsA vadhasya hetutvAt // 102 // 102. The taking, by Pramatta Yoga, of objects which have not been given, is to be deemed theft, and that is Himsa because it is the cause of injury. Commentary. The person who thinks of stealing, injures the purity of his own inner nature, and if detected in the act of stealing, he is punished and suffers pain. He causes pain to the person whom he deprives of the things stolen, which deprivation may even bring about death, what to say of inconvenience and trouble. Thus all theft, like all falsehood, is also included in Himsa. arthA nAma ya ete prANA ete bahizcarAH puNsaam| harati sa tasya prANAn yo yasya jano haratyarthAn // 103 // 103. He, who seizes the property of another person deprives him of his vitalities, for all objects are external vitalitites of men. Commentary. Property is said to be as dear as life. Loss of property is very keenly felt. He awho deprives a person of his property causes him severe pain and thus injures him. hiMsAyAM steyasya ca nAvyAptiHsughaTa eva sA yasmAt / grahaNe pramattayogo dravyasya sviikRtsyaanyaiH|| 104 // 104. There is no exclusivity between Himsa and theft. It is well included in theft, because in taking what belongs to another (there is) Pramatta Yoga. Page #112 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA Commentary. All theft includes Himsa. One would not take any property belonging to another unless he was actuated by a desire to possess it. The presence of desire, and the injury to self in the form of a moral and a spiritual fall, and to the person deprived, resulting therefrom, constitute Himsa. nA'tivyAptizca tayoHpramattayogaikakAraNavirodhAt / api karmAnugrahaNanIrAgANAmavidyamAnatvAt // 105 // 105. Nor is there the defect of overlapping. There is no (Himsa), when passionless saints take in Karmic molecules because of the absence of Pramatta Yoga, the chief motive. Commentary. The learned author here anticipates and meets a possible objection that karmic molecules are taken in by a passionless saint in the high 11th, 12th and 13th spiritual stages, and thus taking what is given by nobody, he would be tainted with theft. This is not so, because there is no Pramatta Yoga, no desire. Mohaneeya karma which is the cause of all desire has ceased to operate in those stages. asamartho ye kartuM nipAnatoyAdiharaNavinivRttim / / tairapi samastamaparaM nityamadattaM parityAjyat // 106 // 106. Those also who do not feel strong enough to refrain from taking well-water, etc., should totally abstain from taking anything else which is not given to them. Commentary. A householder is not able to follow this high discipline ; but he also should abstain from taking things, which are not given to him except such as may be appropriated without permission. yadvedarAgayogAnmaithunamabhidhIyate tadabrahma / avatarati tatra hiMsA vadhasya sarvatra sadbhAvAt // 107 // hiMsyante tilanAlyAM taptAyasi vinihite tilA yavat / bahavo jIvA yonI hiMsyante maithune tadvat // 108 // Page #113 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 50 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS 107-108. Abrahm is copulation arising from sexual desire. It is attended with the killing of life all round, and Himsa is therefore present in the act. Just as a hot rod of iron burns up the sesamum seed filled in a tube in which it is in. troduced, in the same way many beings are killed in the vagina during copulation. Commentary. The vagina is said to be full of numerous living organisms, being constantly and spontaneously born there and these would of course, be killed in the friction brought about in sexual intercourse. yadapi kriyate kinycinmdnodrekaadngrmnnaadi| tatrApi bhavati hiMsA rAgAdyutpattitantratvAt // 106 // 109. Again, whatever indulgence of the sex-passion is had in unnatural ways on account of lust, it always brings about Himsa because it has had its rise in desire etc. ye nijakalatramAtraM parihartuM zaknuvanti na hi mohAt / niHzeSazeSayoSinniSevaNaM tairapi na kAryam // 110 // 110. Those, who, because of attachment, cannot renounce their own wives, they also should totally abstain from enjoying other females. Commentary. Many a householder is not sufficiently advanced to give up sexdesire altogether. It is only the ascetics who do so. The householder also should, however, observe the vow of Brahmacharya to a limited extent by total abstinence from all sexual desires with reference to females other than his own wife. yA mUrchA nAmeyaM vijJAtavyaH parigraho hyessH| mohodayAdudIrNo mUrchA tu mamatvapariNAmaH // 111 // 111. Attachment itself should be understood to be Parigraha. Attachment is affectionate regard arising from the operation of Moha Karma. Page #114 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA mUrcchA lakSaNa karaNAtsughaTA vyAptiH parigrahatvasya / samantho mUrcchAvAn vinA'pi kila zeSa saMgebhyaH // 112 // 112. This definition of Parigraha as attachment is comprehensively inclusive. One who is under the influence of attachment is, although he has renounced all other possessions, "with property" 51 Commentary. Aparigraha, renunciation, requires absence of all sense of attachment to anything which is external to the pure Jiva itself. The least vestige of a feeling of attachment is a defect. Even saints who have renounced all worldly possessions, could not be deemed to have renounced them, if they have a sense of attachment left in them. yadyevaM bhavati tadA parigraho na khalu ko'pi bahiraGgaH / bhavati nitarAM yato'sau dhatte mUrcchAnimittattram // 113 // 113. If this be so, then there can be no external Parigraha at all. It certainly is the cause of attachment. Commentary. The author in this verse meets a possible objection that if Parigraha-possession of goods, is defined as mental attachment to things then there can be no external Parigraha. The answer is that possession of goods creates an attachment to them, It is therefore necessary to give up all external possessions to avoid any possibility of an attraction for them. Thus Parigraha possession of goods is of two kinds, external and internal, actual possession of property is external, Bahiranga Parigraha; while an inclination for possession is Antaranga, internal Parigraha. evamativyAptiH syAtpariprahasyeti cedbhavennaivam / yasmAdakaSAyANAM karmagrahaNe na mUrcchA 'sti // 114 // 114. This is over-lapping and will include the drawing in of Karmic molecules by passionless saints as Parigraha, This is not so, because there is no attachment. Page #115 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 62 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS Commentary. A critic may possibly say that a passionless saint also has Karmic molecules, and will according to the above statement be said to be saparigraha, with possession. The reply is that it is not so, because there is no passion, no inclination for drawing in such molecules. They are automatically drawn in because of the vibratory activity of soul, functioning through mind, body and speech without any volition. atisaGkSapAdvividhaH sa bhavedAbhyantarazca bAhyazca / prathamazcaturdazAvadho bhavati dvividho dvitIyastu // 115 // 115. Very briefly speaking, Parigraha is of two kinds, internal and external. The first is of 14 kinds, and the second is of two kinds. mithyAtvavedarAgAstathaiva hAsyAdayazca ssdddossaaH|| catvArazca kaSAyAzcaturdazAbhyantarA granthAH // 116 // 116. The fourteen internal possessions, attachments, are wrong belief, sexual inclinations, the six defects, laughter etc., and the four passions. Commentary. The fourteen internal possessions are as follows: (1) Wrong belief, (2) Desire for sexual enjoyment with man, (3) with woman, (4) with both, (5) laughter. (6) indulgence, (7) ennui, (8) sorrow, (9) fear, (10) disgust, (11) Anger, (12) Pride, (13) deceit, and (14) greed. atha nizcittasacittau bAhyasya parigrahasya bhedau do| naiSaH kadApi saGgaH sarvo'pyativartate hiMsAm // 117 // 117. External Parigraha is of two kinds with reference to living and non-living objects. All this Parigraha never excludes Himsa. ___Commentary. Himsa, the central sin, is included in every other of the remain. ing four, falsehood, theft, sexual impurity, and possession of goods. Page #116 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA ubhayaparigrahavarjanamAcAryAH sUcayantyahiMseti / dvividhaparigrahavahanaM hiMseti jinapratracanajJAH // 118 // 118. The Acharyas (preceptor saints ), who are well versed in Jaina Philosophy, call the renunciation of Parigraha of both sorts as Ahimsa, and the appropriation of Parigraha of two sorts as Himsa, hiMsAparyAyatvAtsiddhA hiMsAntaraGgasaGgeSu / bahiraGgeSu tu niyataM prayAtu nUcchaiva hiMsAtvam // 116 // 53 119. Internal attachment is proved to be Himsa because of its being a form of Himsa. Attachment to external objects certainly establishes the fact of Himsa. Commentary. Himsa, the foremost sin is ever present during the commission of other faults. Internal attachment, the desire for worldly objects prejudicially affects the purity of the soul, and this injury to the pure nature of the soul constitutes Himsa. External attachment or the actual possession of temporalities creates attraction and love for them, which defiles soul purity and therefore amounts to Himsa. Both internal and external attachment should therefore be given up by one who practises the principle of Ahimsa. evaM na vizeSaH syAdundara ripuhAriNazAvakAdInAm / naivaM bhavati vizeSasteSAM mUrcchAvizeSeNa // 120 // haritatRNAGkuracAriNI mandA mRgazAvake bhavati mUrcchA / undaranikarAnmAthini mArjAre saiva jAyate tItrA // 121 // nirbAdhaM saMsiddhayetkAryavizeSo hi kAraNavizeSAt / audhasya khaNDayoriva mAdhuryaprItibheda iva // 122 // mAdhuryaprItiH kila dugdhe mandeva mandamAdhurye / saivotkaTamAdhurye khaNDe vyapadizyate tItrA // 123 // Page #117 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 54 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS 120, 121, 122, 123. If this be so, there would be no difference