Book Title: Trishasti Shalaka Purusa Caritra Part 2
Author(s): Hemchandracharya, Helen M Johnson
Publisher: Oriental Research Institute Vadodra
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Page #1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GAEKWAD'S ORIENTAL SERIES. VOLUME LXXVII Page #2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GAEKWAD'S ORIENTAL SERIES Published under the Authority of the Government of His Highness the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda. GENERAL EDITOR: B. BHATTACHARYYA, M.A., PH.D. No. LXXVII TRISASTIŚALĀKĀPURUSACARITRA Vol. II Books II and III Page #3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ TRISẠSTIŚALĀKĀPURUŞACARITRA OR THE LIVES OF SIXTY-THREE ILLUSTRIOUS PERSONS Vol. II TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH BY HELEN M. JOHNSON, Ph.D. 1937 ORIENTAL INSTITUTE BARODA Page #5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Printed by P. Knight at the Baptist Mission Press, 41A, Lower Circular Road, Calcutta, and Published on behalf of the Government of His Highness the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda by Benoytosh Bhattacharyya, Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda. Price Rs. 11-0. Page #6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ To JOHN FINNEY II Page #7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONTENTS PAGE vii vii :::: xi xxii 225 254 I Preface .. II Abbreviations III Bibliography IV Introduction V Text Book II : Ajitanāthacaritra .. Book III : Sambhavajinacaritra .. Abhinandanajinacaritra Sumatināthacaritra .. Padmaprabhacaritra .. Supārsvanāthacaritra .. Candraprabhacaritra .. Suvidhināthacaritra .. Šītalanāthacaritra .. VI Appendix I: Additional Notes VII Appendix II : Botanical Notes VIII Appendix III : New and Rare Words IX Text Corrections .. X Index of Names and Subjects .. XI Index of Sanskrit and Prakrit Words 268 288 ::::::::::::::: 304 314 324 337 347 351 353 374 391 Page #8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREFACE When Prof. Schubring, in his review of Vol. I of this translation, expressed a hope that the Mahāvīracaritra, the last book, would appear, I wondered why his hope seemed to be somewhat sceptical. I wonder less now that I have had experience in having a book printed thousands of miles away. I am deeply indebted to Muni Sri Jayantavijayaji for his constant assistance and information on both doctrinal points and allusions to practical life and customs; and also for his aid in obtaining books and manuscripts. The Jaina Dharma Prasāraka Sabhā of Bhavnagar has permitted me to keep its manuscripts for several years, a loan of the greatest assistance to me; and the Ātmānanda Sabhā of Bhavnagar has presented me with some valuable texts. In addition to the Bhavnagar and Poona MSS. which I used for Vol. I, I have consulted a MS. of Parvan II in the Oriental Institute of Baroda, and one for Parvan II and Parvan III from a Jain library in Radhanpur, which they were kind enough to send to this country. I have not, of course, made an exhaustive study of all existing manuscripts, as for a critical edition ; but it has been my intention to make a correct readable text with good manuscript authority. The bibliography, it would seem unnecessary to say, consists of the works I have found useful for my needs, and is not a bibliography of Jainism. HELEN M. JOHNSON. WARRENSBURG, MISSOURI March 25, 1937. Page #9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ABBREVIATIONS Abhi.=Abhidhānacintāmaņi, Bhav. ed. Ācār.=Ācārārgasūtra. Anuyog.=Anuyogadvāra. ASĀgamodayasamiti Series. Aup.=Aupapātikasūtra. Auşadhi=BỊhannighantu. Āva.=Āvaśyakasūtra, Malayagiri's com. Āvacurņi.=Āvaśyakacurņi. ĀvaH=Āyaśyakasútra, Haribhadra's com. AvaHH=Haribhadriyāvaśyakavịttiţippaņaka. B.=Barnett's ed. of Antagadadasão and Aņuttarovavaiya dasão. Bate=Bate's Hindi Dictionary. Bhag.=Bhagavatīsūtra. Brhat.=Brhatsangrahani. Chand.=Chandonušāsana. DesiH=Deśīnāmamālā. DLF=Devchand Lalbhai Jain Pustakoddhar Fund. Dutt=Materia Medica. G.=Der Jainismus. GOS=Gaekwad's Oriental Series. Guj. =Gujarāti. Guņa.=Gusasthānakramāroha.' H=Hindi. Haim.=Haimaśabdānuśāsana. Hindu Holidays=Hindu Holidays and Ceremonials. H. I.=Elements of Hindu Iconography. H. of J.=The Heart of Jainism, H. P.=Fallon's Hindustāni Proverbs. Jamb.=Jambūdvipaprajñapti. J. G.=The Jaina Gazette. J. G. D.=Jaina Gem Dictionary. Jiv.=Jīvājīvābhigama. Page #10 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ABBREVIATIONS is Jñātā.=Jñātādharmakathā. K.=Die Kosmographie der Inder. Kan.=The Study of Jainism. Kāvyā.=Kāvyānuśāsana by Hemacandra. Kāvyā. V.=Kāvyānuśāsana by Vāgbhatta. KG=Karma Granthas. KS=Kalpasūtra. KSK=Kalpasūtra, with Kiraņāvali com. Lp.=Lokaprakāśa. M=Marāțhi. Martin=The Gods of India. M. C.=Marāțhi-English Dictionary. MW=Monier-Williams, Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 0. of J.=Outlines of Jainism. Oppert=On the Weapons, Army Organisation and Polit ical Maxims of the Ancient Hindus. Pañca.=Pañcapratikramaņasūtra. Pañcaprati. = do. Pañcā.=Pañcāśakagrantha. PE=Ardha-Māgadhi Koşa. PH=Pāiasaddamahaņņavo. PJP.=First Principles of Jain Philosophy. Pk.=Prakrit. Popley=Music of India. Pra.=Prajñāpanā. Praś.=Praśnavyākaraṇa. Pravac.=Pravacanasāroddhāra. Rāja. =Rājapraśnīyasūtra. Rājendra.=Abhidhānarājendra. Sabda.=Sabdasāgara. Sam.=Samavāyāngasūtra. SBE=Sacred Books of the East. Sth.=Sthānāngasūtra. T.=Tattvārthādhigamasūtra, Jacobi's ed. Tri.=Trisastiśalākāpuruşacaritra. Uttar.=Uttaradhyayana. Uttar. B.=Uttarādhyayana with Bhāvavijaya's com. Page #11 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ABBREVIATIONS Uttar. K.=Uttarādhyāyana with Kamalasamyama's com. Uv.=Uvāsagadasão, Hoernle's ed. Watt=The Commercial Products of India. Watt Dict.=Dictionary of the Economic Products of India. Wilkins=Hindu Mythology. Yog.=Yogaśāstra. ZDMG=Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. I=Vol. I, Trişastiśalākāpuruşacaritra. Vol. LI, GOS. Page #12 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIBLIOGRAPHY GENERAL Abhidhānarājendra. A Prākrit-Sanskrit lexicon of Jain texts. By Vijaya Rājendra Sūri. Ratlam 1913–25. Alberuni's India. An English Edition with Notes and Indices, E. C. Sachau. 2 vols. London 1910. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, J. Tod. 2 vols. London 1829–32. Antiquities of India, L. D. Barnett. London 1913. Ardha-Māgadhi Koşa. In five languages. S. S. Jain Con ference. Bombay 1923–30. Astronomie, Astrologie und Mathematik, G. Thibaut. Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Alter tums-kunde. III Band, 9 Heft. Strassburg 1899. Ausgewählte Erzählungen aus Hemacandras Parishishta parvan. German translation by J. Hertel. Leipzig 1908. Beast and Man in India, J. L. Kipling. McMillan and Co. 1904. Bịhannighantu or Auşadhikośa. A Sanskrit, vernacular and English botanical glossary. Poona 1924. The Book of Good Counsels, Arnold. From the Sanskrit of the 'Hitopadeśa.' London 1893. A Collection of Telegu Proverbs, translated, illustrated, and explained, together with some Sanscrit Proverbs, Carr. Madras : London 1868. The Commercial Products of India, G. Watt. London 1908. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, G. Watt. Government of India Press. Calcutta 1896. A Dictionary of the Hindee Language, J. D. Bate. Allahabad 1918. Page #13 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIBLIOGRAPHY A Dictionary of Hindu Architecture, P. K. Acharya. Oxford Press. A Dictionary of Plant Names, Gerth van Wijk. The Hague 1911. Eastern Monachism, Hardy. London 1850. Eine jainistische Bearbeitung der Sagara-Sage. Disserta tion by Richard Fick. Kiel 1888. Elements of Hindu Iconography, T. A. Gopinath. Madras 1914. The Elephant-Lore of the Hindus. The Elephant-Sport of Nilakantha. Translated from the original Sanskrit with Introduction, Notes, and Glossary, Edgerton. Yale University Press. 1931. Epitome of Jainism, Nahar and Ghosh. Calcutta 1917. Essai de Bibliographie Jaina, Guérinot. Annales du Musée Guimet. Paris 1906. Essays and Lectures on the Religion of the Hindus, H. H. Wilson. Vol. I. London 1861. First Principles of Jain Philosophy, H. Jhaveri. Benares 1918. Flora of British India, Hooker. 7 vols. London 1875-97. Flora of the Presidency of Bombay, Cooke. 2 vols. 1903-08. Flora Indica, Roxburgh. Thacker, Spink and Co. Cal cutta 1874. The Folklore of Bombay, Enthoven. Oxford 1924. Folk Lore Notes. Vol. I Gujarat ; Vol. II Konkan, Entho ven. British India Press. Bombay 1914. Folk Tales of Kashmir, Knowles. London 1888. Geschichte der Indischen Litteratur, M. Winternitz. Vol. II, Part 2, Die heiligen Texte der Jaina. Leipzig 1920. Gods of India, E. O. Martin. E. P. Dutton and Co. 1914. Grammatik der Präkrit Sprachen, Hemachandra. (Siddha hemacandram, Adhyāya VIII). Edited by Pischel. Halle 1877 Page #14 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIBLIOGRAPHY xiii A Handbook of Tropical Gardening and Planting, H. F. Macmillan. Case & Co. Colombo 1914. Heart of Jainism, Mrs. S. Stevenson. Oxford Press. 1915. Hindi Sabdasāgara. A Hindi lexicon. Published by Pracāriņīsabhā of Benares. 1916–28. The Hindi Scientific Glossary. Containing the Terms of Astronomy, Chemistry, Geography, Mathematics, Philosophy, Physics, and Political Economy, with their Hindi equivalents. Syam Sundar Das. Benares 1906. Hindu Holidays and Ceremonials, B. A. Gupte. Thacker, Spink & Co. 1919. Hindu Mythology, Williams. Thacker, Spink & Co. 1882. Hindu Tales, translation by J. J. Meyer. London 1909. Hindustani Proverbs, Fallon. A History of Sanskrit Literature, A. B. Keith. Oxford 1928. A History of Indian Literature, M. Winternitz. Vol. 2. English translation. Calcutta 1933. Householders' Dharma, C. R. Jain. Indian Architecture, P. K. Acharya. Oxford Press. The Indian Calendar, Sewell and Diksit. London 1896. Indian Myth and Legend, D. A. Mackenzie. London. The Indian Sect of the Jainas, G. Bühler. Luzac & Co. London 1903. Indian Trees, D. Brandis. London 1911. An Introduction to Jainism, A. B. Latthe. Bombay. The Jaina Gem Dictionary, J. L. Jaini. Arrah 1918. Jaina Iconography, Bhandarkar. (The Samavasaraņa stavana). Indian Antiquary. Vol. 40 (1911), pp. 125 ff. ; 153 ff. Jaina Jātakas, translation of Book I, Canto I of Hema candra's Trishashțiśalākāpurushacaritra, B. D. Jain. Lahore 1925. Der Jainismus, H. V. Glasenapp. Berlin 1925. Karma Philosophy, Karbhari. Bombay 1913. Key of Knowledge, C. R. Jain. 1915. Page #15 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ xiv BIBLIOGRAPHY Die Kosmographie der Inder, W. Kirfel. Leipzig 1920. Life and Stories of the Jaina Savior Pārçvanātha, M. Bloomfield. The Johns Hopkins Press. Baltimore 1919. Life of Mahāvīra, M, C. Jaini. Allahabad 1908. Marățhi-English Dictionary, Molesworth-Candy. Bombay 1857. Marathi Proverbs, Mainwaring. Oxford 1899. The Materia Medica of the Hindus, Dutt. With a Glossary of Indian Plants by George King. Revised edition. Calcutta 1900. The Modern Gujarati-English Dictionary, Mehta. Baroda 1925. Music of Hindostan, Fox-Strangways. Oxford 1914.. Music of India, H. A. Popley. Oxford Press. 1921. Notes de Bibliographie Jaina, Guérinot. Journal Asiatique, Vols. 14, 19. On the Weapons, Army Organisation and Political Maxims of the Ancient Hindus. Based on Nītiprakāśikā and Sukranīti, G. Oppert. Madras 1880. Outline of the Religious Literature of India, J. N. Farquhar. Oxford Press. 1920. Outlines of Jainism, J. L. Jaini. Cambridge 1916. Pāia-sadda-mahaņņavo (Prākstaśabda-mahārņava). Prā krt-Hindi Dictionary, H. T. Sheth. Calcutta 1928. A Pepys of Mogul India, Irvine. London 1913. Rās Mālā, Forbes: London 1878. Religion and Folklore of Northern India, Crooke. Oxford University Press. 1926. Sabdacintāmaņi, a Sanskrit-Gujarāti Dictionary. Vorā 1900. Study of Jainism, L. Kannoomal. Agra 1916. Über das Leben des Jaina Mönches Hemachandra, G. Buehler. Wien 1889. Yaksas, Parts 1 and 11, Coomarasvamy. Smithsonian Institute. Washington 1928–31. Page #16 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ " BIBLIOGRAPHY SANSKRIT AND PRAKRIT TEXTS, INCLUDING TRANSLATIONS Agnipurána, edited by Rájendralála Mitra. Bibliotheca Indica, n.s. 189, 197, 201, 291. Calcutta 1873-79. 2 vols. Prose English translation by M. M. Dutt. Calcutta 1903-04. Adhyatmatattväloka, Muni Nyayavijaya. With Guj. notes and translation by author. Translated into English with general notes. Bhavnagar 1920. Anuyogadvārasutra, vṛtti by Maladhārin. AS. 1924. Anekāntajayapatāka, Haribhadra. With author's commentary. Yasovijayagranthamālā 40. Bhavnagar 1914. Antagaḍadasão, translated by L. D. Barnett. and XV Aṇuttarovavāiyadasão, Oriental Translation Fund. London 1907. Apabhramśakāvyatrayi, Jinadattasuri. GOS XXXVII. Baroda 1927. Abhidhānacintāmaņi, Hemacandra. With index. Yaśovijaya Jaina Granthamālā 42. Bhavnagar 1919. Abhidhānacintāmaņi, Hemacandra. Herausgegeben, übersetzt und mit Anmerkungen begleitet. Böhtlingk and Rieu. St. Petersburg 1847. Arthaśástra, Kautilya's, translated by R. Shamasastry. Government Oriental Library Series. Bibliotheca Sanskrita, no. 37, Part II. Bangalore 1915. Das Altindische Buch vom Welt- und Staatsleben. Das Arthaçãstra des Kautilya. Aus dem Sanskrit übersetzt und mit Einleitung und Anmerkungen versehen, J. J. Meyer. Leipzig 1926. Acārāngasútra, translated by H. Jacobi. SBE Vol. 22. Oxford 1884. Ādināthacaritra, Hemacandra. First parvan of Triṣastiśalākāpuruṣacaritra. Hindi translation by Muniraj Pratapamuni. Indore. Page #17 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ xvi BIBLIOGRAPHY Avaśyakacurņi, Jinadāsa. With niryukti by Bhadrabāhu Ratlam 1928. Avaśyakasūtra, with niryukti by Bhadrabāhu and vṛtti by Malayagiri. AS. Bombay 1928. Avaśyakasūtra, with niryukti by Bhadrabahu and vṛtti by Haribhadra. AS. Bombay 1916. Uttaradhyayana, with vivṛti by Bhāvavijaya. Ātmǎ nandasabhā. Bhavnagar 1918. with vṛtti by Kamalasamyama. Belanganj, Agra 1923. with Bhadrabahu's niryukti and Säntisūri's vṛtti. DLF. 1917. . > translated by H. Jacobi. SBE Vol. 45. Oxford 1895. Upadeśacintamani, Jayasekhara. Jamnagar 191 Uvāsagadasão (Upāsakadaśāsūtra), edited and translated by R. Hoernle. Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta 1885. Aupapātikasūtra, with vṛtti by Abhayadeva. AS. Bom bay 1916. Kathakoça, translated by Tawney. Oriental Translation Fund, Vol. VI (New Series). London 1895. Kathāsaritsägara, Somadeva. Translated by C. H. Tawney. Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta 1880-84. , C. H. Tawney's translation of, called The Ocean of Story,' edited by N. M. Penzer with additional notes and appendices. London 1924. tary. 2 vols. Karma Grantha, Devendra Suri, with author's commenPrasārakasabhā. Bhavnagar 1909-11. Devendra Suri. With Gujarāti notes. Ātmānandasabhā. Vol. I. Kalpasūtra, with Dharmasagara's vṛtti, called Kiraṇāvali. Atmanandasabha. Bhavnagar 1922. Bhavnagar 1935. "; with Subodhikākhyavṛtti. DLF. 1923. translated by H. Jacobi. SBE Vol. 22. Oxford C 1884. Kavyakalpalatā, Arisinha. With vṛtti by Amaracandra. Bombay 1891. Page #18 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIBLIOGRAPHY xvii Kävyānuśāsana, Hemacandra. Kāvyamālā 70. Bombay. Kāvyānuśāsana, Vägbhatta. Bombay 1915. Kumārapälapratibodha, Somaprabha. GOS XIV. Baroda 1920. Gacchācāraprakīrņaka, with vịtti by Vānara. AS. Bom bay 1923. Guñasthānakramāroha, Ratnasekharasūri. With author's commentary. DLF. Bombay 1916. Caturvargacintāmaņi, Hemādri. Bibliotheca Indica. Cal cutta. Catuḥsaraņādimaraṇasamādhyantam Prakīrņakadašaka. AS. 1920. Chandonuśāsana, Hemacandra. Bombay 1912. Jambūdvīpaprajñapti, with vịtti by Sānticandra. DLF. 1920. Jivājīvābhigama, with vịtti by Malayagiri. DLF. 1919. Jõātādharmakathā, with vivarana by Abhayadeva. AS. 1919. , 2 vols. Prasārakasabhā. Bhavnagar 1929-30. Tattvārthädhigamasūtrāņi, Umāsvāti. With commentary. Motilal Ladhaji. Poona 1926. - translated by H. Jacobi. ZDMG Vol. 60. Trişaştisalākāpuruşacaritra, Hemacandra. 6 vols. Pra sārakasabhā. Bhavnagar 1905-09. - translated by H. M. Johnson. Vol. I, The Adī śvaracaritra. GOS LI. Baroda 1931. - , see above, Ādināthacaritra. , see above, Jaina Jātakas. Dasarūpa, Dhanamjaya. Edited and translated by George C. O. Haas. Indo-Iranian Series of Columbia Univer sity, vol. 7. 1912. Daśavaikālikasūtra. Jinayaşahsūrigrantharatnamālā. Bom bay 1919. Deśīnāmamālā, Hemacandra. Part I, Text and Critical Notes by Pischel. Bombay 1880. Dravya-Samgraba, Nemichandra. With translation and notes in English. Arrah. Page #19 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ xviii BIBLIOGRAPHY Dvyāśrayakāvya, Hemacandra. Bombay Sanskrit and Prakrit Series 76. 1921. Nandīsūtra, with vịtti by Malayagiri. AS. Bombay 1924. Nandyādigāthādyakārādiyuto Vişayānukrama. AS. 1928. Navatattvaprakaraņa, Devaguptasūri. Ātmānandasabhā. Bhavnagar. Navatattvasāhityasangraha, edited by Udayavijayagaņi. Ahmedabad 1922. Nāțyadarpaņa, Rāmacandrasūri. Vol. I. GOS XLVIII. . Baroda 1929. Nātyaśāstra, Bharata. Edited by Śivadatta and Parab. Bombay 1894. Nyāyakusumāñjali, Muni Nyayavijaya. Sanskrit with translation and notes in Gujarāti and English. Ahmedabad 1922. Pañcatantra, translated by A. W. Ryder. University of Chicago Press. 1925. Pañcapratikramaņādisūtra. Ātmānandasabhā. Bhav nagar 1926. Pañcāsakagrantha. With tīkā by Abhayadeva. Prasāraka sabhā. Bhavnagar 1912. Parisistaparvan, Hemacandra. Edited by H. Jacobi. Cal cutta 1883. -, extracts translated by J. Hertel. Leipzig 1908. Purushārtha-Siddhyupāya, Amộta Candra Sūri. Edited by Pandit Ajita Prasad. Sacred Books of the Jainas. Vol. IV. Lucknow 1933. Prajñāpanopānga, with vivarana by Malayagiri. AS. 1918. Pratāparudrayaśobhabhúshana, Vidyanātha. With notes in English. Bombay Sanskrit and Prakrit Series, no. LXV. 1909. Prabandhacintāmaņi, Merutunga. Edited by Rāmacandra Dinanāth. Bombay. - , translated by C. H. Tawney. Calcutta 1901. Pravacanasāroddhāra, Nemicandra. With vịtti by Sid dhasena. DLF. Bombay 1922. Page #20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIBLIOGRAPHY xix Praśnavyākaraṇānga, with vivaraña by Abhayadeva. AS. Bombay 1919. Prācīnagurjarakāvyasangraha.' GOS XIII. Baroda 1920. Bịhatsamhita, Varāmihira. With commentary by Bhattot pala. Vizianagram Sk. Series X. Bịhatsangrahani, with vịtti by Malayagiri. Ātmānanda sabhā. Bhavnagar 1917. Bhagavatīsūtra, with vịtti by Abhayadeva. AS. 1919. Bhāgavatapurāņa. Le Bhāgavata Purāņa ou Histoire Poétique de Krichņa. Traduit et Publié par M. Eugene Burnouf. 2 vols. Paris 1840-44. Bhāvaprakāśana, Sāradātanaya. GOS XLV. Baroda 1930. Mātaigalilā, Nīlakaộtha. Trivandrum Sanskrit Series, no. 10. 1910. , translated by F. Edgerton. See above, The Elephant Lore of the Hindus. Mánava-Dherma-Sastra (Mānavadharmaśāstra); or The Institutes of Menu, Edited by G. C. Haughton. London 1825. Mārkandeya Purāņa. Edited by Bhattācārya. Calcutta 1876. - , translated by F. E. Pargiter into English. Calcutta 1904. Moharājaparājaya, Yaśahpāla. GOS IX. Baroda 1918. Yogadarśana, Bhagavan Mahāmuni Patañjalipraṇītam, with bhāşya by Kșşñadvaipāyana (Vyāsa), and vyākhyā called Tattvavaiśāradi by Vācaspatimiśra and tippaña by Svāmi Bālarāma. Calcutta 1890. Yogaśāstra, Hemacandra. With his own commentary. Prasarakasabhā. Bhavnagar 1926. - four chapters translated by E. Windisch. ZDMG Vol. 28 (1874). Yogasūtra, Patañjali. Translation by Woods, called The Yoga-system of Patañjali, or The Ancient Hindu Doctrine of Concentration of Mind. Includes the Page #21 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ xx BIBLIOGRAPHY bhâsya and the Tattvavaiśāradi. Harvard Oriental Series, 17. 1914. See above, Yogadarśana. Raghuvansa, Kālidāsa. With the commentary of Malli nātha and translation into English. Ed. by Nandar gikar. Bombay 1897. Ratnasañcayaprakaraṇa. With Guj. commentary. Pra sārakasabhā. Bhavnagar 1928. Rājapraśnīyasūtra, with vịtti by Malayagiri. AS. Bom bay 1925. Rauhiņeyacaritra, Devamūrti. Ātmānandasabhā. Bhav nagar 1916. Lekhapaddhati. GOS XIX. Baroda 1925. Lokaprakāśa, Vinayavijaya. DLF. 1926. Vivekavilāsa, Jinadattasūri. Ahmedabad 1898. Višeşāvaśyakabhāșya. With commentary by Maladhāri hemacandra. Benares 1911. Vişnupurāņa. Jīvānandavidyāsāgara ed. Calcutta 1882. Vishņu Purāņa, translation by H. H. Wilson. Trübner & Co. London 1870. Vairāgyaśataka, BhartȚhari. Edited by Kale. Bombay 1922. Śīlāngādi Ratha Sangraha. Ahmedabad 1913. Śrāddhavidhi, Ratnasekhara. Bhavnagar 1927. Śrī Vijayadharmasūri Aştaprakārī Pūjā, Muni Vidyāvi jayaji. Bhavnagar 1927. Sanskārakaustubhaprārambha, Anantadeva. Bombay 1867. Sangītamakaranda, Nārada. GOS XVI. Baroda 1920. Sargitaratnākara, Sārngadeva. Edited by Apte. Poona 1896. Samarāngaņasūtradhāra, King Bhoja. GOS XXV and XXXII. Baroda 1924-25. Samavasaraṇastavana, translated by D. R. Bhandarkar. Indian Antiquary, 40 (1911), pp. 125 ff.; pp. 153 ff. See above, Jaina Iconography. Samavāyāngasūtra, with tīkā by Abhayadeva. AS. 1918. Page #22 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIBLIOGRAPHY Sadhanamālā. Vol. II, GOS XLI. Baroda 1928. Sadhupratikramaņādisūtra. Bhavnagar 1921. Sāmudrikaśāstra. Published by Hiralal Hansraj. Jam nagar 1917. Sāhityadarpaņa, Viśvanātha Kavirāja. Text and transla tion in Bibliotheca Indica. 1875. Siddhahemacandram, Adhyāya VIII. Hemacandra's Prakrit Grammar. Edited by Pischel. Halle 1877. Siddhānta Kaumudi. English translation by B. Dikșit. Panini Office. Allahabad. Sushruta Samhita, translation into English by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna. 3 vols. Calcutta 1907-16. Sūtrakệtāngasūtra, translated into English by H. Jacobi. SBE Vol. 45. Oxford 1895. Sūyagadam (Sūtrakṛtānga). Motilal Ladhaji. Poona 1928. Sthavirāvali. See Parisistaparvan. Sthānāngasūtra, with vivarana by Abhayadeva. AS. 1918. Syādvādamañjarī, Mallisena. A commentary on Hema candra's Anyayogavyavachedikā. Motilal Ladhaji. Poona 1925. Hastyāyurveda, Pālakāpyamuni. Edited by Apte. Poona 1894. Hāribhadrīyāvaśyakavịttițippaņaka, Hemacandrasūri (Ma ladhārin). DLF (53). Bombay 1920. Haimaśabdānuśāsana (Brhadvịtti), Laghunyāsasahita. Seth Mansukhbhai Baghubai. Ahmedabad. Ca. 1914. Page #23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION The second book of the Trişastiśalākāpuruşacaritra, like the first one, includes the biographies of one Tīrthankara, Ajitanātha, and one Cakravartin, Sagara. The event of importance that occurs also in the Hindu Epic is the destruction of the 60,000 sons of Sagara, described in the sixth chapter. Hemacandra's version differs markedly from that of the Mahābhārata (3. 106-109). Presumably the horse-sacrifice would not appear in a Jain account. Fick, in his “Eine jainistische Bearbeitung der SagaraSaga” discusses Devendra's version in his tīkā to the Uttarādhyāyanasūtra. Hemacandra follows Devendra generally, though some details differ.. The third book consists of eight chapters, each a separate biography, which do not introduce much in the way of fiction or incidental narrative. In the Sumatināthacaritra there is an example of the 'Solomon's judgment' motif. Four other Jain versions have been discussed by Tessitori in the Indian Antiquary (42, pp. 148ff.). Hemacandra follows Malayagiri in his commentary to the Nandisūtra. Page #24 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BOOK II Page #25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #26 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER I PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVĀHANA Glory to Ajitanātha's lotus-foot nails, whose beauty surpasses that of the ruby, which serve as mirrors for the faces of the bowing Indras. Now I shall celebrate Ajita Svāmin's life which resembles a snake-charmer's charm for destroying the brood of serpents of karma. Description of the province Vatsa (3-13) Situated in the middle part of Jambūdvipa, like the navel of the continents, is Videhakşetra provided with sorrow-bliss. In it, on the north bank of the river Sītā there is a province named Vatsa possessing extensive wealth. Endowed with wonderful beauty, it looked like a piece of heaven that had fallen to earth. With villages upon villages and cities upon cities populating it, there was empty space only in the sky, if at all. There was a distinction between cities and villages if made by the king's authority, but they could not be distinguished from each other on the basis of wealth. At every step there were large tanks with clear, sweet water, just as if filled by canals coming out of the Ocean of Milk. Here and there were large, clear pools whose centers, like the minds of the noble, could not be reached. At every step gardens with abundant green creepers gave the impression of variegated body-decoration of the earth-goddess. In every village there were sugarcane plantations which relieved the thirst of travelers, gleaming with large sugar-canes that resembled pitchers 13. Videhakşetra does not have the six divisions of time (see I, pp. 93 ff), but it is always duhsamasusamā there. Tattvārthādhigamasütra, com. to 4. 15. Page #27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER ONE of water in the form of juice. At every cow-house the cows flooded the earth, like living rivers of milk, with falling cascades of milk. On every road the fruit trees with pairs of travelers seated by them looked like the wishing-trees of the Kurus with the twins.? Description of Susīmā (14–24) In this province there is a famous city, suitably named Susīmā (Well-bounded), a depository of wealth, resembling a tilaka on the earth. This jewel of a city shines with unequaled wealth, like a city of the Asuras from the center of the earth that has become visible. There women, who are moving about the houses alone, appear to have their friends present, because of their own reflections in the jeweled walls. Its wall of bright jeweled slabs, surrounded by a moat, looked like the wall around the earth surrounded by the ocean. The dust of the streets was instantly laid by the dripping streams of mada, resembling rain-water, of the elephants moving about. The sun's rays did not penetrate at all into the head-coverings, which resembled the interiors of night-blooming lotuses,“ of the high-born women. Fluttering ends of flags shone on the shrines, as if they warded off the sun repeatedly, saying, “Do not go above the shrine." The gardens with darkened skies and inundated grounds frequently resembled clouds clinging to the earth. Thousands of pleasure-mountains, made of gold and jewels, their slopes beautiful with gardens, looked like sons of Meru. It (the city) was just like the sole meeting-place for pleasure of love, wealth, and duty at the same time, like friends. Because of its great wealth the city was like a sister between the cities Bhogāvati below and Amarāvati above. 3. See I, pp. 29 f. 3 17. See Chap. III. 19. The kumuda, which is closed during the day. . The capitals of the Nāgas and the gods. Page #28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVĀHANA 3 Description of King Vimalavahana (25-42) In this city the king was Vimalavāhana, pure-minded, like the moon with white rays of virtues. Tender-hearted, he governed his subjects as if they were his own children, nourishing them, cherishing them, making them prosper, and endowing them with virtues. He had a severe standard and did not tolerate any transgression even on his own part. Clever people cure a blemish, even if it appears in their own bodies. Very powerful, he made all the kings bend their heads, as easily as the wind the treetops. He kept the three aims of existence uninjured by each other, like a noble soul rich in penance preserving the numerous groups of fives.? His virtues, generosity, firmness, earnestness, forbearance, etc., adorned each other like the trees of a forest. To whose neck did his virtues, advancing like the sole leaders of happiness, not cling like friends who had come after a long time? His command, like the course of a powerful wind, did not stumble even in places such as mountains, forests, fortresses, etc. The feet of him who had subdued the whole world, whose cruel prestige spread, touched the heads of kings, like the rays of the sun by which the whole sky is pervaded, whose cruel heat spreads, touching the mountain-tops. Just as the Omniscient, the Blessed One, was the master of him, great-minded, so he alone was the master of all the kings. With the power of his enemies confused, alone powerful like Sutrāman, from childhood he bowed his head to sādhus only. Just as his power was unequaled in victory over external enemies, so was the power over internal enemies 8 of him alone discerning. Just as he conquered by force elephants, horses, etc., which had strayed on the wrong road, difficult to conquer, so he conquered the group of senses. Possessing liberality and good conduct, he 8.29. I.e., dharma, artha, kāma. ? 29. The divisions of jīvas, described in I, App. I. 836. See I, n. 5. • 38. Two of the divisions of dharma. See I, pp. 19 ff. Page #29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER ONE gave to suitable persons only, as was fitting. For that (giving) bears much fruit in a suitable person, like rainwater in a pearl-oyster.10 Knowing dharma, he guided his subjects on the road of dharma, as if he were making an entrance from all sides into an enemy's city. He perfumed this earth with pure good conduct, like the sandaltree the Malaya-country with fragrance. He became a hero in battle, a hero in compassion, a hero in liberality, by victory over enemies, by comforting the miserable, by gratifying beggars. So engaged in royal duties, having a firm mind, free from negligence, he protected the earth for a long time like a serpent-king guarding nectar. 11 Reflections on samsāra (42-66) One day, as he, who knew what should be done and what should not be done, was meditating on the worth and worthlessness of existence, the inclination toward disgust with existence appeared. “Samsāra is like a boundless ocean, terrifying from the pain of the fall into the whirl-pool of the lacs of birthnuclei.12 Out upon it! Oh! Oh! in this existence people are deluded by objects seen for a moment, destroyed in a moment like magic, like dream-illusion. Youth is unsteady like the end of a flag stirred by the wind. Life is uncertain like a drop of water resting on the tip of kuśa-grass. Of that life the months spent in the womb resembling a house in hell pass like a palyopama 18 because of excessive pain. When a man is born, how large a part of his life passes in childhood when he is as dependent as if he were stupid and blind! How great a portion of life passes in youth as vainly as if he were intoxicated 10 38. See I, notes 107 and 314. Cf. also, Manwaring, Marathi Proverbs, 1291, and Carr, 2130, p. 367. 11 42. Cf. I, n. 184. 12 44. There are 84 lacs of species of birth-nuclei. Pravac. 968 ff., p. 287 f. 18 47. See I, n. 50. Page #30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVĀHANA 5 because he sips the strong liquor of love for the objects of the senses? In old age, when a man's body is without power to acquire the three objects of existence, the rest of his life passes in vain, as if he were asleep. Even when he knows this, a man struggles for existence alone, eager for the enjoyment of sense-objects, like a sick man struggling voluntarily for disease. If a man would strive for salvation, as he strives for sense-objects in youth, what then would be lacking ? A man, alas ! surrounds himself by self-made snares of karma, like a spider with webs made from its own saliva.14 In existence a human birth is attained with difficulty as a result of merit, like the entrance of the yoke-pin into the yoke in the ocean.15 In it also the birth of a man in the Ārya-countries is gained, and the attainment of a high family, and the attendance in a teacher's house for study. Whoever has acquired all this and does not strive for emancipation remains hungry when a meal is prepared. Both high and low conditions of existence being at their disposal here, generally foolish people seek a low level, like water. Carrying the thought, ‘At the right time I shall promote the welfare of my soul,' a man is reached by the messengers of Yama who come to meet him like robbers in a forest. Though he has avoided sin, a man is overpowered and led away by Death, even while those whom he would cherish look on, like a poor man without protection. Then, led to hell, he experiences endless pain. Men's karma follows them into another birth, like a debt. One's own idea, 'She is my mother; he is my father ; he is my brother; he is my son,' is wrong. Not even the body is one's own. There is nothing but a halt in one place of those who have come here from different places, like that of birds in a tree. Then people go elsewhere to 14 53. The spider does not spin its web from saliva, but from a secretion from abdominal glands. 16 54. I have not found any parallel for this rather unusual simile, but the yoke-pin seems to represent the soul. Page #31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 6 different places, like travelers who have slept in one place at night departing at dawn. Who, pray, is a relative and who an enemy of people coming and going in this world like buckets on a water-wheel? Therefore, the household must be abandoned. It must be abandoned first, and one must strive only for the soul's welfare. For destruction of the soul's welfare is folly. Spiritual welfare, characterized by emancipation, shining with the mula- and uttaragunas 18 like the sun's rays, gives pure, endless happiness." CHAPTER ONE Visit to Suri Arindama (67-142) As the King was reflecting thus, Sri Arindama Suri, like a wishing-gem itself, came to the garden. When the King heard the news of his arrival, he felt as joyful as if he had drunk a draught of nectar. Joyfully, the King set out to pay homage to him, covering the sky with clouds, as it were, by umbrellas of peacock-feathers. Touched by two chauris, which were like sidelong glances falling from the goddess Laksmi, on both sides; blockading all the heavens with golden-armored horses, like birds with golden wings, swift, their snorting suppressed; bending the surface of the earth with the weight of large elephants which were like living peaks of the Añjana Mountains; 17 himself surrounded on all sides with devotion by his vassals who resembled possessors of mind-reading knowledge because of their knowledge of their master's mind; his arrival announced from afar by the sounds of auspicious drums pouring forth in the sky as if in rivalry with the uproar of the bards; attended on all sides by thousands of courtesans mounted on elephants, pools of water of the emotion of love; seated on an elephant, the King arrived at the garden, the abode of much shade, resembling Nandana. The elephant of kings dismounted from the elephant's shoulder and entered the garden, like a lion a mountaincave. From afar the King saw there the great muni, 16 66. See I, n. 19. 17 72. See Chap. III. Page #32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVĀHANA Ācārya Arindama, like a grove of the trees of dharma, rejoicing in the supreme spirit, who was like adamantine armor impenetrable to the arrows of love, a physician for the disease of love, vexatious to the enemy hate, a new cloud for the fire of anger, a great elephant for the tree of conceit, a Garuda for the serpent of deceit, a thunderbolt for the mountain of greed, a sun for the darkness of delusion, a friction-stick for kindling the fire of penance, possessing a wealth of forbearance, a canal of water for the seed of enlightenment. He saw monks there, too, some in the utkatikā-posture,18 some in padma-posture, others 18 82. I give the explanations of these postures according to Yog. 4. 125 ff. Some of his definitions differ widely from those of Patañjali's school (Yogasūtra, II. 46). I) utkatikā, squatting with heels on the ground with heels and buttocks touching. Yog. 4. 132. 2) padma, 'in which there is pressing together in the middle part of shin by shin.' Yog. 4. 129. Just what posture Hem. has in mind is not clear. Padmāsana (as well as paryanka) is usually used for the posture of the Tirthankara-idols, but that is not adequately described in these terms. See 4) and II) below. Perhaps here he has in mind a much easier posture, in which one shin is merely laid on top of the other, without the feet touching the thighs. 3) godohikā, the same as utkatikā, but with the heels raised from the ground; so named from the position in milking a cow. Yog. 4. 132. 4) vira, the left foot on top of right: thigh and right foot on top of left thigh, the hands the same as in paryanka (see II). In his commentary to Yog. 4. 126, Hem. says, "This is suitable for heroes, Tirthakaras, etc., not for inferior persons. Some call this 'padmāsana. If one foot only is placed on the thigh, it is ardhapadmāsana." The description of 'left foot on right thigh, and right foot on left thigh' is an accurate description of the posture of the Jina-idols. See the frontispiece to I. In Yog. 4. 128, Hem. says that others call it 'virāsana' when the position is that of one sitting on a lion-throne (but without any actual seat) with the feet on the ground. This interpretation of virāsana is illustrated in PE, Vol. II, p. 104. In his com. to this verse, Hem. remarks that the followers of Patañjali call it vīrāsana when one foot of a man standing is placed on the ground and the other is placed on top of the contracted knee. Hem. uses the expression 'ūrdhvasthitasya' which would indicate that the 'sthitasya' in Patañjali should be translated 'standing' rather than 'settled down' (Woods). 5) vajrāsana, has the same position as vīrāsana, but with Page #33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ∞ CHAPTER ONE in godohikā-, vīra-, vajra-, bhadra-, daṇḍa-, valgulikā-, krauñca-, hansa-, paryanka-, uṣṭra-, tārkṣya-, kapālikaraṇa-, āmrakubja-, svastika-, daṇḍapadma-, and sopāthe arms crossed on the back in the shape of a thunderbolt and holding the big toes. (This seems a very difficult position.) "Some call this vetalāsana." Yog. 4. 127. Bālarāma in his gloss to Patanjali gives this position of the arms for padmasana, but that is certainly unusual. 6) bhadra, the soles of the feet are put together in a hollow in front of the scrotum, and the hands in tortoise-position over them. In the tortoise-position of the hands (pāņikacchapikā) the fingers of the hands are interlaced (Muni Jayantavijaya). 7) daṇḍa, seated with big toes and ankles pressed together and thighs pressed on ground, the person stretches out his legs. Yog. 4. 131. In PE II, p. 104, daṇḍāsana is illustrated with the figure stretched out full length. 8) valgulikā, the 'bat '-posture, hanging head downwards, apparently. Usually called śīrṣāsana (Muni Jayantavijaya). 9) krauñca and 10) hansa, the shape of the sitting curlew and the hansa. Yog. 4. 133 com. II) paryanka, Hem.'s description of this posture (Yog. 4. 125) also presents difficulties. He says that the lower part of the shin is placed above the foot, and that the hands are placed, palms up, near the navel, with the right on top of the left. He adds in the commentary that this is the position of the eternal images (of Arhats) and of Mahāvīra at the time of his nirvāņa. But in fact this verbal description does not fit the posture of the idols, but does describe the ordinary sitting posture with crossed feet, as does also the description of padmasana, 2), so far as it goes. I have not obtained any explanation for this apparent contradiction on Hemacandra's part. Abhayadeva in his com. (p. 302a) to Sth. sutra 400, p. 300b, says that paryankāsana and padmāsana are synonymous in conventional use and are the posture of the Jinas. In the Yogaśāstra, vīrāsana is the term that really describes that posture. 12) ustra and 13) tarkṣya are postures in the shape of the sitting camel and eagle. 14) kapālikaraṇa, the head is put on the ground and the feet raised. 15) amrakubja, the shape of a mango. 16) svastika, the right foot is contracted and put between the left thigh and shin, and vice versa. 17) dandapadma, the same as kapālīkaraṇa with the addition (very difficult!) of the shins being in padmasana. 18) sopāśraya, 'from union with a yogapaṭṭaka' (Hem.). In his gloss to Patanjali, II. 46, Bālarāma says that 'yogapaṭṭaka' is a kind of wooden support for the arms of a yogi engaged in meditation, known by the name of caugāna (misprinted (?) in Woods as changan '). 19) kayotsarga, standing or sitting with arms hanging down, with indifference to the body. 20) ukşa, like a sitting bull. Nos. 12-19 are defined in Yog. 4. 133 and com. C Page #34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVAHANA 9 śraya-posture, some engaged in kayotsarga, and some in ukşa-posture, indifferent to the body, who had carried out their vows in the midst of numerous attacks, like soldiers in battles, victorious over internal enemies, enduring trials, powerful from penance and meditation. The King, with devotion sprouted in the guise of horripilation, as it were, approached Acarya Arindama and paid homage to him. The best of sūris, his mouth-cloth 19 placed on his mouth, gave him the blessing 'Dharmalabha,' the mother of all good fortune. The King contracted his body like a tortoise from reverence and, avoiding the avagraha-space,20 sat down with hands joined in suppliant manner. The King listened with close attention to a sermon from the Acarya, like Purandara to one from a Tirthankara. The King's disgust with existence was increased by that sermon, like the whiteness of the moon by autumn. After he had paid homage to the Acarya, his hands joined in suppliant manner, the King said in a voice full of rev erence: "People, even though experiencing the fruit, which has the form of endless pain, of the poison-tree of saṁsāra, do not attain disgust with the world at all. What caused your own disgust with the world? For it must have been from some particular condition as a cause." The moon of aācāryas, making white the surface of the sky by the moonlight of the rays of his teeth, graciously replied: "" Everything in worldly existence is a cause for disgust with the world on the part of the wise, but there is a different occasion for disgust with the world in each case. I, formerly a householder, set out on an expedition of universal conquest, accompanied by the horse-, elephant-, chariot-, 19 90. A mouth-cloth is part of the equipment of every monk. It is supposed to be held over the mouth during speech. 20 91. The distance the length of the body-within which one should not sit before a god or guru. PH, sub uggaha. Page #35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER ONE and infantry-branches of the army. Half way on the road, as I went along, I saw an exceedingly beautiful garden, charming with continuous, dense shade, like the rest-house of Sri wearied by wandering in the world; dancing, as it were, with hands of the waving shoots of the aśoka; laughing, as it were, with the multitudes of blossomclusters of the smiling jasmine; horripilated, as it were, with the rising heaps of kadamba-blossoms; being observed, as it were, by the eyes of the blooming ketaki; warding off the burning rays of the sun, though attacking from afar, by the raised arms, as it were, of the sal and palm trees; with resting-places offered 21 for the sake of travelers, as it were, by the banyan trees; with water for the feet prepared, as it were, by canals here and there; with a cloud chained, as it were, by large water-wheels; summoning travelers, as it were, by the sounds of humming bees; provided with darkness, as it were, by tamāla trees, palm, date, and sandal trees inside it, because of fear of the sun's rays; extending the sole umbrella of the world for the Śri of fragrance by the mango, campaka, punnāga, nāgakesara, and kesara trees; making without effort a pleasure-pavilion for young travelers, by the continuous arbors of betel vines, lavali-creepers, and grape vines, as if Bhadraśāla had come from the foot of Mt. Meru. ΙΟ After I had spent a long time in the expedition of conquest, on my return I came again with the army to the garden. With my retinue I got out of the conveyance from curiosity, entered it, and saw that it was very different from what it was before. I thought, 'Have I come to the wrong place by mistake, or has this been transformed? Such is magic.' Where there were leaves and vines warding off the advance of the sun's rays, (now) there is 21 104. The text here, dattagupyadgurum, is perhaps corrupt, but the MSS. give no help. I think the meaning surely is that the banyan trees offer resting-places and I have so translated, but I can do nothing with the text. Page #36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVĀHANA Where there leaflessness, the sole umbrella against heat. was beauty of young women resting in bowers, now there is harshness of sleeping pythons. Where there were sweet sounds of peacocks, cuckoos, etc., now there is the confusion of the harsh sounds of a multitude of ravens moving to and fro. Where there was an abundance of green bark hanging down from limbs of trees, now there are snakes swinging from the ends of dry branches. Where the sky was made fragrant by the perfume of flowers, now there is a disagreeable odor from kites, doves, crows, etc. Where the earth was moist from trickles of juice from flowers, now there is dust hot as sand in a blazing fire-pit. Where there were trees bent with the burden of fruit, now the trees have fallen, devoured by ants at their roots. Where compounds were beautiful, enclosed by numerous vines, now these are dreadful with large snakeskins cast off by snakes. Where there were beautiful heaps of flowers under the trees, now there are immense thorns of the sthalaśṛngāta 22 which has grown up. I considered, 'Just as this garden has become changed now, so all creatures in samsara (become changed). Such is the condition of samsara. The very one who is proud of his own beauty becomes a skeleton, consumed by terrible disease. The very one who is eloquent with clever speech in course of time suddenly becomes very tongue-tied with a stumbling tongue. The very one who walks like a high-bred horse with the power to move gracefully becomes lame, his walk broken by wind, etc. The one who is like Hastimalla 28 with a powerful hand becomes maimed, his hand powerless from disease, etc. The one who is like a vulture with the power to see far becomes blind, unable to see right in front of him. People's bodies, too, alas! are beautiful and ugly within a moment, capable II 22 121. The Tribulus Lanuginosus, whose fruit is armed with 3 spines. Dutt, p. 125. 28 126. Indra's elephant. Page #37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 12 CHAPTER ONE and incapable within a moment, seen and not seen within a moment.' As I was reflecting thus, disgust with samsāra became elevated to the highest pitch, as if I were whispering a powerful charm. Then I took the vow, which is fire for the fuel of karma, the wishing-gem of nirvāṇa, in the presence of munis." The King, who possessed discernment and devotion, bowed again to the best of acāryas, Arindama, and said : “These honored feet, indifferent to all things, free from self-interest, wander over this earth because of the merit of just such persons as me. People fall into this terrible samsāra because of worldly pleasures, like a cow falling into a hidden well covered with grass on its edges. Therefore, the Blessed One here, full of compassion, delivers a sermon like a proclamation, day after day, to protect living creatures. Neither wealth, nor wives, nor sons, nor relatives are of value in this worldly existence without value ; but the words of a preceptor are of value. For me, enough of wealth which is as uncertain as a streak of lightning. Enough of sense-objects which are sweet for the moment, resembling poison. Enough of wives, children, friends, etc., companions of this world. Give me initiation, a boat for crossing the ocean of existence. Favor me. Until I return, after establishing the prince on his throne, this place must be adorned by you, honored sir, devoted to compassion." The Ācārya replied with an encouraging speech : “This desire of yours, O King, who have lofty desires, is very good, very good! O King, you have known the truth before from the mental impressions of former births. The sermon was only the occasion, like support given to a strong man. When mendicancy is adopted by persons like you, it bears fruit up to a Tirthankara's glory. A cow surely gives different milk according to its keeper. We shall remain in this same place, desiring to grant your wish. We wander only for the benefit of souls capable of emancipation." Page #38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVĀHANA 13 Preparation for initiation (143–197) When the Sūri had made this reply, the Sun of Kings bowed to him, and stood up. For intelligent people do not delay about action that has been decided on. The King went from necessity to his house like an ill-favored wife, his mind intent on Acārya Arindama. Seated on the lion-throne, the King summoned the ministers, the pillars of the house of empire, and said to them : “Gentlemen, just as we are king in this house by succession, so you are ministers with the one great vow of your master's good. By the power of your advice the world has been conquered, like a magic power (vidyā) by a charm. The exploits of our strength of arm were merely the instrument in the matter. You, like the thick wind, thick water, and thin wind 24 have borne the weight of the world for me in the past. · But I, absorbed in different amusements day and night was negligent like a god, devoted to sense-objects. This negligence, causing the suffering of endless existence, has been recognized by me today by the favor of a preceptor, like a cavern at night by a torch. From ignorance I have been deceived for a long time, myself by myself. For what can one, though having eyes, do when darkness breaks forth ? Alas! for so long a time we have been led on the wrong path alone by our unsubdued senses like spirited horses. This service to sense-objects, which produces nothing worthwhile at maturity, has been made by me with little wit, like resorting to the shade of a vibhitaka tree. 26 Blameless kings were struck down by me intolerant of others' powers in the expedition of conquest, like elephants by a rutting elephant. When I employed the six means,24 alliance, etc., against kings, how much true speech, like the shade of a palm 24 148. See below, Chap. III. 25 153. Terminalia bellerica. The leaves of the Terminalia grow in bunches at the ends of the branches, so it gives little shade. 26 155. Alliance, war, marching, encampment, stratagem, and recourse to protection. Mānavadharmaśāstra VII. 160. Page #39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 14 CHAPTER ONE tree 27, was there! By destruction by force of the kingdoms of other kings, my conduct from birth has had only taking what was not given. Immersed in an ocean of pleasure continually, I practiced incontinence like a disciple of Manmatha. For so long a time I, dissatisfied with objects obtained, longing for unobtainable objects, have been in a deep stupor from delusion. Even one of (the sins) injury, etc., is cause for an evil condition of existence. The touching of one candāla would cause untouchability. Consequently I shall obtain freedom from the whole five, struction of life, etc., in the presence of a preceptor today, because of disgust with existence. Furthermore, I shall transfer the burden of the kingdom to the prince who is of military age, like the sun its own heat to fire in the evening. You must show great devotion to the prince just as to me. But enough of such instruction. For that is the conduct of the noble." Then the ministers said : “O master, people never have such thoughts unless emancipation is near. Your ancestors, whose commands were unbroken from birth, like Indras in power, conquered the earth. All, their powers undetermined, 28 dismissed the kingdom like spittle and took the vow purified by the three jewels. Your Majesty bore the burden of the earth by your own powers. We were ornaments of it like plantain-pillars in a house. Just as Your Majesty's empire came by inheritance, so has this taking of the vow boldly and without desire for reward.29 The prince also is able to bear the burden of the earth as easily as a toy-lotus, like Your Majesty's second self. If he approves, let the lord take 27 155. I.e., the palm tree with its very narrow leaves gives little shade. 28 165. Or perhaps aniścita can be interpreted as 'unlimited.' 29 167. Nidāna is to practice penance or observe a vow with the intention of gaining a reward for it. It was often made by some one in order to gain the power of punishing an enemy in a future birth. It is forbidden in Jain dharma. Page #40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVĀHANA 15 initiation which has emancipation as its fruit. When the master reaches a lofty stage, there is a festival on our part. Let the earth be governed by the prince, devoted to severe law, endowed with nobility and valor, like Your Majesty." Delighted by this approving speech of theirs, the King had the prince summoned quickly by the door-keeper. The prince came, stepping gracefully like a rājahansa, like the god Māra in person. Bowing to the King with devotion, like a mere footman, he sat down in the proper place with his hands joined together. Looking at the prince, as if sprinkling him by a glance full of nectar, the King said joyfully : "Former kings of our family, free from greed, have protected this earth like a solitary cow in a forest by the practice of compassion. When their sons have become competent to rule, in turn they have loaded the burden of the earth on them like bulls suitable to be yoked. Even when occupied with all of the transient three worlds, they themselves strove for the eternal abode. No one before me remained so long as a householder. Alas ! how great has been my negligence while wedded to life as a householder ! Take this burden of the kingdom. We intend to take the vow. Freed from the burden by you, we shall cross the ocean of existence." Withering at this speech of the King like a lotus-bud at winter, his lotus-eyes wet with rising tears, the prince said : " Because of what fault of mine, Your Majesty, has this disfavor been shown to me unexpectedly, since you, O master, give this order to me considering myself a footman ? Has some crime been committed by this earth that it is abandoned now like straw by its protector of long standing? O father, I have no use for the kingdom without the revered father. What use has a bee for a pool without lotuses even though it is full ? Alas ! fate is unkind. Alas! I am unfortunate, since my father gives such a command, abandoning me here like a clod of earth. I will not take the earth in any case; and will pay the penalty for the transgression of my elder's command.” Page #41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 16 CHAPTER ONE Depressed and pleased by his son's speech which disregarded his command and contained the essence of nobility, the King said : “ You are my son; you are competent; you are learned; you are discerning. However, from ignorance rooted in affection you spoke thus without reflection. For in good families the command of the elder does not incur reflection 'Is it suitable ?' My command, though dubious, must be executed. When the son is capable of bearing the burden, the father is certainly free from the burden. When the son is strong, look you, the lioness sleeps without fear. Moreover, even without obtaining your consent I, desiring emancipation, shall abandon this world since I, son, am not depended on by you. Then you will support the world disordered and without a lord, but it will be a sin on your part to cross my command.80 So my command, producing happiness for me, must be obeyed by you intent on devotion, with or without reflection, son.” The ministers said, “The speech of the divine prince, discerning by nature, is suitable. Nevertheless, do what His Majesty commands. For executing the elder's command is superior to all virtues. We know that the father's instructions have been followed by Your Majesty,81 also. Who in the world, more than the father, could give a command not to be disobeyed ?” So advised by the ministers, the prince, his head bowed, said in a choking voice, “ The master's command is my authority.” The King was delighted by the prince obeying his command, like a night-blooming lotus by the moon, like peacocks by a cloud. Coronation of the prince (197-226) Then the delighted King took the prince by the hand himself and seated him on his own throne suitable for the coronation-sprinkling. At the King's command pure water 30 191. For this exceptional use of atiriktam, cf. Pañcaprati., p. 133, where atireka is so used. 31 195. I.e., the prince. Page #42 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVĀHANA 17 was brought from the different tirthas by officials like clouds. The King himself sprinkled the prince on the head while loud-toned auspicious musical instruments were played. Other kings also approached in turn, sprinkled him, and bowed with devotion to him like a newly-risen sun. At the King's command he put on fringed white garments and looked like a mountain with numerous white clouds. Courtesans anointed his body with gośirşa-sandal that resembled spotless streams of moonlight. He put on his body pearl-ornaments which seemed to be made from groups of stars strung together after drawing them from the sky. The King himself set on his head a diadem resplendent with blazing rubies, like his own intense splendor. Over his head the King had carried a spotless white umbrella resembling Glory which had instantly appeared. On both sides he was fanned by courtesans with chauris that resembled clusters of blossoms produced by the creeper of royal wealth. The King himself marked his forehead with a sandal-tilaka that resembled the moon on the peak of the eastern mountain. When the King had thus established the prince on the throne with the greatest joy, he gave good advice that was like a charm for guarding Lakşmi : “You are the support of the earth. No one is your support. Eliminating negligence, O son, you must support yourself by yourself. From the weakness of the support whatever is placed on it certainly perishes. Therefore beware of weakness in yourself arising from excessive devotion to sense-objects. Know that youth, power, beauty, and henceforth sole lordship also are productive of negligence which destroys the performance of intelligent action. This Lakşmi that has come by family inheritance, seeking trickeries, hard to conciliate, deceives the negligent man, like a Rākşasi. In her there is no inclination to constancy arising from a long residence, but she goes elsewhere 32 201. Worship of the sun immediately after the bath in the morning is customary. See Folk Lore Notes of Gujarat, pp. 6 ff. Page #43 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 18 CHAPTER ONE without delay when she can seize the opportunity, like a maina. Feeling no fear of censure, like an adopted child she leaves a negligent master who is like a man asleep, though awake. Certainly she has no kindness springing from protection but, jumping up suddenly like a monkey, she goes to another abode. Shamelessness, fickleness, lack of affection, and other faults also are her very nature, as going downwards is the nature of water. Every one prospers with Sri, even though she consists entirely of faults. Even Sakra is devoted to Sri, to say nothing of the human race. Endowed with wisdom and strength, you should always be alert in the task of making her stay, like her watchman. You must protect the earth without greed even if you long for Sri. For Lakşmi follows a man free from greed like a girl following a handsome man. Do not resort to excessive cruelty and overpower the earth by a tax hard to bear, like the summer-sun overpowering it by its unendurable rays. You should abandon even your own people who have committed a crime a single time. For the best of dwellings is abandoned if spoiled at all by fire. You should prevent hunting, gambling, and drinking completely. The king is a sharer in their evil results as well as in the penance of ascetics, You should conquer the internal enemies, 38 for if there is no victory over them, external enemies, though conquered, are really unconquered. You should give service to religion, wealth, and love at the proper times without injury to each other, like a considerate husband to his wives. You should share these three aims of man in such a way that at the right time you will not be lacking in eagerness for the fourth aim of man (emancipation)." Initiation of Vimalavāhana (227-254) After this speech Vimalavāhana became silent. The prince, his hands joined submissively, said, “Very well.” 88 224. See I, n. 5. Page #44 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVĀHANA 19 He got up from the lion-throne, respectful as before, and gave his arm to his father who wished to rise to take the vow. Supported by his son who considered himself as insignificant as a door-keeper, he went to the bath-house adorned with many pitchers. The chief of kings bathed himself with water flowing from dolphin-mouthed golden pitchers, resembling rain-water. Then the King dried his body with a soft cloth and anointed it with gośirşa-sandal. The King's abundant hair, dark as the leaves of the blue lotus, with flowers in it like a cloud with the moon inside, was arranged by experts. The King then put on two auspicious divine garments, flowing, spotless, transparent, of beautiful quality like himself. Then he, who was the crown of kings, had his jeweled, golden crown, which his son had brought, placed on his head. He, ornamented by virtues, put other ornaments also, such as a necklace, armlets, and ear-ornaments, on his body. Like another kalpa-tree he gave to beggars the jewels, gold, silver, garments, and anything else they desired. Then the elephant of men got into a palanquin that required a hundred men to carry it (naraśatodvāhyā), like Naravahana (Kubera) getting into the aerial car Puspaka. King Vimalavāhana, the abode of merit, resplendent with a white umbrella and chauris as if attended by the three jewels that had come in person immediately; awaking delight in men by the great tumult of bards and the loud sound of musical instruments like two friends meeting; having the beautiful appearance of the sun with the planets from the distinguished vassal-kings hastening in the rear, at the sides, and in the front; adorned by his son going in front like a door-keeper, turning his head like a lotus turned on its stalk, seeking orders; seeing in turn auspicious things being made by townswomen here and there with full dishes and pitchers; purifying the king's highway crowded with hundreds of bright platforms, 34 233. Guna, primarily 'thread,' of course, when applied to cloth. Page #45 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 20 CHAPTER ONE carrying rows of pennants, smeared with yakṣakardamaointment; accepting at every dais an auspicious lightwaving made by courtesans, accompanied by a concert by a band of musicians; looked at from a distance, like something never seen before, by the citizens with wide-open eyes, as motionless as if painted in a picture; followed on all sides by the people hurrying, as if they were drawn by the power of a charm, as if bewitched, as if dumb, went to the garden purified by the lotus-feet of Acārya Arindama. The King got out of the palanquin and entered the garden, like the mind of ascetics, on foot. The King took the entire collection of ornaments from his body like the weight of the earth from his arm. At once the King took off the wreath of flowers that had been long worn on his head, like the command of Kandarpa (Love). Standing at the left side of the Acarya, he paid homage to the shrine and then took the broom, etc., the badge of a saint, which were given. The King tore out his hair in five handfuls, saying, "I renounce all censurable activity." Noble-minded, he looked as if he had observed the vow since infancy, because of the ascetic's costume that he adopted at that time. He paid homage to the preceptor accompanied by circumambulation three times and, when he had finished, the preceptor delivered a sermon as follows. Sermon (255-263) "A human birth is attained with difficulty in this boundless ocean of human existence, like a conch with whorls to the right in the ocean. Even when a human birth has been attained, the seed of enlightenment is very difficult to obtain; and in it mendicancy is undertaken as a result of merit. The earth suffers from the heat of the sun so long as there is no rain-cloud. The forest is broken by elephants so long as there is no lion. The world is blind from darkness so long as there is no sun. He 85 251. The broom is an outstanding sign of the Jain monk. never moves without it. Page #46 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVĀHANA 21 People are afraid of snakes so long as there is no Garuda. There is poverty of people so long as there is no wishingtree. People are terrified of existence so long as the vow is not taken. Good health, beauty and grace, long life, great wealth, authority, power, splendor, sovereignty, the rank of a cakravartin, the state of a god, the rank of a Sāmānika-god, of an Indra, of an Ahamindra, the state of an emancipated soul, or of a Tīrthankara--all these are the fruit of the vow. If any one, free from delusion, ob- serves mendicancy even for one day, if he does not attain emancipation, nevertheless will reach heaven. How much more fortunate is he who undertakes mendicancy and observes it for a long time, after abandoning worldly glory like straw." Life as a monk (264–305) After the great muni Arindama had delivered this sermon, he set out to wander elsewhere. For ascetics do not stay in one place. Then he (Vimalavāhana) wandered constantly with his preceptor, like his shadow, in villages, cities, forests, mines, towns accessible by land and water, etc.36 Versed in carefulness about walking, 87 he went on a road traveled by people, touched by the light of the sun, for the protection of lower forms of life,88 his eyes fixed on the road for a distance of six feet. Skilled in carefulness in speech, the muni used blameless, restricted speech, beneficial to all. Experienced in carefulness about purity of food, when he broke fast he accepted food that was unspoiled by the forty-two faults pertaining to alms. 39 After examining and cleaning seats, etc., carefully, 86 265. See I, p. 263 and note. 87 266. See I, n. 37. 38 266. Jantu, i.e., worms, insects, etc., that might be crushed on the road. 39 268. See I, n. 17. 40 269. This is pratilekhanā. See I, App. V, p. 453. Page #47 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 22 CHAPTER ONE he took them and arranged them properly, expert in carefulness in handling things. The great sādhu, devoted to compassion for living creatures, deposited impurities on ground free from lives. He set his mind, 41 whose snares of imagination had been destroyed, well-established in tranquillity, rejoicing in the supreme spirit, on that grove of trees of the guņas.48 He was generally silent, and avoided gestures, etc., 48 and if he spoke as a favor when importuned, he spoke little. He did not abandon kāyotsarga, even when he was rubbed hard by buffaloes, etc., wishing to scratch their shoulders, mistaking him for a post. Noble-minded, he restrained his movements in taking and depositing couches, seats, in walking, etc., and in standing. Thus he observed the eight " carefulnesses and controls, that had become the mothers by the birth, protection, and purification of the body of right conduct. Suffering from hunger, 45 endowed with strength, not transgressing the rules about purity of food, not miserable, not hesitating, wise, he went intent only on the going. Though thirsty when on the road, knowing the fundamental principles, free from misery, he did not wish cold water, but took water free from life. 46 Though afflicted 41 271. The 3 guptis follow. 42 271. See I, n. 19. 43 272. I.e., he observed the most complete form of silence. Sometimes a sādhu, observing a vow of silence, would use gestures. . 44 275. I.e., the 5 samitis and 3 guptis are compared to the eight mothers,' the eight classes of female ancestors entitled to śrāddha: mātā, pitāmahi, prapitāmahī, mātāmahi, mātuh pitāmahi, mātuḥ prapitāmahi, pitsşvasā, mātņşvasā: mother, paternal grandmother, paternal greatgrandmother, maternal grandmother, paternal grandmother of the mother, paternal great-grandmother of the mother, father's sister. mother's sister. Sanskārakaustubhaprārambha, p. 24a, line 4. 45 276. The 22 'trials,' parişaha, are described in the following. 6 277. Cold' water is unsterilized water. See I, n. 18. At the present time the distinction is made by thanļā, 'cold' and garam, 'hot' (H). Page #48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVAHANA 23 by cold, without clothing to protect his skin, he did not take acceptable 47 clothing and he did not light a fire. Burned by the heat, he did not blame the heat, he did not recall shade, he did not fan, nor bathe, nor sprinkle his limbs, etc. Though bitten by gnats and mosquitoes, knowing the eagerness for food on the part of all, he did not cause terror nor show hostility, nor drive them away, (but) he remained indifferent. There is no garment or it is unclean-in either case he, afflicted by nudity, knowing the distinction between what could and could not be accepted, did not wish it. At no time did he feel discontent, having his content in the pleasure of dharma, a yati, walking, standing, or sitting, he felt only satisfaction. He did not think about women, the mud of whose association is hard to remove, bolts to the door of emancipation. For they, if thought about, serve for the destruction of dharma. With an uncertain stay in villages, etc., deprived of a home and relations, he wandered alone, engaged in many special vows. Fearless, free from desire, he endured attacks agreeable and disagreeable on a seat, etc., free from the thorns of women, etc., in a solitary place. He endured comfort and discomfort in good and bad lodging, not feeling love nor hate, thinking "This must be left at dawn." Even abused, he did not become angry, knowing forbearance and asceticship, but on the contrary he considered it a kindness from the abuser. Even if he were struck, he endured it but did not strike back, because his life was not lost, because of the depravity of anger and the acquisition of merit by forbearance. Since monks who live on what is given by others can not avoid begging, he did not feel pain from begging, and he did not wish to be a householder. He took food, etc., from another for the benefit of some one else or for his own sake, or he did not take. He did not rejoice 47 278. What was permissible according to rules. Page #49 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 24 CHAPTER ONE at the taking, nor did he blame himself or any one else at the failure to take. He did not fear diseases and he did not wish a cure. Knowing the separation of the mind from the body, he endured them with a cheerful mind. When bed-clothes were lacking or were small and thin, and grass, etc., were spread (to sleep on), he endured the pain arising from their contact, and did not wish they were soft. He did not shrink from dirt on his body wet from summer heat and, not wishing to bathe, he did not even have a massage. He did not desire people to rise up to do honor to him ; he did not desire worship nor gifts. He was not depressed at bad treatment, and did not rejoice at kind treatment. Seeing the knowledge of the learned and knowing his own lack of knowledge, he was not depressed; and he did not rejoice when he had arrived at superior knowledge. Thinking, “I am occupied with knowledge and right conduct, nevertheless I am a 'chadmastha,'" 48 he endured lack of knowledge, knowing the gradual acquisition of knowledge. Having pure belief, he did not consider false (the teaching in regard to) the Jinas, their speech, jiva, right and wrong, and another birth, because of (his) indirect means of knowledge.49 So the muni, master of voice, body, and mind, endured trials of the mind and body caused by himself and others. Devoted ever to meditation solely on the Masters, the holy Arhats, he made his own mind, exceedingly firm, like a shrine. He was devoted to siddhas, preceptors, the very learned, elders, ascetics, scriptural knowledge, and to the congregation.60 Likewise he practiced other sthānakas also, producing tirthakstkarma, difficult for ignoble persons. 48 296. An ascetic without omniscience. 49 297. Parokşa. See T. I. II and below, Chap. III. This treatment of the parişahas is very condensed and must be interpreted through other texts. Cf. Uttar., Chap. 2; Pravac. 685-691, pp. 192 ff.; and I, n. 55. 50 300. Some of the sthānakas. See I, pp. 80 ff. Page #50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVĀHANA 25 He practiced penance, the ekāvali, ratnávali, kanakávali, and sinhanihkridita long and short.61 Beginning destruc 61 302. These penances, which take the form of fasts, are, with the exception of ekāvali, described in Antagadadasāo 8, B. pp. 98 ff., and in Pravac. 1509 ff., pp. 435 ff. Muni Jayantavijayaji described ekāvali to me, with reference to the Tapävali (published by K. R. Jhaveri at Surat), which is not available to me. The fasts are a series of fasts of a number of days with a meal taken after each one. In this connection it is to be noted that Indians themselves do not count as a fast-day a day on which they eat at all. In my note, I, n. 93, I described the more usual fasts, caturtha, şaştha, aştama. They are really fasts of 48, 72, and 96 hours respectively, and I translated them accordingly as 2, 3, and 4 days' fasts. But the Indians themselves do not count at all the preliminary day on which one meal only is taken nor the day on which the fast is broken by one meal. A caturtha is one upavāsa, or a one-day fast, şaştha is two upavāsas, etc. For a clear understanding of these fasts the commentary to Pravac., pp. 435 ff., is the most useful, but as the commentator himself points out, there are discrepancies between the Pravac. and the Antagadadasão which should be given the preference because of its seniority. According to the Antagadadasão, the ratnāvali. series is as follows: 1, 2, 3, 8X2, I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 34 X2, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 8X2, 3, 2, 1. This gives 384 fast-days and 88 fast-breaking days, or a total of 1 year, 3 months, and 22 days to complete the series. The complete penance consists of 4 series, which cover 5 years, 2 months, and 22 days. During the first series, the fast-breaking includes all kinds of delicacies (viksti); in the second, they are not permitted ; in the third, the food, such as wheat, chick-peas, etc., is without dressing; and in the fourth only ācāmla is permitted (Pravac. 436a). The kanakāvali is just the same with the substitution of 8 X3 and 34 x3 in the place of 8 X 2 and 34X2. One series lasts for I year, 5 months, and 12 days and the complete penance lasts for 5 years, 9 months, and 18 days. The Pravac. exchanges the ratnāvali and kanakāvali. In B.'s calculations in his footnotes he does not distinguish between the fast-days and fast-breaking days, but counts each fastbreaking day in with its fast. The net result is the same. The ekávali is the same as the kanakāvali and ratnāvali with the substitution of 8XI and 34 X I. One series lasts for 1 year, 2 months, and 12 days, and the complete penance for 4 years, 9 months, and 18 days. The sinhanihkridita is so called because a moving lion looks over the country he has traveled,' and this penance is made in similar Page #51 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 26 CHAPTER ONE tion of karma by a month's fast, he performed penance in the form of fasting ending with a fast of eight months. After he had practiced severe penance in this way and had performed the two samlekhanās,6e at the end he fasted till death, absorbed entirely in tranquillity. Recalling the formula of homage to the Five Supreme Ones, 58 absorbed in abstract meditation, he abandoned his body as easily as a house. Life as a god (306–312) He became a god in the palace Vijaya in the Anuttaravimānas, with a life-period of thirty-three sāgaras. With a body a cubit tall, white as moon-beams, an Ahamindra, free from arrogance, adorned with beautiful ornaments, always free from opposition, placed on a beautiful couch, not going to another 64 place, not making an uttaravaikriya (body), beholding the lokanāli 66 through a wealth of clairvoyant knowledge, he experienced the highest bliss indicative of the bliss of emancipation. He breathed by fortnights corresponding to the sägaras of his life, 56 and desired to eat by corresponding thousands of fashion. The short siöhaniḥkridita is 1, 2, 1, 3, 2, 4, 3, 5, 4, 6, 5, 7, 6, 8, 7, 9, 8, 9, 7, 8, 6, 7, 5, 6, 4, 5, 3, 4, 2, 3, I, 2, 1. This makes 154 fast-days and 33 fast-breaking days, or a total of 6 months and days for each of the 4 series. The long sinhaniḥkridita is on the same principle and extends up to a fast of 16 days, making a total of 1 year, 6 months, and 18 days in each series. 52 304. See I, p. 357. 58 305. See I, n. 71. 54 308. The gods can not descend to earth in their natural bodies, but make another body called ' uttaravaikriya.' K., p. 307, says that in the Graiveyaka- and Anuttara-heavens, the gods have only their natural bodies (bhavadhāraniya). In the lower heavens, they have both kinds. 65 309. The part of the universe which contains both movable and immovable lives. See below, Chap. III. 56 310. I.e., once in 33 fortnights, and he ate once in 33,000 years. Page #52 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREVIOUS INCARNATION AS VIMALAVĀHANA 27 years. When six months of his life (as a god) remained, there was no confusion (of senses) as in the case of other gods,67 but on the contrary his splendor grew from merit attained. So, immersed in an abundance of wonderful bliss, like a hansa in a pool of nectar, he passed thirty-three sāgaras like a day. 67 311. Usually before a god 'fell’his powers deteriorated. See I, p. 58. Page #53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER II BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA Now, there is a city named Vinītā, the crest-jewel of the earth, in Bharata in the continent Jambūdvipa. After the time of the emancipation of Lord Rşabha Svāmin, Lord of the Three Worlds, the first Tirthankara, when numberless kings of the Ikşvāku-family had attained emancipation and Sarvārthasiddha 68 because of their pure nature, in this city Jitaśatru was king, like a broad umbrella of the Ikşvāku-family warding off heat (pain) from all. His virtues, bravery, etc., gained a lord in his very brilliant glory, like the constellations having a lord in the moon. He was a srivalli-pavilion, 59 whose center could not be reached like the ocean, refreshing to the eyes like the moon, a house of adamant to those wishing protection. Dwelling in the hearts of all gods and men he, though one, became multiplied like the moon in water. He was over the whole world, like the midday sun, because of the circuits of the quarters traversed with unendurable brilliance. While he was ruling the earth, kings constantly bore his command on their heads like diadems. He took choice treasures from the earth and distributed them for the benefit of all the people, like a cloud giving rain. 58 3. The central palace in Anuttara. 59 6. This example of a śrivallimandapa' would indicate that śrivalli refers to the Acacia Concinna rather than the jasn s.v.). The Acacias are prickly climbing shrubs used in hedges to protect fields (Watt, p. 2). The idea of inaccessibility because of its thorns suits very well here and the comparison with the moon is satisfactory, as the Acacias are also beautiful. Probably also in I. 6. 573 (I, p. 366) it is used with the idea of inaccessibility. Note 403 in I should be revised accordingly, Page #54 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA He thought constantly in accord with dharma, he spoke in accord with dharma, he acted in accord with dharma. Everything on his part was based on dharma. The King had a younger brother, who was crown prince, named Sumitravijaya, whose strength was unequaled. King Jitaśatru had a wife, Śrimati Vijayā Devi, who was like a goddess come to earth. She had the appearance of being made of pieces of blooming lotuses from the looks of her hands, feet, eyes, and face. She was the ornament of the earth, and good behavior was her ornament. Her collection of other ornaments was merely for formality. To judge from her possession of the whole collection of arts and her uniting of every beauty, the goddess Sarasvati or Kamalā had descended (to earth) for a dwelling. The King was the first among men; she was the crest-jewel of women. Their union was like that of the ocean and Gangā. Now, when King Vimala's soul fell from (the palace) Vijaya, it became a jewel of a son, possessing three kinds of knowledge, in Queen Vijayā's womb like a jewel-mine, on the thirteenth day of the bright half of Rādha, the moon being in conjunction with the constellation Rohiņi. From the power of the Master who had entered the womb, happiness for hell-inhabitants even arose for a moment. In the pure fourth watch of the same night Queen Vijayā saw fourteen great dreams. The fourteen dreams (22-36) The first of these was an elephant with a swarm of bees flying about the mada-perfume, excelling a rain-cloud in thunder, resembling Indra's elephant; a bull gleaming with lofty horns, fair as an autumn-cloud, with beautiful feet, resembling a living Kailāsa ; a young lion shining with nails curved like the digits of the moon and with a mane of saffron-colored hair; Kamalā, seated on a lotus, being sprinkled by two elephants at her sides with full pitchers uplifted ; a wreath of flowers in the sky, resembling a necklace of the sky, the atmosphere being penetrated by Page #55 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 30 CHAPTER TWO the fragrance of blossoming flowers; next, a moon which made the sky billowy with waves of moonlight, making the night of full moon appear unexpectedly by its full circle; then a sun, making daylight even at night by its rays streaming forth, dispelling the mass of darkness; a jeweled flag-staff, resembling a branch of a kalpa-tree, like a peak of Ratnagiri, marked with lofty banners; a very beautiful full pitcher, its mouth covered with blooming, fresh white lotuses, the sole abode of happiness; a lotuspool, marked everywhere with lotuses like seats of the goddess Sri, beautiful with billows of clear water; then an ocean with waves, wave upon wave, as if intending to embrace the moon in the sky; an excellent palace made of varied jewels as if one had come from the Anuttarapalaces; then a lofty heap of jewels with a remarkable mass of light, as if the earth had borne its own wealth of jewels; and a smokeless fire, as if the mass of light of all the fires contained in the three worlds had been gathered into one place. In this order Queen Vijayā saw them entering her lotus-mouth like bees. Rejoicing at the Arhat's conception (37–64) Then Indra's (Sakra's) lion-throne shook, and he employed clairvoyant-knowledge, an eye more powerful than a thousand eyes. By clairvoyant knowledge he knew a Tirthakrt had been conceived and, his body horripilated, Vāsava thought: "Now the Supreme Lord has fallen from the Anuttarapalace, Vijaya, a cause of rejoicing for the world. Now he has descended into the womb of Queen Vijayā, the wife of King Jitaśatru, in the great city Vinītā in the middle division of the southern half of Bhāratavarşa in the best continent named Jambūdvipa. He will be the second blessed Tirthanātha in this avasarpiņi, an ocean with the water of compassion." With these reflections Sunāsīras hurriedly abandoned his lion-throne, foot-stool, and shoes. Taking seven or Page #56 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA 31 eight steps, his face upturned in the direction of the Tirthakrt, his upper garment placed in folds over his mouth,“ placing his right knee on the ground and bending his left a little, he bowed, the surface of the ground touched by his head and hands. Sakra paid homage accompanied by the Sakrastava 61 to the Jina and went to Vinītā to the house of King Jitaśatru. Knowing the descent of the Arhat from the shaking of their thrones at that time, the other Indras also came there with devotion. Sakra and the other Indras also, devoted to the blessed lady, came to the splendid sleepinghouse of the mistress, Queen Vijayā. It had a courtyard with svastikas inlaid with priceless collections of pearls, big as the fruit of the myrobalan, spotless, smooth, and round; it had arches made at the doors with golden pillars decorated with puppets of sapphire and with leaves of emerald ; and a canopy of whole divine cloths of fine threads, five-colored, resembling the sky with twilight-clouds, arranged on all sides; adorned with columns of smoke rising from golden incense-machines, like raised clubs of a harem-guard. They saw the mistress on a beautiful couch which was a little high on the sides and a little depressed in the middle, with pillows filled with down from a harsa's breast and spread with white covers, like a female hansa on a sandy beach of the Gangā. They announced themselves, bowed, and explained to Vijayā that the fruit of the dreams took the form of a Tirthankara's birth. Then Śakra instructed Dhanada (Kubera): “You filled this city with jewels, etc., at the beginning of the reign of Rşabha Svāmin. Renew this city by new houses, etc., 00 44. Uttarāsanga, defined in PE, s.v., as 'wrapping the scarf around face' (illustrated in PE, I, p. 349), and this seems to be generally accepted. But in KSK 15, p. 27b, it is interpreted only as 'vaikakşam.' 61 46. See I, n. 166. 62 48. It varies from to it in, in diameter. Page #57 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 32 like a garden in the month of Madhu with new shoots. Fill the city completely with jewels, gold, money, grain, garments, etc., like a cloud the earth with water." CHAPTER TWO After giving these instructions, he and the other Indras went to Nandiśvara and held an eight-day festival to the eternal statues of the Arhats. Then all the Vāsavas went to their respective abodes. Yakṣa (Kubera) performed Indra's command and went from that city to his own city. Filled by the Lord of Alaka (Kubera) with lofty heaps of gold like the peaks of Mt. Meru, with lofty piles of silver like the peaks of Vaitāḍhya, with piles of jewels like the wealth of the ocean, with seventeen kinds of grain ** " 68 62. The 17 kinds of grain' are enumerated by Hem. in a quotation in his com. to Abhi. 4. 233. Dhanya is used in its widest sense, including not only Leguminosa with the Gramineæ, but also hemp, sesamum, etc. The 17 enumerated are: I. vrihi, rice that ripens during the rains, Oryza sativa. 2. yava, barley, Hordeum vulgare. masura, lentil, Lens esculenta. 3. 4. godhūma, wheat, Triticum vulgare. 5. mudga, kidney-bean, Phaseolus radiatus, popularly called 'green gram' in India. It is mung in Hindi and mag in Gujarātī. 6. māṣa, another variety of kidney-bean, Phaseolus mungo, 'black gram,' urad (H) and aḍad (Guj.). 7. tila, sesame, Sesamum. 8. canaka, chick-pea, Cicer arietinum. 9. anava, great millet, Sorghum vulgare. Pk. aņua, Deśī. 1. 52, which is juvara (PE aqua) or juar, Sorghum vulgare. The Sk. original of juār is yavanāla. Deśī. calls it 'salibheda.' 10. priyangu, Italian millet, Setaria Italica (Panicum Italicum). A Sk. synonym is kangu, which also occurs in the vernacular. II. kodrava, kodo millet, Paspalum scrobiculatum. 12. mayusthaka. In Abhi. 4. 240 mayusthaka occurs, so certainly mayucchaka in Bhav. ed. is an incorrect reading. MW cites mayuṣṭaka L. ' which probably comes from this passage only (the B.R. ed. using that spelling). Hem. gives mayuṣṭhaka as a synonym of makuṣṭhaka, the Phaseolus aconitifolius, moth (H), math (Guj.). MW quotes also mayaṣṭaka, mukuşṭhaka, etc. " Page #58 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA like seeds of the joy of the world, with garments on all sides as if they had been taken from the kalpa-trees, with very beautiful chariots and draft-animals like those of the Jyotişkas; renewed in every house, in every market and cross-roads, the city looked like Alakā. Vaijayanti's dreams (65-85) Sumitra's wife, Vaijayanti, also called Yaśomati, saw these same dreams that night. Then Vijayā and Vaijayanti passed the rest of the night awake, rejoicing like blooming night-lotuses. At dawn Lady Vijaya related the dreams to Jitaśatru and Vaijayanti to Sumitravijaya. After he has considered with an honest mind the dreams of Queen Vijaya, the King explains the fruit of the dreams as follows: "By these dreams, O Queen, a son, eminent in the three worlds, will surely be born to you, like the increase of glory by merit, like the acquisition of superior knowledge by study of the scripture, like the illumination of the world by the sun's rays." 333 an While the King was considering the fruit of the dreams according to his knowledge, Sumitravijaya came, nounced by the door-keeper. After bowing to the King like a god, the ground touched by five parts of the body," Sumitravijaya sat down in the proper place. The Prince 13. sali, rice grown under water and reaped during winter, Oryza sativa. 14. aḍhaki, pigeon-pea, Cajanus Indicus, arahar (H). 15. kalāya, pea, Pisum, maṭar (H). Hem. in com. to Abhi. 4. 236 gives tripuța as synonym, as does Pravac., com. to 996. I found no other citation of tripuța, but tripuți is identified with Lathyrus sativus. 16. kulattha, horse-gram, Dolichos biflorus, kalathi (Guj.), kulathi (H). 17. sana, hemp, Cannabis sativa. Vern, bhang from Sk. bhanga, a synonym of sana. For these identifications I have consulted mainly Watt and Dutt, besides the lexicons. All the dhanyas in this list seem to be identified with fair certainty. 04 72. See I, n. 327. 3 Page #59 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 34 CHAPTER TWO waited a moment, bowed again to the King with devotion and, his hands joined together, related : “Last night in the last watch your sister-in-law Vaijayanti saw these dreams entering her lotus-mouth. First, a mighty elephant, surpassing the elephants of the quarters in trumpeting; a bull with a white figure and a high hump, bellowing ; a lion with a massive måne erect and open mouth; Śrī, being sprinkled by elephants at both sides; a wreath of five-colored flowers like a rainbow; a full moon like a full pitcher of nectar; then a sun, as if the brilliance of every sun had been taken ; a tall flag-staff made of divine jewels with a fluttering banner; a full pitcher with its mouth covered with fresh white lotuses; a lotus-lake with a thousand eyes, as it were, with its blossoming lotuses; an ocean with waves wishing to bathe the sky, as it were; a magnificent palace resembling a palace of the Sāmānikas; a heap of jewels with light bursting forth, like the essence of Ratnācala ; and a smokeless fire which filled the sky with shoots of flames. These dreams were seen. Your Majesty alone knows correctly their fruit. Your Majesty alone shares their fruit." The King said : “Queen Vijayā also saw these dreams clearly in the fourth watch last night. If these great dreams have equally great fruit, they will create joy, like the rays of the full moon. Nevertheless, we must question experts to know exactly the fruit of the dreams resembling moonlight producing joy for night-blooming lotuses." Interpretation of the dreams (86-108) The Prince agreed and a door-keeper was sent eagerly by the King to summon men skilled in dream-science. The astrologers, covered with clean, white clothes, their skins shining from bathing, like stars veiled by the moonlight of the full moon; with blades of dūrvā-grass on their heads, as if they were wearing garlands; their hair (adorned) with flowers like rivers with hansas and blue lotuses; adorned on their foreheads with tilakas of powdered Page #60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OT AJITA AND SAGARA 35 orpiment 66 like torches of unwithered knowledge; their bodies adorned with a few priceless shining ornaments, like trees at the beginning of Caitra 66 with a few fragrant flowers, came before the King, announced by the doorkeeper, like the secrets of the books of knowledge in person. They recited to the King, separately and together, the prayers contained in the noble Vedas 67 which produce good fortune for every one. They threw dūrvā-grass, unhusked rice, etc., which conferred happiness, on the King's head, like garden-breezes throwing flowers. They sat down on lovely thrones indicated by the door-keeper, like harsas on lotus-leaves. After that, the King seated his wife and sister-in-law behind a curtain, like digits of the moon behind a cloud. Putting into their joined hands flowers and fruit like the fruit of the dreams visualized, the King told them the dreams of his wife and sister-in-law. After they had consulted with each other aside in the same place, they explained the meaning of the dreams in accordance with dream-science. “Your Majesty, seventy-two dreams are described in dream-science. Of these, thirty are pre-eminent like planets among heavenly bodies. Among these thirty dreams fourteen are called 'great dreams' by the experts in dream-science. When a Tirthankara or a cakravartin is in the womb, his mother sees these in succession in the fourth watch of the night. The mother of a Hari (Vāsudeva) sees seven of them; the mother of a Sirin (Balabhadra) sees four; and the mother of a king one. There are never two Arhats nor two cakrins at the same time. So the son of one is a Tirthakrt and of the other a cakrabhrt. The teachings of the Arhats say, 'Bharata is cakrin in the time of Rşabha ; and Sagara, the son of Sumitra, in the 86 89. Gorocanā. See I, p. 137 and note. 00 90. I.e., at the beginning of spring. 