between a cat and a young deer. No, it is not so, there is a difference as to the degree of attachinent. Attachment is weak in the young deer who lives on green blades of grass; it is strong in the cat which destroys a host of mice. The effect is certainly influenced by the cause, like the difference in desire for sweetness in milk or sugar. In the case of one who likes milk, which is moderately sweet, the desire for sweetness, is feeble. That desire is said to be intense in the case of one who likes sugar, which is extremely sweet. Commentary. It may be said that if all attachment is Parigraha, then there is no difference between a meek young deer, and a ferocious cat both of which have attachment for food, though of different sorts. Difference there certainly is. Internal attachment varies with the nature of the external objects possessed or desired. A young dear lives on herb, for obtaining which it does not prepare any scheme, or lie in wait long, and quits it also on the happening of a slight disturbance; its attachment or desire is weak. A cat would on the other hand lie in ambush for its prey, wait long. and kill many more than it would require to satisfy its appetite. The Murchha or attachment, the desire to appropriate and possess unto itself is thus much stronger in the cat than in the deer. nere are thus degrees in attachment to external objects and one should try to reduce this desire for appropriation by degrees, even if he is not quite able to get rid of it altogether. Again, it is clear that a person who likes milk has a limited desire for sweetness, compared to the one who is fond of sugar. One who amasses goods on a large scale must obviously have a strong desire for them. The lesser your possessions, the weaker must be your desire to possess, i.e. Murchha. The nature of possession is generally an index of the extent of desire for possession. tattvArthazraddhAne niyuktaM prathamameva mithyAtvam / samyakdarzanacaurA: prathamakaSAyAzca ctvaarH|| 124 // pravihAya ca dvitIyAn dezacaritrasya smmukhaayaataaH| Page #118 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA niyataM te hi kaSAyA dezacaritraM niruddhayanti // 125 // nijazaktyA zeSANAM sarveSAmantaraGgasaMgAnAm / kartavyaH parihAro mArdavazaucAdibhAvanayA // 126 // 124, 125, & 126. At first for acquiring belief in Tattwarthas, the principles, as they are, wrong belief, and the four Passions of the first degree. which prevent Right Belief, should be got rid of. Again having suppressed the passions of second (degree) which certainly obstruct partial conduct, laymen approach partial vows. All remaining internal attachments should be suppressed, with self-exertion through humility, contentment and such meditations. Commentary. These three verses prescribe the method for subduing internal attachments. The first thing is to get rid of wrong belief, and of Anantanubandhi Kashayas, the four passions, anger, pride, deceit, and greed of the first degree. These stand in the way of Right belief, When one has attained Right belief, he should turn his attention to overcoming four passions of the second degree, in order to get on to the stage of Partial Right Conduct. Thereafter he should put forth his best exertions, and by constant contemplation of the ten rules of conduct suppress all other passionate thoughtactivities. bahiraGgAdapi saMgAdyasmAtprabhavatya saMyamo 'nucitaH / parivarjayedazeSaM tamacittaM vA sacittaM vA // 127 // 55 127. All external attachments, whether living or nonliving should be avoided; because improper non-control is brought about by external possession even. so'pi na zaktastyaktuM dhanadhAnyamanuSyavAstuvittAdi / so'pi tanUkaraNIyaH nivRttirUpaM yatastattvam // 128 // 128. And if one is unable to wholly renounce cattle, corn, servants, buildings, wealth etc, he also, should at least limit them; because renunciation is the Right principle. Page #119 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 56 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS Commentary. A householder with vows should at least fix a permanent limit for life, to all his possessions. This is called Parigraha Parimana Vrata. Such limitation will act as a beneficial check on greed, rAtrau bhuJjAnAnAM yasmAdanivAritA bhavati hiNsaa| hiMsAvirataistasmAtyaktavyA rAtribhuktirapi // 126 // __ 129. Those who take their meals at night cannot avoid Himsa. Therefore abstainers from Himsa, should give up night-eating also. rAgAdyudayaparatvAdanivRtti tivartate hiMsAm / rAtriMdivamAharataH kathaM hi hiMsA na sambhavati ? // 130 // 130. Absence of vow, is due to the influence of passions and Himsa is not thereby excluded. How is it possible then to avoid Himsa when food is taken day and night. Commentary. Himsa and desire have already been shown to be concomitants. Absence or non-adoption of vow, presupposes desire. Hence one who has not restricted his craving for food to the day only, cannot avoid Himsa. yadyevaM tarhi divA kartavyo bhojanasya prihaarH| bhoktavyaM tu nizAyAM netthaM nityaM bhavati hiMsA // 131 // naivaM vAsarabhukterbhavati hi rAgo'dhiko rajanibhuko / annakavalasya bhuko bhuktAviva mAMsaphavalasya // 132 // arkAlokena vinA bhuJjAnaH pariharet kathaM hiMsAm / api bodhitaH pradIpe bhojyajuSAM sUkSmajantUnAm // 133 // 131-132-133. If that be, so, then one may give up taling food in the day, by eating at night only, one would not be committing Himsa at all times. No, it is not so. There is stronger desire in eating at night than in eating in the day. Page #120 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA as in the eating of a morsel of flesh and the eating of a morsel of grain. How can one avoid Himsa when food is taken without the light of the sun; even when a lamp is lighted, minute insects get mixed up with eatables. Commentary Day is the natural time for work and taking food. Food is more easily, with greater care, and with less probability of injury to living beings prepared in the day than at night. The light of the gun makes it easy to pick out, to separate unwholesome stuff, and to remove the worms and small insects which find place in provisions. There are many insects which are not even visible in the strongest artificial light. There are also many small insects which have a strong affinity for food stuffs and which do not appear in daylight. Hearing the observation in verse 130, that there is Himsa most certainly when one eats day and night, a carping critic might exclaim that then one may well give up eating in the day and take his meals at night only. This is obviously improper. kiM vA bahupralapitairiti siddhaM yo manovacanakAyaiH / pariharati rAtribhukti satatamahiMsAM sa pAlayati // 134 // 134. Why discuss further. It is established that he who has renounced night-eating, through mind, body or speech, always observes Ahimsa. Commentary. Desire for eating at night, or advocating night-eating is also reprehensible. ityatra tritayAtmani mArge mokSasya ye svhitkaamaaH| anuparataM prayatante prayAnti te mukkimacireNa // 135 // 135. Thus, those who desire self-advancement make constant exertions, here, in the there-fold path of liberation, and attain salvation without delay. paridhaya iva nagarANi vratAni kila pAlayanti shiilaani| vratapAlanAya tasmAcchIlAnyapi pAlanIyAni // 136 // 136. Just as the encircling walls guard towns, so do Sheelas (supplementary vows) protect the Anu-Vratas, There Page #121 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 58 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS fore in order to practise the Vratas, the Sheelas also should be practised. Commentary. The Sheela, supplementary vows, are seven Three Gunavratas multiplicative vows,-Dig-Vrata, Desha-Vrata, and Anartha-danda Vrata-are so called, because they raise the value of the five partial vows. Four Shiksha Vratas, Disciplinary vows, are so called because they are preparatory to a saint's life. They are Samayika, Proshadhopavasa, Bhogopabhoga Parimana, and Atithi-Samvi. bhaga. These seven are described in the following verses. pravidhAya suprasiddhaimaryAdAM sarvato'pyabhijJAnaiH / TIETIC TT Ezry: dani fartialaaigar 11 83611 137. Having fixed the limits from well-known objects, in all directions, east etc., one should steadily practise Dig Vrata. Commentary. These directions are said to be 10 Up, down, north, south, east, west, north-east, south-east, north-west, south-west. One should fix the limit of his activities, in all these directions. iti niyamitadigbhAge pravartate yastato bhistsyaaH|| sakalA saMyamavirahAdbhavatyahiMsAvataM pUrNam // 138 // 138. He who thus confines his activities within the limited directions, follows complete vow of Ahimsa as regards what is beyond those limits, because of total absence of nonrestraint there. tatrApi ca parimANaM grAmApaNabhavanapATakAdInAm / pravidhAya niyatakAlaM karaNIyaM viramaNaM dezAt // 136 // 139. Then, again, one should fix a limit (within those limits) for a fixed time, to village, market, house, street etc.. and thus follow Desha Vrata. Commentary Desha Vrata vow means that one shall not, during a certain period of time, proceed beyond a certain village, market, street, or house or have anything to do with objects beyond that limit. Page #122 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA iti viratau bahudezAttadutthAhiMsAM vizeSaparihArAt / tatkAlaM vimalamatiH zrayatyahiMsAM vizeSeNa // 140 // 140. The pure-minded, who thus confines the extent of his activities practises absolute Ahimsa for that time by renouncing all Himsa possible in the vast space which has been given up. pAparddhijayaparAjayasaMgaraparadAragamanacauryAdyAH / na kadAcanApi cintyAH pApaphalaM kevalaM yasmAt // 141 // 141. One should never think of hunting, victory, defeat, battle, adultery, theft, etc., because they only lead to sin. Commentary. This is the 3rd multiplicative vow of Anartha danda. vidyAvANijyamaSIkRSisevAzilpajIvinAM puMsAm / pApopadezadAnaM kadAcidapi naiva vaktavyam // 142 // 142. Sinful advice