2. I.e., the original Vedas before they were corrupted. See I, p. 345. Page #61 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 36 CHAPTER TWO time of the Tirthankara Ajita, son of Jitaśatru.' The son of Queen Vijayā must surely be known as a Tirtharkara, and the son of Vaijayanti as the lord of six-part Bharata." Then the King, delighted, presented them with gratuities,---villages, earth-walled towns, etc., clothes, ornaments, etc. From the announcement of the birth of the Tirthankara and Cakravartin), their poverty from birth disappeared. Great men, even before they are born, confer benefits on people. Resplendent with clothes and ornaments like kalpa-trees, with the King's permission they went to their respective houses. Vijayā and Vaijayanti, delighted, went to their houses, like the Gangā and the Sindhu to the ocean. Birth of Ajitanātha (109-130) Then at the command of Purandara (Śakra) women of the gods and asuras began to attend Queen Vijayā constantly and zealously. Vāyukumāra-women always removed dust, grass, sticks, etc., from all parts of the house of the mistress. Meghakumāra-women, like slave-girls, sprinkled the ground of the court-yard of her house with perfumed water. The goddesses of the season rained five-colored flowers, as if eager to give a respectful reception to the Lord in embryo. The women of the Jyotişkas brought light at pleasure and at the right time, knowing the wishes of the mistress. Forest-goddesses made festoons, etc., like slave-girls, and goddesses praised her in song, like women-bards. In this way Queen Vijayā was served daily by the goddesses, like their own chief deity or like a superior one. Queen Vijayā and Queen Vaijayanti carried their embryos, like a mass of clouds the sun, like the earth a treasure. Naturally radiant, they were exceedingly radiant because of their embryos, like pools filled by golden lotuses in the center. Their lotus-faces, as light-colored as gold, became lighter, taking the color of a piece of ivory. Their eyes, which extended to their ears naturally, became suddenly wide open like an autumn-lotus. Such loveliness Page #62 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA 37 of theirs increased very much suddenly, like the beauty of golden rods that have been polished. Though walking slowly before, the queens walked especially slowly like indolent rājahańsīs. Their embryos grew secretly, bestowing happiness, like lotus-stalks in rivers, like pearls in pearl-oysters. When nine months, seyen and a half days had passed, at an auspicious moment on the eighth day of the bright half of the month Māgha, the planets being in exaltation, (the moon being) in the constellation Rohiņi, Vijayā bore a son marked with an elephant, like true speech bearing merit. Neither the Queen nor her son had any birth-pains, for that is the power of the Tirthanāthas arising from their own nature. At that time there was a light in the three worlds for a moment, like the light from lightning that comes unexpectedly without a cloud. Then there was comfort for a moment even for hell-inhabitants, like comfort for travelers from shade at the arrival of a cloud. Then the heavens were serene like waters in autumn, and there was great rejoicing of the people like that of daylotuses at dawn. An auspicious, favorable wind blew suddenly, creeping slowly, slowly over the earth, as if rising from the earth. Birds of omen appeared on all sides, indicating auspiciousness, for everything must be auspicious, not otherwise, at the birth of the pure-minded. Birth-rites performed by Dikkumāris (131-243) Then the thrones of the Dikkumāris trembled, as if eager to jump up from the desire to go into the Jina's presence. Wearing veils of cloth of a deep safflower hue, as it were, in the guise of a flood of light from beautiful crest-jewels; adorned with pearl ear-rings with the inside filled with their own light, like pitchers of nectar with tinkling waves of nectar ; resplendent with necklaces made of various gems imitating the appearance of a rainbow made into a circle; beautiful with ropes of pearls placed on rounded breasts, stealing the beauty of cascades Page #63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER TWO wavering on the banks of Ratnaśaila ; their creeper-like arms shining with jeweled bracelets like beautiful quivers deposited by Ananga; wearing girdles made of priceless jewels like bow-strings drawn for Love wishing to conquer the world : adorned with jeweled anklets clinging to lotusfeet like the light of all the Jyotişkas overcome by the light of the body; some with a dark body-radiance like priyangu-creepers, some spreading a grove of tālis 68 in the sky, as it were, by their own light; some spreading light like the light of dawn, some bathing the sky with light like clear moonlight; some putting golden threads, as it were, on the sky with their light, some like dolls of cat'seye in beauty; all with their rounded breasts resembling rivers with cakravākas, all resembling rājahansis in their graceful gait; all with delicate hands like creepers with sprouts, all beautiful-eyed like lotus-ponds with blooming lotuses; all with a flood of loveliness like ponds with water; all endowed with fairness like goddesses of love; startled by the shaking of their thrones, saying, “What is this?” the fifty-six (Dikkumārīs) at once employed clairvoyant knowledge. Then by means of clairvoyant knowledge the Dikkumāris knew simultaneously the purifying birth of a Tīrthakệt. They reflected : "In this very Jambūdvipa in the middle part of the southern half of Bharata in the great city Vinitā the second blessed Tirthakrt of this avasarpiņi, possessing three kinds of knowledge, has been borne to King Jitaśatru of the Ikşvāku-family by his wife Vijayā.” . After these reflections, they joyfully got up from their seats and took seven or eight steps, looking in the direction of the Tirthakrt. After they had placed the Jineśvara before them in their minds, as it were, and had bowed to him, all with deep devotion paid homage to him with the Sakrastava. Returning, they sat down on their 08 139. The Corypha taliera, the mountain-palm, i.e., green. Page #64 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA 39 jeweled lion-thrones and instructed their respective Abhiyogika-gods : 68 "Listen! We must go now to the southern half of Bharata to perform the birth-ceremonies of the second Arhat who is born. Make then for us cars with roomy interiors, made of various gems, of large dimensions." The Abhiyogikas, possessing strong powers, made the cars in accordance with their instructions, uneven with golden finials by the thousand, like offshoots of the cars of the Vaimānikas with comets; shining with gemmed pillars adorned with figures of śāl-wood like crowds of dancing girls tired out by fatigue from violent dancing; constantly ringing with rows of tinkling little bells like elephants with the loud noise of bells ; beautiful with diamond balconies like thrones of Sris; like suns with a thousand lights streaming forth : adorned on all sides with jeweled wolves, bulls, horses, men, antelopes, dolphins, haisas, śarabhas, yaks, elephants, kinnaras, forestcreepers, and heaps of lotus-tendrils on the walls, roofs, and tops of pillars, and showed them (to the Dikkumārīs). The eight Dikkumārikās living in the lower world, clothed in devadūşya-cloth, their hair adorned with flowers : Bhogankarā, Bhogavati, Subhogā, Bhogamālini, Toyadhārā, Vicitrā, Puşpamāla, and Anindită, each one attended by four thousand Sãmānikis, each one joined by four mahattarās,"each one surrounded by seven great armies and each by seven generals, each one attended by sixteen thousand body-guards and by other powerful Vyantaragods and goddesses, got into their cars and set off eagerly in the northeast, with charming song and dance. Then they made immediately a vaikriyasamudghāta 71 and made a staff innumerable yojanas long. They removed 80 152. The servant gods. See below, Chap. III. 70 164. Mahattarā. These seem to be goddesses equal in power the Dikkumārīs themselves, whose commands cannot be transgressed by the Dikkumāris. Ava. 184, p. 163 f. 71 168. See I, p. 118 and n. 157. Page #65 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 40 CHAPTER TWO the coarse matter of jewels, the cat's-eye, diamond, lohitākşa, anka, añjana after añjana, pulaka after pulaka, jyotīrasa, ruby, rista, crystal, gold, and hařsagarbha on all sides, of emerald and galla, and retained the fine matter. Then they made their own uttaravaikriya-forms.72 For the gods' magic powers of transformation are perfected at birth. With the gait of the gods, superior, fast, wavering, impetuous, divine with lion-like, proud, energetic, and skilful gaits,73 they went to the city Ayodhyā to the house of King Jitaśatru, with all magnificence and all power. Then they circumambulated the Tirthakrt's birth-house three times with their large cars like the heavenly bodies revolving around Amarácala (Meru). Then they stopped their cars in the northeast, not touching the ground by four fingers' distance. After they had entered the birth-house and had circumambulated the Jinendra and his mother three times, their hands joined together submissively, they said: “Hail to you, O Mother of the World, bearing a jewel in your womb, you have become the essence of all women, giver of light to the world. You are fortunate, you are purified, you are the first in the world. This birth of yours has fruit in this human-world, since you are the mother of a man-jewel, the Ocean of Milk of compassion, 72 172. See above, n. 54. 73 173. The edition here reads : sinhoddhatābhyāṁ yatanāchekābhyām atha divyayā, and all MSS. have the same, which presents difficulties. The gait of the gods is often described, and a close parallel occurs in Jõātā. 15, p. 38 (Bhav. ed.). Its text reads : sihāe uddhuyāe jatiņãe cheyae divvãe devagatie: with 4 adjs. instead of nouns. Sihā is explained as sinhā (PH sainbā), 'with firmness of a lion'; uddhuyâ, lifted up by excessive pride'; jatinā, victorious'; cheyā, 'skilful.' This is said to be based on the tikā of Jiv. PE and Rājendra take sībā=śighrā (same ref.). PE quotes a noun jaïņā (yatnā), 'a kind of gati,' with another ref. to jñātā., where I can find only jatiņam (51, p. 155). This yatnā approaches our yatanā, but what can it mean ? Jaïņa usually=javin, 'speedy,' or jayin, 'victorious.' For further discussion, see App. I. Page #66 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA 41 the Master deserving praise in the three worlds, the Dharmacakrin, the teacher of the three worlds, the brother of the world, conferring favors on all, the second Jinendra in this avasarpiņi. O Mother, we are Dikkumārikās living in the lower world and have come here to hold the birthfestival for the Tirthakrt. You must not be afraid of us." . After this speech, they bowed and withdrew to the northeast. By the vaikriyasamudghāta with abundant power they created instantly a wind, called 'whirlwind.' 74 By means of the wind, auspicious, gentle and cool, blowing obliquely, bringing a wealth of perfume from a variety of flowers of all seasons, they removed first the dry grass, etc., around the birth-house for a yojana and cleaned the ground thoroughly. Then they stood not far from the Blessed One and the Blessed One's mother, singing auspicious songs joyfully. Then the eight Dikkumārikās living in upper Rucaka on the peaks of the garden Nandana : Meghankarā, Meghavati, Sumeghā, Meghamālini, Suvatsā, Vatsamitrā, Vāriseņā, Balāhakā, wearing divine ornaments, attended by mahattarās, Sāmānikis, and body-guards, by armies and generals as before, went to the birth-house purified by the Master's birth and circumambulated the Jinendra and the Jina's mother three times. After announcing themselves like the preceding ones, bowing to Vijayã and praising (her), they made (by magic) the sky dark with clouds, in that same place. Then they rained fragrant water, not too little and not too much, for a yojana from the Blessed One's birth-house. The dust was quickly destroyed by this rain, like sin by penance, like darkness by moonlight of a night of full moon. Then they created rapidly a multitude of flowers, variegated and blooming, like stage-directors on the floor of the stage. They made the ground exceedingly fragrant, like a dwelling of Śri, 74 184. I do not understand why or how the yaikriyasamudghāta was used to make a wind. Cf. I, n. 157. Page #67 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 42 CHAPTER TWO with incense-smoke rich in camphor and aloes. Then they stood not too near and not too far from the Tirthakrt and the Tirthakệt's mother, singing the Master's spotless virtues. Then the Dikkumārikās living on the eastern Rucaka Mts. : Nandottarā, Nandā, Ānandā, Anandavardhanā, Vijayā, Vaijayanti, Jayanti, and Aparājitā, accompanied by all their magnificence and power, came with their retinues to the birth-house in the same way as the preceding ones and circumambulated the Master and the Master's mother three times. After they had announced themselves to the Mistress, had bowed, and had recited a hymn of praise as before, they stood in front of them, singing, and holding jeweled mirrors. The eight Dikkumārikās living on the southern Rucaka Mts. : Samahārā, Supradattā, Suprabuddhā, Yasodharā, Lakşmivati, Śeşavati, Citraguptā, Vasundharā, wearing beautiful ornaments, wreaths, and divine garments, came with their retinues to this house, in the same way as the preceding ones, bowed to the Mistress after the circumambulation and announced themselves. At the right of the Jinendra and the Jina's mother, they, sweet-voiced, stood, singing auspicious songs, holding pitchers in their hands. Also the Dikkumārikās living on the western Rucaka Mts. : Ilādevi, Surādevi, Pithivī, Padmavati, Ekanāsā, Navamikā, Bhadrā, Sitā, with retinues of the same size, announced themselves as before, bowed to the Jina and the Jina's mother after the circumambulation, and stood behind them, singing, holding beautiful fans. Also the Dikkumārikās living on the northern Rucaka Mts. : Alambusā, Miśrakeśī, Puņdarikā, Vāruņi, Hāsā, Sarvaprabhā, Hri, Śri, with the same attendants announced themselves as before, bowed to the feet of the Jina and the Jina's mother after circumambulating them, and stood on the left, singing, holding beautiful chauris. The four Dikkumārikās living in the intermediate points of the compass on Rucaka : Vicitrā, Citrakanakā, Page #68 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA 43 Suterā, Sautrāmaņi, came, circumambulated and bowed to the Jina and the Jina's mother, and announced themselves. Singing the numerous virtues of the Master and the Master's mother, they stood at the intermediate points, northeast, etc., holding lamps in their hands. The four Dikkumārikās living in the center of Rucakadvipa : Rūpā, Rūpāńśukā, Surūpā, Rūpakāvati, each one resplendent with a complete retinue as before, got into their big cars and came to the Arhat's birth-house. They circumambulated it three times, remaining in the cars themselves, and then stopped the cars in the proper place. Then, going on foot, they circumambulated the Jinendra and the Jina's mother with devotion, bowed to them and said : “Hail ! Long live ! Rejoice, you whose son is for the delight of the world. O Mother of the World, this is a fortunate moment for us to-day because of the sight of you. The ocean (ratnākara), Ratnasaila (mountain of jewels), and the earth (ratnagarbhā)—these are useless. You alone are the source of jewels, since you have borne this jewel of a son. We Dikkumārikās, living in the center of Rucaka, have come here to perform the Arhat's birth-ceremonies. You must not be afraid.” With these words, they cut the Supreme Lord's navel-cord, leaving a length of four fingers. They dug a hole in which they deposited the Lord's navel-cord like a treasure, and then filled up the hole with jewels and diamonds. They covered a platform over it with dūrvāgrass ? that shot up at once. Even gardens shoot up by the power of the gods. In three directions from the birthhouse they immediately erected plantain-houses 76 like houses of Sri. Inside of each they created a four-room apartment, and inside each of them a large lion-throne. Then they took the Tirthankara on their palms and the 75 224. See I, n. 143. 76 225. See I, n. 144. . Page #69 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 44 CHAPTER TWO Mistress on their arms and led them to the southern plantain-house. Then within the four-room apartment, they seated the Master and the Master's mother comfortably on the best jeweled lion-throne. They themselves became shampooers and anointed them with oils, the oil with a hundred ingredients, etc., with comfortable manipulations. Instantly, they rubbed their bodies like jeweled mirrors with fragrant substances, sweet-smelling and ground fine. After they had taken the Jinendra on their palms and his mother on their arms, they led them into the eastern plantain-house. They seated the Jinendra and the Jina's mother on the best jeweled lion-throne in the fourroom apartment in it. They bathed the two with perfumed water, with flower-juices, and pure water, as if they had been taught to do that from birth. They put various jeweled ornaments on them, considering that their own power, being such, had accomplished its purpose after a long time. After the goddesses had taken the Jinendra and Queen Vijayā as before, they went into the beautiful northern plantain-house. There they seated them, resembling a lioness and her son seated on a mountain, on the lion-throne in the four-room apartment. In a moment they had gośirşa-sandal brought for fuel by the Abhiyogikas from Mt. Kșudrahimavat. They made a fire spring up by rubbing two pieces of wood. For a fire is produced even from sandal-wood when it is rubbed.?? Using all the sandal-wood for fuel, the goddesses made the fire increase as if fire had been added. They made auspicious ceremonies with the sacrifice thrown in the fire and fastened an amulet on the Jinendra, charming in their devotion. Saying aloud, “May you live as long as a mountain," they struck together small balls of jeweled-stones near the Jina's ears.78 They took the Tirthankara on their palms 77 238. Sandal is symbolic of coolness. 78 241. See I, n. 145. Page #70 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA 45 and Vijayā on their arms, led them to the bath-house, and put them on the couch. Then they stood not too far away and not too close, singing rapidly the shining virtues of the Master and the Master's mother. Birth-ceremonies presided over by Śakra (244-528) Just at that time when Sakra, very resplendent, surrounded by crores of gods and of Apsarases, his power being praised by crores of the best bards, a multitude of virtues being sung at length by a troop of Gandharvas, being fanned with chauris by courtesans at his sides, adorned by a very beautiful white umbrella over his head, was seated comfortably, facing the east, holding an assembly in the assembly-hall Sudharmā in the Saudharmakalpa, his throne shook. Confused by a fit of temper because of the shaking of his throne, his lower lip trembling like a fire with a quivering flame, terrifying from a deep frown like the sky with a comet that has appeared, his face copper-colored like a must-elephant, his forehead marked by three lines like an ocean with high waves, Vajrabhịt looked at his thunderbolt, the destroyer of enemies. Observing his anger, General Naigameşin got up, joined hands in suppliant fashion before him, and said to Prācīnabarhis: “ Against whom is anger on your own part, when I am the executor of your commands ? There is no superior and no equal to you among gods, asuras, and mortals. After considering the cause of the shaking of your throne just now, command me, who am the giver of punishment, in regard to it, О master.' : When the general had said this, Sakra gave attention and employed clairvoyant knowledge at once. Hari perceived the birth of the second Tirthakrt by clairvoyant knowledge, like dharma by the Jain scriptures, like an object by a light. He thought, “Oh! In Jambūdvīpa in Bhäratavarşa in the city Vinitā the second Jineśvara in this avasarpiņi is born from Queen Vijayā, the wife of Page #71 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 46 CHAPTER TWO King Jitaśatru. For that reason my throne shook. Shame on these wicked thoughts of mine. May the sin which I, drunk with power, committed be without consequences." With this thought Purandara arose, abandoning his lion-throne, foot-stool, and slippers. Satamakha hastily took several steps, as if starting out, facing the direction of the Tirthakṛt. Placing his right knee on the ground and bending the left a little, touching the ground with his hands and head, Hari bowed to the Master. After he had praised the Master with the Sakrastava," Pākaśāsana returned to his own place, like the ocean turned back by the shore. Then Sunāsira, his body horripilated at once like delight embodied, instructed General Naigameşin to inform all the gods of the Tirthankara's birth and to summon them to its festival, like a householder his own people. The general accepted Pakaśāsana's command on his head eagerly and went away, like a thirsty man who has drunk water. He struck three times the bell Sughoṣā which has a radius of a yojana, and which was like an immense bell on the neck of the cow of the assembly of Sudharma. A loud noise arose when it was struck, the guest of the range of hearing of every one, like the noise of the ocean when it was churned. Thirty-two lacs-less one 8 of other bells rang distinctly also because of its ringing, like calves lowing because of the cow's lowing. All of Saudharmakalpa seemed to be made of only sound from the loud penetrating sound of the bells. The gods in the palaces, always negligent, awakened at that sound, like lions lying in caves. 80 "I think Sughoṣā, delighting in a proclamationdrama, has been rung by some god at the command of the king of gods. Certainly the proclamation announcing Vasava's command must be heard." With this expectation 79 262. See I, n. 166. 80 268. I.e., Sughoṣā. Page #72 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 47 BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA the gods remained listening. When the sound of Sughoşā had died away, Purandara's general made a proclamation to this effect in a loud voice : “Attention ! Listen, all the gods living in Saudharmakalpa. The lord of the gods commands you all. In the city Ayodhya in Bharata in Jambüdvipa, the second Tirthanātha, the Lord, bestowing benefits on all, was born today from Vijayā, the wife of King Jitaśatru, because of the maturing of good fortune of the world. Now we must go there with our retinues for the Jina's birth-ceremonies to purify ourselves. You must come here quickly to go there with me with all magnificence and all power.'” The gods experienced great delight at this proclamation of his, like peacocks at thunder. At once they got into their cars like boats and, crossing the sky like the ocean, the gods went to Sakra. Descriptions of Sakra's car (282-307) Hari instructs an Abhiyogika named Palaka, “Make a car to go to the Master.” He created the car a hundred thousand yojanas long and wide and five hundred yojanas high, like another Jambūdvipa; with light from jeweled walls like the ocean with high coral; with golden finials like Mānasa with erect lotuses; with long flags like a body marked with tilakas; with variegated jeweled spires like a mountain-crest with lofty peaks; beautiful with jeweled pillars like tying-posts of Śri's elephant; inhabited by puppets resembling other Apsarases; adorned with rows of little bells like an actor who had taken cymbals; marked with pearl-svastikas like the sky with constellations; beautiful with wolves, bulls, men, kinnaras, elephants, hansas, forest-creepers, and lotus-tendrils. In three directions it had three flights of stairs like long waves of cascades flowing down a large mountain. In front of the flights of steps were jeweled arches, sisters, as it were, of the beauty of a whole row of rainbows. Page #73 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 48 Its middle part was level and smooth like the face of an alingipuskara,81 like a mirror, like a lampstand.82 Painted with soft, beautiful, five-colored paintings, the floor looked as if strewn with peacock-feathers. Inside of it there was a theater-pavilion, a play-house of Śris, like a royal palace inside a city. Inside of it there was a jeweled platform, eight yojanas long and wide and four yojanas high. On it was an excellent jeweled lion-throne, like a large, pure jewel in a large ring. Above it shines a canopy, brilliant with silver, giving the impression of autumn-moonlight that had become congealed. Hanging to its center was a diamond hook, and hanging from it was a pearl-wreath of one kumbhika.88 Like younger brothers of this one, in the four directions there were strings of pearls measuring half a kumbha. Slowly rocked by a gentle wind, they gleamed, thieves of the beauty of the pleasure-swing of the Śri of Sunasira. To the northeast, north, and northwest of Sakra's large jeweled lion-throne were the thrones of the eightyfour thousand Sāmānika-gods, beautiful with jewels, equal in number (to the gods). To the east, the eight seats of the eight wives of Indra resembled jeweled pleasurebalconies of Kamalā. In the southeast were the seats of the twelve thousand gods of the inner assembly. In the south were the fourteen thousand seats in succession of Śakra's middle assembly. In the southwest were the sixteen thousand seats of the gods of the outer assembly. Behind Sakra's lofty lion-throne were the seats of the seven generals. In each of the four directions from Sakra's throne were the seats of the eighty-four thousand bodyguards. Such a car was produced simultaneously with CHAPTER TWO 81 290. Evidently the same as alingimṛdanga. See I, p. III. 82 290. Dipakamalli. Cf. mallikā, 4. 185, 'lampstand,' and malli, PE, s.v. Evidently some kind of round lampstand is meant. The translation of dipamalli, 1. 2. 359, obviously unsatisfactory, must be corrected accordingly. 88 296. See I, n. 152. Page #74 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA 49 Sakra's command. For the accomplishment of the desires of the gods is effected by the (mere) thought. 84 Sankrandana, eager to go to the Jina, made his uttaravaikriya-form having various jewels. With his eight queens, creepers giving the nectar of loveliness, and with the large troops of actors and Gandharvas, Hari, delighted, circumambulated the best of cars and entered it by the east jeweled stairs. Vāsava sat down on the jeweled lion-throne, facing the east, like a lion on the crag of a mountain peak. The queens of Bidaujas adorned their own seats successively like marālis adorning lotuses. The eighty-four thousand Samānika-gods entered the car by the north stairs. They seated themselves on their respective thrones, like other incomparable images of Vajrin. Other gods and goddesses entered the car by the west stairs and sat down on the proper seats. 85 In front of Hari seated on the lion-throne were the eight auspicious things," as if each one had been made by one of the eight wives. Near them were the umbrella, vase, full pitcher, etc. For the signs of sovereignty are companions like a shadow. At the front (of the car) was a large flag-staff, a thousand yojanas high, provided with hundreds of little flags, like a tree with shoots. In front of it were five of Hari's generals 7 and Abhiyogikagods attending carefully to their own duties. So Sakra, surrounded by crores of magnificent gods, his magnificence being praised by clever bands of celestial bards, entertained by the plays, gestures, and concerts constantly performed by the bands of actors and musicians; the flag-staff drawn ahead by five armies; splitting the universe, as it were, 84 309. Amṛtavalli, the Cocculus cordifolius (MW). 85 314. The ed. reads: rūpadvipāntarāṇīvāpratirūpāņi vajriṇaḥ. The MSS. read: rūpadhiyan" which must, I think, be emended to rūpadheyän°. 86 316. See I, n. 153. 87 319. The generals of the naṭyānīka and gandharvānīka were with Sakra. 4 Page #75 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 50 CHAPTER TWO with the noise of the musical instruments ahead; wishing to descend to the earth, came by car by an oblique path to the north of Saudharma-heaven. Filled with crores of gods, the car Pälaka looked like a moving Saudharma-heaven, as it descended. The best of cars, divine, surpassing thought in speed, traversed numberless continents and oceans in a moment. The car, like a Saudharma on earth, a pleasure-abode of the gods, arrived at the continent Nandiśvara. When he had arrived at its southeast mountain, Ratikara, Purandara quickly contracted the car. Gradually contracting the car more and more, Hari arrived at the city Vinitā in Bharata in Jambūdvipa. He circumambulated the Master's birthhouse three times with the car. The Master's estate is the same as the Master. Hari stopped the car in the northeast at a distance, like a vassal his conveyance at the palace. Purandara entered the Master's birth-chamber, his figure contracted from devotion, like a servant belonging to a noble family. Sahasrākşa bowed to the Tirthakệt and the Tirthakrt's mother as soon as he saw them, esteeming his eyes fortunate. After he had circumambulated the Master and Vijayā, had bowed, and paid homage to them, with hands joined respectfully, he said : “Hail to you, bearing a jewel in your womb, purifying the universe, mother of the world, bestowing a light on the world for seeing the good. O mother, you alone are blessed, by whom the second Tirthakrt, benefactor to all, was borne, like a kalpa-tree by the earth. I, Lord of Saudharma, have come here to celebrate the Master's birth-festival. O mother, you must not be afraid.” With these words, Sahasrākṣa gave a sleeping-charm, created an image of the Tirthakrt, and placed it at the Queen's side. Then Sakra instantly created five Sakras from himself. The gods can have any form they like, one or many. Among these, one Sakra, with sprouts of bristling hair burst forth,88 made pure in body as in 88 339. I.e., his hair erect from joy. Page #76 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA 51 mind from devotion, bowed, said, "Allow me," and took the Jineśvara with lotus-hands anointed with gośîrșasandal. The second one stayed behind and carried an umbrella over the Master's head, giving the appearance of a full moon over a mountain. Two Haris carried chauris at his sides like heaps of merit in visible form gained from the sight of the Master. One, swinging a thunderbolt like a door-keeper, went in advance looking at the Master, his head turned a little. The Samānikas, the Pariṣadyas, the Trayastrinśas, and other gods also circled round the Lord like bees around a lotus. Hari, carrying the Master of the World carefully, arrived at Mt. Meru with the intention of holding the birth-festival. The gods ran after the Master, knocking each other over in rivalry, like deer running after a song.89 The sky appeared crowded with clusters of blooming blue lotuses in the form of gods looking at the Master from afar from the corners of their eyes. Again and again the gods approached the Blessed One from afar and looked at him, like misers looking at their money. The gods flying towards (the Master) at the same time struck each other with an impact like waves of the ocean. The planets, constellations, and stars assumed the form of a multitude of flowers in front of the Master as he went through the sky with Sakra as a vehicle. Puruhūta went in a moment to the rock Atipāṇḍukambalā on the summit of Meru in the south of the peak. The Lord-of-the-east sat down, facing the east, on the top of the jeweled lion-throne, holding the Lord on his own lap. Just then the Indra of Iśānakalpa became aware of the birth of the All-knowing by means of clairvoyant knowledge because of the shaking of his throne. Like Śakra, he abandoned his lion-throne, etc., took seven or eight steps, and bowed to the Lord of the World. At his command General Laghuparakrama rang the loud-toned 89 346. Deer's love of music is proverbial. Page #77 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 52 bell Mahāghoṣā. Its sound filled twenty-eight lacs of palaces, like the sound of the ocean with high waves filling the mountain-caves on the shore. The gods of these palaces awakened at its sound like sleeping kings at the sound of the conch at daybreak. When the sound of the bell Mahāghoṣā had died away, the general made a proclamation as follows in a voice deep as thunder: "In the city Vinita in Bharata in Jambudvipa the Lord, the second Tirthakṛt, has been born of Vijaya and Jitaśatru. Your lord will go to Meru for his birth-ceremony. Therefore, hasten, O gods, to go with your master." At this loud proclamation all the gods went at once into the presence of the Lord of Aiśāna, as if drawn by a charm. Then Iśāna, the Indra of the northern half,"0 holding a trident, wearing jeweled ornaments like a living Ratnagiri, wearing white garments, wearing a wreath, with a large bull as a vehicle, attended by crores of gods, Sāmānikas, etc., entered the car Puspaka with his retinue and left Aiśānakalpa quickly by the southern path. After traversing numberless continents and oceans in a moment the Indra of Aiśāna arrived at the continent Nandiśvara. There he contracted his car, etc., at the northeast mountain Ratikara, like winter contracting the day. Gradually contracting it without loss of time, he went like a pupil to the feet of the Lord of the World on Sumeru. Sanatkumāra, Brahmā, Šukra, and Prāṇata with the gods awakened by Naigameşin who rang the bell Sughoṣā, arriving at Nandiśvara by the north path like Sakra, contracted their cars, etc., at the southeast Ratikara. They went into the presence of the Blessed One who was seated on Śakra's lap on the peak of Meru, like constellations into the presence of the moon. CHAPTER TWO Mahendra, Lantaka, Sahasrara, and Acyuta with gods awakened by Mahāghoṣā and Laghuparakrama went to Nandiśvara by the south path like Iśāna, and contracted 90 362. Corresponding to Saudharma in the south. Page #78 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA 53 Then they their cars, etc., at the northeast Ratikara. went joyfully to the Master on the peak of Mt. Kañcana (Meru), like travelers in a forest to a tree with much fruit. Then in the city Camaracañcã, the ornament of the south row,91 Camara's throne in Sudharma trembled. Knowing by clairvoyant knowledge the purifying birth of the Tirthakṛt, he took seven or eight steps, and bowed to the Jinesvara. At once at his command the general of the infantry, Druma, struck the sweet-toned bell Oghasvarā. When the sound of Oghasvarā had ceased and the proclamation had been made, the Asuras came to Camara like birds to a tree in the evening. The Abhiyogika-gods, at the command of Camarendra, created in an instant a car measuring fifty thousand yojanas (square). Adorned with a large indradhvaja five hundred yojanas high, the car looked like a boat with a mast. With sixty-four thousand Sāmānikas, thirty-three Trayastrinśas, four Lokapālas, five queens together with their retinues, three assemblies, and seven armies, seven generals, with body-guards to the number of four times the Sāmānikas, and also other Asurakumāras, he got into his car, went in a moment to Nandiśvara, and contracted his car at his 2 Ratikara, like Sakra. He went to the Master's feet on the peak of Mt. Meru with the speed of the current of the Jahnavi to the eastern ocean. In the city Balicañca, the ornament of the north row, Bali knew the birth of the Arhat by clairvoyant knowledge from the trembling of his throne. At his command the general of the infantry, Mahadruma, quickly struck the bell Mahaughasvara three times. When the sound of the bell had died away, as before he made the proclamation which was like a stream of nectar to the ears of the Asuras. By that proclamation the Asuras came from all directions to Bali, like hansas to Manasa at the sound of a cloud.98 374. The south row of the Bhavanavāsins. See below Chap. III. 92 383. I.e., the southeast. 93 388. See I, n. 47. 91 Page #79 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 54 CHAPTER TWO Together with the former number of queens, etc., sixty thousand Sāmānikas and four times as many body-guards, by means of a car of the preceding dimensions and an indradhvaja like the preceding, after going to Ratikara of Nandiśvara, he arrived at the peak of Meru. Dharaṇendra, Hari, Veņudeva, Agniśikha, Velamba, Sughoșa, Jalakānta, Pūrņa, and Amita, the Indras respectively of the Nāga-, Vidyut-, Suparņa-, Agni-, Vāyu-, Megha-, Sarasvat-, Dvipa-, and Dikkumāras, belonging to the southern row; and those of the northern row, Bhūtānanda, Hariśikha, Venudārin, Agnimāṇava, Prabhañjana, Mahāghoşa, Jalaprabha, Avaśişța, and Amitavāhana knew the birth of the Jina by clairvoyant knowledge from the trembling of their thrones. Then the bells, Meghasvarā, Krauñcasvarā, Hansasvarā, Mañjusvarā, Nandisvarā, Nandighoşā, Susvarā, Madhurasvarā, and Mañjughoşā, belonging respectively to the Nāgas, etc., of the two divisions of the Bhavanapatis, rang, struck three times by generals named Bhadrasena belonging to Dharana, etc., and by those named Daksa belonging to Bhūtānanda, etc." Then all the Nāgas, etc., of the two rows came instantly each to his own Indra, like horses to their own stables. At their command their respective Abhiyogikagods created at once cars variegated with jewels and gold, twenty-five thousand yojanas square, with indradhvajas of two hundred and fifty yojanas. Each one attended by six queens, six thousand Sāmānikas and four times as many body-guards, and others, Trayastriňsas, etc., like Camara and Bali, they got into their cars and went to Meru to the Master. The lords of the Piśācas, Bhūtas, Yaksas, Rakşases, Kinnaras, Kimpuruşas, Ahis, and Gandharvas: Kāla, Surüpa, Pūrņabhadra, Bhima, Kinnara, Satpuruşa, Atikāya, and Gītarati respectively, belonging to the south row, and 04 397. I.e., the bells of the north and south rows of each division of the Vyantaras had the same name; the generals of the north row of all classes were named Bhadrasena, and of the south row Daksa. Page #80 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA 55 these belonging to the north row : Mahākāla, Apratirūpa, Māạibhadra, Mahābhima, Kimpuruşa, Mahāpuruşa, Mahākāya, Gitayaśas, knowing the birth of the Arhat from the shaking of the thrones in both rows, had their bells, Mañjusvarā and Mañjughoşā respectively, rung by their respective generals. When the sound of the bells had died away and the proclamation had been made by the generals, the Vyantaras, Piśācas, etc., went to their respective Indras. The Indras, surrounded by the gods except the Trāyastriňśas and Lokapas-for they, like the sun and moon, do not have Trāyastriñías and Lokapas-each one attended by four thousand Sāmānikas and sixteen thousand body-guards, entered their cars created by their respective Ābhiyogika-gods and went to Meru to the Blessed One. Likewise, the sixteen Indras of the eight classes of Vyantaras, the Aņapannikas, o5 etc., occupying both north and south rows, like the Indras of the Piśācas, etc., knowing the birth of the Jina by the shaking of their thrones as before, had Mañjusvarā and Mañjughoşā struck and the proclamation made by their respective generals and, accompanied each by his own Vyantaras, got into their cars created by the Abhiyogikas and with the Sāmānikas, etc., as before went into the presence of the Jina. Innumerable Suns and Moons with retinues also came to the Jina on Meru, like sons to a father. Thus sixtyfour Indras, independent, (but) as if they were subject to another, came together in haste with devotion from desire for the Master's birth-festival. The Indra of the eleventh and twelfth heavens 06 instructed the Ābhiyogika-gods to bring the paraphernalia for the bath. The Abhiyogikas went off in the northeast 85 412. These are the same as the Aprajñaptikas of 3. 525. See PE, PH, and Rājendra sub Aộapanpiya, Aṇavanniya, and Anapanniya ; Pravac. 1131, p. 333a; and Aup. 24. PH Sanskritizes the word as Anapannika and Anaparạika. K., p. 275, has Rņaparņi. 96 418. Acyuta, the Indra of Acyuta- and Araņakalpa. Page #81 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 56 CHAPTER TWO quarter, made a powerful samudghāta oz and thus created pitchers, made of gold, silver, jewels, gold and silver, gold and jewels, silver and jewels, gold, silver and jewels, and clay, one thousand and eight of each kind. They made an equal number of vases, mirrors, dishes, vessels, earthen vessels, jewel boxes, and flower-baskets without loss of time, as if they had been taken from a store-room. The gods took the pitchers energetically and went to the Ocean of Milk, like drawers of water to a pool. Like clouds they took up easily water from the Ocean of Milk with the pitchers with deep bubbling-sounds like loud auspicious cries. They took white and red day-blooming lotuses, night-blooming white and blue lotuses, sahasrapattras and satapattras.°8 Approaching the ocean Puşkaroda, like sea-faring merchants an island, they took very rapidly lotuses, etc. The gods took water, etc., from the tirthas, Māgadha, etc.,99 of Bharata- and Airavatakşetra. Like heated travelers, they took clay and lotuses from the rivers, Gangā, etc., from the pools, Padma, etc. They took herbs, perfumes, flowers, white mustard, and saffron from all the principal mountain-ranges, from all the Vaitādhyas, from all the provinces and all the Vakşāra Mts., from the Devaand Uttarakurus, from Bhadraśāla, Nandana, Saumanasa, and Pāņďaka encircling Sumeru, and from the mountains, Malaya, Dardura, etc. The gods mixed all these materials together, like doctors mixing medicines and perfumers mixing perfumes. After obtaining all this, they went to the Master, as if rivaling Acyutendra's mind in zeal. Then, full of devotion, the Indra of Āraņa- and Acyutakalpa, surrounded by ten thousand Sāmānika-gods, thirtythree Trāyastriñśas, four Lokapālas, three assemblies, seven armies and generals, and forty thousand bodyguards, with a scarf wrapped around his mouth, throwing 97 419. I.e., a vaikriyasamudghāta. See I, n. 157. 98 426. Some varieties of lotus. 99 428. Prabhāsa and Varadāma. See below, Chap. IV. Page #82 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA 57 down first a handful of flowers, together with the gods he took the one thousand and eight pitchers anointed with sandal, their mouths covered with blooming lotuses. Acyuta emptied the pitchers on the Master's head, making their mouths bowed like himself with a high degree of devotion. From contact with the Master the water, though pure, became exceedingly pure. For a jewel is more brilliant in a gold ornament. The pitchers, articulate from the pouring forth of the stream of water, appeared to be reciting prayers in the ceremony of the Master's bath. Then the great flood of water issuing from the pitchers formed a confluence with the stream of the Master's loveliness. The water, spreading over the Master's gold-colored limbs, looked like the water of the Gangā spreading over beds of golden lotuses. With the pure, beautiful water pouring over his body, the Lord looked as if he had on an upper garment. Among these Indras and gods some, burdened with a load of devotion, lifted the full pitchers and brought them to the bathers. Some stood making shade ; some holding chauris, incense-burners, flowers, and perfumes. Some recited the bath-ritual ; some gave cries of “Hail !”; others beat drums, holding drum-sticks. Some, their cheeks and mouths puffed out, blew conches; others struck cymbals together. Some beat gongs with solid jeweled sticks; others beat drums with violent clamor. Some danced like (professional) dancers, keeping time to hand-clapping as music ; others danced in a peculiar manner like slave-clowns for amusement. Some sang like (professional) singers with poetic compositions, with postures, etc.; some made desultory sounds in the throat like cowherds. Some played the thirty-two rôles with dramatic modes ; 100 some flew up and some flew down. Some rained jewels and others gold; some ornaments and others powdered sandal. Some rained wreaths, flowers, 100 452. See I, n. 235. Page #83 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 58 CHAPTER TWO and fruit; some gave skilful leaps; some roared like lions. Some neighed like horses, others trumpeted like elephants, others creaked like chariots, and others made the three noises. Some shook Mt. Mandara by stamping their feet ; others split the earth by blows with their hands. Some made a repeated outcry with great joy; others sang rāsakas,101 moving in a circle. Some blazed artificially ; others cried for amusement; some thundered deeply; and others flashed like lightning. While the gods were acting in these various ways from delight, the Lord of Acyuta joyfully bathed the Blessed One. Placing his folded hands on his head like an ornament, he cried, “Hail ! Hail ” aloud, sincerely devoted. He dried the Master's body with a devadüşyacloth with a gentle hand, like a skilled masseur. Representing great joy, like a dancer Acyuta led a dance with the gods before the Lord of Three Worlds. Then Acyuta anointed the Lord's body with gośîrşa-sandal and worshipped him with divine and earthly flowers. The pitcher, throne, mirror, śrīvatsa, svastika, nandyāvarta, powder-box, and fish-these eight auspicious things, the Indra of Araña and Acyuta designed before the Lord with dazzling, silver, unbroken rice. Absorbed in devotion, he threw down a knee-deep pile of flowers of five colors, like pieces of twilight clouds. Then Acyuta, holding an incense-burner, burned incense, making the sky appear decorated with raised arches with pillars of smoke. While the incense was being thrown up, a deep-toned bell, which looked like Mahāghoşä on a small scale, was rung by the chief-gods. Hari himself waved the light-vessel before the Master, the circle of its high flame resembling the beauty of the stellar circle. Then the Lord of Acyuta, horripilated 101 457. I have not been able to ascertain the characteristics of the rāsaka. It is a kind of song' M.C. defines rāsa as 'a sort of song in the Hindoostanee language.' Rāsaka is also used for the circular dance itself. Page #84 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA 59 from joy, withdrew seven or eight steps, bowed, and began a hymn of praise as follows : Stuti (471-478) “O Lord, whose body covers the sky with the color of a piece of pure gold, whom does not your body with shining purity put to shame, as it were ? The eyes of goddesses become bees on your body which is always fragrant without being perfumed, like a wreath from a coral tree. The broods of serpents in the form of diseases, O Lord, do not approach your body, as if overcome by the wealth of enjoyment of divine nectar. Since you are like an image reflected in a mirror, why speak of the disappearance of · exuding perspiration from your body? Not only is your mind free from passion (rāgamukta), O dispassionate one, but the blood (rakta) in your body is like a stream of milk. We can tell another characteristic of yours, O Lord, since even your flesh, O Lord, is pure, free from malodor, not disgusting. Bees abandon wreaths of flowers produced on land and sea and follow the fragrance of your breath. Your duration of existence causes extraordinary astonishment since assimilation and elimination of food are not perceptible by touch and sight.” 102 After this hymn of praise to the Lord, Acyuta withdrew a little and stood with folded hands, devoted to service, with firm devotion. Sixty-two other Indras and their retinues bathed the Lord of the World in turn in the same way as the Lord of Acyuta. When they had recited a hymn of praise, had bowed, and withdrawn in the same way, with folded hands they sat near the Lord like devoted servants. Then the Vāsava of the second heaven quickly made himself five-fold, like the Indra of Saudharmakalpa, with extreme devotion. One sat down on the lion-throne, 102 478. These are the 4 inborn atisayas. See I, n. II, and Abhi. I. 57 ff. Page #85 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 60 which resembled Aiśana-heaven, on Atipaṇḍukambalā which has the shape of a half-moon. Carefully he transferred the Teacher of the World to his own lap from Sakra's lap, as if from one chariot to another. Another carried a white umbrella over the Master's head; and two others carried chauris at the Lord's sides. The fifth stood in front of the Lord of the World, holding a trident, like a door-keeper, charming with a noble figure. Then the Indra of Saudharmakalpa had the materials for the bath brought quickly by the Abhiyogika-gods. He, exceedingly skilful, created four crystal bulls like four more Crystal Mountains 103 in the four directions from the Lord. Eight dazzling streams of water, white as the moon's rays, shot up from the eight horns of the four bulls. After shooting up, they unite in one stream at the top like rivers, and fall on the Lord of the World like the ocean. In this CHAPTER TWO way he bathed the Lord. The powerful, like poets, declare themselves in an indirect way. Like the Indra of Acyuta he made the drying, anointing, worship, and eight auspicious objects according to rule. After he had praised the Lord with the Sakrastava and had bowed to him, he began a hymn of praise in a voice choking from joy. Stuti (493-501) "Hail! Lord of the Three Worlds. Hail alone kind to all. Hail! cloud for the new shooting-up of the creeper of merit, Lord of the World. O Master, you have descended to the earth from the palace Vijaya to please this earth, like a river-stream from a mountain. The brilliant triad of three knowledges, like seed of the tree of emancipation, is perfected in you at birth, like coolness in water. Lord of Three Worlds, whoever carry you always in their hearts always face good fortune like an image in a mirror. By good fortune you have become a physician, effecting cures of creatures suffering from the powerful diseases of 108 488. See Chap. III. Page #86 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA 61 karma. Like desert-travelers, we are not at all satisfied with the taste of the nectar of your sight, O Lord of Three Worlds. May this world travel on the road with you as a guide, like a chariot with a charioteer, like a ship with a helmsman, O Lord of the World. Our own power now has its purpose accomplished by our approach at the time for service at your lotus-feet, O Blessed One." After reciting a hymn of praise with a hundred and eight ślokas beginning with these, Prācīnabarhis made himself five-fold as before. One took the Lord, one the umbrella, two the chauris, and one Sakra was in front as before, carrying the thunderbolt. Then he, going at will like the mind, humble-minded, went with his retinue to the city Vinitā to the house of Jitaśatru. Immediately he took up the Tirthakrt's image and laid the Tirthanātha at Lady Vijayā's side. He put a pair of ear-rings like the sun and moon and devadūşya-clothes, smooth, soft, and cool on the Lords' pillow. On the Lord's canopy Sakra fastened a śrīdāmagandaka adorned with gold-leaf,104 like 104 507. I am still unable to explain the prākāra of the text and have retained, faute de mieux, the translation of the Pk. of the sources (I, n. 167). Certainly the earlier commentators took suvannapayara to equal suvarnapratara and to mean suvarṇapatra, 'gold-leaf. In addition to previous references, see Rājendra, sub suvapņapayaraga, where the same explanation is given with ref. to Jiv., sūtra 125 and commentary on it on p. 181. Ava HH, p. 14a, glosses 'suvarnnaprataramanditam' as 'hemavicchittibhir vibhūşitam.' Vicchitti (PH and Rājendra, s.v.) seems to mean pattern, design. KSK 44, p. 56a (in another connection) defines kaņagapayara as' kanakapratara' and further as 'suvarṇapatra,' but adds that others interpret it as 'kanakaprakara.' Prakara would not be an impossibility in our compound (adorned with a quantity of gold), but that does not account for prākāra which seems too well established to be a copyist's error. Prof. W. Norman Brown (JAOS 52, p. 88) suggests that prākāra might be taken as a derivate of prakāra, 'sort,' to mean ādi, based on Pk. pagāra (PH s.v.). This would be quite intelligible, but assumes that Hem. departed from his sources. This, of course, he may have done, but generally in such descriptions he follows the āgainas very closely. There is also the possibility (which also assumes that Hem, departed from his sources) that präkāra should Page #87 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 62 a sun descending from the sky. Beautiful necklaces and half-necklaces made of gems and jewels were put on it by Hari to amuse the Lord's eyes. He took the sleepingcharm from Queen Vijayā, he who resembled the moon for the night-blooming lotus and the sun for the dayblooming lotus. CHAPTER TWO At the command of Vaisravana who had been ordered by Sakra, the Jṛmbhaka-gods went to Jitaśatru's house. They rained thirty-two crores each of wrought and unwrought gold, and of jewels; and thirty-two iron seats and thrones. They made a rain of ornaments, like Manyangatrees, and a rain of garments, like Anagna-trees." They made a rain of leaves, of flowers, of fruit, as if they had gathered all of the forests, Bhadraśāla, etc. They made a rain of garlands of flowers of various colors, like Citrangatrees. They rained perfume and purifying powdered sandal, like south winds raining powdered cardamom, etc., that had been blown up (in the air). They made a very heavy rain of treasure, like Puşkarāvarta-clouds a rain of water. At the command of Pakaśāsana ruling Saudharma the Abhiyogikas made a proclamation as follows: " Attention! Listen carefully, all Vaimānika-, Bhavanādhipati-, Jyotis-, and Vyantara-gods. 'If anyone thinks anything improper about the Arhat or his mother, his head will burst into seven pieces, like a cluster of arjaka-blossoms.' 106 Then all the gods and asuras with their Indras went from the peak of Meru to Nandiśvara, their joy blooming forth suddenly. After bowing to the Blessed One the Indra of Saudharma went instantly from Jitaśatru's house to the continent Nandiśvara. There on the eastern Mt. Añjana, he held an eight-day festival to the eternal images 105 be taken just as it is, with the idea of a fluted ball, or perhaps raised patterns could conceivably be called 'prākāra,' which would fit, to some extent, the vicchitti of AvaHH. Muni Jayantavijayaji favors this idea. 105 512. For the wishing-trees, see I, pp. 94 f. 100 519. See I, n. 170. Page #88 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 63 BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA of the Arhats in the eternal temples. Sakra's four Lokapālas, delighted, held an eight-day festival on the four Dadhimukha mountains. On the northern Mt. Añjana the Indra of Îśāna held an eight-day festival to the eternal images of the Arhats in the eternal temples. His Lokapālas, like the preceding, held an eight-day festival to the statues of Rşabha, etc., 107 on the Dadhimukha mountains. The Indra Camara held an eight-day festival on the southern Mt. Añjana, and his Lokapas on the four Dadhimukha mountains. The Indra Bali held an eight-day festival on the western Mt. Añjana, and his Lokapālas on the Dadhimukha mountains. Then the gods and asuras, their duties discharged, went from the best of continents, like a meetingplace, to their respective abodes. Birth of Sagara (529-530) Now, after the birth of the Arhat, in the same night Vaijayanti also bore a son easily, like the Gangā a golden lotus. The attendants of both his wife and sister-in-law, Vijayā and Vaijayanti, gladdened Jitaśatru by the announcement of the birth of a son. Celebration by the people (531-579) Delighted by the news, the King gave such a reward that good fortune in his family was like a cow of plenty, Now the King increased in size like a river at the coming of clouds, like the ocean at full moon. The King shared expansion with the earth, graciousness with the sky, strength with the wind. The King released even enemies from prison, and captivity remained then only for elephants, etc. The King made wonderful pājās to the images of the Jinas in the shrines, like Sakra to the eternal images of the Arhats. Without any distinction between what was his own and others', beggars were satisfied with money. For rain from a cloud that has come up is common to all. 107 525. See I, p. 366 and n. 404. Page #89 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 64 CHAPTER TWO Teachers approached, reciting their own poetry,108 with pupils gamboling like calves freed from a stake. Here was a Brāhman teacher, reciting charms from the Vedas; there were the sayings of astrologers full of consideration in regard to auspicious moments, etc. Here were the best joyous outcries of high-born women ; there the auspicious sound of songs of gazelle-eyed courtesans. Here was the tumult of bards suitable for the preparation of a festival ; there blessings in beautiful dvipathaka-meter of wandering bards. Here were the voices loud with joy of crowds of servants speaking to each other; there tumult made by door-keepers which was pleasing from the summoning of petitioners. In the palace-courtyard noise attained sole kingship, like thunder in the sky filled with rainy-season clouds. In one place people anointed themselves with saffron and other ointments; in another they put on linen and other garments. On one side they honored themselves with divine wreaths and ornaments; on another they pleased themselves with betel mixed with camphor. They sprinkled saffron in the courtyard and arranged svastikas with pearls resembling lotuses. Arches were made with pillars of fresh plantain, and golden pitchers were set at the sides of the arches. The musician-women of the city, their braids of hair containing flowers, wearing head-dresses of wreaths of flowers, with wreaths hanging from their necks, like Śris of the seasons in person ; with shining jeweled earornaments, armlets, gold neck-ornaments, bracelets, and anklets, like goddesses of Ratnādri; their girdles forming a row, with upper garments whose fluttering borders hang down on both sides, like creepers of kalpa-trees, gave concerts charming with singing and clapping of the hands, like women of the gods. Young women of wealthy cityfamilies, wearing beautiful veils, with safflower-colored upper garments, thieves of the beauty of the eastern quarter covered by twilight-clouds, the beauty of their bodies 108 537. See App. I. Page #90 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 65 BIRTH OF AJITA AND SAGARA augmented by saffron-ointment like rivers by the pollen of a bed of blooming lotuses, their eyes downcast as if observing carefulness in walking, adorned with ornaments shining like their own good behavior, came there carrying in their hands full dishes of flowers and dūrvā-grass. Some vassal-kings filled dishes with beautiful pearls like unhusked rice and came to the King's festival. Others who were very wealthy brought collections of jeweled ornaments to Jitaśatru, like gods to Satamanyu. Some again brought priceless fine, soft cloths that seemed to be woven from plantain- or lotus-threads. Others presented the King with a heap of gold resembling treasure deposited by Jṛmbhaka-gods. Some brought many elephants in must, haughty as if they were the crown princes of the elephants of the quarters. Other kings brought horses excelling in speed, like brothers of Uccaiḥśravas, like younger brothers of the horses of the sun. The courtyard of the palace, though extensive, became impassable from gift-vehicles to the King, like the heart from negligence. The King accepted these gifts to please them. For what is lacking to one whose son is the god of gods himself? At the King's command big platforms, like palaces of the gods, were made at every step in the city. At every shop and house there were festoons with jeweled dishes, as if placed by Jyotiska-gods who had come from curiosity. On every road the ground was sprinkled with saffronwater to lay the dust, like an anointing of the earth indicating auspiciousness. At every step plays, at every step concerts, at every step sounds of musical instruments were made joyfully by the citizens. For ten days the King had the city hold a great festival, during which it was free from custom-duties, free from fines, free from entrance of soldiers, free from taxes. The name-giving festival (568-580) On an auspicious day the King instructed his ministers in regard to the name-giving festival of his son and nephew. 5 Page #91 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 66 CHAPTER TWO A pavilion was covered with curtains, thick with many folds, impenetrable by the sun's rays as if from fear of the King's command. Here and there plantain-pillars shone brightly, spreading a lotus-bed in the sky, as it were, with the flower-calyxes. Conservatories with various flowers were made, which were resorted to by Sri unweariedly, like a charmed bee. The pavilion was filled with seats characterized by down, filled with cotton, and made of wood, 109 like the sky filled with stars. The King's pavilion was made in this way instantly by his ministers, like Sakra's car by the Abhiyogika-gods. Men and women, carrying auspicious objects in their hands, went there joyfully and were seated in their proper places by the door-keepers. The ministers bestowed saffronointment, flowers, and betel 110 on them with respect, as if they were their own brothers. The best auspicious, musical instruments were played with sweet sounds ; auspicious speeches of high-born women arose on all sides. Pure recitations of charms of Brāhmans were in evidence ; and songs in vardhamānā and other meters were commenced by the musicians. The cry of “Hail ! Hail !” was made by panegyrists in tune, and the pavilion sang also, as it were, with the loud echoes of the cry. The King gave the name Ajita to his son, because "While he was in the womb, his mother was not beaten by me in gambling with dice. The King gave the pure name Sagara to his brother's son with a great festival just as in the case of his own son. The King attained unbroken bliss, as if immersed in nectar, observing the princes who were marked by hundreds of favorable marks, eager for the task of supporting the earth, like extra arms of his own. 109 572. I.e., there were 3 grades of seats. 110 575. At the present time entertainments, public and private, are concluded by passing betel and small bouquets. Instead of saffronointment a touch of attar is placed on each guest's hand. Page #92 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER III THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA Childhood of Ajita and Sagara (1-21) Lord Ajita was taken care of by five nurses 111 appointed by Śakra; Sagara, on the other hand, was taken care of by five appointed by the King. Ajita Svāmin sucked the nectar inserted in the thumb of his lotus-hand by the gods. For the Arhats do not nurse. Sagara, on the contrary, sucked the nurse's irreproachable breast at the proper time, like a forest-tree the water of a canal. The royal boys grew day by day, like two branches of a tree, like the two tusks of an elephant. In turn, or at the same time, they climbed on the King's lap, like lion-cubs a mountain-slope. Their fathers smiled at their very charming smiles, but were astonished at their strong walking. Even when held by the nurses, they did not stay on their laps. Certainly the young of a lion do not stay in a cage. Running about rapidly as they liked, they tired out their nurses running after them. Strength is a quality of the noble. The royal boys, surpassing the Vāyukumārakas 112 in speed, caught birds, pleasure-parrots, peacocks, etc. By various kinds of flattery, the nurses halted the boys in their course as they wandered at pleasure like bhadra-elephants.113 Divine little bells, tinkling, tinkling, on the boys, looked like bees on lotuses. Necklaces of gold and jewels fastened on their necks, tinkling on the breast, looked like flashes of lightning in the sky. As they played at will, dangling golden earrings gave the 111 1. I.e., one who nurses, one who gives the bath, one who adorns, one who holds, and one who plays with him. PE, sub pancadhāi. 112 9. A division of Vyantaras. See below, this chapter. 118 10. See I, n. 128, and Edgerton, pp. II-16, 48-50. Page #93 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 68 CHAPTER THREE impression of new suns reflected in water. As they moved, their waving top-knots looked like newly grown tails of young peacocks. They were passed from lap to lap by kings from curiosity, like rājahansas from lotus to lotus by large waves. The King set them on his lap, breast arms, shoulder, and head, like jeweled ornaments. Smelling their heads again and again, like a bee smelling a lotus, with spontaneous delight, the King was not satisfied. Walking at both sides of the King, clinging to his fingers, they looked like the two suns of Meru. The King meditated on them constantly with supreme joy and agreeably, like a yogi on the supreme soul and the soul. The King often looked at them, as if they were wishing-trees that had grown up in the house, and often spoke to them, as if they were parrots. With joy on the part of the King and glory to the Ikşvāku-family, they both gradually became more and more mature. Youth of Ajita and Sagara (22-56) Ajita Svāmin himself knew all the arts, law, and other things, such as grammar, etc. For the Jinas possess three kinds of knowledge naturally. On the other hand, at the King's command Sagara began to go to a teacher on an auspicious day, which was celebrated by a festival. In a few days Sagara absorbed the sciences, grammar, etc., like the ocean the waters of rivers. Without effort Saumitri (Sagara) took the wealth of rhetoric from the teacher, like a torch taking light from another torch. He made his own speech accomplish its purpose by poems, praises of passionless saints, flowers on the creepers of rhetoric, elixir for the ear. An ocean of learning and intelligence, he grasped unhesitatingly all the works of sacred authority, like deposits made by himself. Sagara defeated his opponents by unerring quotations from the doctrine of Syādvāda, 114 like Jitaśatru his enemies by arrows. He plunged into the unfathomable 114 28. See I, n. 4. Page #94 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 69 117 ocean of political science which had evil sea-monsters, filled with waves of the application of the six policies,115 of the (four) means,118 of regal power,' etc. He learned without difficulty the eight-fold Ayurveda 118 also, the torch of knowledge of the strength and effects of all herbs and essences. He acquired the science which is the source of knowledge about concerts, consisting of four kinds of musical instruments,119 four dramatic styles,120 and four modes of conveying pleasure. 121 Without instruction he knew the characteristics of elephants complete with bites, states of mada,' ,122 bodily characteristics, and medical treatment.128 He established in his heart by study and experience practices about draft-animals and the characteristics of horses and their treatment.124 He put in his heart archery and the characteristics of other weapons just from hearing them, as easily as his own name. He attained skill in fighting with the bow, sword and shield, dagger, arrow, axe, lance, javelin,125 club, kampaņa (?), staff, spear, pike, plow-share, mace, cudgel," 126 115 29. 29. See MW, şadguna; Abhi. 3. 399. See I, p. 153; Abhi. 3. 400. 117 29. Sakti. It has 3 divisions: prabhutva, excellence of treasure and army; mantra, good counsel; utsaha, energy. Abhi. 3. 399. 118 30. See I, n. 91. 119 31. See I, n. 77. 120 31. Caturvṛtti: bhārati=vāgvṛtti; sattvati-manovṛtti; ārabhaṭī kāyavṛtti; kausiki saundāryopayogi vyāpāraḥ. Nātṭyaśāstra (GOS XXXVI) 1. 41 ff. and com. 121 31. Abhinaya. See I, n. 235. 122 32. See I, n. 359, and Edgerton, pp. 32, 82-85. Cf. Agnipurāņa 286. 128 32. 124 33. Cf. Agnipurāņa 287-88. 125 35. Abhi. 3. 449. In I, n. 76, I interpreted bhindipāla as 'sling,' in accordance with its meaning in M and H. PH, with ref. to Pras and Jiv., defines it as knife' or 'dagger.' For other interpretations, see the lexicons and Meyer, p. 155, whose com. says it is 'like a kunta with a broad point.' Agnipuraṇa 251. 15 compares it with a laguḍa. 126 36. musalena ca yaşti. Meyer, p. 154, has the compound musalayaşţi (Mörserkolbenstange, Keulenstange). Shamasastry separates 116 Page #95 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 70 CHAPTER THREE pattisa,127 duḥsphoța (?), bhusaņdhi,128 sling, arrow, 129 trident, dart, and other weapons 180 in conformity with the manuals. He became filled with all the arts like the full moon with digits, and he was adorned with good qualities, reverence, etc., like ornaments. Holy Ajitanātha was served every moment by Sakra or other gods full of devotion. Some gods came and played with him as companions, eager for the sight of the varied pleasures of Ajita Svāmin. Some, from a desire to drink the nectar of his speech, made him speak by means of repeated jokes and flattering speeches. Others, longing for instruction from the Lord who was not giving instruction, gained wealth from instruction by making wagers in sportive gambling. Some became door-keepers ; some ministers; some carried his shoes, while others carried his umbrella ; some carried his betel-box; some became servants; and other gods carried his weapons, while the Lord played. the words. Their commentator defines it-or them—as 'pointed rods of khadira wood.' 127 36. PH, a kind of weapon’; PE, a kind of missile. Meyer, p. 156, a kind of three-pointed axe.' Cf. Agnipurāņa 251. 16 with Meyer's note. There it is compared with the vajra. 128 36. PH quotes bhusundhi, but defines it merely as a kind of weapon.' Not in PE. Bate defines it as 'fire-arm,' but the word does not seem to be actually in use, judging from its article in the Sabdasāgara. MW also leans to 'fire-arm. Meyer, p. 73, prefers 'sling,' rather than 'catapult,' as it is sometimes interpreted. The next word, gophana, means ' sling' (PH, H, and M) and I do not believe 'catapult' would be included in a list of weapons such as these. Fire-arm' seems more suitable here. 129 37. Both PH and PE so interpret kaņaya (deši). Meyer, p. 155, quotes a description from his com., according to which a kanaya is made entirely of metal, triangular at both ends, held in the middle. We already have one 'arrow,' if salya is so interpreted, but that might be some other pointed weapon, or kanaya might be a different variety. 180 37. See I, n. 76, and Meyer, pp. 153 ff., and Shamasastry, pp. 123 ff. I have not available the original text of the commentaries to the Arthaśāstra. See also Agnipurāna, Chap. 251 (252 Dutt). Page #96 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 71 Sagara, after studying the manuals day by day, reported to Lord Ajita, like a minister reporting his duties. Sagara, intelligent, asked the Master about doubts unexplained by the teacher, as Bharata had asked the son of Nābhi. Ajita Svāmin dispersed his doubts quickly by means of sense-, scripture, and clairvoyant-knowledge, 181 as the moon disperses darkness by its rays. Subduing it by the three controls, 182 furnished with a firm seat, making it advance, he showed him (Ajita) an elephant, even a rogue. Before him he rode horses, even wild ones, with or without a saddle, with five gaits.188 He exhibited to the Lord the shooting a doll on a wheel,134 shooting an invisible object by sound, the shooting at a target in water, the shooting a clay-ball on a wheel with arrows. He showed pādagati,185 carrying a sword and shield, having entered the shield like the moon a cloud.186 He whirled rapidly a lance, spear, and club, giving the appearance of a fiery streak of lightning, revolving in the sky. He showed him knifescience 187 with all the knife-positions, expert in all the steps, like a dancer showing a dance. From devotion to his teacher and a desire to be taught by him he showed Ajita Svāmin his skill in other weapons also. Whatever was lacking in Sagara's arts the Master taught him. For such a man has such a teacher. So both, engaged in activities according to their natures, crossed the first period of life, like travelers crossing the boundary of a village. 181 47. These 3 are innate in the Tirthankaras at birth. For knowledge,' see I, pp. 201 ff. 182 48. Voice, foot, and good. Mātangalīlā 12. 8 ff. 183 49. See I, n. 304. 134 50. Rādhāvedha. See I, n. 360. 185 51. One of the 32 fighting-postures. Agnipuräpa 251. I-4. They are not described. 136 51. This is not quite clear to me. Probably a full length shield is involved, but still the comparison is not apt. 187 53. I have not located an exposition of the churividyā. Page #97 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 72 CHAPTER THREE Personal description (57–71) Adorned with entirely symmetrical bodies 138 and with joints called 'double-mortise-collar and pin,' 189 gold-color, four hundred and fifty bows tall, their breasts marked with the śrivatsa, wearing shining fillets, they attained youth characterized by beauty of the body, like the sun and moon with rays of a high degree of beauty, autumn. They shone with hair dark and wavy like full brothers of the Yamunā's waves, and with foreheads like brothers of the moon of the eighth day. Their cheeks were like golden mirrors, and their eyes tender and soft like petals of the blue lotus. Their noses looked like bridges between the pools of their eyes, and their lips like twin fruit of the bimba.140 Their ears with beautiful whorls looked like pearl-oysters, and their necks, purified by three lines, like conchs. Their shoulders were arched like the frontal boss of an elephant, and their arms were long and fleshy like the king of serpents. Their breasts resembled slabs of Svarņaśaila, and their navels were very deep like the mind. Their waists were slender as the middle part of a thunderbolt; their thighs, straight and soft, had the shape of an elephant's trunk. Their legs were like the legs of a deer ; and their feet had straight toes like the petals of the sthalapadma.141 Charming naturally and especially so because of youth, they were dear to young women, like gardens because of spring. Sagara surpassed all mortals in beauty and also in good qualities, strength, etc., just as Vāsava surpassed all gods. Lord Ajita, on the other hand, excelled to a high degree all the Kalpadevas and all the inhabitants of the Graiveyaka- and Anuttaraheavens, and even an āhāraka-body 112 in beauty, just as Mt. Meru surpasses all mountains in size. 138 57. See I, n. 132. 139 57. See I, n. 133. 140 62. See 1, n. 80. 141 67. Hibiscus Mutabilis, a species of mallow. 112 71. See I, n. 157. Page #98 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 1 W THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 73 Their marriages (72–77) Then King Jitaśatru and Mahendra themselves talked to Lord Ajita about marriage, though he was free from passion. Because of their importunity and knowing that he had karma with pleasure as its fruit, Ajita Svāmin replied, “Very well,” to their speech. Then the King married to him hundreds of magnificent royal maidens like other embodiments of Śri who had chosen their husband. Not satisfied by his son's marriage-festival, the King married royal maidens resembling goddesses to Sagara. Lord Ajita, though unsubdued by the senses, enjoyed pleasure with his wives in order to destroy his pleasurekarma. For the cure is in accordance with the disease. Sagara amused himself with his wives in various and numerous sports in many play-grounds, like an elephant with elephant-cows. Initiation of Jitaśatru (78-100) One day, King Jitaśatru, who was disgusted with existence, and his brother said to their sons who had reached the age of eighteen lacs of pūrvas : “Sons, all our ancestors took the vow, which is fundamental for acquiring emancipation, after they had protected the earth fittingly for some lacs of purvas and had transferred it to their sons. Henceforth, this same action of others is our action. Now, princes, we two are going to take the vow, and the custom in our family is the reason for our action. Then you two will be king and heir-apparent, like us. Give your consent now to our mendicancy.” Ajita Svāmin replied : “Father, this is fitting for you. It would be fitting for me also, if karma with pleasure as its fruit were not an obstacle. A discerning man places no obstacle in the way of another taking the vow. How much less shall I hinder my esteemed father who has appointed a suitable time! Whoever wards off the fourth object of existence (mokşa) from his father, even though from devotion, has certainly arisen as his enemy in the Page #99 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 74 CHAPTER THREE guise of a son. Nevertheless, father, I beg you, let my uncle take the kingdom. For the younger brother, welltrained, is superior to the son." Sumitra replied : “I will certainly not abandon my master's feet to take the kingdom. For who would abandon much for the sake of little ? Service to the elder is more important to the wise than a kingdom, or great sovereignty, or the rank of a cakravartin, or even the state of a god." Then Ajitanātha said to him, “If you do not wish to take the kingdom, uncle, nevertheless remain here for our happiness, after becoming an ascetic in spirit.” Jitaśatru said, “Brother, consider what my son says urgently. An ascetic in spirit is an ascetic. He (Ajita) is a Tirthakara before your eyes. In his congregation your desire will be accomplished. Consider ! Do not be overeager, dear brother. Seeing one son 148 become a dharmacakrin and the other a cakravartin, you will attain happiness surpassing the happiness of all.” Though eager for the vow, Sumitra agreed to his speech. For the command of the elder is not to be crossed by the noble, like the shore by the oceans. Jitaśatru, delighted, himself crowned Ajita Svāmin with a very great festival. All the earth rejoiced at this coronation. For who is not pleased when a leader, capable of protecting everyone, has been obtained ? Ajita Svāmin established Sagara as heir-apparent, like a friend of Atanu (Kāma) establishing his second body.144 Then Holy Ajitanātha held the departure-festival of Jitaśatru fittingly with great magnificence. Jitaśatru adopted mendicancy, the mother of emancipation, in the presence of the elders of Rşabha Svāmin's congregation. Then subduing the internal enemies, 146 as well as the external ones, he maintained the vow uninjured like his kingdom. Omniscience having arisen, engaged in śaileśi 143 92. Really his nephew. 144 96. I.e., Sagara was like a second Kāma. 145 99. See I, n. 5. Page #100 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 75 meditation,146 having the eight karmas destroyed successively, he attained emancipation. Ajita's rule as king (101-120) Now, Ajitanātha, endowed with all the powers, directed the earth as easily as his own child. While he was guiding the earth, his subjects without fines, etc. kept to the path like the horses of a good charioteer. While Ajita Svāmin, thunder for the peacocks of his subjects, a wishing-tree for requests, ruled the earth, there was grinding only of grain, tying only of cattle, cutting only of jewels, beating only of drums, heating of gold only, sharpening of weapons only, the digging up of houses only, crookedness of women's brows only, striking of balls only, cleaving of only the earth of the fields, casting into wooden cages of only birds, suppression of only disease, remaining in water of only lotuses, burning of aloes only, crushing of sandal only, churning of curds only, pressing of sugar-cane only, drinking of honey only by bees,147 rising of mada 148 only in elephants, strife only in friendship, fear of censure only, greed only for groups of good qualities, and intolerance for only one's own faults. Kings honored him, considering themselves his footmen, though proud. For other gems are servants before the thought-gem. He did not employ punishment; he did not even frown. The earth was submissive to him, like a loving woman to her beloved. He absorbed the glory of the kings by his own powerful splendor, like the sun the water of pools by its rays. The earth of his palace courtyard was turned into mud daily by the mada of the elephants that were presented to the King. All the directions were trod upon, like the ground by lines of vehicles, by the King's beautifully stepping horses. No one was able to count the number of 148 100. See I, n. 8. 147 107. Honey is strictly forbidden to the Jains. 148 107. With reference also to pride.' Page #101 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 76 CHAPTER THREE infantry and chariots, which were like the waves in the ocean, in Ajita Svāmin's army. Elephant-riders, horsemen, charioteers, infantry were merely insignia of rank of the Lord abounding in strength of arm. The Lord did not take pride in unique power; he was not arrogant from unequaled strength of arm; he did not consider himself fortunate because of his beauty, though incomparable; he was not intoxicated by his extensive possessions ; he was not proud because of the other sources of pride,140 either; but, on the contrary, considered everything like straw, knowing their impermanence. Thus directing the kingdom, the Lord passed happily fifty-three lacs of pūrvas from youth. Initiation (121-288) One day, after he had dismissed the council, the Master, possessing the three kinds of knowledge, went to a secluded spot, and reflected as follows: " How long henceforth must I remain a householder, turned away from my own business because of the pleasurefruit almost consumed ? 'I must defend this country; must guard this city; preserve these villages; protect these people. These elephants must be reared; these horses fed; these servants must be maintained; these petitioners satisfied; these attendants supported; these suppliants protected; these pandits talked to; these friends entertained; these ministers must be favored; these relatives elevated; these wives made happy; and these sons cared for.' Confused by other people's business by such thoughts every moment, a human being wastes his whole human birth without fruit. Because of the business of these people, not considering what is fitting or unfitting, bewildered like an animal, he commits various evils. The people for whose sake a foolish man commits evils do not follow him at all when he goes on the road to death. If they 149 119. See I, n. 391. Page #102 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 77 remain right here, let them remain, certainly. Alas ! even this body does not follow from place to place. For the sake of this miserable ungrateful body, foolish people acquire much evil karma in vain. Alone a creature is born, alone he dies ; alone he experiences karma accumulated in another birth. The wealth which he acquired is again consumed by others together; but he, alone, is tormented in the bosom of hell because of his acts. Alone a creature subject to karma wanders again and again in this extensive forest of existence, terrible with the forest-fire of pain. Whatever pain is connected with existence, whatever happiness arises from emancipation, alone he experiences that. There is no companion. Just as one swimming across a river does it in a moment, but not if he has possessions fastened to his chest, hands, feet, etc.; just so, averse to possessions of money, body, etc., alone, he arrives safely across the ocean of existence." While the Lord was engaged in these reflections, his mind averse to existence, the Lokāntika-gods, 160 the Sārasvatas, etc., came and said to him :“O Blessed One, you are self-enlightened. Certainly you are not enlightened by us. Nevertheless, this is a reminder, Lord of the World. Found a congregation.” After saying this and bowing at Ajita Svāmin's feet, they went to Brahmaloka, like birds to their nest at evening. By their speech which conformed to his own thoughts, the Lord's disgust with existence was increased like a cloud by an east wind. Then the Teacher of the Three Worlds summoned Sagara and said, “ Take the burden of the kingdom from us because we wish to cross the ocean of existence." So addressed by Ajitanātha, Sagara, his face dark, shedding tears like a cloud rain-drops one by one, said, "Have I shown a lack of devotion to Your Majesty, 180 138. See below, this chapter. Page #103 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 78 CHAPTER THREE because of which you now give orders to separate me from you? Suppose there has been some lack of devotion, still it is not (cause) for this lack of favor. A child though failing in devotion is taught, but not deserted, by those entitled to respect. What is the use of a tree, though tall, if it gives no shade? Or of a cloud, though risen, if it has no water? Or of a mountain, though lofty, if it has no cascades ? Or of a body, though well-shaped, if devoid of beauty? Or of a blooming flower, if it has no fragrance ? What use is the kingdom to me if it is without you? I will not leave the feet of you who are free from worldly connections, free from desire, longing for emancipation, O Lord. Why speak of taking the kingdom? Kingdom, sons, wives, friends, retinue-all these are easy to abandon like straw. Your feet are difficult for me to abandon. O Lord, just as I became heir-apparent when you became king, so I shall become your disciple now when you take the vow. Begging alms is better than sovereignty to a disciple devoted to day and night service to the teacher's lotus-feet. Even though ignorant, clinging to your feet I shall cross existence. For a foolish cow-herd can cross a river by holding to a cow's tail. With you I shall take initiation; with you I shall wander; with you I shall endure trials 151 hard to endure; with you I shall endure attacks,152 O Teacher of the Three Worlds. I shall not remain here at all. Favor me." Then Ajita Svamin said to Sagara, who had agreed only to service, in a voice gushing with nectar: "Persistence in acquiring self-restraint is certainly suitable, dear brother. However, your karma which has pleasure as its fruit 151 154. Parişaha. See above, pp. 22 ff. 152 155. Upasarga. These are frequently associated with the parişahas, but arise from quite different sources. In the Uv. 119, they are said to arise from gods, men, and animals. In the Sth., one's own body is added to the sources, and each source has four subdivisions, making 16 kinds of attacks. Sthānanga 777, com., p. 523. See Hoernle, Uv. App. III, p. 47. Page #104 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 79 is not yet destroyed. When you have consumed the karma with pleasure as its fruit, as I have, you should take the vow, most efficacious for emancipation, at the right time. So, O Crown-prince, take this kingdom, yours by inheritance. We, on the other hand, shall take the empire of self-restraint.” When the Master had spoken to him in this way, he reflected to himself : “Fear of separation from the Lord and fear of breaking his command grieve me. Obedience to the elder's command is better for me considering the two possibilities, Separation from the Master is painful to me; transgression of his command is painful to me.'” After these reflections, Sagara, very intelligent, agreed in a choking voice to the Master's words. Sagara's coronation (163–177) Then the best of kings instructed his ministers at once in regard to the coronation of the noble Sagara. Water for the bath was brought from the tirthas with pitchers covered with lotuses, like pools easily produced. Instantly other objects of the coronation-paraphernalia were prepared by workers, as well as presents by kings. When kings like power embodied and ministers excelling Bịhaspati in counsel had come; when generals like Dikpālas had arrived by command, and relatives, excited from joy, had met at one time; when others, superintendents of elephants, horses, and military forces, etc., were present as if they had come simultaneously from one house; while conchs were blown, like mountain-plateaux with noisy cascades; while drums resembling clouds were beaten ; while numerous kettle-drums were beaten with drumsticks with echoes in all directions, like teachers of auspicious things; while cymbals clashed together like waves of the ocean; while gongs 153 rattled on all sides; while some other musical instruments were blown, some beaten, 153 171. A jhallari is a round, flat piece of metal which is struck with a mallet. It hangs in temples, at city-gates, etc. Page #105 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 80 CHAPTER THREE and some struck together; while musicians sang auspicious songs sweetly, and Brāhmans, bards, etc., recited blessings, Sagara's coronation was made properly by the chiefpriests at the command of Ajita Svāmin. All the kings, vassals, and ministers, bowed to Sagara, like the people to the rising sun 154 with folded hands raised to their foreheads. The chief-citizens approached, carrying choice presents, and bowed to the King like the new moon, 256 with devotion. “We have not been abandoned by the Master, since he has made this other embodiment of himself our leader,” the people said, rejoicing. Now the Blessed Lord Ajita, an ocean of compassion, began to make gifts for a year, like a cloud beginning to rain. The gods, named Tiryagjțmbhakas,166 sent by Dhanada at Vāsava's command, came there. Then they brought money which had been dropped or lost, whose owners had died, whose marks (of ownership) had been completely obliterated, whose masters had vanished, which was in mountain-caves, deposited in cemeteries, and hidden in houses. They made piles of it on the ground at the entrance and exit at triangular places, at rectangular places, at the junctions of three roads, and at the junctions of four roads. At every junction of three roads, on every road, at every junction of four roads, the Master had a proclamation made, " Take this gold.” The Lord of the World, seated from sunrise till meal-time,167 gave to everyone whatever gold he asked for. Every day the Lord of the Universe gave one crore and eight lacs of gold to petitioners. Then in one year the Lord gave three hundred and eighty-eight crores and eighty lacs of gold.168 As a 154 175. See n. 32. 155 176. See I, n. 209. 156 179. The same as Jşmbhakas, a class of gods who were servants of Kubera. 157 184. The Jain must take his evening meal before sunset. 158 186. On the basis of the sāvana year of 360 days. Cf. Thibaut, p. 7. Page #106 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 81 consequence of fate and the Master's power, the people did not become exceedingly grasping even in obtaining whatever they desired. Rich in compassion, the Lord satisfied the earth with money in this way, like a wishinggem that had unexpected power, for a year. The initiation-ceremony (188-266) At the end of the year's giving, Sakra's throne shook, and he knew by clairvoyant knowledge that it was time for the Lord's initiation. Hari went with the gods, the Sāmānikas, etc., to make the departure-festival at the time of the Blessed One's initiation. Making the sky appear to have moving pavilions with the aerial cars, and to have mountains rising up with his tall fine elephants; reaching the sky with horses, like the ocean with waves; touching the chariot of the sun with chariots with unstumbling gait ; making tilakas on the sky with flags carrying wreaths of bells and imitating the ear-flaps of the sky-elephants; being serenaded by some gods in a charming way in the gandhāra-scale; 159 being praised by some with new poems; being instructed by some who had the borders of their garments placed over their mouths; being reminded by some of the ancient stories about the Tirthakṛts, Divaspati went in a moment from heaven to the city Vinita, considering it exceedingly purified by the Master's feet. The other Indras of the gods and asuras went likewise, knowing by the shaking of their thrones that it was time for the Lord's initiation. Then the Indras of the gods, Acyuta and others, and the Indras of men, Sagara and others, made in turn the initiation-bath of the Lord. Śakra rubbed his body which was wet with the bath-water with a devaduṣyacloth, like a chief-jeweler rubbing a jewel. Vajrapāņi rubbed the Teacher of the World with shining ointments with his own hand, like an appointed perfumer. Vasava, 159 194. See I, n. 79. 6 Page #107 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 82 CHAPTER THREE having a wealth of knowledge derived from memory, at once put spotless garments of devadūşya-cloth on the Lord of the World. Hari had the Lord take a crown, ear-rings, necklace, armlets, bracelets, and other ornaments. His hair supplied with divine wreaths of flowers; shining with a tilaka like a third eye in his forehead; auspiciousness being introduced by songs by women of the gods, asuras, and mortals in a sweet manner with various languages; being praised by the gods, asuras, and kings like bards; with a wealth of incense made by Vyantaras carrying golden incense-jars ; adorned with a large white umbrella with yellow barleria, like Mt. Hima with a pool on its peak; fanned by gods with beautiful chauris on both sides; supported by Bidaujas like a respectful door-keeper; followed by King Sagara, confused by joy and sorrow, like a favorable wind, shedding tears; purifying completely the earth by his feet resembling the mallow, the Lord got into the palanquin, Suprabhā, which required a thousand men to carry it. The palanquin, giving 180 the impression of a car of a planet in the sky, was lifted in front by men and Vidyādharas; and in the rear by gods. The Master's palanquin, carried by them, advancing with an unstumbling gait in the sky, looked like a boat on the ocean. The Lord of the World seated on it on a lion-throne was fanned by both the Indras of Saudharma and Iśāna. The Lord of the World set out by the center road of Vinitā, eager to take initiation, like a bridegroom the hand of the bride. The bearers of the palanquin looked like moving wishingtrees, as they advanced, their ear-ornaments dangling, their necklaces shaking, the edges of their garments fluttering. The citizens—some, though their wives were always stumbling; some, though their necklaces were breaking by striking against their chests; some, though their upper garments were slipping from their shoulders; others, though 160 210. See below, this chapter. Page #108 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 83 their doors and courtyards were left empty; some, even though guests announced from a foreign country had arrived; others, though the birth-festival of a son had just started; others, though an auspicious time for marriage was present just then ; and others, though the paraphernalia for a bath had been brought; some, who had taken the sip of water, 101 though the meal was half eaten; others, though their anointing, which had been undertaken at the right time, was half applied; others, though their ornaments, ear-rings, etc., were only half put on; others, though the news of the Master's departure-festival was only half heard; some, the wreath of flowers being only half tied in the braid of hair; others, the tilaka being half made on the forehead; some, their household-orders only half spoken; others, the daily ceremonies only half performed going on foot, though conveyances were near at hand, purified by devotion, came to see the Master. ...Now in front, now behind, now at both sides of the Lord of the World the citizens stood, like young elephants around an elephant. Some climbed on top of shops, some on cottages, some on palace-roofs, and others on the tops of platforms; some scaled the copings of walls, some climbed to the tops of trees, and others to the backs of tall elephants from a desire to see the Master. The townswomen, delighted, waved the ends of their garments with the appearance of chauris--some of them; others threw parched rice on the ground like seed of dharma. Some lifted up the seven-branched fire-vessel like a fire; others set full dishes like (heaped-up) glory before the Lord. Some placed full pitchers like depositories of blessings; others waved cloths like twilight-clouds in the sky. Some sang auspicious songs, and some danced, and others laughed charmingly. The sky was covered by devoted Vidyādharas, gods, 101 219. Ācamana is a little cold water sipped after eating and rinsing the hands and mouth. Page #109 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER THREE and asuras, moving to and fro like flocks of Garudas. Numerous troops of actors belonging to the sixty-four Indras performed plays before the Master, considering themselves fortunate. Bands of musicians belonging to the Bidaujases gave concerts, exerting themselves and being delighted at the same time. Here and there actors, followers of Sagara, gave plays with various rôles in rivalry with the gods. The royal women-musicians, the ornament of Ayodhyā, gave shows capturing the gaze of every eye. Then the space between heaven and earth was filled with the loud noise of the tumult of the plays and concerts given by gods and mortals. The ground was covered with gravel from the broken and crushed necklaces of the numerous kings, vassals, and rich men advancing. The highways were muddy with mada of the best rutting elephants, divine and earthly. The three worlds looked like one world with one over-lordship from all the gods, asuras, and men who had come together in the presence of the Master. The Lord of the World, exceedingly courteous because of the courtesy of the people, accepted blessings at every step, though indifferent. The Teacher of the World favored gods and men coming there together with a glance equally gracious. Thus a great festival being celebrated by gods and asuras, the Lord went gradually to the garden named Sahasrāmravaņa. The Blessed One, Lord Ajita, entered the garden hedged in on all sides by ketakī-trees close together, with spaces difficult to penetrate for the swarms of bees intoxicated by the fragrance of flowers; with the space between trees and creepers cleaned by the townboys, wishing to play, like slaves of rich men; the strong pregnancy-whim of its trees, the kurubaka, aśoka, bakula, etc., being fulfilled often by the townswomen fond of sport; 162 the sweet water of its channels being sipped I.e., they kicked or kissed these trees, which made them 162 245. blossom. Page #110 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 85 eagerly by Vidyādharakumāras like travelers who had halted; a home being often made for sport in its lofty trees by Khecara-couples like pairs of birds; its ground sandy all over from the arka and kuśa with ankle-deep pollen like divine powdered camphor and musk; the waterbasin at the root of the räjädana, orange, and citron trees being filled with milk by the gardeners; with large garlands of flowers commenced by flower-girls competing with each other in the twining of various wreaths; with people lying, sitting, and eating on adequate plantain leaves 168 from inclination, though there were divine couches, seats, and utensils; its ground kissed by numerous trees whose whole tops were hanging down and bent by the weight of their abundant fruit; with cuckoos intoxicated by eating mango-shoots; filled with noise by parrots excited by eating pomegranates; and with unbroken shade from the dense trees like rain-clouds. Then the Teacher of the World descended from the jewel of a palanquin to cross existence himself, like a charioteer from a chariot to cross a river. After that, he took off his jewels, ornaments, etc., wishing to put on the three jewels 164 which are won with difficulty even by the gods. The Lord of the World received a spotless devadūșya-cloth brought by Sakra together with equipment to indicate dharma.266 Observing a two days' fast, on the ninth day of the bright half of Māgha, when the moon was in conjunction with the constellation Rohiņi, under a saptacchada tree in the evening Ajita Svāmin himself plucked out his hair entirely in five handfuls, as well as love, etc.166 The Lord of Saudharma received it in the end of his upper garment like an attendant receiving a magnificent object given from favor. Sahasrākşa himself threw the Master's hair in the Ocean of Milk, like a sea 163 251. These leaves are very large and are still used for plates. 164 256. See I, pp. 201 ff. 257. A sādhu's paraphernalia. 166 259. Hate and delusion. Page #111 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 86 faring merchant a pūjā. Returning quickly, Hari restrained the tumult of gods, asuras, and men by a gesture of his hand, as if remembering a charm for silence. After he had made the namaskāra to the siddhas,167 pronouncing the sāmāyika,168 the Lord ascended rightconduct, a great chariot on the road to emancipation. Just then the Lord's fourth knowledge, mind-reading knowledge (manahparyaya),169 came into existence like a twin-brother of initiation. Then there was a moment of happiness even for hell-inhabitants, and in the three worlds there was a light like a flash of lightning. One thousand kings took initiation after the Lord. For that is suitable for those who have vowed to follow the Master. After they had circumambulated and bowed to the Lord of the World, the Indras, Acyuta and others, began a hymn of praise as follows: Stuti (268-275) Just as formerly you attained disgust with existence by regard for severe discipline, so in this birth its suitability came from birth. Just as disgust with existence is not conspicuous among causes of pain, so it is among the causes of bliss for you skilled in means of obtaining emancipation. Just as you have sharpened the weapon of disgust with existence on the whet-stone of discernment, so it manifestly has made a sharp attack on emancipation. When the Śri of gods and kings, which is called 'pleasure,' is enjoyed by you, O Lord, even then you have disgust with existence. Always disgusted with existence, when you attain union with the objects of love, thinking' Enough of these,' then you have strong disgust with existence. When you are master of indifference to pleasure, pain, existence, emancipation, then there is certainly disgust with existence. When are you not disgusted with existence? 66 CHAPTER THREE 167 263. See I, n. 71. 168 263. See I, n. 329. 169 264. See I, pp. 166, 201 ff. Page #112 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 87 Others are devoted to disgust with existence filled with pain, filled with delusion, but in you disgust with existence filled with knowledge has become the only object on which your thoughts are fixed. Homage to you, constantly bestowing benefits even in indifference, devoted to disgust with existence, protector, supreme spirit.” After this hymn of praise to the Teacher of the World and after they had paid homage, the masters of the gods (Indras) and the gods went to the continent Nandīśvara. There Sakra, etc., made an eight-day festival like the birth-festival, to the eternal images of the Arhats on the mountains, Añjana and other mountains. Saying, “When shall we see the Lord again ? ” the lords of the gods and the gods went to their respective abodes. Stuti (280-287) King Sagara bowed to the Supreme Lord, his hands folded in submission, and in a choking voice began a hymn of praise : “O Blessed One, Ajita Svāmin, be victorious, Teacher of the World, sun for the blooming of a multitude of lotuses in the three worlds. O Lord, you are adorned with four kinds of unlimited knowledge-sense-, scripture-, clairvoyant-, and mind-reading knowledge, like the earth with four large oceans.170 You are able to uproot karma easily, and these followers of yours will show the path to the people. O Blessed One, you are another soul of all creatures, I think. How can you strive for their peerless bliss, otherwise ? Abandoning the passions like dirt, immersed in the water of compassion, you alone have a purified soul, free from stain, like a lotus-leaf. Even while you were king, for you devoted to the law there was no friend and no foe. This impartiality of yours now is suitable. What is to be said ? I surmise, O 170 281. I.e., the one ocean considered as four oceans in the four directions. Page #113 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 88 Blessed One, that your bestowal of gifts for a year was indeed a prelude to the excellent play of the gift of fearlessness to the three worlds. Those districts, villages, cities, and towns through which you wander like the wind from Malaya, favoring them, are fortunate." After he had praised the Master thus, the King bowed with devotion and went slowly, slowly to his own city, his eyes wet with tears. CHAPTER THREE The Lord's fast-breaking (289-302) On the next day the Master broke his two days' fast with rice pudding 1" at the house of King Brahmadatta. The gods rained a stream of treasure consisting of twelve and a half crores of gold into the courtyard of King Brahmadatta's house. With upraised arms the gods waved in the air the ends of their garments which stole the beauty of the shoots of vines rocked by the wind. Also the drum, beaten by the joyful gods, sounded in the sky with the deep sound of the murmur of the ocean breaking on the shore. The gods made a shower of perfumed rain resembling perspiration of the Master's glories wandering about. The chief-gods showered five-colored flowers followed on all sides by bees like friends. Oh, the gift! Oh, the gift! This is an excellent gift, for by its power the giver has unequaled power instantly. He attains emancipation, sometimes in this very same birth, or sometimes in the third, being born in the heavens or in the kalpatitas 172 in the second birth." So the gods with joyful hearts made a loud tumult in the sky accompanied by cries of "Hail! Hail!" 66 The persons who saw the Lord receive alms became 171 289. Paramanna. This is follows: The milk is boiled first and sugar are cooked in the milk. similar, are used for flavoring. 172 296. I.e., the Graiveyakas and Anuttaras. See below, this chapter. 'Second' is next, according to Indian counting. prepared at the present time as until reduced to half. The rice Sometimes almonds, or something Page #114 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 89 THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA free from disease, like gods physically. When the Blessed One had broken his fast, he left the house of King Brahmadatta, like an elephant leaving a pool after drinking. Thinking "No one must step on the footprints," King Brahmadatta had a platform of jewels made over the Lord's footprints. King Brahmadatta made a pūjā three times a day with flowers, etc., to the platform, considering the Jinesvara present there. If this platform had not been worshipped with ointment, flowers, etc., he did not eat, like a servant, 178 the master not having eaten. The Lord's wandering (303-333) The Blessed One wandered over the earth with unhindered progress like the wind, with carefulness in walking unbroken. Presented here with rice pudding and other things free from life; 174 there his lotus-feet anointed with pleasant ointments; awaited here by laymen's sons paying homage; followed there by people unsatisfied in looking at him; with auspicious waving of garments made by the people in some places; at other places given a receptiongift of curds, durvā-grass, unhusked rice, etc.; here urged by the people to permit them to lead him to their own homes; there his progress impeded by people falling on the ground; sometimes his lotus-feet wiped by the laymen with their hair; sometimes begged for instruction by the simple-minded people; free from possessions, free from selfinterest, indifferent to the world, the Master wandered over the earth, turning villages and cities into sacred places from association with himself. Lord Ajita wandered at will, his mind unshakenjust as it was in the villages and cities-on big mountains and in big forests terrifying from the hootings of owls, with jackals giving loud howls, cruel from the hissing of serpents, with cats excited and yowling, formidable with 178 302. Attavela (?). See App. I. 174 304. Prasuka. I.e., fit for monks. See I, n. 17. For prāsuka, see Pravac. 881, p. 255b. Page #115 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 90 howling wolves living very cruelly on deer, echoing with varieties of cries of tiger-families, with screams of crows flying from trees split by huge elephants, with rocks and ground burst open by blows from a multitude of lions' tails, with paths filled with bones of large elephants crushed by sarabhas, echoing with the sounds from the bows of Sabaras engaged in hunting, with Bhilla-boys occupied in seizing bears' ears, and with fires starting from tree-tops rubbing together. CHAPTER THREE The Lord, naturally resolute, practiced kayotsarga with ease, sometimes, motionless as another peak on a mountain-top, resembling a conquered person gazing at the ground only; sometimes on the bank of a great river like a tree with joints broken by troops of leaping monkeys; sometimes in a cemetery filled with formidable Vetālas, Pisacas, and ghosts at play, with pollen of flowers blown about by the wind; and in other places more terrifying than the Raudras.175 Sometimes the Blessed One, Lord Ajita, observed a one day's fast, sometimes a two days' fast, or three or four days' fast; at one time a fast of five days, at other times fasts of six, seven, or eight days; sometimes a fast of one month, of two, three, four, five, six, seven, up to eight months, while he was wandering in the Aryan countries, his powers undiminished. Even in the hot season when the heat of the sun was burning his forehead, indifferent to the body, he did not desire even the shade of a tree. In the winter season when the trees were filled with a load of falling snow, the Lord did not desire a fire, like a person with burning bile. The Lord was not disturbed by the torrents, made powerful by strong winds, from the clouds, like a river-ranging elephant.176 He endured also other trials hard to endure, enduring all like the earth, a tilaka (himself) on the earth. 175 319. A class of evil spirits. 176 326. Cf. ML 1. 29 and Edgerton, 4n, 49-50. Page #116 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 91 The Lord spent twelve years enduring trials with severe and manifold penances and with numerous vows.177 The Master, never settled like a rhinoceros, 178 solitary as the horn of a rhinoceros, 179 motionless as Sumeru, fearless as a lion, unrestrained as the wind, his gaze fixed on one object like that of a serpent, his luster being increased from penance like gold from fire; surrounded by the three controls like a choice tree by hedges; observing the five kinds of carefulness, like Dhanvin (Love) carrying five arrows in his hand; meditating on the fourfold meditation ---the teaching of the Jinas, the difficulties arising from love, hate, and delusion, the results of karma, and the form of the universe, 180' having a form himself worthy to be meditated on 181 wandering in villages, cities, and forests, the Lord gradually approached the grove Sahasrāmravana. The Lord's omniscience (334-354) The Lord stood in pratimā 182 under a saptacchada 188 tree that served as an umbrella, motionless as its trunk. Then the Lord went from the guṇasthāna named 'apramattasamyata' 184 to the eighth guṇasthāna named 177 328. Abhigraha. See I, n. 102. 178 329. Hemacandra's observations in regard to natural history are usually very accurate, but anāsína seems inapt. The rhinoceros, in captivity at least, does lie down and rest. Anāsina must refer to its wandering about and not settling down in one place, 179 329. Cf. khagga, Pali Text Society lexicon, for comparison of a Pratyekabuddha with a rhinoceros-horn. In the older works the comparison is incorrectly interpreted as being with the rhinoceros itself. 180 332. The four divisions of dharmadhyāna. See below, this chapter. 181 332. I.e., as a Tirthankara. See I, n. 409. 182 334. See I, n. 81. 188 334. Alstonia Scholaris. 184 335. The seventh, free from negligences and with self-control.' For gunasthānas, see I, App. III. Page #117 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER THREE apūrvakarana.' 186 Then wandering from interpretation of scripture to text and from text to interpretation, he went to the first pure meditation, nānātvaśrutavicāra.186 Then the Lord ascended to the ninth gunasthāna, named 'anivịttibādara,' 187 making no distinction in thought-activity. Then, by diminishing the passion greed, he went to the tenth guṇasthāna, named 'sükşmasamparāya.' 188 Possessing infinite power, able to destroy all the karma of the three worlds, from the destruction of delusion he arrived at the (twelfth) guṇasthāna,' kşīņamoha.' 189 At the last moment of the twelfth gunasthāna the Lord reached the second pure meditation, 'ekatvaśruta.' 190 By that meditation the Lord of the World reduced his mind containing the sense-objects of the three worlds, like reducing poison of a snake-bite which had penetrated the whole body like a charm. Just as a fire burns up and goes out when most of the fuel has been taken away and a little left, in the same way his mind became extinct. Then the Jina's fire of meditation blazing up, the destructive karmas 101 melted away completely like snow. On the eleventh of the bright half of Pauşa, when the moon was over Rohiņi and the Master was engaged in a two days' fast, his brilliant omniscience arose. The Lord of the World saw the sense 185 335. The Gunasthāna. 37, explains the name as arising from the attainment of unprecedented purity of soul. Karana is 'thought-activity.' 186 336. Meditation on different aspects of substance,' in which śrutajñāna' is employed and in which there is passing from one word, object, or activity to another (vicāra or vicāra). See I, n. 8. 187 337. Or anivịttibādarasamparāya. At this stage the three grosser forms of all the passions are suppressed, but fine greed remains. See App. I. 188 338. Destruction of fine passion. 189 339. As he is on the ksapakaśreni, he does not experience the eleventh. 190 340. Ekatvašrutāvicāra (the more complete form) is meditation on one modification only of substance. There is no vicāra. Srutajñāna is employed. See I, n. 8. 191 343. Ghātikarma. See I, n. 103 and App. II. Page #118 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 93 objects of the three periods of time and the thoughts present in the three worlds, as if they had come to the hollow of his hand. As soon as the Master's omniscience had arisen, the Lord of Saudharma's lion-throne shook, as if from fear of disrespect to the Master. To find out the reason for the shaking, Maghavan employed clairvoyance, as one who wishes to find out the depth of water in a pond uses a rope. By clairvoyance Vāsava saw “The Master's omniscience has arisen," as one sees an object by lamplight. Purandara abandoned his jeweled lion-throne and jeweled slippers. The fear of disrespect is very strong in the noble. Hari took seven or eight steps in the direction of the Arhat, like a pupil who has finished his studies and is admitted within the guru's jurisdiction.182 Bending his left knee a little, touching the ground with his right knee, hands, and head, Adribhid bowed. Rising and stepping back, Balasādana again adorned the lion-throne, like a lion a high mountain. Puruhūta and the other gods who had been summoned went instantly to the Lord of Jinas with great splendor as well as devotion. All the other Indras knew from the shaking of their thrones that the Master had attained omniscience and went to the Jina's presence as if in rivalry (in speed). Building of the samavasaraṇa 198 (355-370) For the space of a yojana the Vāyukumāra-gods removed gravel, etc., since they are the superintendents in this matter. The Meghakumāra-gods showered perfumed rain resembling an autumn-rain, just enough to lay the dust, in this space. The gods paved the surface of the ground very attractively, like the interior of a shrine, with gold and jeweled slabs. The Śris of the seasons, like winds of the dawn, rained blooming five-colored flowers 192 350. See I, n. 383. 198 For a detailed description of a samavasaraña, see the Samavasaraṇastavana, IA 40, pp. 125 ff., 153 ff. . Page #119 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 94 CHAPTER THREE knee-deep. After they had made a jeweled dais in the center, the Bhavanapatis made around it a low wall 184 of silver with a coping of gold. The Jyotişkas made a second wall of gold with a coping of jewels like their own brilliance condensed. The Vaimānika-gods made the upper wall of jewels with a coping of rubies. In each wall there were four beautiful doors, just as in the wall around Jambūdvipa, abodes for the relaxation of the mind. At every door there were ornamental arches with leaves of emerald resembling beautiful rows of parrots flying in the sky. On the two sides of the arches were set pitchers with lotuses in their mouths like cakravākas on the two sides of a river at evening. At every door there was a tank full of golden lotuses like an auspicious pitcher 105 filled with clear, sweet water. At each door golden incense-jars were placed by the gods, increasing the size of the emerald arches, as it were, by the smoke from the incense. 106 Inside the middle wall in the northeast direction the gods made a dais for the Master's rest. In the ground inside the third wall the Vyantaras set a caitya-tree, one gavyūti and fourteen hundred bows high, 187 Then the Vyantara-gods made a lion-throne, a dais, 198 two chauris, and three shining umbrellas. In this manner 194 361. This is the outer wall. One would expect it to be made last. Cf. I, pp. 190 ff. 195 365. Probably referring to the pitcher of the 8 auspicious things. See I, n. 153. 196 366. For the comparison of smoke with an emerald, cf. I, n. 213 197 368. Gavyūti can mean either I kos or 2 kos. Hem. himself, Abhi. 3. 551, gives 2000 bows as equal to I gavyūta (oti) or I kos. This is the usual Jain mensuration. But it is also used as equivalent to 2 kos. Hem. so uses it in Abhi. 1. 60. According to the Samavasarañastavana, IA 40, p. 130, the caitya-tree should be 12 times the height of the Arhat. Ajita was 450 bows tall, so 5400 bows was the correct height for the caitya-tree. 198 369. I.e., the lion-throne was on the dais, and the dais itself was on a platform not mentioned here. Cf. I, pp. 190 ff. Page #120 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 95 the samavasaraħa was made by the gods, the sole refuge for one frightened by existence, the destroyer of all calamities. Then attended on all sides by the gods to the number of a crore crying “Hail ! Hail !” like bards, the Lord of the World, setting his lotus-feet in turn on nine golden lotuses moved forward by the gods, entered the east door and circumambulated the caitya-tree. For a prescribed ceremony must not be disregarded even by the great. After he had paid homage to the congregation with the speech “Homage to the congregation," the Lord seated himself on the lion-throne, facing the east. At once the Vyantaras created images of the Master in the other directions. For they are superintendents of the remaining tasks. These copies of the Master's form were (made) by his power. For they themselves (the Vyantaras) are not able to make such images of the Master. Behind him a halo, in front of him a dharmacakra and sakradhvaja, 199 and the sound of the drum in the sky appeared at once. The monks, nuns, and the Vaimānika-women entered by the east door, circumambulated the Lord of the Three Worlds three times and bowed to him. The monks sat down in the southeast quarter, and the Vaimānika-women and nuns stood behind them. The Bhavanesa-, Jyotiska-, and Vyantara-women came by the south door, circumambulated the Lord, and stood in succession in the southwest. The Bhavaneśas, Jyotişkas, and Vyantaras came by the west door, bowed to the Lord together with circumambulation, and sat in succession in the northwest. The Vaimānikas 200 with the Indras entered by the north door, bowed to the Lord with circumambulation, and sat down in succession in the northwest. 199 377. I.e., an indradhvaja. See I, n. 154. 200 381. This makes only 10 groups-men and women being omitted. They belong with the Vaimānikas. All accounts do not agree on which ones sat and which stood. Cf. IA, ref. in n. 193. Page #121 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 96 CHAPTER THREE Stuti (384-398) Śakra bowed again to the Lord, his hands folded submissively, the hair on his body erect from devotion, and began a hymn of praise as follows: "O Lord, you delight the people, kind to all, because of friendliness to all arising from Tirthakṛtnāmakarma.201 Animals, men, and gods by the crore with their retinues are accommodated in the preaching-hall which is a yojana in size. Your speech, bestowing enlightenment in regard to dharma, though in only one form, is delightful by transformation into each of their dialects. In more than one hundred yojanas 202 clouds of disease that have risen formerly are quickly dispersed by the wind-waves of your wandering. Plagues of the seasons-mice, grasshoppers, parrots-disappear from the earth at once like injustice dismissed by the king. The fire of enmity arising on account of women, fields, villages, etc., becomes extinct on the surface of the earth as if from rain of the Puşkarävartaclouds 203 of your compassion. Pestilences, the enemies of the world, do not exist while your power is wandering on earth, a drum for the destruction of misfortune, O Lord. While you, alone devoted to all, are raining love on the people, there can be neither an excess of rain nor a drought, causing distress. Cruel attacks from one's own country and from another country disappear quickly because of your power, like elephants at the roar of a lion. Famine is destroyed while you, endowed with all miraculous powers, a living kalpa-tree, wander on earth. A great light, surpassing the sun, is collected at the back of your head, as if with the idea' May it be easy to see his body.' 204 To whom does not the power of the sovereignty of 201 384. See I, App. II. 202 387. The extent of immunity is 125 yojanas, according to Abhi. 1. 60. 203 389. See I, n. 211. 204 394. These are the II supernatural powers arising from the destruction of karma. See I, n. II. Page #122 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 97 Yoga, known to all, arising from the destruction of karma, cause amazement! No one but you roots up completely by the roots the grass of karma, though accumulated through endless time, though endless. You have employed such a method with repetition of action that even without desire you have attained the highest glory of the undertaking. Reverence to you, a pure vessel of friendship, possessing the fragrance of joy, to be venerated because of your compassion and indifference, whose soul is Yoga." Sagara goes to the samavasarana (399-417) Now the keepers of the garden (Sahasrāmravaņa) went and reported to Cakrin Sagara that the Lord of Jinas, Lord Ajita, was at the samavasaraṇa. The Cakravartin was not so delighted at the cakra's appearance as at the news of the Lord's samavasaraña. Delighted, the King gave them twelve and a half crores of gold as a present. Then after he had bathed and had made the propitiatory rites of the tilaka and auspicious things,205 possessing a noble form and wearing jeweled ornaments like Indra, his shoulder-necklace made firm, twirling an elephant-goad in his hand, Sagara obtained a choice elephant and mounted in front. The King looked like a sun half-risen, his figure concealed up to the waist by the elephant's high frontal boss. The soldiers came at the sounds of the conch, drum, etc., streaming forth in the sky, like the gods at the proclamations by the bells, Sughoṣā, etc. The Cakrabhrt, accompanied by thousands of crowned kings, looked as if he had many vaikriya-forms.206 The chief of kings with a light umbrella over his head looked like a whirlpool of the sky-Gangā. With the chauris at his sides moving together Sagara looked like Mt. Meru with two moons.207 205 402. See I, n. 293. 208 406. The body that can be changed at will. See I, n. 157. 207 408. See below, this chapter. Page #123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 98 CHAPTER THREE Covering the ground completely with horses with trappings of gold like birds with golden wings; with chariots with tall flag-staffs like boats with masts; with choice elephants with trickling mada like mountains with cascades; with infantry with weapons raised like waves of the ocean with serpents, the King soon reached the vicinity of Sahasrāmravaṇa. 208 King Sagara descended from the elephant, like a muni from conceit, at the golden mounting-block at the garden-gate. Sagara left his umbrella, chauris, and also other insignia of royalty. For that is the procedure of the reverent. From reverence he did not put on his shoes, and disregarded the arm offered by the door-keeper. Then King Sagara went on foot with crowds of men and women of the town to the samavasaraṇa. The King entered the samavasaraṇa by the north door, like the sun the division of the sky in the sign of Capricorn.20 209 After he had circumambulated the Teacher of the World three times and bowed to him, Sagara began a hymn of praise in a voice sweet as nectar: Stuti (418-432) The cakra 210 shines in front of you, a sun at the meridian for people with wrong-belief, imperishable collyrium 211 for keen-sighted people with right-belief, a tilaka of the Laksmi of Tirthakṛts. Jambhavidvis has raised a finger to say, 'He alone is master in the world,' in the guise of a lofty indradhvaja. Wherever your feet take a step, there the gods and asuras scatter Śri dwelling on a lotus in the guise of lotuses. You became four "" 208 410. Perhaps an allusion to the Veladharin-gods, who are a division of the Nagakumāras. 209 416. When it begins the journey north of the equator. See I, n. 345. 210 418. 211 418. to the eye. The dharmacakra. Collyrium is considered beneficial as well as beautifying Cf. Penzer, I, pp. 211 ff. Page #124 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 99 faced, I think, in order to describe simultaneously the fourfold dharma: liberality, good conduct, penance, and state of mind.212 The three classes of gods 218 have made the three walls (the samavasaraṇa), as you have begun to protect the three worlds from the three faults.214 Thorns have their points turned down while you wander over the earth. Does darkness face the sun ? The hair on your head and body, your nails, and beard do not grow. This external power of Yoga has not been attained by other founders of congregations.216 The five spheres of the senses, called 'sound, form, flavor, tangibility, and odor,' do not become contrary in your presence, like dialecticians. All the seasons approach your feet simultaneously as if from fear of inopportune assistance to Kandarpa. The gods worship the earth, because of the touch of your feet, with a fragrant shower and a heap of divine flowers. Even the birds circumambulate 216 you, O you who are revered by the world. What is the fate of the great who are ill-behaved 317 to you? How could there be evil conduct of five-sensed creatures in your presence, when the wind, though one-sensed, lays aside unpleasantness? The trees bow to you with their crowns, astonished at your great power. Their tops have their purpose accomplished, but the heads of people with wrong-belief have not. A minimum of a crore of gods and asuras serves you. For there is no sloth in a matter provided with an abundance of good fortune." 218 212 421. See I, pp. 18 ff. 218 422. Bhavanavāsins, Jyotiskas, and Vaimānikas. 214 422. Love, hate, and delusion. 216 424. This must refer to non-Jains. All Jain Tīrthankaras had these characteristics. 216 428. I.e., keep the right side toward. 217 428. I.e., keep the left side toward. 218 431. These are some of the 19 divine atiśayas.' See I, n. II. In that note the ninth of the divine atisayas,' the caitya-tree, was omitted. Page #125 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 100 CHAPTER THREE After he had praised the Blessed One this way, he withdrew with a respectful step, and he and the crowd of men and women stood behind Maghavan. So the fourfold congregation remained on the ground within the upper wall of the samavasaraṇa from devotion, as if engaged in meditation Animals, groups of serpents, etc., were within the middle wall like friends of each other, their hostility abandoned. Within the third wall were the riding-animals of the gods, asuras, and humans who had come to attend the Master. Then the Blessed Ajita Svāmin began a sermon with speech extending a yojana, and conforming to every dialect. Sermon on dharmadhyāna (437–810) “ This samsāra devoid of merit is considered to have merit, just as glass is considered to be cat's-eye, by the simple-minded, alas! Samsāra grows from creatures' manifold karma which is produced every instant, like a tree from pregnancy whims. By the non-existence of karma the non-existence of samsāra logically arises. Therefore, every intelligent person must always strive for the destruction of karma. The destruction of karma is from good meditation, and that meditation is four-fold : on ājñā, apāya, vipāka, and saṁsthāna.219 Ājñā is the teaching of the Arhats, and it is established as two-fold ; of these the first is āgama and the second hetuvāda. Agama 220 is that which gives knowledge from the words only of the categories. Hetuvāda is named from conformity with another authority.221 There is equal authority of these two from agreement because of the characterization of ' authority' as 'originating from a source free from any fault.' The faults-love, hate, delusion-do not exist in 219 440. These are the divisions of dharmadhyāna. See I, n. 8. 220 442. I.e., the canon of scriptures. 221 442. I.e., when a statement in a else, such as a reference to a book on medicine, that constitutes hetuvāda. See I, 7. 8. Page #126 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA INI an Arhat. The speech of the Arhats is authority originating from a faultless source, perfect with its aspects 222 and means of acquiring knowledge,228 unobstructed by priority and posteriority, not to be refuted by other doctrines even though very powerful, the ocean to the rivers of the many divisions--Angas, Upāngas, Prakirņas, etc.,224 adorned with the Sri of sovereignty over subjects in the form of many supernatural powers, very difficult to grasp by those who are not fit for emancipation, and very easy to grasp by those capable of emancipation; to be highly praised constantly by men and gods because of the Angas. When one has resorted to this ājñā and with the addition of the law of Syādvāda has firm faith in objects as perishable and imperishable in accordance with substance and modification and as having a real form in reference to their own form and having an unreal form in reference to other forms, 225 that meditation is called ājñāvicaya. There are difficulties (apāya) by the thousand of those by whom the path of the Jinas is untouched, to whom the Supreme Lord is unknown, and by whom the future is unconsidered. What impure acts have not been committed by the soul subjected to the intense darkness of deceit and delusion? Or what calamity has not been experienced ? Whatever pain I suffered among hell-inhabitants, animals, and humans, 220 this is negligence of myself alone, 228 445. Naya. See T. 1. 34 ff. and Jhaveri, P.J.P., pp. 49 ff. 228 445. Pramāpa. There are 2 kinds of pramāņa in this sense: paroksa, indirect, i.e., it depends on other things, and pratyakşa, direct. This kind of pramāņa consists of the 5 kinds of knowledge. Mati and śruta are parokşa; avadhi, manaḥparyāya, and kevala are pratyakşa. See T. 1. 10 ff. 224 446. Chedasūtras, Sūtras, and Mülasūtras constitute the 'etc.' See I, n. 250. 226 449. The illustration given me was that a pot was real as a pot, unreal as a piece of cloth. 226 452. In these forms. Page #127 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 102 CHAPTER THREE ignorant. Even after attaining the highest knowledge, I myself have made a fire burn on my head by evil deeds arising from activities of mind, speech, and body. Even though the path to emancipation has been at your disposal, alas! O soul, by you alone I myself have been made to fall into calamities by searching for wrong paths. Just as a fool goes begging alms even when a good government has been obtained; so, even though emancipation was at your disposal, you have wandered about for worldly existence. That is regarded as "apāyavicaya-meditation' in which one reflects thus on calamities arising from love, hate, and delusion. The fruit of karma is called 'vipāka,' and it is good and bad. It is experienced in many aspects through the totality of substance, space, etc. Among these good (fruit) is experienced from enjoyment of substance, such as women, wreaths, food, etc.; bad is experienced from snakes, weapons, fire, poison, etc. Good is experienced from living in space, such as a palace, heavenly palace, garden, etc.; but bad from living in a cemetery, jungle, forest, etc. Good is experienced from enjoyment in time neither hot nor cold, spring, etc.; bad from wandering in the heat and cold, summer and winter, etc. There would be good fruit in a state of mind such as tranquillity of mind, contentment, etc.; there would be bad in a state of mind such as anger, conceit, cruelty, etc. It would be good in a birth as a good divinity, in a human birth in the Bhogabhūmis, etc. ; 227 but bad in a birth as an inferior human, animal, hell-inhabitant, etc. 227 462. The bhogabhūmis, or akarmabhūmis, are 30, namely, Haimatavarşa, Harivarsa, Devakuru(s), Uttarakuru(s), Ramyakavarsa, and Hairanyavatavarsa in Jambūdvípa, Dhātakikhanda, and Puskaradvípa, in the last two of which there are two of each name. In the bhogabhūmis the inhabitants are twins, and everything is supplied by wishing-trees. Pravac. 1054 f., p. 311. Page #128 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 103 The eight karmas (463-475) Furthermore, the rising, destruction, destruction and subsidence, and subsidence of the karmas take place here, after they have been affected by substance, space, time, state of mind, and birth. Creatures' karmas attain their respective fruits from conjunction with the totality of substance, etc., as named above. These karmas are eight, 228 as follows: That is knowledge-obscuring-karma by which the knowledge of a person with an omniscient form 229 is always covered like an eye by a curtain. Mati, śruta, avadhi, manahparyāya, and kevala--these five knowledges are covered, and these are the five kinds of knowledgeobscuring. The obscuring of the five sleep-perceptions and of the group of four 280 is the result of perceptionobscuring karma. Just as some one wishing to see his master is presented by the door-keeper and does not see him,281 so the means by which the soul does not see is perception-obscuring. , That is called feeling-karma which has the feeling of pleasure and pain inherent, resembling the tasting of the point of a sword-blade smeared with honey. The wise define deluding-karma, which is equal to wine-drinking, as that by which the confused soul is deluded about right and wrong. This is called rightbelief-deluding when it causes wrong-belief as a result ; right-conduct-deluding when it prevents self-control. Age-karma is fourfold : of man, animal, hell-inhabitant, and god, and is a holder of creatures in their respective births, like a prison. Body-making-karma makes a variety in the condition 228 464. For karma, see I, App. II. 229 465. Capable of attaining omniscience. 230 467. The first 4 of darśanāvaraniya: cakşuo, acakṣuo, avadhio, and kevalao 281 468. This comparison is as apt today as in the author's time. Page #129 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 104 CHAPTER THREE of existence (gati), genus (jati), etc., like a painter. Its result is in the (different) bodies of creatures. Family-determining-karma is high and low, causing high or low family like a potter making milk-vessels and wine-vessels. The means by which the powers of liberality, etc. being restrained do not bear fruit is obstructive-karma, resembling a store-house. If one meditates on the results of the original nature of the karmas as described, the dharmadhyāna, called "vipākavicaya,' takes place. That is 'samsthānavicaya ' in which one meditates on the form of the universe without beginning and without end, with the characteristics of permanence, origination, and perishing.282 The universe, in the shape of a man standing in the vaiśākha-position 388 with his hands on his hips; filled with substance having the characteristics of permanence, origination, perishing; at the bottom resembling a cane-stand, in the middle of a jhallari, and at the top a muraja,234 is composed as follows: It is filled with three worlds, and in it seven earths are surrounded by very strong thick water, thick wind, and thin wind. The three worlds are divided into lower, middle, and upper--the terms 'lower, middle, and upper' being used, however, in reference to Rucaka. Rucaka has four units of space in the shape of a cow's teat at the center of Meru ; 286 and above the same as below, so making eight units. The Middle World extends nine hundred yojanas above and below Rucaka. 232 477. See I, p. 209. 233 478. See I, n. 309. 234 479. A jhallari is a circular, flat cymbal or gong. The Middle World is circular. Muraja is the same as mệdanga. Abhi. 2. 207. 285 422. From standpoint of thickness. They are at ground-level, which is not the center with reference to height. Page #130 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 105 Description of the Lower World (484-514) The Lower World is established below the Middle World with a depth of seven rajjus less nine hundred yojanas. In it are seven earths, one below the other, occupying the lower part, in which are the terrifying abodes of the hell-inhabitants: Ratnaprabha, Sarkarā-, Vālukā-, Panka-, Dhuma-, Tamaḥ-, Mahātamaḥprabhā; and the depth of these is one hundred and eighty thousand, one hundred and thirty-two thousand, one hundred and twenty-eight thousand, one hundred and twenty thousand, one hundred and sixteen thousand, one hundred and eight thousand yojanas, respectively. The earths, Ratnaprabhā, etc., become wider in succession, one below the other. In the first earth there are three million hells; in the second hell-region there are two million five hundred thousand hells; in the third, one million five hundred thousand; in the fourth, one million; in the fifth, three hundred thousand; in the sixth earth, ninety-nine thousand, nine hundred and ninety-five; in the seventh, five hells. Below the earths, Ratnaprabha, etc., are the Thick Waters, twenty thousand yojanas deep in the middle. Below the Thick Waters are the Thick Winds, deeper in the middle by innumerable thousands of yojanas than the Thick Waters. The Thin Winds are innumerable yojanas more than the Thick Winds, and space also innumerable yojanas more than the Thin Winds. They gradually decrease from the middle depth, the Thick Water, etc., having the shape of a circle at the top.286 The diameter of the Thick Water sheath of the earth Ratnaprabha which has the shape of a circle is six yojanas. The diameter of the Thick Wind sheath is four and a half yojanas, and of the Thin Wind is one and a half yojanas. The Thick Water of Sarkara is one-third of a yojana more 286 494. These 3 sheaths surround each earth except at the top, where they have the shape of an open circle. PE II, p. 662, illustrates the sheaths around Ratnaprabhā. Page #131 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 106 CHAPTER THREE in diameter than the sheath of Ratnaprabhā. In the Thick Wind one gavyūta (=& yojana) increase, and in the Thin Wind there is one-third of a gavyūta increase. This (same) increase to the dimensions of the Sarkarāsheaths takes place in the diameters of the sheaths of the third earth. In the same way this increase in the dimension of each preceding sheath is made in the sheaths up to the seventh earth. Everywhere, the sheaths Thick Water, Thick Wind, and Thin Wind have a height the same as that of their respective earths. The seven earths supported by Thick Water, etc., are as described. . In these earths are the hells, the places for experiencing bad karmas. The pain (of punishment), disease, body (its size), age, soul-color, grief, fear, etc., must be recognized as increasing in the hells in succession. The Ratnaprabhāearth is one hundred and eighty thousand yojanas deep. The dwellings of the Bhavanapatis are inside it, with the exception of one thousand yojanas above and below. 287 Bhavanapatis (506-514) The Bhavanapatis are in two rows in the north and south, like rows of shops on the highway. The Bhavanādhipas are as follows: the Asuras with a crest-jewelcognizance; the Nāgas with a snake-hood; the Vidyuts with a thunderbolt; the Suparņas with a garuda; the Vahnis with a jar ; the Vāyus with a horse ; the Stanitas with a vardhamāna; the Udadhis with a makara; the Dvipas with a lion ; and the Dikkumāras with an elephantcognizance. Among these the two Indras of the Asuras are Camara and Bali; Dharaṇa and Bhūtānanda are the Purandaras of the Nāgas; Hari and Harisaha of the Vidyutkumāras; the Vāsavas of the Suparnas are Veņudeva and Venudārin; Agniśikha and Agnimāņava are the lords of the Agnikumāras; Velamba and Prabhañjana of the Vāyukumāras; Sughoșa and Mahāghoșa are the Vāsavas 287 505. I.e., there is a' roof' and a floor' of 1000 yojanas. Page #132 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 107 of the Stanitas; Jalakānta and Jalaprabha are the Indras of the Abdhikumāras; Pūrņa and Avašista are overlords of the Dvipakumāras; Amita and Amitavāhana are the lords of the Dikkumāras. The Vyantaras (515-528) One thousand yojanas above Ratnaprabhā live the eight classes of the Vyantaras in northern and southern rows within eight hundred yojanas, one hundred above and below being excepted. The Vyantaras include the Piśācavyantaras with a kadamba tree as cognizance; the Bhūtas with a sulasa tree; the Yakşas with a vața tree; the Rākşasas with a khatvānga tree; the Kinnaras with an aśoka tree; the Kimpuruşas with a campaka tree; the Mahoragas with the nāgadru tree; the Gandharvas with the beautiful tumburu tree as cognizance. Kāla and Mahākāla are overlords of the Piśācas; Surūpa and Apratirüpa are lords of the Bhūtas; Pūrņabhadra and Māṇibhadra of the Yakşas; Bhima and Mahābhima of the Rākşasas; Kinnara and Kimpuruşa of the Kinnaras; Satpuruşa and Mahāpuruşa of the Kimpuruşas; Atikāya and Mahākāya of the Mahoragas; Gitarati and Gitayaśas of the Gandharvas. These are the sixteen Indras of the Vyantaras. In the first one hundred yojanas of Ratnaprabhā, with the exception of ten above and ten below; i.e., in eighty yojanas, there are eight classes of Vyantaras: Aprajñaptika, Pañcaprajñapti, Rşivādita, Bhūtavādita, Krandita, Mahākrandita, Kūşmāņda, Pacaka. The two Indras in these classes respectively are: Sannihita and Samāna; Dhāts and Vidhātěka; Rși and Rşipāla; Iśvara and Maheśvara ; Suvatsaka and Viśāla ; Hāsa and Hãsarati ; Sveta and Mahāśveta ; Pacaka and Pacakādhipa. The Jyotişkas (529-551) At seven hundred and ninety yojanas above the surface of the earth is the lower level of the Jyotiskas. Page #133 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 108 CHAPTER THREE Ten yojanas above it is the sun, and at the end of eighty yojanas above the sun is the moon; then the stars and planets at the end of twenty yojanas. 288 So the stellar world is one hundred and ten yojanas high. The circle of heavenly bodies (jyotişcakra) moves continually, formed in a circle, in all directions at a distance of eleven hundred and twenty-one yojanas from Mt. Meru of Jambūdvipa. But one polar star is fixed.289 It (the jyotişcakra) remains fixed in a circle, not touching the end of the world by eleven hundred and eleven yojanas.240 Among these Svāti is above all and Bharani is below all; to the south of all Mula and Abhici to the north.241 There are two suns and two moons belonging to this Jambūdvipa ; four moons and four suns belonging to Lavapoda; twelve moons and twelve suns to Dhätakikhanda; and forty-two moons and forty-two suns to Kāloda. To half of Puşkara belong seventy-two suns and moons each. So there are one hundred and thirty-two moons and the same number of suns (in the manuşyaloka). Each moon has a retinue of eighty-eight planets, twenty-eight constellations, and six pentillion, six hundred and ninety-seven quadrillion, five hundred trillion stars. The width and length of the moon's car is it of a yojana ; of the sun's car 4 of a yojana ; half a yojana of those of the planets; one-fourth of a yojana of those of the constellations; half a kos (= yojana) of those of all the stars having a maximum life; and five hundred bows (=to yojana) of those of all the stars having a minimum life. The height is always half the length. They are (like this) in the manuşyaloka extending forty-five lacs of yojanas. In the east lions, in the south elephants, in the west 238 531. They are all not really at the end, but distributed along the way. Cf. K., p. 278. 289 533. Elsewhere (cf. K., p. 279), there are many polar stars. 34. This is the very last jyotişcakra. 241 535. These are constellations. 240 Page #134 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 109 bulls; and in the north horses-these are the draught. animals of the cars of the moon, etc. The sun and moon have sixteen thousand Abhiyogika-gods; the planets, constellations, and stars have eight thousand, four thousand, and two thousand, respectively. Because of abhiyogikakarma they act as conveyances for the moon, etc., which are moving constantly at their own inclination. The suns and moons stand still, at intervals from each other, at a distance of fifty thousand yojanas on the outside of Mānuşottara ; 249 half the size of the suns and moons of the manuşyaloka; their numbers increasing according to the successive increase in the circumference of the worlds; with retinues of brilliant planets, constellations, and stars; innumerable, a beautiful bell-shape, always bounded by the Svayambhūramaņa-ocean, they remain in rows a hundred thousand yojanas apart. The Middle World (552–749) In the Middle World there are countless continents and oceans with auspicious names Jambūdvipa, Lavaņa, etc.; the circumference of each being twice as large as that of the preceding one; each one surrounding the preceding one like a sheath. The last of these is the great ocean named Svayambhūramaņa. Description of Meru (554-565) In the center of Jambūdvipa, Meru, golden, round like a sthåla,248 is buried one thousand yojanas in the ground at its base, is ninety-nine thousand yojanas high, and ten thousand yojanas in diameter at the surface of the earth. At the top it is one thousand yojanas in diameter. It is in three parts, and its body is divided by the three worlds. Now, the first part of Sumeru, composed of pure earth, stone, diamond, and gravel is one thousand 242 548. The first row. The others are 100,000 yojanas apart. 248 554. Sthāla is non-committal, but Meru is considered the shape of a truncated cone. Page #135 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ IIO CHAPTER THREE yojanas high. The second is sixty-three thousand yojanas high, its ground composed of gold, crystal, anka, and silver. The third part is thirty-six thousand yojanas and is composed of slabs of gold.246 Its gleaming peak is made of cat's-eye. Its height is forty yojanas, its diameter at the base is twelve yojanas, eight at the middle, and four at the top. At the base of Meru is a grove Bhadraśāla resembling a surrounding wall. At five hundred yojanas from Bhadraśāla, on a terrace is Nandana, five hundred yojanas wide. At sixty-two thousand five hundred yojanas (above), on the second terrace is the grove Saumanasa, the same size. At thirty-six thousand yojanas above the grove Saumanasa is Sundara on the third terrace. On the peak of Meru is the garden Pāņďaka in the shape of a circle, four hundred and ninety-four yojanas wide. Jambūdvīpa (566–618) Now, there are seven zones here in Jambūdvipa: Bhārata, Haimavata, Harivarşa, Videha, Ramyaka, Hairanyavata, and Airavata, from south to north. Dividing these are mountain-ranges bounding the zones : Himavat, Mahāhimavat, Nişadha, Nila, Rukmin, and Sikharin with equal diameter at the base and top. Of these, the Himavat Mts., buried in the ground twenty-five yojanas, made of gold, are one hundred yojanas high. The Mahāhimavat Mts. are twice that size, made of silver. Then, the Nişadha Mts., twice their size, made of gold; Nila Mts., the same size as Nişadha, made of cat's-eye; Rukmin Mts., the same size as Mahāhimavat, made of silver ; Sikharin Mts., the same size as the Himavat Mts., made of gold. A11 abound in various jewels on their slopes. On Kșudrahimavat (=Himavat) is a large lake named Padma, one thousand yojanas long and half as 244 557. These three parts and the divisions in the three worlds are not the same. The Middle World is 900 yojanas below and above the earth's surface. Page #136 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA III wide. On Mahāhimavat is a lake named Mahāpadma, twice the length and width of the lake Padma. The lake, Tigiñchi, on Nişadha is twice the size of Mahāpadma; the lake Keśarin on Nila is the same size as Tigiñchi; the lake Mahāpuņdarika on Rukmin is equal to Mahāpadma ; the lake Pundarîka on śikharin is equal to Padma. In all the lakes, Padma, etc., there are full-blown lotuses rooted ten yojanas in the water. Moreover, on these (live the goddesses) Śri, Hri, Dhịti, Kirti, Buddhi, and Lakşmi, respectively, with life-periods of a palya, together with Sāmānikas, gods of the councils, body-guards, and armies. In Bharatakşetra there are the great rivers, Gangā and Sindhu; in the zone named Haimavata, Rohitā and Rohitāńsā; in the Harivarşaka zone, the rivers Harit and Harikāntā; in the Mahāvidehas the best rivers Sītā and Sitodā; Narakāntā and Narikāntā in the zone Ramyaka; Svarņakūlā and Rūpyakülā in the zone Hairanyavata; Raktā and Raktoda in the zone Airavata. The first of each pair flows to the east and the second to the west. The great rivers Ganga and Sindhu are each attended by fourteen thousand best rivers. Each pair of the others is attended by twice as many rivers as the preceding pair up to Śītā and Śítodā. The northern rivers (north of Videha) are equal to the southern. Šītā and Śītodā, however, are attended by five hundred and thirty-two thousand rivers each.24 Bharata is five hundred twenty-six and six-nineteenths yojanas wide. Then the zones and the mountains bounding the zones become twice as wide successively to the north, up to Videha. The mountains and zones to the north (of Videha) are the same size as those in the south. These are the sizes of the zones and the mountains bounding the zones. 246 585. Each Videha (East and West) has 32 rivers, each with 14,000 tributaries, and each of the Kurus has 84,000, thus making the total of 532,000. Page #137 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ II2 CHAPTER THREE To the north of the Nişadha Mts, and to the south of Meru are the Vidyutprabha Mts. and the Saumanasa Mts. in the west and east. They have the shape of an elephant's tusk, almost touching Meru at the end. Between them are the bhogabhumis, the Devakurus, eleven thousand eight hundred and forty-two yojanas wide. On each side of each of five lakes divided by Sitodā are ten mountains of gold, making a total of one hundred. There on the east and west banks of Sitodā are the mountains Vicitrakūta and Citrakūta. They are one thousand yojanas in height and the same in diameter at the base. The diameter at the top is half of that. To the north of Meru and to the south of the Nila Mts. are the Gandhamādana and the Mālyavat Mts., with the shape of an elephant's tusk. Between them are the very charming Uttarakurus with one hundred golden mountains at the sides of the five lakes divided by Śitā. On the banks of the river Śītā are two mountains named Yamaka, corresponding to the golden Vicitrakūta and Citrakūta. East of the Deva- and Uttarakurus, they are called East Videhas, and to the west, West Videhas, like different countries to each other. In each there are sixteen provinces inaccessible to each other, separated by rivers and mountains, suitable to be conquered by a Cakrin, Kaccha, Mahākaccha, Sukaccha, Kacchavat, Āvarta, Mangalāvarta, Puşkala, Puşkalāvati, are the northern provinces of East Videha. The southern are Vatsaka, Suvatsa, Mahāvatsa, Ramyavat, Ramya, Ramyaka, Ramaṇīya, Mangalavat. The ones in West Videha in the south are Padma, Supadma, Mahāpadma, Padmāvati, Sankha, Kumuda, Nalina, and Nalinavat. The northern provinces in the West Videhas are Vapra, Suvapra, Mahāvapra, Vaprāvati, Valgu, Suvalgu, Gandhila, and Gandhilāvati. In the center of Bharata is Mt. Vaitādhya, dividing it into north and south, extending to the east and west oceans, with a base in the ground of six yojanas and a Page #138 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 113 fourth ; fifty yojanas wide and half as high. On its northern and southern slopes at ten yojanas from the ground are two rows of Vidyādhara-cities, ten yojanas wide. In the south there are fifty cities with kingdoms of the Vidyādhara-kings; in the north there are sixty. At ten yojanas immediately above the Vidyādhara-rows, there are two Vyantara rows adorned with the abodes of the Vyantaras. At five yojanas above the rows of Vyantaras there are nine peaks. There is a similar Vaitādhya in Airavata. The continent Jambūdvipa has a fortification in the form of a wall, made of diamond, eight yojanas high. At its base it is twelve yojanas wide ; in the middle, eight; and four at the top. Above it is a lattice, two gavyūtas high, a delightful pleasure resort of the Vidyādharas. Above the lattice is a beautiful terrace, named Padmavara, the pleasure-ground of the gods. In this wall there are four gateways in the east and other directions, Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, and Aparājita respectively. In the space between Kșudrahimavat and Mahāhimavat, there is a round Mt. Vaitādhya, named Sabdāpātin. Between Sikharin and Rukmin is Mt. Vikațāpātin ; Gandhāpātin is between Mahāhimavat and Nişadha ; Mālyavat is between the Nila and Rukmin Mountains. All are cylindrical shaped and one thousand yojanas high. Description of Lavanoda (619-639) Next, surrounding Jambūdvipa and twice as wide, is the ocean named Lavaņoda, sunk one thousand yojanas in the ground. Its water increases in height very gradually for a distance of ninety-five thousand yojanas from both sides. In the middle there is a crest with a level width 246 246 621. I think the kramavistětau of the ed. must be emended to sama', referring not to the vistặti properly speaking, but to the depth. Although Hem. gives 1,000 yojanas as the depth of the ocean (depth and height being counted from the surface of the earth), it is really the depth of only the crest (sikhā), according to other sources, Page #139 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ I14 CHAPTER THREE of ten thousand yojanas, sixteen thousand yojanas high. In addition to that, at the time of the tides there is a decrease and increase up to two gavyūtas. In it (the ocean) in the directions, east, etc., there are four Pātālavessels, named Vadavāmukha, Keyūpa, Yūpaka, īśvara, respectively, beginning with the east. They are one hundred thousand yojanas high; have walls of diamond one thousand yojanas thick; are ten thousand yojanas wide at top and bottom; have water in the third part supported by wind; and resemble large clay waterjars. In them live the gods Kāla, Mahākāla, Velamba, and Prabhañjana, respectively, in pleasure-houses. Here there are others--one thousand yojanas high, with walls ten yojanas thick, one hundred yojanas wide at the bottom and at the mouth 247_seven thousand eight hundred and eighty-four small Pätāla-vessels, with waters mixed in the middle part and raised by the wind. There are always forty-two thousand Nāgakumāras, inner wave-controllers (velādhārin), like ministers in this ocean. There are seventy-two thousand outer wave-controllers, and also sixty thousand guardians of the crest-waves. Gostūpa, Udakābhāsa, Sankha, Udakasimaka, made of gold, anka, silver, and crystal are the mountains of the Indras of the Velādhārins. They are abodes of the gods whereas the depth of the ocean on the two sides of the crest gradually increases from the shore. The crest is 1,000 deep, 10,000 wide, and 16,000 high. The height of the water gradually increases from the surface of the earth up to the 16,000 of the crest, according to some sources; or, according to others, it increases only 700 yojanas. In this case, of course, the crest would rise very abruptly, and the Pravac. compares it with a nagaraprākāra. As the crest has a uniform depth of 1,000 and height of 16,000 throughout its width of 10,000 yojanas, the kramavistỉtau of the ed. seems incorrect. Sama', as the least radical emendation, could refer to the levelness of the crest in contrast with the increasing height and depth of the rest of the ocean. See K., pp. 242 ff., and Pravac. 1388, p. 405. 247 627. Both the larger and smaller vessels have a diameter in the middle equal to the height. K., p. 243. Page #140 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 115 Gostupa, Śivaka, Śankha, and Manohṛda; and are in the (four) directions at forty-two thousand yojanas (from Jambudvipa). They are seventeen hundred and twentyone yojanas high, ten hundred and twenty-two wide at the base, and four hundred and twenty-four at the top. On top of them all there are gleaming palaces. Karkoṭaka, Kārdamaka, Kailāśa, and Aruṇaprabha, made of all jewels, are the mountains of the Indras of the Aṇuvelādhārins.248 The gods Karkoṭaka, Vidyujjihva, Kailāśa, and Aruṇaprabha, respectively, live always on these. At twelve thousand yojanas (from Jambudvipa) in the intermediate directions in the east are the two islands of the Moon, with an equal width and length (i.e. 12,000). At the same distance in the west are the two islands of the Sun; and also at the same distance is Gautamadvipa, the abode of Susthita.249 On these are palaces, the abodes of the inner and outer suns and moons of Lavanoda. The water of Lavaṇoda is salt. Description of Dhātakīkhaṇḍa (640-643) Next, the second continent, named Dhātakikhaṇḍa, twice as wide, surrounds Lavaṇoda. Everything that is in Jambudvipa Meru, zones, mountain-ranges, mountains— is called by the same name in Dhātaki, but is twice as large. It is divided by the Iṣvākāra Mts. running north and south, and in the east and west halves has the same names as Jambudvipa. The mountain-ranges and the Iṣvākāras are like the spokes of a wheel, high as Niṣadha, touching Kaloda and Lavaṇa, and the zones are between the spokes. Kaloda (644) The ocean surrounding Dhātakikhaṇḍa, eight hundred thousand yojanas wide, is called Kaloda. 248 635. These are subordinates of the Veladharins (PE s.v.). Their palaces are in the intermediate directions. 249 638. The lord of Lavanoda. Pravac. 883-89, p. 258a. Page #141 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 116 CHAPTER THREE Puşkaradvipa (645-652) The definition of names and countries of Meru, etc., and the Işvākāras which was given for Dhataki is true also for half of Puşkara. But in this half of Puskara the divisions of the zones, etc., are known to be twice as large as the divisions of the zones, etc., of Dhatakikhaṇḍa. There are four small Merus in Dhataki and half of Puşkara, smaller than Meru by fifteen thousand yojanas. At the ground their diameter is less than Meru's by six hundred yojanas. Their first division is no less than big Meru's. The second is smaller by seven thousand yojanas; the third by eight thousand.250 Bhadraśāla and Nandana are like Meru's. The grove Saumanasa, five hundred yojanas wide, is fifty-five thousand yojanas above. Pandaka, four hundred ninety-four yojanas wide, is twentyeight thousand yojanas above. The diameter at the top and bottom, and the foundation are equal 251 to big Meru's, and the crest is also equal to its. So, this is the Human World, two and a half continents, two oceans, thirty-five zones, five Merus, thirty zone-mountains, five Devakurus, five Uttarakurus, and one hundred and sixty provinces.252 Manuşottara (655-660) Beyond it is the mountain-range, Manuṣottara, round like a city wall, surrounding the Human World. It is situated at the half-way line of Puskara, golden, seventeen hundred twenty-one yojanas high, buried in the ground four hundred thirty and one-fourth yojanas, ten hundred and twenty-two yojanas in diameter at the bottom, seven hundred and twenty-three at the middle, and four hundred 250 649. They are 85,000 yojanas in total height, with 1000 underground. The first section is 500, the second 55,500, and the third 28,000 yojanas high. The diameter at ground level is 9,400 yojanas. 251 652. Equal in height-1,000 yojanas. 252 654. Vijaya, the divisions of Videha. Page #142 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 117 and twenty-four at the top. On the other side of it, mortals are not born, nor do they die. Even animals, etc., do not die, if they have gone to its other side. For that reason it is named “Mānuşottara.' Beyond it there is no coarse fire, no clouds, lightning, rivers, time, etc. The people in the Manuşyaloka (661-683) In the two and a half continents and two oceans humans arise by birth in these thirty-five zones on this side of Mānuşottara and in the Antaradvipas; on the mountains, Meru, etc., by means of kidnaping and the power of learning. They are called Bhāratakas, Jambūdvipyas, Lavaņakas, etc., from divisions on the basis of zones, continents, and oceans. From the division into Aryas and Mlecchas they are twofold. The Aryas have subdivisions : kşetra (country), jāti (caste), kula (family), karma (work), silpa (craft), and bhāsā (language). The kşetrāryas are born in the fifteen karmabhūmis.253 Here in Bharata they have twenty-five and one-half places of origin. These Arya-countries are to be distinguished by cities as follows: I. Magadha .. Rājagļha. 2. Angadeśa.. .. Campā. 3. Varga .. Tāmralipti. 4. Kāśi Vārāṇasi. Kalinga Kāñcanapuri. Kosala .. Sāketa. Kuru Gajapura. Kuśārtaka Saurya. 9. Pañcāla .. Kāmpilya. 10. Jãngala .. Ahicchatra. II. Videha .. .. Mithila. 258 665. These are 5 Bharatas, 5 Airāvatas, and 5 Videhas. A karmabhūmi is where the inhabitants must earn their living by ploughing trade, etc. Uttar. B. com. to 36. 194. Or, according to others, where mokşa may be attained ; or where karma is acquired that leads to any state after death. T. 3. 16; Uttar.K. com, to 36. 196. Page #143 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 118 12. Surāṣṭraka 13. Vatsa 14. Malaya 15. 16. Varuna Matsya Cedi 17. 18. 19. 20. CHAPTER THREE Sandarbha Daśārņa Sindhu 21. Sauvira 22. Śūrasena 23. Māsapurivarta 24. Kuṇālaka 25. Lāṭa of Ketaka .. Dväravati. Kausāmbipur: Bhadrila. Nandipura. Ucchā. Vairāţa. Śuktimati. Mṛttikāvati. Vitabhaya. Mathura. Apāpā. Bhangi. Śrāvasti. Kotivarṣa. Śvetambi. These are the Arya-countries, distinguished by these cities, in which the birth of Tirthakṛts, Cakrabhṛts, Kṛṣṇas and Balas takes place. The Jatyaryas are the Ikṣvākus, Jñātas, Haris, Videhas, Kurus, Ugras, Bhojas, and Rājanyas. Kulāryas are the Kulakaras, Cakrins, Visņus, and Balas, or those who are born in a pure family from the third, fifth, or seventh generation.254 They are called Karmāryas who earn their livelihood by sacrifices, making sacrifices for others, by study and teaching of the śastras, or by suitable occupations. They are Silpāryas who have occupations of little blame, such as weavers, tailors, potters, barbers, and attendants on idols. They are called Bhāṣāryas who transact the business of the (other) five Āryas with language restricted to the best language.255 254 675. See Com. to T. 3. 15. 255 678. Siṣṭabhāṣā. I.e., Ardha-Magadhi. See Pra. 37, p. 56a; Bhag. 191, p. 221. Page #144 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 119 Mlecchas (679-683) The Mlecchas-Sākas, Yavanas, Šabaras, Barbaras, Kāyas, Murundas, Udras, Godras, Patkaņakas, Arapākas, Hünas, Romakas, Pārasas, Khasas, Khāsikas, Dombilikas, Lakusas, Bhillas, Anghras, Bukkasas, Pulindas, Krauñcakas, Bhamararutas, Kuñcas, Cīnas, Vañcukas, Mālavas, Dravidas, Kulakșas, Kirātas, Kaikayas, Hayamukhas, Gajamukhas, Turagamukhas, Ajamukhas, Hayakarņas, Gajakarņas, and other non-Aryas also, are people who do not know even the word ' dharma.' The Antaradvipas (684-700) The Mlecchas are free from (knowledge of) virtue and vice, and also those born in the Antaradvipas. The fiftysix Antaradvipas are as follows: Half of them are to the east and west of Kşudrahimavat in the four intermediate directions, beginning with the northeast. In the northeast at a distance of three hundred yojanas in the Lavaņa Ocean is the first Antaradvipa, named Ekoru, of an equal (300 yojanas) length and width. The people, beautiful in body and limbs, have the same name as the island. Not only in the case of Ekoru, but also in the case of other islands to be mentioned later, the people have the same name as the island. In the southeast and other intermediate directions are the islands, Ābhāșika, Lāngūlika, Vaişāņika, respectively, at the same distance and with the same length and width (as Ekoru). Beyond them at a distance of four hundred yojanas and with an equal length and width, at the intermediate points, northeast, etc., are the Antaradvipas, Hayakarņa, Gajakarņa, Gokarņa, Saskulikarņaka, respectively. Beyond them at a distance of five hundred yojanas and with the same length and width are the four Antaradvipas, Adarśamukha, Meşamukha, Hayamukha, and Gajamukha, in the northeast, as before. Then come Aśvamukha, Hastimukha, Sinhamukha, Page #145 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 120 CHAPTER THREE Vyāghramukha, six hundred yojanas in distance, length, and width. At seven hundred yojanas in distance, with the same length and width are Aśvakarņa, Sinhakarņa, Hastikarņa, and Karņaprāvarana. Then located at a distance of eight hundred yojanas across Lavanoda, with the same length and width are Ulkāmukha, Vidyujjihva, Meghamukha, and Vidyuddanta, in the northeast, etc., respectively. After traversing nine hundred yojanas of Lavaņa Ocean, four Antaradvipas, named Gūdhadanta, Ghanadantaka, Śreșthadantaka, Suddhadantaka, nine hundred yojanas in length and width, are situated in the respective intermediate points. In this same way there are twenty-eight at Mt. Sikharin. Added together, there are fifty-six in all. Other continents and oceans (701-703) On the other side of Mānuşottara is the second haif of Puskara. Surrounding Puşkara is the Puşkara Ocean twice as large. Then come the continent and ocean Vāruņīvara; and beyond them the continent and ocean Kșīravara. Then Ghrtavara continent and ocean, and Ikşuvara continent and ocean. Then comes the eighth continent, named Nandiśvara, which resembles heaven. Description of Nandīśvara (704-738) The diameter of its circle is one billion, six hundred and thirty-eight million, four hundred thousand yojanas. It is a land of delights of the gods, with gardens of manifold designs, beautiful from the descents of gods engaged in the worship of the Jinendras. In its central part there are four Mt. Añjanas, the color of antimony, 256 in succession in the directions, east, etc. At ground level they are more than ten thousand yojanas in diameter and 268 706. Really antimony trisulphide, which is black ore. Page #146 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 121 one thousand yojanas at top. They have the height of the small Merus.267 Of these, Devaramaņa is in the east, Nityodyata in the south, Svayamprabha in the west, and Ramaņiya in the north. On top of them there are temples to the Arhats, one hundred yojanas long, half as wide, and seventy yojanas high. In each of these there are four doors, sixteen yojanas high, eight yojanas deep, and eight wide. They are the homes of the gods Deva, Asura, Nāga, and Suparņa, and are known by their names. Within the temples are jeweled platforms, sixteen yojanas long and wide, and eight yojanas high. On the platforms are daises made of all kinds of jewels, whose length and width exceed the platforms, and on them are one hundred and eight eternal statues each of the Arhats named Rşabha, Vardhamāna, Candrānana, and Varişena 268 in the paryankaposture, made of jewels, attended each by a beautiful retinue. Each statue has two statues each of Nāgas, Yakşas, Bhūtas, and pitcher-carriers, and behind the statues is a statue of an umbrella-bearer. On the daises are incense-jars, wreaths, bells, the eight auspicious things, banners, umbrellas, festoons, baskets, boxes, and seats; and sixteen ornaments, such as full pitchers, etc. The ground has sand of shining gold-dust. There are gleaming entrance pavilions the same size as the temples, theater-pavilions, arenas, jeweled platforms, beautiful stūpas and statues, fair caitya-trees, indradhvajas, and divine lotus-lakes in succession. In the four directions from each of the Mt. Añjanas there are lotus-lakes, one hundred thousand yojanas square : Nandişeņā, Amoghā, Gostupā, Sudarśanā, Nandottarā, Nandā, Sunandā, Nandivardhanā, Bhadrā, Viśālā, Kumudā, Puņdarīkiņikā, Vijayā, Vaijayanti, Jayanti, Aparajitā. At a distance of five hundred yojanas from each of them there are great gardens, five hundred yojanas 267 707. I.e., 84,000 yojanas + 1,000 underground. 268 714. See I, n. 404. Page #147 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER THREE wide and a hundred thousand long, named Aśoka, Saptacchadaka, Campaka, and Cūta. Within the lotus-lakes are the crystal Mt. Dadhimukhas, cylinder-shaped, marked by terraces, gardens, etc., as decorations. They are sixtyfour thousand yojanas high, and one thousand buried in the ground; ten thousand in diameter at the top and bottom. 122 Between each two lotus-lakes there are two Mt. Ratikaras, making a total of thirty-two Mt. Ratikaras. On the Mt. Dadhimukhas and the Mt. Ratikaras, there are eternal shrines of the Arhats, just as on the Mt. Añjanas. Likewise at the intermediate points of the continent there are four Mt. Ratikaras, having a length and width of ten thousand yojanas, and a height of one thousand, made of all kinds of jewels, divine, the shape of a gong. In the eight directions on the two southern Mt. Ratikaras are the residences of the eight queens of Śakra; on the two northern mountains, those of the eight queens of Īsāna. They are a hundred thousand yojanas distant from each other, a hundred thousand yojanas square, and adorned with temples of the Jinas. They are Sujātā, Saumanasā, Arcimāli, Prabhākarā, Padmā, Śivā, Śuci, Añjana, Bhūtā, Bhūtāvatansika, Gostūpā, Sudarśanā, Amalā, Apsaras, Rohini, Navami, Ratna, Ratnoccaya, Sarvaratna, Ratnasañcaya, Vasu, Vasumitrikā, Vasubhāgā, Vasundhara, Nandottara, Nanda, Uttarakuru, Devakuru, Kṛṣṇā, Kṛṣṇarāji, Râmã, Rāmarakṣitā, respectively, beginning with the east.259 In these the gods and their retinues with all magnificence make eight-day festivals in the shrines of the holy Arhats on auspicious days. 259 737. the queens. Elsewhere (cf. K., p. 255) this list includes the names of The first 4 names are names of islands, the next 4 of queens, etc. But Hem. gives no intimation that any of the names are those of queens and seems to say distinctly that there was a palace in each of the 8 directions. Each queen would have two palaces in that case. Page #148 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 123 Other continents and oceans (739-749) Then the ocean Nandiśvara surrounds Nandiśvara ; after that Aruñadvipa and Aruņoda. Then come Aruņavaradvipa and the ocean by that name; next Aruņābhāsa and Aruņābhāsa Ocean. Then Kundaladvīpa and the ocean Kundaloda ; then Rucakadvipa and Rucaka Ocean. The oceans and continents with these auspicious names are each twice as large as the preceding one. Of these the last is the ocean Svayambhuramaņa. In the two and a half continents, the Bharata-zones, the Airāvata-zones, and the Mahāvideha-zones, except the Devakurus and Uttarakurus are karmabhūmis. Kaloda, Puşkaroda, Svayambhūramaņa have water that can be drunk, but Lavaņa Ocean has salt water. Vāruņoda is pleasing with varied beverages; but Kşiroda resembles milk with one-fourth part of ghee mixed with candied sugar. Ghịtoda resembles freshly boiled cow's ghee; others resemble the juice of sugar-cane whose end has been cut off and which contains four substances.266 Lavanoda, Kāloda, and Svayambhūramaņa are filled with fish, tortoises, etc., but not the other oceans. In this continent Jambūdvipa there are always four each of Tirthakrts, Cakrins, Vişņus, and Balas, at the minimum. At the maximum, there are thirty-four Jinas and thirty kings, and twice as many in Dhātaki and half of Puşkara.261 260 746. According to PE (cāujātaka), these are cinnamon, saffron, cardamon, and pepper. 261 749. The maximum of 34 is reached by one each in the 32 divisions of Videha, in Bharata, and Airāvata. When there are only 4, there is one each in the northern and southern halves of East and West Videha. When the maximum of 30 kings' (which refers to Vignu Balas, and Cakrins) exists, there are 28 in Videha, and one in Bharata and Airāvata each. The maximum number of Vişnus and Balas exists when there is a minimum of Cakrins and vice versa. Jamb. 172-3. Page #149 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 124 CHAPTER THREE The Upper World (750-797) Above this Human World there is the Upper World, magnificent, seven rajjus less nine hundred yojanas. In this there are twelve heavens: Saudharma, Iśāna, Sanatkumāra, Mahendra, Brahmaloka, Lantaka, Šukra, Sahasrāra, Anata, Prāṇata, Āraṇa, and Acyuta. The nine Graiveyakas are as follows: Sudarśana, Suprabuddha, Manorama; above them, Sarvabhadra, Suviśāla, Sumanas; and above them, Saumanasa, Pritikara, and Aditya. Above those are the five named Anuttara. Beginning from the east the palaces are named Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, Aparajita, and Sarvarthasiddhaka in the center. Twelve yojanas above is Siddhaśila, forty-five lacs of yojanas long and wide. In the (upper) sixth part of the fourth gavyūta immediately above three gavyūtas above it (Siddhaśilā) are the siddhas at the end of Lokāgratā. It is one and a half rajjus from ground-level through Saudharma and Iśana; two and a half through Sanatkumāra and Mahendra; five through Sahasrara, and six rajjus through Acyuta. There are seven rajjus up to the top of the universe. In Saudharma and Iśāna are round like the moon. the southern half is Sakra (as Indra) and Aiśāna in the north. Sanatkumāra and Mahendra have the same shape as they have; Sanatkumāra is in the south half, and Mahendra in the north. Beyond them, in the place corresponding to the elbow of the man representing the universe, in the center of the universe is Brahmaloka, and Brahma is its lord. At the end are the Lokantika-gods: Sarasvatas, Adityas, Agnis, Aruņas, Gardatoyakas, Tusitas, Avyābādhas, Maruts, and Ristas. Above it is Lantakaheaven, whose Indra has the same name. Next comes Mahāśukra, whose Indra also has the same name; and next Sahasrara with an Indra of the same name. Then come Anata and Praṇata with the shape of Saudharma and Isana. Their Indra, named Pranata, lives in Pranata Page #150 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 125 heaven. Above them are two heavens, Ārana and Acyuta with the same shape. They have one Indra, named Acyuta, living in Acyuta. But in the Graiveyakas and Anuttaras the gods are Ahamindras.262 Of these heavens, the first two are founded on thick water; the next three on (thick) wind; the next three on thick water and thick wind; above those, the heavens rest on space. The ten divisions of the gods are: Indras, Sāmānikas, Trāyastrinsas, Pārşadyas, Rakşakas, Lokapālas, Anikas, Prakirņas, Abhiyogikas, Kilbişikas. The Indras are the lords of all the gods, Sāmānikas, etc. The Sāmānikas are the same as the Indras, but lack Indraship. The Trayastriñśas are like ministers and priests of Hari. The Parsadyas are like companions; the Rakşakas are body-guards; the Lokapalas have the place of spies for the sake of protection. The Anikas correspond to armies; the Prākirņas to villagers and townsmen. The Abhiyogyas are like slaves; and the Kilbiņas like the lowest castes. The Jyotiskas and Vyantaras do not have the Trāyastrinsas and Lokapas. In Saudharma there are thirty-two lacs of palaces of the gods. In Aiśāna, Sanatkumāra, Mahendra, and Brahma there are twenty-eight, twelve, eight, and four lacs respectively. There are fifty thousand in Lāntaka, forty thousand in Sukra, six thousand in Sahasrāra. In the pair (Anata and Prāṇata) four hundred, and three hundred in Ārana and Acyuta. In the first three Graiveyakas there are one hundred and eleven, in the middle three one hundred and seven, in the last three Graiveyakas there are one hundred palaces. There are only five Anuttaravimānas. So there is a total of eight million, four hundred ninety-seven thousand, and twenty-three palaces of the gods. In the four Anuttara-palaces, Vijaya, etc., the gods 202 767. See I, n. 27. Page #151 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 126 CHAPTER THREE are reborn twice, 268 but only once in the fifth (Sarvārthasiddha). From Saudharmakalpa to Sarvārtha the gods become stronger in each successive heaven in respect to duration of life, brilliance, power, purity, soul-color, happiness, in the sphere of the senses, and in clairvoyant knowledge. In respect to attachment to worldly objects, and arrogance, (size of) body and marriage, they become weaker and weaker, successively. The gods who have the minimum term of life breathe at the end of seven stokas,284 and eat once in two days. The gods, whose life term is a palyopama, breathe once a day and eat once in several days. The ones whose life is measured by sāgaras breathe at the end of as many half-months as there are sāgaras, and eat at the end of so many thousands of years. The gods usually have pleasant feelings, but if they have unpleasant, it would be only for an antarmuhurta,266 not more than a muhūrta. Goddesses are born up to 286 Aiśāna, and marriage exists up to Acyuta. Ascetics are born up to the Jyotiskas. Birth of wandering mendicants is up to Brahmaloka, and rebirth of five-sensed animals up to Sahasrāra; of laymen up to Acyuta; of monks who have wrong belief but have observed the practices up to the last Graiveyaka. Those who knew all the (fourteen) pūrvas are born from Brahmaloka up to Sarvārthasiddha. Monks and laymen of good character are born in Saudharma at least. Up to Aiśāna, the gods, Bhavanavāsins, etc., have physical marriage. For they have karma which torments them. Possessing strong affections, embracing in love like 268 781. Before attaining mokşa. 204 785. About every 37 seconds. 285 788. A division of time, beginning with 9 samayas and extending to one samaya less than a muhūrta. A samaya is an infinitesimally small period of time. Antarmuhūrta is also defined as beginning with 6 āvalis to make it more definite. An ávali is made up of innumerable samayas. Muni Nyāyavijayaji. 206 789. 'Up to’ is inclusive throughout this description. Page #152 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 127 humans, they attain delight from pleasure of physical contact. The remainder have marriage of touch, sight, hearing, respectively, in successive pairs of heavens. In the four, Anata, etc., they have marriage of mind. In the other heavens, Graiveyaka, etc., the gods have no marriage, having the nature of infinite bliss more than the gods with marriage. With such divisions—lower, middle, and upper-is the universe. In its center is the trasanāļi with a height of fourteen rajjus, one rajju wide and thick at top and bottom. Within it are movable and immovable lives, and outside of it only immovable. The universe, seven rajjus wide at the bottom, one rajju at the middle, five at Brahmaloka, and one at the very top, with a well-supported appearance, was made by no one and is supported by no one. It is self-produced and, moreover, remains in space without support. The wise man should meditate on this universe, all of it or in part, the cause of obstruction to impure meditation. In dharmadhyāna would arise the state of mind having destruction and subsidence, etc. The soul-colors 267 are yellow, rose, and white, in the order of their purity. In it filled with union with keen disgust with worldly existence there is produced in people a happiness which has spontaneous consciousness, beyond the cognizance of the senses. With (worldly) association abandoned, after abandoning the body, those united with dharmadhyāna become the highest gods in the Graiveyaka, etc. 868 heavens. They attain there a body which has great power and beauty, resembling the autumn-moon in color, adorned with wreaths, ornaments, and clothes. They enjoy pleasure rich in remarkable power and knowledge, devoid of love, pain, and old age, unceasing and unexcelled, for a 207 802. Leśyā, a psychic color varying according to the karma of the soul. There are 6 of them : black, dark blue, gray, rose, yellow, and white. For a detailed account see Uttar. 34. 868 804. And the Anuttara. Page #153 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 128 CHAPTER THREE long time. Enjoying repeatedly the nectar of happiness delightful with all objects produced by (mere) desire, without any obstacles, they do not know that the birth has passed. Falling from heaven at the termination of divine delights, they descend to earth with the best body. Born in a divine family they enjoy manifold pleasures charming with constant festivals, their desires unbroken. Then, resorting to discernment, having attained disgust with all pleasures, their karma destroyed by meditation, they attain the state from which there is no return (emancipation).” Founding of the tīrtha (811-841) Such a sermon was delivered by the Tirthanātha benefiting all men, the moon for the delight of the nightblooming lotus of the Three Worlds. After hearing the Lord's sermon, enlightened men and women took initiation, the sole mother of emancipation, by the thousands. At that time Sumitra, the father of Cakrin Sagara, who had been an ascetic in spirit before, took initiation under the Master. Then the Lord told the 'three steps, consisting of origination, perishing, and permanence, resembling a condensation 269 of the grammar of all the scriptures, to the ninety-five wise ascetics, Sinhasena and others, who had the nāmakarma of gaṇabhrts. In conformity with the 'three steps' they made the twelve Angas with the Purvas, like a picture in conformity with a line. Then Vāsava got up, brought a dish filled with powdered sandal, and stood, surrounded by a throng of gods, at the Master's lotusfeet. Then the Lord of the World rose and, throwing the powder on the heads of the gaṇabhịts in turn, he himself gave permission for exposition by text and interpretation and by both, by substances, qualities, modifications, 270 200 815. Pratyāhāra, a grammatical term. 270 819. See I, n. 272. Page #154 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 129 and modes of expressing things, 271 and permission for the gaņas. 272 The gods, men, and women threw a fragrant powder 278 over the gaṇabhrts, accompanied by the sound of the drum. The gañadharas stood with folded hands, desiring the Master's speech like a stream of nectar. The Lord sat down again on the lion-throne, facing the east as before, and delivered a sermon composed of instruction to them. Just then the first division of the day ended, and the Blessed One completed his sermon on dharma. The oblation (824–830) Then, placed in a large dish, measuring four prastha, 274 made of pure rice possessing the fragrance of lotuses, its sweet scent multiplied by handfuls of perfume by the gods, ordered made by King Sagara, carried by men of first rank, the whole sky echoing with the loud sound of the drum of the gods, accompanied by women singing auspicious songs, surrounded on all sides by the citizens like a lotusbud by bees, the oblation entered the samavasaraña by way of the east door. After the oblation had circumambulated the Lord of the Three Worlds, they threw it up before (him), like a shower of divine flowers. As it was falling from the sky, the gods took half of it, Sagara took half of what reached the ground, and the rest of the people the remainder. From the power of the oblation diseases which had existed disappear and new ones do not appear for a period of six months. Then the Lord of the World, the leader on the road to nirvāņa, arose from the lion-throne and left by way of the north door. Then the God of gods rested on the dais placed between the middle and upper walls in the northeast quarter. 271 819. See I, n. 273. 272 819. See I, n. 123. 278 820. See I, n. 274. 