should never be given to persons living upon art, trade, writing, agriculture, arts and crafts, service, and industry. bhUkhananavRkSamoTanazADvaladalanAmbusecanAdIni / niHkaraNaM na kuryAddalaphalakusumoccayAnapi ca // 143 // 59 143. One should not without reason dig ground, uproot trees, trample lawns, sprinkle water etc., nor pluck leaves fruit, and flowers. asidhenuviSahutAzanalAGgalakaravAlakArmukAdInAm / vitaraNamupakaraNAnAM hiMsAyAH pariharedyatnAt // 144 // 144. One should be careful not to give instruments of Himsa, such as knife, poison, fire, plough, sword, bow, etc. rAgAdivardhanAnAM duSTakathAnAmabodhabahulAnAm / na kadAcana kurvIta zravaNArjana zikSaNAdIni // 145 // Page #123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 60 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS 145. One may not listen to, accept, or teach such bad stories as increase attachment etc., and are full of absurdities. sarvAnarthaprathamaM mathanaM zaucasya sadma mAyAyAH / dUrAtpariharaNIyaM cauryAsatyAspadaM dyUtam // 146 // 146. Renounce gambling from a distance. It is the first of all evils, the destroyer of contentment, the home of deceit, and the abode of theft and falsehood. evaMvidhamaparamapi jJAtvA muJcatyanarthadaNDaM yaH / tasyAnizamanavadyaM vijayamahiMsAvataM labhate // 147 // 147. He who deliberately renounces all other unnecessary sins, leads his Ahimsa vow ceaselessly up to admirable victory. Commentary. Anartha-danda Vrata is of 5 kinds : Apadhyana, evil thinking; Papopdesha, evil-instruction; Pramadacharya, careless dealings; Himsadana, gift of instruments of offence; Duh-Shruti, hearing evil; Here gambling is also included with them. It will now be clear how Guna-Vratas enhance, by mathematical progression, as it were, the value of the 5 Partial Vows, to that of Full Vows. By setting limits to space in all directions the commission of Himsa beyond such limits is completely avoided for life, and merit of Full Ahimsa Mahavrata attained so far. By further limiting, from day to day, such space for exercise of activities of body, mind and speech and again by giving up all such activities of the 3 faculties as are found to be unnecessary, perfect Ahimsa Vrata is attained in that respect beyond such limits. The Partial vows are thus enhanced to Full Vows to a very large extent, by such obser vances. rAgadveSatyAgAnnikhiladravyeSu sAmyamavalambya / tattvopalabdhimUlaM bahuzaH sAmAyikaM kAryam // 148 // Page #124 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA SIDDHYUPAYA 148. By giving up "Rag-dvesha" affection and repulsion and observing equanimity in all objects, one should prac tise Samayika, equanimity, continuously, which brings about a realisation of the true nature of Self. rajanIdivayorante tadavazyaM bhAvanIyamavicalitam / itaratra punaH samaye na kRtaM doSAya tadguNAya kRtam // 146 // 61 149. This Samayik must be regularly practised at the end of each night and day. If it is performed at other times. it is not improper, but is beneficial. sAmAyikaM zritAnAM samastasAvadyayogaparihArAt / bhavati mahAtratameSAmudaye'pi caritramohasya // 150 // 150. Those who have attained equanimity have com - plete vows, because of the renunciation of all sinful activities, although their Charitra-moha-karma (which obstructs a due performance of pure conduct) is in operation. sAmAyika saMskAraM pratidinamAropitaM sthirIkartum / pakSArthayordvayorapi kartavyo 'vazyamupavAsaH // 151 // 151. To strengthen the daily practice of Samayik a Discipline, one must observe fasting twice each fortnight. mukkrasamastArambhaH proSadhadinapUrva vAsarasyArdhe / upavAsaM gRhNIyAnmamatvamapahAya dehAdau // 152 // 152. Free from all work, and having given up affection for the body etc., one should commence fasting at middle of the day previous to Proshadha day, (which is the eighth and fourteenth day of each lunar fortnight). zritvA viviktavasatiM samastasAvadyayogamapanIya / sarvendriyArthavirataH kAyamanovacanaguptibhistiSThet // 153 // Page #125 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 62 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS 153. One should then retire to a secluded spot, renounce all sinful activities, abstain from indulgence in all objects of the senses, and observe due restraint of body, speech and mind. dharmadhyAnAsako vAsaramativAhya vihitsaandhyvidhiH| zucisaMstare triyAmAM gmyetsvaadhyaayjitnidrH||154|| prAtaHprotthAya tataH kRtvA tAtkAlika kriyAkalpam / nirvatayedyathoktaM jinapUjAM prAsukaivyaiH // 155 // uknena tato vidhinA nItvA divasaM dvitIyarAtriM ca / ativAhayetprayatnAdadha ca tRtIyadivasasya // 156 // 154, 155, 156. He should pass the day, wrapped in spiritual contemplation ; perform Samayika at sunset, vanquish sleep by self-study, and thus pass the night on a pure mat. He should rise in the morning, perform the necessary duties of the time, and engage in worship of Jina, as prescribed, with Prasuk objects, (which have no living germs in them). The day, the second night, and the half of the third day should carefully be passed in the manner stated above. Commentary. Anything which is dry, cooked, hot, mixed with sour, salt, sugar etc., broken, crushed or cut, is said to be Prasuk. Literally the word means an object in which living germs are absent. The word "Sterilized" would give an idea of this. iti yaH SoDaza yAmAngamayati primuktsklsaavdyH| tasya tadAnIM niyataM pUrNamahiMsAvataM bhavati // 157 // ___ 157. He who having set himself free from all sinful activities, passes 16 Yamas (48 hours) in the above manner certainly observes the vow of Ahimsa in its thoroughness. bhogopabhogahetoH sthAvarahiMsA bhvetkilaamiissaam| bhAgopabhogavirahAdbhavati na lezo'pi hiMsAyAH // 158 // : Page #126 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTAA-SIDDHYUPAYA 63 vAgguptenAstyanRta na samastAdAnAvarahataH steyam / nAbrahma maithunamucaH saGgo nAGge'pyamUrcchasya // 156 // itthamazeSitahiMsaHprayAti sa mahAbatitvamupacArAt / udayati caritramohe labheta tu na saMyamasthAnam // 160 // 158, 159, 160. On account of Bhoga and Upabhoga, Himsa of immobile beings only is caused. By renunciation of Bhoga and Upabhoga, not the slightest Himsa is occasioned, There is no falsehood, because of the control of speech; there is no stealing, because of the abstinence from all appropriation there is no incontinence (Abrahma), because of abstinence from all sexual intercourse. There is no attachment (Parigraha), because of the absence of the feeling of attachment even to one's body. Having thus got rid of all Himsa, he practically reaches the stage of a Mahavrati; but he cannot attain the spiritual stage of a Saint, because of the operation of Right-Conduct-deluding Karma. Commentary. One with Partial Vows who observes 48 hours' fast, as described above, may, well, during the period, be said to have practically reached the stage of a saint. He is not actually a saint because the Karmic tendencies which obstruct the observance of ideal conduct are not extinct. Mahavrati is a saint with Full Vows. bhogopabhogamUlA viratAviratasya nAnyato hiNsaa| adhigamya vastutattvaM svaM zaktimapi tAvapi tyAjyau // 161 // 161. One with partial vows incurs Himsa arising from the use of articles of Bhoga, and Upabhoga, and not otherwise. He should therefore ascertain the reality of things, and renounce these two also, in accordance with his own capacity, Commentary. The first Disciplinary vow, Samayika Shiksha Vrata, was exBlained in verses 148 to 150. Proshadhopawasa was explained in Page #127 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS verses 151 to 160. The third Bhogopabhoga Parimana is defined here. Bhoga means enjoyment of an object which can only be used once, such as food, and drink, fruits and flowers. Upabhoga means enjoyment of an object which can be used several times, such as furniture, dresses, ornaments, buildings. True knowledge, and continued practice will bring about grad. uated renunciation, and hence it is that a limitation to the use of objects necessary for a healthy growth is inculcated. Graduated renunciation, with increasing enlightenment, will lead to total renunciation, and perfect conduct, the path of Liberation. ekamapi prajighAMsuH nihantyanantAnyatastato'vazyam / karaNIyamazeSANAM pariharaNamanantakAyAnAm // 162 // 162. The use of all Anant-Kaya vegetables must be given up, because in destroying one, infinite (one-sensed living beings) are killed. Commentary. Anant-Kaya vegetable is that which infinite Jivas adopt as their one and common body. Vegetables are either. Pratyeka, or AnantaKaya or Sadharana. In Prateyka vegetable only one Jiva pervades throughout the body; whereas in Ananta Kaya infinite Jivas adopt the vegetable as their one and common body; and it is therefore called Sadharana also. There are many distinctive characteristics of Sadharana vegetables; for which see Gommatsara Jiya Kanda Pages, 56, 116, 117, 118, of Volume V of the Sacred Books of the Jainas series. Most of the vegetables which fructify under ground belong to the Sadharana class such as potatoe, ginger, radish. navanItaM ca tyAjyaM yonisthAnaM prabhUtajIvAnAm / yadvApi piNDazuddhau viruddhamabhidhIyate kiJcit // 163 // 163. Butter is the birth place of numerous Jivas. It should also be renounced. Even when its substance is pure, it has been declared to be prohibited. Commentary. Fresh butter if not at once melted on fire and strained away, becomes the place for generation of innumerable Jivas. This is Page #128 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA visibly apparent in what is called fermentation. Fermentation in the case of butter, actually commences at once, though it is not visible early. As examples of other prohibited articles may be mentioned, curd after 24 hours of its preparation; milk if not boiled within an hour of its being taken out; water which has been kept in a leather vessel. 