274 824. See I, n. 276. Page #155 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 130 CHAPTER THREE Then the head of the gañadharas, Sinhasena, placed on a lion-throne brought by Sagara, delivered a sermon. The chief of the gaṇabhrts, from the power of the Master's place, described innumerable births and whatever anyone asked. The people in the Master's assembly also knew the removal of doubt without the Kevalin, and did not think “He (the gaṇabhịt) is (only) an ordinary ascetic." Removal of the teacher's fatigue, reliance on each other, and the step from pupil to teacher are the qualities of the gaṇabhrt's sermon. When the second division of the day was completed, the head of the gaṇabhịts ceased from preaching, like a traveler from moving. When he had stopped preaching, all the gods bowed to the Supreme Lord and went each to his own place. They went to Nandiśvara to the mountains, Añjana, etc., and made an eight-day festival to the eternal images of the Arhats. Saying, “ May we have such a procession again and again," the gods went to their own abodes as they had come. After paying homage to the Blessed One, Cakravartin Sagara went to the city Sāketa, a place for a rendezvous with Sri. Śāsanadevatās (842–846) Then in this same congregation arose the Vakşa, named Mahāyakşa, with four faces, dark-colored, with an elephant for a vehicle. One right arm was in varadaposition, the others held a hammer, rosary, and noose. One of his left hands held a citron, one was in abhayadaposition, the others held a goad and spear. Then arose the divinity Ajitabalā, gold-color, shining with two right hands, one in varada-position and one holding a noose; adorned with two left hands holding a citron and a goad, standing on an iron seat, she was a messenger-deity at the Lord's side. Adorned with the thirty-four atiśayas, the Blessed One wandered over the earth, attended by a retinue of Page #156 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 131 Sinhasena and others. Enlightening the bhavya-souls 275 in every village, city, and mine, an ocean of compassion, the Lord arrived one day at Kaušāmbi. To the northeast of it, the gods made the Lord's samavasaraṇa on ground a yojana in extent. Seated on a lion-throne under the aśoka tree in it, the Lord of the World delivered a sermon in the assembly consisting of gods, asuras and mortals. Story of the Brāhman converts (851-934) Then a Brāhman and his wife came, circumambulated the Teacher of the World, bowed, and sat down in the proper place. In the course of the conversation the Brāhman, his hands folded, asked, "How is this? O Blessed One?” The Lord replied: “This is the power of right-belief, the sole source of the warding-off of all worthless objects and the attainment of desirable objects. Because of it hostilities cease, like fire because of rain; all diseases disappear, like serpents because of garudas. Bad karma melts away like snow from the sun; desires are attained at once, as if by a thought-gem. The age-karma of a god 278 is bound, like a fine elephant by a fetter; gods are made near as if by a powerful charm. And yet, all this is insignificant fruit of right-belief; the important fruit is the rank of a TirthakȚt and even emancipation." At hearing this, the Brāhman, delighted, with folded hands bowed, and said, "O Blessed One, that is so. The words of the Omniscient are not false.” Saying this, he became silent. The head of the gañadharas, though he knew himself, in order that the people might know, asked the Teacher of the World, “O Lord, what did he ask ? And what did you tell him ? This is like telling something by hints. Enlighten us clearly." The Lord related : “Not very far from this city is a large village granted to Brāhmans, named Sāligrāma. 276 848. See I, n. 3. 276 856. See I, App. II. Page #157 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 132 CHAPTER THREE There lived the head of the Brāhmans, named Dāmodara, and his wife Somā. They had a son Suddhabhatta who married Sulakşaņā, the daughter of Siddhabhatta. Sulakşaņā and Suddhabhatta grew up and enjoyed pleasures suitable to their position, as they liked. In course of time their parents died, and their fathers' money also disappeared. Sometimes he would lie down at night, hungry in the midst of plenty. Famine is close beside the poor man, even in the midst of plenty. Sometimes he wandered in rags on the highway in the city, like a begging monk in a foreign country. Sometimes he was thirsty for a long time like the cãtaka ;277 sometimes his person was unclean, like a Piśāca. Shamed by his neighbors and by himself for being such, he went to a distant foreign country without telling his wife. After some days his wife heard of his departure to a foreign country from gossip that was like a stroke of lightning. Sulaksaņā grieved for a long time, thinking herself deprived of good fortune by the loss of her parents and fortune, and the departure of her husband. While she was grieving, the nun Vipulā came, wishing to stop in her house during the rainy season. Sulaksaņā allowed Vipulā to live there and listened daily to her religious teaching. From her teaching her wrong-belief disappeared like the sourness of vinegar from mixture with some sweet substance. Then later she attained faultless right-belief, like the moon brilliance after passing the black fortnight. She learned properly all the true categories of jiva, ajīva, etc.,278 like a doctor ailments that arise in the body. She grasped the Jain dharma, adequate for crossing samsāra, like a sea-faring merchant a boat suitable for crossing the ocean. In her arose disgust with objects of the senses, subduing of the passions, and disgust with never-ceasing birth and death. Thus she spent the rainy season with listening to the nun, like a 277 868. See I, n. 161. 278 876. See I, App. IV. Page #158 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 133 wakeful person passing the night with a story full of flavors. The nun administered the lesser vows to her, and went elsewhere. For generally ascetics do not stay in one place after the rains. Suddhabhatta made money and came back from abroad like a pigeon, drawn by his love for his wife. The Brāhman said to his wife : 'My dear, how did you endure separation from me, since you were formerly unable to endure it, like a lotus unable to bear cold ?' Sulaksaņā explained: 'Listen, lord of my life. Like a duck into the desert, like a fish into a little water, like the crescent-moon into the mouth of Rāhu, like a deer into a forest-fire, I fell into separation from you, hard to bear, the gate to death. Like a light in darkness, like a ship on the ocean, like rain in a desert, like an uninjured eye to a blind person, the nun Vipulā, a wide ocean of compassion only, came to me when I had fallen into separation from you. At the sight of her, my grief arising from separation from you disappeared. I attained right-belief, the fruit of human birth.' Suddhabhațţa replied, O wife, what is this rightbelief which is called the fruit of human birth ?' Sulaksaņā said: 'Listen, noble husband. This should be told to dear ones. You are dearer than life. Whatever knowledge of divinity there is in reference to God, whatever conception of a guru there is in reference to a guru, whatever pure idea of dharma there is in reference to dharma, that is called "right-belief.' On the contrary, whatever idea of God there is in regard to non-God, whatever thought of a guru in regard to a non-guru, whatever conception of dharma in regard to non-dharma, that is wrong-belief. The Omniscient, who has overcome the faults, love, etc., worshipped by the three worlds, giving true interpretation, God, Arhat, Supreme Lord, must be meditated on, he must be served, he must be sought as refuge. His teaching alone must be adopted, if there is understanding. The gods who are stained with marks of women, weapons, a rosary, etc., love, etc., devoted to blame and Page #159 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 134 favor are of no use for emancipation. How would they, confused by afflictions in the form of acting, loud laughter, concerts, etc., understand people who had attained a subdued state? Those who observe the great vows, firm, living only on alms, absorbed in tranquillity of mind,379 teachers of dharma, are considered gurus. Those who desire all things, enjoy all things, have possessions, unchaste, teachers of false belief, are not gurus. How can they, sunk in possessions and worldly undertakings, lead others (across saṁsāra)? A poor man himself is not able to make another a lord. Dharma, so called from the raising of creatures fallen into an evil state of existence, with ten divisions, self-control, etc.,280 is taught by the Omniscient for emancipation. If superhuman speech did not exist, there would be no authority. For authority is dependent upon the speech of the Arhats.2 The dharma taught by heretics, defiled by hinsa, etc., though known as dharma,' is the cause of wandering in births. If God 282 should feel love, if a guru should be unchaste, and dharma deprived of compassion, oh! oh! the world is lost, alas ! Right-belief is characterized completely by five characteristics: tranquillity, desire for emancipation, disgust with the world, compassion, and faith in the principles of truth.283 Firmness in Jain doctrine, promulgation of Jain doctrine, devotion to Jain doctrine, expertness in it, and service to the tirthas are taught as its five ornaments.284 Doubt, acceptance of other doctrines, hate of the Tirthankaras' speech, praise of false doctrine, acquaintance with it are five things able to corrupt right-belief.' 285 281 " 279 896. Sāmāyika. See I, n. 122. 280 896. See I, n. 38 and n. 40. 281 900. See 3. 441 ff., page 100. 282 902. Deva must refer, as often, to the Tirthankaras. The gods, ordinarily speaking, were not free from the passions. 283 903. Cf. I, n. 121; Yog. 2. 15. See I, n. 120; Yog. 2. 16. See I, n. 119; Yog. 2. 17. 284 285 904. 905. CHAPTER THREE Page #160 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE INITIATION AND OMNISCIENCE OF AJITA 135 The Brāhman said, 'O wife, you are fortunate, since you have taken up right-belief entirely, like a deposit.' Suddhabhațța then adopted right-belief. For instructors in dharma are merely witnesses to the dharma of the pure-minded. They both became laymen from instruction in right-belief. Even lead and tin may become gold from mercury. In that Brāhman village, the people at that time were without lay-dharma, from absence of contact with monks, and false-belief gradually arose. The people criticized them, saying,' They, evil-minded, have abandoned their inherited religion and have become Jain laymen.' Scorning criticism, they continued to be Jain laymen, and in course of time they had a son, the fruit of the tree of the householder-state. One day in the cool season the Brāhman took his son and went at dawn to the fire-pan for religious duties which was surrounded by the Brāhman assembly. Saying, * You are a Jain layman. Go elsewhere! Go!' the angry Brāhmans reviled him like an outcaste. And the Brāhmans stood, surrounding the religious fire-pan completely. For their caste-law is jealous. Then embarrassed and angry at their shaming words, in the presence of the assembly he made a vow : 'If the religion taught by the Jina does not lead across the ocean of existence; if the Arhats are not venerable, omniscient, and founders of congregations; if right-knowledge, -belief, and -conduct are not the path of nirvāņa; if there is not right-belief on earth, then may my son be burned. If all that is, may this fire, even though burning, be cool as water to my son. With these words, burning with anger like another fire, the impetuous Brāhman threw his son in the fire. His son is burned by that wretch ! His own son is burned, oh! oh!' The assembly reviled him with such abuse. A divinity present there, who possessed right-belief, at once threw the child, like a bee, into a lotus. Quickly she took the power of burning from the flame of the fire Page #161 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 136 CHAPTER THREE terrible with a multitude of flames and made it as if it were painted. In a former birth she had died, opposing asceticism, and had become a Vyantari. Questioned by her in regard to gaining enlightenment, the Kevalin said, 'Enlightenment is easy for you to gain, O sinless one. For its sake you must be duly devoted to perseverance in meditation and right-belief. Wearing his speech constantly on her heart like a necklace, she protected the boy for the glorification of right-belief. When they saw this demonstration of power, the Brāhmans, who had never seen such a thing before in their lives, became wide-eyed with astonishment. After he had gone home, the Brāhman, delighted, told his wife the result of firm belief in right-belief. His wife, who possessed discernment from close association with the nun Vipulā, said, 'Alas! what have you done ? This inconsiderate anger of yours, though crooked, became straight certainly through the presence of some deity who has right-belief. If some divinity who had power solely from right-belief had not been near at that time, your son would have perished. Moreover, those meli, especially wicked, would have said, “ This religion taught by the Jina is not authority. In that case how much more is it not authority.” Some foolish person may do such a thing as you have done. Henceforth, noble husband, you must not do such an unconsidered thing.' After saying this, she brought her husband here before me in order to make firm his right-belief. The Brāhman asked his question with this in mind and I replied, "This is the power of right-belief.'” After hearing this talk of the Blessed One, many other persons were enlightened and acquired firm dharma. Buddhabhatta and his wife became mendicants in the Blessed One's presence, and gradually attained omniscience. The Blessed One, the Lord, completed his preaching and wandered from that place over the earth, devoted solely to the benefit of the world, shining with the dharmacakra going in advance, like the cakravartin with his cakra. Page #162 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER IV CONQUEST OF BHARATAVARṢA BY SAGARA The appearance of the cakra (1-28) Now, the cakra-jewel, named Sudarśana, arose in King Sagara's armory, its rim made of gold, its spokes of lohitakṣa; wreathed with a circlet of small bells of variegated gold and jewels; possessing a joyful sound; adorned with spotless gems and pearls; with the hub made of diamond; beautified with a row of little bells; 286 adorned with wreaths of flowers of all the seasons; anointed, standing in the sky, attended by a thousand Yakṣas. When he saw it appear, terrible with a wreath of flame like the disc of the sun, the superintendent of the armory bowed to the cakra. After he had worshipped the cakra with various wreaths of flowers, delighted, he went quickly and reported to Sagara. Sagara instantly abandoned his lion-throne, foot-stool, and shoes, just as at the sight of a teacher. After taking a few steps, setting the cakra in his mind, he bowed to it. For the ones who live by weapons make divinities of weapons. When he had taken his seat on the lion-throne, he gave all the ornaments on his body as a present to the man who announced the appearance of the cakra. Then the King took an auspicious bath with pure water and put on divine ornaments and garments. The King went on foot to worship the cakrajewel. For approach on foot is superior to a pūjā even. He was followed by kings, running, stumbling, falling from excessive haste, going on foot like servants. He was followed by men, though unsummoned, carrying the 286 3. Apparently it had a circlet of bells around the rim and another on the hub. Page #163 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 138 CHAPTER FOUR materials for a pūjā. For carelessness in their own duties is cause for fear on the part of servants. Sagara went to his armory occupied by the cakra and shining with great splendor like a heavenly palace occupied by a god. The King bowed to the cakra-jewel equal to the sun, touching the ground with five parts of the body, merely at its sight. He rubbed it quickly with a woolen brush in his hand, like an elephant-driver a fine elephant when it has risen from sleep. He bathed the cakra like a statue of a god with pitchers of water delivered by men who kept bringing them. The King made tilakas of sandal on it, which resembled the beauty of his own hand given for the acceptance of the cakra. With variegated wreaths of flowers the King made the cakra-jewel a pūjā which resembled a conservatory of the Lakşmi of victory. The Cakrabhột threw perfume and fragrant powdered sandal on the cakra, like an ācārya on a statue at the time of its dedication. The King adorned the cakra, like himself, with valuable clothes and ornaments suitable for gods. He drew the eight auspicious objects before it, like magic circles for attracting the Śrīs of victory of the eight quarters. Like a seventh season 287 the King made a present of five-colored flowers of perfect fragrance in front of it. The King burned incense of camphor and aloes before it, making an ointment of musk with smoke, as it were. After he had circumambulated it three times and had withdrawn some distance, the Cakrin bowed to the cakra, the ocean for the birth of the Sri of victory.288 The King made an eight-day festival to the cakra-jewel, as one does to a newly installed statue. A pājā-festival was made to the cakra by all the citizens with great magnificence, as if to a city- or village-deity. Then the King went to his abode, eager for the expedition of conquest in all directions, as if invited by the cakra. 287 23. There are 6 seasons in India. 288 25. See I, n. 89. Page #164 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONQUEST OF BHARATAVARȘA BY SAGARA 139 Conquest of Māgadhatīrtha (29-82) Sagara went to the bath-house and bathed with pure water like Airavata 289 in the stream of the Gangā. His body polished like a jeweled pillar with a divine cloth, the King put on two divine spotless garments. Perfumers anointed the King with gośirşa-sandal essence clear as moonlight. The King adorned his ornaments by contact with his body. Even ornaments gain luster by being in the best place. At an auspicious moment, after an auspicious ceremony had been performed by the family-priest, the King mounted the elephant-jewel, carrying the sword-jewel, for the expedition of universal conquest. Mounting the horsejewel, carrying the staff-jewel, the general-jewel set out in front of the King. The priest-jewel, resembling the sun for removing the frost of all calamities, set out with the King. The steward-jewel, able to provide meals for the army at every camp, like a living Citrarasa wishingtree, set out with them. The carpenter, resembling Viśvakarman turned into a jewel, possessing power competent to make cities, etc., at once, went along. The umbrella- and skin-jewels, which expand from a touch of the hand, like clouds from the touch of a favorable wind, went along. The gem- and cowrie-jewels,201 able to destroy darkness, resembling the suns of Jambūdvipa diminished in size, accompanied him. The women of his household, like the shadow of the Cakrin's body, went along, like a retinue of many slaves that had come from the Amazonian kingdom. The cakra, like the King's prestige, went ahead toward the east, its conquest of the heavens not repelled, lighting the sky from afar. Causing the sky-elephants to flap their pricked-up 280 29. Or perhaps indrakunjara is an inverted cmpd. here, rather than Airāvata. 200 36. See I, p. 30. 201 39. See I, pp. 233 ff., and notes 295 and 296. Page #165 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 140 CHAPTER FOUR ears by the sounds of the marching-drums resembling the sound of a mass of Puşkarāvartaka-clouds; soon making heaven and earth one thing, like a hemispherical bowl and its cover, by the dust raised by the hooves of the horses advancing in a circle; making the sky resemble the ocean with its sea-monsters by the skeat-fish and makaras on the chariot- and elephant-banners; producing a rainy day, as it were, by the masses of troops of elephants shining with sevenfold 202 dripping streams of mada; covering the earth completely with a crore of foot-soldiers leaping with joy as if wishing to ascend to the sky; resplendent with the cakra-jewel going in front like a general with irresistible magnificence and with unblunted power at all times; the earth, rough from high places, etc., made level by the general with the staff-jewel like a harrow; traversing the road with an easy gait like a bhadraelephant, with a yojana's march every day; equal to Prācinabarhis, in a few days he arrived at the Māgadhacountry 299 in the east, the only tilaka on the face of the Gangā. Then the carpenter-jewel, at the command of Cakrabhịt Sagara, made a camp like a younger brother of Vinitā, with many extensive lofty elephant-houses, with horse-stables like huge caverns by the thousand, with mansions thinking themselves palaces of the gods and pavilions thinking themselves clouds, with markets of equal shape as if made from one model, provided with highways and rows of embellishments of triangular places, etc., nine yojanas wide and twelve long. There in the pauşadha-house, 204 the King observed a three days? fast, placing the prince of Māgadhatirtha in his mind. A11 his ornaments removed, reclining on a couch of kuśa-grass, his weapons laid aside, observing continence, 292 45. The 7 streams flow from the kara (2), kața (2), medhra (I), and netra (2). See Mallinātha's com. to the Raghuvansa 4. 23. 298 50. I.e., of Māgadhatīrtha. 55. See I, notes 281 and 270. Page #166 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONQUEST OF BHARATAVARȘA BY SAGARA 141 he kept watch continually. When the three days' fast was finished, the King left the pauşadha-house and bathed with pure water. The King got into his chariot covered with light-colored banners and filled with various weapons like the ocean with sea-foam and sea-monsters, adorned with four divine bells hanging at the sides, like Meru with four suns and moons, equipped with horses entirely equal to Uccaiḥśravas, their necks free from yokes. Adorned with his fourfold army-elephants, horses, chariots, and infantry—like his own polity with the four expedients (upāya), shining with the umbrella over his head and chauris at his sides like three bulbs of the vine of glory extending through the three worlds, carrying in his hand a bow with the bow-string stretched, Sagara then plunged into the ocean until the water was up to the hub of the chariot-wheel. With his hand the King twanged the stretched bow-string, the prologue to the play of the Sri of victory, and drew an arrow from the quiver like a jewel from a treasury. At the center of the bow the King set the arrow resembling the Işvākāra Mts. in the center of Dhātakikhanda. The King drew to his ear the powerful arrow, which attained the rank of an earring, golden, marked with his own name. He discharged the arrow, which sounded with its hissing feather like a new Garuda in the sky, at the Lord of Magadhatirtha. It crossed twelve yojanas of the ocean in a twinkling and fell in the council of the Prince of Māgadhatirtha. When he saw the arrow like an unexpected stroke of lightning, the Lord of Māgadha at once became angry, terrifying by his frown. After he had reflected a little, he arose and took the arrow himself, and saw Cakrin Sagara's name on it. Holding the arrow, he sat down again on his lion-throne and said to his own assembly in a deep voice : “In the country named Bharata in Jambūdvipa, the second Cakravartin, Sagara by name, has arisen now. Verily, gifts are necessarily made by past, future, and present lords of Māgadha to the cakravartins.' Page #167 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 142 CHAPTER FOUR After speaking in this humble manner, he approached respectfully Cakrin Sagara with gifts, like a servant. Standing in the air, he gave the King the arrow, ornamentsnecklace, armlets, earrings, bracelets, etc.,--and devadūșyaclothes. The Prince of Māgadha gave water from Māgadhatirtha to the King, like a physician giving mercury. Folding his hands submissively to resemble exactly a lotus-bud, the Lord of Māgadha said to the King, “In this Bharatazone in the east, I am always the executor of your commands like a vassal dwelling on the border." Then the King accepted him as a servant and dismissed him, after he had rewarded him, like a fortress-governor of his own. Like a rising sun Sagara left the water of the ocean, veiling the sky by his own great splendor. Then the elephant of kings went to his camp; and with his retinue broke his fast, preceded by a bath and worship of the gods. Then the Cakrin made an eight-day festival for the Lord of Māgadhatirtha. For servants have dignity given by their masters. Conquest of Varadāmatirtha (83–108) Then the Cakrin's cakra-jewel, equal to bail for the winning of the Sris of victory of all directions, set out to the south. Following the cakra, the Cakrin advanced by a southwest path, making the earth with its mountains move, as it were, by his soldiers. Rooting up some kings like a wind trees; digging up some like clumps of rice and replanting them; setting up some new ones just like pillars of glory; releasing others after making them bow, like a river-flood bending cane; cutting off the fingers of some kings; making others give tribute of jewels; making some abandon elephants and horses, and others umbrellas, Sagara arrived gradually at the bank of the southern ocean with the firm resolution to conquer all the world. Descending from the elephant's shoulder in the camp made instantly, the Cakrabhịt dwelt in a house like Vajrabhịt in a heavenly palace. In the pausadha-house there the King made a three days' fast, and continued Page #168 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONQUEST OF BHARATAVARSA BY SAGARA 143 to observe pausadha, thinking of Varadāman. At the end of the three days' fast, Sagara, the pauṣadha completed, mounted his great chariot which seemed to be cut from the sun. Sagara plunged into the ocean with the chariot till the water was up to the hub, like plunging into a churning of milk with the churning stick. Fastening the bow-string to the top of the bow, he made it hum, being heard by the sea-animals with drooping ears, distressed by fear. Then the King drew from the quiver an arrow terrifying even to the terrifying, like a snake-charmer drawing a serpent from a hole. After he had set it on the middle of the bow, the King brought the arrow near his ear like a servant wishing to make a request. The Cakrabhṛt discharged the arrow at the house of the Lord of Varadāman, like Vajrabhṛt a thunderbolt at a mountain. The arrow, resembling an unexpected blow from a hammer, fell before the Prince of Varadaman who was present in the assembly. Saying, "Whose (name)-leaf has been turned up unexpectedly by Death?" the Lord of Varadāman himself got up and took the arrow. When he saw King Sagara's name, he grew quiet like a serpent at the sight of nagadamani.295 He explained to his assembly, "In Bharata of Jambudvipa, the second Cakrabhṛt, Sagara by name, has arisen. He is to be worshipped, with costly and varied garments and jeweled ornaments, like a divinity that has come to the house." Saying this, he took a respectful gift quickly and, standing in the air, approached the King in his chariot. He delivered to the King diadems, jewels, pearl wreaths, armlets, bracelets, etc., like a keeper of a treasury, and the arrow. The Lord of Varadāman said, "Henceforth, I shall be the executor of your commands even in my own country allotted (for rule) by Sakra." The King, knowing 295 99. Artemisia vulgaris, or wormwood, considered an antidote for snake-bite. Page #169 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 144 CHAPTER FOUR what was proper, accepted his gifts, agreed to his speech, rewarded him, and dismissed him. Then the Cakrin turned, following the path of the cakra, his chariot-horses neighing at the sight of jalavājins.298 Returning to the camp, he got out of the chariot, bathed, worshipped the Jina, and broke his fast of three days. Sagara held a big eight-day festival in honor of the Prince of Varadāman. For lords show honor to their devotés. Conquest of Prabhāsatirtha (109-126) Then the King set out, following the path of the cakrajewel to the west, obscuring the sun by the dust of the army. Quickly putting the Draviļas 207 to fight, like a garuda serpents; blinding the Andhras by his own splendor like the sun blinding owls; causing signs of royalty to be abandoned by the Trikalingas,298 as well as power; making the Vidarbhas powerless as couches of darbha-grass ; making the Mahārāștras abandon their realms like beggars in rags; branding the Kaunkaņas like horses 208 with arrows; making the Lāțas fold their hands on their foreheads as if they were in pain; making the Kacchas contract on all sides like large turtles; reducing to submission the Surāṣtras fierce like their country,800 the King gradually arrived at the shore of the western ocean. After he had established camp, concentrating on 90 296 106. Coomaraswamy identifies this creature as one with the head of a horse and the tail of a fish. See Yakşas, II, pl. 43, fig. 2. 297 110. There are puns on the names of all these peoples, impossible to reproduce in translation. 298 III. The MSS. read olingāni instead of ocihnāni of the ed., which is certainly better, as it supplies the pun. I can find no authority whatever for the ed.'s interpretation of liñga as 'bodily humor. I have taken asu=prāna. 299 112. Probably an allusion to the fact that some breeds of horses from this part of the country have always been well-known. 800 114. This comparison seems strange. The people of that part of India are generally spoken of in quite opposite terms, and Surāştra is called the garden of India.' Page #170 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONQUEST OF BHARATAVARSA BY SAGARA 145 Prabhâsa, observing a three days' fast, he began pausadha in the pausadha-house. At the end of the three days' fast, the King got into his chariot, like the sun, and plunged into Lavaņoda till the water was up to the hub. After stringing his bow, he made the bow-string resound, resembling the sound of a victory-drum for the success of the journey of the arrow. He discharged the arrow with his name, like a messenger removing all doubt, at the house of the Lord of Prabhāsatirtha. At the end of twelve yojanas the arrow fell into the house of the god Prabhāsa, like a bird into a tree. When he saw the arrow, the chief of those acting with circumspection read on it the name of Cakrin Sagara. Collecting gifts and taking the arrow, he approached King Sagara with devotion, as if he were a guru who was a guest. Standing in the air, he gave a crest-jewel, two golden breast-ornaments, bracelets, a girdle, and armlets to the King, and also the arrow. He said to the King of Vinītā respectfully, “In this district, O Cakravartin, I shall dwell henceforth as the executor of your commands." After accepting the gifts and conversing with him considerately, the King dismissed Prabhāsa like a minister. Sagara went to camp, bathed, worshipped the Jina, and with his retinue broke his three days' fast. Delighted, the King made an eight-day festival for the Lord of Prabhāsatirtha, as he had done for the Lord of Varadāman. Conquest of the Sindhu (127–135) Then the Cakrin went behind the cakra by the south bank of the Sindhu towards the east with his army which resembled the Sindhu flowing backwards.301 Not far from the house of the goddess Sindhu, the King made a camp resembling a city of Gandharvas which had suddenly descended to earth. Putting the goddess Sindhu in his mind, the King made a three days' fast, and the jeweled 801 127. I.e., the Sindhu flowed to the west. 10 Page #171 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 146 CHAPTER FOUR throne of the goddess Sindhu shook. She knew by clairvoyant knowledge that the Cakrin had come and, full of devotion, she approached him, bearing gifts. Standing in the air, she gave one thousand and eight jeweled pitchers like a deposit, two golden thrones variegated with gems and jewels, jeweled ornaments, armlets, bracelets, etc., and devadūşya-cloths to the King. The goddess said, “O best of kings, now I am dwelling in your country like a servant. Command me." The King replied to her with words surpassing draughts of nectar, dismissed her, and broke his three days' fast. As before, he made an eightday festival to the goddess Sindhu. For on every occasion there are festivals from the powerful to the noble. Conquest of Vaitādhya (135-144) The cakra left the armory, like an elephant its own stable, for the home of the Śris to the northeast. Following it, in a few days the King arrived at the south slope of the great mountain, Vaitādhya. After establishing a camp like a city of the Vidyādharas on it, he made a three days' fast against the Prince of Vaitādhya. When the King's fast of three days was finished, the lion-throne of the Prince of Vaitādhya shook. Then he knew by clairvoyant knowledge that Cakrin Sagara had approached the boundary of the half of Bharata. He approached and, standing in the air, gave the King divine jewels and clothes, thrones and vīrāsanas. “Long live! Long rejoice! Long be victorious ! Hail!” delighted, he said to the King, like a priest. Sagara replied to him with honor, as if he were a dear kinsman of his own, then dismissed him, and broke his three days' fast. He made an eight-day festival, like a golden finial on the palace of his own favor, to the Prince of Mt. Vaitāļhya. Conquest of Tamisrā (144-152) Then, following the cakra, the King went near the cave Tamisrā and, making his camp, dwelt there like a Page #172 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONQUEST OF BHARATAVARSA BY SAGARA 147 lion. He directed his mind on the god Krtamāla, and made a three days' fast. For the great do not abandon their duty. When the King's three days' fast was finished, his (Kịtamāla's) throne shook. For even mountains shake at the exertion of such people. By employing clairvoyant knowledge, Kệtamāla knew that the Cakrin had arrived and, standing in the air, approached him like his lord. He gave the collection of ornaments, of which the tilaka is the fourteenth,802 suitable for the woman-jewel, garments, sandal-powder, wreaths, etc. Saying, “Hail! Hail ! Your Majesty," he promised service. For the cakrins must be served by gods as well as men. After conversing with him graciously, the King dismissed him, and with his retinue broke his fast of three days. Then Sagara considerately held an eight-day festival for the god Kệtamāla. For that gives pleasure to the gods. Conquest of the southern district of the Sindhu (153–175) At the end of the eight-day festival, Sagara instructed his general to conquer the west district 80% of the Sindhu 302 149. See I, n. 290. 808 153. The 'sindhuniskuta 'is the part of Bharatavarşa bounded on the east and south by the Sindhu, on the west by the ocean, and on the north by the Kşudrahimavat Mts. It is divided by Mt. Vaitādhya into north and south 'nişkuțas.' The same applies to the Gangāniskuța which is bounded by the Gangā on the west and the ocean on the east. Here it is the southern district that is conquered. Below, in 243, it is the northern part, though Hem. uses only paścima' in both cases. In 1. 4. 249, 458, 539 and 586, Hem. Specifies the northern and southern divisions. In the Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen (1932, pp. 293 ff.) Prof. Schubring discusses Hem.'s variations from the accounts Jamb. and Āva. of this expedition of conquest. Prof. Schubring is mistaken, however, in saying that in the first parvan, Hemacandra has combined the conquests of the north and south divisions into one. In the Trişaşțio, as in the Jambūdvipaprajñapti, the general is sent to conquer the south Sindhuniskuța; then after his return they march through Tamisrā, subdue the Kirātas, and then the general conquers the north Sindhunişkuța. In the conquest of the Gangāniskuța, Hem. Page #173 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 148 CHAPTER FOUR with half his army. The general, his hands folded in submission, accepted the King's command on his head like a wreath. Famous in Bhāratavarşa, bold and powerful like wind, with intense splendor like the sun, knowing the dialects of all the Mlecchas, learned in all the alphabets, possessing varied and beautiful speech like the son of Sarasvati, knowing the entrances and exits of inaccessible places in land and water of all the divisions 804 present in Bharatakşetra, skilled in all weapons like embodied Dhanurveda, having bathed, having performed the propitiatory rites of the tilaka and auspicious things, wearing a few pearl ornaments like the bright fortnight constellations, resolute, carrying a bow like a cloud with a rainbow, carrying the jewel called ' skin' like the ocean with a mass of coral, and adorned besides with the raised staff like a pool with a white lotus, shining with chauris like tilákas of sandal on his shoulders, making the sky resound with sounds of musical instruments, like a cloud with thunder, accompanied by the fourfold army, the general mounted the best elephant and went close to the river Sindhu. Then the general touched the skin-jewel with his own hand, and it grew and became the shape of a boat on the Sindhu. The general with his army crossed the Sindhu by it as easily as the chief of yogis crosses the boundless ocean of existence by yoga. As a rutting elephant leaves an iron pillar, the powerful general left the bank of the Sindhu, unstumbling. The general invaded the Sinhalokas, the Barbarakas, Tankaņas and others, and Yayanadvipa. At will he made the Kālamukhas, the Jonakas, and various Mleccha-tribes living on Vaitādhya pay tribute. The also follows the Jamb. The general conquers first the north division, then they march through Khandaprapātā, subdue the nine tre and then the general conquers the south Gangāniskuta. In the second parvan, Sagara follows the same route, though the description is much briefer. 304 157. Cf. I. 4. 252. In this case the use of nişkuța is not so inappropriate as in the former. Cf. I, n. 291, and G.G.A., 32, p. 295. Page #174 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONQUEST OF BHARATAVARSA BY SAGARA 149 general, powerful like a bull, attacked with ease the Kacchacountry, the best in the whole country. Returning from its extremity, the general remained in its plain, like an elephant returned from water-play. The Mlecchas, lords of isolated villages, towns, villages, etc., went from all sides to him there as if drawn by a noose. They brought varied ornaments, jewels, and garments, silver, gold, horses, elephants, chariots, and whatever other choice treasures they had to the general, as if they were entrusted as a deposit. "We shall remain here subject to you, paying taxes like householders," they said to the general, their hands folded submissively. The general accepted their presents, and dismissed them; came and crossed the Sindhu by the skin-jewel as before. He went and delivered all that to King Sagara. For riches come like servants, drawn by the power of the powerful. Passage through Tamisra (176-195) Sagara remained in that camp for a long time, attended by kings who had come from afar, like the ocean by rivers. One day, he instructed the general, carrying the staffkey, to open the leaves of the south door to Tamisra. He went near Tamisra and made a three days' fast with reference to the god Kṛtamāla. For the gods are generally won by penance. At the end of the three days' fast, after he had bathed and put on clean garments and ointment, taking an incense burner, he went to the cave like a divinity. Bowing at the sight of it, the general stood at the door like a door-keeper, like a policeman. After he had made an eight-day festival to it (the cave) and had drawn the eight auspicious things, the general struck its doors with the staff-jewel. Making the creaking-sound,' sarat, sariti,' the doors opened at once like the halves of a dry pod. He reported to Sagara the opening of the doors announced by the noise of 'sarat, sariti.' The King mounted the elephant-jewel and, attended by the fourfold army like one of the Dikpālas, went there. He placed the gem-jewel on the right frontal boss of the Page #175 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 150 CHAPTER FOUR elephant-jewel, like a gleaming lamp on a lamp-stand. Then, following the cakra, the Cakrin, with unstumbling gait like a lion, entered the cave Tamisrā fifty yojanas long. As he went, the King drew circles with the cowrie to destroy darkness, forty-nine of them, a yojana apart, alternating on the two walls of the cave, five hundred bows in length and width. The door of the cave remains open and the circles inside the cave remain as long as the Cakrabhrt lives. A light was produced in the cave by them resembling the row of suns and moons at the boundary of Mānuşottara. In the middle he arrived at two rivers, named 'Unmagnā' and 'Nimagnā,' flowing from the east and west walls of the cave, going to the Sindhu.305 Even a stone thrown in Unmagnā floats, but even a gourd thrown in Nimagnā sinks. The King with his army crossed them as easily as a house-stream by a road paved at once by the carpenter-jewel. Gradually he arrived at the north door of Tamisrā. Its leaves opened of their own accord like a lotus-bud. Sagara, seated on an elephant's back, left the inside of the cave like the sun the ocean, with his retinue. Conquest of northern half of Bharata (196–242) As soon as they had seen Sagara causing humiliation to the sun by the light of his weapons on all sides, making the eyes of the Khecara-women wink especially by the dust from the ground, shaking the earth by the weight of his multitude of soldiers, producing deafness of heaven and earth by tumultuous noises, resembling some one who has appeared unexpectedly from a curtain, or has come down from the sky, or risen from Pātāla, with a dense array of endless soldiers, terrifying by the cakra in advance, like an ocean attacking, Kirātas, named Apātas, whose 305 191. See I, p. 235. Page #176 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONQUEST OF BHARATAVARȘA BY SAGARA 151 attack is painful, haughty from pride in their strength, said to each other angrily and sarcastically : “Oh, all you powerful men, say who is this, seeker of the unsought (death), devoid of dignity, shame, intelligence, and renown, lacking in favorable marks, thinking himself a hero, blind from conceit, who enters this country now, ha! a buffalo into a forest occupied by a lion ?” Saying this, the mighty Mleccha-kings attacked the van of the army of Cakrapāņi, like the asuras that of Vajrapāņi. Instantly the army appeared defeated, its elephants disappeared, its horses killed, its chariots with broken axles. When the Cakrin's general saw his own army defeated by the Kirātas, angered like Yama, he mounted his horse-jewel. After drawing the sword-jewel that was like a comet that had risen, like a powerful wind he rushed against the Mlecchas. He rooted up some Mlecchas, crushed some, and made some fall, like a forestelephant trees. The Kirātas, broken by him, powerless, ran away for many yojanas quickly, like cotton blown by the wind. After they had gone a long distance and had come to the bank of the Sindhu river, they remained supine on a couch of sand, their clothes removed. Thinking of their family-deities, the MeghamukhaNāgakumāras, they, very impatient, commenced a three days' fast. At the end of the three days' fast the seats of the gods shook, and they saw by clairvoyance resembling eyes the Kirātas in such a condition. Like fathers, they suffered pain from their pain from sympathy. Approaching them, standing in the sky, the Meghamukhas said: “O children, why are you like this? Tell us the reason without hesitation, so that we may assist you." Then the Kirātas said, “Some one came into our country though difficult of access, like submarine-fire into the ocean. We, defeated by him, have come to you for protection. See to it for us that he goes away and does not return again." The gods replied, “You are ignorant of him like Page #177 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 152 CHAPTER FOUR moths of a fire. For that reason you talk like this, friends. For he is the Cakravartin, Sagara by name, powerful, possessing the power of Sakra, invincible to gods and asuras. He, like the thunderbolt, can be conquered by no one, outside the sphere of weapons, fire, poison, charms, water, spells, magic arts, etc. Nevertheless, at your request we will cause trouble to the powerful Cakrin, like mosquitoes to an elephant." Saying this, the Meghavadanas departed, stood over the camp, and spread a terrible rain-cloud. The heavens were filled with such a dense darkness that the people could not distinguish objects, as if blind from birth. They rained on the camp with streams of water the size of a rice-pestle for seven nights, unchecked like a wind. When the Cakravartin saw this ill-omened rain unbroken, he touched the skin-jewel with his lotus-hand. Instantly it grew to the size of the camp and, stretched out horizontally, floated on top of the water. The King with his army got into it like a great boat and, touching the umbrellajewel, he made it spread out like the skin-jewel. He put the umbrella above the skin, like a cloud above the earth, and set the gem-jewel at the bottom of the umbrella-handle for light. Between the umbrella and the skin the King's camp remained comfortable, like a crowd of Asuras and Vyantaras within the earth.306 The steward sowed all grain, vegetables, fruit, etc., at daybreak and supplied them at evening. Such is the power of the jewels. The Meghamukhas continued to rain unceasingly in the same way with unbroken streams of water, like evilspeaking people with evil speech. Sagara thought angrily to himself, "Who are these who have undertaken to destroy me-the fools!" The sixteen thousand attendant-gods, angered, armored, carrying weapons, approached and said to them: "O villains of little wit, do you not know this is Cakravartin Sagara, invincible to gods, etc.? So, go at See above, p. 106 f. 306 227. Page #178 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONQUEST OF BHARATAVARŞA BY SAGARA 153 once, if you desire your own good. Otherwise, we will cut you into pieces like a gourd.” The Meghamukhas, so addressed by them, terrified, dispersed the clouds at once, and disappeared somewhere like fish in water. The Meghamukha-gods went then to the Kirātas, the Apātas, and announced to them, “The Cakravartin is not to be conquered by such as us." Then the Kirātas, frightened, with their garments put on like women, took a present of jewels and went to Sagara as a refuge. Falling at the Cakravartin's feet in submission, their folded hands placed to their heads, the Kirātas declared : “We undertook this against you from ignorance, O master, like arrogant sarabhas jumping against a cloud.807 It was done without reflection. Therefore, pardon us, O lord. For a burst of anger on the part of the noble is terminated by submission. Henceforth we shall remain here as householders, foot-soldiers, or vassals at your command. For our condition depends on you." The Cakrin replied to them: “Having become subject to me, remain, paying tribute like the vassals of the southern half of Bharata." After conversing with them in this way and rewarding them, the King dismissed the Kirātas; and instructed the general to conquer the west district 308 of the Sindhu. Conquest of the north district of the Sindhu (243–245) The general crossed the Sindhu as before by the skin and conquered the district of the Sindhu, bounded by the mountain and ocean. After the general, possessing cruel strength, had taken tribute from the Mlecchas, he went to Sagara, like a cloud full of water. Enjoying varied delights, honored by kings, he remained in that same place for a long time. There is no foreign country to the powerful. 807 238. Proverbial for wasted effort. Cf. I, n. 302. 308 242. See n. 303. This is the north part. Page #179 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 154 CHAPTER FOUR Conquest of Kșudrahimavat (246-258) One day the Cakrin's cakra left the armory by a northeast path, like the sun in summer. Following the cakra, the King reached the southern slope of the Kșudrahimavat Mountains 800 and stopped there, taking up his abode. Concentrating on the Prince of Kșudrahimavat, he made a three days' fast, and commenced pausadha in the pausadha-house. At the end of pausadha, he got into a chariot, went to the Kșudrahimavat Mountains, and struck them three times with the end of his chariot, like an elephant with his tusk. After he had halted his horses and had strung his bow, the King discharged an arrow marked with his own name. Traversing seventytwo yojanas like a kos in a moment, it fell on the ground in front of the Prince of Kșudrahimavat. He was angered at once by the arrow, but became calm instantly from the name on the arrow. Standing in the air, he gave gośirşasandal, all the herbs, water from the lake Padma, devadūşya(-garments), the arrow, jeweled ornaments, and wreaths of flowers of the kalpa-tree, and promised service, saying, “Long live !” After dismissing him, then the King turned his chariot, went to Mt. Rşabhakūta, 810 and struck it three times in the same way. Holding his horses, he engraved with the cowrie the words, “Sagara, the second Cakravartin," on the front of the mountain. Then turning the chariot, the King returned to the camp and broke his three days' fast. Sagara, who had vowed a complete procession of conquest, made an eight-day festival to the Prince of the Hima Mountains, with great magni. ficence. Conquest of the goddess Gangā (259-263) Then following the cakra by the northeast path, the King arrived comfortably near the palace of the goddess 309 247. The north boundary of Bharatavarşa. 310 255. In the middle of the north part of Bharata. Jamb. 17, p. 87a. Page #180 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONQUEST OF BHARATAVARŞA BY SAGARA 155 Ganga. The King placed his camp not far from the palace of Gangā, and made a three days' fast concentrating on Gangā. Like the goddess Sindhu, Gangā knew from the shaking of her throne and, at the end of the three days' fast, approached the Cakravartin, standing in the air. She gave one thousand and eight jeweled pitchers and two jeweled lion-thrones decorated with gold and gems. After dismissing Gargā, Sagara broke his three days' fast and, pleased at heart, held an eight-day festival for her pleasure. Conquest of Khandaprapātā (264–268) Then, his power unbroken, he went to Khandaprapātā in the southern direction by the path indicated by the cakra. He set his camp near Khandaprapātā and made a three days' fast directed toward Nāțyamālaka. At the end of the three days' fast, knowing (his coming) from the shaking of his throne, like the head of a village Nāțyamāla approached the King with presents. He gave various and numerous ornaments to the Cakravartin and promised service like a respectful king. Sagara dismissed him and immediately after the fast-breaking joyfully held an eightday festival for him, like a recompense for what he had done. Conquest of the northern district of the Gangā and the Vidyādharas (269–272) Then, at the command of the Cakradhara, the general with half the army conquered the eastern district of the Gangā, as he had those of the Sindhu. Sagara quickly conquered the Vidyādharas of the two rows on Mt. Vaitādhya as well as the kings living on the mountain. They gave jeweled ornaments, garments, elephants, and horses to the Cakravartin, and promised service. The King rewarded and dismissed the Vidyādharas. For the very powerful are satisfied with words even with the idea of service. Page #181 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 156 CHAPTER FOUR March through Khandaprapātā (273-276) At the King's command the general opened the cave Khandaprapātā, as he had Tamisrā, preceded by a three days' fast, etc. Sagara mounted the elephant, set the gem on the right frontal boss like the sun on the peak of Meru, and entered the cave. Drawing circles on both sides with the cowrie as before, after he had crossed the rivers Unmagnā and Nimagnā as before, the King, like a river's stream, left the cave by its south entrance which opened of its own accord. Conquest of the nine treasures (277–284) The King put his camp on the west bank of the Gangā, and made a three days' fast directed against the treasurejewels.811 At its end the nine treasures named Naisarpa, Pāṇdu, Pirgala, Sarvaratnaka, Mahāpadma, Kāla, Mahākāla, Māņava, and Sankhaka, each attended by a thousand gods, approached the King. They said: “We live in Māgadha(-tirtha) at the mouth of the Ganga and have come to you, illustrious sir, subdued by your good fortune. Enjoy and give as you like unhesitatingly. Even if the ocean could become exhausted, we could not be exhausted. Set on eight wheels, constantly filled by nine thousand Yakşas like your servants, twelve yojanas long and nine wide, we shall go along in the ground as your attendants, Your Majesty." The King assented to their speech, broke his fast, and held an eight-day festival to them like guests. Conquest of the southern district of the Gangā (285–287) At Sagara's command the general conquered the second eastern district of the goddess Jāhnavi like an earthwalled town. Bhāratavarşa has six parts: the four districts of the Gangā and the Sindhu and the two parts 311 an jewels.' 311 277. Properly speaking, the treasures were not They do not belong to the 14 'jewels.' Page #182 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONQUEST OF BHARATAVARȘA BY SAGARA 157 in between. Then Sagara ruled it with ease for thirty-two thousand years.812 The activities of the powerful who are not restless are accompanied by pleasure. Return to Vinītā (288–302) The lord of the fourteen jewels and of the nine treasures, served by thirty-two thousand kings, possessing the same number of wives of royal birth and accompanied by the same number of women of the people, lord of thirty-two thousand peoples, ruler of seventy-two thousand excellent cities, overlord of ninety-nine thousand towns accessible by both water and land,818 lord of forty-eight thousand towns accessible by land or water, protector of twenty-four thousand poor towns and isolated villages, lord of fourteen thousand grain-warehouses, defender of sixteen thousand earth.walled towns, and sole master of twenty thousand mines, leader of forty-nine poor dominions, protector of fifty-six island settlements, having won the suzerainty of ninety-six crores of villages, attended by ninety-six crores of foot-soldiers, covering the earth with eighty-four lacs of elephants, horses, and chariots each, following the path of the cakra-jewel, the Cakrin returned, like a boat filled with great wealth from an island. Sagara reached the city Vinītā like a wife, hastening on comfortably with daily marches of a yojana, possessing a wealth of suitable articles produced by village-chiefs, governors of fortresses, and sovereigns on the road, like the moon of the second day ; 814 his arrival announced from afar by the dust from the soldiers in front which extended to the sky, like chamberlains; deafening the heavens, as it were, by neighings, trumpetings, proclamations by bards, and the noise of musical instruments streaming forth as if in rivalry. Establishing his camp on the edge of 312 287. From his camp on the Gangā. Cf. I, p. 253. 318 291. See I, p. 263 and n. 322. $14 298. See I, n. 209. Page #183 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 158 CHAPTER FOUR Vinitā, like the ocean at its boundary, the King remained, a mountain of power. Winning of the woman-jewel (303–334) There one day Sagara, a depository of all the arts, mounted a spirited horse and went to the riding-ground to ride. There he exercised the clever horse, and gradually taught it better and better gaits. When it had acquired the fifth gait,816 it flew up in the sky, ignoring signals of the bridle, etc., as if supported by evil spirits. The horse, like a Rākşasa in the form of a horse, carried off Sagara, and unhesitatingly dashed forward rapidly into the great forest. By pulling on the bridle angrily and pressing on its sides with his thighs, Sagara stopped the horse, and jumped down. The horse fell helpless on the ground, and the King started out on foot. When he had gone a short distance, he saw a large pool like moonlight fallen to the ground, overcome by the rays of the sun. He bathed in it to remove fatigue, like a forest-elephant, and drank the water, sweet, clear, fragrant with lotuses, and cool. He left the pool, stood on the bank, and saw before him a maiden like the goddess of the water. Seeing her with a face like a young lotus, with eyes like a blue lotus, with the water of loveliness with high waves, with breasts like a pair of cakravākas, beautiful with proud hands and feet like blooming red lotuses, the Lakşmi of the pool embodied, he thought: “Is she an Apsaras, a Vyantari, a Nāga-maiden, or a Vidyādhari ? For such as she could not be an ordinary woman. The water of the pool does not make such joy in the heart as the sight of her, like a rain of nectar." Then she looked at the King with lotus-petal eyes like love that had been inspired at that very time. Afflicted by love at once she was led by her friends, who supported her with difficulty, to her abode, faded like a cluster of 315 305. Five gaits were recognized. See I, n. 304. Page #184 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONQUEST OF BHARATAVARŞA BY SAGARA 159 day-blooming lotuses at evening. As he was walking slowly on the bank of the pool, pining with love, Sagara was addressed by a chamberlain, who came, bowed, and spoke with folded hands: "O master, on Mt. Vaitāļhya in this same Bharatakşetra there is a city Gaganavallabha,816 a favorite of good fortune. In it there was a Vidyādhara-king, Sulocana, resembling Trilocanasakha (Kubera) in the city Alakā. There is a son of his, Sahasranayana, judicious; and this daughter, Sukeśa, a crest-jewel of all woman-kind. When she was born, she was described by an astrologer, 'She will be a woman-jewel, the chief-queen of a Cakravartin.' And now, again and again she has been demanded in marriage by Purnamegha, the King of Rathanūpura, who is in love with her. When her father did not give her to him, Pūrņamegha, thundering like a cloud, came to fight, wishing to seize her by violence. After fighting for a very long time, Pūrņamegha, powerful, sealed Sulocana's eyes in a long sleep. Taking his sister like a miser his wealth, Sahasranayana came here with his retinue, noble sir. While she was playing in the pool here, she saw you. Love taught her a painful passion quickly. Perspiring as if distressed by heat, transfixed like a puppet, her hair erect as if afflicted by cold, her voice stumbling as if she had a cold, trembling as if terrified, colorless like a sick person, shedding tears as if plunged in grief, absorbed in indifference like a follower of yoga, she reached a state of collapse at once from the sight of you. Comfort her, O comforter of the world, that she may not perish." While the chamberlain was saying this, Sahasranayana came there through the air and bowed to the Cakrin. After asking for permission, he led Cakrin Sagara to his own abode and delighted him by the gift of the womanjewel, Sukeśa. Then Sahasreksaņa and the Cakrin went in 316 319. See I, p. 175. Page #185 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 160 an aerial car to Mt. Vaitāḍhya to the city Gaganavallabha. After establishing Sahasranayana in his ancestral kingdom, the King made him overlord of all the Vidyadharas. CHAPTER FOUR Entrance into Vinita (335-348) Taking the woman-jewel, Cakrin Sagara, possessing the strength of Purandara, went to Saketapura (Vinītā). The King made a three days' fast directed toward Vinītā, and observed pausadha in the pauṣadha-house according to rule. At the end of the three days' fast the King left the pauṣadha-house and broke his fast with his retinue. The King entered the city which was like a woman ready for her lover, frowning, as it were, with a multitude of festoons; smiling, as it were, with the beauty of a large number of pearl svastikas; with raised arms, as it were, with the dancing banners of the handsome markets; with body-decoration, as it were, with the smoke-rings rising from the jars of incense; with wide-open eyes, as it were, from the jeweled vessels on the platforms; just as if it had couches from the varied daises; uttering auspicious sounds, as it were, by the tinklings of the palace-bells. The King went to his palace-court, like Śakra to his palace, which had high arches, high banners, and loud blessings from the bards. He dismissed the sixteen thousand gods and thirty-two thousand kings in attendance, the chief jewels the general, the priest, the steward, and the carpenter, the three hundred and sixty-three cooks,31 the eighteen guilds and sub-guilds,318 and others also in turn, governors of fortresses, merchants, caravan-leaders, etc. 817 Attended by his retinue and harem, accompanied by the woman-jewel, the King entered his own palace, like the souls of creatures entering the womb. After he had 317 344. Cf. I. 4. 661 and 719, and I, n. 321. This is probably an error on Hem.'s part, since the Jamb. (67) gives the number as 360, which corresponds with the conventional year. But it is curious that Hem. repeats the slip so often. See App. I. 318 345. See I, n. 315. Page #186 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONQUEST OF BHARATAVARŞA BY SAGARA 161 bathed in the bath-house and worshipped the gods in the shirine, the King ate in the dining-house. Then Sagara amused himself with concerts, plays, and other amusements, the fruit of the creeper of the Sri of sovereignty. Coronation of Sagara as Cakravartin (349–370) One day, the gods, etc., came and said to Sagara, "You have reduced Bhāratakşetra to subjection. Now we shall make your coronation as cakravartin, as the Vāsavas made the birth-sprinkling of the Arhat." The Cakrin approved their request by his brow raised from pleasure. For the noble do not deny the requests of their friends. Then to the northeast of the city the Abhiyogikagods created a pavilion adorned with jewels for the coronation. The gods brought to it pure water from the ocean, tirthas, rivers, and pools, and divine herbs from the mountains. Then, with his harem and woman-jewel the Cakradhara entered the beautiful jeweled pavilion which was like a cave of Ratnācala. After the King had circumambulated the bath-dais made of jewels with a lionthrone, like a fire-priest circumambulating a fire, and with his harem had ascended it by way of the east stairs. he adorned the lion-throne, facing the east. Thirty-two thousand kings ascended by way of the north steps and sat down like hansas in a lotus-bed. They remained seated on their respective thrones, their hands folded submissively, their eyes fixed on the Master, like those of the Sāmānikas on Sakra. The general, the steward, priest, and carpenter, and many others, merchants, caravanleaders, etc., ascended the bath-dais by way of the south stairs and sat down in their respective places, like heavenly bodies in the sky. When the day, the day of the week, constellation, division of the day, 819 yoga, 220 moon, and moment were 319 361. Karaña, the half of a tithi. See MW, s.v. and Sabda., s.v. 820 361. A variable division of time. See MW, s.v. and, better, Sabda., s.v. 17 Page #187 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 162 CHAPTER FOUR auspicious and endowed with the power of all the planets, the gods, etc., in turn bathed the King by means of gold, silver, and jeweled pitchers with lotus-mouths. They rubbed the King's body with a devadüşya-cloth with gentle hands, like painters a palace-wall. Then they sprinkled the King's body with fragrant perfumes originating in Dardura and Malaya, like the body with moonlight. They set on the King's head a divine wreath of flowers, large, charming with a wealth of perfume, firm like their own affection. The King put on garments of devadūşya-cloth and jeweled ornaments brought by them. Then the Cakradhara himself instructed the citysuperintendent in a voice deep as thunder: “Make the city free from fines, free from customs-duty, free from soldiers' entry, free from taxes, celebrating a great festival for twelve years.” The city-superintendent had this order proclaimed at once in the city by his men, like drums, mounted on elephants. So there was a great festival, marking the coronation of the king of the six divisions as cakravartin, in the city which had a vow to steal the beauty and power of a city of heaven, in every market, in every house, on every road, unsealing great joy for twelve years. Page #188 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER V LIFE AND DEATH OF THE SONS OF SAGARA Origin of hostility between Purnamegha and Sulocana (1-19) Then the Blessed One, the Jineśvara Ajita, attended by gods and asuras, came and stopped 821 in a garden of the city Saketa. The Lord delivered a sermon to the Indras and other gods, and to Sagara and other kings, seated in their proper places. At that time on Mt. Vaitäḍhya Sahasraḍrs, recalling with anger his father's murder, slew Purṇamegha, like a garuda a snake. Pūrṇamegha's son, Ghanavahana, escaped from him and came to the samavasaraṇa. After he had circumambulated the Blessed One three times and had bowed to him, he sat down at his feet like a traveler at the foot of a tree. Saying, "I'll drag him up from Pātāla, or pull him down from heaven, or tear him away from the strongest protection, and kill him," Sahasrākṣa came right after him, his weapon raised, into the samavasaraṇa and saw Ghanavāhana. By the power of the Supreme Lord his anger was appeased and, after bowing to him and circumambulating him, he sat down in the proper place, his weapon abandoned. The Cakrabhṛt Sagara asked the Supreme Lord, "What was the cause of the enmity between Pūrṇamegha and Sunetra, O Master?" The Blessed One related as follows: 821 I. I am inclined to think that the verb 'samavasṛ , really means that the whole business of the samavasarana took place. One was erected, as is evident from the context immediately following. I think the translation came and had a samavasarana erected' would be justified when 'samavasṛ' is used in this context. 4 Page #189 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 164 CHAPTER FIVE "Once upon a time in the city Adityābha there lived a merchant, named Bhāvana, master of crores of money. The merchant Bhavana turned over all his money to his son Haridasa and went to a foreign country to trade. When the merchant Bhavana had stayed twelve years in the foreign country and had acquired great wealth, he came back and stopped outside the city. Leaving his retinue there, Bhāvana came alone at night to his own house. For eagerness is very powerful. As he entered, he was struck down by a sword-thrust by his son terrified by the idea 'He is a thief.' When do people of little wit reflect? Knowing then his own murder Bhāvana died with enmity produced at that time. Afterwards Haridasa realized it was his father and, tormented by remorse, performed the funeral rites, grieved by his act. After some time had passed Haridasa died, and then they both wandered through several painful births. By performing some good deed, Bhāvana's jiva became Pūrṇamegha and Haridasa's jiva became Sulocana. The fatal hostility of Pūrṇamegha and Sunetra which was created in this way in a former birth was a necessary consequence in this world, O King." Story of Meghavāhana (20-41) Again Sagara asked, "What is the cause of the mutual hostility between their sons, and of my affection for Sahasrākṣa? The Master said: "" "In a former birth you were a wandering mendicant, named Rambhaka, possessing liberality and good conduct, and they were two disciples of yours, Sasin and Avali. Avali was very dear to you because of his great reverence. One day he bought a cow for cash. Śasin, cruel-hearted, caused dissension with the owner of the cow, rushed in between, and bought the cow. Then they had a terrible fight with hair-pulling, and fighting with fists and staffs, and Avali was killed by Śasin. After he had wandered through births for a long time, Śasin was born as Page #190 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LIFE AND DEATH OF THE SONS OF SAGARA 165 Meghavāhana and Avali as Sahasrākṣa. This is the cause of their hostility. By the power of liberality, Rambhaka wandered through good conditions of existence (gati) and became you, the cakrin. Your affection for Sahasrākşa originated in the former birth.” Then the Lord of the Rākşasas, Bhima, who was sitting in the assembly, rose and warmly embraced Meghavāhana, and said: “I was a king, Vidyutdanștra, in Kāñcanapura on Mt. Vaitādhya in Bharatakşetra in Puşkaradvipa in a former birth. In that birth you were my son Rativallabha, exceedingly dear. Now, O child, it is well that you have been seen. So it is now also. You are my son. Take my army. Whatever else is mine is yours. In the ocean Lavaņoda is the crest-jewel of all islands, Rākşasadvipa, unconquerable even by the gods, extended for seven hundred yojanas in all directions. At its center is Mt. Trikūța, like Sumeru at the center of the earth, very splendid, circular, nine yojanas high, fifty yojanas in diameter, very difficult of access. On its top I have made just now a city, named Lankā, provided with golden walls, houses, and arched gateways. Traversing six yojanas within the earth, one finds a fine city of mine, extending for a hundred and twenty-five yojanas, ancient, marked with bright crystal walls, with houses made of various jewels, named Pātālalankā, very difficult of access. O son, take these two cities; be their king. Let the fruit of the sight of the Tirthankara be yours right now." With these words, the Lord of the Raksasas gave him a large necklace made of nine jewels, and also the magic science of the Rakşasas at once. After he had paid homage to the Blessed One, then Ghanavāhana wentto Rākşasadvipa and became the king of the two Lankās. From that time his family became a Rākşasa-family from his kingship over Rākşasadvipa and from the Rākşasa-science. This being the case, the All-knowing went elsewhere in his wandering. Indra, Sagara, and the others went to their respective abodes. Page #191 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 166 CHAPTER FIVE The sons of Sagara (42-50) Now again the Cakrabhrt, attended by sixty-four thousand women, amused himself like a god, plunged in an ocean of pleasure. His fatigue arising from the enjoyment of the women of his household was removed by the enjoyment of the woman-jewel, like a traveler's fatigue by the south wind. While he was thus constantly experiencing sensuous pleasures, sixty thousand sons, Jahnu, etc., were born to him. Reared by nurses, like trees in a garden by womengardeners, the sons gradually grew up. Gradually they acquired the arts, like the moon digits, and attained youth, a garden of creepers of bodily beauty. They displayed their own skill in military science and saw that of others with the desire to see inferior and superior. They brought a circular array of troops, which had the appearance of an ocean whirlpool, on to the parade-ground and, knowing the arts, subdued wild horses hard to subdue. While very young, sitting elephant-back, they tamed rogueelephants that would not endure even the leaf of a tree. They played with friends in gardens, etc., at will, having fruitful powers, like elephants in the Vindhya-forest. Princes obtain permission to leave home (51-62) One day the princes, powerful, declared to Cakrin Sagara who was at home: “The god, Lord of Māgadha, the ornament of the eastern quarter, and the Lord of Varadāman, the sole tilaka of the southern quarter, and the Lord of Prabhāsa, having the glory of the crown of the western quarter, and the chief-rivers, the Gangā and Sindhu, like arms of the earth, and the Prince of Mt. Vaitādhya, the pericarp of the lotus Bharata, and Krtamāla, just like a field-guardian of Tamisrā, and the Prince of Himācala, the pillar of the earth on the boundary of Bharata, and the Lord of Khandaprapātā, haughty Page #192 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LIFE AND DEATH OF THE SONS OF SAGARA 167 Natyamala, and the nine treasure-divinities, Naisarpa, etc.--these gods were conquered like men by our father. This land of six divisions, like six sets of enemies, was conquered by our father, whose prestige is unlimited, by himself alone. You have left nothing suitable for strength of arm to be done, by doing which we can say 'We are your sons.' Since this entire earth has been conquered by the father, let our sonship be by wandering at our own free will. So with the father's favor we wish to wander at will like forest-elephants over the earth like the palace-courtyard." He granted their affectionate request. Among the great the request of another is not in vain, to say nothing of that of sons. Then they bowed to their father and went to their own houses, and had drums beaten announcing an auspicious procession. Unfavorable omens (63-72) Then portents and unfavorable omens took place, disturbing them though firm, and indicating misfortunes. The sun's disc was filled with a hundred comets, like the door to Rasatala (a hell) with a multitude of snakes. The moon's disc with its center cut out looked like an ivory ear-ornament newly carved. The earth shook like a creeper rocked by the wind; and showers of hail like showers of gravel took place. There was a rain of dust like powder from a dried cloud; and a favorable wind became like a cruel, furious enemy. Inauspicious jackals stood on the right and howled freely; and owls also stood there and hooted as if in rivalry with them. Kites whirled in the sky in circles, down and up, imitating the play of the flying wheel of time. Rutting elephants became free from mada at that time, and streams became waterless as if it were summer. Lines of smoke issued from the mouths of neighing horses, very terrifying, like serpents from holes. They disregarded all these portents and unfavorable omens. For necessity is authority for men, though wise. Page #193 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 168 CHAPTER FIVE Departure of the princes (73-87) When they had bathed and had made the propitiatory rite of the tilaka, etc., and auspicious things,822 the princes set out with the Cakrin's whole army. The King sent all the jewels, except the woman-jewel, with his sons. For the soul itself has the form of a son. Some, mounted on the best elephants, had the appearance of Dikpālas; others, mounted on horses, had forms surpassing Revanta ; 828 others, seated in chariots, were like the planets, the sun, etc.; all, wearing crowns, were like overlords of the gods. With long necklaces rolling on their chests, like mountains with rivers; their hands filled with manifold weapons like divinities come to the earth; their heads characterized by umbrellas like Vyantaras by trees ; 824 surrounded by body-guards like oceans by the Velādhāras ; 325 praised by clever bards with uplifted hands; splitting open the earth with the sharp hooves of the horses; deafening the skies in all directions by the noise of musical instruments and blinding them by much dust stirred up; beautiful as divinities of the gardens in various gardens and as mountain-gods on mountainplateaux ; like sons of the river on beautiful sandy beaches of the river, enjoying themselves at will, they wandered in the land of Bharata. Wandering they made worship of the Jina in villages, mines, cities, towns accessible by land and water, earthwalled towns, etc., like Vidyādharas making a series of offerings to obtain desires. Enjoying many pleasures, giving much money, delighting their friends, slaying their enemies, showing on the road their skill in hitting moving targets, and often their skill in seizing the falling weapon of another, composing various tales of weapon against 322 73. See I, n. 293 (1. 1. 798). 328 75. See I, n. 100. 824 77. See above, p. 107. 325 78. Surely these must be the same as the Velādhārins of 3. 629 ff. Neither of these forms is cited in the lexicons. Page #194 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 169 weapon and also humorous tales with their companionkings seated in the vehicles, they arrived one day at Aṣṭāpada, which is an herb for removing hunger and thirst merely by its sight, the abode of a wealth of punya. LIFE AND DEATH OF THE SONS OF SAGARA Visit to Aşṭapada (88-127) When they saw the mountain having a continuous festival; made of crystal; with great pools, like a depository of nectar of the gods; looking as if it had put on a dark upper garment because of the thick green trees; having large wings, as it were, from the clouds on both sides; marked, as it were, by floating banners in the form of cascades ; the pleasure-house of Vidyadharas, like a new Vaitāḍhya, singing, as it were, with the low sounds of the happy peacocks, etc.; presided over by Khecaris, like a shrine with sandal-wood figures; like a tiara of the earth made of jewels; constantly visited by flying ascetics with the desire to worship the shrine, like Nandiśvaradvipa, they asked the ministers, Subuddhi and others: "What mountain is this, resembling one of the heavenly pleasure-mountains of the Vaimānikas which has descended to earth? By whom was this wonderful, lofty shrine made, resembling the eternal temple on Mt. Himavat?" Then the ministers said, "Formerly Lord Rṣabha, the founder of your family and of the congregation, lived in this Bhārata. His son Bharata, the eldest of ninety-nine brothers, was the ruler of six-part Bharatakṣetra. This was the pleasure-mountain, the abode of many wonders, named Aṣṭapada, of the Cakrin, like Sumeru of Vajrin. The Blessed Rṣabha Svamin attained emancipation here on the mountain together with ten thousand sadhus. Immediately after Rṣabha Svāmin's nirvāņa, Lord Bharata erected here the shrine, named Sinhaniṣadya, out of precious stones. With extreme devotion he erected here according to rule the statue of Rsabha Svämin and the statues of the twenty-three future Arhats, made of flawless precious Page #195 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 170 CHAPTER FIVE stones, each one having its proper size, shape, color, and cognizance. He had these statues dedicated by flyingascetics, and he erected burial mounds and statues of his brothers, Bāhubali and others. While Vrsabha Svāmin was staying here, he declared to him (Bharata) the future Tirthakrts, Cakrins, Keśavas, Pratikeśavas, and Rāmas. Bharata made around it (the mountain) eight steps that have become stairs 326 because of which it was called 'Aşțāpada.'" Saying with manifest joy, “This belonged to our ancestors," the princes ascended the mountain with their retinues. They entered the shrine Sinhanisadya and bowed to the first Jineśvara from afar at the first sight of him. They bowed with equal devotion to the statue of Ajita Svāmin and to the statues of the other Arhats. For they were truly devoted at heart. Then the princes bathed the images of the holy Arhats at once with pure fragrant water drawn by a charm, as it were. Some brought pitchers with water, some handed them over, some emptied them, and some received the empty ones. Some recited the bathing-precept, some took chauris, and others took up golden incense-burners. Others threw the choicest incense in the incense-burners, and some played musical instruments, conches, etc., aloud. Then Mt. Aştāpada soon had double cascades from the falling fragrant water of the bath. Like jewelers, they dried the jeweled images with downy, soft new cloths resembling devadūşya-cloth. They anointed them with gośīrşa-sandal, excelling maid-servants (in skill), voluntarily and zealously, full of devotion. They adorned the statues with variegated wreaths of flowers, divine jeweled ornaments and beautiful garments. They designed the eight 326 105. Here is an inconsistency that I have not been able to solve. In 1. 6. 633-36 (I, p. 370) the mountain is made so that it can not be ascended. The steps, that are called 'stairs' here, were a yojana apart. Muni Jayantavijayaji suggests that in the long period of time that had elapsed, the mountain might have changed and become ascendible. Page #196 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 171 auspicious things out of unbroken rice on boards in front of the statues of the Masters resembling the moon in beauty. Then they made the light-waving ceremony with divine camphor-unguent, and after they had worshipped, they set down the light-vessel resembling the sun. After they have eulogized them with the Sakrastava, their hands folded submissively, they praised the Jinendras, Rṣabha Svämin and the others: LIFE AND DEATH OF THE SONS OF SAGARA Stuti (121-127) "O Blessed Ones, equal to boats for crossing the boundless, terrible ocean of existence, you who have become the cause of nirvana, purify us. Homage always to you, having the rôle of carpenters for the erection of the palace of the doctrine of Syādvāda 327 by the modes of expressing things and means of acquiring knowledge.328 Homage to you refreshing the garden of the whole world very much by the streams of speech extending for a yojana. By the sight of you the greatest fruit of life up to the fifth division (of time) 29 has been attained by us and all living things. Homage to you giving happiness to hellinhabitants by the kalyāņas 330 of conception, birth, mendicancy, omniscience, and emancipation. May your impartiality, like that of the clouds, winds, moons, and suns, be for our prosperity. The birds here on Aṣṭāpada, who see you every day without any obstacle, are indeed. blessed. Now our life has good conduct as its object and our power has its purpose accomplished for a long time. since we have seen and worshipped you." Digging of a moat around Aṣṭāpada (128-156) After reciting this eulogy and bowing again to the holy Arhats, the sons of Sagara, delighted, descended from 327 121. See I, n. 4. 828 121. Nayapramāṇa. See above, p. 101. 829 123. They were living in the fourth division. Rṣabha was born. in the third division; all the other Tirthankaras in the fourth. 830 124. See I, n. 147. Page #197 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 172 the temple. They honored the pure burial-mounds of Bharata's brothers,391 and then, after reflecting a little, Jahnu said to his younger brothers: "I think that a place equal to Aṣṭāpada is to be found nowhere. We shall make this shrine here like another one. Even though emancipated, Cakrin Bharata enjoys Bharatakṣetra, remaining in the guise of a shrine on this mountain which is the essence of Bharata(kşetra). This very shrine has been made by us if the protection of the shrine to be robbed by future men is arranged for. When the duḥṣama-period has begun, there will be men greedy of money, devoid of nobility, not considering right and wrong. Then the protection of old holy places is better than the making of new holy places." 832 CHAPTER FIVE Destruction of the Nagas' houses (135-156) The younger brothers agreed and then Jahnu took the staff-jewel which had a powerful radiance like the sun. He and his younger brothers began to dig up the earth to make a moat around Aṣṭāpada like a city. The sons of Sagara dug the moat a thousand yojanas in depth and by it split open the homes of the Nagas. All the Naga-folk were terrified at their houses being destroyed, like the circle of sea-monsters at the ocean being churned. On all sides the Nagas trembled as at an enemy's army that had come, or at a fire that had started, or at a great wind that had risen. Then the Naga-king, Jvalanaprabha, blazing with anger like a fire, saw the Naga-folk confused. When he saw the earth split open, thinking 'What's this?' he hurried away and came to Sagara's sons. Terrible with a violent frown like an ocean with high waves, his lips trembling from anger like a flaming fire; casting red glances like a succession of darts made of hot iron; opening wide his nostrils which resembled blow 331 129. See I, p. 369. 332 134. The actual practice in India is just the opposite of this. New temples, etc., are erected in preference to repairing old ones. Page #198 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LIFE AND DEATH OF THE SONS OF SAGARA 173 pipes for the fire of the thunderbolt; angered like Kộtānta, hard to look at like the sun at the end of the world, the Nāga-king, Jvalanaprabha, said to the sons of Sagara : “Oh, what has been done, alas! by men thinking themselves valiant, insolent from gaining the staff-jewel, like Sabaras from gaining a citadel. This destruction of the eternal homes of the Bhavanādhipas has been made now by men acting without deliberation. Why have you, sons of the brother of Ajita Svāmin, done such a thing like a cruel act by piśācas ?” Then Jahnu said to the Nāga-king: “That is right, what you, troubled by the destruction of your houses which originated with us, have said. We did not dig up the earth with the staff with the idea that your houses would be destroyed, but for the sake of protecting Așțāpadatirtha was the ground dug up in the form of a moat. Here Cakrin Bharata, the root of our family, made a shrine of precious stones and pure jeweled statues of the Arhats. We made this effort because we feared its destruction by people through the fault of future time.883 The destruction of your houses was not anticipated because of the distance. Alas! the unerring power of the staff is to blame for that. What was done by action without reflection and from devotion to the Arhats, pardon that. We shall not do such a thing in future." Thus conciliated by Prince Jahnu, the Nāga-king became calm. For the water of conciliatory speech extinguishes the fire of anger in the good. Saying, “Do not do such a thing again,” the Nāga-king went to the Nāga-world like a lion to a cave. Diversion of the Gangā into the moat (157–167) When the Nāga-king had gone, Jahnu said to his brothers, “This moat of Mt. Așțāpada has been made, to 398 152. I.e., of the coming evil period. Page #199 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 174 CHAPTER FIVE be sure. But, though deep as Pātāla, it does not look right without water, like a man's figure void of intelligence, though large. Furthermore, it will become filled with dust. For even a ditch becomes high ground in course of time. So this must certainly be filled up with a large quantity of water and that can not be done without the high-waved Gargā." When his brothers had said, “Very well,” Jahnu took the infallible staff-jewel, like another staff of Yama. Jahnu split the bank of the Gangā, like Vajrin the slope of a big mountain with the thunderbolt. Then the Gangā advanced by the path of the cut made by the staff. Water, like an honest man, goes where it is led. The Gangā arrived at Mt. Aşță pada's moat like the ocean, with high waves like mountain-peaks thrown up, with the noise of beating against the bank like a drum beaten hard, making the fissure made by the staff twice as wide by the rush of her water. She began to fill completely the moat a thousand yojanas deep, terrifying as Pātāla. Beginning from the time the Gangā was brought by Jahnu to fill the moat of Mt. Aștāpada, she was called Jāhnavi. Second disturbance of the Nāgas (168–173) After it had filled the moat, the water entered the houses of the Nāgas through many crevices like watermachines. The Nāgas, their houses being filled with water like caves, hissing on all sides, confused, trembled. When he saw the disturbance of the Nāga-people, the Nāga-king became angry again, having a terrible appearance like an elephant touched by a goad. He said, “The sons of Sagara, insolent from their father's power, are not suitable for conciliation, but rather deserve punishment like asses. One crime, namely, the destruction of the houses, was pardoned. Since I did not inflict any punishment, they have offended again. - I shall inflict punishment on them, like a guard on slaves, look you!” Page #200 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LIFE AND DEATH OF THE SONS OF SAGARA Slaying of Sagara's sons (174-178) Saying this very vehemently, terrifying with much arrogance, cruel with brilliance like the fire at the end of the world that has burned up inopportunely, like the submarine-fire that has come out of the ocean, intending to burn up the world, blazing like the fire of the thunderbolt, he left Rasatala and came there quickly with the Nāgakumāras. When the Lord of the Poison-eyed saw them, he gave them a look immediately, and they became a heap of ashes, like a bunch of straw. A loud cry of "Ha! Ha!" arose, filling the space between heaven and earth. The destruction even of the guilty may be an occasion for sympathy among the people. After he had killed the sixty thousand sons of Sagara, the Naga-king and his Nāgas went to Rasatala like the sun at the end of the day. 175 Page #201 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER VI EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA Grief of the people at their death (1-46) Then a great outcry arose from the soldiers in the Cakrin's army, like that of sea-monsters in an ocean that was going dry. Some fell on the ground in a swoon, as if they had eaten kimpākas, 384 as if they had drunk poison, as if they had been bitten by serpents. Some struck their own heads like cocoanuts; some beat their breasts again and again as if they had committed a crime. Some, after taking steps, stopped, confused about what to do, like women; others climbed precipices like monkeys, intending to jump. Some drew their knives, like Yama's tongue, from their scabbards, intending to cut their own abdomens, like cutting pumpkins. Others, intending to hang themselves on the branches of trees, tied their upper-garments to them, as they had formerly tied pleasure-swings. Some tore out the hair on their heads like kuša-grass in a field. Some threw away the ornaments on their bodies, like drops of perspiration. Some stood absorbed in thought, resting their cheeks on their hands, like a decrepit-looking wall that has a post added as a prop. Some, removing upper and lower garments also, rolled on the ground with trembling limbs, like crazy people. The women of the household uttered different lamentations, like ospreys in the air, that made the heart tremble: “O Fate, why did you commit this half-murder, taking our husbands and leaving life in us? O goddess earth, be gracious, burst open, and give us a chasm. Surely, the earth is a refuge of those who have fallen even from a 884 2. The Tricosanthes, which has a very disagreeable taste. Page #202 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 177 cloud. O Fate, today make fall an unexpected cruel stroke of lightning on us like lizards. O breath, for you there are happy courses. Go wherever you wish. Leave our bodies like hired tents. Come, deep sleep, 386 removing all pains; or Mandākini, rise, and give death by water. O forest-fire, appear in this forest on the mountain. We shall follow the path of our husbands, as if from friendship for you. Oh ! hair, give up friendship today with wreaths of flowers. Eyes, let a handful of water (for funeral rites) be given to you for collyrium. Cheeks, do not itch for decorations with unguent. Lip, do not desire contact with lac. Ears, abandon jeweled ear-rings, as well as listening to songs. Neck, henceforth do not long for neckornaments. Breasts, today a necklace is for you like snow for lotuses. Heart, fall in two pieces at once like a ripe melon. Arms, enough of bracelets and armlets like burdens for you. Hips, give up the girdle like the moon its light at dawn. O feet, enough of foot-ornaments as if they had never been obtained. Body, enough of ointments as if made of cowhage.” 886 The forests, like relatives, wept with echoes of such pathetic cries of the women of the household. The general, the vassals, kings, etc., said various things indicating sorrow, shame, anger, fear, etc. "Oh! Sons of our master, where have you gone? We do not know. Tell us, that we may follow you, obedient to our master's instructions. Or have you used some magic art of disappearance in this case? But it is not right to employ it to distress servants. How will our master look on our faces if we, like murderers of rishis, go without you who are lost or vanished ? The world will ridicule us if we go now without you. O heart, burst at once like a pitcher of unbaked clay wet with water. Halt! Halt ! rogue of a serpent! Where have you gone 835 15. Mahātandra (?). 886 22. Kapikacchū. Its contact causes irritation. 