65 Jivas do not generate in butter for an Antar-muhurta after preparation. Antar-muhurta is a period of time, within a muhurta, viz., 48 minutes. Even then it is prohibited, and has been included with wine, flesh, and honey in verse 71. viruddhA api bhogA nijazaktimavedaya dhImatA tyAjyAH / tyAjyeSvapi sImA kAryekadivAnizopabhogyatayA // 164 // 184. Having due regard to his own powers, the wise should even renounce those objects of enjoyment, which are not prohibited; and in respect of those even which he cannot renounce, he should limit the enjoyment by day or night. punarapi pUrvakRtAyAM samIkSya tAtkAlikIM nijAM zaktim / sImanyantarasImA pratidivasaM bhavati kartavyA // 165 // 165. Again having regard to one's capacity at the time, a further limit to the limits already set, should be made every day. Commentary. Herein is recommended a duly regulated daily and hourly programme of self-discipline, a programme by day in verse 164 and a programme by hour in verse 165. iti yaH parimitibhogaiH santuSTastyajati bahutarAn bhogAn / bahutarahiMsAvirahAttasyA'hiMsA viziSTA syAt // 166 // 166. He who being thus contented with a few limited enjoyments, renounces the vast majority of them, observes Ahimsa par-excellence because of abstention from considerable Himsa. Page #129 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS Commentary. Bhogopabhoga Parimana vow is explained in verses 161 to 166. Objects, the enjoyment of which causes considerable Himsa, and which are therefore prohibited, such as Ananta-Kaya vegetables, should first be given up for life. Thereafter those, which though not prohibited, are not necessarily required, should be given up for life. The enjoyment of the rest should also be limited to fixed days and nights and within those limits further limits of enjoyment, for fixed hours, should be made. A graduated course of renunciation, progressing with rising capacity and clearer knowledge, is thus prescribed. This would lead to the attenuation of desire and afford protection from the commission of huge Himsa. The Vow of Ahimsa would thus be more and more extensively observed. vidhinA dAtRguNavatA dravyavizeSasya jAtarUpAya / svaparAnugrahahetoH kartavyo'vazyamatithaye bhaagH|| 167 // 167. For mutual good, one possessed of the qualifications of a donor, should, in a proper manner, give a portion of appropriate things to a saint, who is (naked) like one at birth. Commentary. A saint gives up all coverings of the body. He keeps himself nude, and returns to the natural condition in which he was bornJata rupa. The private parts of a body do not require to be covered or concealed from view so long as baby-hood and childhood continue. A saint is, so far as sex-desire is concerned, as pure and as innocent as a baby, He has no sex-desire; and his naked appearance would not raise or occasion sex-desire in another who sees his nudity. It is only when the consciousness of the capacity to commit sin. crime, or impropriety dawns upon the mind that the idea of cover comes in. Husband and wife when they are all alone by themselves and there is no apprehension of an outsider looking upon them have no thought of covering up any part of the body from each other. Adam and Eve lived in the state of nature, until temptation came to them, and with it their fall, and expulsion from the Garden of Eden, the tragedy of Paradise Lost. Diogenes the celebrated Greek Philosopher never thought of covering up any private parts of the body. Euclid the discoverer of the Science of Geometry Page #130 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA rushed out naked from the bath and walked about the streets in that condition when the truth of a geometrical proposition flashed upon him. The pure ecstacy of discovery drowned all impure thoughts. The saint is pure like a baby, and his nudity does not, and would not excite improper emotions in his mind or in the minds of other people, who may happen to look at him. Such saints are the worthiest recipients of a devotee's offering. Such offerings do good to both the giver and the recipient. The donor thereby attains purity of mind, and cultivates love for the right path, and the donee is enabled to keep up physical strength for purposes of study, meditation and spiritual advancement. With reference to the objects to be offered, the gifts are divided into four classes : 1. Ahara, Dana, gift of food. 2. Aushadhi Dana, gift of medicine. 3. Abhaya Dana-gift of shelter, protection from danger, attack intimidation, or threat. 4. Shastra Dana, gift of books, imparting of knowledge, useful and beneficial. saMgrahamuccasthAnaM pAdodakamarcanaM praNAmaM ca / vAkAyamanaHzuddhireSaNazuddhizca vidhimaahuH||168|| 168. The inanner is said to be, respectful welcome, high seat, washing the feet, worship, bowing, purity of thought, speech, and body, and purity of food. Commentary. The nine points to be observed in offering food to a Sadhu, the highest recipient, are here described. The Jaina Sadhu is not a begging mendicant. He never asks for anything, nor does he even think of or desire for food. His visit to a habitation is a mere formal observance of one of the duties of the order. The taking of food is to him, the performance of a duty, not the gratification of a desire. The body is useful as an instrument for the development and purification of the soul. It must, therefore, be sustained by giving it the necessary nourishment. He does not relish his food, which he takes to avoid a suicide, a premature disintegration of the physical ingredients composing the body. He eats to live, and does not live to eat. Page #131 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 68 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS The person who helps him by offering physical nourishment to his body, attains the good result of having done a good deed. He must therefore perform it in the reverential spirit of service done, not in the haughty attitude of one confering a favour. The householder who offers food to a Sadhu, out of devotion and reverence must, therefore, observe nine points indicating and accompanying true devotion. He must (1) welcome and receive the Sadhu respectfully. Saying " The food is pure, pray stop, stop, stop." (2) res. pectfully conduct him, and give him a high seat. Then (3) wash the feet of the Sadhu. He must (6) worship him in the prescribed manner, reciting sacred texts and making offerings of eight kinds. He must (5) make a low bow. He must (6) all the while be thinking reverentially. He must (7) speak respectfully. He must (8) have purity of body. He must (9) offer a clean, pure, food, cooked for the household with all possible care and thoughtfulness. aihikaphalAnapekSA kSAntiniSkapaTatAnasayatvam / aviSAditvamuditve nirahaGkAritvamiti hi daatRgunnaaH||166|| 169. The qualifications of a donor are, disregard of worldly benefit, forbearance, sincerity, absence of jealousy, sorrow, joy, and pride. Commentary. (1). In general when one gives anything he expects a temvoral benefit in return. There must be a non-expectation of reward. (2). The giver should not get excited if an unexpected or untoward thing happened while he was engaged in the pious act. For bearance is a great virtue. (3). The donor must act in all since. rity. (4) He should have no feeling of jealousy. (5) He should have no sorrow. (6). Smiling joyous appearance must be cultivated. (17). Pride is certainly a bad condition of mind. The above are the seven qualifications of a donor. It is common knowledge, no secret, but an established truth that a public or private dinner, is never given out of a pure unmixed desire to give, in a spirit of reverence and devotion, and without any ulterior motive. As a rule, a dinner is part of a game, an important move, in business. The real motive is to gain favour with the invitees, the principal and the other guests, to acquire popularity and position in society, or to push on some personal business, Page #132 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 69 and in some cases, when it is a private dinner, for the pleasure of the company of the guests, for having a merry time of it, with the expectation of a similar dinner in return. Political and official dinners are necessary items in diplomatic strategy and administrative art. The confidential conversations, the keen observation of the remarks and behaviour of other people, the after-dinner speeches and toasts, sometimes disclose and sometimes conceal the real object of holding such dinners. Pride and jealousy are seldom absent in social dinners. rAgadveSAsaMyamamadaduHkhabhayAdikaM na yatkurute / dravyaM tadeva deyaM sutapaH svAdhyAyavRddhikaram // 170 // 170. Only such things should be given (as food) as help in the prosecution of studies, and the due observance of austerities, and which do not bring about fondness, disgust, incontinence, intoxication, pain, fear, etc. pAtraM tribhedamuktaM saMyogo mokSakAraNaguNAnAm / aviratasamyagdRSTirviratAviratazca sakalaviratazca // 171 // 171. The recipients are of three classes, according to their respective possession of qualities leading to Moksha. They are true believers without yows, with partial vows, and with full vows. hiMsAyAH paryAyo lobho'tra nirasyate yato dAne / tasmAdatithivitaraNaM hiMsAvyuparamaNameveSTam // 172 // ___172. In making a gift one gets over greed, which is a form of Himsa, and hence gifts made to a worthy recipient amount to a renunciation of Himsa. gRhamAgatAya guNine madhukaravRttyA parAnnapIDayate / vitarati yo nA'tithaye sa kathaM na hi lobhavAn bhavati // 173 // 173. Why should one be not called greedy if he does not offer (food) to a saint who visits his home, who is well Page #133 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 70 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS qualified and who, acting like a honey-bee, accepts gifts without causing any injury to others. Commentary. This is a very good illustration. A honey bee causes no sort of injury to the flower from which it takes honey. A saint, similarly takes a meagre meal out of food prepared by