12 Page #203 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 178 CHAPTER SIX now, villain, after destroying by some trick, like a dog, our masters who were engaged in the protection of Aştāpada ? Prepare for battle, sword against sword, bow against bow, spear against spear, and club against club, O villain. How far will you go after running away ? Now these sons of our master have abandoned us here and have gone away. Oh! Oh! The master also will abandon us quickly if we go there now. When our master hears that we are alive, even if we do not go there but stay here, he will be ashamed, or rather, will punish us.” Return to Ayodhyā (33–46) After uttering many such lamentations, they joined each other again and, after regaining their natural firmness, took counsel together. “Just as a rule in grammar subsequently laid down takes precedence over rules given earlier,887 so fate is stronger than all. No one is stronger than it. The desire to retaliate against it which is not subject to retaliation is useless, like a desire to strike the sky or to seize the sun. So, enough of these lamentations. Now we shall deliver everything belonging to the lord, horses, elephants, etc., like trustees surrendering money. Thereafter let the master arrange whatever is suitable and agreeable in regard to us. Why should we worry?" After these reflections, they all set out to Ayodhyā with sad faces, taking with them everything, the women of the household, etc. Slowly, slowly, bereft of energy, they came to the vicinity of Ayodhyā, their faces and eyes dejected, as if they had just risen from sleep. They stopped there, as crushed as if they were being led to the.executionrock,388 sat down on the ground and said to each other: “We were assigned by the King who honored us with his sons because we were formerly devoted, wise, 387 34. See I, p. 342 and note 384. 388 40. A very usual method of execution in India formerly was to hurl the condemned from a precipice. Page #204 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 179 powerful, and of proved ability. Returning without the princes, how can we, like men whose noses have been cut off, raise our faces in our master's presence? How can we tell the King such news about his sons which resembles an unexpected stroke of lightning ? Henceforth, alas ! it is not fitting for us to go there. However, death is a suitable refuge for all suffering ones. Of what use is life, like a miserable body, to a man who has destroyed the esteem felt by his lord ? Moreover, if the Cakravartin should die from hearing of the death of his sons, painful to bear, then, indeed, death would go in front of us.” Meeting with a Brāhman (47–59) After taking such counsel together, while they all remained resolved on death, then a Brāhman came, wearing reddish garments. The head of a Brāhman village, he, lotus-hand raised, made them live, speaking to them in words equal to a life-giving herb: “Gentlemen, why are you confused about what to do, your minds disordered, like hares that have fallen when a hunter has rushed on them? If your master's sixty thousand sons have died there simultaneously like twins, enough of grief. People born together, sometimes die separately; born separately, sometimes they die together. Many die, and few die, since death is the attendant of all living things. Death can not be warded off any one by any one even with a hundred efforts, like the inborn nature of people. If it can be warded off, why is it not warded off by Indras and emperors, etc., from themselves and their own people ? A thunderbolt falling from the sky can be caught by the hand, the agitated ocean can be restrained by a dike, the raging fire at the end of the world can be extinguished, the wind that has arisen as a portent of the end of the world can be slowed down, a falling mountain can be propped up with a prop, but death can not be warded off by a hundred devices. Do not be grieved at the thought, Page #205 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 180 CHAPTER SIX 'Our master's sons died before our eyes. Be firm now. I shall quickly rescue your master drowning in a sea of sorrow by an enlightening speech like a hand." The Brāhman and Sagara (60–211) After comforting them all in this way, the Brāhman took a corpse that had been left unclaimed on the road and went to the city Vinītā. He went to King Sagara's palace-courtyard, stood with upraised arms, and uttered loud lamentations : "O Cakravartin, acting with justice, having unbroken power of arm, a very wicked thing, a disgraceful deed has been committed here, alas! I have been robbed; robbed in this country called Bharata, though protected by you like heaven by Purandara.” When Cakrin Sagara heard these words never heard before, as if the man's grief had penetrated himself, he said to the door-keeper: “By whom was he robbed ? Who is he, and where from? Ascertain all this, and have him come in here." The door-keeper quickly approached the Brāhman and questioned him, but he pretended not to hear and continued his lamentations in the same way. The doorkeeper said again : "Listen, Brāhman, are you deaf from grief or deaf by nature? The brother of Ajita Svāmin, the King himself, the protector of the poor and protectorless, the refuge of the seekers of a refuge, earnestly questions you lamenting, as if you were his brother. Tell us by whom you were robbed, who you are, and where from. Or rather, come yourself and describe to the King the cause of your sorrow, like the manifestation of illness to a doctor." So addressed by the door-keeper, the Brāhman, with tearful eyes, like a pool with lotuses covered with drops of frost; with the moon of his face faded, like a winter midnight; like a bear with thick disordered hair; like an old Page #206 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 181 monkey with emaciated cheeks, stepping very slowly, entered the Cakrin's house. Then the Cakrin himself, compassionate, questioned him : “Did some one somewhere steal some gold from you ? Or did some one steal jewels or garments? Or did some one, breaking a trust, conceal a trust? Or has some village-policeman, etc., injured you, or did some customsofficer oppress you by seizing a wealth of merchandise ? Or has some kinsman inflicted humiliation on you, or has some one ruined you by running away with your wife ? Does some powerful enemy attack you, or some mental ailment afflict you, or some severe disease ? Does poverty, very easily acquired by the twice-born castes, trouble you, or does something else cause you pain ? Tell me, great Brāhman." At once stopping his fictitious, unwearied tears like an actor, the Brāhman replied to the King, his hands folded submissively: “O King, this land of Bharata with six divisions is ruled by you resplendent with justice and power, like heaven by the king of the gods. No one steals gold, jewels, etc., from any one else. Rich men sleep even in the (open) space between villages as in their own houses. No one conceals a deposit like his own good family. The village-policemen, etc., guard the people like their own sons. Even on the surplus wealth to be found, the customsofficers take a duty in proportion to the goods, like a fine in proportion to the crime. After taking their inheritance, heirs do not disagree again, like pupils who have attained the highest doctrines in regard to their teacher. The whole people, devoted to good behavior, consider other men's wives like sisters, like daughters, like daughters-in-law, like mothers. There is no unfriendly talk in your kingdom like a monastery. There is no mental distress among your people filled with contentment, as there is no heat in water. There is no disease on the earth provided with all medicinal herbs, as there is no thirst in the rainy season. Page #207 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 182 CHAPTER SIX With you as a wishing-tree, there is no poverty. There is no cause whatever of pain to any one among the people. Nevertheless, this has happened to me only, an ascetic. ! The inevitability of death (90–155) There is here a large country, Avanti by name, resembling heaven, charming with irreproachable cities, gardens, rivers, etc. In it there is a village, named Aśvabhadra, like a tilaka on the earth, fair with large pools, wells, tanks, and various groves. I am an inhabitant of this village, devoted to the study of the Vedas, constantly maintaining the sacrificial fire, coming from a pure Brāhman family. One day I entrusted my son, dearer than life, to my wife and went to another village to study different sciences. Next day while I was studying there, anxiety arose in me. I was troubled, thinking, This is a very bad omen.' Terrified by this bad omen, I returned to my own village, like a well-bred horse to the stable formerly occupied. From afar I saw my own house deprived of beauty. While I reflected for a long time, 'Why is this ? ' my left eye twitched rapidly, and a crow lighted on a dry tree and croaked loudly. Wounded in the heart by unfavorable omens such as these like arrows, bereft of mind, I entered the house like a man of straw. When my wife saw me rushing forward, her hair disheveled, crying at once, 'Oh! my son ! Oh ! my son !' she fell to the ground. Thinking My son is certainly dead,' I also fell to the ground at once, like a dead man. At the end of the swoon, again lamenting pitiably, I saw in the house my son bitten by a snake. While I stayed awake at night without eating, etc., the family-deity announced to me, "Sir, why are you so crushed by the death of your son ? I will restore your son, if you follow my instructions. I said, “The command of the goddess is authority. For what is not promised for the sake of a son by those miserable with grief ? The family-deity said, 'Bring quickly fire from an auspicious house where no one has died.' Page #208 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 183 Then from desire for my son I wandered daily to every house like a lost child, asking for that and being laughed at. All the people questioned told in every house of dead past number. There was no house without death. With hope crushed by its non-attainment, my mind lost like a dead man, miserable, I declared all that to the family-deity. The deity said, “If there is no auspicious house, how am I able to protect you from inauspiciousness ?' Urged on by that speech of the deity like an elephantgoad, wandering to every village, to every city, I came here. You are known as the comforter of the whole earth. There is no rival to you, first among the powerful. Even the Vidyādharas, living in the two rows (of cities) inaccessible on Mt. Vaitādhya, take your commands on their heads like wreaths. Even the gods always execute your orders, like servants. The treasures constantly offer you desired objects. So I have come to you as a refuge, you the sole bestower of comfort on the poor. Bring for me the fire from some auspicious house, that the familydeity may bring my son though dead, since I am grieved at my son's death." The King, though knowing the true nature of existence, being subject to compassion was grieved by his grief and said, after reflecting a little : “My house is as much superior to all the houses on this earth, as Sumeru to mountains. In this was the Blessed Rsabha Svāmin, who had unequaled rule in the three worlds, the first of the Tirthanāthas, the first of kings, able to make an umbrella out of the earth, raising it by his arm, making a handle of Amarācala a lac of yojanas high, the nails of whose feet were sharpened by the crowns of sixty-four Indras. (yet) he died in course of time. His first son, the first cakravartin, Bharata by name, whose commands were always carried on the head by gods and asuras, who shared the seat of the Puruhūta of Saudharma, in course of time reached the end of his life. Page #209 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 184 CHAPTER SIX His younger son, the chief of those possessing the finest strength of arm, like the ocean Svayambhūramaṇa of all the oceans, unshaken by buffaloes, elephants, sarabhas, etc., scratching themselves (on him), absorbed in pratimä for a year like a diamond staff set up, long-armed Bahubali, having the power of Bāhudanteya (Indra), did not remain any longer, when his life as a man was completed. Cakrin Bharata had a son, Adityayaśas, a sun in powerful splendor, not deficient in strength. Mahāyasas was the son of Adityayasas, his glory sung to the ends of the earth, the crest-jewel of all the powerful. A son, Atibala, was born to him, ruling the earth with unbroken authority like Akhaṇḍala. He had a son, named Balabhadra, causing happiness to the world by power and light, like the sun. His son was Balavirya, the chief of the courageous and enduring, foremost of kings. A son, Kirtivirya, adorned with both fame and heroism, sprang from him, like a shining light from a light. His son was Jalavirya, whose strength could not be resisted by enemies, like a rutting elephant by elephants, like a diamond staff by weapons. His son was Daṇḍavirya, having the power of his staff unbroken, like another Daṇḍapāņi (Yama), having terrible arm-staffs. All, rulers of the southern half of Bharata, powerful, wearing the Blessed One's crown brought by Indra, unconquerable by gods and asuras, having supernatural strength, all died by the law of time. Since then other powerful kings beyond number have died. For death is invincible. Destroying everything like a backbiter, consuming everything like a fire, penetrating everything like a flood, that is Kṛtanta, alas! O Brahman. No ancestor even in my house has survived death. What possibility is there in other houses? Where is the auspicious house? If your son alone should die, that (grieving) would be fitting for you. Why, Brahman, do you grieve at death common to all? Krtanta is called Samavartin (Impartial), look you! because he behaves impartially to young and Page #210 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVAMIN AND SAGARA 185 old, poor man and cakravartin. This is the true nature of worldly existence, that no one in it is permanent, like a wave in a river, like an autumn-cloud in the sky. Furthermore, my father, mother, brother, son, sister, daughter-inlaw such a relation is not real. Some come from one place and some from another, and meet in one house. So all people are like travelers at a village-inn. When each goes away by a separate road as a result of their karma, what wise man would grieve at all? Do not grieve therefore, which is a sign of delusion, best of Brahmans. Use firmness, noble sir, and entrust yourself to discernment." Then the Brahman said, "O King, I know the true nature of existence of living beings. However, today I forgot it in grief for my son. To the extent that every man has knowledge, to the extent that every man possesses firmness, to that extent he does not experience with his soul separation from his beloved. O master, people like you, their minds purified by drinking the nectar of the Arhat's teaching always, possessing firmness and discernment, are few. O discerning one, I deluded have been very well enlightened by you. This discrimination must be preserved by you for your own sake. It, disappearing, must be guarded when calamity is at hand; since surely a weapon is carried in time of danger. This death, impartial to the poor man and to the cakravartin, destroying life, sons, etc., is afraid of no one. Listen! One who has few sons, etc., of him few die. Who has many, of him many die. But the pain of the two is just the same, indeed like that of the kunthu 389 and the elephant from light and heavy blows. Henceforth, I will not grieve for the loss of one son. Like me, do not grieve at the loss of all your sons. For your sixty thousand sons, resplendent with strength of arm, have died simultaneously as a result of destiny, O King." 889 153. A small three-sensed creature. PE and PH, s.v. Uttar. 3.4. See also Page #211 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 186 CHAPTER SIX In the meantime the vassal-kings, ministers, generals, and other people of the princes' retinues waiting in the vicinity, their faces covered with upper garments like people bashful from shame, their bodies colorless from grief like trees burned by fire, their minds exceedingly distraught like Kinnaras and Piśācas,840 their eyes tearful, miserable, like misers who have been robbed, their steps stumbling as if they had been bitten by snakes, entered the King's assembly simultaneously, as if they had a rendezvous (with the Brāhman's speech). They bowed to the King and sat down in the proper places, and remained with down-cast faces as if wishing to enter the earth. After hearing the Brāhman's speech and seeing them in such a condition and returned without the princes like elephants without drivers, the King quickly became (as if) painted, sculptured, asleep, or transfixed by a charm, distraught, with twitching eyes. The Brāhman spoke to enlighten again the King who had swooned from lack of firmness and been restored to his natural state by firmness, “ You are of the family of Rşabha Svāmin, who was a sun for the sleep of delusion of all, and you are a brother of Lord Ajita, O King. Why do you disgrace them now, O King, yielding to your delusion like a lowborn person ?” The King thought : “This Brāhman recited the prologue of the play of my sons' destruction in the guise of his son's death. Clearly he announces now the destruction of the princes. These ministers have come without the princes. How could their destruction come about, even in the mind, as they wandered over the earth at will, like lions in a forest ? Attended by the great jewels, 841 invincible from their own strength, by whom could they, having unstumbling powers, indeed, be killed ? ” 340 158. Both Kinnaras and Piśācas are sub-divisions of the Vyantaras. I do not know why they are used as examples of distraction. 341 169. I.e., the thirteen jewels; the woman-jewel was not with them. Page #212 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 187 After these reflections, the King questioned the ministers, etc., 'What is it?' and they told the story of Jvalanaprabha. Struck by that news like an axe, the King fell to the ground in a swoon, shaking the earth. The mothers of the princes fell swooning to the ground. For the grief of fathers and mothers at the loss of sons is equal. A great cry arose from the people in the palace like that of animals inside the caves of the ocean-bank. The ministers, etc., wept distressingly, blaming themselves excessively as witnesses of the death of the master's sons. As if unable to look at such a state of the master, the door-keepers sobbed, their faces covered with their hands. Abandoning their weapons though dearer than life, the body-guard rolled on the ground, lamenting, like trees blown down by the wind. The chamberlains wept violently, bursting their jackets like partridges that had fallen into a forest-fire. Beating their breasts like an enemy that had been found after a long time, the men and women servants wailed, saying, 'We are killed.' By fanning and sprinkling with water they restored consciousness, which drives in the arrow of pain, to the King fallen on the ground. Their clothes soiled by collyrium and tears, their cheeks and eyes covered by creepers of disarranged hair, their necklaces broken by blows on their breasts, the pearls of their bracelets crushed from rolling on the ground violently, sending out breath just like smoke from the fire of pain, the King's wives wept with parching throats and lips. The King, abandoning firmness, shame, and discernment all at one time, like the queens, lamented: “O princes, where are you? Return from your wandering. Now is the suitable time for you to take sovereignty and for Sagara to take the vow. Why does no one speak? The Brāhman spoke the truth. I have been robbed by a god like a thief knowing tricks, alas ! O miserable god, where are you? Where are you, Jvalanaprabha ? Where have you gone, after doing this thing unsuitable for Page #213 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 188 CHAPTER SIX a warrior, O wretch of a serpent ? General, where has the violence of your cruel arm gone? Priest-jewel, where has your power to make safe gone ? Carpenter, where has your skill in making fortresses oozed away? Steward, are your herbs for revivifying forgotten somewhere? Elephantjewel, had you become careless at that time? Horsejewel, had some pain of yours developed there? Wheel, staff, sword, were you then far away ? Gem and cowrie, were you without light, like the moon by day ? Umbrella and skin, were you split like the cover of a drum ? Nine treasures, were you devoured by the earth ? (Was such the case) since the princes, sporting without fear from confidence in you, were not protected even by all of you from the villain of a serpent ? After such destruction, what can I do now? If I kill Jvalanaprabha and his family, my sons indeed do not live. No one in Rşabha Svāmin's family has died in this way. Oh! sons, why have you died this shameful death! All my ancestors, living a human lifetime, took initiation and found heaven and emancipation. Verily, your confidence in wandering at will was not fulfilled, like the pregnancywhim of trees originating in a great forest.842 A full moon rose and was devoured by Rāhu by fate; a tree was bearing fruit and was broken by an elephant; a boat came to the shore and was broken by the coastmountain ; a new cloud was raised and was scattered by the wind; a field of rice was ripe and was burned by a forest-fire; and you, suited to religion, wealth, and love, were born and killed, alas ! After reaching my house, O sons, you have gone, with the aims of existence unaccomplished, alas ! alas ! like beggars that had come to the house of a stingy rich man. Therefore, now enough of the jewels, the wheel, etc., and the treasures which, without you, separated from them, are like gardens, etc., without moonlight. What use have I for the sovereignty of six-part 842 196. I.e., in the case of forest-trees, they would not be seen by women to make them blossom by kicks, kisses, etc. Page #214 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 189 Bharatakṣetra, or even for life, since I have become deprived of my sons dearer than life?" Then to enlighten the King bewailing so, the Brahmanlayman said in a voice sweet as nectar : "In your family enlightenment, like protection of the earth, has attained first authority. In vain you are enlightened by others, Your Majesty. Are you not ashamed to be enlightened by another, you whose brother, Lord Ajita, is the visible sun for the delusion of the world? That this worldly existence is worthless is taught to another, but why should it be told to you attending the All-knowing from birth? Fathers, mothers, wives, sons, and friends, all this in worldly existence is like something seen in a dream, O King. What is seen at dawn is not seen at noon, what is seen at noon is not seen at night. In this existence, alas! objects are transitory. You know the truth yourself. Establish yourself in firmness. Everything is lighted up by the sun. There is no other light but the sun." The King, listening to the Brahman's speech and recalling frequently his sons' death, was filled with enlightenment and delusion, like Lavaṇoda Ocean with gems and salt, like the dark night between the fortnights with light and darkness, like the full moon with moonlight and marks, like Mt. Hima with divine herbs and snow. Just as great firmness was innate in the King, so incidental delusion was produced, originating in the destruction of his sons. Enlightenment and delusion were present at the same time in the King, like two swords in one scabbard, like two elephants at one post. Then the chief-minister, Subuddhi, who was clever, spoke with nectar-like speech to enlighten the King: "Oceans may sometimes cross their boundaries, mountain-ranges may sometimes shake, the earth may tremble at times, a thunderbolt may break sometimes, but noble men like you do not despair in the least, even when great calamities are present. Hear how discerning people, Page #215 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 190 CHAPTER SIX knowing ‘Everything in existence, the family, etc., is seen in a moment and disappears in a moment,' are not deluded. Story of the expert magician (220–379) Once upon a time there lived a king in a certain city in Bharatakşetra in this same Jambūdvipa. He was the harsa of the pool of Jinadharma, a traveler on the road of good conduct, a cloud to the peacocks of subjects, an ocean for maintaining boundaries, a fire for the dry grass of all calamities, the sole tree for the creeper of compassion, a mountain for the river of fame, the only Rohaņa for the jewel of good behavior. One day, when he was seated comfortably in his assembly, at a suitable moment the door-keeper announced : Some man at the door, holding a wreath in his hand, who appears to know the arts, wishes to see Your Majesty in order to tell something now. Whether he is a pundit or a poet, a musician or an actor, whether he knows the Vedas or state-craft, or military science or sorcery, that is not known. But it is known by his appearance that he is a person of ability. Even children are taught, “ Where there is good appearance, there is ability."') The king ordered, “Bring him in quickly that he may say what he wants as he likes.' Admitted by the door-keeper at the king's command, the man then entered the king's assembly, like Mercury the orbit of the sun. One should not see the master with empty hands,' and he handed the king the wreath of flowers, like a garland-maker. Then with hands folded submissively, he sat down in the place indicated by the door-keeper on a suitable seat given by the seat-servants. With one eye-brow slightly raised, his lips blossoming with smiles, the king spoke graciously to him: 'Sir, from what caste are you, brāhman, ksatriya, vaisya, or śudra ? Or are you from the mixed castes, Page #216 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 191 ambaştha, 848 māgadha,846 etc.? Or do you know the Vedas, or the Purâņas, or the Smrtis ? Or are you an astrologer, or are you expert in the triple science ? 345 Or are you an instructor in archery, or skilled in shield and sword, or practiced with the lance, or expert with arrows ? Or do you know the club, or are you learned with the staff, or powerful with a long spear, or expert with the mace ? Are you unstumbling in the use of the ploughshare, or have you obtained power in the use of the discus, or are you skilled with the dagger, or clever in a close fight? Do you know the heart of a horse, or are you able to train elephants ? Or are you an instructor in military-formations, or can you break up military arrays ? Are you a maker of chariots, etc., or a driver of chariots, etc.? Or are you skilful in metals, silver, gold, copper, etc. ? Are you expert in making shrines, palaces, mansions, etc., or clever in building various machines, forts, etc. ? Are you the son of a sea-trader, or the son of a caravan-leader ? Or are you a goldsmith, or a jeweler? Are you skilled on the lute, or expert on the flute, or clever in playing the kettle-drum, or proud (of skill) on the drum ? Do you make recitations, or do you teach singing, or are you a stage-director, or an actor in the drama ? Are you a bard, or a teacher of dancing? Or a soldier sworn to fight to the end, or a spy? Do you know writing or drawing, or are you a painter or an embosser, or some other kind of an artisan ? Are you wearied by crossing male and female rivers and the ocean ? Are you expert in the use of magic, sorcery, and juggling?' Questioned persistently by the king in this way, he howed again and said respectfully: O king, you are the support of all worthy persons, as the ocean is the receptacle of water, and the sun of 848 232. Offspring of a brāhman and vaiśya-woman. MW s.v. 344 232. Offspring of a kşatriya-woman and vaiśya-man. MW s.v. 845 233. Reciting hymns, performing sacrifices, and chanting. MW s.v. Page #217 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 192 CHAPTER SIX brilliance. I am like a fellow of the expert in the sastras, the Vedas, etc., like a superior teacher to the skilled in archery, etc., like Viśvakarman in person in every craft and business, like Sarasvati in the form of a man in the arts, singing, etc., like a father to merchants in the jewel-trade, etc., like a teacher to bards, etc., in eloquence. What a trifling art is crossing the water of rivers, etc., to me! However, I have come to you to demonstrate sorcery. For I will show you at once a row of gardens; I am able to reverse the seasons, spring, etc. I can make a concert by a band of musicians appear in the air, and I can instantly appear and disappear in a twinkling. I will swallow charcoal even of acacia-wood like grits. I will chew darts of hot iron like cocoanuts. I can assume another form-that of water-animals or land-animals, or birds, one or many, at another's wish. I can attract and draw the desired object even from afar. I can change the color of objects immediately. I am able to show other miracles at once. After you have seen the high degree of my skill in the arts, make it fruitful.' The king said to the man who had paused after promising so much, thundering like a cloud: 'Like a mountain dug up by the roots to pull out a mole, like a broad pool dried up to catch fish, etc., like a garden of mango trees cut down for fuel, like a moonstone destroyed for a handful of powder, like devadüşyacloth torn up for a bandage, just like a temple unpegged for the sake of the pegs, how much is the soul, resembling pure crystal, suitable for acquiring the highest truth, wounded by you, alas! by your improper science! Destruction of the mind takes place in those looking at improper science such as yours, just as in those suffering from the diseases of the three humors. You are a petitioner. Take as much money as you like, since no one's hope is destroyed in my house.' Then the man, addressed by the king in such a harsh manner, always considering himself a man, restrained his anger and said: Page #218 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 193 Am I blind, or deaf, or lame, or deprived of my hands, or impotent, an object of compassion, or the opposite? Without showing my own ability, without causing amazement, how can I take money from you, a kalpa-tree of presents? Good fortune to you and homage to you from me. I, unfortunate, will go elsewhere.' Saying this, he got up. The man went away, though the king, fearing that the fault of stinginess would be attributed to himself, had men try to stop him. He did not take the master's money when it was offered because he was angry. The king's shame was removed by his men saying, 'You gave it, anyway.' One day the same man assumed the dress of a Brahman and stood at the same king's door with a present in his hand. In the same way the door-keeper announced to the king that he was standing there. For the announcing of those who have come to the door is the duty of the doorkeeper. At the king's command the door-keeper had the man soon brought into the assembly by the servants. He stood in front of the king, his arm upraised, and recited some verses from the Aryavedas in the style with interlocking words. At the end of the recitation of the verses he sat down on the seat indicated by the door-keeper, and was regarded by the king with a glance tender with favor. 'Who are you? Why have you come?' asked by the king, the first of the Brahmans replied, his hands folded submissively : 'O king, I am an astrologer, and have learned all the sacred books from attendance on good gurus like knowledge embodied. I know the books of the eight divisions of the science of omens,846 and all the books on 346 278. Aṣṭādhikaraṇīgrantha. I can find no other reference to adhikaraṇigrantha. Muni Jayantavijayaji thinks this refers to the nimittaśāstra, a knowledge of which was considered sinful. (See Uttar. K. 31. 19, pp. 506-7). PH quotes adhikarana (ahigaraṇa) as 'sinful action.' The 8 divisions of nimittaśāstra are: bhauma (phenomena of the earth), utpāta (unusual events), svapna (dreams), 13 Page #219 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 194 effects of celestial phenomena, the casting of nativities, the books on mathematics, as well as my own name. can tell all the present, past, and future events, unhindered, like a muni who has magic powers from penance, O king.' Then the king replied, 'O Brahman, at this instant tell what will happen in the future. Confidence is the fruit of knowledge.' The Brahman said, 'On the seventh day, a flood will bring about the end of the world, after making the whole world one ocean.' Feeling simultaneously both astonishment and disturbance at that speech, the king looked at the faces of the other astrologers. Questioned by the king by the gesture of an eye-brow, angered by the Brahman's difficult speech, the astrologers spoke with ridicule : 'If he- -some new astrologer-has appeared, have new books on astronomy come into existence, master, by whose authority he says this thing painful to the ear to hear, "A flood will make the whole world one ocean"? Have new planets, constellations, stars come into existence by authority of whose retrograde and accelerated movements, etc., he says that? That is not in conformity with the books on astronomy here from the twelve angas composed by the ganabhṛts, the disciples of the All-knowing. These planets, suns, etc., which agree with the treatiseswe consider such a thing not to be in accordance with them. CHAPTER SIX This Lavana Ocean which encircles Jambudvipa will certainly not cross the boundary, like you. If some new ocean, originating from the sky or the middle of the earth is to make this universe one ocean, is this man reckless, or possessed by a demon, or drunk, or crazed, or naturally mad ? Or did he study the sacred texts at the wrong time and forget them, that unchecked he says such an I antarikṣa (phenomena in the air), anga (changes in the body), svara (sounds), lakṣaṇa (marks on the body, such as śrīvatsa), vyañjana (warts, moles, etc., on body). See Rajendra, aṭṭhanganimitta; Sutrakṛtānga 2.2. 25; Pravac. 1405-09, p. 410. Page #220 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 195 absurd thing? Because the master is firm as Sumeru, and endures all things like the earth, such a thing is said openly by wicked men at their pleasure. Such a thing can not be said even before ordinary people, to say nothing of the master powerful in anger and favor. Is he, who utters a speech hard to speak, courageous, or is the hearer courageous who does not become angry after hearing it? If the master believes such a thing, let him believe it, and it must be acknowledged without contradiction. Mountains fiy aloft, flowers are in the sky, fire has a cool glow, sons are born of barren women, asses have horns, stones float in water, hell-inhabitants are free from pain--if that is not true, his speech is not true.' Then the king, knowing what was proper and improper, looked at the astrologer with curiosity. The astrologer, spurred on by that ridiculing speech like a goad, said with resoluteness : O king, why are these ministers of pleasure in your council ? Why these clowns, or these village pundits ? If such subjects are suitable even for your council, then learning has been burned, a helpless sati. How can association-think of it !-with these stupid men be suitable for you who are clever in all things, like that of a lion with jackals? If they have come merely by the custom of hereditary appointments, they, of little wit, are entitled only to sustenance, like women. They are not suitable from qualifications to sit in the council, like a piece of glass in a tiara made of gold and jewels. For they do not know at all the inner meaning of the śāstras' words, but they are proud of reciting merely like a parrot always. The ones who know the inner meaning speak with contempt for the words of men with superficial knowledge and puffedout cheeks. A trader's oil-bottle, fastened on a camel's back, goes from country to country. Does it know the road, however ? With gourds fastened under his arms a man who can not swim floats in a river or lake, but does he know how to Page #221 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 196 swim in the water? These have studied the śāstras by repetition of their preceptor's speech. They do not know at all the inner meaning. If my knowledge is incredible to them of little wit, is the seven-day limit to confidence in my knowledge far away? If the blessed ocean makes my speech true, making the world one ocean by its own waters diffused, will these councilors of yours, knowing the interpretation of books on astronomy, show mountains flying up like birds? Will they show flowers like trees in the sky, or fire like water, or will they obtain a son from a barren woman like a cow? Will they lead forth an ass horned like a buffalo, or will they make stones float in the ocean like a boat? These fools talking about hellinhabitants without pain-will they make false the books spoken by the Omniscient? I will stay here for seven days, guarded by your men. Certainly liars do not show such self-confidence. If my prediction does not come true on the seventh day, O king, then I must be killed by caṇḍālas, like a robber.' The king said to his men, 'Even if this speech of the Brahman is ominous and difficult to perform, and also not in agreement (with the śāstras), nevertheless for seven days and nights our mind will be in doubt, alas! At the end of that time, there will be a test of his truth and falsity.' With this the king handed over the Brahman, like a deposit, to his body-guard and dismissed the assembly. 'On the seventh day a great miracle will be seen.' This crazy-talking Brahman will be killed then, alas! Surely the end of the world will come. Who would lie so to die?' So there were varied rumors townspeople at that time. among the The Brahman, eager at the thought, 'On the seventh day I shall show a great miracle,' passed six days wearily. The king, eager for the destruction of his doubt, lived with difficulty through six days like six months, counting them over repeatedly. On the seventh day the king, occupying the room on the house-top, said to him: The " ( ( CHAPTER SIX Page #222 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 197 Not even limit of your speech and life has been reached. an atom of water is seen today, to say nothing of the ocean agitated for the destruction of the world which you predicted. Every one, alas! is hostile to you, because of your prediction of universal destruction; and will seek your death, your assertion being false. What advantage would it be to me to kill you, an insignificant man? Go now. You said that when crazed.' The king instructed the guards audibly, 'Free the miserable man. Let him go away comfortably, like a sheep.' The Brahman replied, his lips covered with a smile: Compassion toward all living things is suitable for the noble. However, today I am not an object of compassion, O king, so long as my assertion made at that time is not false. If my assertion is false, you can kill me. If you free me then when I deserve death, O king, you would be called 'compassionate.' Even if released, I will not go away, but will remain here like a prisoner. Know that my assertion will be fulfilled in a very short time. Wait only a moment in this same place and see instantly high waves of the ocean raised up like the vanguard of Yama's soldiers. Make your own astrologers and councilors eyewitnesses for a moment. After a moment we shall not exist, not I, nor you, nor they.' After saying this, the astrologer remained silent. An indistinct loud noise was heard like the rumbling of death. When they heard that great unexpected noise, creating fear, all stood with ears pricked up like forest-deer. His head turned up a little, rising slightly from his seat, smiling a little, the Brahman spoke again: 'Hear the noise, O king, filling heaven and earth, like the sound of your drum, indicating the setting out of the ocean. See it, by taking just a little of whose water rain-clouds, Puşkaravarta, etc., inundate the whole earth, which has set out now, unrestrained, flooding the earth, after crossing the boundary. The ocean, hard to restrain, indeed, possesses the caves, disturbs the trees, levels the " Page #223 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 198 high places, and makes the mountains disappear. Going into the house, etc., is a remedy for wind, water is a remedy for fire, but there is none for the ocean when it has set out.' To the king looking at the Brahman saying this, water appeared at a distance on all sides, like the water of a mirage. All, miserable, looking at it, saw the universe destroyed by water, like a fearless man by a fight at night, with lamentations of 'Oh! Oh!' Then the Brahman, standing before the king and pointing with his finger at the increasing flood, spoke maliciously: CHAPTER SIX 'Sir, see all these mountains on the border. They are covered by the waters of the ocean like darkness. I think, all the forests are rooted up by the waters, since these trees are seen floating, like a crowd of crocodiles. Now this ocean-water submerges completely villages, mines, cities, etc. Alas for destiny! Now the gardens in the vicinity of the city are oppressed by the ocean-waters unchecked, like the virtuous by slanderers. O king, now the ocean-water, roaring, strikes aloud against the circular wall like a basin at the foot of a tree. This wall is leaped over quickly by the water rushing on, like a horse by a horseman too swift from haste. Look! all the city with its palaces and houses is filled like a tank with the ocean's cruel waves. That water, Your Majesty, is rushing at the door of your house now, springing up like an army of horses, roaring, violent. Now this palace of yours appears like an island, O king, surviving the submerged city. Now the water unhindered mounts the flights of stairs like a royal attendant arrogant from favor. The first story has been filled, and now the second is being filled. Having filled it, the third story also is being filled by the water. The fourth, fifth, and sixth stories, while you look on, have been filled by the ocean-waters in half a minute, indeed! The top-story of the house, like the head of the body, remains, being penetrated by the waters like the effects of poison. The end of the world which I predicted is present. Where Page #224 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 199 are those councilors of yours, O king, who laughed at me before ?' Then the king, because of fear of universal destruction, rose quickly and girded himself firmly with the intention of jumping. The king jumped, leaping up like a monkey, and saw himself seated on the lion-throne and him (the Brāhman) standing as before. The ocean-water instantly disappeared somewhere, and the king stood wide-eyed from astonishment. The king saw everything, trees, mountains, walls, houses, etc., unbroken and unbent, in the same condition as before. The fictitious astrologer beat with his own hands the drum fastened to his waist 347 and recited joyfully: 'In the practice of sorcery, etc., I bow to the lotus-feet of Vajrin, creator of the art of sorcery, and of Samvara.' 848 Then the king, seated on his lion-throne, said to the Brāhman with amazement, 'What is this?' The Brāhman said: 'Formerly I came to you, saying, "O king, I am distinguished by the qualities of all who are conversant with the arts." Humiliated by you saying, “Sorcery destroys the mind," I went away without taking the money offered. The fatigue arising from the acquisition of merit does not pass away at the gaining of money, even much of it, but it goes at the recognition of merit on the part of persons endowed with merit. I became an astrologer and today by that trick forced you to know the practice of the art of sorcery. Favor me. That your councilors have been humiliated and that you have been confused, O king, pardon all that. There has been no real offence.' After saying this he paused, and the king, knowing the highest truth, said in a voice resembling a trickle of nectar : 847 366. Muni Jayantavijayaji tells me that a juggler wears a small drum at his waist, which he beats with his hands or a small stick. 348 367. Samvara must have been some pre-eminent sorcerer, but I have not been able to locate him. There is a sorcerer named Sambara in the Ratnāvali, but this can hardly refer to him. Page #225 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 200 CHAPTER SIX ‘Do not be afraid at the thought, “I have humiliated the king and king's councilors." O Brāhman, you are my greatest benefactor. By you showing this sorcery today, I have been taught the worthlessness of samsāra equal to that. Just as water was made to appear and disappear instantly by you, just so are all objects. What pleasure now is there in samsāra ?' Beginning so, the king recited the faults of samsāra for a long time, satisfied the Brāhman, and adopted mendicancy himself. This birth, resembling sorcery, has been illustrated by us. You yourself, moon of the family of the All-knowing, know, O lord.” Story of the magician in the form of a Vidyadhara (381-522) The second minister, Vācaspatimati, related to the chief of kings a story that was a specific for the arrow of sorrow: “Once upon a time there lived a king, a mine of virtues, discernment, etc., in a certain city in this same Bharatakşetra. One day a man skilled in the practice of magic was announced by the door-keeper to the king in his assembly. The pure-minded king did not allow his admission. There is no friendship between magicians and honest men, who are like eternal enemies. Abashed by the refusal, after passing several days, he made a change in his appearance, changing his form at will like a god. One day he approached the same king, coming through the air, carrying a sword and shield, accompanied by a fine woman. Who are you? Who is she? Why have you come ?' asked by the king himself, the man said: 'I am a Vidyādhara, and this Vidyādhara-woman is my wife. I am at enmity with a certain Vidyadhara, O king. For she was formerly carried away by that man, lustful after women, evil-souled, by trickery like the nectar Page #226 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVAMIN AND SAGARA by Vidhuntuda (Rāhu)."" I recovered from him this wife dearer than life. Not even cattle endure injury to their females, O king. Your formidable arms have their purpose accomplished in support of the world; your wealth is fruitful in the destruction of the distress of beggars. Your power has its object gained by the gift of fearlessness to the fearful; your knowledge of the śastras is productive by the removal of the doubts of the learned. Your expertness in weapons is fruitful by the removal of thorns from the whole world; your other virtues have their respective objectives gained by benefiting others. Your brotherly attitude to other men's wives is well-known. it have a superior fruit in benefit to me, O king. Let With my wife present at my side I am tied by her, as it were, and am not able to fight with enemies employing trickery. I do not ask for a troop of elephants; I do not ask for a troop of cavalry; I do not ask for a troop of chariots; I do not ask for a troop of infantry. But I do ask from you, as assistance to me, protection of her like a deposit, O brother to other men's wives. One man may be lustful after women himself, though capable of protecting; another may be free from lust by nature, but incapable of protection. You are not lustful and you are capable of protecting, O king. Therefore I have come from a distance to make a request of you. If this deposit in the form of my wife is made your own, let me know. My enemy, though strong, is as good as dead.' The moon of his face pure with the moonlight of a beaming smile, the noble-minded king said: How little is asked of us by you coming from afar, like a kalpa-tree asked for leaves, like the ocean for water, like the cow of plenty for milk, like Mt. Rohana for a jewel, like Śrida (Kubera) for mere food, like a cloud for only shade. Show me that enemy of yours, that I may kill him. Then at once enjoy pleasures fearlessly, wise sir.' 349 349 388. At the churning of the ocean. Cf. Bhagavatapurāṇa, VI, 18. 12-13; Mahabharata I, 19. 201 Page #227 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 202 CHAPTER SIX The man, delighted, the hollows of his ears filled with the stream of nectar of the king's speech, said to the king : Silver, gold, all kinds of jewels, fathers, mothers, sons, and everything else, house, etc., can be handed over as a deposit with even a little confidence; but not a wife anywhere even with much confidence. O king, you and no other are the home of such confidence. Here Mt. Malaya alone is the home of sandal. My enemy has been killed by you alone by taking my wife as a deposit, I think, O vexer of enemies. The deposit of my wife being accepted by you, I, steadfast from confidence in you, shall now, indeed, make widows out of the wives of my enemies. I, springing up like a lion, will soon show my power to you remaining here, O king. With your permission I shall go instantly of my own free will through the air with unstumbling gait like Garuda.' The king replied, 'Go at will, Vidyādhara, great soldier. Leave your wife in my house like her father's house.' Then the man flew up in the air like a bird, spreading the hilt of the sword and shield like wings. His wife, addressed by the king with the same respect as his daughter, remained there with an easy mind. The king, remaining there, heard a battle-cry being produced in the sky, like the thunder of clouds. He heard the sounds of blows of various swords and shields—tadat, taạiti, like the sounds of lightning breaking forth. The words, 'You are ! you are !' 'You are not! you are not!' 'Stay! stay!' 'Go! go!' 'I am going to kill you, kill you,' were heard in the sky. The king, seated in his council with his councilors, astonished, stood for a long time looking up just as at the time of an eclipse. Then an arm ornamented by a jeweled bracelet fell on the ground in front of the king while he was so watching. The Vidyadhara-woman came before him to examine the arm fallen from the sky, looked at it and said, This is my husband's arm, which became a pillow for my Page #228 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 203 cheeks, an ear-ornament for my ears, and a necklace on my neck.' Just as the gazelle-eyed woman was saying this and looking at it, a foot fell on the ground as if from friendship with the arm. Examining also the foot with an anklet, her face tearful, the lotus-faced woman said again, That is my husband's foot which was covered with oil, rubbed, washed, and anointed by me with my own hand for a long time. While she was speaking, a second arm fell from the sky in front of her, like a branch of a tree shaken by the wind. When she saw this arm with jeweled armlets and bracelets, with streaming eyes like a fountain in the form of a woman she said, 'This is the hand, clever in parting the hair, an ornament of the hair, the sportive engraver of various decorations of unguents on the face and body. Before her standing in the same place fell the second foot from the sky, and she said again, "That is my husband's foot, cherished by my lotushand, never weary of the couch of my lap, oh! oh!' Just then the head and trunk fell in the same place, shaking the earth together with her heart. Then she spoke : 'Oh! my husband has been killed by a strong, crafty enemy. Oh! I am killed, miserable woman that I am. This is my husband's very lotus-like face which I have adorned with ear-rings with extreme affection. This is my husband's noble heart, alas ! which is my sole dwellingplace, both inner and external. Oh! my lord, without you I am without a lord. Who will bring flowers from the garden Nandana and make ornaments for me? With whom shall I play the lute, seated on the same seat, going through the sky, at pleasure ? Who will support me like a lute on his lap, or who will spread out my hair on a couch? Whom shall I often provoke by the play of deep affection ? To whom like an aśoka-tree will a kick from me give joy ? 850 Oh! my dear, who now will anoint me 850 437. An aśoka is said to blossom from the kick of a beautiful woman. Page #229 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 204 CHAPTER SIX with gośirşa-sandal paste like moonlight made into clusters of blossoms ? Who now like a maid-servant will decorate me with unguents on cheeks, ear-lobes, neck, forehead, and breasts? Who even by pretended falsehoods will make me keeping silent from pride talk like a pleasure-parrot ? Who will often wake me up when I am pretending to be asleep by flattering words, “My dear, my dear! Goddess, goddess !” Now enough of hesitation which is disgraceful to me. My lord, I shall follow you who are a traveler on the long journey.' Wishing to go voluntarily on her husband's journey, with hands folded submissively she asked the king for a fire as a conveyance. The king said to her, Child with a pure heart, how can you say such a thing without finding out all about your husband ? For there is such magic of Rākşasas, Vidyadharas, etc. Therefore, wait a moment. For self-destruction is voluntary.' She said again to the king : ‘My husband, led to death in a fight and fallen here, has been seen with our own eyes. Twilight rises and sets with the sun. Loyal wives live and die with their husbands. Shall I by living hereafter disgrace the family of my father whose stock is spotless and also the family of such a husband ? Will you not be ashamed if you see me, your adopted daughter, surviving without a husband, O father knowing the duties of high-born women? Henceforth, survival without a husband is not suitable for me, like moonlight without the moon, like lightning without a cloud. Order your servants to bring fuel for me. I shall enter the fire, as if it were water, with my husband's body.' The king, to whom she spoke thus persistently, compassionate, said to her in a voice choking with grief, "Wait, wait a little while. You must not die like a moth, For even in a very small matter one must act after consideration. Then the vixen said angrily, “If you hinder me any longer, then it is apparent that you are certainly not (my) Page #230 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 205 father. That name of yours ‘Brother to other men's wives' which is known is merely for the sake of gaining every one's confidence, but is not real. If it is true, then you are the father of your daughter, see! following her husband by the sole path of the fire.' The king replied, Child, do as you wish. Henceforth I shall not hinder you. Purify your vow to be a sati.' Then she, delighted, prepared her husband's body herself and put it in a chariot brought at the king's command. She, her body anointed, clothed in white garments, her hair adorned with flowers, sat at her husband's .side as before. Followed by the king, his head bent by grief, and regarded by the citizens with amazement, she went to the river. There the servants instantly collected fuel and prepared a pyre like the couch of Yama. She, like a wish-granting creeper, gave beggars money in accordance with their wishes, money supplied by the king like a father. There, the hollow of her two hands filled with water, she made three times a circumambulation, which had the beauty of a conch turning to the right, of the fire. Redeeming her promise of sati, she entered the pyre like a dwelling willingly with her husband's body. The fire with oblations of generous streams of ghi blazed fiercely, making the sky filled with a multitude of flames. The Vidyādhara's body, the fuel, and she—all were reduced to ashes instantly like water to salt. After making the offering, etc., to her there, the king went to his own house, filled with grief. While the king sat in his assembly grieving, the man came from the sky, carrying sword and shield. Looked at by the king and councilors with astonishment, the fictitious Vidyādhara stood before them and said : Fortunately, you are successful, Your Majesty, indifferent to the treasure of other men's wives. Hear how I have been victorious in the contest, like a gambler. At the time when I left my wife in your protection, O you Page #231 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 206 CHAPTER SIX who afford protection, I flew up from this place into the sky, as if free from a burden. I, angered like an ichneumon at the sight of a serpent, saw the wicked Vidyadhara rushing forward in the air with rage. He and I challenged each other to a fight, bellowing mightily like two bulls, hard to conquer. "Thank Heaven, I have met you, insolent of arm. Strike! Strike first! Today I shall satisfy the desire of my own arms and of the gods, also. Otherwise, surrender your sword, put your ten fingers between your teeth, like a poor man food, and go without hesitation, if you desire to live." Speaking contemptuously in this way to each other, we two met like cocks, shaking sword and shield like wings. For a long time we moved about in the sky, avoiding blows, like stage-directors skilful in the execution of dancesteps, O king. Fighting with swords, we two approached and withdrew again and again, like two rhinoceroses fighting with their horns. At once cut off his left arm and made it fall here, like an addition to you. For the sake of pleasing you, I cut off a foot as easily as the root of a plantain tree and made it fall on the ground. Then his right arm was thrown on this ground, O king, by me after cutting it off as easily as a lotus-stalk. Then I cut off his second foot with the sword, like the trunk of a tree, and threw it down before you. Then after separating the head and body, I made them fall here. So I cut the enemy into six pieces like Bharatavarṣa. By you alone, protecting my wife who had been made a deposit like a child, my enemy was destroyed. I was merely the means. Without your assistance the enemy could not have been killed by me. Fire, even flaming, is not able to burn dry wood without wind. For some time I was a woman, or rather a eunuch. Manhood was given me today by you who were the means of destroying my enemy. You are my mother, father, guru, or god. No one else is able to be such a manifold Page #232 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 207 benefactor. The sun shines, the moon delights every one, the cloud rains at the right time, the ground bears herbs, the ocean does not cross its boundary, the earth remains firm by the power of such as you devoted to benefiting others. Now hand over my wife who was left as a deposit, O king, and I shall go to my own pleasure-ground. Since my enemy has been killed by your favor, free from fear I shall wander with my wife on Mt. Vaitādhya, in the latticed-windows on the wall around Jambūdvīpa), etc.' Filled with shame, anxiety, disgust, and astonishment simultaneously, the king said to the man : After you had deposited your wife and had gone away, we heard the sounds of sword and shield and battlecries in the sky. Arms, feet, head, and trunk fell in turn from the sky, and your wife said to us exactly, "These are my husband's." When she said, “I am going to enter the fire with my husband's body," we restrained your wife for a long time from affection for a daughter. When your wife was restrained by us from entering the fire, she treated us differently, like a low person. Then, when we had become silent, she went impetuously to the river, and entered the fire with the body in the presence of the people. Just now, after making the offering, etc., to her, I came and was plunged in grief for her, and you have come. What is this, pray ? Were those limbs not yours, or are you not he ? That is the question. But why are we talking here, our lips sealed by ignorance?' With feigned anger the man declared : Oh! you are known falsely by popular report as 'brother to other men's wives.' Deceived by that name we deposited our wife. You are known by such conduct, like iron by water. The same thing which was done by my wicked enemy was done by you, O king. What difference, say, between the two? If you consider yourself not lustful for women, or if you are afraid of evil speaking, then give me my wife. You can not deceive me. If people like you, Page #233 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 208 CHAPTER SIX who were not lustful formerly, become lustful, who like a black cobra is a suitable person for confidence ?' Again the king said, 'After looking at your limbs, your wife entered the fire here beyond a doubt. All the townspeople and also the country-people, and the blessed sun, the eye of the world in the sky, are eye-witnesses in this matter; and the four Lokapālas, the planets, constellations, stars, the blessed earth, and dharma, the father of the three worlds. Therefore you can not say such a cruel thing here. Make some eye-witness from among these your authority The man spoke again with pretended anger and abuse, • There is no making of other authority, when authority is before the eyes. Who, pray, is this behind you? Indeed, let this guarding of a treasure of stolen money thrown in a hiding-place be observed, O king.' When the king turned his head and looked behind him, he saw the man's wife seated. The king became depressed from fear at the thought, 'I am ruined by the fault of another man's wife,' like a flower withered by heat. With hands folded submissively, the man began to relate to the king who was depressed by fear of guilt, though free from guilt, the following story: 'Do you remember, O king, that I asked you to let me show you skill in magic, after I had studied it for a long time? I was turned away at the door by Your Majesty, though impartial to all like a cloud, with my wish unfulfilled through the fault of fate. Then by changing my form and staging a fraudulent play, this was shown by me. Your Majesty, I have accomplished my desire. Favor me. Somehow or other, one's own merit must be shown to the great. Weariness arising from the acquisition of merit disappears. How otherwise ? So now my weariness is gone. I shall go away. Give your commands. Everywhere I shall be highly valued from showing my ability before you.' The king satisfied him with much money, dismissed Page #234 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 209 him, reflected a little and said, 'Samsāra also is just like his use of magic, since everything in it disappears instantly like a bubble. After considering this many times, disgusted with dwelling in existence, the king abandoned the kingdom and adopted mendicancy. So do not be helpless through grief in this samsāra, resembling the practice of magic, o lord. Strive for the accomplishment of your own welfare." Sagara experiences disgust with existence (523-532) Then disgust with existence took the place of so great a sorrow in the Cakrin, like breath the place of breath.861 Sagara gave utterance to a speech very strong in truth : “O discerning ones, this was very well done by you. People live and die according to their respective karmaschild, youth, and old man. Certainly age is no standard (for length of life). Associations of relatives, etc. are like dreams. Lakşmi is naturally as restless as the flap of an elephant's ear. Even the Sri of youth resembles the stream of a mountain-river. Life is like a drop of water on kuśa-grass. No sooner does youth disappear like water penetrating desert ground than old age comes, ending life, like an ogre. No sooner does a change in the senses, like a derangement of the humors, take place than Sri becomes disgusted like a courtesan who has already) received money. After deceiving ourselves so long about all these things, we will strive for our welfare to be gained by means of mendicancy. He buys a jewel with a piece of glass, a peacock with a raven, a necklace with a wreath of lotusfiber, rice-pudding with bad food, milk with butter-milk, a horse with an ass, whoever would gain emancipation with this worthless body here." 851 523. It seems to me there should be two interpretations of mahāprāna, but I can not quite see them. Muni Jayantavijayaji takes mahāprāņa to be śvāsocchvāsa and thinks one interpretation serves in both cases. 14 Page #235 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 210 CHAPTER SIX Leading of the Gangā to the Eastern Ocean (533–576) While Cakrin Sagara was saying this, the countrypeople living near Aşțāpada came to the door. Cakrabhịt Sagara had them, who were groaning aloud,“ Protect us ! Protect us !” summoned by the door-keeper. Questioned by the Cakravartin, “Well! what is the matter ?” the villagers made their bows together and explained : “The Gangā which was brought by the princes by means of the staff-jewel to fill the moat of Mt. Aștāpada, O king, instantly filled it hard to fill like Pātāla, and transgresses both banks like an unchaste woman two families.362 It has begun to flood villages, mines, cities, etc., in the neighborhood of Așțāpada, like the ocean spread out. Even now the end of the world is at hand for us. So tell us, where can we live free from calamity ? " Then Cakrin Sagara summoned his grandson Bhagiratha and instructed him in a voice containing the essence of affection : “ The Gangā is wandering now, as if crazy, through villages, etc., after filling the moat of Așțāpada. Draw her by the staff-jewel and cast her into the Eastern Ocean; for the water to which no road has been shown goes on the wrong road like a blind man. Extraordinary strength, power predominant in the world, a very strong force of elephants, cavalry known to all, very courageous infantry, and also a large chariot-force, very great prestige, unbounded skill in weapons, the acquisition of divine weapons —just as these are able to destroy the insolence of enemies, so they are able to produce the insolence of one's self. Insolence is the chief of all faults, the sole abode of calamities, the sole remover of wealth, the maker of evil fame, the destroyer even of the family, the thief of all joys, the assailant of other people, an enemy arising from (one's own) body. Therefore, insolence must be destroyed like a serpent by men, even ordinary ones, of good conduct, and 862 537. Her husband's and father's. Page #236 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 211 especially by my grandson. Then you must act with courtesy suitable to the recipient. A high degree of merit is produced from courtesy even from a man without power. Courtesy of a powerful man is like fragrance of gold, like unspotted beauty of the full moon. You must show respect to gods, asuras, Nāgas, etc., according to the place, at the very beginning of the work. Respect to those deserving respect is not a fault, but lack of respect is a fault, like heat for a bilious person. Gods and demons, submissive, were treated with respect even by Cakrin Bharata, the son of Rşabha Svāmin. The same respect which was shown to gods, etc. by him, though being powerful, must be shown as family-conduct." Illustrious Bhagiratha said, “Very well.” Instruction to one well-bred naturally is like painting on a good wall. Handing over the staff-jewel like his own powerful dignity, Sagara kissed Bhagiratha on the head and dismissed him. Bowing to the Cakrin's lotus-feet, Bhagiratha departed with the staff-jewel, like a cloud with lightning. Surrounded by the Cakrin's great army and by the countrypeople, Bhagiratha looked like Śakra with his armies and citizens.858 Gradually Bhagiratha reached Mt. Aștāpada surrounded by Mandākini, like Mt. Trikuța by the ocean. Bhagiratha, knowing the proper procedure, observed a three days' fast, directing it against the Nāgakumāra Jvalanaprabha. After the three days' fast had been completed, Jvalanaprabha, the lord of the Nāgakumāras, graciously approached Bhagiratha. After the master of the Nāgakumāras had been worshipped elaborately by him with perfumes, incense, and wreaths, he said, “What can I do?" Then Bhagiratha, brilliant,854 addressed J valanaprabha courteously in a voice deep as the sound of the ocean : 868 558. Prakirņaka. See above, p. 125. 864 563. I suspect the text here. Perhaps saprabho should be emended to saprabhao. It would apply better to Jvalanaprabha. Page #237 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 212 CHAPTER SIX “The Gangā, after filling the moat of Mt. Aștāpada, wanders unchecked like a serpent-demon seeking something to devour. For she digs up the fields, roots up the trees, and equalizes all high and low places. She is able to tear down walls, burst open palaces, make mansions fall down, and destroy houses. With your permission, I shall lead her, crazed like a Piśācī, causing destruction to the country, by the staff-jewel, and deposit her in the Eastern Ocean." Then the Nāga, Jvalanaprabha, graciously replied to him, “Do as you wish. There is no obstacle to you. All the Nāgas in Bharatakşetra are under my control. Proceeding with my permission, do not fear any calamity from them. With this reply, the Lord of Nāgas entered Rasātala. Bhagiratha broke his fast at the end of the three days' fast. He took the staff-jewel to lead Mandākini, like an enemy who had split open the earth, uncontrolled like an unchaste woman. Bhagīratha, having a cruel arm-staff, drew the roaring river by the staff, like a wreath by a hook. Bhagiratha made the Gangā cross through the middle of the Kurus to the south of the city Hastināpura, but to the west of the Kosala-realm, to the north of Prayāga, and to the south of the Kāśis, through the Vindhyas to the south of the Angas, to the north of Magadha to the Eastern Ocean, drawing rivers that were on the way like the wind bunches of grass. From that time the tîrtha 355 was called Gangāsāgara, and because she had been led by Bhagiratha the Gangā was called Bhāgirathi. Origin of throwing bones into the Gangā (577-582) Wherever she destroyed the houses of the Nāgas as she went along, there Bhagiratha offered oblation to the 856 576. The mouth of the river. Page #238 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVÂMIN AND SAGARA 213 Nāgas. The bones of Sagara's sons were carried to the Eastern Ocean by the current of the Gangā. Bhagiratha thought, “ This has turned out well, indeed, that the bones of my forefathers 366 have come to the ocean by the Gangā. Otherwise, adhering to the bills and feet of vultures, etc., they would fall into impure places, like flowers blown up by the wind.” While he was so reflecting, he was praised for a long time by the people delighted because they were freed from the calamity of the rushing water, saying, “You are a cherisher of the people.” Because he threw his forefathers' bones in the water then, even now the people throw them in. Whatever path has been adopted by the great, that is the path (for the people). Bhagiratha returned from that place, seated in his chariot, making the earth produce a noise like cymbals by the advance of his chariot. As he was going along, he saw a blessed muni who was omniscient, standing like a kalpa-tree on the road. He descended from his best chariot joyfully, like the sun from the eastern mountain, like Garuda from the sky. Bowing to the omniscient muni with devotion as soon as he saw him, he, skilled in devotion, very courteous, circumambulated him three times. After bowing to him, standing before him, Bhagiratha asked, “ Because of what karma did my forefathers die together?” The blessed muni, knowing the three periods of time, an ocean of compassion, began to speak in a voice pouring out sweetness : Reason for the death of Sagara's sons (589-601) “Once upon a time a congregation composed of very wealthy laymen like partners of Srida and Sri, started out to make a pilgrimage to holy places. At evening the congregation arrived at a village in a barbarous country and passed the night in a potter's house. When they 866 579. Really his father and uncles. Page #239 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 214 CHAPTER SIX saw this wealthy congregation, all the village-people, delighted, carrying staffs, bows, and swords, started out to rob them. The potter, who was compassionate, enlightened the village-people by flattering words resembling nectar and hindered them. At the importunity of the potter, all the village-people released the congregation, like a bhūta a meal that has been obtained. One day the village with children and adults was burned like an enemy's country by the king because of one thief living in it. Warned by a friend, the potter went to another village and was the sole survivor of the fire. Always the good prosper. Then in course of time he died and became a merchant in the Virāța-country, like another Kubera. The villagers became countrymen in the Virāța-country, For the land of people who have equal karma is equal. After death the potter's soul became a king there, and after death again he became a god of the highest power. After falling from heaven, he was born as you, Bhagiratha, and the villagers, after wandering through births, were born as Jahnu and the others. They were reduced to ashes simultaneously because of the act in the form of violence against the congregation which was committed in their minds. Jvalanaprabha was the instrument. But you, because of the good action in restraining them, were not consumed in this birth as well as the former one, noble sir." Bhagiratha returns and is installed on the throne (602-615) After hearing this from the omniscient, Bhagiratha, an ocean of discernment, acquired extreme disgust with worldly existence. Thinking, "May my lord grandfather not have grief after grief, like slaps on the cheek," he did not become a mendicant at that time. After worshipping the omniscient's feet, Bhagiratha got into his chariot again and went to the town Sāketa. His grandfather smelled his head repeatedly and Page #240 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 215 touched him on the back with the hand when he came, after executing his orders, and was bowing to him. Sagara said to Bhagiratha with affection and pride, "You are a boy in years, but you are the first of the elders in judgment. Do not say, I am a boy.' Take the weight of the kingdom from us, that we, freed from the burden, may cross the ocean of existence. Even if existence is hard to cross, like the ocean Svayambhuramaṇa, yet I also have confidence in the thought, 'It has been crossed, nevertheless, by my ancestors.' Child, this burden of the kingdom was taken over by their sons. Then observe the path shown by them. Support the earth." Bhagiratha, bowing, said to his grandfather, "It is fitting that the father should wish to adopt mendicancy which leads across existence. But, O master, this person also is eager for the vow. Do not show me disfavor by the favor of the gift of the kingdom." The Cakravartin said, "The VOW is fitting in our family. But the vow to observe the elder's command is stronger than that. Take mendicancy at the right time like me, noble sir. Impose the earth on your own son when he is of military age." After hearing this, Bhagiratha remained silent for a long time, his mind swayed by fear of breaking his elder's command and by fear of existence. Then Sagara seated Bhagiratha on his own lion-throne and installed him in the kingdom at that time with extreme joy. Initiation of Sagara (616-658) Then garden-overseers approached the Cakrin in haste and announced that the Lord Ajita was in a samavasaraṇa in a garden outside (the city). Then there was exceeding joy to the Cakrin from the coronation of his grandson and the arrival of Ajita Svāmin in succession. Though remaining there, he got up, and bowed to the Lord of the World as if he were present, and praised him aloud with the Sakrastava. The Cakrin gave twelve and Page #241 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 216 CHAPTER SIX a half crores of gold to the garden-overseers who announced the Master's arrival. Attended by vassals, etc., Sagara went with Bhagiratha to the samavasaraña in great haste. He entered it by the north door, thinking he had really entered the place of beatitude, as it were, from joy. The Cakrin circumambulated the Dharmacakrin three times, bowed before him, and began a hymn of praise as follows: Stuti (623–630) “Violate our mutual support to the effect your favor is because of my favor, but this (favor of mine) is because of your favor.' Favor me, Blessed One. A thousand eyes are not able to see the wealth of beauty; a thousand tongues are not able to tell your merits, O Master. You destroy doubts even of the Anuttara-gods, O Lord. After that, does any virtue really deserve to be praised ? How can unbelievers believe this contradictory thing? Power over joy and bliss, and disgust with existence are equal in you. Indifference and the highest benefit to all creatureshow can this be performed, difficult to perform though being performed, O Lord? Of you and no one else, o Blessed One, there are two opposing things—complete freedom from possessions and the highest emperorship. Who is able to describe the pure right conduct of him on whose kalyāṇas even the hell-inhabitants rejoice? Wonderful tranquillity, wonderful beauty, wonderful compassion for all creatures,-homage to you, the lord of the treasure of all wonders, O Blessed One." After praising the Lord of the World and sitting down in the proper place, he listened to a sermon that was like a stream of nectar. At the end of the sermon Sagara bowed again to the Lord with hands folded submissively and said in a choking voice : “Even if to you, Lord of the Tirtha, no one is a relation and no one an enemy, still I ask you from ignorance, Lord. You lead everyone else across the ocean of existence hard to cross. Why are you indifferent to me sinking in Page #242 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 217 it ? Protect, protect me from falling into the pit of worldly existence filled with many troubles. Give initiation. Favor me, O Lord of the World. So much of this life of mine has been wasted fruitless by me confused by the pleasures of worldly existence, O Master, like a child lacking in discernment.” The Blessed One gave his permission to Sagara, who stood with folded hands after this speech, to take initiation. Then Bhagiratha arose, bowed to the Blessed One, and made the following request of the kalpa-tree for requests : "The Master will give initiation to my father, but wait a little until I can hold the departure-festival. Even if there is no interest in festivals, etc. on the part of those wishing emancipation, nevertheless the father will do this to oblige me.” Sagara, though eager, went to the city again to oblige him, after bowing to the Teacher of the World. Bhagiratha made the initiation-bath of Sagara seated on the lion-throne, like Puruhūta that of the Arhat. Rubbed with a perfumed reddish cloth, anointed with gośirşa-sandal, Sagara put on two auspicious, divine garments. Then he, whose ornament was virtue, ornamented with his body the divine ornaments brought by the gods. After distributing money to beggars according to their wishes, Sagara, provided with white umbrella and chauris, got into the lofty palanquin. At every market, every house, every cross-roads in the city the citizens put platforms, pennants, arches, etc. With many auspicious things joyhully prepared with full dishes, etc. by townspeople and country-people here and there, being looked at again and again, being praised again and again, being worshipped again and again, being followed again and again, the Cakrin, though in a hurry, went slowly because of the people's importunity from the center of Vinīta, like the moon from the middle of the sky. Followed by Bhagiratha, vassals, ministers with their retinues, and Vidyādharas Sagara went into the Jina's Page #243 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 218 CHAPTER SIX presence. After he had circumambulated and bowed to the Blessed One, he put on the monk's dress brought by Bhagiratha. In the presence of the whole congregation, reciting the sāmāyika *** (sūtra) aloud in accordance with the Master's dictation, he took initiation with the fourfold rules. 358 The kings, vassals, ministers, etc., who had come with the princes, disgusted with existence, became mendicants with Sagara. The charioteer of dharma delivered a sermon full of instruction, moonlight to the night-lotus of the mind, to the emperor-monk. When the (first) period of the day was completed, the Tirthakṛt stopped preaching, arose, and adorned the dais. By the power of the Master, the chief of the ganadharas, seated on the Master's footstool, delivered a sermon destroying doubt, as well as the Master. At the end of the second period of the day he stopped preaching, as a rain-cloud stops thundering after it has rained. Then the Lord set out from that place to wander elsewhere. The gods, Bhagiratha, etc. went to their respective abodes. Sagara's omniscience (658-664) Wandering with the Master, the great muni Sagara learned the twelve angas as easily as the alphabet. Always free from negligence, he honored completely the five kinds of carefulness and the three controls, mothers of right conduct. He did not know at all any weariness arising from the trials because of joy produced by desire to hear (the scriptures) at the Master's feet constantly. He was never proud at the thought, "I am the brother of the Cakrin of the Three Worlds and am Cakrin myself," but on the contrary he showed reverence to the munis. Though he had taken initiation later, by penance and 357 652. See I, n. 329. 358 652. I.e., the four vows. The first and twenty-fourth Tirthankaras observed the five mahāvratas. The other twenty-two observed four. The fifth, chastity, was included in the fourth, poverty. Page #244 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 219 study the royal muni was superior even to mendicants of long standing. His brilliant omniscience arose from the destruction of the ghāti-karmas, like the light of the sun from the destruction of cloudy weather. The congregation of Ajita Svāmin (665-670) As Ajita Svāmin wandered as a mendicant over the earth from the time of his omniscience, he had ninetyfive excellent gaṇabhrts. There were a hundred thousand monks, three hundred and thirty thousand nuns, thirty seven hundred who knew the pūrvas, twelve thousand four hundred and fifty who had mind-reading knowledge, and ninety-four hundred with clairvoyant knowledge, twentytwo thousand omniscients, twelve thousand four hundred disputants, twenty thousand four hundred who had the art of transformation, two hundred and ninety-eight thousand laymen, and five hundred and forty-five thousand laywomen (in the retinue) of the Teacher of the World 368 Avata's moksa (67I-685) Knowing that it was time for his emancipation, when a lac of pūrvas less one anga since his initiation-kalyāņa had passed, the Lord went to Mt. Sammeta. Lord Ajita, seventy-two lacs of pūrvas old, ascended Sammeta like stairs to emancipation. The Teacher of the World together with a thousand ascetics undertook the fast pādapopagama.360 Then simultaneously the thrones of the Indras shook, just like branches of garden-trees shaken by the wind. They (the Indras) knew by means of clairvoyant knowledge that it was time for the Lord's nirvāṇa and went to the peak of Mt. Sammeta. They and the gods circumambulated the Teacher of the World and remained in attendance at his feet like pupils. 369 670. The Pravac. 331 ff. gives some slight variations in these figures. 360 673. See I, n. 126; and infra, App. I. Page #245 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 220 CHAPTER SIX When the month of pādapopagama was completed, on the fifth day of the white half of Caitra, the moon being in conjunction with Mrgaśiras, the Teacher of the World in paryanka-posture $61 restrained gross mind- and speechactivity, like a charioteer checking horses, but continued in gross body-activity. Then the Blessed One checked gross body-activity by means of fine body-activity, like a flood of darkness by a light. Remaining in fine bodyactivity he checked fine mind- and speech-activity and reached the sūkṣmakriya-meditation.362 In the fourth stage of pure meditation, the Lord resorted to the practice of sailesi 363 which lasts only long enough to pronounce five short letters. Having the remainder of his karma destroyed and the four infinities 964 acquired, the Lord, the Supreme Spirit, went to the place of emancipation by a straight path. The Lord of the World passed eighteen lacs of pūrvas as prince, fifty-three lacs of pūrvas and a pūrvānga as a king, twelve years in the vow as an unenlightened ascetic and a lac of pūrvas less a pūrvānga and twelve years as an omniscient.365 Fifty lacs of crores of sagaras elapsed between the nirvāņas of Rṣabha and Lord Ajita. Moksa of Sagara and the munis (686-688) The thousand munis observed pādapopagama, had omniscience arise, obstructed activities, and attained emancipation in the same way. Then the great muni, Sagara, made a samudghāta 366 and instantly reached the 361 678. See above, n. 18. 362 680. This is the third division of sukladhyāna. See I, n. 8. 363 681. See I, n. 10. 364 682. See I, n. 419. 365 684. His total age, usually given at this point, was mentioned above. It was 72 lacs of purvas. 360 687. It is the kevalisamudghata that he makes. This is made by a kevalin to equalize his ayus- and vedaniya-karma, when the vedaniya is in excess. See Guna. 89 ff.; I, n. 157. Page #246 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ EMANCIPATION OF AJITA SVĀMIN AND SAGARA 221 place reached by the Master, like a companion. At that time there was happiness for a moment even for hellinhabitants to whom happiness was unknown, because of the Master's nirvāņa-festival. Funeral rites of Ajita and the munis (689-701) Then Sakra bathed the Master's body with divine water, and sorrowfully anointed it with gośirşa-sandal paste. Hari clothed the Master's body with garments with a hansa-pattern, and adorned it with various divine ornaments. The gods did the bathing, anointing, ornamenting, and clothing of the bodies of the other munis. Placing the Master's body on a divine litter, Purandara conducted it to the suitable funeral pyre made of gośirşasandal. The other gods placed the bodies of the other munis on a litter and took them to a pyre made of gośīrşasandal. The Agnikumāra-gods made a fire in the pyres and the Vāyukumāras made it flame at once. By order of Sakra the gods threw camphor and musk by bhāraweights and pitchers of ghi by hundreds on the pyre. When the Master's other elements, except the bones, had been consumed. the Meghakumāra-gods put out the fire in the pyre. Sakra and Īśāna took the Master's right and left upper molar teeth, and Camara and Bali the lower. The other Indras took the Lord's other teeth, and the other gods the bones, after dividing them with devotion. Whatever else was to be done in that connection, the Indras did all that according to rule; then went together to Nandiśvara, and held an eight-day festival to the eternal Arhats with a great celebration. Then the gods and Indras went to their respective abodes. They put the Jina's teeth in round diamond boxes and set them on the pillars named 'Māņavaka' in Sudharmā. The Indras constantly worship them, like the eternal statues of the Arhats, with the best fragrant incense and wreaths. From their power unequaled victory and happiness existed unimpeded for them (the Indras). Page #247 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 222 CHAPTER SIX May this life of Ajitanātha, pleasing with the life of King Sagara included, surely full of sentiments, like a pool full of water beautiful with a mass of lotuses, diffuse pleasures of this world and next to assemblies of hearers. Page #248 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BOOK III Page #249 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Page #250 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER I SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA Homage to the Lord of Three Worlds, originating from merit, destroyer of birth, holy Sambhava, Lord Jina, crusher of Love. Now I shall relate the life of holy Sambhava, Lord Jina, which is the cause of the purification of the earth, a sickle for the plants of karma. Incarnation as Vipulavāhana (3-102) In the zone Airāvata in the continent Dhātakikhanda, there is a celebrated city, named Kșemapurī, the abode of happiness (kşema). In this city there was a king, named Vipulavāhana, endowed with great understanding, like Meghavähana (Indra) come to earth. He guarded duly his subjects unceasingly, destroying all pains, like a gardener guarding his garden, destroying all thorns. His stream of policy fowed unceasingly, refreshing the people just as if they were travelers. Maintaining an insuperable rule, devoted to the law, he did not allow the least transgression by himself as well as others. He employed the fourth stratagem 807 against the guilty in proportion to the crime, like a physician dispensing treatment to the sick with regard to the disease. He showed favor to the virtuous in accordance with their virtue. Verily, the fruit of discrimination on the part of the discerning is suitable subsistence. Things that were sources of pride 868 in other people did not cause pride in him. The rainy season does not increase the size of the ocean like that of a river. 307 8. I.e., assault. 868 10. See I, n. 391. 15 Page #251 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 226 CHAPTER ONE The All-knowing was always in his mind, like a god in a temple ; praise of the qualities of the All-knowing was always in his speech as well as in the scriptures. He bent his head to gods, Tīrthankaras, teachers, and to good sādhus; every one else bowed to him. By freedom from painful and evil meditation, 868 by study of the scriptures, by worship of the Jinas, he attained the highest fruit of mind, speech, body. In him the twelve-fold layman's dharma 370 was always very firm, like indigo-dye in cloth. Tust as he, noble-minded, was watchful over the twelvefold circle of kings, 871 so he was watchful over layman's dharma. Pure-minded, he sowed money, the seeds of the tree of dharma, constantly in the seven fields, 372 as was suitable. A petitioner never went away empty-handed from him, the sole refuge of the poor and lordless, alone compassionate like a cloud from the ocean. He rained wealth on beggars, like a cloud water; only he, free from egotism, did not thunder at all. While he, an axe for the destruction of thorns, a kalpa-tree of gifts, was ruling the earth, no one was miserable. Description of a famine (20–48) At one time, while he was king, there was a terrible famine. Fate is hard to overcome. From the failure of the heavens to turn black and from the lack of clouds the rainy season proved to be as cruel as another hot season. The southwest winds blew like the winds at the end of the world, drying up all the water, raging in uprooting the trees. The clouds in the sky were like crows' bellies. The sun appeared to have brilliance equal to that of a cymbal. 378 889 13. See I, n. 8. 870 14. See I, pp. 207 f. 871 15. See I, n. 208. 87% 16. Statues of the Jinas, shrines of the Jinas, Jain Scriptures, and the fourfold congregation. Rajendra, s.v. sattakhetti. 378 23. I.e., it is made of white metal. Page #252 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA 227 People in both the country and towns became like ascetics, eating the bark of trees, bulbs, roots, and fruit, from lack of grain. They were not satisfied even when much food had been taken somehow, like people with morbid appetites. Ashamed of begging, the people generally began to wear a sham ascetic-garb in order to obtain alms. Fathers, mothers, children abandoned each other and wandered here and there, as if they had lost the way, with the hope of eating. When food, etc., had been received in some way, a father did not give it to his son, though he saw him crying from starvation. A mother, wandering in the streets, sells her own wretched child for a handful of chick-peas, like an outcaste selling a winnowing-basket, etc. At dawn the destitute people, like hungry housedoves, picked up seeds that had fallen in the courts of the rich men's houses. Again and again in the shops of the bakers, etc., people stole food by trickery, like dogs. 374 Men considered it a blessing when they obtained just a trifle of food by some means or other at the end of the day, after they had wandered about all day. Even the highways of the city were worse than a cemetery from the wretched men who had fallen, who resembled skeletons, terriblelooking. People's ears were pierced by unceasing wails, that were like needles thrown into their ears, which poured forth at every step. When the noble-minded king saw the fourfold congregation suffering in this famine which was like the end of the world, he thought : “I must protect the earth, all of it. But what am I to do? This evil season is not subject to weapons. Nevertheless, the whole congregation must be protected at all events, since the duty of the great is the assistance of worthy persons, first of all." 874 31. I believe there is an error here in the text. The MSS have labdhā° instead of labdhvā°, but the rest of the compound seems the same. It would be desirable for the comparison to have a word for an animal or something that dogs would tear apart after they had caught it. But I can make nothing of the kind out of the MSS. Page #253 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 228 CHAPTER ONE After these reflections, the King instructed his cooks: 'Listen! Henceforth, I shall eat what is left after the congregation has eaten. The food, etc. that has been prepared for me must be given in future to the ascetics.875 The laymen must be fed with separately prepared porridge." The chief-cooks replied, "Very well," to the King's order and carried it out all the time. The King himself saw to it. "c Rice that resembled lotuses with its fragrance to be absorbed by the nose; green gram bigger than grains of black gram; 376 bowls of liquid; various sauces abundant and thick like the waters of Ghṛtoda," 877 friends of nectar as it were; flour-cakes 378 mixed with candied sugar; delightful sweetmeats; fruit with pleasant flavor; pastries 379 adorned with candied sugar; very tender marmarala; delicate cakes fried in oil and butter; a savory sauce; smooth curdled milk; boiled milk; and curds with sugar and spices which destroyed hunger--these were prepared for the laymen's meals, like meals for the King. 880 The noble-minded king himself gave food which was free from faults, acceptable, pure to the great munis. 375 39. Ascetics cannot accept food especially prepared for them. In I, p. 341 (1.6.202) 'rājapinda' is not acceptable, even though not prepared for the ascetics. Muni Jayantavijayaji informs me that the prohibition against 'rajapinḍa' existed for the followers of the first and last Tirthankaras, but not of the intermediate ones. Māṣa (urad) has large black seeds. 376 41. 877 42. See above, p. 123. 878 43. Mandaka. The editor of the text takes this to be the Guj. māṇḍā, a large thin cake made of millet and wheat flour' (Shah); 'sweetmeat balls' (Mehta). 879 43. Maṇḍikā (?). Said by the editor to be the Guj. khājā, 'pie-crust' (Shah khājuṁ). MW quotes manḍīkā merely as fem. of maṇḍaka, with no distinction in meaning. 380 44. Marmarala is the same as parpața (Seṣa to Abhi. 3. 64). MW defines parpața, a kind of thin cake made of rice or pease-meal and baked in grease.' It is the Guj. pāpaḍa, a thin crisp cake made of kidney-bean flour mixed with spices' (Mehta). Page #254 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA 229 Thus throughout the entire famine the King gave food, etc., in a fitting manner, to the entire congregation. By performing service and showing attention to the whole congregation the King acquired the body-making karma of a Tirthankara. One day he was seated on the palace-roof, and he saw a cloud raised in the sky like an umbrella for the earth. It filled the sky completely like a robe made of indigocolor cloth with an ornament of forked lightning for the sky. In the meantime a violent wind arose, shaking trees from their roots as well as all the Pātāla-vessels. By this great wind the great cloud was lifted and led hither and thither, like the fluff of the arka. In a moment the cloud became visible, and in a moment it disappeared. As he observed that, the wise king thought: "" Just as that cloud appeared and disappeared while people looked on, everything else in worldly existence is known to be like it. Just so, whether one who of his own accord is talking, singing, dancing, laughing, gambling, meditating on various means of acquiring wealth, walking, standing, lying down, seated in a conveyance, angry or playing, at home or outside, is suddenly bitten by a serpent appointed by fate, is killed by a sharp stroke of lightning that has fallen, or is crushed by a rutting elephant with its tusks, or is injured by the breaking of an old wall, etc. that has fallen down, or is devoured by a tiger lean-bellied from hunger, or is attacked by a disease causing a change for the worse and difficult to cure, or is struck down suddenly by a wild horse or something like that, or is killed by an enemy, thief, etc. with a dagger, etc., or is burned by the blazing fire of a lamp, or is swept away by the velocity of a river-flood from heavy rain, etc., or has his body penetrated by an acute affection of the windy humor, or he is embraced by the phlegmatic humor which has dried up the heat of the whole body, or torn by a violent biliousattack, or is suddenly overcome by a coughing-fit, or is consumed by a skin-disease, or is seized by consumption, Page #255 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 230 CHAPTER ONE or is troubled by an attack of indigestion, or is occupied by a miserable tumor called 'arbuda,' or stupefied by diarrhoea, or seized by constipation, or obstructed by an abscess, or tormented by the scrotum, or filled with asthma, or destroyed by gouty pain, a man always attains death by numerous diseases such as these or others near at hand like messengers of Křtānta. Nevertheless, considering himself immortal, a man, stupid as an animal, does not set out to take the fruit of the tree of a life-time. 'Oh! I have poor brothers; I have young sons now; this daughter is unmarried; this boy must be educated; my wife is newly married ; my parents are old; my father- and mother-in-law are unfortunate; my sister is widowed. Thinking that these people must be protected forever, a stupid man does not know that the ocean of existence is like a stone tied to the heart. 'I was not delighted today by the happiness of embracing my beloved's body; I did not smell the pudding ; my desire for a wreath was not fulfilled; the wish for the sight of pleasing objects was not satisfied; I am not at all pleased with the songs of the lute, flute, etc.; the storehouse was not filled today for the household ; the old house that I tore down was not renewed ; I did not undertake the final training of the horses that had come; these fast bullocks were not driven to the best chariot. So the foolish suffers remorse even at death. Never in the least does he regret, 'I did not practice dharma.' Here death is always ready; there are various sudden deaths ; diseases are here; and many anxieties there. On the one hand are love, hate, etc., enemies always ready; on the other are strong passions causing death like battles. There is nothing at all that conduces to happiness in this samsāra which is like a desert. A man, alas ! does not become disgusted with existence, thinking, 'I am living in a comfortable place.' Death, the sudden destroyer of life, quickly falls upon the one bewildered by the fallacy of pleasure, like a night-attack upon a sleeper. Verily, the Page #256 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA 231 practice of dharma is the fruit of the perishable body, just like the eating of prepared food. The acquisition of an imperishable state by the perishable body, though easy to do, is not done by bewildered people, alas! So today I shall undertake without hesitation to buy the wealth of nirvāņa with this body, and shall bestow the kingdom on my son." After these reflections, eagerly the King had the doorkeeper call his son, Vimalakirti, dear to fame. His hands folded submissively, the prince bowed with extreme devotion to the feet of his father as if he were a powerful divinity, and spoke as follows: Please favor me with an important command. not be anxious at the thought, 'My son is a child.' what enemy-king shall I seize the land today? What mountain-king together with his mountain shall I subdue? What enemy living in a fortress on water together with the water shall I destroy? Any one else who is a thorn in your flesh, I shall quickly remove. Though a boy, I am your son, able to subdue what is difficult to subdue. This power belongs to my father alone. I do not consider my self a soldier." "" "C The King replied: There is no king hostile to me. No mountain-king crosses my speech; no lord of an island transgresses my command, for whose conquest I send you forth, O long-armed son. But, living in earthly existence is the only thing that constantly torments me. Therefore, take the burden of the world, ornament of the family, fitted to bear burdens. Take this kingdom in turn, as I took it, that I may take initiation at once and give up living in worldly existence. Recalling the command of the elder which must not be transgressed and your own promise made just now, son, you can act only with devotion, not otherwise." Do Of The prince thought, "Alas! I am deprived of an answer by my father giving a command and recalling my promise." After this reflection, the King took the Page #257 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 232 CHAPTER ONE prince by his own hand and installed him on the throne with a great coronation-festival. The King, after his initiation-bath had been performed by Vimalakīrti, seated in a palanquin, went to Suri Svayamprabha. Under the best of ācāryas, the best of kings adopted mendicancy together with rejection of all that is censurable. Seated in the chariot of restraint,881 he guarded fittingly his mendicancy like a kingdom from conquest by internal enemies. By means of the twenty sthānakas 382 and other sthānakas also, he increased his own karma named 'tirthakrtnāma.' 383 Not depressed by attacks, rejoiced by trials, he passed his life, like a watchman his watch. After death from fasting he attained the heaven Ānata. Such is a small thing from initiation producing nirvāṇa as a fruit. Incarnation as Sambhava (103-407) His parents (103–111) Now, there is a large city, named Śrāvasti, very wealthy, the ornament of the eastern half of Bharata in Jambūdvipa. In it there was a king, suitably named 'Jitāri' from the conquest of his enemies, who was like a moon to the Ocean of Milk of the Ikşvāku-family. Among kings there was no one equal or superior to him like a lion among deer, like an eagle among birds. The King shone with kings installed in the duties of footmen like the moon with planets entering its orbit. He did not say anything not in accordance with dharma ; he did not do anything of the kind; he did not think anything of the kind; he was dharma incarnate, as it were. While he was king, punisher of criminals, giver of money to the poor, there was neither a wicked nor a poor 881 99. Illustrated in the Sri Silāngādi Rathasangraha. 882 100. See I, pp. 80 ff. 383 101. See I, p. 408. Page #258 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA 233 man in this kingdom. He carried a weapon in his hand and was compassionate ; he was powerful and forbearing; wise and free from jealousy; young and his senses were subdued. His chief-queen was suitable because of a wealth of beauty, the general of the soldiers-the virtues, named Senādevī. Not injuring the other objects of existence, at the proper moments he sported with the queen like the moon with Rohiņi. Birth (112–136) Now, the jīva of King Vipulavāhana completed his life in the ninth heaven. He fell from Ānata and descended into Senā's womb on the eighth day of the white fortnight of Phālguna, when the moon was in conjunction with Mrgaśiras. For a moment then there was ease for the hell-inhabitants; and there was a light like a flash of lightning in the three worlds. The fourteen dreams (115-126) As she was sleeping, Senādevi saw fourteen great dreams entering her lotus-mouth during the remainder of the night. A trumpeting elephant, fair as an autumncloud ; a bull, spotless, like a large rock that had fallen from Sphatikaśaila (Kailāsa); a lion with a very yellow mane, with a mass of hair; the sprinkling of Srī being made by two elephants ; a wreath made of five colors, stealing the hues of twilight-clouds; a full moon silvery like a mirror ; a sun by which darkness was dispelled ; a flagstaff with a banner with a collection of tinkling bells; a golden water-pitcher whose mouth was covered with lotuses ; a large pool smiling, as it were, with blooming lotuses ; the Ocean of Milk dancing with high waves as hands, as it were ; a palace made of jewels, whose counterpart has never been seen; a heap of jewels resembling a collection of Page #259 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 234 CHAPTER ONE gems of the serpents of Pātāla ; 884 a smokeless fire resembling the sun at dawn. When the Queen awoke, she related these dreams to the King; and the King explained, " Assuredly, you will have a son, who will be honored in the three worlds." The Indras knew what had happened by the shaking of their thrones, came there, bowed to Senādevī, and explained the meaning of these dreams, “You will have a son who will be the third founder of a congregation in this avasarpiņi, the master of the world, O Lady.” Delighted at this explanation of the dreams, like a peacock by thunder, the Queen passed the rest of the night awake. As the earth of the diamond-mine carries the diamond, as the fire-stick carries the fire, so the Queen carried her strong and pure embryo. Then the embryo in the Queen's womb grew in secret like a golden lotus in the water of the Gangā. Then the Queen's eyes became especially radiant. For pond-lotuses are especially fine in the autumn. The Queen's beauty of the body, swelling of the breasts, slowness of gait increased daily from the power of the embryo. On the eighth day of the white half of Phālguna, she began to carry the embryo for the delight of the world, like the sky bearing a sign of a cloud. After nine months, seven and a half days, on the fourteenth day of the white half of Mārga, when the moon was in conjunction with Mrgaśiras, she bore with ease a son, free from the afterbirth, blood, etc., marked with a horse, golden, like the east bearing the sun. Then for a moment there was a light in the three worlds that caused destruction of darkness; for a moment there was ease even for hell-inhabitants. The planets went to their high places; all the heavens were serene ; the wind blew gently; all the people celebrated. There was a shower of perfumed rain ; a drum sounded in the sky; the wind blew away the dust; and the earth expanded. 886 122. Serpents are the guardians of treasure. See I, n. 66. Page #260 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA Birth rites (137-160) Dikkumārīs, "" Then from the lower world eight Bhogankarā and others, came to the Master's house, knowing the birth of the Arhat by clairvoyant knowledge. They circumambulated the Jina and his mother three times, bowed, and announced themselves, saying at the same time, Do not be afraid." Standing in the northeast, after they had made a vaikriyasamudghāta,885 they removed thorns, etc. for a yojana with a whirlwind. Then they bowed to the Blessed One, sat down near him, and continued to sing his virtues, just like women of the family. Then from the upper world eight Dikkumāris, Meghankarā, etc., came and bowed in the same way to the Master and Master's mother. They created clouds for a radius of a yojana from the house and laid the dust with showers of perfumed rain. They showered five-colored flowers kneedeep, bowed to the Jina and, singing the Jina's virtues, stood in the proper place. Eight Dikkumāris, Nandottara, etc., came from east Rucaka, bowed likewise, and stood singing, holding mirrors. Eight Dikkumārīs, Samāhārā, etc., came from south Rucaka, bowed, and stood on the right, gold pitchers in their right hands. Eight Dikkumārīs, Ilā, etc., came from west Rucaka, bowed, and stood behind, holding fans. Eight goddesses, Alambusā, etc., came from north Rucaka, bowed, and stood at the left, singing, holding chauris. Four, Citrā, etc., came from the intermediate directions of Rucaka, bowed, and stood at the intermediate points, singing, holding lamps. Four goddesses, Rūpā, etc., came from the middle of Rucaka. They cut the Lord's navel-cord except four fingers' length, made a hole in the ground, and deposited the navel-cord like a treasure. Filling the hole with diamonds and jewels, they made a cover of durvā grass. In each direction, except the west, from the Jina's birthhouse, they made a four-room house of plantain. They 139. See I, n. 157. 885 235 Page #261 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 236 took the Jina in their hands, gave their arms to the Jina's mother, and led them to the southern four-room plantainhouse and seated them on the lion-throne. They anointed both with oil with a hundred thousand ingredients and quickly rubbed both with fragrant unguent. After leading them both to the eastern four-room house and seating them on the lion-throne, they bathed them both with fragrant water and dried them with devaduṣya. They rubbed them with gośīrṣa-sandal and put devadūşya-garments and divine ornaments on them both. They led the Jina and the Jina's mother to the northern four-room plantainhouse, and seated them on the jeweled lion-throne. Then they had the Abhiyogyas bring abundant sandal-wood, made it into fuel, and made a sacrifice in the fire produced by the fire-sticks. They made amulets from the ashes of the fire for the Master and the Master's mother and fastened them on properly. Saying aloud, May you live as long as the mountains," they struck together stone balls near the Blessed One's ears. After they had put the Arhat and his mother on the couch in the birthhouse, they continued singing auspicious hymns in loud The birth-bath (161-214) tones. CHAPTER ONE Then the thrones of the Indras trembled, just as if wishing to go near the Master's lotus-feet. Knowing the Jina's birth from clairvoyant knowledge, Śakra rose, removed his shoes, took seven or eight steps, and paid homage to the Lord of Jinas. Sakra was surrounded by gods assembled by the general's proclamation and the sound of the bells, eager for the Jina's birth-festival. Sakra got into Pālaka with the gods and his retinue and, after going to Nandiśvara, went to the Master's house. He circumambulated the Master's house, riding in his car, and then Hari got out of the car and left it in the northeast. Purandara entered the Master's house and at the very sight of him bowed to him with devotion. He circumambulated the Blessed One and his mother three "C Page #262 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA 237 times, and again bowed, touching the surface of the earth with five members. After giving a sleeping-charm to the Queen and placing an image of the Lord at her side, Sakra himself became fivefold. Then one Sakra took the Lord, and another an umbrella, two carried chauris, and one went in front brandishing a thunderbolt. Surrounded by the gods crying, "Long live ! Long live !” Sakra took the Master and went in a moment to the top of Meru. Vāsava sat on a lion-throne on the rock Atipāņdukambalā, holding the Teacher of the World on his lap. Because of the trembling of his throne just then, the Indra Acyuta immediately employed unobstructed clairvoyant knowledge, and Prāṇata also, and Sahasrāra, Mahāśukra, Lāntaka, Brahma, Māhendra, Sanatkumāra, Īsāna, Camara, Bali, Dhāraṇa, Bhūtānanda, Hari, Harisaha, Venudeva, Venudārin, Agniśikha, Agnimāņava, Velamba, Prabhañjana, Sughoşa, Mahāghoșa, Jalakänta, Jalaprabha, Pūrņa, Avasista, Amita, Amitavāhana, Kāla, Mahākāla, Surūpa, Pratirūpaka, Pūrṇabhadra, Māṇibhadra, Bhima, Mahābhīma, Kinnara, Kimpuruşa, Satpuruşa, Mahāpuruşa, Atikāya, Mahākāya, Gītarati, Gitayaśas, Sannihita, Samânaka, Dhāts, Vidhāts, Rşi, Rşipālaka, īśvara, Maheśvara, Suvatsaka, Viśālaka, Hāsa and Hāsarati, Sveta, Mahāśveta, Pavaka, Pavakapati, the Sun and Moon -these sixty-three Indras and their retinues in magnificent style, hurrying to the peak of Meru for the Jina's bath, came together as if staying in a neighbor's house. At the command of the Indra Acyuta Ābhiyogikas made pitchers of gold, silver, jewels, gold and silver, gold and jewels, silver and jewels, gold, silver, and jewels, clay, one thousand and eight of each; and the same number of ewers, mirrors, bowls, 886 boxes, vessels, dishes, and 886 185. Supratistha (erroneously translated as an adj. in l. 2. 479) is an earthen bowl,' according to PE; pātraviśesa (PH). Karandaka is a 'bamboo box,' but in this instance all these objects are made presumably from all the different materials of which the pitchers are Page #263 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 238 CHAPTER ONE flower-baskets. The gods brought water from the oceans, the Ocean of Milk, etc., and from other tīrthas also, and clay and lotuses to delight Satamanyu's mind. The gods brought there also herbs from Himādri and saffron from Bhadraśāla, etc., and other fragrant substances. Throwing all the fragrant substances into the water immediately, they perfumed the tirtha-water from devotion. Acyuta bathed the Master with the pitchers handed by the gods together with handfuls of flowers from the coral tree, etc. The Master's bath was made by the Indra Acyuta to the accompaniment of the delighted gods engaged in beautiful playing, singing, and dancing. The lord of Ārana and Acyuta devotedly made the divine anointing, pūjā, etc. of the Lord of Jinas and paid homage to him fittingly. The other sixty-two Indras, except Sakra, bathed the Lord of Three Worlds in the same way, which was the means of purifying the earth. Then Iśāna became fivefold, like Śakra. One held the Lord on his lap, another took the umbrella, two held the chauris, and another stood in front. Sakra, alone clever in devotion, made four long-horned crystal bulls in the four directions from the Lord. Delightful streams of water spurted up from their horns; separated at the bottom, united at the top, they fell on the Master's head. In this way the Indra of Saudharmakalpa, from excessive devotion to the Lord Jina, made a bath which was different from the baths made by the other Indras. After he had destroyed the bulls, Sakra made the anointing, the worship, etc. of the Teacher of the World and then, after bowing joyfully, recited a hymn of praise. Stuti (198–205) “Homage to thee, Blessed One, Lord of All, Protector, Lord of the Third Congregation, endowed with many powers, made. Cf. 1. 2. 480. Of the references given in PE for supratiştha, I can consult only Jamb. 120 (p. 410b) which does not specify earthen,' but uses the adj. 'citra.' Page #264 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA 239 differing from mankind by three kinds of knowledge and four supernatural powers present at birth, with one thousand and eight clear marks. This birth-kalyāņa of yours, causing the destruction of negligence of the always negligent, is for the happiness today of people like me. O Lord of the World, this entire night is worthy of honor, in which you, a moon with an unspotted body, were born. Now may the earth too be like heaven because of gods coming and going to worship you, O Lord. Henceforth, enough of old nectar for the gods whose minds are satisfied by enjoyment of the nectar of your sight. O Blessed One, lotus of the best pool of Bharatakşetra, may I, like a bee, have the highest satisfaction in you. These mortals also are blessed who see you constantly. The festival of your sight surpasses the kingdom of heaven, O Supreme Lord.” After he had recited this hymn of praise and had become fivefold, he took the Master with one form and repeated his acts with the others as before. Instantly, he placed the Lord adorned with clothes and ornaments by the side of Senādevī, and fastened a śrīdāmagandaka to the canopy. He put a pair of bracelets and two fine garments on the Lord's pillow; and took away the sleepingcharm and the Arhat's image. Then Sakra had the Ābhiyogikas proclaim to the gods, the Kalpavāsins (Vaimānikas), Bhavanādhipatis, Vyantaras, and Jyotiskas: “If anyone thinks anything wrong of the Lord or his mother, his head will burst into seven pieces.” Then he injected a stream of nectar in the Lord's thumb. For Arhats do not nurse, but suck their own thumbs when hungry. Sakra appointed five Apsarases as nurses to discharge all the nurses' duties for the Lord always. When Sutrāman had done this, he bowed to the Arhat and then went away ; but the other Indras went from Meru to the continent called Nandīśvara. After they had made an eight-day festival to the eternal images of the Arhats all the gods and asuras went to their respective abodes. Page #265 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 240 CHAPTER ONE His childhood (215–226) At daybreak King Jitāri held a great birth-festival in honor of the Arhat deserving the world, who had become his son. In every house, on every road, in every market, in the whole city a festival took place just as in the palace. While he was in embryo, rice was grown (sambhūta); and at that time the second ploughing (sambā) took place ; so his father gave the name 'Sambhava' and also · Sambhava' to the Lord. The King looked at the boy, Lord of the World, time and time again, thinking himself immersed in nectar, as it were. The King held the Lord on his lap, heart, even on his head like the choicest jewel, delighting in his touch. The five nurses appointed by Sakra, intensely devoted, never left the Lord's side, like the shadow of the body. He worried his nurse, like a lion-cub a lioness, getting down from her lap and wandering about without fear. He, though possessing knowledge, put his hand on the moon reflected in the floor of jeweled slabs, showing the people childish activity. The Lord played with gods who had come in mortal forms and become his companions. Who else was able to play with him? The gods, their heads turned, ran in front of the Lord running in play, like elephant-drivers in front of an elephant. When they had been made to fall in play, crying, “Help! Help!” yet the Lord bestowed compassion in accordance with the circumstances. So he passed his childhood, like the moon the early part of the evening with various games and varied playthings. Personal description (227-232) Four hundred bows tall, golden, the Teacher of the World looked like Meru turned into a man for amusement. Wearing a high tưrban round like an umbrella, his hair sleek and dark, his forencad resembling the moon of the eighth day in beauty, his eyes extending to his ears Page #266 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA 241 his ears reaching his shoulders, bull-shouldered, long-armed, broad-chested, lean-bellied like a lion, his thighs resembling an elephant's trunk, his legs like a deer's, his ankles small, his feet arched and smooth-soled like the back of a tortoise, his fingers straight, his body-hair separated, grown out, dark, soft, sleek, his breath perfumed like a lotus, always free from impurities, so favored in his body by nature, the Lord of the World shone exceedingly with youth, like the full moon with autumn. His marriage (233–241) One day, the Lord was urged by his parents, because of their unsatisfied desire for the festival, to marry kings' daughters resembling daughters of the gods. Knowing that he had karma with pleasure as its fruit and observing his father's command, he, noble-minded, consented to marry the maidens. King Jitāri and Sakra, who had come in person, had Sambhava Svāmin celebrate a marriagefestival with the maidens, at which Hāhā and Hūhū sing with sweet sounds; Gandharvas beat drums, etc. with deep tones; Apsarases, Rambhā, Tilottamā, etc., dance ; well-born women recite aloud auspicious songs. Sometimes in rows of gardens resembling the garden Nandana ; sometimes on pleasure-mountains equal to the peak of Mt. Ratna ; sometimes in pleasure-ponds like tanks of nectar ; sometimes in picture-galleries resembling heavenly palaces, Sri Sambhava Svāmin sported with young women charming from intelligence by the thousand, like an elephant with female elephants. Enjoying manifold pleasures, as prince the Supreme Lord passed fifteen lacs of pūrvas. Becomes king (242–251) Then the King, disgusted with existence, after persuading Sambhava Svāmin to consent, established him in the kingdom like a choice jewel in a finger-ring. King Jitāri himself accomplished his own desire by taking mendicancy at the lotus-feet of a good teacher. After 16 Page #267 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 242 CHAPTER ONE accepting the kingdom at his father's importunity, Sambhava Svāmin, very powerful, guarded the earth like a wreath of flowers. From Sambhava Svāmin's power the people in the kingdom were free from calamities, free from disease, living a human life-time. The Master did not even bend his brow over anything. What occasion was there to speak of bending the bow ? Destroying pleasure-karma, the Master passed forty-four lacs of pūrvas and four pūrvāngas as king. His mind endowed with three kinds of knowledge, selfenlightened, the Lord of the World reflected that existence in the world was like this: "In worldly existence pleasure from enjoying senseobjects is sweet only for a moment, like poisoned food; but in the end (during digestion) produces evil. In this worthless ocean of existence human birth is attained by creatures with difficulty, like sweet water in saline soil. When one has attained human birth, it is spoilt to no purpose by the foolish by service to the senses, like a stream of nectar by cleansing the feet.” Initiation (252-292) While the Lord was engaged in these reflections, the Lokāntika-gods came, bowed, and said, “Master, found a congregation.” After the gods had gone, the Lord of the World, eager for the festival of taking initiation, began to give gifts for a year. The Jțmbhaka-gods, sent by Sravana at the command of Sakra, brought money, gold, etc. of which the owners had died, whose landmarks had been lost, which had been put in mountains, deposited in cemeteries, and concealed in houses, long lost and disappeared. After they had brought it to the city Śrāvasti, they made piles like great mountains at the junctions of four roads and of three roads and other places. The Master had a proclamation made aloud by officials in Srävasti: "Whatever money any one needs, he may ask for that freely." Daily the Master gave away one crore and eight lacs of gold. There are so many beggars for money when the Page #268 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA 243 Arhat gives it. So, during the year, the Master gave away three hundred eighty-eight crores and eighty lacs of gold. At the end of his year's giving, the Indras, whose thrones had shaken, with their wives and retinues came together to the Master's house. After they had circumambulated the Master's house, they got out of the cars, not touching the earth by a distance of four fingers. All the lords of the gods (Indras), filled with reverence, then circumambulated the Lord of the World and made obeisance to him devotedly. Then Acyuta performed properly the Lord's bath, like the birth-bath, with pitchers of water from the tīrthas brought by the Abhiyogyas. The other Indras also, clever in devotion, made in turn the bath of the initiation-kalyāņa of the Lord of the World in the same way. Immediately the kings, devoted as the Indras of the gods and asuras, made the bath of Sambhava Svāmin with purified water. The gods dried the god of gods' body, wet with bath-water, resembling a golden mirror, with devadūsya. The gods anointed the Lord with gośīrşa-sandal and clothed him in fine garments, with devotion. The gods put ornaments on the Lord of the World-a fillet, resembling the wealth of the earth of a diamond-mine, on his head ; in his ears a pair of ear-rings that looked as if they were made of cloud-pearls ; 887 on his neck a rope of pearls that imitated the Gangā falling from Mt. Nihāra ; armlets and bracelets, that seemed to be made of the sun and stars, on his arms; on his lotus-feet anklets resembling lotus-stalks made into circles. Then the kings made a palanquin for the Lord which had a lion-throne with a foot-stool and was named Siddhārtha. The Indra Acyuta also had a palanquin made by the Abhiyogyas which was just like a chief-god of the aerial cars of the Vaimānikas. Then the Indra Acyuta put the palanquin made by himself inside the palanquin made by the kings, like aloe inside of sandal 887 268. See I, n. 314. Clouds are one of the sources of pearls. Page #269 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 244 CHAPTER ONE wood. The Blessed One, supported by Bidaujas, ascended the lion-throne in the palanquin, like a hansa a lotus. In front mortals lifted it, like horses a great chariot; next the gods, like the Thick Winds 888 the earth. With the best musical instruments sounding on all sides like clouds, Gandharvas giving a concert like nectar to the ears, Apsarases dancing with varied gestures and postures, bards reciting, Brāhmans chanting prayers, the old women of the family reciting something auspicious, and high-born women singing charming auspicious hymns, gods moving at the front, in the rear, and at the sides like horses; looked at with wide-open eyes, pointed at with fingers, receiving blessings of the citizens at every step, delighting the world by glances like glances of nectar, his chauris waved and his umbrella carried by gods, the Master went to Sahasrāmravaņa in the city Śrāvasti. From this jewel of a palanquin the Teacher of the World descended, desiring to take initiation, like a peacock from a tree, desiring to take food. The Blessed One discarded wreaths, ornaments, etc., and wore on his shoulder the devadūsya placed there by Indra. On the day of the full moon of Mārgaśīrşa, the moon being in conjunction with Mrgasiras, in the last division of the day, having fasted for two days, the Lord of the World pulled out his hair from his head in five handfuls, as easily as troubles previously acquired. Sakra caught the Master's hair in the end of his own garment and threw it immediately in the Ocean of Milk like the remains of a sacrifice. He quickly restrained the noise of gods, asuras, and men by a gesture of his hand, like a door-keeper. Declaring, "I renounce all activity that is censurable," the Lord adopted good conduct in the presence of the assembly of gods, etc. Then, the Lord's fourth knowledge, mind-reading, arose, like a present security for omniscience. Then for a moment there was comfort even for the hell-inhabitants consumed by unmixed pain as if 888 275. See p. 105. Page #270 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA 245 thrown into a fire. A thousand kings abandoned their kingdoms like straw, and took initiation themselves with the Lord of Three Worlds. Sakra made obeisance to the Lord with folded hands, and began a hymn of praise in a voice ardent with devotion : Stuti (293-300) “Hail, O Lord, possessor of four kinds of knowledge, demonstrator of the dharma of the four vows, 889 giving happiness to the throngs of creatures of the four conditions of existence. Those places in Bharatakşetra are blessed, O Lord of Three Worlds, in which you shall wander as a living tīrtha, O Lord of the Tirtha. You live in this worldly existence, but you are not tainted by worldly existence. Verily, a lotus, though originating in mud, does not become muddy. This great vow of yours, powerful as the blade of a sword for cutting the snares of karma, is victorious, O Lord of the World. Though free from affection, you are compassionate; though free from possessions, very rich in magic powers ; though possessing Splendor (heat), always gentle (cool); though courageous, afraid of existence. He with whom you, wandering, break fast, the means of salvation for all, even though a mortal, is to be worshipped intensely by gods. O Master, to see you in this way is very beneficial to me who am not free from desire, like a medicinal herb to a sick man. O Lord of Three Worlds, I ask, “May my mind be on you, as if sewn together, as if inlaid, as if joined together, constantly.'" When he had recited this hymn of praise to the Lord, Śakra and the other Indras, Acyuta, etc., went to their respective abodes, recalling the nearness of the Lord. His fast-breaking (302–310) On the next day in the same city the Lord went to the house of King Surendradatta with the intention of 880 293. See n. 358. See Uttar. 23. 12; Sūtra. 2. 7. 40. Page #271 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 246 CHAPTER ONE breaking his fast. He (Surendradatta) arose, bowed to the Lord of the World with devotion, took up a rice-pudding and said, “ Please take it." The Lord accepted the ricepudding free from faults, acceptable, free from life, in his hand-vessel, the only vessel for everything.880 The Lord, his mind not greedy for delicacies broke his fast just sufficiently to maintain life, the cause of good fortune to the giver. Then there was the sound of a drum, like the trumpeting of a sky-elephant; a divine stream of treasure fell from the sky, like a broken necklace; a rain of flowers fell from the sky, like the wealth of Nandana; there was a shower of fragrant rain, resembling the ichor of a skyelephant. The gods waved their garments as if they were held by one cord, and a voice said, “Oh, the gift! Oh, the gift! The good gift!” Surendradatta made immediately a platform of gold and gems at the place where the Lord had broken his fast, and worshipped the platform at dawn, noon, and sunset as if it were the Lord's feet. He took no food at all until he had made the pūjā. His kevala (311-318) After leaving that place the Blessed One wandered as a mendicant for fourteen years in ever different villages, villages approached both by land and water, cities, mines, poor towns, towns with earthen walls, isolated towns, towns approached either by land or water, and forests, having no abode, restrained by manifold vows, enduring undepressed the twenty-two trials, having the three controls, five kinds of carefulness, silent, fearless, resolute, his gaze fixed on one point. Then the Lord stood in pratimā, engaged in the second pure meditation, under a śäl tree in Sahasrāmravaņa. While he was engaged in meditation, the four destructive karmas of Sambhava Svāmin crumbled like dry leaves of 890 304. It is to be noted that here in a Svetāmbara work-the hand is used instead of an alms-bowl. Cf. AJP, XLVII, p. 76. Page #272 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 247 a tree. Then in the month Kartika on the fifth day of the dark fortnight, the moon being in conjunction with Mrgaśiras, brilliant omniscience arose in the Master observing a two days' fast, like a guarantee of the sight of present, past, and future objects. Then the hell-inhabitants had a moment of peace from the cessation of pain caused by the Paramādhārmikas,801 arising from the place, and caused by each other. At the same time all the Indras of the gods and asuras, whose thrones had been shaken, came there to make the omniscience-festival. SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA The samavasarana (320-340) The Vayukumāras cleaned the ground for a yojana, and the Clouds 892 sprinkled it to prepare for a samavasaraṇa. The Vyantaras paved it with beautiful gold and jeweled slabs and scattered five-colored flowers on it. There they made four arches, one in each direction, ornamented with white umbrellas, flags, pillars, makara-faces, etc. The Bhavaneśas made a jeweled platform inside and around it a silver wall with a gold coping. The Jyotiskas made a middle wall of gold with a jeweled coping, resembling the girdle of a bride in the form of the earth. Then the Vimānapatis made the upper wall of jewels with a coping of rubies. In each wall there were four ornamental gateways, and within the second wall to the northeast the gods made a dais. In the center of the ground inside the upper wall, the Vyantaras made a caitya-tree two kos and one hundred and eight bows high. Beneath it on the platform paved with jewels they made a dais, and in its center to the east they made a jeweled lion-throne with a foot-stool. Above the dais they made a triple white umbrella; at the sides two Yakṣas held moon-white chauris. In front of the samavasaraṇa the Vyantaras made a shining dharma-cakra, indicating that the Supreme Lord was a Dharmacakrin. 891 318. See I, n. 58. 392 320. Payomuc, really the Meghakumāras. Page #273 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 248 CHAPTER ONE Surrounded by crores of gods, setting his feet on nine golden lotuses moved by the gods, the Lord entered the samavasaraṇa by the east door at dawn and circumambulated the caitya-tree in it three times. Saying, "Homage to the congregation, the Supreme Lord sat, facing the east, on the lion-throne placed on the dais. By means of the Master's power, the Vyantaras made images of the Master which were placed on jeweled lion-thrones in the other directions also. Back of the Lord's head there was a halo, in front an indradhvaja, and a drum sounded in the sky. Entering by the east door, after bowing to the Arhat, the sādhus sat down and the sādhvis and Vaimānika-women stood in the southeast. The women of the Bhavanapatis, Jyotişkas, and Vyantaras entered by the south door, bowed to the Arhat, and stood in the southwest. Entering by the west door, the Bhavanapatis, Jyotiskas, and Vyantaras bowed to the Arhat and stood in order in the northwest. Entering by the north gate, the Vaimānikas, men, and women bowed to the Jina and stood in the northeast in order. Thus inside the first wall remained the holy fourfold congregation, inside the second wall animals, and inside the third wall animals used as conveyances. Stuti (341-349) Then Sakra bowed to the Master and, his hands folded submissively, began a hymn of praise in a voice filled with devotion : “You, though uninvited, are a helper ; tender though without cause; kind though unasked; a relative, though a stranger. I seek refuge with you, affording protection, who have a bland (snigdha) mind though not anointed with oil; who have a brilliant range of speech though not rubbed ; with spotless conduct though unwashed. The crooked thorns of karma were broken at will by you, not a fierce hero but an ascetic, tranquil, impartial. Homage to Page #274 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA 249 you, free from birth, great lord, free from disease, destroyer of hell, free from passion, a holy man. May I receive fruit from you, an unexpected kalpa-tree, lofty with undecayed fruit, very important for continuation of life. I am the servant without a symbol of you who are free from attachment, Lord Jina, free from affection, compassionate, impartial, protector of the world. This soul (of mine) has been delivered by me to you who are an unguarded depository of jewels, a kalpa-tree without an enclosure, an inconceivable thought-gem. I am barren of fruitful meditation ; you are the embodiment of nothing but fruit. Be gracious to me stupid about what must be done?' according to rule.” When Sakra had become silent after this hymn of praise, the Blessed One, Sambhava Svāmin, delivered this sermon with a desire to benefit every one: Sermon (351–372) “Every single object in worldly existence is in fact transitory. People in it are confused by a moment of pleasure to no purpose. Alas! creatures live with calamities coming from themselves and others from all directions, standing on the support of Yama's teeth. If impermanence penetrates in bodies made of adamant, why mention creatures that resemble the inside of a plantain tree ? 893 If any one wishes to make permanence in weak creatures, let him make it in a man of straw composed of old dry straw. For people living in the cavity of the mouth of the tiger of death there are no charms, spells, cures, incantations for protection. First, old age devours a man advanced in years; then Křtānta (Death) hastens. Alas for a human birth! If he recognized himself as subject to Kștānta, who would even eat, to say nothing of (committing) evil acts ? Just as bubbles in water disappear as soon as they appear, just so do the bodies of embodied beings instantly. Samavartin (Yama) sets out to destroy 808 353. Noted for fragility. Page #275 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 250 CHAPTER ONE without distinction rich man, poor man; king, beggar ; wise man, fool ; good man, bad man. He has no friendliness to virtue ; no hostility to vice. Death devours people, like a forest-fire a great forest. But do not fear this, confused even by missiles of kusagrass! By what means could the body be free from destruction ? The ones who are able to make a staff out of Meru, or an umbrella out of the earth, are not able to protect themselves nor another from Death. The rule of Death being lord from a worm to an Indra, a sane man could not begin to tell the trickery of Death. If any one could see anywhere any man of past times alive, then the trickery of Death would be passed over by philosophical systems. Let the wise understand even youth to be transitory, becoming decrepit from old age which destroys youthful beauty. The men who in youth are loved by fair women with the semblance of love, in old age are abandoned with the sound of spitting made by the greedy. The money which is acquired by rich men with much trouble and is preserved without being enjoyed disappears in a moment. What need is there to compare money, which disappears inevitably while its possessors look on, with bubbles and lightning ? Meetings with friends, relatives, and people are accompanied by separations in case of death, change, or injury of one's self or another. One who meditates constantly on impermanence does not grieve even for a dead son ; but one who is confused by persistence in (the idea of) permanence cries out even at the breaking of a wall. Not only body, youth, money, relations, etc. are transitory, but also this world comprising everything moving and motionless. A man knowing everything to be transitory as described, free from possessions, should strive for a permanent abode and permanent bliss.” Founding of the congregation (373-384) After they had listened to the Lord's sermon, many men and women took initiation at his lotus-feet at that Page #276 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SAMBHAVAJINACARITRA 251 time. Then the Master taught the 'three steps' consisting of permanence, origination, and perishing to the men, Cāru and others, who had the body-making karma of gañabhịts. The hundred and two gaṇabhrts composed the twelve angas and the fourteen pūrvas in accordance with the three steps. The Lord arose, took the powder brought by Sakra and, throwing it, gave them permission for exposition by means of the substances, etc., and for the gaņas. The gods, etc. threw fragrant powder on them, accompanied by the sound of the drum, and the gaṇabhrts remained, longing for the Master's speech. The Lord sat down again on the divine lion-throne, facing the east, and gave them a sermon consisting of instruction. At the end of the watch, the Lord ceased speaking. An oblation of eight pounds of rice came from the royal palace. It was thrown up in the air and the gods took half of it, as it was falling. Half of what fell was taken joyfully by the kings and half by other men, after dividing it. Then the Teacher of the World arose, went out by the north door and rested on the dais, though not tired. Such was the custom. Seated on the Master's foot-stool, Cāru, the head of the Ganadharas, delivered a doubt-destroying sermon by virtue of the Master's power. At the end of the second watch, he stopped his preaching like the reading of the scriptures at the time of Saturn.884 Then the gods, asuras, kings, etc. bowed to the Master and all went to their respective homes, joyful like people who have completed a festival. Šāsanadevatās (385-389) There appeared in that congregation a Yakşa-chief, named Trimukha, three-eyed, three-faced, dark, six-armed, with a peacock for a vehicle, carrying an ichneumon and a club in two right hands and bestowing fearlessness with a third, carrying a citron, wreath, and rosary in his left 894 383. A particular time of day at which any religious rite is improper. MW, s.v. Page #277 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 252 hands. In the same congregation there arose Duritāri, four-armed, fair, with a ram for a vehicle, adorned with right arms holding a rosary and granting a boon, and with left arms holding a serpent and bestowing fearlessness. Then the messenger-deities, Trimukha and Duritări, were always near the Lord, like a body-guard. CHAPTER ONE The congregation (390-396) Then the Lord, endowed with thirty-four miraculous powers, surrounded by monks, wandered elsewhere from this place. There were two hundred thousand monks, three hundred and thirty-six thousand nuns, twenty-one hundred and fifty of those knowing all the purvas, and ninety-six hundred of those endowed with clairvoyant knowledge, twelve thousand, one hundred and fifty of those possessing the fourth knowledge, fifteen thousand of the omniscient, twenty thousand less two hundred who had the art of transformation, twelve thousand who had the art of disputation, two hundred and ninety-three thousand laymen, six hundred and thirty-six thousand laywomen in the retinue of the Lord as he wandered. The Lord's mokṣa (396-407) The Lord wandered a lac of purvas less four pūrvāngas and fourteen years from the time of his omniscience. Then the Blessed One, omniscient, knowing that it was time for his mokṣa, went to the top of Mt. Sammeta with his retinue. Then Lord Sambhava and a thousand munis undertook the fast called ' pādapopagama.' At that time the lords of the gods and asuras came there with their retinues and remained, serving the Lord of the World with devotion. At the end of a month, Sambhava Svămin, immovable as a mountain, restraining all activity, attained śailesi, the final meditation. On the fifth day of the white half of Caitra, the moon standing in conjunction with Mrgasiras, the Lord, who possessed the four infinities of siddhas, went to the abode of undisturbable bliss. The Page #278 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SAMBHAVAJINA CARITRA 253 thousand munis, also, like spotless parts of the Master, reached the final abode by the same process. As prince, the Lord passed fifteen lacs of pūrvas ; as king, forty-four lacs of pūrvas plus four pūrvāngas; and as a mendicant a lac of pūrvas less four pūrvāngas. So Lord Šri Sambhava passed sixty lacs of pūrvas. Thirty lacs of crores of sägaras after the nirvāṇa of Ajita Svāmin the nirvāṇa of Lord Sambhava took place. Then the Indras cremated the body of Sambhava, Lord Jina, and performed the other rites properly. They took the molars and (other) teeth, after dividing them suitably ; 896 and the (other) gods took the collection of bones. The Indras went to their own homes, and the gods heaped up the Master's bones on the top of the pillar Māṇava to worship them. What part of the Lords of the Tirtha is not worthy to be worshipped ? 895 406. See p. 221. Page #279 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER II ABHINANDANACARITRA I praise the Lord Jina, son of Srimat King Sarvara, a Nandana of the trees of virtues, delighting the world, Abhinandana. I shall relate the Lord's splendid life, which is a pitcher of the nectar of knowledge of the fundamental principles, daylight to the sleep of delusion of people capable of emancipation. Incarnation as Mahābala (5-20) In the East Videhas of this same Jambūdvīpa there is a province, fair Mangalāvatī, the abode of wealth and happiness. In it there is a jewel of a city, Ratnasañcayā, the crest-jewel of the earth, a mine of all jewels, like the ocean. In it there was a king, like Kubera in wealth, like another wind 888 in strength, named Mahābala. He was resplendent with regal powers-energy, good counsel, and preeminence of treasure and army, like Himavat with the rivers Gangā, Sindhu, and Rohitānšā.897 He ruled by the four methods conquering troops of enemies, like a young elephant by its tusks. He, a depository of intelligence, had regard for the Arhat alone as god, for a sādhu alone as guru, and for the dharma taught by the Jina only. He delighted in the fourfold dharma with the divisions of liberality, good conduct, penance, and state of mind, since merit of the great is allied to merit. 398 5. Mahābala? It would be more satisfactory if this could be identified as a person in accord with the comparison with Kubera. But, though Mahābala occurs often enough as a proper name, there is no one with whom a comparison is suitable. Wind is often used as a term for strength. Cf. 4. 2. 174. 397 6. See above p. III, and K., p. 220, Page #280 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ABHINANDANACARITRA 255 · Possessing discernment, terrified of existence, knowing the transitoriness of all things, he was not contented with lay-dharma only partly free from passion. Then at the feet of Vimala Sūri he, like a tamed bull, adopted complete self-control, accompanied by pronouncement of the vow. When he was blamed by wicked people, he rejoiced for a long time in his heart. When he was worshipped by the good, on the contrary, he was ashamed. He was not depressed in the least, even when oppressed by the wicked ; even when worshipped by the great, he did not attain pride. Wandering in delightful gardens, etc., he did not glow; he did not turn pale in forests terrible with lions, tigers, etc. In winter he endured nights of intense cold standing outdoors in pratimā, immovable as an elephant-post. In the hot season terrible from the heat of the sun, he did not fade away, practicing austerities in the sun, but shone like cloth 898 purified by fire. In the rainy season, he stood under a tree in pratimā, with both eyes motionless in meditation, like an elephant. He observed all the fasts, ekāvali, ratnāvali, etc.,389 many times, like an insatiable person making acquisition of property. Also, by some sthānakas from among the twenty sthānakas he acquired the body-making karma of a Tirthakặt. After he had observed his vow for a long time, he died after fasting and became a powerful god in the palace Vijaya. Incarnation as Abhinandana (21-175) Description of Ayodhyā (21-30) Now in the division named Bharata in this continent Jambūdvipa there is a city, Ayodhyā, equal to Purandara's 898 16. This seems to refer to asbestos, though I can find no record of the known use of asbestos in India at this time. It was in common use in China in the 13th century, according to Marco Polo, and it is not improbable that it was known in India in the 12th century. I know of no other cloth' that would satisfy the condition of being purified by fire.' 899 18. See n. 51. Page #281 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 256 CHAPTER TWO city. In each of its houses the moon, reflected in jeweled pillars, attained the beauty of a permanent, handsome mirror. There the trees of the householders' courtyards resembled wishing-trees because of necklaces shaken by peacocks kept for sport who kept pulling at them. Rows of lofty shrines gave the appearance of mountains with high cascades bursting forth because of streams from moon-stones.400 The roofs paved with jewels on the tops of the shrines with stars reflected in them looked as if handfuls of flowers had been scattered by the gods. Its pleasure-pools in the houses filled with people amusing themselves steal the beauty of the Ocean of Milk with Apsarases coming forth. Its house-pools shine instantly with wreaths of golden lotuses from the faces of fair women submerged to the neck. Outside the city the grounds were dark with extensive gardens, like mountain-plateaux with new clouds. The wall, encircled by a large lake, looked just like Mt. Așțāpada with the lake of the gods. In every house in it there were givers, like kalpa-trees in heaven, always very easy to find, but beggars were very difficult to find. Description of Samvara (31–39) Its king was named Sarnvara, the moon to the Ocean of Milk of the Ikşvāku family, chosen as husband by the Śris of all his enemies. The wealth of the sole king whose command ruled the entire surface of the earth did not leave his treasury, like the sword of a compassionate man its scabbard. The earth was made to have one umbrella, like the sky one moon, by him, long-armed, very powerful with formidable majesty. He firmly supported the earth; otherwise it would have burst into a thousand pieces from the weight of his army as he went on processions of conquest. When he had repeatedly attracted Śrīs from 400 24. See I, n. 192. Page #282 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 257 ABĦINANDANACARITRA afar, he fettered them, though fickle, like slaves by his virtues. He did not become haughty because of the scepters taken from kings. Does the ocean become proud in the least because of the waters of rivers ? Always calm in mind, not greedy, free from heedlessness, he was impartial to rich man and poor man, like a muni. He ruled his subjects for dharma, but not with the desire for wealth ; he punished his enemies to protect his subjects, but not with the idea of hatred. Things that were beneficial to all on the one hand; what was beneficial to dharma on the other hand, he supported at the same time in himself like a scale. Description of Queen Siddhārthā (40-49) He had a wife, an ornament of the harem, named Siddhārthå, born in a pure family, virtuous. With a gait slow from coquetry and a very sweet voice, she looked like a rājahansi with a beautiful form. Her beautiful eyes and mouth, hands and feet gleamed like a lotus-bed in a river of merit and beauty. She looked as if the inside of her lotus-eyes were made of sapphire, as if her teeth were made of pearls, as if her lips wure made of coral, as if her nails were made of rubies, as if her limbs were made of gold, and her body of jewels. She was the chief of good wives, like Vinītā of cities, like Rohiņī of the vidyās, *1 like Mandākini of the rivers. She did not become angry with her husband, even affectionately, since well-born women are fearful of transgression against marriage-vows as if they were religious vows. The King's affection for her, suitable for himself, very dear, was free from deceit, resembling indigo-dye. Husband and wife, unfettered by all the sources of pride, 402 enjoyed various pleasures of the senses without injury to dharma. 401 35. See Abhi. 2. 153. 402 48. See I, n. 391. Page #283 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 258 CHAPTER TWO Birth of Abhinandana (49-64) Now, Mahābala's jīva, sunk in bliss, passed a life of thirty-three sägaropamas in the palace Vijaya. On the fourth day of the white half of Vaišākha, the moon being in Abhici, he fell and descended into Queen Siddhārtha's womb. At the time that he, possessing three kinds of knowledge, descended, there was a light in the three worlds and happiness even for hell-inhabitants. In the last watch of the night the Queen, comfortably asleep, saw fourteen great dreams enter her mouth : a white four-tusked elephant ; a bull the color of a jasmine ; a lion with its mouth wide-open ; Lakşmi, beautiful from being sprinkled ; a wreath of five-colored flowers; a full moon; a shining sun ; a banner garlanded with bells ; a golden full pitcher; a large pool covered with lotuses ; an ocean with high waves ; a beautiful palace; a glistening heap of jewels ; a smokeless fire. The Queen awoke and related the dreams to the King. The King explained the dreams, “O Queen, by these dreams (is meant) you will have a son, lord of the three worlds." The Indras also came and interpreted the dreams, “O Queen, you will have a son, the fourth Tirthanātha." The Queen passed the rest of the night awake. Sleep, repelled by her joy, went far away. Then the embryo grew secretly day by day in Lady Siddhartha's womb, like the seed-vessel in the calyx of a lotus. Lady Siddhārthā carried the embryo with ease. Verily, the avatar of such people is for the delight of the world also. After nine months, seven and one-half days, on the second day of the bright fortnight of Māgha, the moon being in conjunction with Abhīci, Lady Siddhārtha bore with ease a son, not inferior to the sun in splendor, golden, marked with a monkey. At that time there was a light in the three worlds for a moment and simultaneously there was happiness for the hell-inhabitants for a moment. Page #284 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ABHINANDANACARITRA 259 Birth-rites (65-75) Fifty-six Dikkumāris came, each from her own abode, and performed suitably the birth-rites for the Queen and her son. When Sakra knew the Arhat's birth by the trembling of his throne, he and the gods, seated in Pālaka, came to the Lord's house. Sakra descended from his car, entered the Lord's house, and there paid homage to the Master and to the Master's mother. After he had given a sleeping-charm, the Vasava of Saudharma (Sakra) placed an image of the Arhat at the Queen's side, and he himself became fivefold. One Śakra carried the Lord, another an umbrella, two others chauris, another, twirling the thunderbolt, went ahead dancing. In a moment Sakra reached the rock Atipāņdukambalā and sat down on the lion-throne, holding the Lord on his lap. Then the sixty-three Indras, Acyuta, etc., with their retinues came and bathed the Lord with pitchers of water as was fitting. Iśāna also became fivefold and took the Master on his lap, one holding the umbrella, two the chauris, and another the thunderbolt, going in advance. Sakra created four crystal bulls in the four directions, and bathed the Supreme Lord with the water rising up from their horns. After he had anointed the Lord and had worshipped him with clothes, ornaments, etc., and had waved the light-vessel, Sakra, his hands folded submissively, recited the following hymn of praise : Stuti (75–82) “O Master, fourth Lord of the Tirtha, sun of the sky of the fourth spoke of the wheel of time, publisher of the glory of the fourth object of existence, hail, O Lord. Now the world having a lord with you as lord after a long time will never be attacked by delusion, etc., robbers of discernment. May the dust of your feet, resembling particles of merit, settle on my head falling at your foot-stool. My eyes are fixed on your face. May the impurity that arose Page #285 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 260 CHAPTER TWO from looking at what is not worthy to be looked at be washed away instantly with waves of water from tears of joy. May my horripilation arising after a long time from the sight of you drive away the memory of the sight of unworthy things which was produced for a long time. May my eyes be always dancing on your face ; may my hands always do worship to you; may my ears always be listening to your merits. If my voice, though slow, is eager for the utterance of your merits, then indeed there is happiness for it. How otherwise ? I am your servant, your slave, your worshipper. I am your menial. Say' Very well,' O Lord. Henceforth I am silent." After praise to this effect, Śakra became fivefold, took the Lord from Īśāna and, with one carrying the umbrella, etc. as before, went instantly to the Master's house. There he took away the sleeping-charm and the Arhat's image, and placed the Lord of the World at the Queen's side, according to custom. Then Sakra went from the Master's palace and the other Indras from Meru, each to his own abode, as they had come. Childhood (86–89) At dawn the King held a great birth-festival for his son, causing the one umbrellaship of joy to all the people. The family, kingdom, and city rejoiced while he was in embryo. Therefore, his parents named him Abhinandana. Drinking nectar, which Sakra had injected, from his own thumb, cared for by nurses from heaven (Apsarases), the Lord gradually grew up. The Master passed his childhood, playing at various games with gods and asuras in the form of boys with various playthings in their hands. Personal description (90-93) Abhinandana Svāmin came to youth which produces beauty of the body, like a garden-tree coming to spring. Three hundred and fifty bows tall, his arms hanging to his knees, he looked like a tree with Śri's swing, with two Page #286 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ABHINANDANACARITRA 261 props of the swing attached. The Master was beautiful with cheeks and forehead surpassing the beauty of the half moon, with a face equalling the glory of the full moon. The Lord of the World was resplendent with a breast like a slab of Svarņaśaila, large shoulders, lean waist, the legs of a deer, feet arched like a tortoise., Marriage (94-96) Though indifferent to things of the senses, since he knew that he had pleasure-karma and was urged by his parents, the Lord married princesses. With beautiful young women he enjoyed himself, like the moon with the stars, in pleasure-gardens, pools, tanks, on peaks, etc., just as he wished. So, immersed in pleasure like an Ahamindra, the Master passed twelve and a half lacs of pūrvas from birth. Becomes king (97-99) After persuading him, King Samvara placed Lord Abhinandana on the throne, and he himself took the kingdom of mendicancy. The Master ruled the world as easily as a single village. What does the rule of the world amount to for one skilled in the protection of the three worlds ? The Lord of the World, Abhinandana, passed thirty-six and a half lacs of pūrvas and eight angas in sovereignty. Initiation (100–113) Then the Lord desired initiation and the Lokäntikagods came, like ministers, knowing his heart, and declared, "Enough of living in samsāra, O Lord. Found a congregation by which others cross the ocean of samsåra difficult to cross." The Lokāntika-gods departed after this announcement and the Lord of the World began a yearly gift without any desire for reward. The Jțmbhakas, sent by Kubera at Sakra's order, brought money repeatedly and bestowed it Page #287 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 262 CHAPTER TWO on the Master giving it away. At the end of giving gifts for a year the initiation-ceremony was held by the sixtyfour Indras in a fitting manner for the Lord of the World. Anointed, with ornaments and divine garments put on, the Lord got into the palanquin Arthasiddhā for the accomplishment of his desire. The Lord went to the grove Sahasrāmra in the palanquin carried in front by mortals, in the rear by immortals. Then the Blessed One descended, abandoned ornaments, etc., and Väsava placed on his shoulders a devadūşya. In the evening of the twelfth day of the bright half of Māgha, (the moon being) in Abhici, after observing a fast of two days, the Lord tore out his hair in five handfuls. Sakra received the hair in the end of his upper garment, went instantly to throw it in the Ocean of Milk, and returned. Sakra restrained the noise of gods, asuras, and men, and the Master adopted good conduct, reciting the sāmāyika(-sútra).408 The Lord's fourth knowledge, called 'mind-reading,' came into existence. Then there was a moment of comfort even for the hellinhabitants. Abandoning their kingdoms like impurities of the body, one thousand kings took delusion-destroying mendicancy with the Master. After bowing to the Lord, Sakra and the other Indras with their retinues went to their respective abodes, like those abroad in the rainy season, Fast-breaking (114-118) On the next day in Ayodhyā, the Master broke his fast with rice-pudding in the house of King Indradatta. A rain of treasure, a rain of flowers, a shower of perfumed rain, the sound of the drum in the sky, and a waving of garments were made by the gods. “Oh, the gift! Oh, the gift ! the beautiful gift!” was proclaimed aloud by gods, asuras, and men unrestrained in joy. Then the Master went elsewhere and in the place of the Master's feet, Indradatta made a jeweled platform, 408 110. See I, n. 329. Page #288 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ABHINANDANACARITRA 263 always wishing to worship. As an (ordinary) ascetic, the Master wandered for eighteen years, enduring trials, persevering in various vows. Omniscience (119–12I) One day as he wandered the Lord went to Sahasrāmravaņa and stood under a priyala-tree, after observing a two days' fast. The destruction of the destructivekarmas taking place at the end of the second pure meditation, on the fourteenth of the bright half of Pausa, the moon being in conjunction with Abhīci, the Lord's spotless omniscience appeared, a great remedy for warding off pain even of the hell-inhabitants. The samavasaraña (122–126) Then the sixty-four Indras came and made fittingly for the Lord a lofty samavasaraña in a place measuring a yojana. Then setting his feet on golden lotuses which were moved by the gods, the Master entered the samavasaraṇa by the east door. The Lord Jina made the pradaksiņā to the caitya-tree in it, which rose two gavyūtas and twenty bows. Saying “ Homage to the congregation," the Supreme Lord adorned the lion-throne in the middle of a dais, facing the east. Then the fourfold congregation, gods, asuras, and humans entered by the proper doors and sat down in their proper places. 404 After bowing to the Blessed One, Sakra, his hands folded in submission, his body horripilated, recited a hymn of praise to the Master. Stuti (128-135) “Any defect of the mind is removed by its very looseness by you who have restrained completely evil conduct of mind, speech, and body. Victory over the 405 126. Apparently all the 12 divisions sat down, in this instance, which would be a very unusual proceeding. C. I, p. 336, and A. 200 above. Page #289 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 264 senses was achieved by you with the correct understanding, The sense-organs are not restrained, and they are not unrestrained.' The eight divisions of yoga 405 are certainly only a detailed development. How can it be otherwise? Even from childhood it (yoga) has been part of your nature. For a long time you have been indifferent to sense-objects and friends also. In your unseen concentration also there is inherent nature. O Master, this is unusual. Just as others are not delighted at an enemy doing good, so you are not delighted at one doing evil. Oh! everything is unusual. Even evil-doers are benefited; even followers are disregarded. Who can question this different conduct of yours? Just as your mind has been devoted to the highest concentration, so it has not considered, 'I am happy or not; I am unhappy or not.' The meditator, meditation, and thing to be meditated on-the triad has united in one soul. How could this greatness of concentration on your part be believed by others? " When Śakra had ceased speaking after this hymn of praise, the Master commenced a sermon in a deep voice which penetrated for a yojana. C Sermon on samsara (137-149) This samsara is a pit of calamities. To any one falling into it, neither father, mother, friend, brother, nor any one else is any protection. Since Indras, Upendras, etc. come within the sphere of death, who, alas! gives protection to creatures against the fear of death? While father, mother, sister, brother, and children look on, a person without protection is led by his actions to Yama's house. People, their wits confused, grieve over their family being led to destruction by their actions, but do not grieve over themselves who will be led in future. In "" CHAPTER TWO 405 130. See Patanjali's Yogadarśana, 2. 29. The 8 divisions are: abstentions, observances, postures, regulations of the breath, withdrawal of the senses, fixed attention, contemplation, and concentration. HOS, 17, p. 177. Cf. Page #290 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ABHINANDANACARITRA 265 samsāra made terrible by the blazing flames of the forestfire of pain there is no protection for any creature like a young deer in a forest. There is no protection against death by means of the eightfold Ayurveda, 406 by lifegiving remedies, by charms overcoming death, etc. A king, even though in the midst of a cage of swords, though surrounded by a fourfold army, is seized with violence by the servants of Yama, like a poor man. Just as cattle do not know any remedy against death, neither do wise men. Alas! the confusion in regard to remedies ! The same ones who, equipped only with swords, free the earth from obnoxious persons, put their fingers in their mouths, 407 terrified at Yama's frown. Even for munis devoid of evil it is never possible to prevent death by vows resembling sword-blades. Alas! the universe is without protection, without kings, without leaders, since it without a remedy is devoured by the Raksas Vama. Dharma, which is a remedy, is not so against death, but it is known as a helper because it grants a good state of existence (gati). Then let us struggle for the fourth object of existence, for eternal bliss, by adopting the method characterized by mendicancy.” Founding of the congregation (150–156) From this sermon men and women in general adopted mendicancy. There were a hundred and sixteen gaṇabhrts, Vajranābha, etc. After giving them permission for exposition and for the gañas according to rule, the Lord delivered a sermon consisting of instruction. The Master told them the 'three-steps,' origination, perishing, and permanence. In accordance with the 'three-steps' they made the texts of the twelve angas. The Master stopped his sermon at the close of the watch. Then he threw up the oblation brought by the king, and gods, kings, and men took it in turn. Then 406 142. See I, n. 91. 407 145. A sign of submission, Page #291 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 266 CHAPTER TWO the Lord of the World arose, went to the middle wall, and sat down on the dais placed in the northeast. Vajranābha the gañadhara, seated on the Master's foot-stool, delivered a sermon. A śrutakevalin, he was looked upon by the people as a kevalin.408 Heended the sermon at the close of the second watch of the day. After bowing to the Arhat, all the gods, etc. went to their respective abodes. The Śāsanadevatās (157–160) In this congregation arose Yakseśvara, dark, with an elephant for a vehicle, his two right hands holding a citron and a rosary, his two left hands carrying an ichneumon and a goad, a messenger-deity always near the Lord. Likewise Kālikā appeared, dark-colored, seated on a lotus, one right hand in varada-position and one holding a noose, her two left hands holding a snake and a goad, a messengerdeity always in attendance on the Lord. The congregation (161-166) Then the Master, endowed with the thirty-four supernatural powers, wandered in villages, mines, cities, etc. Three hundred thousand monks, six hundred and thirty thousand nuns, ninety-eight thousand endowed with clairvoyant knowledge, fifteen hundred who knew the pūrvas, eleven thousand, six hundred and fifty who had mindreading knowledge, fourteen thousand who were omniscient, nineteen thousand who had the art of transformation, eleven thousand disputants, two hundred and eighty-eight thousand laymen, five hundred and twenty-seven thousand laywomen were (the congregation of the Lord of the World as he wandered over the earth. The Lord's mokṣa (168–175) After a lac of pūrvas less eight angas and eighteen years from the time of his omniscience, the Lord went to 408 155. I.e., although he was only well-versed in the Scripture, the people thought him omniscient. Page #292 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ A BHINANDANACARITRA 267 Mt. Sammeta knowing that it was time for his nirvāņa. Together with a thousand munis the Lord continued a fast for a month, attended by the gods with their Indras and by kings. Engaged in śaileśī-meditation, destroying karma prolonging existence, 40' possessing the four infinities of siddhas, the Blessed Abhinandana and the thousand munis went to the place from which there is no return on the eighth day of the white half of Vaišākha, the moon being in conjunction with Puşpa. Passing twelve and a half lacs of pūrvas as prince, thirty-six and a half lacs of pūrvas plus eight angas as king, a lac of pūrvas less eight angas in mendicancy, the Lord lived for fifty lacs of pūrvas. Abhinandana's nirvāṇa was ten lacs of crores of sågaras after the nirvāṇa of Sambhava Svåmin. Sakra performed the funeral rites of the Master and the munis also. The gods and asuras took the molars, teeth, and bones for worship. After they had gone to Nandīśvara and held an eight-day festival to the eternal images of the Arhats, the Indras and the gods went to their respective worlds, and the kings to their respective palaces. 909 169. Upagrāhikarma, i.e., Āyus, Nāma, Gotra, and Vedaniya. See PE, uvaggaha. Page #293 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER III SUMATINĀTHACARITRA Om! Homage to Sumatinātha, the source of extensive knowledge, a bridge for the crossing of the great ocean of boundless sarsāra. By his favor his life, resembling a stream of water for the tree of happiness of people in samsāra who are capable of emancipation, will be related fittingly. Incarnation as Puruṣasinha (3-120) In this very Jambūdvīpa there is the province Puşkalāvati shining with much wealth, distinguishing East Videha. In it there is a very fair city, Sankhapura by name, whose sky has uneven outlines of banners of various shrines, palaces, etc. Its king was named Vijayasena, a conqueror, possessing (such) strength of arm that his army was merely for splendor. He had a wife, Sudarśanā by name, the ornament of all the women of the harem, beautiful as a digit of the moon. Dallying with her, like Kusumāyudha with Rati, Vijayasena, whose power was celebrated, passed the time. Sudarśanā's grief over childlessness (8–23) One day he went with his retinue in magnificent style to a garden where a festival was taking place, and all the people of the city went, too. Queen Sudarśanā also went there, seated on an elephant, marked by the chauris and umbrella, like the Sri of sovereignty embodied. There she saw a certain woman attended by eight young women who resembled Dikkanyās, resplendent with priceless ornaments. When she saw her with them in attendance, Page #294 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUMATINĀTHACARITRA 269 like Śaci attended by the Apsarases, Queen Sudarśană was very much amazed in her heart. “Who is she? Who are these attendants of hers ? " Queen Sudarśanā instructed the harem-guard to find out. When he had enquired, the harem-guard came and reported : “She is Sulaksaņā, the wife of Nandişeņa, a merchant. Sulaksaņā has two sons; and these are their wives, four of each, eager to serve their mother-in-law like slaves.” When she heard that, Sudarśanā reflected to herself, “Indeed, this merchant's wife, who looks upon the face of a son, is very superior, for whom these beautiful well-born young women, who have become her daughters-in-law, always perform service, like eight Näga-maidens. Alas ! alas! for me who have no son, no daughter-in-law, who am lacking in merit. My life is in vain, even though I have become the heart of my husband. Tossing his hand here and there, dust-color all over from powder, a son plays on the lap of fortunate women, like a monkey in a tree. Like vines that have produced no fruit, like mountains without water, women without children are blameworthy, are to be grieved over. What is the use of other festivals for those people who may not have the great festivals of the birth-, naming-, tonsure-, marriageceremony, etc. of a son ?" With these thoughts, her face pale like a lotus injured by cold, Queen Sudarśanā, depressed, went to her own house. There she dismissed even her attendants and fell on the couch, weak, breathless, as if ill. She did not eat, she did not speak, she did not make her toilet, but remained like a jeweled doll without a mind. Explanation to the King (24-33) When the King heard from her retinue that she was in this state, he approached her and said in a voice tender with affection : "O Queen, when even I am subject to you, is any wish unfulfilled, because of which you are so grieved, like a hańss that has been made to fall in Page #295 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 270 CHAPTER THREE the desert ? Does some anxiety torment you, or is there any new ailment ? Has anyone transgressed your command? Or have you seen an evil vision ? Has there been external or internal evil omen ? Tell me the cause of your depression. Surely there is no secret between you and me.” Sudarśanā sighed and said in a choking voice : “ By your favor no one has broken a command of mine any more than one of yours. There is no anxiety nor illness, no bad dream nor evil omen, nor anything else like this which is the cause of my distress ; but one thing, O lord, grieves me. In vain is all royal wealth ; in vain all worldly pleasure ; in vain is the love of those who have not seen the face of a son. Just as the poor man is greedy when he sees the wealth of the rich, so I, too, am greedy when I see the sons of women who have sons, alas! Put on one side all pleasures, on the other side put the pleasure of obtaining a son ; the second weighs the more when weighed in the scale of the mind. The deer, etc. in the forest who are surrounded by their offspring are better off than we without offspring. Alas for even their little happiness !" The King fasts to obtain a son (34-43) Then the King said, “O Queen, be firm. Soon I will fulfill your wish by prayer to the gods. That which is not accomplished by power, which is inaccessible to the wise, which is out of the sphere of sacred charms, to say nothing of spells, which can not be obtained by other means, O Queen, the gracious gods are able to accomplish for men's sake. Therefore, know that desire of yours already accomplished, honored lady. Enough of grief. I shall remain fasting in the presence of the family-goddess for the sake of a son.” After so comforting the Queen, the King went from his own house, after he had purified himself and put on pure garments, to the temple of the family-goddess. There the King worshipped the goddess and sat down, firmly Page #296 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUMATINĀTHACARITRA 271 resolved not to take food nor drink until he obtained a son. On the sixth day's fast, the goddess appeared and graciously said, Choose a boon, O King." King Vijayasena bowed to the goddess and said, Grant me a son superior to all men. Favor me." falling from heaven, will be your son.' gave the boon and instantly disappeared. the Queen the excellent boon granted by the goddess and the Queen was delighted by it, like a crane by thunder.410 "" The King told "" "" A chief-god, So the goddess Conception of Puruṣasinha (44-55) A very powerful god fell from heaven and descended into the womb of Queen Sudarśana who had taken her purifying bath in the afternoon. Then the Queen, asleep, saw a young lion with a ruddy mane enter her mouth. Quickly she arose from her couch in great terror and told the King about the lion entering her mouth. The King said, "That you will have a son powerful as a lion is indicated by the dream, the fruit of the tree of the boon by the goddess." The Queen was greatly delighted by that interpretation of the dream and stayed awake the rest of the night, engaged in pure conversation. The embryo grew day by day in the Queen's womb, like a golden lotus in the water of the Gangā. << "" One day, the Queen described to the King pregnancywhims that had developed: "I wish to give fearlessness to all creatures. I wish to proclaim non-killing in the cities, etc. I wish to make eight-day festivals in all the temples." The King said, O Queen, this pregnancy-whim of yours, originating from the boon of the goddess and the dream, fortunately bestows good things from the power of the embryo. Such a wish as this is because of the magnanimous embryo. For the power of a statue is in accord with its tutelary deity." So speaking, the King gave at once 410 43. Here the crane is substituted for the more usual peacock, but the balākā is a rainy-season bird. Page #297 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 272 CHAPTER THREE fearlessness to the fearful and proclaimed non-killing by beating of the drum. He made a splendid eight-day festival in each shrine together with eightfold *11 pūjās and divine concerts. Birth of Purusasinha (56-58) Delighted by the pregnancy-whims which had been fulfilled, her face bright as a full moon, at the right time she bore a jewel of a son, like a vine bearing fruit. By proclamation the crest-jewel of kings gave petitioners whatever they asked, according to their desire, like a wishinggem. The King made a great festival, the moon to the ocean of the heart, and after that the townspeople held one also of their own accord, as if they were his family. His youth (59–63) In accordance with the Queen's dream, the King gave the prince the charming name, Puruşasinha. Cared for by nurses, the prince gradually grew up quite in accordance with the wishes of mother, father, and subjects. He grasped all the arts like the full moon the digits, and he attained youth, the pleasure-grove of Makaralaksman (Kāma). Long-armed, he married eight princesses suitable for himself in beauty, the arts, and family. Dallying with them, the son of Vijayasena experienced pleasure of the senses at the proper moments, like a god with Apsarases. Meeting with a sūri (64-78) One day like the spring-season in person, like Madhusakha (Kāma) in person, he went to a pleasure 411 55. Jala, candana, puşpa, dhūpa, dipa, akşata, naivedya, phala : water, sandal, flowers, incense, lamp (of ghi), rice, sweetmeats, fruit. I have not been able to find any Agania reference to the 8-fold pājā. It is perhaps a later development. It is a commonplace now. A ritual for such a pūjā is given in a pamphlet by Muni Vidyāvijaya, Sri Vijayadharma Sūri Aştaprakāri Pūjā. Muni Jayantavijayaji refers also to Ratnasekhara's Srăddhavidhi 1. 6. Page #298 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUMATINATHACARITRA 273 garden to play according to his fancy. He saw there a suri who had halted, Vinayanandana by name, surpassing Ananga in beauty and tranquillity. As he looked at him, his eyes, heart, and other parts of the body expanded, as it were, like those of one who has drunk nectar. Then he thought: "Like the preservation of fidelity to a wife in the presence of a courtesan, like the guarding of a deposit in the vicinity of robbers, like taking care of cream near kittens, like producing tranquillity in one's self in the neighborhood of a female demon, such indeed, is the keeping of vows in good fortune, the cause of intoxication, on the part of him who has unparalleled beauty and is young. Cold must be endured in winter; the burning of the sun in the hot season; hurricanes with rain in the rainy season, but no love in youth. So today by good fortune he, bestowing satisfaction like a guru, mother, or father, was seen because of merit resulting from good acts." After these reflections, the prince quickly approached and did homage to Muni Vinayanandana with joy in his heart. The muni rejoiced him there by the blessing 'Dharmalabha,' which resembles rain-water for the sprouting of the shoot of happiness. Again, the prince bowed to the muni and spoke : You cause surprise by observing the vows even though very young. Since you are averse to worldly things even at this age, then we know for certain their evil results like the bad ripening of kimpākas. Moreover, I think there is nothing at all of value in this saṁsāra. So people like you strive to abandon it. Therefore, instruct me in regard to the means of crossing samsara. Lead me by your path, like a caravanleader a traveler. You have been found, O great muni, by me who came here for pleasure, like a ruby by one searching for a stone in mountain-soil." "" 412 412 75. The Tricosanthes, which has a very bad taste. 18 Page #299 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 274 CHAPTER THREE Sernion on yatidharma (79-90) So addressed by the prince, the great muni, the enemy of Māra (Kāma), replied in a voice deep as the thunder of a new cloud : “The sources of pride-youth, power, beauty, etc.-- have become subdued from penance, like evil spirits of a sorceror reduced to servitude from the power to summon them. 418 Yatidharma, handed down orally by the Blessed Ones, is the best boat without impediments for crossing the ocean of samsāra. Control, truthfulness, purity, chastity, poverty, austerities, forbearance, humility, sincerity, and freedom from greed are the ten divisions. Control (samyama) is said to take the form of avoidance of injury to living creatures. Truthfulness (sunţta) takes the form of avoidance of false speech. Purity (śauca) is perfect purity of control from the refusal of gifts not given. 414 Chastity (brahma) is the restraint of the senses accompanied by the nine guptis.415 Indifference to the body is considered poverty (akiñcanatā).418 Austerities (tapas) are twofold, outer and inner, as follows: complete fasting, partial fasting, limitation of food, giving up choice food, bodily austerities, and avoidance of unnecessary motion are called outer austerities; confession and penance, service to others, study (of sacred texts), reverence, 417 indifference to the body,'18 pure meditation are the six inner austerities. Forbearance (kşānti) is endurance by restraint of anger in strength or weakness. Humility (mārdava) is the avoidance 418 80. With double use of sadhana. 414 84. I.e., honesty. 416 84. See I, p. 452. Uttar., Chap. 16, gives a list almost identical with that of the Sam., but it has to divisions instead of 9. 416 85. Really indifference to all bodily comforts and possessions. 417 87. Hem, himself makes vinaya fourfold : reverence for knowledge, belief, and right conduct, and service to one's superiors. See 1. I. 892. So also T. 9. 23. For other subdivisions, up to 15, see Navatattvasābityasangraha, 2, p. 44. 418 87. Vyutsarga=kāyotsarga. Page #300 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUMATINĀTHACARITRA 275 of the fault of pride by the destruction of conceit (māna). Sincerity (ärjava) is straightness in speech, mind and body from overcoming deceit. Freedom from greed (mukti) is the destruction of the thirst for inner and outer possessions. So the tenfold dharma, like a spotless wishing-jewel, capable of leading across samsāra, is attained in the world by merit." Arguments for and against initiation (91–115) After hearing this Puruşasinha said respectfully, “ This dharma has been well shown to me like a treasure to a poor man. However, householders can not practice it, for householdership is the best pregnancy-whim of the tree of sarnsāra. O Blessed One, give me mendicancy, the royal residence of King Dharma. I am disgusted with dwelling in the poor village of existence." Then the Blessed One, Sūri Vinayanandana said, “This desire of yours is good, productive of a wealth of merit. O you with a noble nature, very intelligent, discerning, having firm resolution, you are fitted for the burden of the vows. We will grant your wish. But go and take leave of your parents devoted to their son, since they are to be honored in the world above (all) men." Then he went, bowed to his parents with his hands folded in submission and said earnestly, " Permit me to take the vow." They said: "Mendicancy is fitting, son. However, the observance of the five great vows that must be observed in this is very hard to bear. Indifference to one's own body, abstention from eating at night, food free from forty-two faults when you eat, always energetic, free from affection, deprived of possessions, devoted to virtue, one must always keep the five kinds of carefulness and the three controls. Pratimā, lasting for one month, etc., must be made according to rule ; resolutions also in regard to substance, place, time, and state of mind. As long as you live, no bathing, sleeping on the ground, tearing out of hair, no care of the body, always living in your Page #301 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 276 CHAPTER THREE guru's house, enduring with delight trials and attacks and observing the eighteen thousand kinds of good conduct.“19 When mendicancy has been undertaken, O delicate prince, these red chick-peas must be eaten constantly ; the boundless ocean must be crossed by the arms; walking on sharp sword-blades must be done with the feet; flames of fire must be drunk; Meru must be weighed, supported on scales; and the Gangā must be crossed against the current when it is flooded. The strength of very strong enemies must be conquered by one alone and the rādhavedha 420 must be performed on a whirling wheel, alas! Much character, much fortitude, much intelligence, much strength (are necessary), when mendicancy that has been undertaken is observed throughout life.” After listening to this, the prince replied cleverly: "Honored parents, it is true that mendicancy is such as you describe. However, I say one thing Is a hundredth part of the trouble arising from existence seen in it (mendicancy) ? For instance, to say nothing of the manifest pains of hell, hard for words to describe and for ears to hear, in this world there are seen excessive binding, cutting, beating, etc., very hard to bear, of innocent animals. Men too have pains caused by diseases, leprosy, etc., by imprisonment, cutting off limbs, skinning, burning, beheading, etc. Even the gods suffer separation from friends, insults from enemies, pain hard to bear from knowledge of (future) falling." His mendicancy (116-120) After he had made this speech to them, his father and mother, delighted, gave him permission to take the vow, saying, "Good ! Good !" His father joyfully held the departure-festival, and he went to the muni for initiation as one desiring fruit goes to a tree. Pronouncing the sāmāyika at the feet of the muni, Puruşasinha adopted 119 103. See I, n. 38. 480 107. See I, n. 360. Page #302 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUMATINĀTHACARITRA 277 mendicancy, a boat for crossing the ocean of existence. By avoidance of negligence, wishing protection for all creatures, he guarded closely his mendicancy like a king his kingdom. By several sthānas of the twenty sthänakas, he acquired brilliant body-making karma of a Tirthakrt. After he had wandered for a long time, and had died by fasting, he became a powerful god in the palace Vaijayanta. Incarnation as Sumatinātha (121–264) Description of Vinītā (121–127) Now in the zone named Bharata in this Jambūdvīpa, there is a city Vinītā, the abode of the powerful and rich. Its wall shines with silver copings, as if they were made of moons brought from all the other continents. 