a householder for himself, without making any special arrangements for a saint. It is one of the duties of a householder to offer food to a worthy recipient before taking his first meal of the day. If he fails to have such a recipient, he would offer food to some person or animal before taking his own. Dana is of two classes. Patra-dana, which means offerings with respect and devotion to a worthy recipient as indicated in Verse 178. It may be Karuna-dana which is made out of compassion to any one who deserves it, being hungry, thirsty, diseased, distressed, helpless, disabled or the like. kRtamAtmArthaM munaye dadAti bhktimtibhaavittyaagH| arativiSAdavimuktaH zithilitalobho bhavatyahiMsaiva // 174 // 174. When one gives to a saint food out of what he has prepared for himself, such thoughtfully offered gift, which is made without any disregard or regret, with suppressed greed, is itself Ahimsa. Commentary. Dana also amounts to Ahimsa, because it is a concomitant of self-purification of the giver, and helps in the spiritual advance. ment of the donee. This is the fourth and the last disciplinary vow, otherwise called Atithi-Samvibhaga. These are called discip. linary, because when followed by a householder, they prepare him for the higher discipline of a saint. RENUNCIATION. iyamekaiva samarthA dharmasvaM me mayA samaM netum / satatamiti bhAvanIyA pazcimasallekhanA bhaktyA // 175 // Page #134 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA ever be devotedly thinking of 175. One should Sallekhana at the end, that "it is only this which would enable me to carry my wealth of piety withme." 71 Commentary. All religious observances, fastings and austerities would be unavailing, if at the last moment of life, at the time of approaching death, one were to lose his balance of mind, and equanimity of thought, and were afflicted by passion and distress. Sallekhana is a calm resignation, an unruffled preparedness for meeting death. maraNAnte'vazyamahaM vidhinA sallekhanAM kariSyAmi / iti bhAvanApariNato nAgatamapi pAlayedidaM zIlam // 176 // 176. "I shall certainly observe Sallekhna properly at the approach of death," is the thought one should constantly have and thus be practising the vow prematurely. Commentary. Many a previously formed resolve is forgotten at the last moment, and one is therefore advised to be ever and anon making this resolve to observe the final Renunciation, so that Death may not overtake him unawares. maraNe'vazyaMbhAvini kaSAyasallekhanAtanUkaraNamAtre / rAgAdimantareNa vyApriyamANasya nAtmaghAto'sti // 177 // 177. On account of the absence of any emotion, there is no suicide by one acting in this manner, on the certain aproach of death, because by the observance of Sallekhana, the passions are attenuated. Commentary. Here the author meets a possible objection. One might say that by constantly denying oneself the necessities of life, one would be guilty of suicide if death came on. This cannot be so, because death is suicide when brought about by inability to suffer pain or disappointment. One commits suicide by putting an end to one's life, when he foolishly feels that life is unbearable, because of disappointments and afflictions, or when he wrongly thinks that Page #135 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 72 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS Death would release him from present torments and bring him his wished for objects in the next life. A calm and bold preparedness to meet approaching death by engagement in pore meditation and by disengagement from distressing thoughts, is the last and most courageous act of piety and can never be called suicide. yo hi kaSAyAviSTaH kumbhkjldhuumketuvissshstraiH| vyaparopayati prANAn tasya syaatstymaatmvdhH|| 178 // 178. He who, actuated by passions, puts an end to his life by stopping breath, or by water, fire, poison, or weapons, is certainly guilty of suicide. Commentary. The subiection of desires, and gradual mastery over the needs of the body is not killing oneself, when it is done as a matter of graduated self-discipline. If death supervenes, it comes on in due course. It is not invited. It is not welcomed as a deliverer from pain and misery, or as an usherer into a better state of things. There are, again, many a religious fanatic who court and invite death as a matter of religious merit. The self-immolation of a widow on the funeral pyre of her husband, burying oneself in the freezing snows of Himalaya, dying under the wheels of the chariot of Jagannath at Puri, getting beheaded at Kashi, or getting drowned in the Ganges, are forms of death, which used to be voluntarily adopted under the belief that by doing so, one would attain a happier and better life in Heaven. This was suicide, immoral, illegal, and sinful. Sannyas, samadhi-marana, or Sallekhana is a quiet resignation, a peaceful separation of the soul from the body, when one is convinced that death is inevitable. If it be doubtful, the vows taken are limited in duration, and are terminable, in case life is saved after the fixed duration. The body is a means to the practice of religion, and the performance of good charitable deeds, and it is the duty of a Jaina to protect his body against all harm and injury. It is only when the body cannot possibly be saved, that a Jaina should withdraw himself from all unnecessary attachment, from all painful thoughts, connected with the end of life, and should Page #136 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 73 contemplate death as an inevitable event, and as nothing more than change of one body for another, as an entry into new life. He should then be constantly. contemplating the reality of substances, and should completely withdraw from all temporal connections whatsoever. nIyante'tra kaSAyA hiMsAyA hetavo yatastanutAm / sallekhanAmapi tataH prAhurahiMsAprasiddhyartham // 176 // 179. In the practice of Sallekhana (renunciation of the body), all passions, which cause Himsa, are subdued, and hence Sallekhana is said to lead to Ahimsa. Commentary, Sallekhana is included here as an eighth Sheela. Like the others, this also helps, strengthens, and leads to Ahimsa. Sallekhana, also called Sannyasa, or Samadhi Marana, is adopted when in the event of an incurable disease, extreme old age, famine, or calamity, one finds that death is certainly approaching. He then obtains forgiveness from all friends and relations, and with perfect peace of mind, gives up all possessions, gradually reduces his meals, and engages in spiritual contemplation. iti yo vratarakSArthaM satataM pAlayati sklshiilaani| varayati pativareva svayameva samutsukA shivpdshriiH||180|| 180. Like a damsel desiring a husband, the goddess of final beatitude herself longingly chooses him as a husband, who for protection of the Vratas, ceaselessly observes all the Sheelas. Commentary. Final beatitude is assured to him who observes the Sheelas ; and as stated just above, Sallekhana has been included in the Sheelas. The allusion here is to the ancient Indian custom of choosing a husband. The father of a marriageable damsel invited all eligible men, and the maiden exercised her choice by putting the marriage garland round the neck of the man she elected to marry. This was called Swayamvara, self-election of a husband. Page #137 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 74 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS aticArAH samyaktve vrateSu zIleSu paJca paJceti / saptatiramI yathoditazuddhipratibandhino heyaaH||181|| 181. The following 70 defects, five in respect of each of the (5) vratas, (8) Sheelas and Right belief, and which prevent their prescribed purity, should be avoided, zaGkA tathaiva kAMkSA vicikitsA saMstavo'nyadRSTInAm / manasA ca tatprazaMsA smygdRssttertiicaaraaH||182|| 182. Scepticism, desire, disgust, praise of wrong believers, and thinking admiringly of them, are the defects of Right Belief. Commentary. Doubt and fear are obvious defects. The desire for temporal prosperity of sorts as a result of piety is a mistake. A true believer should not look down upon any person or thing, ugly, diseased, deformed, dirty, or stinking with haughty disdain. He would rather have a feeling of pity or indifference for such person or object. Religious toleration is quite distinct from showering praises, or entertaining feelings of respect for other faiths, which should be avoided. A true believer has a large toleration, but his respect and esteem is all reserved for his own Faith alone. chedanatADanabandhA bhArasyAropaNaM samadhikasya / pAnAnnayozca rodhaH paJcAhiMsA vratasyeti // 183 // . 