481 It, the depository of various jewels, shines with a silver rampart, as if served by Śeşa made into a circle, for the sake of protection. The moon, reflected in the jeweled roofs of its palaces, is licked frequently by the house-cats with the idea that it is a ball of curds. Even the pleasure-parrots in this city recite, “Arhat, god, guru, and sādhu," since they hear only that in every house. There lines of smoke, rising from burning aloes in every dwelling, spread a grove of tamālas 622 in the air. In its gardens, surrounded by showers of mist from the water-machines, the rays of the sun never entered at all, as if afraid of the cold. His parents (128–138) In this city there was a king, named Megha, the tilaka of the Ikşvāku family, rejoicing all, like a great cloud. His superabundant wealth, though always rising to satisfy beggars, increased like the water in a canal. Kings bowed to him like a divinity, touching the ground with five members, and paid homage to him with clothing, ornaments, jewels, etc. His splendor streaming forth like 421 122. See p. 108. 422 126. Usually identified as Garcinia xanthochymus, which has very dark foliage. Page #303 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 278 the sun at midday contracted the splendor of his enemies like the shadow of a body. He shone with great magnificence and strength and much power like a sixty-fifth Indra to the sixty-four. His wife was named Mangalā, the abode of auspicious things, the banner of virtues, like a household Lakṣmi personified. She dwelt in the heart of her husband, and her husband in her heart; living in houses by the pair was unessential. Either when walking somewhere, in a garden, etc., or when in the house, she meditated on her husband more than on a divinity. She surpassed the Apsarases in beauty of form and grace. Beautiful-eyed, she surpassed even the moon in beauty of face. Her distinguished form and beauty, gifted with superexcellence, adorned each other like a ring and a jewel. Eternal delight was to the King experiencing delights with her, like Mahendra with Paulomi. CHAPTER THREE His conception (139-142) Now, the jiva of Purușasinha, living in the palace Vaijayanta, completed his life of thirty-three sagaras. On the second day of the bright half of Śrāvaṇa, the moon standing in conjunction with Magha, he descended into the womb of Queen Mangalā. Then Queen Mangală saw the fourteen dreams, the elephant, etc., which indicate the birth of a Tirthankara. Queen Mangala carried the embryo, which had become the support of the three worlds, concealed, like the earth carrying a treasure. Story of disputed parentage' (143-178) Now, a certain rich man left the city at that time to go to a distant foreign country on business. He was 428 The rather common Solomon's judgment' motif. In IA 42 (1913), pp. 148 ff., Tessitori discusses four versions in Jaina literature; one from Malayagiri's com. to the Nandisutra and one in Rajasekhara's Antarakathāsangraha, and two in vernacular. See also G., p. 472. In Knowles, Folk Tales of Kashmir, p. 255, the story concerns two mares and a foal. Cf. also, Hertel, Indische Erzähler, Vol. 9, p. 15. 423 Page #304 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUMATINĀTHACARITRA 279 accompanied by his two wives who looked alike. While he was on the way, one wife bore a son who was brought up equally by the two wives. After he had gained wealth and had started home from the foreign country, he died while still on the way. The course of fate is uncertain. His wives, both of them, their faces bathed in tears from grief, performed the funeral rites and cremated the body. Then the second one, deceitful, quarreled with the boy's mother, saying, “ The boy and the property are mine." The boy's mother and step-mother, the one wishing enjoyment and the other possession of the boy and property, went quickly to Ayodhyā. There they both went to the court of their own and the other's family, but their dispute was not decided in the least. Then, quarreling, they approached the King who summoned them to the assembly and questioned them about the cause of their dispute. The step-mother said: “This dispute has been told in the whole city, but no one has settled it. Who is distressed by another's calamity? Now I have approached you, King Dharma on earth, pleased by another's pleasure, pained by another's pain. This is the son of my bosom ; he looks like me; he was brought up by me. This property is mine. For the money, etc. belong to the one who has a son." The boy's mother said : “ The boy is mine ; the money is mine. She, my childless co-wife, quarrels from greed. Formerly, I did not prevent her from caring for the child because of my simplicity ; for she used to take a pillow and lie at his feet from affection. Therefore, arise to give judgment. The decision rests with you. For a judgment by the king, good or bad, is irrevocable." Thus addressed by both, the King spoke : " These two are as much alike as if they had fallen from the same stalk. If there were any difference in appearance between them, the child would be considered hers whom he resembled ; but he is like them both. He, a little boy, can not speak because of his infancy, to say nothing of Page #305 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 280 CHAPTER THREE knowing, 'She is my mother; she my step-mother."" To the King troubled by this difficult decision, announcement was made that it was noon, the usual time for the daily ceremonies. The members of the assembly said to him, “O lord, we did not decide this dispute of the two women, which is like a knot in a thunderbolt, even in six months. Now the time of the daily ceremonies must not be passed by. After a while the master can consider this question again." " Very well," said the King, and dismissed the assembly. After he had performed the daily rites, he went to the women's quarters. There Queen Mangalā asked him : “Why did you pass by the time of the daily ceremonies at noon, my lord ? ” The King gave the Queen an account of the dispute between the two women; and, wise from the power of her embryo, the Queen said, “It is certainly fitting for a dispute between women to be decided by women alone. Therefore I shall decide the dispute, Your Majesty.” In astonishment the King accompanied the Queen to the assembly. The two women were summoned and questioned, and told the same stories as before. The Queen considered the complaint and the answer, and spoke as follows : “In my womb I have a Tirthakara, the possessor of three kinds of knowledge. When the Lord of the World is born, he will give judgment at the foot of the aśoka tree. So have patience, both of you." The step-mother agreed, but the mother said, “I will not wait at all, O Queen. Let the mother of the Allknowing, Your Ladyship, give judgment right now. I will not make my own child subject to my co-wife for so long a time.” Then Queen Mangalā gave her decision. “He is certainly her son, since she can not endure delay. The step-mother can bear delay in this case, indeed, because she considers that it is another's son and money that are subject to both. Unable to endure her own son being made subject to both, how can the mother endure a delay ? My good woman, since you can not endure the least delay, Page #306 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUMATINÄTHACARITRA 281 it is evident that the boy is yours. Take him and go home. For he is not this woman's child, even though cared for and cherished (by her). The offspring of a cuckoo, even though nourished by a crow, is a cuckoo.” 424 When the Queen had given her decision by the power of the embryo, the fourfold assembly opened their eyes wide in astonishment. Then the mother and the stepmother of the boy went home, joyful and depressed, like the day-blooming and night-blooming lotuses at dawn. His birth (179–182) Then the embryo gradually increased, like the moon in the bright fortnight, producing no pain in the Queen as if it were decreasing. In nine months, seven and a half days, on the eighth day of the white half of Vaišākha, the moon being in conjunction with Maghā, Lady Mangalā bore with ease a jewel of a son, gold color, marked with a curlew, like the east bearing the moon. For a moment there was light in the three worlds; and comfort for the hellinhabitants for a moment; and the thrones of Sakra, etc., shook at that time. Birth ceremonies (183–186) The Dikkumāris performed suitably the birth-rites for him, and Sakra took the Lord from Mangalā's couch to Sumeru. The sixty-three Indras, Acyuta and others, bathed in turn the Lord, seated on Sakra's lap, with water from the tirthas. Placing the Lord on Išāna's lap, Sakra bathed him with water rising from the horns of four bulls made of crystal. After he had anointed the Lord and worshipped him with garments and ornaments, and had waved the light vessel, Sakra praised him with devotion : 42% 176. With reference to the cuckoo's habit of laying her eggs in the nests of other birds. Page #307 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 282 CHAPTER THREE Stuti (187–194) "O god, the earth shares happiness from your birthkalyāņa. How much more where your lotus-feet shall wander! Now eyes have done their duty by obtaining the pleasure of a sight of you; and hands by which you have been worshipped, O Blessed One, have their purpose accomplished. O Lord Jina, after a long time the festival of your bath, anointing, worship, etc. has become the finial of the shrine of my desire. O Lord of the World, now I extol even saṁsāra in which the sight of you, O god, alone is cause of emancipation. Even the waves of the ocean Svayambhūramaņa are numbered, but not the virtues of you who possess the supernatural powers, by such as me. O pillar of the sole pavilion of dharma, sun for the lighting of the world, tree to the creeper of compassion, protect the universe, O Lord of the World. Your preaching, the key for opening the closed door of nirvāṇa, will be heard by fortunate beings, O god. May your form, reflected always in my mind resembling a shining mirror, be the cause of nirvăņa." After this hymn of praise, Hari took the Lord, flew up instantly, left him at Lady Mangalā's side, and went to his own abode. Life before initiation (196–202) Since his mother's mind was brilliant while he was in her womb, his father gave the Master the name Sumati. Cherished by nurses appointed by Indra the Lord of the World passed his childhood and attained youth. Three hundred bows tall, broad-shouldered, with branches in the form of arms hanging to his knees, the Lord looked like a living kalpa-tree. Women's eyes move constantly like fish in the clear stream of the Master's loveliness. Knowing that he had pleasure-karma and also because of his father's importunity, the Lord married princesses of beautiful appearance. Ten lacs of pūrvas after his birth, the Lord assumed the excessive burden of the kingdom at the Page #308 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUMATINĀTHACARITRA 283 King's request. As king the Master spent twenty-nire lacs of pūrvas and twelve argas as pleasantly as if in Vaijayanta. Initiation (203-210) Self-enlightened and aroused by the Lokäntika-gods, Lord Sumati made the distribution of gifts lasting for a year, as he wished to take initiation. At the end of the year's giving, the Master's initiation-ceremony was arranged by the Våsavas, whose thrones had shaken, and kings. Then the Lord got into the palanquin named Abhayakarā and, accompanied by gods, asuras, and kings, went to Sahasrāmravaňa. On the ninth day of the white fortnight of Vaišākha in the forenoon, (the moon being) in the constellation Maghã, he became a mendicant with one thousand kings whose devotion was unceasing. The knowledge, called 'mind-reading,' arose in the Master, as if it were a younger brother or dear friend of initiation. The Master broke his fast with rice-pudding on the next day in Vijayapura at the house of King Padma. The gods made the five divine things, a stream of treasure, etc.; and King Padma made a jeweled platform for worship. Observing numerous resolutions, enduring trials, the Master wandered over the earth for twenty years. Omniscience (211-213) One day, the Lord, wandering in villages, mines, etc., came to Sahasrãmravaņa, the place where he took initiation. As the Lord was engaged in meditation at the foot of a priyangu, after he had mounted the ladder of destruction from the eighth guṇasthāna, his destructive karmas fell apart. On the eleventh day of the bright half of Caitra, the moon being in conjunction with Maghā, brilliant omniscience arose in the Master who had fasted for two days. Knowing that from the shaking of their thrones, the Indras came with the gods and asuras and made a samavasaraņa for the Master's preaching. The Lord entered by Page #309 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 284 CHAPTER THREE the east door, and circumambulated the caitya-tree that was a kos and sixteen hundred bows high. After saying, " Reverence to the congregation," the Lord sat down on the lion-throne, facing the east, and the gods made images of him in the other directions. The congregation, gods, asuras and mortals stood in their proper places. Vajrabhịt (Sakra) bowed to the Lord of the World and recited a hymn of praise as follows: Stuti (218–226) "The aśoka-tree 435 is delighted, singing, as it were, with humming bees; dancing, as it were, with trembling leaves ; delighted,426 as it were, by your virtues. For a yojana the gods scatter flowers with their stalks set straight down knee-deep on your preaching ground. The sound of your divine music purified by the grāmarāgas, Mālava, Kaišiki, etc., 427 is absorbed by them with their necks erect from joy like deer. The row of chauris, white as moonlight, shines like a flock of hansas engaged in hovering around your lotus-face. While you, seated on the lion-throne, deliver a sermon, the deer come to listen, as if to serve a lion. Surrounded by masses of light, 428 like the moon by moonlight, you give the highest joy to eyes as if they were cakoras. O Lord of the whole universe, a drum sounding in the sky first indicates your great sovereignty, as it were, over the authoritative persons of the world. Your three umbrellas, indicating your powerful lordship over the three worlds, resemble steps of the wealth of merit, one above the other. Who is not amazed, O Lord, when he has seen this amazing wealth of miraculous signs 629 of yours ? Even the heretics are.” 425 218. The caitya-tree. 428 8. Rakta, with reference also to the red flowers. 427 220. See I, n. 163. 128 223. The bhāmandala. 420 226. Prātihārya, the 8 of which have just been enumerated. See I, App. V. Page #310 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUMATINATHACARITRA 285 When Sakra had become silent after this hymn of praise, the blessed Lord Sumati began a sermon in speech that conformed to all dialects. Sermon (228–241) "A person who has reached a state suitable for accurate knowledge of right and wrong must not remain here, confused by his own acts. Good treatment of a person-son, friend, wife, etc., all that is the business of another, not in the least one's own business. Alone a person is born ; alone he dies ; alone he experiences karma accumulated during another birth. The great wealth that he acquired is consumed by others in common; but he alone is tormented by his own karma in the inside of hell. A creature subject to karma wanders entirely alone repeatedly in this extensive forest of existence terrible with the forest-fire of pain. One might say, 'Suppose relatives, etc. are not companions of the soul here, but the body is a companion and causes experiencing of pleasure and pain.' It does not come from a former birth; it does not go to another existence ; then how can the body met in (chance) encounter 480 be a companion ? If there is the thought, 'Right and wrong, close together, are friends,' that is not the truth. In mokṣa there is no friendship between right and wrong. Therefore, a creature wanders alone in existence, committing good and bad actions, and experiences good and bad consequences in accordance with them. Alone he gains the highest wealth of mokşa. Because of the separation from all associations, there is no possibility of a companion. Whatever pain is dependent on existence, whatever happiness arises from mokşa, alone he experiences that. There is no companion whatever. Just as a man crossing a river alone reaches the other bank in a moment; but does not 480 234. Sampheta (?). I believe all it really means here is 'met accidentally.' Page #311 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 286 CHAPTER THREE (do so), if he has articles tied to his chest, hands, feet, etc. ; so, indifferent to possessions, wealth, body, etc., alone, self-sufficient, he attains the opposite shore of the ocean of existence. Therefore, abandoning association with creatures in worldly existence, a person must indeed strive alone for mokṣa possessing eternal joy and happiness." The ganabhrts (242–245) Many men and women, enlightened by hearing the Lord's sermon, having become free from affection, took the vow. There were one hundred gaṇabhrts, Camara, etc. They received the 'three steps' from the Lord and made the twelve angas. The Lord stopped preaching at the end of the first division of the day; and the chief gañabhrt, seated on the Master's foot-stool, delivered a sermon. He too stopped preaching at the end of the second period of the day. After bowing to the Lord, the Indras and others went to their respective abodes. Śāsanadevatās (246–249) In his tirtha appeared the Lord's messenger-deity, named Tumburu, white bodied, with a garuda for a vehicle, one right hand holding a spear and one in varada-position, holding a mace and a noose in his left hands, always near at hand. Likewise appeared Mahākāli, golden, with a lotus for a vehicle, one right hand in varada-position and one holding a noose, holding a citron and a goad in her left hands, the Lord's messenger-deity, always near. His congregation (250–256) The Lord, adorned with the thirty-five supernatural qualities of speech, enlightening souls capable of emancipation, wandered over the earth. Three hundred and twenty thousand monks, five hundred and thirty thousand nuns, twenty-four hundred who knew the fourteen pūrvas, eleven thousand endowed with clairvoyant knowledge, ten thousand, four hundred and fifty possessing mind Page #312 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUMATINĀTHACARITRA 287 reading knowledge, thirteen thousand omniscient, eighteen thousand four hundred who had vaikriyalabdhi, ten thousand four hundred and fifty disputants, two hundred and eighty-one thousand laymen, and five hundred and sixteen thousand laywomen formed the retinue of Lord Sumati, who was endowed with the thirty-four supernatural qualities, as he wandered over the earth. His mokșa (257-260) From the time of his omniscience, Lord Sumati wandered for a lac of pūrvas less twelve angas and twenty years. Knowing that it was time for his mokşa, the Lord went to Mt. Sammeta and together with a thousand munis observed a fast. At the end of a month the Lord of the World, his karma prolonging existence being destroyed, the four infinities having been acquired, practiced śailesi-dhyāna. On the ninth day of the white half of Caitra, the moon being in conjunction with Punarvasu, the Master and the munis gained an imperishable abode. The Lord spent ten lacs of pūrvas as prince; twentynine lacs of pūrvas and twelve angas as king ; a lac of pūrvas less twelve angas in the vow. So Lord Sumati's age was forty lacs of purvas. Sumati Svāmin's nirvāņa was nine lacs of crores of sāgaras after Abhinandana's nirvāņa. The Indras performed the funeral rites and cremation of the Lord and the thousand munis properly. They made a nirvāņa-festival in Nandīśvara and went home, each to his own world. Page #313 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER IV PADMAPRABHACARITRA Om! We praise the Lord Jina, Padmaprabha, the color of the red lotus, the pleasure-house of Padma like a heap of lotuses to which she has resorted. By his unequaled power, I, though of little wit, shall narrate the life destructive of evil of the Jinendra Padmaprabha. Incarnation as Aparajita (3-17) In the province Vatsa, the sole ornament of East Videha in Dhatakikhaṇḍadvipa, there is an excellent city, Susīmā. Its king was Aparajita, unconquered by his enemies, (but) with his senses conquered, like dharma embodied. Justice was his friend, dharma his relation, virtues his wealth. Friends, relations, wealth were only externals. The important qualities, sincerity, good conduct, truthfulness adorned each other mutually like shoots of a tree. Free from anger he ruled his enemies; free from attachment he enjoyed pleasure; free from greed he, the crest-jewel of the discriminating, supported wealth. One day, when he, like a god, was drinking the nectar of the Arhat's teaching, his mind concentrated on the Tattvas,81 he reflected : "Wealth, youth, beauty, the body, doe-eyed women, sons, friends, palaces, are difficult for people to give up. Yet a person, who has experienced misfortune while living or who has died, is abandoned by them, like a broken egg by birds. A stupid man, alas! who bestows one-sided affection on them, like jumping with one foot, is separated from his possessions. Before they abandon me because of the consumption of matured 481 8. The Fundamental Principles. See I, App. IV. Page #314 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PADMAPRABHACARITRA 289 merit here, I, resorting to bold action, will abandon them, certainly." So considering for a long time, Mt. Rohana of the jewels of discernment, his disgust with existence at the highest pitch, he bestowed the kingdom on his son. He went to the lotus-feet of Pihitāśrava Sūri and adopted mendicancy, the great chariot on the road to emancipation. Possessing the three controls and the five kinds of carefulness, free from affection, without possessions, he kept his vow sharpened like a sword-blade for a long time. By several sthānas of the twenty sthānakas he, spotlessminded, acquired the body-making karma of a Tīrthakrt. Devoted to pure meditation, noble-minded, he passed his life, and (after death) became a powerful god in the ninth Graiveyaka-heaven. Incarnation as Padmaprabha (16-197) Description of Kauśāmbi (16-22) Now in Jambūdvipa in this zone Bharata, there is a city Kaušāmbi, the ornament of Vatsadeśa. There the moon, wandering in the vicinity of lions on top of very lofty shrines, attained spotlessness by the deer-mark in the moon) being terrified. In its lofty dwelling-houses incense-smoke spread a wealth of garments over couples whose garments had been removed for pleasure. In every house in it parrots pecked at pearls placed in svastikas with the idea that they were pomegranate seeds. Every man was wealthy; no one envied another's wealth ; only the wind was envious of the fragrance of garden-flowers. His parents (23–32) Its king was Dhara, who excelled the clouds and mountains in removing heat (pain) from the earth and in supporting it. The kings on earth did not break his commands, but rather placed them on their heads like unbroken flower wreaths. Though having rods in the form of arms formidable with the bow, he did not show cruelty 19 Page #315 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 290 in punishment, but was gentle as a bhadra-elephant.* For a long time he anointed all the sky with glory and love spread out simultaneously, like a half-and-half mixture of sandal and saffron. A heap of virtues, like a household divinity, was innate in this king, a pleasure-house of the goddess Laksmi. CHAPTER FOUR He had a wife, the crest of good wives, Susīmā by name, rivaling a celestial maiden. She, with visible buds in the form of hands, feet, and lips, with flowers in the form of teeth, with branches in the form of arms, looked like a kalpa tree shoot. She walked slowly, her face covered with a veil, looking only at the ground as if devoted to carefulness in walking.488 Her body was adorned with beauty as well as her conduct with modesty, her mind with sincerity as well as her speech with pleasant truth. When she was speaking, because of the very white rays from her teeth she looked like night with streams of moonlight from the moon. 482 25. See I, n. 128. 488 30. 484 38. Birth (33-38) Now, the soul of King Aparajita completed a life of thirty-one sägaras in Graiveyaka. On the sixth day of the black half of Magha, the moon being in conjunction with Citra, he fell and descended into the womb of Lady Susīmā. Then Queen Susīmā saw fourteen great dreams indicating the birth of a Tirthakṛt entering her mouth. As the embryo gradually increased in size the Queen had a pregnancy-whim for a couch of lotuses; and it was instantly gratified by goddesses. After nine months, seven and a half days, on the twelfth day of the black half of Kartika, the moon being in Citra, the planets suddenly going to exaltation by retrograde and accelerating motions, the Queen bore a son, red lotus-color, marked by a red lotus.484 432 A play on the doctrinal iryāsamiti. Padma in Hem. is red lotus,' not ' lotus' in general, Page #316 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PADMAPRABHACARITRA 291 Birth ceremonies (39-41) The fifty-six Dikkumārīs came and performed the birth-rites. Then Sakra came and took the Lord to the top of Svarṇādri (Meru). Acyuta and the other Indras bathed the Lord, seated on Sakra's lap, all in turn in order of seniority like full brothers. Sakra, too, properly bathed the Lord placed on Išāna's lap, made a pâjā, etc., and recited a hymn of praise as follows : Stuti (43-49) " In this saṁsāra without value, the sight of you, O god, is a well of nectar for people wandering for a long time in a desert. The unwinking eyes of the gods *85 had their purpose accomplished when they saw you unfatigued, unequaled in beauty. There was a light in perpetual darkness, comfort for hell-inhabitants. Indeed, that comfort was from you who have the form of a Tirthanātha. O god, because of the people's merit after a long time you lead to maturity the great tree of dharma by sprinkling it with the water of the canal of compassion. The lordship of the three worlds, the possession of three knowledges, were produced at your birth, like coolness in water. O lotus-colored, lotus-marked, with lotus-fragrant breath, lotus-faced, the home of Padmā (Sri) joined with a lotus, hail ! O Lord. This boundless ocean of samsāra always difficult to cross will become knee-deep now by your favor, O Lord. I do not desire the sovereignty over another heaven, nor dwelling in Anuttara, but I desire service to your lotus-feet.” After this hymn of praise, Sakra took the Lord, went quickly, laid him at the side of Lady Susīmā, and went to heaven. Life before initiation (51-56) Because his mother had a pregnancy-whim for a couch of lotuses while he was still in her womb and because of 486 43. The gods never wink. Page #317 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 292 CHAPTER FOUR his lotus-color, his father named him Padmaprabha. Being cherished by nurses from heaven, playing with gods in the form of boys, the Master grew up gradually, and attained the second period of life. Two hundred and fifty bows tall, broad-chested, the Lord looked like a pleasure-mountain made of rubies of Sri. Though wishing to abandon samsāra, the Master married in order to gratify the people and from consideration for his father and mother. When seven and a half lacs of pūrvas since his birth had passed, the Master took the 'burden of the kingdom at his father's importunity. The Lord of the World spent twenty-one and a half lacs of pūrvas and sixteen pūrvāngas, protecting the kingdom. Initiation (57-62) The Master, who wished to reach the opposite bank of existence, was urged to take initiation by the Lokāntikagods, like a traveler urged to a journey by good omens. He gave gifts for a year and the Jşmbhakas, sent by Kubera, supplied treasure to the Lord as he gave it away. The Lord, whose (departure-)ceremony was made by Indras and kings, got into a palanquin (named) Nirvịttikarā and went to the grove Sahasrāmravaņa. In the afternoon of the thirteenth of the black half of Kārtika, (the moon being) in Citră, observing a two days' fast, the Lord together with a thousand kings took the vows of mendicancy. On the next day the Master broke his fast with ricepudding in the house of King Somadeva in the city Brahmasthala. The gods made there the five divine things ; and the King made a jeweled platform where the Lord had stood. Omniscience (63-65) The Supreme Lord wandered for six months as an ascetic and went again to Sahasrāmravana, the sole witness of his initiation. As the Lord stood in pratimā at the foot of a banyan tree, observing a two days' fast, the Page #318 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PADMAPRABHACARITRA 293 destructive karmas disappeared, like a collection of clouds scattered by the wind. Then on the day of the full moon of Caitra, when the moon had approached Citrā, Lord Padmaprabhā's spotless omniscience arose. The samavasaraņa (66–71) The Indras of the gods and asuras made there a samavasarana, and the Lord of the Three Worlds entered it by the east door. The Supreme Lord circumambulated the caitya-tree, a kos and a half high, just as Indra did him. Praise being pronounced aloud with the words, "Homage to the congregation," the Lord sat on the jeweled lionthrone, facing the east. By means of his power the gods made images of the Lord, which did not differ in the least from his form, in the other directions also. The holy fourfold congregation occupied the proper places in the samavasaraņa, their heads erect from longing for the Master, like peacocks longing for a cloud. Then the Indra of Saudharmakalpa bowed to the Supreme Lord and praised him with evident devotion in a speech which was the essence of truth. Stuti (71-80) “Defeating the army of trials, putting to flight attacks, you have arrived at the happiness of tranquillity. There is a certain skill of the great. You are free from passion, having experienced freedom from greed ; you are free from hostility, having destroyed dislikes. Indeed, of the noble-minded there is a certain power hard for people to attain. By you always free from desire, afraid of sin, the three worlds have been conquered. There is a certain cleverness of the great. Nothing has been given to any one ; nothing has been received from any one. Nevertheless, you have this power. There is a certain art of the wise. Fortune which is not gained by others even by the gift of the body falls at the foot-stool of you who are indifferent, O Lord. This great sovereignty has been Page #319 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 294 CHAPTER FOUR attained by you cruel toward love, etc., compassionate toward all souls, possessing terrible and beautiful attributes. Great among even the very great, worthy to be honored even among the noble-minded, indeed ! the Master has come within the sphere of a hymn of praise from me praising. All the faults without exception are in others; but in you all the virtues. If this hymn of praise of mine to you is to no purpose, the people present are authority for that statement. I do not hope for any other nirvāņa even, O Lord of the World, thinking, 'May I have the sight of you, again and again.'" When Sakra had become silent, the Blessed One began a sermon in a voice endowed with the thirty-five supernatural qualities. 486 Sermon on the four gatis (82–175) “Friends, this samsāra, like a boundless ocean, is terrible, destructive of lives in the eighty-four lacs of species of birth-nuclei. A Brāhman learned in the Vedas, or an outcaste; a master or a footman; a Brāhman or a worm, alas ! any creature in worldly existence performs like an actor in the play of samsāra. Because of bondage to karma to what place of birth (yoni), like a cottage for rent, does a creature in samsāra not go ? Or what does he not escape? In the whole universe there is not the space of a point of a hair even which is not touched by creatures in various forms because of their karma. Hell-inhabitants (86-99) The four divisions of creatures in samsāra--hellinhabitants, animals, men, and gods, have great pain generally from bondage to karma. In the first three hells there is heat ; in the last three cold ; in the fourth heat and cold. This pain arises from the place. If an iron mountain should fall in the hot and cold hells, it would melt or burst 486 81. Enumerated in Abhi. 1. 65-71. Page #320 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PADMAPRABHACARITRA 295 to pieces when it had touched the ground. They have great pain produced by each other and by asuras. Tortured by pain of these three kinds, they dwell in the hells. Produced in buckets on water-wheels they are dragged like leaden pegs by force by Adhărmikas 487 through small openings. They are beaten on the top of rocks, like clothes by washermen, by them (asuras) seizing their hands, feet, etc. full of hard splinters. They are cut, like logs of wood, by cruel saws; then they are ground like sesame-seed by various machines. Afflicted by thirst, the miserable wretches are dipped into the river Vaitarani which has a stream of hot tin and lead. Longing for shade they go quickly to a grove of asipattra (sword-leaved), where they are cut into little pieces repeatedly by falling knives. Full of hard thorns from the seemul tree, 488 they are made to embrace maidens of hot iron, reminded of enjoyment of other men's wives. They are forced to eat flesh from their own bodies reminding them of their eagerness for meat; and making them recall a fondness for liquor, they are compelled to drink hot tin. They are made to experience pains from cooking in a frying-pan, boiler, on big stakes, in earthen jars, etc. unceasingly, and they are roasted like meat on spits. The limbs, eyes, etc. of creatures that have been cut up and divided and their bodies put together again, are dragged out by birds, cranes, herons, etc. So destroyed by great pain, deprived of an atom of comfort, they pass a long time, up to thirtythree sāgaras. Animal-births (100–127) Even when they have reached the animal condition of existence, and have attained the stage of one-sensed creatures, etc., and in it have acquired the form of earth-bodies, they are divided by implements such as plows; they are • 437 90. Adhārmika=paramadhārmika, the name of these demons. See I, n. 58. 488 95. Bombax Malabaricum, the silk-cotton tree, is very thorny. Page #321 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 296 CHAPTER FOUR crushed by horses, elephants, etc. ; they are submerged by streams of water; and are burned by forest-fires. They are pained also by water-salt-water, rice-water, etc., and when they have become salt, they are boiled in hot water. They are cooked by potters, etc., who have turned them into bricks for pots, etc.; and they are piled up in walls when they have reached the form of mud. Some are ground by grindstones by persons after they have heated them with layers of saline soil ; 489 some are split by chisels and burst by mountain-streams. On the other hand, when they are water-bodies, they are burned by the sun's rays, congealed by frost, dried up by mud. They destroy each other from contact in sweet juices, and placed in a vessel, they are cooked thoroughly and drunk by the thirsty. When they have become fire-bodies, they are extinguished by water, etc.; they are cut to pieces by hammers, etc.; and made to blaze by fuel, etc. When they become air-bodies, they are beaten by fans, etc., and perish every moment from contact with objects, hot, cold, etc. All the winds, east, etc., injure each other; they are pained by the breath from the mouth, etc.; and are drunk by snakes, etc. When they become plant-bodies of ten kinds,440 bulb, etc., they are cut, split, and cooked by fire. They are dried up, crushed, and singed by rubbing each other ; they are burned by caustics, and fastened together by consumers. In all conditions they are eaten; they are divided by storms; they are reduced to ashes by fires ; and uprooted by floods of water. All plant-lives experience constantly a series of torments from all implements, as they have become food for everyone. 480 102. I.e., smelting. 440 110. The 10 kinds of vanaspati are : (I) müla, root; (2) kanda, bulb; (3) skandha, trunk; (4) tvac, bark; (5) śākhā, branch ; (6) pravāla, sprout; (7) patra, leaf ; (8) puşpa, flower ; (9) phala, fruit ; (10) bija, seed. Sth. 773 ; Lokaprakāśa (Dravya) 5. 106 ff. Page #322 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PADMAPRABHACARITRA 297 In the two-sensed state, the pūtara,"1 etc. are burned and drunk; insects are crushed by feet and devoured by sparrows, etc. Conchs, etc. are dug up and dragged from their water-home; worms, etc. are made to fall from the stomach by medicine, etc. Even when the three-sensed state has been reached, lice, bugs, etc. are crushed by the body and burned by hot water. Ants are bruised by feet and brooms; the kunthu,44% etc. unseen, are destroyed by seats, etc. The bee, black bee, etc. with four senses are injured by honey-eaters by blows with sticks, clods, etc. Gnats, mosquitoes, etc. are soon beaten with fans, etc. ; flies and spiders are devoured by house-lizards, etc. The water-creatures with five senses devour each other eagerly ; they are caught by fishermen and swallowed by cranes, etc. They are opened by persons skinning them, and are roasted on spits. They are cooked by people wishing to eat them and melted by people seeking grease. Born among land-creatures, the weak, the deer, etc. are killed by the stronger, such as the lion, that desire their flesh. Innocent animals are killed by men, whose minds are devoted to hunting for sport and from desire for meat, by various means. They endure pain from hunger, thirst, cold, heat, imposition of excessive burdens, etc., and from blows with horse-whips, elephant-goads and oxgoads. Birds, partridges, parrots, doves, sparrows, etc. are devoured by hawks, falcons, vultures, etc., greedy for their flesh. They are killed by hunters eager for their flesh, after they have caught them by a multitude of devices and by assuming various forms. How can animals' universal fear, arising from water, fire, weapons, etc., originating in bondage to their respective karmas, be described ? 4 114. A small water-creature. PH s.v. ; Haim. VIII. I. 170. 112 117. A very small insect, frequently used as a synonym of invisibility. Page #323 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 298 CHAPTER POUR Humans (128–147) Even in the human state people that are born in non-Aryan countries commit various crimes that cannot be told. Even when they are born in Aryan countries, Cândālas, outcastes, etc. commit various evils and experience pain. Behaving in a non-Aryan manner, though born in an Aryan country, afficted by pain, poverty, misfortune, they suffer pain. Tormented by the increase of others' wealth, by the decrease of their own wealth, by service to others, men live in pain. Consumed by disease, old age, and death, afflicted with menial work, wretched people, the abode of compassion, attain their respective unhappy fates. Old age, disease, death, and servitude are not as much the cause of pain, as dwelling in the womb, which resembles dwelling in a terrible hell. The pain of a man divided into hair-like pieces by red-hot needles is multiplied eightfold by that of a person in the womb. The pain which a man suffers in coming from the machine of the womb is infinitely greater than the pain of the embryo-state. A person is never ashamed-in childhood because of processes of elimination, in youth because of sexual acts, in old age because of asthma, cough, etc. First, a pig from uncleanliness, then a donkey because of lust, later an old ox from age, a man is never a man. In childhood he is subject to his mother ; in youth subject to a girl ; in old age subject to his son; a fool-he is never subject to himself. Disturbed by hope of money, people waste a birth without fruit by work, such as service, ploughing, trade, cattle-tending, etc. So, sometimes theft, sometimes gambling, sometimes base dissoluteness, is the cause of people, alas ! wandering again in another birth. Blinded by delusion, people spend a birth in lovedalliance, if happy ; if unhappy, in lamentations about their misery ; but not in righteous acts. Wicked people, when they have reached this human state which is able to destroy an endless heap of karma, commit crimes. Evil Page #324 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PADMAPRABHACARITRA 299 acts in a human-birth-the receptacle of the three jewels, knowledge, faith, and conduct—are like wine in a golden dish. When a human birth has been won with difficulty by people in the ocean of existence, like the union of the yoke pin and the yoke, alas ! it is lost like a jewel. When a human birth, which is the means of attaining heaven and emancipation has been gained, alas! people occupy themselves with actions that are the means of attaining hell. When a human birth, which is earnestly hoped for even by the gods in Anuttara,943 has been achieved by wicked people, it is joined to wicked acts. Pain in hell is known indirectly (parokşa); pain in human birth is known directly (pratyakşa). Its manifestation has been described. What is the use of amplification ? Gods (148–175) The empire of pain is present even among the gods, their wits destroyed by sorrow, anger, dejection, jealousy, misery, etc. When they see the great splendor of another, the gods grieve for a long time over life in another birth in which little good was performed. Or they are tormented constantly by the sharp arrow of envy, unable to counteract it by another powerful one, for a long time. When they have seen more and more glory, the gods are depressed at the thought,' We did no good deeds, so we are servants.' Seeing the palaces, women, jewels, gardens, and wealth of others, so long as they live they are burned by the flames of blazing jealousy. Poor people, their wealth consumed by others, say in a choking voice, 'O husband, o lord, O god, be gracious. Even when heaven has been attained by merit, the gods, those who inspire love, etc., filled with love, anger, and fear, do not enjoy their state. When they have noticed 48 146. See above, p: 124. Emancipation can be reached only from a human birth. Gods must be born again as mortals. Page #325 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 300 CHAPTER FOUR repeatedly signs of falling, and have considered them, they cling together and say, 'Where shall we fall ?' Fresh garlands coming from the trees of heaven fade together with the lotus-faces of the gods. Kalpa-trees, unshakable even by storms, shake, their ligaments relaxing completely together with the heart. The gods are deserted by Beauty and Modesty, wives won at the right time and at the same time, as if they were criminals. The spotless beauty of their clothing becomes soiled instantly by the impure, gross collections of sins suddenly spreading. Though not poor, they are attended by Poverty, and by Sleep, though not sleepy, like ants by wings at the time of death."46 They are attracted by sense-objects to a high degree with injury to propriety and religion. About to die, they touch food with effort. Though they are free from disease, the joints of their bodies and limbs separate, as if helpless from pain arising from the impending fall into an evil state of existence. Their eyes suddenly become dim for perceiving objects, as if unable to look at the increase in others' wealth. They terrify others, also, by their limbs trembling as if from fear of the coming of pain arising from dwelling in the womb. When they know by signs that falling is certain, they take no pleasure at all in palace, grove, tank, as if they were embraced by charcoal. “Oh! beloved ; Oh! palaces; Oh! tanks; Oh! trees of the gods, separated from the ill-starred, where will you be seen again ? Alas for the smile that is a rain of nectar; Alas for red lips that are nectar; alas for speech that rains nectar ; alas for beauty that is composed of nectar. Oh! pillars wrought of jewels; Oh! beautiful pavements of gems; Oh! terraces made of jewels, of whom will you be the resort? Oh! who will have constant enjoyment of these full tanks with jeweled flights of steps and wreaths of red and blue lotuses ? O pārijāta ! O mandāra ! O santāna! O haricandana ! O 441 160. See I, n. 85. Page #326 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 301 445 kalpadruma ! Why are we here deserted by you? Oh! Oh! I, helpless, must live in a woman's womb. Oh ! Oh ! tasting of impure chyle must be made repeatedly by wretched me. Oh! Oh! Oh! I, bound by my own karma, must endure pain arising from cooking (digestion) in the fire-place of the stomach. On the one hand, these divine maidens like treasuries of pleasure; on the other hand, mortal women disgusting from impurity are to be enjoyed.' So recalling constantly heavenly objects, lamenting, the gods are extinguished in a moment, like torches. Pure-minded people, after reflecting that saṁsāra is worthless, as described, should strive for emancipation by means of mendicancy." PADMAPRABHACARITRA 446 Enlightened by the Lord's sermon by thousands, some people took initiation, and others adopted right-belief. There were one hundred and seven gaṇabhṛts, Suvrata, etc. They composed the twelve angas after receiving the path from the Lord. When the Lord had ceased preaching, Suvrata delivered a sermon. Disciples do the work of gurus, like water-pipes of wells. When he also had finished preaching, all the gods, etc. went to their respective abodes, after bowing to the Lord of the World. Sāsanadevatās (180-183) Originating in that congregation, Kusuma, dark-bodied, with a deer for a vehicle, holding a fruit in one right hand and the other in abhaya-position, carrying an ichneumon and a rosary in his left hands, always near, became the Lord's messenger-deity. Acyută, likewise originated, darkbodied, with a man for a vehicle, one right hand holding a 445 170. The 5 trees of paradise. Abhi. 2. 93. It is difficult to name them. Both pārijāta and mandara are names of the coral tree; haricandana is sandal; santana and kalpadruma both mean 'wishing tree.' I.e., the three steps.' 446 177. Page #327 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 302 noose, and one in varada-position, one left hand carrying a bow, and one in abhaya-position, became a messengerdeity of the Jinendra Padmaprabha. With these two always near, the Master of the World wandered in villages, mines, cities, etc. with a desire to benefit all. His congregation (184-190) Three hundred and thirty-six thousand monks, four hundred and twenty thousand nuns, twenty-three hundred who knew the fourteen purvas, ten thousand who had clairvoyant knowledge, ten thousand and three hundred who had mind-reading knowledge, twelve thousand who were omniscient, sixteen thousand, one hundred and eight who had the art of transformation, nine thousand and six hundred disputants, two hundred and seventy-six thousand laymen, and five hundred and five thousand lay women formed the retinue of the Lord wandering for a lac of purvas less sixteen angas and six months from the time of his omniscience. CHAPTER FOUR His mokṣa (191-197) The Supreme Lord, knowing that it was time for his mokşa, went to Mt. Sammeta and fasted for a month. On the eleventh day of the black half of Margaśīrṣa, the moon being in Citra, the Lord, of whom the four remaining karmas had been destroyed, possessing the four infinities of siddhas, went from the fourth meditation to the fourth object of men's existence, together with eight hundred and three monks who had fasted. As prince he spent seven and a half lacs of pūrvas plus sixteen angas; in protection of the kingdom twenty-one and a half lacs of purvas; and in the vow a lac of purvas less sixteen angas. So Lord Padmaprabha lived for thirty lacs of purvas. The nirvāņa of Lord Padmaprabha was 447 193. I.e., mokṣa. Page #328 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 303 nine thousand crores of sägaras after the nirvāņa of Sumati Svāmin. PADMAPRABHACARITRA The sixty-four Indras came there and devotedly cremated the Lord's body and those of the munis; and made a great nirvāṇa-kalyāṇa-festival. Page #329 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER V SUPĀRŚVANĀTHACARITRA May the words of the teaching of Jinendra Sri Supārsva protect you, like the waves of the ocean of omniscience overflowing its bank. I shall relate the life of Sri Supārsva, the seventh Arhat, which is a sunny day for the darkness of wrong knowledge of all creatures. Incarnation as Nandişeņa (4-11) There is a city, Ksemapuri, in the province Ramaņiya distinguishing East Videha in Dhātakīkhandadvīpa. Its king was Nandişena, delighting the world, resplendent as the sun, the sole abode of splendor. Dharma was the minister, the right arm, as it were, of him always watchful in the business of the entire kingdom. When he destroyed persons, who had become thorns, for the people's happiness, even his anger was for dharma. How much more the actions in question ! And what was extraordinary, the Blessed One, the Holy Saint, constantly located within the sphere of his memory, became lying in his heart. He was always the refuge for removal of pain from the afflicted, but in no way at no time for the love-sick wives of others. As time passed, he, noble-minded, became tired of worldly existence and took initiation under Arindamana Acārya. Observing his vow zealously, the great muni acquired the body-making karma of a Tirthankara by some of the sthānakas. The great muni fasted at the right time, died, and became a powerful god in the sixth Graiveyakabeaven, Page #330 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUPĀRSVANĀTHACARITRA 305 Incarnation as Supārsvanātha (12-126) Description of Vārāṇasī (12-16) Now in this Bhärataksetra of Jambūdvīpa there is a city Vārāṇasī, the ornament of the Kāśi-country. In its houses with jeweled walls filled with light a lamp, if it is present, is before a god in the eightfold pūjā. There the moon above high golden rods on the shrines attains a resemblance to an umbrella of Dharma possessing the sole umbrella. Vidyadharis, resting on the watch-towers of its walls, were delighted, forgetting the latticed-windows in the wall around Jambūdvīpa. In its houses the doves coo at night, as if reciting auspicious things for the enlightenment of Rati's husband (Kāma). His parents (17–26) Its king was named Pratiştha, devoted to justice, the kalpa-tree of celebrity for the worthy, possessing celebrity like Indra. The whole world remained in the shadow of his feet, as he was always unequaled in power, like Meru in size. When he made a tour of conquest in all directions, the sky appeared to be marked with cranes from white umbrellas and with clouds from umbrellas made of peacockfeathers in dense array. In battle he, ornamented with unlimited heroic vows, never turned his face away from his enemies as if they were beggars. From birth, without any other assistance, long-armed, he supported the earth always as easily as a toy-lotus. The king had a wife, named Pșthvi, like a living earth, the receptacle of virtues, firmness, etc. Her innate virtue and beauty constantly became ornaments, and external ornaments reached a state of being adorned. In her, spotless by nature, numerous virtues appeared like pearls in the river Tämraparņi. Her form with lotus-face, lotus-eyes, lotus-hands, and lotus-feet was like another lotus-pool of the goddess Sri with waves of loveliness, With the thought, “Because she is the mother of a 20 Page #331 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 306 Tirthankara, may there be future servitude (to her)," and conquered by her beauty also, goddesses became her slaves. CHAPTER FIVE His birth (27-37) Now, the jiva of Nandişeņa in the sixth Graiveyaka completed his life of twenty-eight sägaras. Falling on the eighth of Bhadrapada, the moon being in conjunction with Radha, Nandişena's jiva descended into the womb of Pṛthvi. Sleeping comfortably during the rest of the night, Queen Pṛthvi saw then the fourteen great dreams indicating the birth of a Tirthakṛt. While the embryo was growing, the Queen saw herself asleep on a couch of serpents which had one hood, five hoods, and nine hoods. On the twelfth day of the bright half of Jyeṣṭha, the moon being in Viśākhā, she bore easily a son, gold colored, marked with a svastika. Knowing the birth of the Jina by clairvoyant knowledge, the fifty-six Dikkumaris came there quickly and performed the birth-rites. Likewise Sakra came there and took the Lord of the World to the rock Atipäṇḍukambalā on the top of Meru. Holding the Supreme Lord on his lap like a nurse, Purandara sat on the jeweled lion-throne there. The sixty-three Indras in turn bathed the Lord of the Tirtha with water from tirthas, like waves of the ocean a mountain on the shore. After placing the Lord on Isana's lap, Sakra bathed him with water rising from the horns of crystal bulls resembling water produced by fountains. After anointing him and worshipping him with clothes, ornaments, etc., the Indra of Saudharma began a hymn of praise to the Lord of the World. Stuti (38-45) 'The desire on my part to praise you who have undiscernible nature is like the leap of a monkey to take the sun. Nevertheless, I will praise you by means of your power, O Supreme Lord. For moon-stones trickle from the "" Page #332 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUPĀRSVANĀTHACARITRA 307 power of moonlight. How are you not giving the comfort to animals, men, and gods, which you give even to hellinhabitants, by all the kalyāṇas? Even the light in the three worlds at the festival of your birth becomes red from the sun of omniscience that will rise. All these heavens have now become favorable, as if from contact with your favor, Supreme Lord. These pleasant winds blow for the sake of purification. Indeed, who would cause anything displeasing to the world when you, O Lord, are giving pleasure ? Shame on us negligent. These seats of ours, by the shaking of which your birth-kalyāņa was announced to us instantly, are blessed, O god. Now I make a nidāna " though it is forbidden, O god : namely, as the fruit of the sight of you, may I have unceasing devotion to you." Childhood (46–52) After this hymn of praise Sakra took the Lord, went quickly and laid him unperceived by Queen Pţthvi's side, according to custom. Delighting the people by remarkable things, such as releases from prison, the King made a great festival, the tree with fruit of joy. Since his mother was 'beautiful-sided' while he was an embryo, Pratistha conferred the name Supārsva on the Lord. The Lord grew by drinking nectar that had been put in his thumb by Sakra. The Arhats are to be praised even by the gods since they do not nurse. Getting down repeatedly from their laps with the restlessness usual to children, tricking his nurses again and again, the Lord played here and there. The Lord easily defeated the gods who played (with him) in mortal forms for wagers. Who, even in play, are the equals of the Arhats ? Gradually, the Supreme Lord passed his childhood, playing in various plays, like a lover the night. 148 45. See above, n. 29. Page #333 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 308 CHAPTER FIVE Youth (53-57) The Master, two hundred bows tall, marked with all the marks, attained youth, the ornament of beauty. The Lord married princesses from courtesy to his parents. Verily, the command of the parents must be honored even by the Lords of the Three Worlds. The Lord enjoyed himself with his wives to destroy his pleasure-karma. For the Blessed Ones are devoted to the destruction of karma. After five lacs of pūrvas had passed while he was prince, the Lord assumed the burden of the earth imposed by his father who had requested it. The Lord spent fourteen lacs of pūrvas and twenty angas ruling the earth. Initiation (58–66) Observing that the Master's mind was disgusted with sariisāra, the Lokāntika-gods came from Brahmaloka to the Master : “ You, self-enlightened, are not enlightened by our devotion, but you are reminded. Found a congregation, Master." With these words, they went to heaven. Then Supārśva Svāmin, eager for the festival of initiation, the wishing-gem of liberality, gave gifts for a year. At the end of the year's giving Supārśva Svāmin's initiation-ceremony was made by the Indras whose thrones had shaken. Then the Lord of the World, going to emancipation, got into the palanquin named Manoharā, charming with varied jewels. Accompanied by gods, asuras, and kings the Blessed One went to the most excellent grove named Sahasrāmravaņa. The Master, the ornament of three worlds, there cast aside his ornaments, etc. and wore on his shoulder the devadūşya placed by Sakra. In the evening of the thirteenth day of the bright half of Jyeștha, (the moon being) in Rādhā, the Lord became a mendicant together with a thousand kings, observing a two days' fast. The Lord's fourth knowledge, mind-reading knowledge, arose ; and then for a moment there was comfort even for hell-inhabitants. Page #334 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUPĀRŚVANĀTHACARITRA 309 On the next day the Lord broke his fast with ricepudding in the house of King Mahendra in the city Pāțalikhanda. The gods made the five wonderful things, the stream of treasure, etc. ; and Mahendra made a jeweled platform where the Lord of the World had stood. Vanquishing the army of trials, like a mountain destroying heat, the Lord of the World became desireless even in the body, indifferent to gold, straw, etc. Alone, absorbed in silence, his gaze constantly directed on one object, devoted to numerous resolutions, not resting, fearless, firm, observing numerous pratimās, engaged in meditation, the Lord of the World wandered over the earth as an unenlightened ascetic for nine months. His omniscience (72–74) In his wandering the Lord came again to Sahasrāmravana and stood there at the foot of a sirişa tree, engaged in pratimā accompanied by a two days' fast. The Teacher of the World, occupied with the end of the second pure meditation, destroyed the destructive karmas, as if they were vital points of samsāra. Then on the sixth day of Phālguna, the moon standing in Viśākhā, Supārśva Svāmin's omniscience arose. The samavasaraña (75–83) The Indras of the gods and asuras came there at once like servants' and made a samavasaraṇa for the Master's preaching. Then the Teacher of the World, a door to mokşa, entered it by the east door ; and gods, men, etc. by the doors suitable for each. The Lord, the earth's kalpa-tree, circumambulated three times the caitya-tree which was one kos and four hundred bows tall. Saying, "Homage to the congregation,” the Lord of the World, resplendent with the supernatural qualities, seated himself on the best lion-throne. Then Sakra created over the Blessed One's head a serpent like the one that Queen Pịthvi saw in her dream, as if it were another umbrella. Page #335 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 310 CHAPTER FIVE From that time on, in other samavasarañas also there was a serpent, one-hooded, five-hooded, or nine-hooded. In the other directions also the gods made images of the Master like him by means of his very great power. There the blessed congregation remained in its proper place. There is no over-stepping of place at all in the assembly of even an ordinary man. Then the Indra of Saudharmakalpa bowed to the Supreme Lord, placed his folded hands to his head and began a hymn of praise as follows : Stuti (84-91) "Reverence to you, Blessed One, the holy seventh Arhat, sun to the lotus-calyx in the form of the globe of the entire earth. Everyone's sorrow has gone and joy has appeared, O Lord. Now everything has been restored, as it were, by the restoration of the congregation. The door of the Mt. Vaitadhya of nirvăņa will be opened today by the brilliant staff-jewel of your speech,"48 O Dharmacakrin. The sight of you, O Blessed One, produces joy in the entire animate world by the destruction of pain, like the sight of a lofty cloud by the destruction of heat. O Blessed One possessing infinite knowledge, the speech of your teaching will be obtained by us after a long time, like wealth by the poor. By the sight of you and especially by your speech showing the door to emancipation, we shall have our desires accomplished today. Reverence to you whose soul possesses infinite perception, knowledge, power and bliss, the vessel of all the supernatural qualities, whose soul is self-concentration. Of what importance is the attainment of the station of Indra, etc., O Lord of the World, since people may become like you even by service to you ? " After this hymn of praise, Sakra became silent, and the Blessed One, the Omniscient, began a sermon. 140 86. See above, p. 149. Page #336 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUPĀRSVANĀTHACARITRA 311 Sermon on distinction between body and soul (93–105) “Everything here is distinct from the soul. (Yet) for the sake of other things an unintelligent person makes himself fall into the ocean of existence by acquiring karma. When there is a distinction of the body because of the dissimilarity of the embodied, in that case the distinction of money, relatives, and friends is not difficult to assert. If anyone sees himself separated from the body, money, and relatives, to what point, alas ! is his apprehension extended by the sting of sorrow! If there is a difference here, the separateness of the natures of soul, body, etc., which is characterized by their dissimilarity, follows perfectly obviously. The body, etc. can be grasped by the senses. The soul has the sphere of understanding. How then could non-distinction between them arise ? If the distinction in the natures of soul, body, etc. is clear, then how can the soul suffer from blows to the body, etc. ? Certainly people who do not have knowledge of the separateness of the body, etc. suffer pain of soul from blows to the body, etc. One who does not know the distinction suffers when pain to his parents arises; he is confused in the case of pain to his servants from pride of ownership. Even a son that has been gained is really a stranger because he does not belong. Even a servant is superior to a son because he does belong. However many connections of himself a man makes dear, so many sources of sorrow are produced in his heart. Therefore a keen-witted person would recognize that all this is distinct. Therefore he would not be confused on the path of fundamental principles by the loss of anything. Casting away the coating of mud of attachment like a gourd, a man observing mendicancy, pure-minded, crosses existence quickly.' After they had heard the sermon to this effect, many people were enlightened. Some became mendicants and others laymen. There were ninety-five gañabhrts, Vidarbha and others, and they made the twelve argas in accordance Page #337 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 312 CHAPTER FIVE with the Master's speech. At the end of the Master's sermon, Vidarbha, the head of the gaṇabhrts, seated on the Master's foot-stool, delivered a sermon. When Ganabhrt Vidarbha had finished preaching, the gods and others bowed to the Lord and went to their respective places. Śāsanadevatās (110–113) Originating in that congregation, Mātanga, darkbodied, with an elephant for a vehicle, with two right hands of which one held a bilva and the other a noose, and two left hands of which one held an ichneumon and the other a goad, became a messenger-deity at the side of Supārśva Svāmin. Arising in the same way, śāntādevi, gold colored with an elephant for a vehicle, with two right hands of which one was in varada-position and the other was holding a rosary, and with two left hands, one of which held a trident and the other was in abhayada-position, was a messenger-deity of the Lord, always in his vicinity. The congregation (114-119) Then the Master wandered elsewhere in villages, cities, etc., awakening the souls capable of emancipation, as the sun awakes (day-blooming) lotuses. Three hundred thousand monks, four hundred and thirty thousand nuns, two thousand and thirty who knew the pūrvas, nine thousand who possessed clairvoyant knowledge, ninetyone hundred and fifty who had mind-reading knowledge, eleven thousand omniscient, fifteen thousand and three hundred who had the art of transformation, eighty-four hundred disputants, two hundred and fifty-seven thousand laymen, and four hundred ninety-three thousand lay-women formed the Lord's retinue as he wandered over the earth. His mokṣa (120-126) When a lac of pūryas less twenty angas and nine months had elapsed after the time of his omniscience, the Page #338 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUPĀRSVANATHACARITRA 313 Master went to Mt. Sammeta. There the Master of the World, attended by gods and asuras, together with five hundred munis began a fast. At the end of a month, on the seventh day of the black half of Phalguna, the moon being in Mula, the Master and the munis went to an eternal abode. Śri Supārsva passed five lacs of purvas as prince; fourteen lacs of purvas and twenty purvāngas in governing the earth; and a lac of purvas less twenty pūrvängas in the vow. So his age was twenty lacs of purvas. Supārsva Svämin's nirvana was nine thousand crores of sagaropamas after Sri Padmaprabha's nirvāṇa. The Indras, Acyuta, etc., celebrated a great emancipation-festival accompanied by the funeral rites of the Master and the munis. Page #339 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER VI CANDRAPRABHACARITRA Om! I praise the speech of the Lord Jina Candraprabha, which resembles moonlight, the destroyer of great delusion which has been destroyed, giver of delight. I shall celebrate the life of the Lord Jina Candraprabha, which resembles the heat of the sun for the snow of delusion of souls capable of emancipation. Incarnation as King Padma (3-13) In the province Mangalāvati, the ornament of East Videha in the continent Dhātakikhanda, there is a city Ratnasañcayā. In this city there was a king, named Padma, like a lotus-home of Padmā, exceedingly powerful like the serpent-king in Bhogāvati. Attended always by musicians who performed divine concerts, surrounded by courtesans who excelled the Apsarases, always distinguished by the beauty of his body adorned with beautiful divine unguents, ornaments, and fine garments, his commands observed by kings day and night, his treasury never exhausted, his subjects always prosperous, established in not being an abode of an atom of sorrow in any way, he, the chief of those knowing the Principles, attained disgust with living in worldly existence. Under Guru Yugandhara he took the vow of mendicancy for destroying existence, like Hari taking a thunderbolt to destroy a mountain. Making many resolutions, subdued, with subjection of his senses accomplished, free from desire in his own person, he observed the vow for a long time. He acquired the body-making karma of a Tirtharkara, which is very difficult to acquire, by some of the sthānas, like a choice jewel by much money. In course Page #340 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CANDRAPRABHACARITRA 315 of time, after he had completed his life, the great ascetic went to the palace Vaijayanta, which was the first fruit of the tree of the vow. Incarnation as Candraprabha (14-123) Now, in the zone Bharata in this Jambūdvipa there is a city Candrānana, resembling the face of the earth. In it shines a row of shops, rich with many jewels, like a vessel of the ocean with its wealth of water increased.450 And there are houses of various shapes and colors, as if numerous twilight-clouds had descended to earth. In its gardens are seen flying-ascetics engaged in pratimā, motionless from head to foot, like mountains in the form of men. Women became angry with their lovers, thinking, “ This is another woman," from their own reflections in its houses made of jewels. In this city Mahāsena, by whose army the earth was covered, was king, like the ocean with an invincible crestjewel. Splendor became devoted to his power constantly, like a servant, doing his work, a sign of conquest over the earth. While he, whose command was not transgressed, was ruling the earth, the people desisted from birth from taking another's property. He was lord, like the ocean whose center is inaccessible, beautiful as the moon, like a wishing-tree, like an Indra of liberality. On his breast; broad as the leaf of a door, Ramā (Lakşmi) sported constantly with her mind devoted solely to him, like a hansi on a sandy beach of the Gangā. He had a wife, named Lakşmaņā, who had all the favorable marks, surpassing the moon in fascinating beauty of face. Though possessing a body which was an unequaled stream of loveliness, 451 she rained only nectar with her eye and speech. Walking very slowly, she made blooming mallows grow at every step with her feet, as it 460 14. See above, p. 114, and K., p. 243. 461 24. Lāvaṇya, with reference also to its meaning 'saltness.' Page #341 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 316 CHAPTER SIX were. Her brow and gait were curved, but her mind was not crooked; her waist was small, but not the wealth of her intelligence. The important virtue of proper behavior adorned like a general her entire army of virtues surpassing everything. Birth of Candraprabha (28–37) Now, King Padma's jīva, which was living in Vaijayanta, completed a life of thirty-three sāgaras. It fell and descended into the womb of Queen Lakşmaņā, when the moon was in conjunction with Anurādhā, on the fifth day of the black half of Caitra. At that time Queen Lakşmaņā, comfortably asleep, saw the fourteen great dreams indicating the birth of a Tirthakrt. Queen Lakşmaņā carried comfortably the embryo unobserved, like the earth the shining wealth of jewels. On the twelfth day of the black half of Pausa, the moon standing in Anurădhā, she bore her jewel of a son, marked with a moon, the color of the moon. Then, knowing the birth of the eighth Arhat by the shaking of their thrones, the fifty-six Dikkumārīs performed the birth-rites. The Indra of Saudharma joyfully made the festival of the birth-bath. Attended by gods, he took the Master to the peak of Meru. Hari seated himself on the jeweled throne on the rock Atipāņdukambalā, holding the Supreme Lord on his lap. Then the sixty-three Indras, Acyuta, etc., radiantly joyful, bathed the Master in turn. Next, Sakra set the Master on the couch of the lap of the Indra of Iśāna, and bathed him with water. rising out of the horns of bulls. After he had paid homage to him devotedly with divine unguent, ornaments, and garments, Pākaśāsana began a hymn of praise to the Blessed One. Stuti (39-46) “I, undertaking to praise you whose virtues are infinite, am the abode of ridicule, like a țițţibha with its legs extended upwards with the idea that it is the support Page #342 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 317 of the sky.452 However, I am able to praise you because I have increasing wisdom from your power. Even a small cloud fills the heavens by union with the east wind. You, O Lord, just from being seen or thought of by a man, are an unprecedented weapon for the destruction of the mass of karma. Today, surely there is an uprising of good karma in the world, since you destroy the ignorance of all, like the sun destroying darkness of day-blooming lotuses. Impurity will melt away from me without even taking its fruit, like the blossom of the sephālikā struck by moonlight.453 By that embodiment (of yours), O Blessed One, you take away pain from creatures, to say nothing of your figure engaged in mendicancy which bestows fearlessness on all. O Lord, you have come here to destroy karma, the root of existence, like a rutting elephant to a forest to root up trees. Just as ornaments, ropes of pearls, etc., are on the outside of my heart, so may you be inside my heart, O Lord of the Three Worlds." CANDRAPRABHACARITRA Childhood (47-53) After he had recited this hymn of praise, Purandara took the Lord from Iśāna, carried him, and put him down by Queen Lakṣmanā's side according to rule. Then King Mahasena made a great festival. The birth of an Arhat is cause for a festival elsewhere; how much more in the house (where it occurs). Because his mother had a pregnancy-whim for drinking the moon, while he was still 452 39. The tittibha is a sand-piper. MW and Bate both give Parra jacuna for tiṭṭibha, but Sabda. gives it as a synonym of țițiharī, the sand-piper (Tringa goensis, Bate). This bird is said "to sleep with its legs extended upwards, as if to sustain the firmament; hence the phrase is applied to a person who undertakes an enterprise far above his capacities." Bate, s. v. taṭohara. Hindi proverb: Tatohare se asman thāmā jāegā: Will the sky be supported by the sand-piper? 458 43. Sephālikā, the Nyctanthes arbor tristis, the night-flowering jasmine. Dutt, p. 189, says its flowers " open at sunset, and before morning strew the ground thickly with their fallen corollas." Page #343 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 318 CHAPTER SIX in embryo, and because he was moon-color, his father named him Candraprabha. In childhood the Lord's figure shone as if he were in Vaijayanta, beautiful with a halo of a flood of light fair as moonlight. Day by day the Supreme Lord grew, pulling at the hands of his nurses like a young elephant at the shoots of creepers. The Lord, though he had the three kinds of knowledge, experienced childhood like an ignorant person, as if it, which had not been attained even in his birth as a god, had been attained by his own desire. The Lord traversed childhood with the assistance of various and numerous sports, like a traveler traversing a road with the assistance of charming stories. Youth (54-57) One hundred fifty bows tall, the Master attained youth, the opposite bank of the stream of childhood, magic for the subjection of women. Knowing that he had pleasure-karma and following his father's command, the Lord of the World married suitable princesses. Two and a half lacs of pūrvas after his birth, the Lord, who was devoted to study and eager for initiation, urgently requested by his parents, spent six and a half lacs of pūrvas and twenty-four angas, like a holiday, governing the earth. Initiation (58–67) The Lord, though knowing himself the right time for initiation was informed by the Lokāntika-gods like appointed astrologers. The Master began to give gifts for a year, wishing very much to become a mendicant, like a rich man wishing to go on a journey. At the end of the year the Indras, whose thrones had shaken, came there and held the Master's initiation-ceremony, like servants. Then the Master, attended by kings and Indras of the gods and asuras, got into the palanquin named Manorama, delightful with its beauty. Being praised, hymned, and looked at joyfully by the people, the Blessed One went to Page #344 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 319 the grove named Sahasrāmravaṇa. After descending from the palanquin, the Supreme Lord, who wished to attain the three jewels, removed jewels, ornaments, etc. On the thirteenth of the black half of Pauşa, (the moon) in the constellation Maitreya, in the afternoon, observing a two days' fast, the Lord together with a thousand kings became a mendicant. Then the Lord's fourth kind of knowledge, mind-reading knowledge, illuminating the mind-substance of creatures of the human world, arose. On the next day the Lord broke his fast with rice-pudding at the house of King Somadatta in Padmakhanḍapura. The five divine thingsthe stream of treasure, etc., were made by the gods, and a jeweled platform was made by the king on the ground marked by the Arhat's feet. Undefeated by the mass of snow that had defeated the heat of the sun; unshaken by the winds and bad weather with hoar-frost; his meditation, which was unequaled, unbroken by the winter night which turned the water of the pools into ice; making no distinction between going into the forest terrifying from its evil wild animals, such as lions, tigers, etc., and staying in the city filled with laymen; solitary, free from affection, silent, free from all possessions, devoted to meditation, the Supreme Lord wandered over the earth for three months as an (ordinary) ascetic. CANDRAPRABHACARITRA Omniscience (72-74) In his wandering the Blessed One went again to Sahasrāmravana, and stood in pratima under a punnāga tree. The Lord's destructive karma disappeared at the end of the second pure meditation, like snow at the end of winter. When the Master had fasted two days, his brilliant omniscience was manifested on the seventh of the black half of Phalguna, the moon being in conjunction with Anuradhă. The samavasarana (75-79) The Indras of the gods and asuras made at once a samavasaraṇa a yojana in extent for the Teacher of the Page #345 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 320 CHAPTER SIX World's preaching. Purifying by his foot-steps the nine golden lotuses which were moved in succession by the gods, the Lord entered it by the east door. Observing the Arhats' custom, the Lord circumambulated the caitya-tree which was eighteen hundred bows high. The Lord said aloud, “Homage to the congregation," and seated himself, facing the east, on the jeweled lion-throne. The fourfold congregation with gods, asuras, and humans entered by their proper doors, and stayed in their proper places. Jambhāri (Śakra) bowed to the Supreme Lord so he touched the ground with the five members and began a hymn of praise with passionate devotion. Stuti (81-88) “O Lord, this teaching of yours--of you who are the. cakravartin of the three worlds-borne on the head by gods, asuras, and men, is victorious. By good fortune you have been seen, first possessing three kinds of knowledge, then mind-reading knowledge, now omniscience, each one superior to the other. May this knowledge of yours called 'omniscience,' brilliant, beneficial to all, like the shade of a tree on the road, prevail. There is darkness so long as there is no sun. There are rutting elephants so long as there is no lion. There is poverty so long as there is no kalpa-tree. There is scarcity of water so long as there is no rain-cloud. There is heat of the day so long as there is no full moon. There are people here with wrong belief so long as you are not seen. Even though I. am always negligent, O Lord, I applaud those by whom you are constantly seen and served. Now by your favor may the highest right-belief, immovable throughout life, result from the sight of you." After this hymn of praise, Sunāśīra became silent and the Teacher of the World began a sermon in a voice deep as thunder. Page #346 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CANDRAPRABHACARITRA 321 Sermon on impurity of the body (90-104) “ The ocean of existence filled with waves of endless troubles continually destroys creatures of the middle, lower, and upper worlds. Delight in this body by men, like that of worms in impurity, is one cause of this. The body is the abode of impure chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow, semen, intestines and waste matter. Where is there any purity in it? The idea of purity in a body smeared with discharges from nine channels *6* is a manifestation of great delusion. How can the body be pure when it is created from seed and blood, made to grow by an impure stream, covered by the placenta in the womb ? Who can consider purity of the body when it is made to grow by continually sucking a succession of veins of liquid, arising from food and drink consumed by the mother ? Who would say the body is pure when it is filled with humors, elements, and impurity, the abode of worms and earth-worms, consumed by multitudes of serpents in the form of diseases ? How can the body, in which sweet-flavored food and drink-even something made of milk and sugar-cane--are eaten to become wastematter, be pure ? When fragrant yakşakardama-ointment has been used to anoint it and becomes impure quickly, where is the purity in that body? How is the body, in which the scent of the mouth is disgusting when one rises at dawn, after eating fragrant betel-leaves and sleeping at night, pure ? The body, from contact with which naturally fragrant perfume, incense, and garlands of flowers become evil-smelling, becomes pure! Even though rubbed with oil, even though anointed with unguent, even though washed with crores of jars (of water), the body does not attain purity, like an impure wine-jar. The ones who say, ' Purity is from clay, water, fire, wind, sun, baths,' make useless effort, following custom.- Therefore, 464 93. See Suśr. 5. 9 (Vol. II, p. 161). The number of channels in women is calculated as 12, not II as given in MW. 21 Page #347 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 322 CHAPTER SIX the body must perform penance which has emancipation as its fruit. The wise man should extract what is valuable from the worthless, like a jewel from the salt ocean." Many persons were enlightened by this sermon of the Lord and became mendicants by the thousand. The Lord had ninety-three gaṇabhrts, Datta, etc. They made the twelve angas from the three steps,' origination, etc. At the end of the Lord's sermon, Datta, chief of the gañabhrts, to whom enlightenment had been given, seated on his footstool, delivered a sermon to the people. At the end of his sermon, the gods, etc., went to their own abodes, like young people of the city when a concert is finished. Sāsanadevatās (108-110) The Yakşa, Vijaya, originating in that congregation, green, with a hansa for a vehicle, holding a cakra in his right hand and a hammer in his left; and the goddess Bhrkuți, with a marāla for a vehicle, yellow, holding a sword and a hammer in her right hands, and a shield and an axe in her left hands, became the Blessed One's messenger-deities. With them near at hand, Lord Candraprabha, the receptacle of the supernatural powers, wandered over the earth, like the moon the sky. His congregation (111-115) Two hundred and fifty thousand monks, three hundred and eighty thousand nuns, two thousand who knew the pūrvas, eight thousand who had clairvoyant knowledge, and the same number who had mind-reading knowledge, ten thousand who were omniscient, fourteen thousand who had the art of transformation, seventy-six hundred disputants, two hundred and fifty thousand laymen, four hundred and ninety-one thousand laywomen formed the Lord's retinue. Page #348 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CANDRAPRABHACARITRA His mokṣa (116-123) When the Master had wandered as a kevalin for a lac of purvas less twenty-four angas and three months, he went to Mt. Sammeta. Together with a thousand munis the Lord undertook a fast and attended by gods and asuras, continued in this state for a month. Engaged in immovable meditation with suppression of all activity, the four karmas prolonging existence having been destroyed instantly, on the seventh day of the black half of Nabha, the moon being in conjunction with Śravana, the Master and the munis went to the final abode. 323 As prince he lived two and a half lacs of pūrvas; as king, six and a half lacs of purvas plus twenty-four aǹgas; in the vow he passed a lac of purvas less twenty-four angas. So the total age of Lord Candraprabha was ten lacs of purvas. The nirvana of Sri Candraprabha took place nine hundred crores of sagaras after Supārsva Svāmin's nirvāņa. The Indras performed properly the funeral rites of the Lord, who had attained emancipation as described, and of the munis, and returned to heaven. Page #349 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER VII SUVIDHINĀTHACARITRA I praise the Holy Puşpadanta's 466 teaching, destroyer of evil, spotless, to be borne on the head by the three worlds like a wreath of flowers. I, gifted with powerful intelligence by his power, celebrate the blameless life of the Lord, the ninth Arhat. Incarnation as Mahāpadma (3-13) There is a city Puņďarskiņi in the rich province Puşkalāvati in the East Videhas in the half 466 of Puşkaravaradvipa. In this city Mahapadma was king, deep as the pool Mahāpadma on Mt. Mahāhima. Dharma, accepted from birth, increased gradually in his childhood and youth along with physical beauty. He was pained by even a moment which was deprived of self-control, like a money-lender by money which fails to draw interest daily. Discharging religious duties, he performed his royal duties, like a traveler taking a drink of water when crossing a river on the road. Wise, devoid of negligence, he preserved completely his layman's duties spotless as his own family. Filled with contentment generally, he was not satisfied in dharma. He considered others, even though they had little dharma, as superior to himself. From a desire to cross existence he took the vow of mendicancy, like a divine weapon for crossing a battle, under Guru Jagannanda. Successful in lay-duties, he kept the vow firmly, just as one who has undertaken samlekhana observes a fast that results in death. By very severe penances, ekāvalī, 466 I. Another name of Suvidhinātha. 3. The half that belongs to the Manuşyaloka. See p. 116. Page #350 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUVIDHINATHACARITRA 325 etc., by devotion to the Arhats, etc.,457 he acquired strong body-making karma of a Tirthakṛt. When he had spent his life in such religious acts, he became a powerful god in the palace Vaijayanta. Incarnation as Suvidhi (14-164) Now, in the southern half of Bharata in this Jambudvipa there is a very important city Käkandi distinguished by its wealth. The pearl-garlands of its houses look like shining rosaries of Puspadhanvan for subjugating virtuous wives. The fourfold loud singing of the concerts 158 in its temples becomes a charm for transfixing the gait of the Vidyadharis. Ponds with clear water and abundant tall white lotuses imitate the sky with autumnclouds and apparent stars. There, beggars, as well as gurus, were approached from afar and conducted to receive foot-water, and were delighted with suitable objects. Description of his parents (19-27) The king was named Sugrīva, like a necklace of the earth, like a Graiveyaka-god in beauty. His command, like a weapon with an efficacious charm, was nowhere cast aside, neither in cities, forests, oceans, nor mountains. The river of wise policy with high-crested water of glory rose in him like a mountain and flowed to the ocean. The ocean of glorious deeds of him, the crest-jewel of kings, devoured the wide streams of glory of all the kings. His wife was named Rāmā, the stop to all faults, beautiful with spotless virtues, the crest-jewel of all charming women. The receptacle of natural beauty, giving delight to the eyes, she was unique on earth, like a digit of 457 12. The sthānakas. 458 16. Sangitagitam uccaiścaturvidham. As gita is one of the three parts of a sangita (the other two being dancing and instrumental music), the caturvidham probably modifies gitam only. The four parts may be svara (note); grāma (scale); murchana (melody); and tāna (tone). See Rajendra s.v. giya. Page #351 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 326 the moon in the sky. Sweet-voiced, shining with two white wings in the form of garments, she dwelt always in the Mānasa 459 of her husband, like a rajahansi. Rati did not attain joy nor Prīti delight, completely overcome by her umparalleled beauty. Time passed for King Sugrīva and her, suitable for each other, sporting like Rohini and the moon. CHAPTER SEVEN Birth (27-32) And now, the jiva of King Mahāpadma, living in Vaijayanta, completed his life of thirty-three sāgaras. Falling, he descended into Queen Rāmā's womb on the ninth day of the black half of Phalguna, when the moon was in conjunction with Mula. Then the Queen saw the fourteen great dreams, elephant, etc., indicating the birth of a Tirthankara, enter her mouth. The Queen bore her embryo, the source of support to the world, like the river Himādrijā (Gangā) a young elephant playing in it. When the moon was in Mula, on the fifth day of the black half of Mārgaśīrṣa, she bore a jewel of a son, white, marked with a makara. Birth-rites (33-39) Then the fifty-six Dikkumārīs, Bhogankara and others, performed the birth-rites of the Lord and his mother. Then the Lord of Saudharma, like an Abhiyogya-god, took the Master with devotion and went to the top of Mt. Meru. Holding the Lord on his lap, Sakra seated himself on the lion-throne on Atipäṇḍukambala to the south of Meru's crest. Then the sixty-three Indras, Acyuta, etc., with unfailing devotion bathed the Master with water from the tirthas. Then the Lord of Saudharma handed the Lord to the Lord of Īśāna, like a guard handing an object to be guarded to (another) guard at the end of his watch. Sakra bathed the Master seated on Iśāna's lap with fragrant water from the bulls' horns. After Vasava had made 459 25. Lake Manasa, a resort of hansas. Page #352 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUVIDHINĀTHACARITRA 327 anointment with new unguents and worship with ornaments, etc., and had waved the light, he praised the Lord. Stuti (40-47) “Firm pillar of the house of dharma, pool of nectar of right belief, cloud for the delight of the world, hail ! Lord of Three Worlds. What other supernatural power of yours shall we tell, since the three worlds, bought by virtues and greatness, enter servitude (to you)? I do not shine in heaven as much as I shine in servitude to you. A jewel does not shine as much in a mountain, as it shines in an anklet. You, wishing to go to mokşa, came from Vaijayanta which terminates in mokşa, certainly to show the path to the world that had wandered from the path. After a long time you are the divinity of the house of Bharatakşetra ; now let dharma, like a householder, rejoice fearlessly in it. O Lord of the Universe, let all this throng of gods come to the incarnation of this supernatural form of yours. After a long time, O Lord, eyes have become cakoras by good fortune, clinging eagerly to you who have a stream of light that is like moonlight. May I, staying in the house or going to the council, recollect the charm of your name which gives Sarvārthasiddhi.” After this hymn of praise to the Lord of Jinas, Sakra took him, carried him, and placed him at Lady Rāmā's side according to custom. Life before initiation (48–55) Because his mother became expert in all religious rites, while he was in the womb, and because a tooth appeared from a pregnancy-whim for flowers, his parents gave the Lord two names, Suvidhi and Puşpadanta, at a great festival on any auspicious day. Showing great difference in characteristics) from birth, the Master grew gradually like the day increasing after the passage of the sun into Aries.480 The Lord of the World reached youth 400 51. This is the vernal equinox. Page #353 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 328 pure by nature, one hundred bows tall, white-bodied, like the Ocean of Milk embodied. The Master, though thoroughly weary of existence, from regard for his father married princesses who surpassed Śrī in beauty. When fifty thousand purvas had passed since his birth, the Lord, free from desire, accepted the burden of the kingdom from courtesy to his father. Lord Suvidhi, knowing the law, kept the sovereignty for the same length of time ** plus twenty-eight purvāngas. CHAPTER SEVEN Initiation (56-63) The Master desired the vow and the Lokantika-gods, like flatterers, urged the Lord for its sake. Devoid of desire, the Lord of the World, like a wishing-gem of beggars, gave gifts for a year according to desire. At the end of his giving the ceremony of the Supreme Lord's initiation was made properly by the gods, just as at the time of his birth. Then the Lord got into the palanquin Suraprabha and, surrounded by gods, asuras, and men, went to Sahasrāmravaṇa. In the evening on the sixth day of the black half of Mārga (the moon being) in Mūla, together with a thousand kings the Lord became a mendicant accompanied by a two days' fast. On the next day the Supreme Lord broke his fast with rice-pudding in the house of King Puspa in the city Svetapura. The gods made the five things, the rain of treasure, etc., and King Puspa made a jeweled platform on the place of the Master's feet. With an extraordinary body, free from affection, free from worldly interest, enduring trials, the Lord of the World wandered for four months as an (unenlightened) ascetic. Omniscience (64-65) The Lord went again to the grove Sahasrāmravaṇa, and stood in pratima at the foot of a mālūra. When the 461 55. I.e., fifty thousand purvas. Page #354 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 329 SUVIDHINĀTHACARITRA Lord of the World had mounted the kşapakaśreņi from the apūrvakaraña step, 462 his omniscience was generated on the third day of the white half of Urja, in Müla. The samavasaraņa (66–69) Then the gods and asuras made a samavasaraña and the Teacher of the World entered it by the east door. Then the Lord, adorned with all the supernatural qualities, circumambulated the caitya-tree twelve hundred bows tall. Saying “Reverence to the congregation," the Lord sat down on the lion-throne, facing the east, and the gods made images of him in the other directions. The others, the gods, etc., sat down in their proper places. Sakra bowed to the Lord and began a hymn of praise as follows: Stuti (70–77) "If you are free from passion, why is there red in your hands and feet? If crookedness has been abandoned, why is your hair curly? If you are the herdsman of your subjects, why haven't you a staff in your hand ? If you are free from worldly interest, why the lordship of the three worlds ? If you are free from affection, why are you compassionate toward every one? If you have given up ornaments, why do you like the three jewels? If you are well-disposed to every one, why are you the enemy of wrong-believers ? If you are straightforward by nature, why were you formerly a chadmastha ? 