183. Mutilating, beating, tying up, overloading, withholding food or drink, are 5 transgressions of the vow of Ahimsa. Commentary. Such acts would not be transgressions if inflicted for correction or by way of punishment, by one having due authority, and without ill-will. mithyopadezadAnaM rhso'bhyaakhyaankuuttlekhkRtiiH| nyAsApahAravacanaM sAkArakamantrabhedazca // 184 // Page #138 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 75 184. False preaching, disclosing secrets, forgery, breach of trust, and divulging inferences drawn from behaviour or gestures (are transgressions of truth). pratirUpavyavahAraH stenaniyogastadAhRtAdAnam / rAjavirodhAtikamahInAdhikamAnakaraNe ca // 185 // 185. Adulteration, abetment of theft, receiving stolen property, illegal traffic, and false weights and measures (are 5 defects of the vow of non-stealing). smaratIbrAbhinivezAnaGgakrIDAnyapariNayanakaraNam / aparigRhItetarayorgamane cetvarikayoH paJca // 186 // 188. Intense sexual desire, unnatural sexual indulgence, arranging marriage of those outside the family, asso. ciation with immoral married or unmarried women, are 5 (breaches of the vow of chastity). vAstukSetrASTApadahiraNyadhanadhAnyadAsadAsInAm / kupyasya bhedayorapi parimANAtikramAH paJca // 187 // 187. Exceeding the limits regarding house and land, gold, and silver, cattle and corn, man and woman servant, clothes and utensils, are 5 (breaches of the vow of limited possessions). urddhamadhastAttiryagvyatikramAH kSetravRddhirAdhAnAm / smRtyantarasya gaditAH paJceti prathamazIlasya // 188 // 188. Exceeding the limits above, below, and in (8) di. rections, increasing boundaries, and forgetting the limits, are said to be 5 (breaches) of the first Sheela (Dig-Vrata). preSyasya saMprayojanamAnayanaM shbdruupvinipaatii| kSepo'pi pudgalAnAM dvitIyazIlasya paJceti // 186 // Page #139 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 76 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS 189. Sending, detaining, speaking out, making gestures, throwing articles, (beyond) limits (are) 5 (breaches) of the second Sheela (Desha Vrata). kandarpaH kautkucyaM bhogAnarthakyamapi ca maukharyam / asamIkSitAdhikaraNaM tRtIyazIlasya paJceti // 16 // 190. Uttering obscene words, gesticulating with obscene words, misuse of articles of use, gossip, and acting unthinkingly (are) 5 (breaches) of the third Sheela (Anartha. Danda-Vrata). vacanamanaHkAyAnAM duHpraNidhAnaM tvanAdarazcaiva / smRtyanupasthAnayutAH paJceti caturthazIlasya // 11 // ___ 191. Misdirection of speech, mind and body; lack of interest, and forgetting due observances are 5 (breaches) of the fourth Sheela (Samayik). anavakSitApramArjitamAdAnaM sNstrstthotsrgH| smRtyanupasthAnamanAdarazca paJcopavAsasya // 162 // 192. Taking up articles, using seats, passing excre. ments, without looking at and sweeping, forgetting the rules, and lack of interest are 5 (breaches) of Upavasa (fasting). AhAro hi sacittaH sacittamizraH scittsmbndhH| duHpakko'bhiSavo'pi ca paJcAmI SaSThazIlasya // 163 // 193. Eating articles having life, articles mixed with those having life, articles in contact with those having life, articles not well cooked or digested, aphrodisiacal food are 5 transgressions of the sixth Sheela (Bhogopabhoga Parimans). paradAtRvyapadezaH sacittanikSepatavidhAne ca / kAlasyAtikramaNaM mAtsaryaM cetyatithidAne // 164 // Page #140 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 77 194. Delegation of host's duties, placing the food on Sachitta (with life) articles, covering the food with Sachitta, not serving meal at proper time, lack of interest are transgressions in Achitta-dana (Atithi-Samvibhaga). jIvitamaraNAzaMse suhRdanurAgaH sukhAnubandhazca / sanidAnaH paJcaite bhavanti sallekhanAkAle // 165 // 195. A desire to live, a desire to die, attachment to friends, recollection of pleasures, and desire for future pleasures, these 5 are (the transgressions) at the time of Sallekhana. ityetAnaticArAnapi yogI saMpratayaM parivartya / samyaktvavratazIlairamalaiH puruSArthasiddhimetya ciraat|| 166 // 198. One with control, who has understood these transgressions, and has avoided them, soon attains the spiritual goal through faultless right faith, vows, and Sheelas. caritrAntarbhAvAt tapo'pi mokSAGgamAgame gditm| - anigahitanijavIryaistadapi niSevyaM smaahitsvaantH||16|| 197. Austerity is also said, in the Scriptures, to be helpful to Moksha because it is included in Right Conduct. Therefore it ought to be practised by those who have a well-controlled mind, and who do not ignore their capacities. Commentary, Austerities should be practised by householders also, as they are helpful in spiritual advancement. anazanamavamaudarya vivikrazayyAsanaM rstyaagH| kAyaklezo vRtteH saMkhyA ca niSevyamiti tapo baahym|| 198 // 198. Fasting, reduced diet, sleeping and resting in lonely places, renouncing the Rasas (Milk. curd, ghee, oil - Page #141 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 78 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS sweet, and salt) bodily suffering, mental vow to accept food under undisclosed conditions, are external austerities and should be practised. binayo vaiyAvRttyaM prAyazcittaM tathaiva cotsrgH| svAdhyAyo'tha dhyAnaM bhavati niSevyaM tpo'ntrnggmiti||16|| 199. Respect, service, expiation, renunciation, study and concentration are the internal austerities which should be observed. jinapuGgavapravacane munIzvarANAM yadukramAcaraNam / sunirUpya nijAM padavIM zakkiM ca niSevyametadapi // 20 // 200. Having due regard to one's own status and capacity, a (householder) should practise the conduct of saint, as described in the Scriptures. Commentary. In the following 8 verses are described the Rules of Conduct prescribed for saints. These should be followed by householders to the best of their capacity. idamAvazyakaSaTkaM samatAstavavandanApratikramaNam / pratyAkhyAnaM vapuSo vyutsargazceti kartavyam // 201 // 201. Equanimity, praising, bowing, repentance and renunciation, and giving up attachment for the body are the six (daily) duties, which should be observed, samyagdaNDo vapuSaH samyagdaNDastathA ca vacanasya / manasaH samyagdaNDo guptitritayaM samanugamyam // 202 // 202. One should carefully observe the three controls, proper control of body, proper control of speech, and proper control of mind. samyaggamanAgamanaM samyagbhASA tathaiSaNA samyak / samyaggrahanikSepau vyutsargaH samyagiti samitiH // 203 // Page #142 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA. 203. Careful movement, careful speech, careful eating, careful placing and removal of things, careful evacuation of excrement, are the (5) Samitis to be observed. dharmaH sevyaHkSAntiH mRdutvamRjutA ca zaucamatha satyam / AkiJcanyaM brahma tyAgazca tapazca saMyamazceti // 204 // 204. Forgiveness, humility, straight forwardness truth, contentment, Restraint, austerities, charity, nonattachment, and chastity are the (10) observances to be followed. adhruvamazaraNamekatvamanyatAzaucamAJavo janma / lokavRSabodhisaMvaranirjarAH satatamanuprekSyAH // 205 // 205. Transitoriness, helplessness, mundaneness, loneliness, separateness, impurity, inflow, stoppage and shedding (of Karmas), Universe, variety of right path, and nature of Right path, (these 12 meditations) should be contemplated continuously. For details see page 177, verse 7, of Tattwar. tha Dhigama Sutra Vol. II of the Sacred Books of the Jainas. tuttuSNAhimamuSNaM nagnatvaM yaacnaartirlaabhH| daMzo mazakAdInAmAkrozo vyAdhiduHkhasaMyamanam // 206 // sparzazca tRNAdInAmajJAnamadarzanaM tathA prjnyaa| satkArapuraskAraH zayyA caryA vadho niSadyA strI // 207 // dvAviMzatirapyete pariSoDhavyA parISahAH satatam / saMklezamuktamanasA saMklezanimittabhItena // 208 // 206,207 and 208. (1) Hunger, (2) thirst, (3) Cold, (4) heat, (5) insect bite (6) nudity, (7) ennui, (8) women, (9) walking, (10) sitting, (11) resting, (12) abuse, (18) beating, (14) begging, (15) non-obtaining, (16) disease, (17) contact with thorny shrubs etc., (18) dirt, (19) respect and disrespect, (20) conceit of knowledge, (21) lack of knowledge, (22) Page #143 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 80 THH SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS slack belief, are 22 sufferings. These should be ever endured without any feeling of vexation, by one who desires to get rid of all cause for pain. Note:-See verse 9 of the above reference. iti ratnatrayametatpratisamayaM vikalamapi gRhasthena / paripAlanIyamanizaM niratyayAM muktimabhilaSitA // 206 // 209. Ratna-Traya, the three Jewels (Right belief, knowledge and conduct) should be followed, even partially, every moment of time without cessation by a householder desirous of everlasting liberation. baddhodyamena nityaM labdhvA samayaM ca bodhilAbhasya / padamavalambya munInAM karttavyaM sapadi paripUrNam // 210 // 210. With a determined continuous effort, one should, when the opportunity for full attainment of Ratna-Traya is available, adopt the order of saints, and make it complete, without delay. asamagraM bhAvayato ratnatrayamasti karmabandho yaH / savipakSakRto'vazyaM mokSopAyo na bandhanopAyaH // 219 // 211. Even when Ratna-Traya is partially followed, whatever bondage of Karma there is, is due to its antithesis (the passions), because Ratna-Traya is assuredly the way to liberation, and can never be the cause of bondage. Commentary. One might question that the Three Jewels should keep out and prevent all bondage, and if there is bondage of Karma, to a person who is influenced by the Three Jewels, then the Three Jewels would be said to be leading to bondage. This is not so. The bondage is not caused or brought about by the Three Jewels. It is caused by other circumstances; and as the Three Jewels necessarily lead to salvation, the bondage also may well be said to lead to salvation, and not to further bondage. Take the case of a patient under treatment. While the medicine is being administered and is Page #144 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 81 to lead him to certain recovery, symptoms of disease continue to appear with varying degrees of aggravation. But the medicine, and the symptoms may well be said to lead to cure and not to disease. yenAMzena sudRSTistenAMzenAsya bandhanaM nAsti / yenAMzena tu rAgastenAMzenAsya bandhanaM bhavati // 212 // yenAMzena jJAnaM tenAMzenAsya bandhanaM nAsti / yenAMzena tu rAgastenAMzenAsya bandhanaM bhavati // 213 // yenAMzena caritraM tenAMzenAsya bandhanaM nAsti / yenAMzena tu rAgAstenAMzenAsya bandhanaM bhavati // 214 // 212, 213, 214. (In every thought activity) there is no bondage so far as there is right belief; there is bondage so far as there is passion. (In every thought activity) there is no bondage so far as there is knowledge; there is bondage so far as there is passion. (In every thought activity) there is no bondage so far as there is conduct; there is bondage so far as there is passion. yogAtpradezabandhaH sthitibandho bhavati yaH kaSAyAttu / darzanabodhacaritraM na yogarUpaM kaSAyarUpaM ca // 215 // 215. Pradesha Bandha, bondage of Karmic molecules is due to soul's vibratory activity, and Sthiti Bandha, duration bondage, is due to passions. But Right Belief, Knowledge and Conduct have neither the nature of vibrations nor of passions. darzanamAtmavinizcitirAtmaparijJAnamiSyate bodhH|| sthitirAtmani caritraM kuta etebhyo bhavati bndhH|| 216 // 216. Right belief is conviction in one's own Self. Knowledge is a knowledge of one's own Self; conduct is absorption in one's own Self. How can there be Bondage by these. Page #145 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 82 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS samyaktvacaritrAbhyAM tIrthakarAhArakarmaNo bandhaH / yospadiSTaH samaye na nayavidAM so'pi doSAya // 217 // 217. Whatever bondage of Tirthankar Karma, or Aharaka Karma, has been described in the Scripture as due to Right Belief and Conduct, would not appear to be a mistake to those who are learned in the points of view. sati samyaktvacaritre tIrthakarAhArabandhakau bhavataH / yogakaSAya tasmAttatpunarasminnudAsInam // 298 // 218. In presence of Right Belief and Conduct, only vibratory activity and passions cause the bondage of Tirthankara and Aharaka Karmas. Therefore they (Right belief and Conduct) are quite unconcerned in this matter. nanu kathameva siddhayatu devAyuH prabhRti satprakRtibandhaH / sakalajana suprasiddho ratnatrayadhAriNaM munivarANAm // 216 // ratnatrayamiha heturnirvANasyaiva bhavati nAnyasya / Asravati yattu puNyaM zubhopayogo'yamaparAdhaH // 220 // 219-220. How then is there the bondage of good Karmas like celestial age, etc., to saints following Ratna Traya, ( a fact) well known to all persons, possible. (The answer is). Ratna Traya is the cause of Nirvana only, and of nothing else. The good Karmas which inflow, are due to the Aparadha, Defect of Shubhopayoga, good thought activity. ekasminsamavAyAdatyantaviruddhakAryayorapi hi / iha dahati ghRtamiti yathA vyavahArastAdRzo'pi rUDhimitaH 221 221. In one (thought activity), distinctly contradictory effects may exist simultaneously. Ordinarily it is said that "Ghee burns" (although it is the heat transmitted in the ghee which burns and not the ghee itself). Similarly, it is so here, from the practical point of view. Page #146 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA Commentary. It is a fact that to one possessed of Rat na-Traya, there is bondage of good and bad Karmas; and hence a critic may say that Ratna Traya is the cause of such bondage. It is not so. Passions and vibratory activity of the soul are the causes of bondage. Passions exist till the 10th spiritual stage, and vibratory activity till the 13th; and bondage of good or bad Karmas is brought about by both the vibratory activity, and passions or by either; but is never caused by Ratna Traya; which is always the Cause of Nirjara and Moksha, and of nothing else. Nirjara and Bandha, contradictory in themselves certainly go on at the same time when Ratna Traya is present. But Ratna Traya is the cause of Nirjara alone, and all Bandha is due to vibratory activity and passions. Really speaking the Ghee in a frying pan only helps in making the substance which is being fried delicious and wholesome. If it accidently burns, the burning is due to the excessive heat transmitted to Ghee by fire, and is not caused by Ghee. One should not therefore be led to a wrong conclusion from the mere happening of opposite results simultaneously. samyaktva cAritrabAdhalakSaNo mokSamArga ityeSaH / mukhyopacArarUpaH prApayati paraM padaM puruSam // 222 // 83 222. This path of salvation, known as Right Belief, Knowledge and Conduct combined, has a Real and a Practical aspect; it leads the soul to the highest Stage. Commentary. Real Ratna Traya is the path of liberation. Practical Ratna Traya helps in bringing about circumstances which lead to real Ratna Traya. All rules of Conduct laid down for householders and saints are from practical point of view. Real Ratna Traya is selfrealisation only. nityamapi nirupalepaH svarUpasamavasthito nirupaghAtaH / gaganamiva paramapuruSaH paramapade sphurati vishdtmH|| 223 // 223. Ever free from (Karmic) contact, free from obstruction, fully absorbed in one's own self, the Highest supremely pure Soul is effulgent, like the sky, in the Highest Stage. Page #147 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 84 THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JAINAS kRtakRtyaH paramapade paramAtmA sakalaviSayaviSayAtmA / paramAnandanimagno jJAnamayo nandati sadaiva // 224 // 224. Quite contented, all knowables being reflected in Him, immersed in supreme Bliss, the embodiment of knowledge, the Paramatina is eternally Happy in the Highest Stage. Commentary. In these two verses is described Purushartha Siddhi-the Nirvanic condition, the highest Purusha Stage; that of Paramatmathe attainment of eternal infinite happiness, infinite omniscience, infinite power. ekanAkarSantI zlathayantI vastutatvamitareNa / antena jayati jainInItirmanthAnanetramiva gopI // 225 // 225. Like a milk maid, drawing one (end) of the rope and loosening the other, Jaina Philosophy deals with the reality of things and succeeds in (acquiring) the Essence. Commentary. A milk maid, engaged in churning, lets go one end of the rope round the churning rod, and draws in the other, and thus succeeds in bringing butter out of milk. Similarly Jaina Philosophy deals with the reality of things, alternately from the practical and real point of view. From the practical point of view it prescribes the rules of conduct, and from the real point of emphasizes upon the inherent nature of soul, until the self is realized and in that stage of self realization both the points of view disappear. Success is then attained. Butter comes out of the milk, Soul reaches the stage of Highest Perfection. The atma becomes the Parmatma. varNaiH kRtAni citraiH padAni tu padaiH kRtAni vAkyAni / vAkyaH kRtaM pavitraM zAstramidaM na punrsmaabhiH|| 226 // 226. Words have been made by various alphabets, phrases have been made by words. This sacred treatise has been made by phrases; and not by us. Page #148 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PURUSHARTHA-SIDDHYUPAYA 85 Commentary. In the concluding verse, as is customary, the author expresses his humility in words which though simple exhibit a marvellous mastery of dialectics. It is true that the material causes which have led to the making of this book are letters, words, and phrases. The author is however the efficient cause, the instrumental cause in the production of this work. Letters, words, and phrases, there have been and will ever be. It is however, the author, who puts them together, so as to exercise a magnetic power, a power which moves the hearts of humanity and leads them to right action and ultimate Triumph. iti zrImadamRtacandrasUrINAM kRtiH puruSArthasiDyupAyo 'para nAma jinapravacanarahasyakozaH smaaptH| Thus is concluded this excellent treasury of the essence of Jain Philosophy named Purushartha Siddhyupaya the work of Shri Amrita Chandra Suri. Page #149 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #150 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF SANSKRIT VERSES. akSarakrameNa saMskRtazlokapaMjikA 27 74 14 zrAtmapariNAmahiMsana 34 AtmA prabhAvanIyo bhAmA vA pakkAM vA zrAmAsvapi pakkAsvapi mAhAro hi sacittaH 65 akramakathanena yataH atyanta nizitadhAram aticArAH samyakke atha nizcittasacittau adhruvamazaraNamekatvam anavaratahiMsAyAm anavetitApramArjita anazanamavamaudaryam anusaratAm padametat aprAdurbhAvaH khalu abhimAnabhayajugupsA amRtatvahetubhUtam arkAlokena vinA arthA nAma ya ete bharatikaram bhItikaram avabudhya hiMsyahiMsaka avitIrNasya grahaNam avidhAyA'pi hi hiMsAm aviruddhA api bhogA avisaMkSepAt vividhaH abudhasya bodhanArtham asadapi hi vasturUpam asamagram bhAvayato asamartho ye kartum bhasti puruSazcidAtmA prasidhenu viSa hutAzana aSTAvaniSTadustara itthamazeSitahiMsA ityatra tritayAtmani ityAzritasamyaktvaiH ityetAnaticArAn iti niyamitadigbhAge iti yaH parimitabhogaiH iti yaH SoDazayAmAn iti yo vratarakSArtham iti ratnatrayametat iti viratau bahudezAt iti vividhabhaGgagahane idamAvazyakaSaTkam iyamekaiva samarthA 5 iha janmani vibhavAdIn 78 46 | uknena tato vidhinA upalabdhi sugati sAdhana 56 | ubhayaparigrahavarjanam 37 / UrdU madhastAttiryak 53 Page #151 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( 2 ) 11 jinapuGgavapravacane 82 jIvakRtaM pariNAmam jIvAjIvAdInAM jIvitamaraNAzaMse 77 ta ekamapi prajighAMsuH ekasminsamavAyAt ekasya saiva tIvram ekasyAlpA hiMsA ekanAkarSantI ekaH karoti hiMsAm evamativyAptiH syAt evaM na vizeSaH syAt evamayaM karmakRtaiH evaMvidhamaparamapi evaM samyak darzana tajayati paraM jyotiH tattvArthazraddhAne tatrAdau samyatta' tatrApi ca parimANaM dvAviMzatirapyete dRSTvA paraM purastAt darzanamAtmavinizcitiH WM aihika phalAnapekSA dha 37 kandarpaH kautkucyam kartavyo'dhyavasAyaH kasyApi dizati hiMsA kAmakrodhamadAdiSu kAraNakAryavidhAnam kiM vA bahupralapitaiH kRtakAritAnumataiH kRtakRtyaH paramapade kRtamAtmArtham munaye kRcchaNa sukhAvAsiH ko nAma vizati moha dhanalavapipAsitAnAm dharmadhyAnAsako dharmahiMsArUpam dho'bhivarddhanIyaH dharmo hi devatAbhyaH dharmaH sevyaH zAntiH cu 78 na garhitamavadyasaMyutam granthAryobhayapUrNam gRhamAgatAya guNine nanu kathameva siddhayatu navanItaM ca tyAjyaM na vinA prANavighAtAt nahi samyagvyapadezam nA'tivyAptizca tayoH nijazaktyA zeSANAM nityamapi nirupalepaH nirataH kAsnyanivRttI nirbAdhaM saMsiddhayat nizcayamabudhyamAno nizcayamiha bhUtArtham nIyante'tra kaSAyA 46 | naivaM vAsarabhuktaH Ur - caritrAntarbhAvAt cAritraM bhavati yataH chedanatADanabandha chedanabhedanamAraNa Page #152 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 50 | maraNe'vazyaMbhAvini mANavaka eva siMho mAdhuryaprItiH kila mithyAtvavedarAgAH mithyopadezadAnam muktasamastArambhaH mukhyopacAravivaraNa mUrkhAlakSaNakaraNAt ya paradAtRvyapadezaH paramAgamasya bIjaM pariNamamAnasya citaH pariNamamAno nityaM paridhaya iva nagarANi pratirUpa vyavahAraH pravidhAyasuprasiddhaH pravihAya ca dvitIyAn prAgeva phalati hiMsA prAtaH protthAya tataH preSyasya saMprayojanam pAtram tribhedamuktam pAparddhijayaparAjaya punarapi pUrvakRtAyAM pUjyanimittaM ghAte pRthagArAdhanamiSTaM paizunyahAsagarbha C 45 57 yo yatkhalu kaSAyayogAt yadapi kriyate kiJcid yadapi kila bhavati mAMsaM yadvadAgayogAta yadidaM pramAdayogAt yadyevaM bhavati tadA yasmAtsa kaSAyaH san yAni tu punarbhaveyuH yA mUrchA nAmeyaM yuktAcaraNasya sato yenAMzena caritraM yenAMzena sudRSTiH yenAMzena jJAnaM ye nijakalatramAtram yogAtpradezabandhaH yonirudumbarayugma yo yati-dharmamakathana yo hi kaSAyAviSTaH 15 61 . baddhodyamena nityam bahiraGgAdapi saGgAt bahuduHkhAH saMjJapitAH bahuzaH samastavirati bahusatvaghAtajanitAt bahusattvaghAtino'mI vinayo vaiyAvRttyam bhUkhananavRkSamoTana bhogopabhogamUlA bhogopabhogasAdhana bhogopabhogahetoH 82 macaM mAsaM taudraM madyaM mohayati mano madhu madyaM navanItaM madhu zakalamapi prAyo maraNAnte'vazyamaham rajanIdivayorante ratnatrayamiha hetuH rasajAnAm ca bahUnAM rakSA bhavati bahUnAM rAgadveSAsaMyama rAgAdivardhanAnAm 36 | rAgAdhudayaparatvAt | rAgadveSatyAgAt 71 / rAtrau bhujAnAnAm Www. Page #153 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ lokatrayaika netraM loke zAstrAbhAse la va vacanamanaH kAyAnAM varNaiH kRtAni citraiH vastu sadapi svarUpAt vAgguptenAstyanRt vAstukSetrASTApada vigalita darzana mohaiH vidyA vANijyamaSI vidhinA dAtRguNavatA viparItAbhinivezam vyavahAranizcayo yaH vyutthAnAvasthAyAM za zaka tathaiva kAMkSA zritvA viviktavasatiM sa sakalamanekAntAtmaka sati samyaktvacaritre samyaggamanAgamanam samyaktvacaritrabodha samyaktvacaritrAbhyAm samyagdaNDo vapuSaH samyagjJAnam kAryam (4 sarvavittI sarvasminnapyasmin sarvAnarthaprathamaM sAmAyikaM zritAnAM sAmAyika saMskAram sUkSmApi na khalu hiMsA 76 84 sUkSmo bhagavAn dharmo 46 | so'pi na zaktastyuktaM 4 21 63 | saMgrahamucca sthAnam 75. stokai kendriyaghAtAt 25 | sparzazca tRNAdInAm 56 smaratIvrAbhiniveza 66 | svayameva vigalitaM yo svakSetrakAlabhAvaiH 12 ha harita tRNAMkuracAriNI hiMsAparyAyatvAt 74 | hiMsA phalamaparasya tu 61 hiMsyante tilanAlyAM 26 hiMsAto'nRtavacanAt hiMsAyA paryAyo hiMsAyAmaviramaNam 82 | hiMsAyAM steyasya ca 78 hetau pramattayoge 83 82 78 kSuttRSNAzItoSNaprabhRtiSu 24 | kSuttRSNAhimamuSNam wr 10 47 60 61 61 26 36 55 67 36 76 75 36 45 53 53 33 46 26 66 26 48 47 21 76 Page #154 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX 27 19 17 18 81 25 17 28 PAGES. PAGES. Abhutartha Bahya Prana Adharmastikaya ... 18 Bandha ... Ahimsa, transgressions of 74 Bhogopabhoga Ajiva ... Parimana ... 58, 76 Akasha ... | Bhutartha Allegories 6 | Blind and the Elephant 3 Amudha-drishti-anga Bondage, Karmic ... Anartha-danda-Vrata 58, 76 Careless dealings ... 60 Anekant Charity ... ... 66 Aninhava Chastity ... 50 Antaratma Chastity, breaches of 75 Antraya 19 Chaturendriya Anubhaga-bandha Continuity Anuvrata Control of body, mind and Arhat ... speech ... 78 Arambhi Himsa Darpana-Tala ... 2 Artha Darshana-varniya Karma 19 Asatyartha Dealing in dangerous Ashuddha instruments Aspect Triple 7,8 Desha-Vrata ... 58, 76 Asrava ... 19 Desire ... ... 74 Atithi Samvibhaga ... 58, 71 Dharmastikaya ... 17, 18 Attachment, 50,51,52,53,54,55 Dig-Vrata ... 58, 75 Austerities. External Disappearance , Internal ... 78 Discipline Ayu Karma 19 Disgust Bahumana 25 | Donor 27 17 25 Page #155 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX. 81 3 12 60 60 47 62, 76 35 60 PAGES. PAGES Dravya Prana ... 27 Karma ... 11, 12 Dravyarithika Naya ... Karmic Bondage ... Dvendriya Knowledge Perfect ... Ekendriya 28 Manifestation Elephant and the blind 3 Meditations twelve ... Equanimity 61 Moha Evil instruction Mohaniya 19 Evil thinking Moksha False-hood Motive, affecting degree Fasting of Ahimsa 31, 32, 33 Fermentation 65 Mukhya Flesh Mukta Jiva 9, 10, 17 9 Food Offering 67, 69, 70 Nama Karma ... 19 Gambling Night-eating 56, 57 Gotra Karma 19 Nikala Parmatma 17 Graharambhi Himsa 45 Nikankshita Anga ... Grantha 25 Nirjara Guna-vrata Nirvana Hearing Evil 60 Nirvichkitsita Anga ... 21 Himsa ... 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, Nishankita Anga ... 20 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, Nishchaya 5, 6, 8 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45. Non-Stealing, transHimsa Arambhi ... 45 gressions of 75 ,, Graharambhi ... 45 Nudity ,,Samkalpi ... Omniscient ... 2, 10, ,, Udyami ... One-sided view ,, Virodhi Padartha Malika Illusion Panchendriya Jayati Parables Jewels, three 26, 80, Param Jyoti Jiva 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17 Parigraha 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 Jiva Embodied Parigraha Parimana .. 55 Jiva Mukta Parmatma ... 11, 17 Jiva Samsari 9 Paryayarthika Naya ... Joana varniya Karma 19 Practical Aspect ... 6, 8 Kala .... ... 19, 25 | Pradesha Bandha ... 19 58N oc 66 4.5 45 OON 12 6 82, 83 . Page #156 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX. IND 17 18 19 22 8 70 Pages. Pages. Praise of Wrong. Believers 74 Siddhi .. 17 Prakriti Bandha ... 19 Silent Admiration of Prana .. 27 Wrong Believers 74 Proshadhopa vasa ... 58, 76 Sopadhana ... 25 Pudgala Space Purusha Stithi Bandha ... Purushartha Siddhyupaya 4 Stithi Karma Anga Ratnatraya 26, 80, 82, 83 Sufferings, twenty. Real Aspect 5. 8, 30 two 79 Renunciation 14, 38, 63, 70 Substance Renunciation of the Substances, chain of body 71, 72, 78 Substances, infinite Right Belief 12, 15, 74 Ten observances Right Belief, defects of 74 Theft Right conduct ... 26 Time Right Knowledge ... 23, 24 Tirtha Right Knowledge, eight Tre.eodriya pillars of ... 25 Triple Aspect ... Saints ... 17 Truth, transgressions of Sakal Parmatma Twelve meditations Sallekbana Twenty-two sufferings Samayika Ubhaya Samiti 79 Udyami Himsa ... 45 Samkalpi Himsa ... Unreal Aspect 5,8 Samsari Jiva 9, 10, 11, 12 Upachara Samvara 19 Upavrinhana 22 Samyak Darshana ... 12, 15 Vahir-atma Samyak Jnana ... 28 Vatsalya Anga Satyartha 5 Vedaniya Karma Scepticism 74 | Vinaya Science of thought ... Virodhi Himsa Shiksha Vrata 58 Vitality 27 Shravaka 17 Vyavahara ... 5, 6, 8 Shudha 5 Wine ... 85 78 17 71, 77 58, 76 79 79 Ulova ... 25 16 22 19 25 45 Page #157 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Corrections and Additions. Page. 1 Line. 18. Insert (;) Semicolon between the words perfection' and 'and'. , 6 , 13. For envolved Read involved. 16 , 6. Delete and between world', and 'how'. 16 , 7. Insert 'eternal' between 'can' and 'Happiness'. ,, 28. For' wordy 'Read.worldly'. ,, 29. Delete the word ' for '. , 34. For Chapter (iii) Read Chapter (iv). ,, 9. Insert a (. ) full stop between * Jainism and Right'. ,, 27 , 7. Read kAnya for kAtalya. ,, 11. Insert (.) full stop between 'bee' and 'They'. , 29. For mantareNA'pi read mantareNApi , 29 ,, 18. For hiMso read hiMsA. , 25, For 'cause 'Read case'. ,, 32, 3. For 'simultaneously' Read 'jointly'. , 13. For fear read ftei ,, 11. For na prApya read prApya na 21. For reason 'read ' necessity.' , 18. Delete 'a'. , 13. For pure? Read clean'. >> 16. Fordeluding 'Read ' preventing'. , 30. Insert' of the Body' after. Renunciation '! ,, 70 , 21, 22, 23, read things ' for 'articles.' , 24. For or disgested 'read 'and' , 1. For 'sweet' Read sugar ?. , 12. For 'mundane-ness 'Read transmigration '. 79 , 14. For' variety' Read ' rarity'. 79, 14. Insert 'true', between the' and 'nature'. 79 , 26. Add'on hard earth' after 'resting' Page #158 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LIST OF ENGLISH JAINA BOOKS. Sacred Books of the Jainas. ... Rs. A. P. 5 8 0 1. Vol. I. Dravya Samgraha ... By S. C. Ghoshal %. Vol. II. Tattvartha Sutra ,, J, L. Jaini 3. Vol. III. Panchastikaya A. Chakravarti 4. Vol. IV. Purusartha Siddhyupiya ,, Ajit Prasada 5. Vol. V. Gommata-sara Jiva Kanda , J. L. Jaini (The soul) 6. Vol. VI. Gommata-sura Karma Kinda do. Part I (The Karma) 7. Vol. VII. Atmanushisana do. 8. Vol. VIII. Samaya Sara do. 9. Vol. IX. Niyamsara Uggar Sain 10. Vol. X. Karma Kanda, Pt. II (In Press). ... > J. L. Jaini Other Books. ... 80 % 8 0 3 OO 2 80 4 8 0 ... J. L. Jaini. do. 3 4 0 1 40 100 0 4 0 0 12 0 040 do. do. do. 11. Outlines of Jainism 12. Jaina Law 13. Jaina Gem Dictionary 14. The Jainas of India and Hindu Code 16. Atma Siddhi 16. Review of The Heart of Jainism 17. Lecture on Jainism at the Wembley Conference printed in Living Religions of the Empire 18. The Bright Ones in Jainism 19. The Jaina Universe (In Press) 20. The Key of Knowledge, Third Edition 21. Practical Path, Second Edition 29. The Science of Thought 23. Logic for Boys and Girls 24. Ratna Karanda Sra vakachara (Householder's Dharma) 25 A Peep behind the veil of Karma do. 080 do. C. R. Jain do. do. do. O 8 0 10 0 0 180 006 0 12 0 090 Page #159 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ do. do. do. do. 181 Rs. A. P. 26. Confluence of Opposites (English) C. R. Jain 2 8 0 27. Sanyasa Dharma 28. Immortality and Joy (English) do. ... 0 1 0 29. What is Jainism ... ? 8 0 30. Sacred Philosophy 31. Bhagwan Rishabh Doo 32, Jainism, Christianity and Science do. 33. Jain Psychology do. ... 100 34. Jaina Law do. ... 78 0 36. Parmatmi-Prakasha Rikhab Das 36. Nyagavatara Dr. Vidyabhushan 37. Nyaya Karnika M. D. Desai 38. Jainism H. Warren ... 39. Dictionary of Jain Biography Uror&o Singh 40. Jainism not Atheism H. Warren 41. Pure Thoughts, Fourth Edition Ajit Prasada ... 0 1 0 42. Introduction to Jainism A. B. Latthe 43. Prama na-Naya-Tattvalokalankara H. Bhattacharaya 44. Divinity in Jainism 45. A Comparative study of Indian Science of Thought, etc. do. 46. Atma Dharma C. R. Jain 47. Discourse Divine 48. Where the Shoe Pinches C. R. Jain ... 080 49. Sravana Belgola Narasimachari ... 080 50, Soul U. D. Barolia ... 020 51. Jaina Tattva Jnanam Vijaya Dharma Suri ( 0) Bhandarkar's Commemoration. Volume 1917. 62. An Epitome of Jainism P. C. Nahar and Ghose. 53. Self Realization (Atma Siddhi) J. L. Jaini ... 012 0 64. Sapthhangi Naya ... Kanuoomal ... ) 6 0 55. Prakrita Suktaratnamala ... - P. C. Nahar ... 0 8 0 56. Some distingushod Jains .. , U. S. Tank . 0 8 U English Jaina Journals. 57. The Jaina Gazette Monthly), Madras, Annual Subscription 3 0 0 68. Jain Hostel Magazine (Quarterly), Allahabad, Innual Subscription ... 1 8 0 do. Page #160 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jal a hon laternational FORrvate. Personal use only