468 If you are merciful, why did you suppress love? If you are devoid of fear, why do you fear existence ? If you are devoted to indifference, why are you beneficent to all ? If you are unagitated (adīpta), why do you have a blazing halo ? If you are tranquil by nature, then why have you practiced penance for a long time? If you are not inclined to anger, 402 65. See I, p. 433. 408 72. With reference, of course, to the literal meaning of chadman, deceit.'. He was a 'chadmastha' until he attained omniscience. Page #355 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 330 CHAPTER SEVEN why are you angered with karma ? Homage to you, Blessed One, whose nature is undiscernible, greater than the great, possessing the four infinities of siddhas." When he had completed this hymn of praise, Väsava became silent, and the Blessed One, Suvidhi Svāmin, delivered a sermon. Sermon on the āsyavas (79–134) “Certainly this existence is the depository of a burden of endless pain, and its source is āsrava, as a snake is the source of poison. Since people's actions of mind, speech, and body, activities, karma good and bad, flow, they are called asravas (channels). The mind dwelling on friendliness, etc., 484 begets karma of a pure nature; but subjected to passions and sense-objects produces impure. Truthful speech based on knowledge of the scriptures produces good karma ; the reverse (falsehood) must be recognized as a source of bad. A person accumulates good by a wellcontrolled body ; but bad by a body engaged in continual undertakings that cause destruction to life. Passions, sense-objects, activities, negligence, and lack of self-control, wrong belief, painful and cruel meditation-these are causes of bad karma. Whatever is the source of collecting karmic matter, that is called āsrava ; and karmas are eight with the divisions, knowledge-obscuring, etc. Whatever obstruction, contradiction, slander, destruction, injury 165 and envy there are of knowledge and belief, and also of their sources, these are äsravas of knowledge- and beliefobscuring karma. Worship of the gods, attendance on gurus, gifts to suitable persons, compassion, forbearance, control of passion, partial control, involuntary destruction of karma, purity, and penance without right knowledge are äsravas of good-feeling karma. Pain, sorrow, injury, torment, 484 81. See I, n. 56. 485 86. One of my MSS. supports the "āghātao of the ed. ; the other has oāpāya'. This (apāya) seems to me unquestionably better. Page #356 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUVIDHINĀTHACARITRA 331 bewailing, and lamentation, (whether) present in one's self, another or both, are asravas of bad-feeling karma. Slander of ascetics, the scriptures, the congregation, dharma, and of all gods, 486 thought-activity of intense wrong-belief, denial of the omniscient (Tirthařkaras), of the siddhas, and of gods, injury to a righteous man, teaching of a wrong path, inclination for worthless things, showing honor to persons lacking in self-control, unconsidered action, and disrespect to gurus, etc., are called asravas of rightbelief-deluding karma. Strong thought-activity of the soul from the rising of passions is called the asrava of rightconduct-deluding karma. Derision, mockery with lust, proneness to laughter, much talk, and talk about wretchedness are äsravas of laughter. Desire to see countries, etc., various pleasures and sports, and attracting another's mind are called āsravas of indulgence. Envy, proneness to evil, destruction of others' pleasure, and inciting to wrong-doing are āsravas of dissatisfaction. Though-activity of fear itself and making others afraid, terrifying, pitilessness, these are the asravas of fear. Making public others' sorrow, the rising up of one's own sorrow, grieving, and indulgence in crying, etc., are äsravas of sorrow. Slander and censure of the fourfold congregation, and disgust with good conduct are äsravas of disgust. Jealousy, greediness for senseobjects, falsehood, excessive deceit, and devotion to enjoyment of other men's wives are äsravas of feminine inclination. Contentment with one's wife only, lack of jealousy, slight passions, and proneness to upright conduct are the āsravas of masculine inclination. Love service to men and women, strong passions, intense desire, breaking of Vows with heretics and women are äsravas of common-sex inclination. Criticism of sādhus, placing obstacles in the way of people whose faces are turned to dharma, praise of the 466 90. T. 6. 14 supports the reading sarvasureșu. Page #357 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 332 CHAPTER SEVEN lack of control of people indulging freely in flesh and wine, frequently obstructing people who have partial selfcontrol, describing the virtues of bad conduct and disparagement of good conduct, and the recital of passions and slight passions existing in others are asravas of good-conductdeluding karmas in general. Injury to five-sensed beings, many undertakings and possessions, lack of kindness, flesh-eating, resolute hostility, cruel meditation, false-belief, the worst degree of passions, black, dark blue, and gray soul-colors, falsehood, theft, frequent sexual indulgence, and unrestrained senses are asravas of hell-age karma. Teaching of the wrong path, destruction of the right path, thinking of secret things, painful meditation,17 grief, deceit, undertakings and possessions, dark blue and gray soul-color,468 good conduct and vows with transgressions, and partial-vow-suppressing passions are asravas of animal-age karma. Few undertakings and possessions, innate humility and sincerity, gray and yellow soul-colors, devotion to pious meditation, total-vow-suppressing passions, moderate thought-activity, hospitality,70 worship of gods and gurus, speaking a greeting first, pleasant speech, assertion of pleasant things, and indifference to worldly affairs are asravas of human-age karma. Restraint of love, partialcontrol, involuntary destruction of karma, association with virtuous friends, the custom of listening to dharma, liberality to suitable persons, penance, faith, non-injury to the three-jewels, thought-activity of rose and yellow soulcolors at the time of death, austerities without right-knowledge, self-mortification of fire and water, etc., and hanging, and indistinct tranquillity are asravas of god-age karma. 467 109. See I, n. 8. 468 IIO. Leśya. Its 6 varieties are described in detail in Uttar., Chap. 34. 469 110. They are not perfectly observed. Vrata is interpreted as mulagunas and sila as uttaraguņas. 470 112. See I, p. 208. See Pravac., p. 83a. Page #358 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUVIDHINĀTHACARITRA 333 Crookedness of mind, speech, body, deception of others, employment of deceit, false belief, slander, fickle-mindedness, debasing gold, etc., bearing false witness, causing changes in color, odor, flavor, touch, etc., destruction of body and limbs, work on machines and cages, work on false measures and weights, blame of others and self-praise, injury, lying, theft, unchastity, great undertakings and possessions, harsh and vulgar speech, pride from clean clothes, etc., garrulity, abuse, destruction of happiness, use of magic, production of curiosity on part of others by jokes and mockery, the giving of ornaments, etc. to courtesans, etc., the lighting of a forest-fire, the theft of perfume, etc. in disguise of a god, etc., sharp passions, destruction of shrines, rest-houses, groves and statues, and the making of charcoal, etc. are channels of bad bodymaking karma. The reverse of these things, and fear of samsāra, destruction of carelessness, acquisition of good character, forbearance, etc., respect and making welcome of religious men at sight are äsravas of good body-making karma. Devotion to Arhats, siddhas, gurus, elders, very learned people, the sect, scriptural knowledge, ascetics, lack of negligence in daily duties, and in practice of the vows, reverence, practice in knowledge, penance, renunciation, frequent meditation, promulgation of doctrine, production of tranquillity in the church, service to sådhus, gaining of new knowledge, and purity of belief are asravas of bodymaking karma of Tirthakrts. These twenty were possessed by the first and last Tirthanāthas; one, two or three, or all by the other Jineśvaras. 471 Blame, contempt and ridicule, omitting existing merits, relating existing and non-existing faults of other people, 471 129. For a detailed account of these 20 sthānakas, see I, pp. 8off.; and the Pravac. 304 ff. It seems a little strange that if some of the intermediate Tirthankaras had all 20, they were not included with Rsabha and Mahāvira in the enumeration, but there is no doubt about the facts. Page #359 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 334 CHAPTER SEVEN praise of one's self, telling one's own existing and nonexisting merits, concealing one's own faults, and pride in birth, etc. are äsravas of low-birth karma. The asravas of high-birth karma are the opposite of those for low-birth karma, and absence of pride, reverence in speech, body, and mind. Obstruction, either with or without trickery, in giving, receiving, power, enjoyment, and repeated enjoyment are āsravas of obstructive karma. This boundless ocean of existence which arises from āsravas as described above must be crossed by the wise man by the boat of mendicancy." By that sermon of the Lord many were awakened, like night-blooming lotuses by the light of the moon, and took initiation by thousands. The Lord had eighty-eight gaṇabhrts, Varāha, etc., and at the end of the (Lord's) sermon, Varäha delivered a sermon. At the end of the gañabhrt's sermon gods and asuras went to their respective places, making an eight-day festival in Nandīśvara. Śāsanadevatās (138–141) Originating in that congregation, Ajita, white-bodied, with a tortoise for a vehicle, holding a citron and a rosary in his right hands, an ichneumon and spear in her left hands, was the Lord's messenger-deity always near. Likewise originating, Sutārā, fair-bodied, with a bull for a vehicle, holding a rosary in one right hand and the other in boon-granting position, holding a pitcher and a goad in her left hands, was the Lord's messenger-deity always in attendance. With them always in his vicinity, the Lord of the World, a great ocean of compassion, wandered over the earth, enlightening the people. The congregation (143-147) Two hundred thousand monks, one hundred and twenty thousand nuns, eighty-four hundred ascetics with Page #360 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SUVIDHINATHACARITRA 335 clairvoyant knowledge, fifteen hundred who knew the purvas and the same number with mind-reading knowledge, seventy-five hundred who were omniscient, thirteen thousand who possessed the art of transformation, six thousand disputants, two hundred and twenty-nine thousand laymen, four hundred and seventy-two thousand laywomen formed the retinue of the Lord wandering for a lac of purvas less twenty-eight angas and four months after his omniscience. His mokṣa (148-153) Then the Master went to Mt. Sammeta with a thousand rishis, commenced a fast, and continued so for a month. Absorbed in saileśi-meditation, the Master and the rishis went to an imperishable abode on the ninth day of the black half of Nabha in the constellation Mula. He spent half a lac of purvas as prince; half a lac of purvas plus twenty-eight angas in care of the kingdom; half a lac of purvas less twenty-eight angas in the vow; so the total age of Suvidhi Svāmin was two lacs of purvas. Suvidhi Svamin's nirvāņa was nine crores of sāgaropamas after the nirvāņa of Śrī Candraprabha. According to rule the Indras made an unequaled nirvāṇa-festival together with the funeral rites of the ninth Arhat and the thousand munis. After that they went to their respective palaces with their retinues. Extinction of the congregation (154-164) A little while after Suvidhi Svamin's nirvana, an extinction of sadhus took place through the fault of the falling wheel of time. The people who did not know dharma, asked the laymen-elders about it, as travelers, confused about the road, ask (other) travelers. To the laymen telling them something about dharma in accordance with their own character, the people made worship with objects suitable for laymen. They became greedy because Page #361 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 336 of the puja, and at once made śāstras, and taught that many gifts had much fruit. After they became ācāryas, greedy, they explained daily that a gift of a girl, of land, iron, sesame-seed, cotton, cows, gold, silver, seats, horses, elephants, couches, and other things-every gift was certainly bearing great fruit in this world and next. Wicked-hearted with great desires, they explained that they themselves were suitable recipients of gifts, and everyone else unsuitable. So they, deceitful, became gurus of the people at that time. In a treeless place a platform is made even around a castor-bean plant.472 So the complete extinction of the congregation took place in this zone up to the congregation of Sitala Svämin. At that time a kingdom with one umbrella was made by low Brahmans, like that of owls at night. In the same way wrong belief existed in the other six intervals between Jinas up to the time of Santi Jineśa. Because of the destruction of the congregation during these intervals there was unstumbling progress of wrong believers. CHAPTER SEVEN 472 162. Vedika is the raised seat made around large trees, particularly in villages. Even the castor-bean plant is used for this purpose in the absence of real trees. Cf. Mainwaring 1218: "In a deserted village the castor-oil plant is a noble tree." In the Hitopadeśa in the story of the Vulture, the Cat and the Birds it is said: nirastapädape dese erando'pi drumāyate. Page #362 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER VIII SITALANATHACARITRA May the feet of the Jina, Śrī Śítala, awakening the world like the rays of the moon awakening the nightblooming lotus, be productive of emancipation for you. Blessed Sitala's life, the cause of freedom from passion (coolness) of the ears of the three worlds, will be related. Incarnation as Padmottara (3-10) There is a regal city, named Susīmā, in the province of Vatsa, the ornament of East Videha in the half of Puşkaravaradvipa. Its king was named Padmottara, the best of all kings, like one of the Anuttaravimāna-gods who had come. In him, whose command was not transgressed, who was devoted to compassion for all creatures, existed the two emotions, the 'heroic' and the 'tranquil,' like full brothers. He was constantly alert in regard to dharma, like a king in regard to his treasury, making it increase by many unobstructed devices. With the thought, “I shall certainly abandon this today or tomorrow," he continued to live in samsāra with indifference, as if living in a foreign country. One day, he abandoned the great kingdom like a piece of stone and adopted mendicancy under Srastāgha Sūri. Observing the vows without any transgressions, he, wise, acquired the body-making karma of a Tirthakịt by the sthānakas named in the scriptures. When he had passed his whole birth, he became lord of Prāṇata because of numerous special vows and numerous severe penances. 22 Page #363 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 338 CHAPTER EIGHT Incarnation'as Šītalanātha (11-127) Description of Bhadrilapura (11-15) Now in this very Bhāratakşetra in Jambudvīpa there is an excellent city, Bhadrilapura, fair with wealth. Its high golden wall encircled by a moat has the beautiful appearance of the wall of Jambūdvīpa encircled by the ocean. At evening the chain of lights lighted in its rows of shops looked like a golden necklace of the Srī of the city. Because of its great wealth resembling the quintessence of Bhogāvatī and Amarāvatī, it became the pleasure-ground of libertines and of prominent men.478 Here people begging for food are fed with many kinds of food at the food-dispensaries by rich men, like their own people at a festival. His parents (16-25) In this city was established King Drdharatha, whose circle of enemies had been defeated, who had covered the earth-circle, like the ocean. He was extremely modest about his virtues, which were constantly described by the throng of sages, as if they were vices. He gave to beggars the wealth taken by force from his enemies, as if making atonement for the fault of theft. Kings, falling repeatedly on the ground before him, touching the ground with their bodies, attained kingship after a long time. Even an atom of instruction in knowledge given by gurus spread in him, very intelligent, like a drop of oil in water. His wife, named Nandā, delighting the heart, was a virtuous wife, the chief of virtuous wives, like Mandākini, the chief of rivers. Even rājahańsīs were considered to be pupils in the art of walking, as it were, of her who moved charmingly with very, very slow steps. Whenever she spoke with fragrant breath, her speech became a charm for attracting bees. The only similarity to this beautiful 478 14. Bhujangavịndāraka, also meaning 'Nāgas and gods' with reference to the two cities. Page #364 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SĪTALANATHACARITRA 339 woman was in herself. There is nothing similar in extent to the sky. She was sewn firmly in the heart of Drdharatha by her virtues, and Drồharatha was engraved on her mind, as it were. Birth (26-29) Now in Prāṇata-heaven, King Padmottara's jīva completed his life of twenty sāgaropamas. On the sixth day of the black half of Rādha, when the moon was in Pūrvāsādhā, King Padmottara's jiva fell and descended into Nandā's womb. Then the Lady Nanda, comfortably asleep, saw the fourteen great dreams which indicate the birth of a Tīrthankara. On the twelfth day of the black half of Māgha, when the moon was in Purvāşādhā, Śrī Nandā bore a gold colored son, marked with a śrīvatsa. Birth-ceremonies (30-36) Then the fifty-six Dikkumāris-the eight living in the lower world, the eight belonging to the upper world, the eight from each of the directions of Rucaka, the four from the intermediate points, and the four from the center of Rucakadvipa--whose thrones had shaken, came and performed the birth-rites. Sakra, too, came there very quickly, took the Master himself and, surrounded by gods, went to the peak of Mt. Sumeru. Holding the Lord on his lap, the Lord-of-the-sky sat down on the lion-throne on Atipāņdukambalā. Then Acyuta and the other Indras sprinkled the Lord with water brought from the ocean, rivers, pools, etc. Then Sakra placed the Lord on Îśāna's lap and bathed him then with water spurting from the tips of the horns of the crystal bulls created (by Sakra). After he had anointed the Lord of the World with divine unguents and had worshipped him with ornaments, etc., Sakra began a hymn of praise as follows : Stuti (37–44) “O moon to the Ocean of Milk in the form of the Ikşvāku-family, hail ! O sun for driving away the deep . Page #365 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 340 CHAPTER EIGHT sleep of the delusion of the world, hail ! I hope my eyes, tongue, and arms may be eternal to see you, to praise you, and to worship you. O Master, lord of the tenth congregation, these flowers are laid at your lotus-feet, but the fruit has fallen to me. You have descended to the human world, like a new cloud, giving exceeding joy to souls burned by the heat of pain. Today may living creatures have new prosperity from the sight of you, O Lord, like trees from spring. The days which have been purified by the sight of you, those are days to me, but other days are like a night of the black fortnight. People's bad karma is constantly sewn together, as it were, by the soul ; now let it be forced loose by you quickly, like iron by a loadstone. Whether I am here or in heaven, or somewhere else, may I be your vehicle, carrying you alone in my heart.” After he had so praised the tenth Arhat Daśasatekşaņa (Śakra) took him, carried him and placed him at Nanda's side, according to custom. Life before initiation (46–53) Then Drdharatha made a festival with releases from prison, etc.; for the purifying birth of such persons is for the emancipation of the world. The name 'Sitala' was given to him because the King's body, when it was hot, became cool at Nandā's touch, while he was in the womb. Attended by gods in the form of boys, the Lord of the World increased in size daily, like the waves of the ocean attended by Indras of the Velādhārins. The Supreme Lord gradually traversed childhood and reached youth from childhood, like a traveler reaching a city from a village. Ninety bows tall, with arms reaching to his knees, the Lord looked like a tree with large creepers hanging at its sides. Though he was indifferent to objects of the senses, requested by his parents, the Lord took a bride, like an Page #366 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ŚĪTALANĀTHACARITRA 341 elephant taking a ball of food. When twenty-five thousand pūrvas had passed, Lord Sri Sitala took the kingdom from courtesy to his father. Possessing unequaled strength of arm the Lord ruled his ancestral kingdom fittingly for fifty thousand pūrvas. Initiation (54–69) Then the Lord's mind became disgusted with living in samsāra, and the thrones of the Lokāntika-gods shook. The gods were enlightened by clairvoyant knowledge to this effect : “ In the southern half of Bharata in the continent Jambūdvīpa, the Blessed One, the tenth Arhat, is desirous of the vow. Therefore we shall now urge him, for that is always our duty.” After reflecting so, the gods, the Sārasvatas, etc., came from Brahmaloka, bowed to the Master, and announced : “O Lord, found a congregation from compassion toward all in this ocean of existence difficult to cross in the absence of a congregation, like a forest-stream without a ford.” After saying this, the Lokāntika-gods went to Brahmaloka and Sītala Svāmin gave gifts for a year. At the end of this giving, the Indras, whose thrones had shaken, made Lord Sitala's initiation-kalyāņa-bath. Then the Blessed Lord, the ornament of the three worlds, anointed, with garments and ornaments put on, supported on his arm by Bidaujas, his umbrella, chauris, etc. held by other Indras, ascended a jewel of a palanquin named Candraprabhā. Attended by thousands of gods, asuras, and kings 474 he went to a grove of his own city, named Sahasrāmravaņa. Then the Lord, who wished to cross samsāra, devoted to reaching emancipation, at once took off his ornaments, etc., like a burden. Wearing a garment of devadūșya placed on his shoulder by Sakra, the Lord of the World tore out his hair in five handfuls. When 474 63. Both MSS. are like the ed., but I strongly suspect that the text should read onarendrāņām. Page #367 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 342 CHAPTER EIGHT Sakra'had thrown the hair in the Ocean of Milk, had returned and restrained the tumult and stood like a doorkeeper with folded hands, the Lord and one thousand kings, observing a two days' fast, made a promise of abstention from censurable activities, in the presence of gods, asuras, and kings, in the afternoon of the twelfth day of the black half of Māgha, the moon being in Pūrvāsādhā. The Lord's fourth knowledge, called 'mindreading,' arose. The gods, etc. bowed and went to their respective abodes. The next day Lord Sitala broke his fast with ricepudding in the house of King Punarvasu in Riştapura. Then the five things, the stream of treasure, etc., were made by the gods, and furthermore King Punarvasu made a golden platform there. Observing numerous special vows, enduring trials, Lord Sītala wandered for three months as an ordinary ascetic. Omniscience (73-75) The Teacher of the World went again to Sahasrāmravana and stood there in pratimâ beneath a wavyleafed fig tree. After he had mounted the second pure meditation, like a soldier a rampart, the Teacher of the World destroyed the ghātikarmas like enemies. On the fourteenth day of the black half of Pausa, when the moon was in Pūrvāşãờhā, Sītala Svāmin's omniscience arose. The samavasarana (76-80) Then the Indras of the gods and asuras made a samavasaraña with three four-doored walls made of jewels, gold, and silver. The Lord entered it by the east door and circumambulated the caitya-tree which was one thousand and eighty bows high. Saying, "Homage to the congregation," the Lord seated himself on the eastern throne, and the gods placed his images in the other directions. Then the others, the gods, etc., stood in their proper places, as eager for the Master's voice as peacocks Page #368 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ŚĪTALANĀTHACARITRA 343 for thunder. Then Vajradhara (Sakra) bowed to Sítala Svāmin, touching the ground with his head, and recited a hymn of praise, his hands folded submissively : Stuti (81-89) “O Lord of the Three Worlds, they are fortunate who purify themselves by bathing repeatedly in the water of the copious light from the nails of your lotus-feet. This Bhārata is adorned by you like the sky by the sun, like a pool by a harsa, like a city by a king. In the interval between two congregations dharma was overcome by wrong belief, like light by darkness in the interval between the setting of the sun and the rising of the moon. This world has become blind, its eyes devoid of discernment, and goes on wrong paths everywhere, as if confused about direction. False dharma has been adopted by the perplexed people with the idea that it is dharma, false gods with the idea that they are gods, and false gurus with the idea that they are gurus. You, an ocean of compassion by nature, because of its (accumulated) merit have descended to this world ready to fall into the pit of hell. The serpent of wrong-belief has been powerful in the world for a long time (but) only until the nectar of your speech flows out. Now the world will have right-belief by the departure of wrong-belief, O Lord, just as you had omniscience by the destruction of the destructive karmas." When Sakra had become silent after this hymn of praise, the Blessed Lord Sitala delivered a sermon in a voice sweet as nectar. Sermon on samvara (90–107) “In samsāra everything is transient, the cause of various pains. Therefore one must strive for mokşa. Moreover, mokṣa would come from samvara. The obstruction of all channels (āsrava) is called samvara. It" again is divided into dravya and bhāva. That which cuts off the acquisition of karmic matter is dravyasamvara. The Page #369 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 344 CHAPTER EIGHT abandonment of occupation with the causes of existence is bhāvasamvara. Whatever means can block any channel must be used by intelligent persons for its obstruction. One should block anger, conceit, deceit, and greed by forbearance, humility, sincerity, and lack of desire, respectively. By means of complete self-control the wise man should destroy objects of the senses which create arrogance from lack of self-control and which resemble poison. One should subdue activities by the three controls, negligence 675 by vigilance, and should gain complete selfcontrol by destruction of censurable activity. One who is eager for samvara should overcome wrong belief by right belief, and painful and evil meditation by pure firmness of mind. Just as dust certainly enters the open doors of a many-doored house located at a cross-roads and, when it has entered, is stuck by contact with oil by absorption with it, but it would not enter nor would it be stuck if the doors were closed; or, just as water would enter a tank by all its openings, but would not enter at all if these were closed ; or, just as water would enter a boat by cracks, but not even a little would enter if the crack had been stopped up ; so, when doors of the channels, activity, etc., are blocked up everywhere, there is no entrance of karmic matter into a soul possessing abundance of samvara. From sarvara there is blocking up of the doors of the channels. Furthermore, samvara is known to have many divisions, likewise, from forbearance, etc. Whatever samvara there is in the guṇasthānas, it is called blocking of wrong belief from the non-rising of wrong belief in those in the higher stages.476 475 96. Pramāda is generally considered to be of 5 kinds : pride, enjoyment of the senses, the passions, sleep, and idle talk. See PE, s.v. pamāda. But the first is given—with just as good authority-as madya (wine) instead of mada. See Rajendra, s.v. pamāya. The Rajendra quotes also 6 kinds from the Sthānānga: madya, nidrā, viņaya, kaşāya, dyuta, and pratyupekşanā. 478 104. Parastheşu (?). This is a little perplexing, but seems to refer to those who are in the gunasthānas above the first. Page #370 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SĪTALANĀTHACARITRA 345 Also in partial-control (deśavirati), etc.,477 there is blocking of lack of self-control. In apramatta, samyata, etc., 478 it is considered blocking of negligence. In praśāntamoha and kşīņamoha, etc.,479 there would be blocking of the passions, and a complete blocking of activity would exist in the ayogikevalagunasthāna. 480 The wise man should go to the end of existence thus shut up by sarnvara, like a sea-trader across the ocean in a boat free from cracks.” Many people were enlightened by the Lord's sermon. Some took the vow of mendicancy and some the layvows. The Lord had eighty-one gaṇabhrts, Ananda, etc. At the end of the Lord's sermon Ananda delivered a sermon. The lords of gods, asuras, and men bowed to the Lord of the World and went to their respective abodes at the end of Ananda's sermon. Śāsanadevatās (III-114) Originating in that tīrtha, a Yaksa, named Brahmā, three-eyed, four-faced, with a lotus-seat, white, with four right arms of which three held a citron, hammer, and noose, and one was in the position bestowing fearlessness, and with four left arms holding an ichneumon, club, goad, and rosary; and Aśokā likewise originating there, the color of green gram, with a cloud for a vehicle, one right arm holding a noose and the other in boon-granting position ; and one left arm holding a fruit and the other a goad, these two became the messenger-deities of the tenth Arhat. Attended by these two, Lord Sitala wandered for twentyfive thousand pūrvas less three months. His congregation (116-120) One hundred thousand monks, one hundred thousand and six nuns, fourteen hundred who knew the fourteen 477 105. The fifth and the sixth gunastbānas. 478 105. From the seventh through the tenth. 479 106. The eleventh through thirteenth. 480 106. The fourteenth. Page #371 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 346 CHAPTER EIGHT pūrvas, seventy-two hundred who had clairvoyant knowledge, seventy-five hundred who had mind-reading knowledge, seven thousand omniscient, twelve thousand with the art of transformation, fifty-eight hundred disputants, two hundred and eighty-nine thousand laymen, and four hundred and fifty-eight thousand laywomen formed the Lord's retinue as he wandered. His mokşa (121-127) When the time for emancipation had arrived, the Lord went to Mt. Sammeta and together with a thousand saints began a fast. At the end of a month, on the second day of the black half of Vaiśākha, the moon being in-Pūrvāşādbā, the Master and the saints reached emancipation. Twentyfive thousand pūrvas as prince, fifty thousand as director of the earth, twenty-five thousand in practicing mendicancy; so the total age of Lord Sitala was a hundred thousand pūrvas. Nine crores of sāgaropamas elapsed between the nirvāņa of Suvidhi Svāmin and that of Śītala Svāmin. The lords of the gods (the Indras) celebrated fittingly a magnificent festival of the emancipation of Sri Śītala who had attained emancipation with the munis; and went again to their respective worlds. Emancipation will surely result to the one meditating on these biographies of eight Tīrthankaras beginning with Sri Sambhava in this third excellent volume with eight chapters, like pure syllables on an eight-petaled lotus 481 to be meditated upon. 481 127. See I, n. 409 ; Yog. 8. I ff. The lotus is used as an aid to concentration in meditation. It may be visualized with the number of petals desired, and on each petal is imagined an object to be meditated upon. Page #372 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ APPENDIX I ADDITIONAL NOTES P. 5 (2. I. 54). P. 10 (2. I. 104). Cf. p. 299, where the same idea occurs. Probably gupyadguru is a deśī word. Additional MSS. have the same reading. P. II (2. I. 116). Śambi should be emended to śimbi, which does not mean 'bark,' as the ed. takes it, but 'pod.' P. 40 (2. 2. 173). There is a parallel passage in Kalpasutra 28. KSK takes tvarita to designate mental haste and capala (the KS has cavalãe, instead of our cală) to designate physical haste. Instead of our yatana, KS has jayaṇãe, which it. interprets as 'jayinya, though anye vadanti' jayanāe=javanayā. Uddhuãe is interpreted as 'causing the trembling of all the parts of the body'; or, 'like the gati of a pile of dust penetrating the sky, raised up by a violent wind.' The KS has sigdhae (śīghrayā). Chekā is interpreted as 'skilful in warding off calamities.' Hemacandra's yatanā seems to be original with him. P. 52 (2. 2. 357). Cf. Prabandhacintamani (Tawney, p. 49), where the king is awakened by the conch. Alberuni (Alberuni's India, I, p. 337) says "they beat the drum and blow a winding shell called 'sankha,' after a watch (3 hours)." P. 64 (2. 2. 537). Muni Jayantavijayaji explains sūtamātṛkā as follows: Under the old system of teaching the pupils were taught the alphabet in the form of poetry to assist memorizing, and each teacher used different poetry of his own composition. So here mätṛkā really means ' poetry.' ( P. 68 (2. 3. 17). Smelling the head was formerly a method of demonstrating affection. It is, I believe, no longer There is an allusion to it also in the Maha in use. Page #373 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 348 APPENDIX P. bharata. Roy says (note to 3. 107. 60) that it was a mode of endearment of ancient India that corresponds to kissing on the forehead in the west. P. 85 (2. 3. 249). Munijayantavijaya says milk was formerly so used on occasions of great rejoicing. Perhaps, however, the gardeners of this period antici pated modern experiments with milk as a fertilizer. P. 89 (2. 3. 302). Āttavela is extremely puzzling to me. Muni Jayantavijayaji interprets it as 'one who has accepted limitations,' i.e. 'servant. That, of course, suits the context excellently. 90 (2. 3. 314). I have not come across any other reference to seizing bears' ears, but I was told there is a popular belief that a bear is cowed if its ears are seized. 92 (2: 3. 337). Nivịtti is used here in a peculiar technical sense and means 'difference, distinction. In the eighth guṇasthāna, persons do not make the same spiritual progress, even though they have entered at the same time. There is nivịtti in this guṇasthāna. In the ninth, all who have entered it at the same time must make the same progress. See PE and Rājendra, s.v. aniyaţți; and Lokaprakāśa (Dravya) 3. 1285-87. P. 93 (2. 3. 350). Avagraha is the space around the guru which one should not enter (n. 20). But one may enter this space with the guru's permission. . P. 107 (2. 3. 515). These 1000 yojanas are the upper part of Ratnaprabhā, the roof, as it were. Nine hundred of them are really counted twice; in the goo yojanas below Rucaka which constitute half of the Middle World (p. 104), and in the 180,000 yojanas which constitute the depth of Ratnaprabhā. P. 145 (2. 4. 128). 'A city of Gandharvas' is an imaginary city, a mirage in the sky. P. 146 (2. 4. 141). Vīrāsana is usually a kind of posture. Here it is evidently some kind of seat. P. 160 (2. 4. 344). As I said in I, n. 321, I was told that once Page #374 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 349 in 80 years there was a year of 363 days in a peculiar reckoning. But even if this is true, Hemacandra usually uses the year of 360 days. Not only here and in 1. 4. 719, but also in 5. 5. 259, he uses the number 363. If this is a mere lapse on Hemacandra's part, as Prof. Schubring suggests (GGA 32, p. 294), it is strange that it occurs so often. Muni Jayantavijayaji suggests that the error crept in from the title of the work. But trişaṣṭi occurs in every manuscript I have seen. Also in Padmānandamahākāvya 16. 193 (GOS LVIII) the number is 363, but its author imitated Hemacandra avowedly. APPENDIX P. 164 (2. 5. 23). This does not seem very clear, as apparently Avali had already paid for the cow; but I see no other interpretation. P. 170 (2. 5. 114). New' should be corrected to 'dry.' There is no authority for the ed.'s interpretation of rūkṣa as naviņa. P. 172 (2. 5. 137). Yojana-ambole or yojanām bole ? Perhaps there is a connection with the Pk. verb bola, to extend. All the MSS. have the reading of the ed. The meaning is clear. P. 252 (3. 1. 398). In Prof. Schubring's review of I (GGA 32) he objects to the fact that I did not in my note (I, n. 126) mention Prof. Leumann's sanskritizing of pãovagamaṇa as prayopagamana. My note was entirely correct. The Jain Prakrit name for a specific phenomenon is pãovagamana. The Jain Sanskrit name for the same phenomenon is pādapopagamana. Whether the Sanskrit name should have been something else is a question that, however interesting and important, belongs to an entirely different field. My task is to interpret Hemacandra's language as it is. P. 278. In the Journal and Proceedings, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1932, pp. 13-15, 'A New Indian Version of the Story of Solomon's Judgment' (Chakravarti) Page #375 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 350 APPENDIX gives a Tantric version in which the dispute is about the identity of the child's murderer. Add to n. 401 in I: Or perhaps laksadipa should be in terpreted as 'a lamp for a lac,' as a measure of wealth. Cf. Prabandhacintāmaņi, p. 107 (Tawney). In I, p. 339 there is a reference to elephants' tusks splitting in moonlight, for which I could find no explanation. Only recently I have seen the statement in a magazine that some kinds of elephant ivory, when subjected to sudden and extreme changes in temperature, have been known to crack with considerable violence. If this is true, perhaps the tusks of live elephants might be affected by the change in temperature after nightfall. Page #376 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ APPENDIX II BOTANICAL NOTES P. 4. Kuśa is Poa cynosuroides, the same as darbha, a grass used in sacrificial ceremonies. Its leaf has a very sharp point. It is considered very undesirable in cultivated ground. P. 34. Dūrvā-grass is Cynodon dactylon, the vernacular dūb. It is frequently grown over sacred places. It is also an important fodder-grass. P. 39. Sāla, Shorea robusta, the śäl. Ordinarily covered with a thick growth of creepers, to which reference is often made. P. 51. Gośīrşa-sandal, a brass-colored, very fragrant sandal (MW). P. 62. Arjaka, Ocimum gratissimum. Its blossoms grow in clusters, the flowers in a cluster number from 3 to 8, and the clusters on a branch from 6 to 10. P. 72. Bimba, Cephalandra indica, a cucurbitaceous plant. Its fruit is very red and smooth, and is commonly used as a symbol of unsurpassable redness. P. 84. Ketaki, Pandanus odoratissimus, the screw pine. It forms dense, impenetrable thickets. P. 84. Kurubaka, usually identified as red amaranth or red barleria. Watt considers it to be Lawsonia alba, the henna plant. The kurubaka is said to bloom from a woman's embrace. P. 84. Asoka, Saraca indica, a tree with beautiful red blossoms which are very fragrant at night. It is said to blossom from a woman's kick. P. 84. Bakula, Mimusops elengi, the Indian medlar. It has white fragrant flowers. It is said to blossom from the nectar from women's mouths. P. 85. Arka, the red-flowered Calotropis gigantea, the swallow-wort. Its most common vernacular names Page #377 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ APPENDIX 352 are āk, ākaņda, madār, and rui. Its fluff, arkatāla, is an illustration of something easily blown about. P. 85. Rājādana, Buchanania latifolia. P. 85. Saptacchada, Alstonia scholaris. Its wood is used for slates, hence its name. According to the Sabdasā gara, each leaf has 7 little leaves. P. 263. Priyala, Buchanania latifolia. P. 283. Priyangu, Aglaia odorata (syn. Aglaia Roxburgh iana). P. 309. Sirisa, Albizzia Lebbek (syn. Mimosa sirissa). Its petals are a symbol of softness and delicacy. P. 319. Punnāga, probably the Calophyllum inophyllum, "a large tree of the Coromandel coast with beautiful white fragrant blossoms and numerous stamens arranged in rows." This is Dutt's opinion and the weight of evidence is in favour of the C. inophyllum. The references in our text are satisfied by the C. inophyllum. But Roxburgh, Brandis, and Watt take punnāga to be the Rottlera tinctoria. P. 328. Mālūra, Aegle marmelos, the bel, which is known especially for the use of its leaves in Siva worship. Page #378 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ APPENDIX III NEW AND RARE WORDS In making this list, the determining factor was whether the word was in Monier-Williams, SanskritEnglish Dictionary, ed. 1899. The references to L. and grammarians are as given in that work. Both editions of the Petersburg Wörterbuch were checked, of course ; and several words in this list, not cited in earlier lexicons, are found in Schmidt's Nachträge to the Petersburg lexicon. But the Jain texts still do not receive the attention to which they are entitled from lexicographers. The references to the text of the Trişaşțio are not exhaustive, but illustrative. The list is intended to include new words, words cited only from L. and grammarians, additional meanings to words quoted, and variants in form. akastam, adv. 2. 3. 30, without effort. akāmanirjarā, f. 3. 7. 88, involuntary destruction of karma. See PE, akāmanijjarā. agrapāņi, m. 3. I. 145, right hand, L. agregū, m. 2. 3. 831, leader. Cf. PS. ankuțaka, m, or n. 2. 6. 572, hook. Cf. 1. I. 715. aņapannika, m. 2. 2. 411, a class of Vyantaras, the same as aprajñaptika, q.v. atāraka, m. 2. 6. 309, one who can not swim. atipāņdukambalā, f. 2. 2. 483, the rock on the top of Meru on which the Jina's birth-bath took place. Cf. PS. atirikta, n. 2. I. 191, sin. Cf. Pañcaprati., p. 133, where atireka mean 'sin.' adaśā, f. 3. 4. 10, misfortune. adūsya, adj. 2. 3. 201, spotless. Cf. PS. advaita, adj. 2. 2. 269, consisting of nothing but, in compd. Cf. 1. 4. 485. . adhvanya, m. 2. 5. 43, traveler. Only Pāņ. 23 Page #379 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 354 APPENDIX anargala, adj. 3. 3. 81, without a bar (literally). anākarņitaka, m. or n. 2. 6. 66, a pretense of not hearing. animitta, n. 2. 6. 94, a bad omen. Cf. PS. anirviņņa, adj. 2. 4. 222, unwearied. Cf. PS. anuttaravimāna, n. 2. I. 306, the highest heavens. anuttala, adj. 2. 2. 578, not out of tune, in harmony (?). Cf. uttala in PE and PH. anudghāta, adj. 2. 3. 211, unstumbling. anupadin, m. 2. 6. 687, a follower. Only Pāņ. anuyoga, m. 3. 2. 151, exposition (of doctrine). anuśī, 3. I. 76, to regret. antaya, nom. 3. I. 88, to make an end of, L. andhatamasa, n. 2. 3. 452, intense darkness. Only Pān. apavidyā, f. 2. 6. 262, evil sciences. Cf. PS. aprajñaptika, m. 2. 3. 525, a class of Vyantaras. abhayada, adj. 3. 4. 180, bestowing safety, a position of the hands. abhitas, ind. 2. I. 148, used intensively in comparisons. abhivarnana, n. 3. 7. 103, praise (?). amāri, f. (?) 3. 3. 51, non-destruction. amburāśi, m. 2. I. 312=sāgaropama as measure of time. ambola (?), 2. 5. 137, depth. See App. I. arnava, m. 3. 4. 196=sāgaropama, measure of time. alam, ind. with pres. indic., 2. 3. 905 ; 2. 6. 545, 566, able to. alasa, nom. 2. I. 143, to be lazy, inactive. avakratā, f. 3. 3. 89, crookedness. avatāraņa, n. 2. 3. 229, waving. aśrutapūrva, adj. 2. 6. 64, never heard before. asodbapūrvin, adj. 2. 3. 882, not having endured before. astra, n. 3. I. 36, a weapon in general, L. astramandira, n. 2. 4. I='āgara, arsenal. astravidyā, f. 2. 5. 47, military science, L. astraveda, m. 2. 4. 158= °vidyā. āghatt, 2. 3. 192, to rub against. âghāta, m. 2. 6. 311, boundary, L. Page #380 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ APPENDIX ättavela, m. 2. 3. 302, servant (?). āpaka, adj. 3. 3. 52, obtaining results. āpūrṇa, adj. 2. 3. 32, complete. apyāyaka, adj. 2. 2. 6, refreshing, giving pleasure. äpyāyakatva, n. 2. 2. 533, strength. Cf. apyāyana in PW. abhiyogya, m. 3. 1. 263, class of servant-gods. āmukha, n. 3. 2. 2, commencement, L. ayatabhuja, adj. 3. 3. 62, long-armed, i.e., powerful. ayukta, adj. 2. 3. 200, appointed, charged with, L. ārakṣa, m. 2. 5. 173=ārakṣaka, guard. älingipuskara, m. or n. 2. 2. 290, a kind of drum. Cf. älingimṛdanga, I. 2. 359. āliñjara, m. 2. 3. 625, a large clay water-jar, I. āvila, adj. 2. 3. 199, wet. āsanāyukta, m. 2. 6. 230, usher. itthamkaram, adv. 2. 3. 370, in this manner. Only Pāṇ. Cf. PS. 355 indrakuñjara, m. 2. 4. 29, Indra's elephant (airāvata), L. indramantrin, m. 2. 3. 166, name of Bṛhaspati. Only scholiast. ibhya, m. 3. 1. 224, elephant. uktapurvin, adj. 2. 6. 361, having foretold, with acc. uccaiḥśravas, m. 2. 2. 560, Indra's horse, L. utkarṇatālaya, nom. 2. 4. 42, to cause (elephants) to flap erect ears. uttāla, adj. 2. 2. 541, loud, L. utpattra, n. 2. 2. 155, offshoot. utpäda, adj. 3. 6. 39, having the legs extended upwards. See n. 452. utpindita, adj. 2. 3. 394, collected, amassed. utpūra, adj. 3. 3. 106, flooded. udastra, adj. 2. 3. 410, with raised weapon. uddhatā, f. 2. 2. 173, a proud gait (of the gods). See n. 73. Page #381 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 356 APPENDIX upagrāhikarma, n. 3. 2. 169, karma which helps to prolong existence. Ayus-, nāma-, gotra-, and vedanīyakarma are upagrābi. See PE, uvaggaha. upadhi, m. 2. 3. 257, equipment, paraphernalia. Cf. PS. uparodha, m. 2. I. 272, importunity. upasamvargita, adj. 2. 3. 825, mingled. upasarga, m. 2. 1. 285, an attack made on ascetics to disturb their meditations. See n. 152. upāyam, 3. 6. 55, to marry. ubhe, 3. 3. 255, two. ulūla, m. 2. 3. 826, auspicious noise. ulluņķāka, m. 3. 4. 22, robber. ullola, m. 2. 6. 335, high waves, L. ūrīkāra, m. 2. 4. 18, promise. ūrdhvajñu, adj. 3. 1. 336, apparently simply means standing.' ekadrś, adj. 2. 3. 330, one-eyed, L. Cf. PS. ekānga, adj. 3. 7.63, with an extraordinary or unique body. edh, 2. 3. 418, shine, blaze (?). evamkāram, ind. 2. 2. 491, in this manner. Only Pāņ. otu, m.f. 2. 310, cat. Sch. on Pāṇ. Cf. PS. kankāla, nom. 2. I. 123,' to become a skeleton.' kațaka, m. 3. I. 270, anklet. See I, n. 290. kaņaya, deśī, 2. 3. 37, a kind of weapon. See n. 129. kanthanāda, m. 2. 2. 273, a loud voice. kandamūla, n. 3. I. 24, radish, L. kapiśīrşaka, 3. I. 32, top coping of wall. kampaņa, 2. 3. 35=kampana, a kind of weapon. karpaţa, m. or n. 3. I. 311=karbața (or karvața), a poor kind of town. See I, n. 322. Cf. PS, karpațaka= karvațaka, village. karpaţika, m. 2. 3. 867, beggar. Cf. PS, karpațin. kalakantha, m. 2. I. 115, Indian cuckoo, L. Cf. PS. Page #382 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ APPENDIX 357 kaladhauta, n. 2. 2. 61, silver=°dhūta. kalana, m. or n. 2. 2. 16, state of being provided with, the presence of. Quoted only f. in this sense. kalaśatā f. 3. 3. 189, state of being a finial on top of temple. kalahāya, nom. 3. 3. 147, to quarrel. Only Pāņ. kalpadrumāya, nom. 3. 2. 23, to act like a kalpa-tree. Cf. PS. kalpana, n. 2. 2. 316, making, L. (in neuter). kalpānta, m. 3. I. 22, end of a kalpa, L. kavacahara, m. 2. I. 161, a Ksatriya youth when arrived at the age suitable for martial training, (MW). Only Sch. on Pān. kaśā, f. 3. 4. 124, specifically, a horse-whip. Abhi, 4. 318. kārmanita, adj. 2. 1. 246, bewitched. kālavelã, f. 3. I. 383, a particular time of the day in which any religious act is improper (half a watch in every day), L. kālāksepa, m. 2. 4. 366, without delay. kiţtīkaraṇa, n. 2, 3, 338, making small, dividing. See kițţi in PH and PE. kīkasa, n. 2. 3. 313, bone, L. kukṣimbhari, adj. 2. 5. 117, filling the space between heaven and earth. Cf. PS. kuțțima, n. 2. 3. 225, cottage, L., or perhaps cottage-roof, which might be flat with inlaid floor. kudyaka, n. 2. 3. 624, wall, L. kuņīya, nom. 2. I. 126, to have a withered arm. kutupa, m. 2. 6. 308, a small leathern oil-bottle. Only Pän. kunthu, m. 2. 6. 153, a small three-sensed creature, used as a symbol of extreme smallness. See PH and PE, s.v. kubodha, m. 3. 5. 2, wrong knowledge. krspakāka, m. 2. 6. 531, raven, L. keśava, m. 2. 5. 104=Väsudeva. kośa, m. or n. 3. 5. 84, ball or globe, L. Page #383 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 358 APPENDIX kaumāra, n. 3. 1. 241, rank as heir-apparent. krauñca, m. 3. 3. 181, curlew, the emblem of the fifth Arhat, L. gajanimilikā, f. 2. 6. 189, carelessness, inattention, L. gandharva, m. 2. I. 244, et passim, musician. galla, m. or n. 2. 2. 171, probably=gallaka, crystal. gupyadguru, 2. I. 104, apparently, a rest-house, or some thing of the kind. See n. 21. grdhriya, nom. 2. I. 127, to be like a vulture. gophaņa, m. or n. 2. 3. 36, sling. H gophana (m.). PH quotes gophaņā (deśī). graharāja, m. 2. I. 240, sun, L. grāmakuți, f. 2. 6. 143,' village-cottage,' rest-house, or inn. ghatikāyantra, n. 2. 2. 51, some sort of incense-burner. ghanţikā, f. 2. 4. 2, a small bell. Only Sch. ghargharaka, m. 2. 3. II, a bell used as an ornament. MW, ghargharikā. candanagodhā, f. 2. 6. 13, a large and strong species of lizard. See gohā, PE, and cf. Guj. candanagho. carc, 3. 4. 26, to anoint. citrānga, m. 2. 2. 514, name of a kalpa-tree. cūļāvalaya, m. or n. 2. 2. 136, bracelet or armlet. celatva, n. 2. I. 292, bed-cover. caityāya, nom. 2. I. 299, to resemble a shrine. churī, f. 2. 3. 35, knife, dagger, L. .chekatā, f. 2. I. 124, skill, cleverness. janāntika, 2. 2. 97, whispering aside. Quoted only in acc. as ind. with this meaning. jambhavidviş, m. 2. 3. 47, Indra. jarjaraţā, f. 2. 6. 217, the state of being broken. Cf. jarjaraya, PS. Page #384 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ APPENDIX 359 jalavājin, m. 2. 4. 106=°turaga, 'water-horse,' a kind of animal, L. Sch. Jalaturaga occurs in Abhi. 4. 420, but is not defined. Böhtlingk and Rieu suggest 'tapir,' but that seems out of the question. Coomarasvamy in Yakşas, Part II, pl. 43, fig. 2, shows a creature with horse's head and fish's tail which he calls jalaturaga.' jātidharma, m. 2. 3. 914, inherent nature. jātyaturagāya, nom. 2. I. 125, to be like a noble horse. jānapada, m. 2. 6. 506, a countryman in contrast with a city-man. jugupsana, n. 3. 7. 99, dislike, L. jonaka, m. 2. 4. 167, name of a people, see Pk. jonaa (yaunaka) PE; joņa (yona, yavana), PH. Yauna occurs also in MBh. and MW says 'prob.=yavana.' But Hem. enumerates Yavanadvipa apart from the Jonakas. jyotsnāya, nom. 3. 7. 46, to act like moon-light. jhañjhāvāta, m. 3. 3. 70, high wind in the rainy season, L. jhalajjhalāya, nom. 2. 2. 133 ; 2. 3. 12, to tinkle, rattle. jhallari, f. 2. 3. 171, a gong. See n. 153. țițţibha, m. 3. 6. 39, Tringa goensis, the sandpiper. See n. 452. tatkriya, adj. 3. 4. 178, doing that, doing any particular work, L. tāda, m. 2. 6. 416, sound, noise, L. (Here, of lightning). tāram, adv. 3. I. 160, in loud tones. tiryagloka, m. 2. 3. 483, the Middle or Human World. tiksņa, adj. 3. 5. 10, zealous, L. tuk, m. 2. 5. 61, a boy, L. temana, n. 3. I. 44, sauce, L. ; Abhi. 3. 63. Cf, PS. trilocanasakha, m. 2. 4. 320, Kubera. dantimada, m. 3. I. 307, the juice flowing from a rutting elephant's temples, L. Page #385 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 360 APPENDIX daśaśateksaņa, m. 3. 8. 45, Indra. digvijayin, adj. 3. 5. 19, making an expedition of conquest. dīpakamalli, 2. 2. 290, lampstand. Cf. malli, PE. dirghabhuja, adj. 2. 4. 325, long-armed, really=powerful. durgrāma, m. 3. 3. 93, poor village. duhsphoța, m. 2. 3. 36, a sort of weapon, L. devatāvasaraukas, n. 2. 4. 347, temple. Cf. PS. devatīya, nom. 2. 4. 8, to deify. dramila, m. 2. 6. 71, name of a people, L. droņa, n. 2. 3. 312, a raven or crow, L. Cf. PS. dvicarama, m. 2. 3. 781, one who has 2 more human births, PE. dvişantapa, adj. 2. I. 78, vexing an enemy, retaliating, Pān. dhanvan, n. 3. 1. 327=dhanu, bow, as a measure. dhārā, f. 2. I. 129, the tip of the ear, L. dhunīpati, m. 2. 6. 352= onātha, ocean, L., dhūlikā, f. 2. 3. 318, pollen of flowers, L. Cf. PS. naksatra, n. 2. 4. 159, pearl, I. nayin, adj. 2. 4. 321, endowed with naya, wise. narakāvāsa, m. 2. 3. 488, hell. nāgadamanī, f. 2. 4. 99, Artemisia vulgaris, wormwood. PS. nāgadamana. nāgnya, n. 2. I. 281, nudity. See Uttar. 20. 49, and PE, nagga. nāța, m. 2. 2. 462, actor, dancer. nāțya, m. 2. 2. 309, actor. Cf. PE, națța. nārakaşandha, m. 2. 3. 485, hell-inhabitant. nigal, caus. 3. 4. 121, to liquefy. nidāna, m. 3. 2. 102, performance of penance with a view to obtaining a reward in a future birth. MW, claiming a reward for penitential acts, L.' nipis, 3. 4. III, to crush. nimnagā, f. 3. 2. 42, name of a river flowing through Vaitāļhya. Page #386 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ APPENDIX 361 niyuktavat, 3. 5. 75, like a servant. nirvịtikarā, f. 3. 4. 59, name of a palanquin. nirbhāra, adj. 2. 6. 607, free from burden. nişadyā, f. 2. I. 285, a solitary place. See ạisajjā, Rā jendra. nirangikā, f. 2. 2. 551= nirangi, f. 2. I. 19, veil. Sirovastra, Deśī. 4. 31. nīhārādri, m. 3. I. 269. Himādri, Cf. PS. pangüya, nom. 2. I. 125, to become lame. pañcavarna, adj. 2. 2. 291, five-colored, L. panyavanītā, f. 2. I. 244, courtesan. payoja, n. 3. I. 120, lotus. Cf. PS. payorāśi, m. 3. 6. 28=sāgara, as time-measure. payoruha, n. 3. I. 128, lotus, L. Cf. PS. parasvaharaṇa, n. 3, 6, 20, seizing another's property, L. parisprś, adj. 2. 5. 69, imitating. pāripārsvikī, f. 3. 3. 12, a female attendant. pārsvabhāga, m. 2. 3. 572, mountain-slope. puța, m. 2. 6. 191, the cover (of a drum) ; 2. 4. 43, cover of a bowl. putrabhānda, m. 3. 1. 86, affectionate term for a son. pūtāra, m. 3. 4. 114, a small creature living in water, Haim. VIII. I. 170. pūtkr, 2. 6. 175, to sob (MW 'to breathe hard '). pūrvajanman, m. 2. I. 164=pūrvaja, ancestor. pūrvin, adj. 2. 6. 361, before, in comp. with participle, like pūrva prakirņaka, m. 2. 6. 558, a division of the gods. See p. 125 (2. 3. 770). pratikāra, m. 3. I. 224, elephant-driver. pratikeśava, m. 2. 5. 104=prativāsudeva. pratipad, f. 2. 3. 129, understanding, intelligence, L. Cf. PS. pratoda, m. 3. 4. 124, ox-goad. pradīpana, 2. 5. 139, fire. pradyotana, m. 2. 2. 70, the sun, L. Cf. PS. Page #387 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 362 pralamba, m. 2. 1. 116, branch, L. pravayana, n. 2. 6. 300, goad, Sch. to Pāṇ. pravardhaka, 2. 6. 479, additional, extra (?). APPENDIX pravicāra, m. 2. 3. 793, marriage, Pravac. 1040. Cf. paviyāra, PH. Pravac. 881, p. 255b. prāsuka, adj. 2. 3. 304, free from life. See phāsua, PH. plus, 2. 3. 325, to fill. Only Dhatup. bāhudantya, m. 2. 6. 125, name of Indra, L. bāhulya, n. 2. 2. 293, thickness, height. būtkāra, m. 2. 3. 311, roar of a tiger. bhaṭṭini, f. 2. 3. 898, a noble lady, L. bhallūka, m. 2. 3. 314, bear, L. PS, Schakal. bhasmaka, n. 3. 1. 25, morbid appetite from over-digestion, L. bhāṇḍa, n. 3. 6. 14, treasure, L. bhid, f. 2. 3. 466, kind, species, L. bhujangată, f. 3. 4. 140, profligacy. Cf. PS. bhusandhi, f. 2. 3. 36, a kind of weapon-bhusundi, MW, q.v. See n. 128. bhūṣyată, f. 3. 5. 23, state of being adorned. bhṛtakaya, nom. 2. 4. 74, to behave like a servant. bhṛśāya, nom. 2. 2. 427; 2. 6. 649, to be in a hurry, to move swiftly. MW only, 'to become powerful or strong.' PW, śīghragatayo jātāḥ, Sch. bhogabhumi, f. 2. 3. 462, the regions where there is no work for sustenance. See n. 227. bhrāṣṭra, m. or n. 2. 1. 118, fire-pit. C " maṇḍaka, 3. I. 43, MW, a sort of pastry or baked flour.' The ed. takes this to be the Guj. mānḍā. Shah, Guj. dict., gives māḍā, mānḍā (Sk. maṇḍa), a large thin cake made of millet and wheat flour.' Mehta and Mehta, Guj. dict., give māḍo in this meaning, and mānḍā, large sweetmeat balls.' Bate quotes maṇḍā, Page #388 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ APPENDIX 363 'sweetmeats made into little nuts'; and māndā, kind of bread.' PH, mandaa (Sk. mandaka)=māndā, a kind of bread.' mandikā, 3. I. 43, pie-crust. The ed. says this is vern. khājā, which is 'pie-crust.' Guj. dicts., khājum ; Bate, khājā, a kind of sweetmeat like pie-crust.' MW gives maņņikā only, 'rice-gruel.' madakala, m. 2. 2. 50, elephant, L. madrankara, adj. 2. 6. 129, causing joy or happiness. Only Pāņ. madhupatā, f. 2. 3. 107, drinking of honey. mantu, m. 2. 6. 84, fault, offence, L. Cf. PS. mantūya, 2. 5. 172, to transgress against, L. marālikā, f. 2. 2. 312, a female marālaka. F. quoted only maralaki. markața, m. 3. 4. 119, spider, L. mallikā, f. 2. 4. 185, lamp-stand, lamp, L. mahattarā, f. 2. 2. 164, apparently a sort of officer of the Dikkumārīs. See Āva. 184, p. 163, and n. 70. mahātandrā, f. 2. 6. 15, deep sleep, or death (?). mānojñaka, n. 3. 7. 24, beauty, loveliness. Only Pān. mārjitā, f. 3. I. 45, curds mixed with sugar and spices, L. mārşți, f. 2. 2. 492, rubbing, drying. Cf. PS. māsạnya, 2. 2. 290, smoothness. mukuțāya, 2. I. 234, to be like a crown. mukti, f. 3. 3. 82, freedom from greed. mūkāya, 2. I. 124, to become tongue-tied. mrgadhūrta, m. 2. 6. 303, jackal, L. Cf. PS. meşasankranti, f. 3. 7. 51, vernal equinox. yatanā, f. 2. 2. 173, app. a sanskritization of jaïnā, a kind of gait of the gods. Cf. PE, 'jaïnā (yatnā), a kind of gati or movement. Jñātā. 4.' yathākāmīna, adj. 2. 2. 504, acting according to will. yathākṣaṇam, 3. I. III, at the proper moment. yathāpātram, 2. 6. 549, properly, fitly. yāma, m. 2. 6. 652=yama, restraint (i.e., vow), L. Page #389 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 364 yugasamilā, f. 2. I. 54-yugaśamya, a yoke-pin and a yoke. See PH, samilā. yuta, adj., occupied with, performing, L. APPENDIX rakṣāgranthi, m. 2. 2. 240, amulet. rajanijāni, m. 2. 5. 46, moon. ratnaśilā, f. 2. I. 17, slab of precious stone, rather than MW's' mosaic (?).' rājasuka, m. 2. 3. 30, a kind of parrot (with red stripes on the neck and wings), L. rābhasika, adj. 2. 3. 919, impetuous, vehement, L. Cf. PS. rātna, adj. 3. 6. 17, made of jewels, rather than MW's 'consisting of pearls.' rai, m. 2. 3. 359, gold. Abhi. 4. 109. rola, m. 2. I. 115, noise, cry, PH. Cf. PS. lalantikā, f. 2. 3. 12, a long pendulous necklace, L. lavaṇakṣāra, m. 3. 4. 102, a kind of salt, L. lavitra, n. 3. 1. 2, sickle. MW only Pan. Abhi. 3. 556. linga, n. 2. 1. 253, costume, equipment. lul, 3. 3. 199, pres. lulanti, to move. lohitākṣa, m. 2. 4. I=rohitākṣa, a kind of red precious stone. PS, 'ein wertloser stein? vantha, m. 2. 3. 244, servant, slave, L. vadhu, f. 2. 2. 74, a sister-in-law. vara, m. 3. I. 187, saffron. Quoted only n. in this sense. Cf. H vara (m.). vardhāpakanara, m. 2. 4. 299=kañcukin, chamberlain. Cf. MW, vardhāpaka-kañcuka, L. vägneya, m. 2. 6. 242, one who recites (?). vācaspatiya, nom. 2. I. 124, to be eloquent. väsantika, m. 2. 6. 301, an actor, dancer, buffoon in a drama, L. vicāra, m. 3. 3. 48, interpretation. vidagdhată, f. 2. 6. 302, knowledge, learning. vipratāraṇa, n. 3. 7. 117, deception. Page #390 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ APPENDIX vibādhā, f. 3. 4. 161, pain, L. vimänin (anuttaravimānin), m. 3. 7. 4, an inhabitant of a palace in the heavens. viyuj, adj. 3. 5. 119, diminished, deficient. vilakṣa, adj. 2. 3. 915 (2), ashamed, shameful. vilul, 2. I. 191 (vilulanti), to be disturbed, disordered. Only vilulita quoted. viṣayin, m. 2. 6. 533, people of a district or country. vṛddhyājīva, m. 3. 7. 6, money-lender, L. śarvalā, f. 2. 3. 52, an iron club, L. śimbā, f. 2. 4. 182, a pod, L. sirogṛha, n. 2. 6. 357, a room on top of the house, L. Cf. PS. śītadhāman, m. 2. 2. 27, moon. śuṇḍā, f. 3. 6. 101, spirituous liquor, L. śulva, 2. 6. 238, copper, L. Cf. PS. śūka, 2. 6. 592, pity, compassion, L. Cf. PS. 365 śūkala, m. 2. 1. 152, a restive horse, L. śaikṣa, m. 2. 3. 151, a young Brahman pupil studying with his preceptor, L. śvabhrin, m. 3. 5. 40, hell-inhabitant. samyata, m. 2. 6. 662, ascetic, monk. samvṛ, 2. 2. 505, take away, pick up. sangara, m. 2, 4. 88, 258, a vow, resolution. sattrin, m. 2. 6. 114, benefactor, Cf. H and M sattra. samudra, m. 3. 2. 173=sāgara (as measure of time). sarinnatha, m. 3. 2. 55, ocean, L. sahādhitin, m. 2. 6. 248, a fellow-authority. sākṣimātra, n. 2. 3. 907, a mere eye-witness. sātkṛ, 3. 3. 171, 174, in power of; under control of (Apte). säragandha, m. 2. 4. 23, sandal-wood, L. sāvadānam, 2. 1. 167, with boldness or courage. sinhaniṣadyā, f. 2. 5. 107, the name of Rṣabha's stūpa. sinhā, f. 2. 2. 173, a lion-like gait of the gods. See n. 73. sudhāndhas, m. 3. 1. 203, god. Cf. PS. Page #391 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 366 APPENDIX supratiștha, m. 2. 2. 422 ; 3. I. 185, a kind of dish, (PH); an earthen bowl (PE). Is not necessarily earthen.' Cf. 1. 2. 479-80. sulasa (vřkşa), 2. 3. 517, the lāñchana-tree of the Bhūtas. susīmā, f. 2. I. 14, the capital of the province Vatsa in Videha. Jamb. 96, p. 353b. susthita, m. 2. 3. 638, the god of the Lavaņoda Ocean. susyada, adj. 3. 1. 75, fast, speedy. sūkala, m. 2.4. 303. See sūkala. stūpa, m. 2. 3. 359=pīķha. sthagi, f. 2. 3. 44, a box (for betel and areca-nut), L. Cf. PS. sthapuța, m. 2. 6. 565, high place. sthalassngāța, m. 2. I. 121, Tribulus lanuginosus or similar plant, L. sthalāmbhoja, n. 2. 3. 209, Hibiscus mutabalis, mallow. sthāpatya, m. 2. 2. 51, the guard of the women's apart ments, L. Cf. PS. svarņādri, m. 3. 4. 39, Meru, I. svardhāman, m. 2. 3. 840, god. svādurasā, f. 2. I. 49, spirituous liquor, L. svārtha, m. 2. 1. 58, 65, 66, spiritual welfare. hasitapūrvin, m. 2. 6. 361, one who has formerly laughed at (with acc.). hastimallāya, nom. 2. I. 126, to be like Hastimalla (Indra's elephant). huņdāvasarpiņi, f. 3. 7. 154, a period of decrease. Defined by J.G.D. as 'that æon of decrease or avasarpiņi in which there are special features of decrease; as birth of a daughter to a Tīrthankara, etc.' hradini, f. 2. 4. 353, a river, L. hradininātha, m. 3. 8. 34. ocean. Page #392 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 2. I. IO. 2. I. 45. 2. I. 59. 2. I. 100. 2. I. 113. 2. 1. 116. 2. 1. 119. 2. I. 211. 2. I. 233. 2. I. 239. 2. I. 239. 2. I. 270. 2. I. 280. 2. I. 280. 2. I. 281. 2. I. 281. 2. I. 297. 2. I. 312. 2.2. 52. 2.2. 85. 2.2. 86. 2.2. 133. 2.2. 137. 2. 2. 245. 2. 2. 252. 2. 2. 272. 2. 2. 282. 2.2. 314. 2.2.333. 2.2.379. * Mss. वियाक°. TEXT CORRECTIONS. For 'द्र T शला मौक बासा° शम्बो दे नस्य "विद्या 'दुभ्या 'तु ज ਵਈ शं च समाध्य या एव म 'देवाच्चक्रुः त्वं चोमि मास याद 'विक्र हौपान्त "माज म Read उड़ा त्वा मौक चासा° शिम्बी 'पदे स्वस्य "विव्या सूर्य दुभ्यां ० 'तुम' संस वै O स नाग्न्य 4 एवम 'भ्ये युरिन्द्राः aai चामे भालज्मला र जस 'याद ● विद्रु धेयान्त° * 'नाझ' OTH Page #393 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 368 For Read पाहिगन °षाणां गन् मा स्व गास्व मात् पाण्डु पाण्ड तल 2. 2. 403. 2. 2. 405. 2. 2. 431. 2.2.431. 2. 2. 471. 2. 2. 472. 2. 2. 509. 2. 2.562. 2. 2. 570. 2. 2. 575. तव नवा °पखा तस्य सस्य ধাঞ্জ দক্ষ वखा नस्य यस्य स्थाने स्थाने 12. माल माला पाङ्ग 20. 2. 3. 29. दुर्गाह दुर्गाय* लंलं ल ल ल ल ल ल ल लं °ति च 'दान' पार्श्व' लिच. °दानं परी करों करौ लौ' लो' यथा यदा 'णौद 3. 59. 2. 3. 130. 2. 3. 138. 2. 3. 248. 2. 3. 251. 2. 3. 271. 2. 3. 280. 2. 3. 341. 2. 3. 403. 2. 3. 513. 2. 3. 523. 2. 3. 541. 2. 3.565. 2. 3. 566. 2. 3.592. 2. 3. 69. ग्रिम प्रिमे कान्ति भुर्गो °मानं वि° पाण्ड कान्त भूगी 'मानवि पाण्ड वनं मिल वन्त मौल वि० * Ms. दुर्गार. Page #394 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 2.3.621. 2. 3. 642. 2.3.663. 2.3.668. 2.3.678. 2. 3. 680. 2. 3. 685. 2. 3. 697. 2. 3. 702. 2. 3. 705. 2. 3.707. 2.3.726. 2. 3. 730. 2.3.731. 2. 3. 778. 2. 3. 791. 2.3.791. 2. 3. 819. 2. 3. 880. 2. 3. 895. 2.4. 34. 2. 4. 54. 2. 4. 92. 2. 4. 93. 2. 4. IOI. 2. 4. III. 2. 4. 119. 2.4.120. 2. 4. 196. 2. 4. 202. 2.4.211. 2. 4. 229. 2. 4. 272. For क्रम याः य जाज °° डोम्बि राप्र मेष 'पि 'पुर 'द्रा मे 'नामि 'पा वि र 'यो राष्ये चि पर्य क्षेत्रे 'नौ र 'नो रथो °° 'गम: चिह्नानि 'मर्दा "च्या" व्यत्का को° ना प° मि मन्या Read सम° * "या इत्ये जङ्ग 'भा डोम्बि °° मेघ रुपौ 'सुर 'द्रामे° 'नादि 'पवि सर्व 'योराद्ये मा 'धिः पर्या प्रायः 'নীर" 'कौर' वीरपी 'क * Conjecture Two Mss. have नम ; one has आम. † Conjecture. 24 'गता ान हा OT न्यक्का° ० 'नाप वर्षन्ति 'मत्या 369 Page #395 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 370 For Read 2.4.338. 2. 4. 357. __ भी धू °षद दर्द 'नौधू स वंसं रई तकाम् तुकाम् लम्ब* 6. 23. हदि ः रादितः भुणा रौर 2. 6. 45. 45. 102. 2.6. 126. 2.6. 132. 2. 6. 162. 6. 179. गुणौ रौरि पुनः __°मा नू' सानू नुस्तं वं °पतिः 6. 187. ग० वं पता* 'ग 'यंप्रताः 'ज्योत्स्नो °यमस्ताः ज्योत्स्नौ ग्व ग्वधू 2. 6. I9I. 2. 6. 201. 2.6.228. 2.6. 260. 292. 300. 302. 2.6. 308. 2.6. 319. 6. 320. 2. 6. 360. 2. 6. 367. 2.6. 396. ܩ ܩ ܩ ܩ G चनेने वा 'यणेने भायां पृ. भाया पष्ट वा सं. देग्धि भोधि चासं दिग्धे सम् भौभि. शम् चामासा 2. 6. 410. नवा. विस् 2.6.481. 2. 6. 498. 2. 6. 510. 2. 6.526. 2. 6.538. चामा सा खया विस यषौदं लोप लाच वर्ति प्रा. न्यषौदं लोत लाच. बर्तिमा * Conjecture. Page #396 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 371 For Read बुद्धि °दिन्द्राणामा काठ कान्दवि °ष्यते घा .. रतच कृत्यप्र हो उडीचि दि 2.6.551. सुखे 2. 6.606. बुद्धिः 2. 6.633. ___ °ज्यते 2. 6.674. दद्रणिंचामा 2. 6.693. कार' 3. I. 31. कादम्बि 3. I. 62. प्यन्ते 3. I. 72. प्रा 3. I. I03. सतच 3. I. 106. कृत्य प्र. 3. I. II4. °द्यो' 3. I. 121. जर्मिवि 3.I. 148. 3. I. 163. नौ घो 3. I. I99. लज 3. I. 202. रे या 3. I. 228. छन्द 3. I. 233. या प० 3. I. 244. प्राज्यं प° 3. I. 279. र ने 3. I. 285. ____ भिमू 3. I. 289. 3. I. 31I. कर्पटे 3. I. 343. 3. I. 346. __°कलित 3. I. 368. मा न प 3. 2. 42. °ण्य नि भि. 2. 53. दंद्य 55. नौ कु नौधो लक्ष रेया पाप प्राज्यप रने भिर्मू पर्यव पर्यय कटे कल्पित °मानप पनि 2. 50. ب ب ب 60. 'नौक ب 3. 2. 62. भी थाप ب 2. 132. 3. 2. 139. 'था प° नियवे नौयते धर्मः .. 3. 2. 148. धर्म Page #397 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 372 For Read पूर्व मा र शौ ध्या बार शोध्या ب ب 3. 2. 153. 3. 2. 153. 3. 2. 169. 3. 9. 3. 38. 3. 3. Ior. 3. 3. 108. 3. 3. 123. 3. 3. 143. 3. 3. 192. 3. 3. 194. 3. 3. 218. 3.225. 3. 3. 229. निक भाव यदा न राजभिः हम् भा० 'यो नि निके भावा बदाज राबति हम्भा . ب सर्व चचर्य चर्चय. ب करा ب ب HAT चाम चारम विदि. विदा सम 3. 4. 97. 3. 4. 102. 3.4. I04. 3. 4. 104. 3. 4. 106. 3. 4. 114. 3.4.140. 3. 4. 173. 5. II. 5. 27. 5.70. 3.5. 103 3.5. 108. नाम वथा यं دب मतिः तिसा नित्य निसा ب ب 6. 24. पुर ب 6. 31. ب ب 6. 44. 6. 97. 3.6. 102. °रिक नौ पपि तौरपि ب Page #398 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 3. 6. 102. 3.7. 39. 3.7. 41. 3.7. 86. 3.7.107. 3.7.129. 3. 7. 148. 3. 8. 3.7. 90. संघगुरेषु 3.7. 95. दिद मित्या 14. 3. 8. 23. 3. 8. 63. 3. 8. 99. * Conjecture. For सवीं 'क्रौति "म श्टा समे तत्चचम् द्य किं सहचाचां Read चर्चा 'क्रोमो पाय सर्व सुरेषु "दिद मिथ्या स्पृष्टा सम्मे तत्कृतम् द्यत् किं नरेन्द्राचां* *° 373 Page #399 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS Abhici, 108. Abhinandana, previous incarnation as Mahabala of, 254 f.; parents of, 256 f.; birth of, 258; birth-rites of, 259; childhood of, 260; personal description of, 261; marriage of, 261; becomes king, 261; initiation of, 261; fast-breaking of, 262; omniscience of, 263; samavasaraṇa of, 263; śāsanadevatās of, 266; congregation of, 266; emancipation of, 267; age of, 267. Abhiyogikas (servant-gods), 39, 125, et passim. Abhiyogya (=yogika), 125. Acacia, 192. Acacia concinna, n. 59. Acyutā (śāsanadevatā), 301. Adharmikas, 295. aerial cars, description of, 39. Agnikumāras, 106, 221. Ahamindras, 21, 125. Ajita (sāsanadevatā), 334. Ajitabalā (śāsanadevatā), 130. Ajitanatha, previous incarnation as Vimalavahana of, 1 ff.; parents of, 28 ff.; conception of, 29 ff.; birth of, 36 f.; birth-rites of, 37 ff.; birth-ceremonies of, 45 ff.; birth-bath of, 55 ff.; celebration of gods at birth-bath, 57 ff.; name-giving festival, 65 f.; childhood of, 67 f.; personal description of, 72; marriage of, 73; rule of, 75 f.; initiation of, 81 ff.; fast-breaking of, 88; omniscience of, 91; samavasaraṇa of, 93; śāsanadevatās of, 130; congregation of, 219; emancipation of, 219 f.; age of, 220; funeral rites of, 221 f. Alaka (Kubera's city), 32. Alstonia scholaris, 91. Amaracala (Meru), 40. Amaravati, 2. Anagna, a wishing-tree, 62. Ananga, god of love, 38. Aṇapannikas, 55, n. 95. Andhras, 144. Angas, 101. Anikas, 125. animal-births, life in, 295 ff. Añjana Mountains, 6, 120. Antaradvipas, description of, 119. Page #400 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 375 antimony, 120, n. 256. ants, wings of, 300. Anuttaravimānas, life of god in, 26; names of, 124. Anuvelādhārins (ocean-gods), 115. Apātas, 150, 153 Aries, 327 Arindama, Sūri, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 20, 21. army, fourfold, 141. Aruna, continent and ocean, 123. Aruņābhāsa, continent and ocean, 123. Arya-countries, 117 f. asbestos, 11. 398. ascetics, food for, 228, n. 375. Asokā (sāsanadevatā), 348. aspects, 101. Aştāpada, description of, 169; moat around, 171 f. ; leading of Gangā into moat, 173 astronomy, books on, 194. Asuras, division of Bhavanavāsins, 2, 106. Atipāndukambalā, 51, 60, et passim. auspicious things, eight, 49. authority (pramāņa), 101. avagraha-space, 9, n. 20, 348. Āvali, story of, 164 f. Ayodhyā (Vinitā), 47, 255 f., et passim. Ayurveda, eightfold, 69, n. 118, 265. Bāhubali, 184. Bālarāma, n. 18. Balas, maximum and minimum number of, 123, n. 261. balls of stone shaken near ears, 44. bears' ears seized by Bhillas, 90, 348. bells of the heavens, names of, 52 ff. betel, 66. bhadra-elephants, 67. Bhadrilapura, 338. Bhagiratha, Gangā led by, 210 ff. ; installed as king, 214. Bhāgirathi (Gangā), 212. Bharaņi, 108. Bharata, 183; descendants of, 184. Bhāṣāryas, 118. Bhavanapatis, ten classes of and names of Indras, 106 f. Bhavanavāsins (=opati see above), 10 divisions of, 53 f. Page #401 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 376 INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS Bhogāvati, 2. Bhrkuți (śāsanadevatā), 322. birth-place (of Т.), 28, 232, 255, 277, 289, 305, 315, 325, 338. blocking channels of karma, 343 ff. bodies, symmetrical, 72, n. 138;-double-mortise-collar and pin, 72, n. 139. body, five parts of, 33. Bombax Malabaricum, 295. bones thrown into Gangā, origin of, 213. Brahmā (sāsanadevatā), 345. Brown, W. Norman, n. 104, buckets on a water-wheel, compared with people, 6. bulls, crystal, 60, 238, 259, 281, 306, 316, 326, 339. Caitra (March-April), 35. caitya-tree, 94, n. 197, 11. 218, 247, 284, 293. cakoras, 327 Cakrins, maximum and minimum number of, 123, n. 261. camp of Cakravartin, 140. candāla, touch of, 14. Candrānana (T.), 121, n. 258. Candrānana, city, 315. Candrapabha, previous incarnation as Padma of, 314 ; parents of, 315; birth of, 316 ; birth-rites of, 316; childhood of, 317; initiation of, 318; omniscience of, 319; samavasarana of, 319; śāsanadevatās of, 322 ; congregation of, 322 f.; emancipation of, 323 ; age of, 323. Capricorn, 98, 11. 209. carefulness, five kinds of, 218. castor-bean plant, 336, n. 472. celebration by people, 63 f. channels of the body, 321, n. 454. channels of karma, 330 ff. Chedasūtras, n. 224. Citrānga, a wishing-tree, 62. city filled with jewels, 31. - new houses, 31. cloth purified by fire, 255. Cocculus cordifolius, n. 84. cognizance, see lāñchana. collyrium, 98, n. 211. color (of Т.), 234, 258, 281, 290, 306, 316, 326, 339. congregation, extinction of, 335 f. congregation, founding of, 128. Page #402 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 377 congregation (of Т.), 219, 252, 266, 286, 302, 312, 322, 334, 345. conquest, expedition of of Bharatavarşa, 139 ff. cooks, 160, n. 317, 348. coronation of a king, 17. Corypha taliera, n. 68. couch, description of, 31. couch of lotuses, 290; of serpents, 306. courtesy, characteristics of, 211. cowhage, 177. cowrie-jewel gives light, 150. crane and thunder, 271. cuckoo, 281. cymbal, 226. Dadhimukha Mountains, 63, 122. Death, 5. death, inevitability of, 179 ff.; various causes of, 229. debt, compared with karma, 5. deer, love of music of, 51, n. 89. deterioration of god's powers, 27, n. 57. Devakurus, 112. Dhanada (Kubera), 31. Dhara, father of Padmaprabha, 289. dharma, fourfold, 99. dharmadhyāna, result of, 127 f.; sermon on, too ff. Dhātakikhanda, description of, 115. Dhūmaprabhā, 105. difficulties (apāya), 101. Dikkumāris, perform birth-rites, 37 ff.; description of, 37 f.; names of fifty-six, 39 ff. ; 235, 259, 281, 291, 306, 316, 326, 339. diseases, various, 229. disgust with the world, cause of, 9 ff. doll on a wheel, 71, n. 134. dramatic styles, four kinds of, 69. Dravidas, 144. Drąharatha, father of Sitalanatha, 338. dreams, the fourteen, 29 f., 34, 233, 258; interpretation of, 34 ff. dreams, science of, 35. Duritāri (śāsanadevatā), 252. Eight auspicious things, 49. eight karmas, 103 ff. eight-day festival, 32, 63. Page #403 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 378 INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS eightfold Ayurveda, 69, n. 118. eightfold pūjā, 272, n. 411, 305. eighteen guilds, 160. nts, bhadra, 67; characteristics of, 69; states of mada of, 69, n. 122 ; crushed by sarabhas, 90 ; tusks split by moonlight, 350. emancipation (of Т.), 81, 252, 267, 287, 302, 313, 323, 335, 346, emerald and smoke compared, 94, n. 196. emotions, 337 enemies, internal, 3, n. 8, 18. equinox, vernal, n. 460. execution-rock, 178, n. 338. existence, three aims of, 3, n. 6, 5. Famine, description of, 226 ff. fast to obtain a son, 270. faults, three, Ioo. faults, 42 of alms, 21, n. 39. festival, name-giving, 65. fields, seven, 226. fifth gait of a horse, 158. fingers in mouths, 265. fire, ordeal by, 135 f. five kinds of carefulness, 218. five kinds of negligence, 344, n. 475. five gaits of horses, 71, n. 133. five nurses, 66. five parts of body, 33. five Supreme Ones, 28. five trees of paradise, n. 445. five-colored flowers, 235. fivefold, Indras become, 50, 237, 238, 259. foods, various, 228. four dramatic styles, 69. four infinities, 220. four kinds of musical instruments, 69. four means, 69, n. 116, 141 (expedients), 254. four modes of conveying pleasure, 69. four substances, 123. fourfold army, 141. fourfold dharma, 99, 254. fourfold meditation, 100 ff. fourfold rules (vows), 218, n. 358, 245. fourfold singing, 325. Page #404 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 379 friendliness, 330. futility, examples of, 188 ; 192. Gaganavallabha, city, 159. gaits of the gods, 40, n. 73. gaits of horses, five, 71, n. 133. ganabhrts, 128, 251, 265, 286, 301, 311, 322, 334, 345. Gangā, conquest of, 154 f.; northern district of -- conquered, 155 ; southern district of — conquered, 156.; led to Eastern Ocean, 210. Gangāsāgara, origin of name, 212. Garcinia xanthochymus, n. 422. garden, description of, 10. Garuda, 7. gem-jewel gives light, 150, 152. general of the Cakravartin, description of, 148. generals of the Indras, names of, 51 ff. gestures, avoidance of, 22. Ghanavāhana (Vidyādhara), 163 f. Ghịtavara, continent and ocean, 120. Ghịtoda, 123, 228. goddesses, where born, 126. gods, joyful antics of, 57; characteristics of, 126; term of life of, 126; marriage of, 127; do not wink, 291 ; life of, 299 ff. gold-leaf, 61, n. 104. good conduct, eighteen thousand kinds of, 276. grain, seventeen kinds of, 32, n. 63. Graiveyakas, 124. gram, 32, n. 63, 228. grammar, rule in, 178, n. 337. grape vines, I0. guilds, eighteen, 16o. Hāhā, 241. hand used as bowl, 246, n. 390. harsa-pattern, 221. Hari (Sakra), 47. Hari (Vāsudeva), 35. Hastimalla, II. heavens, the twelve, 124 ff.; palaces of, 125 f. ; gods of, 125 f. ; birth in, 126. hell-inhabitants, life of, 294 f. hells, 105; description of, 294 f. Hibiscus mutabalis, n. 141. Page #405 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 380 INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS honey, forbidden, n. 147. horses, characteristics of, 69, n. 124. Hūhū, 241. humans, life of, 298 f. Iksuvara, continent and ocean, 120. Ikşvāku, a family, 28 ff., 232. impossibilities, examples of, 196. indigo-dye, symbol of firmness, 226. Indras, 125. Indras, names of sixty-four, 51 ff., 105 ff., 237. infinities, four, 220. initiation, arguments for and against, 275 f. insolence, characteristics of, 210. interval between Ts, 220, 253, 267, 287, 303, 313, 323, 335, 346. islands, of the Moon, 115 ; of the Sun, 115; the Antaradvipas, 119. Isvākāra Mts., 15. Jahnu, 166, 172 ff. Jambhāri (Sakra), 320. Jambhavidviş (Indra), 98. Jambūdvipa, description of, 110 ff.; zones of, 110; mountain-ranges of, 110; lakes of, III; rivers of, III ; mountains of, 112, 113; wall of, 113, 207. jasmine, n. 59. Jātyāryas, 118. Jayantavijaya, Muni, n. 18, n. 326, n. 346, n. 347, n. 351, n. 375, 349. jewels (of the Cakravartin), 139. Jitāri, father of Sambhava, 232. Jitaśatru, father of Ajitanātha, 28 ff.; initiation of, 73. Jşmbhakas (gods), 62, 80, 242, 261, 292. Jvalanaprabha, Nāga-king, 172 ff. ; 211 ff. Jyotişkas, 33, 107 ff. Kacchas, 144. Kaišiki, 284. Kākandi, 325. Kālikā, 266. Kāloda (ocean), 115. Kamalā (Śrī), 29. Kandarpa (god of love), 20. karma, compared with a debt, 5. karma, destructive, 92. Page #406 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 381 karma, eight kinds of, 103 ff.; sources of the - , 330 ff. karma, fruit of (vipäka), 102. karma prolonging existence, 267. Karmāryas, 118. Kauňkaņas, 144. Kaušāmbi, 289. Khandaprapātā, conquest of, 155 ; march through, 156. Kilbişikas, 125. king, duties of, 18; awakened by conch, 52, 347. king's retinue, description of, 6. kings, twelvefold circle of, 226. Kinnaras, 186. Kirātas, 150 ff. knife-science, 71, n. 137. knowledge, fourth, arises at initiation, 86, 244, 262, 283, 308, 319, 342. knowledge, three kinds of, 68, 71, n. 131. Kstamāla, 147. Kștānta, 249. Kșemapuri, 225, 304. Kșiravara, ocean and continent, 120. Ksudrahimavat, 154. Kulāryas, 118. Kundala, continent and ocean, 123. kuśa-grass, symbol of uncertainty, 4, 140, 177, 209, 250, 351. Kusuma (sāsanadevatā), 301. Laksmanā, mother of Candraprabha, 315. Laksmi, characterization of, 17. lāñchana (of Т.), 37, 234, 258, 281, 290, 306, 326, 339; of Bhavanapatis, 106; of Vyantaras, 107. Lankā, 165. Lāțas, 144. Lavaņoda, description of, 113 ff. ; crest of, 113, n. 246. layman's duty, twelvefold, 226. Lokāntikas (gods), 77, et passim. Lokapālas, 125. lotus, eight-petaled, 346, n. 481. lotus, night-blooming, 2. - varieties of, 56. lotuses, nine golden, 95, 248, 263, 320. Lower World, description of, 105 ff. Mada, sevenfold streams of, 140. Page #407 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 382 Madhu (March-April), 32. Magadha, tirtha, 56. Magadhatirtha, 139 ff.; prince of, 141. Magha (Jan.-Feb.), 37. magic, stories illustrating skill in, 190-208. Mahabala, incarnation of Abhinandana as, 254 f. Mahākāli (śāsanadevatā), 286. INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS Mahāpadma, incarnation of Suvidhinātha as, 324. Mahārāṣṭras, 144. Mahasena, father of Candraprabha, 315. Mahātamaḥprabhā, 105. Mahāyakṣā (śāsanadevatā), 130. maina, 18. Mālava, 284. Malaya, country, 4. Manasa, lake, 53, 326, n. 459. Māṇavaka (name of pillars), 221. Mangalā, mother of Sumatinatha, 278. Manmatha, 14. Manuṣottara (mountain-range), 116. Manuşyaloka, n. 456; people of, 117. Manyanga, a wishing-tree, 62. Māra, 15. Mātanga (śāsanadevatā), 312. means, six (sadguna), 13, n. 26. meditation, fourfold, 100 ff. meditation, painful and evil, 226. Megha, father of Sumatinatha, 277. Meghamukhas (Nagakumāras), 151. Meghavadanas, 152 Meghamukhas, q.v. Meghavahana Ghanavahana, q.v. mendicancy, hardships of, 275. Meru, description of, 109 ff.; small ones, 116. Middle World, description of, 109 ff. milk used in garden, 85, 348. miraculous signs, 284. Mlecchas enumerated, 119; conquest of, 148. modes of conveying pleasure, four, 69. money distributed, 80, 242, 262, 283, 292, 308, 318, 328, 340. moon, of the second day, 157. moons, number of, 108; retinue of, 108; cars of, 108; servant-gods of, 109; of Manuṣottara, 109; draught animals of, 109. moon-stones, 256, 306. Page #408 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 383 mothers, eight, 22, n. 44. Mrgaśiras, 220. mouth-cloth, 9, n. 19. Mūla, 108. mūlaguņas, 6, n. 16. Mülasūtras, n. 224. musical instruments, four kinds of, 69. myrobalan, 31, n. 62. Nāga's houses, destruction of, 172. Naigameşin, 75. Nandā, mother of Sitalanātha, 338. Nandisena, incarnation of Supārsvanātha as, 304. Nandiśvara, continent, description of, 120 ff.; mountains of, 120 f.; lakes of, 121 f. ; gardens of, 121 f. ; palaces on, 122. Nandiśvara (ocean), 123. negligence, five kinds of, 344, n. 475. Nimagnā, 150. Nandana, garden, 6. Naravāhana (Kubera), 19. nectar in thumbs of Arhats, 67, 239, 260, 307. nidāna, n. 29. nine treasures, conquest of, 156. nurses of T., five, 66. Nyctanthes arbor tristis, 317, Oblation, description of, 128. oceans, composition of the various, 123. omens, unfavorable, 167, 187; eight divisions of, 193. ornaments, collection of, 147. Padma, incarnation of Candraprabha as, 314. Padmaprabha, previous incarnation as Aparājita, 288 f.; parents of, 289; birth of, 290 ; birth-ceremonies of, 291 ; youth of, 291 ; initiation of, 292 ; omniscience of, 292 ; samavasaraña of, 293 ; śāsanadevatās of, 30; congregation of, 302; emancipation of, 302 ; age of, 302. Pākaśāsana (Sakra), 46. palaces of Iśāna's queens enumerated, 122 ; of Sakra's queens, 122. Pālaka, Sakra's car, description of, 47. Parkaprabhā, 105. paradise, five trees of, n. 445. Paramadhārmika, 247, n. 391. Page #409 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 384 parentage, story of disputed, 278 ff. parents (of T.), 28, 29, 232, 233, 256, 257, 277, 278, 289, 290, 305, 306, INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 315, 325, 338. Pāriṣadyas, gods, 51. Pārṣadyas, 125-Päriṣadyas, above. pastries, 228, n. 379. Pātālalankā, 165. Pātāla-vessels, 114; gods of, 114. Patanjali, n. 18. pavilion of śrivalli, 28, n. 59. peacocks, delighted by clouds, 16. pearl-oyster, rain-water in, 4, n. 10. pearls from clouds, 243. penances, 25, n. 51, 324. Pisacas, 186. Piśāci, 212. plagues of the seasons, 96. plant bodies, ten kinds of, 296, n. 440. plantain, 249. plantain-houses, 43. postures of meditation, 7 ff., n. 18. potter, story of the, 213 ff. power, regal, 69, n. 117. Prabhasatirtha, conquest of, 144; prince of, 145. Prācinabarhis (Śakra), 61. Prākīrņas, 101, 125. Pratistha, father of Suparśvanatha, 305. pregnancy-whim, 290, 317, 327. pride, sources of, 76, n. 149, 225, 274 Principles, Fundamental, 288. Pṛthvi, mother of Supārsvanatha, 305. pūjā, eightfold, 272, n. 411. Pundarikini, 324. Purandara (Sakra), 36. purity, means of, 321. Pūrṇamegha, Vidyadhara, 159. Puruşasinha, incarnation of Sumatinatha as, 268 ff. Puşkaradvipa, 116. Puşkara Ocean, 120. Puşkarāvarta, clouds, 62. Puspadanta (=Suvidhinātha), 324, 327. Puspaka, aerial car, 19. Page #410 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 385 Rādha (April-May), 29 ff. Rāhu, 133, 201. Raksakas, 125. Räksasi, 17. Rāmā, mother of Suvidhinātha, 325. Rasätala, 212. Ratikara mountains, 122. Ratnagiri (mountain of jewels), 30. Ratnaprabhā, 105, 348. Ratnaśaila, mountain, 38. Ratnasañcayā, 254, 314. Raudras, go. regal powers (three), 254. Revanta, 168. rhinoceros, 91, n. 178. rice-pudding, 88, n. 171. right-belief, five characteristics of, 134; five ornaments of, 134 ; five faults of, 134. rite, propitiatory, 168. Rohana, Mt., 289. Rohini, 233. Rohiņi (constellation), 29 ff., 37. rôles, thirty-two, 57. Rşabha, 121, 183. Rşabhakuţa, 154. Rucaka, 104, n. 235. Rucaka, continent and ocean, 123. Sagara, birth of, 63; childhood of, 67 f.; description of, 72 ; marriage of, 73; coronation of -as king, 79 f.; conquest of Bharatavarşa by, 137 ff.; territories of, 157 ; return to Vinītā, 157 ff. ; coronation of-- as cakravartin, 161 ff. ; sixty thousand sons of, 166 ; grief over their death 187 f.; disgust with existence of, 209; initiation of, 215 ff.; departure-festival of, 217;omniscience of, 218; emancipation of, 220. Sagara's sons, 166 ff.; departure of, 168 ; visit to Aștāpada, 170; dig a moat, 171 f.; destroy Nāgas' houses, 172; killed by Nāga, 175; grief of retinue over, 176 ff. ; bones thrown into Gangā, 213; reasons for death of, 213 ff. Sahasrākṣa (Sakra), 50, et passim. Sahasrāksa, 163=Sahasranayana, q.v. Sahasrāmravana (garden), description of, 84 f. Sahasranayaņa (Vidyādhara), story of, 163 ff. sakrastava, 31, n. 61, 46, 60, 215. 25 Page #411 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 386 INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS J . Sāmānika (god), 21, 51, 125. Samavartin, 184, 249. samavasaraņa, building of, 92 f., 247, 263, 283, 293, 309, 319, 329, 342. Sambhava, 240. Sambhava, previous incarnation of, 225 ff. ; parents of, 232; birth of, 233 ; birth-rites of, 235; birth-bath of, 236 f.; childhood of, 240 ; personal description of, 240; marriage of, 241 ; becomes king, 241; initiation of, 242; fast-breaking of, 245; omniscience of, 246; śāsanadevatās of, 251; congregation of, 252 ; emancipation of, 252 ; age of, 253 samlekhanās, two, 26. Sammeta, Mt., 323. samsāra, sermon on, 4 ff. Saṁvara, 199, n. 348. Samvara, father of Abhinandana, 256. sandal-wood, fire from, 44. sand-piper, 317. Śankhapura, 268. Sankrandana (Sakra), 49. śāntādevi (śāsanadevatā), 312. Sārasvatas, (gods), 77, et passim. Sarasvati, goddess of learning, 29, 192. Sarkarāprabhā, 105. Sarvārthasiddha, palace, 28, n. 58. Sarvārthasiddhi, 327. śāsanadevatās, 130, 251, 266, 286, 301, 312, 322, 334, 345. Śaśin, story of, 164 f. Satamakha (Sakra), 46. sati, instance of, 204 f. Satum, 251. Schubring, Prof., n. 303, 349. science, triple, 191, n. 345. seasons, six, n. 287. seats, three kinds of, 66 f. seemnul tree, 295. Senādevi, mother of Sambhava, 233. separateness of soul and body, 311. sermon, 20; on dharmadhyāna, 100 ff.; on impermanence of objects, 249 ff.; on saṁsāra, 264 f. ; on yatidharma, 274 f.; on aloneness of soul, 285; on the four gatis, 294 ; on distinction between body and soul, 311 ; on impurity of the body, 321 f.; on the āśravas, 330 ff.; on samvara, 343 ff. serpent, guarding nectar, 4, n. 10; guardian of treasure, 234 n. Page #412 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS - 387 serpent of Supārsvanātha, 309. Śeșa, 277. seven fields, 226. sevenfold streams of mada, 140, n. 292. shade, of a vibhitaka, 13, 11. 25; of a palm tree, 14, n. 27. Siddhārthā, mother of Abhinandana, 257. Siddhasilā, 124. Śilpāryas, 118. Sindhu, conquest of, 145;- southern district of, 147 ;--north district of, 153 singing, fourfold, 325. Sinhanisadyā, 169, 170. Sirin (Balabhadra), 35. Sītā, river, I. Sitalanātha, previous incarnation as Padmottara of, 337 ; parents of, 338 ; birth of, 339; birth-rites of, 339 ; youth of, 340; initiation of, 341 ; omniscience of, 342 ; samavasaraṇa of, 342 ; śāsanadevatās of, 345 ; congregation of, 345 ; emancipation of, 346 ; age of, 346. six means (policies), 13, n. 26, 69, n. 115. skin-jewel, properties of, 152. smelling head, 68, 214, 347. smelting, 296, n. 439. Solomon's judgment, 278 ff., 349. soul-colors, 127, n. 267, 332. speech, thirty-five supernatural qualities of, 286, 294. Sphatikaśaila, 233. spider, web of, 5, n. 14. Sravaņa, 242. Srāvasti, 232. Sri, characterization of, 17. statues of Arhats, 169 f. steps, three, 128, et passim. sthānakas, 24 ff., et passim. stuti, 59, 60, 86 f., 87 f., 96 f., 98 f., 171 f., 216, 238, 245, 259, 263, 282, 284, 291, 293, 306, 310, 316, 320, 327, 329, 339, 343. substances, four, 123. Sudarśana, the cakra-jewel, description of, 137 ; worship of, 137 f.; acts as guide, 139 ff. Sudarsanā, queen, grieves over childlessness, 268 ff. Suddhabhatta, story of, 131 ff. Sudharmā, assembly-hall, 45, 221. sugar-cane, I. Sughoşā, bell, 46. Page #413 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 388 Sugriva, father of Suvidhinatha, 325. Sukeśā, woman-jewel, 159. Sulakṣanā, story of, 131 ff. Sulocana (Vidyadhara), 159, 163 ff. Sumatinatha, previous incarnation as Puruşasinha of, 268 ff.; his parents, 277 f.; birth of, 281 f.; birth-rites, 281; personal description of, 282; initiation of, 283; omniscience of, 283; ganabhṛts of, 286; śāsanadevatās of, 286; congregation of, 286; emancipation of, 287; age of, 287. INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS Sumitravijaya, prince, 29 ff. sun, worship of newly risen, 17, n. 32. suns, number of, 108; cars of, 108; servant-gods of, 109; of Manuṣottara, 109. Sunasira (Sakra), 30, 46. Supārśvanātha, previous incarnation as Nandiṣena of, 304; parents of, 305, birth of, 306; birth-rites of, 306; childhood of, 307; initiation of, 308; omniscience of, 309; samavasaraṇa of, 309; congregation of, 312; śāsanadevatās of, 312; emancipation of, 313; age of, 313. Supreme Ones, five, 26. Surāṣṭras, 144. Susīmā (city), 2, 288, 337. Susīmā, mother of Padmaprabha, 290. Sutārā (śāsanadevatā), 334. Sutrāman, 3. Sutras, n. 224. Suvidhinatha, previous incarnation as Mahāpadma of, 324; parents of, 325; birth of, 326; birth-rites of, 326; youth of, 327; initiation of, 328; omniscience of, 328 f.; samavasaraṇa of, 329; śāsanadevatās of, 334; congregation of, 334; emancipation of, 335: age of, 335. Svāti, 108. Svayambhuramaņa, ocean, 123, et passim. Syadvāda, 68, 101, 171. Tamaḥprabhā, 105. Tamisră, conquest of, 146; passage through, 149. Tāmraparni, 305. Tattvas, 488. teeth, Ajita's divided, and worshipped, 221. ten kinds of plant bodies, 296, n. 440. Terminalia bellerica, n. 25. - Thick Waters, 105. Thick Winds, 105. Page #414 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 389 Thin Winds, 105. thirty-two dramatic roles, 57. --- crores of gold, 62. -- seats and thrones, 62. three aims of existence, 3, n. 6, 5. controls, 71, n. 132, 218. - faults, Ioo. --- kinds of knowledge, 68, 71, n. 131. --- steps, 128. time, six divisions of, n. 1. Tirthakrts, maximum and minimum number of, 123, n. 261. Tiryagjțmbhakas, 80. towns, different kinds of, 21. transformation, powers of, 40. Trāyastrirśas, gods, 51, 125. treasures, nine, 156. trees, names of, 10 ; of paradise, n. 445 ; as cognizances of Vyantaras, 107. trials, the twenty-two, 22 ff. Tribulus lanuginosus, n. 22. Tricosanthes, n. 334, n. 412. Trikalingas, 144. Trikūta, 165. Trimukha (śāsanadevatā), 252. Tringa goensis, 317 Tumburu, 286. twelvefold layman's duty, 226;- circle of kings, 226. twins, 2. Uccaiḥśravas, (prototype of horses), 63. umbrella-jewel, properties of, 152. Unmagnā, 150. Upāngas, 101. Upper World, description of, 124 ff. uttaraguņas, 6, n. 16. Uttarakurus, 112. Vaijayanti, queen, 33 ff. Vaiśravaņa (Kubera), 62. Vaitādhya, Mt., description of, 113. Vajrin (Sakra), 49. Vālukāprabhā, 105. Varadāmatirtha, conquest of, 142 ff. Vārāṇasi, 305. Page #415 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 390 INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS Vardhamāna, 121. Varişena, 121, n. 258. Värunivara, ocean and continent, 120. Vatsa, province, description of, 1. Vāyukumārakas, 67, 221. Vedas, 35, n. 67. Velādhāras, 168. Velādhārins (ocean-gods), n. 208, 114, 340. Vidarbhas, 144. Videhakşetra, I, n. 1. Vidyadharas, conquest of, 155. Vijaya (heavenly palace), 20. Vijayā, queen, mother of Ajitanātha, 29 ff.; served by goddesses, 36 ; no birth-pains of, 37. Vijaya (śāsanadevatā), 322. Vimala (Vimalavāhana), 29. Vimalavāhana, king, description of, 3 ; initiation of, 18 ff. Vinītā (=Ayodhyā, q.v.), 28 ff., 157, 277 ; reception of Sagara by, 160. Vipulā (nun), 132 ff. Vipulavāhana, incarnation of Sambhava, 225 f., 233. Virāța (country), 214. Vişņus, maximum and minimum number of, 123, n. 261. Viśvakarman, 192. vows, fourfold, 218, n. 358, 245. Vyantaras, eight classes above Ratnaprabhā and their Indras, 55, 107; eight classes in Ratnaprabhā and their Indras, 56, 107 f. Wasted effort, n. 307. weapons, enumerated, 69-70, n. 125-130. wind, thick and thin, 13. - symbol of strength, 63, 254, n. 396. woman-jewel, winning of, 158 ff. Yaksa (Kubera), 32. Yakşeśvara, 266. Yama, 5. Yaśomāli, queen, 33. yatidharma, 274 f. yoga, eight divisions of, 264, n. 405. yoke-pin, compared with the soul, 5, n. 15, 299. Page #416 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX OF SANSKRIT AND PRAKRIT WORDS Akarmabhumi, 102, 102 n. Āgama, 100. acamana, 83 n. ācārya, 336. akiñcanatā, 274. anka, 40. anga, 194 n, 266, 287. ajiva, 132. ājñā, 100, 101. ajñāvicaya, IOI. āḍhaki, 33 n. ättavela, 89, 348. antarikṣa, 194 n. āmrakubja (āsana), 8, 8 n. ayuşkarma, 220 n. añjana, 40. aḍad, 32 n. anava, 32 n. anua, 32 n. atiriktam, 16 n. atireka, 16 n. atiśaya, 59 n, 99 n, 130. adharmika, 295. adhikaranigrantha, 193 n. anivṛttibādara, 92. anivṛttibādarasamparāya, 92 n. aniścita, 14 n. antarmuhurta, 126. apaya, 100, 101, 102, 330 n. apūrvakaraṇa, 92, 329. apramatta, 345. apramattasamyata, 91. abhayada, 130, 302. abhigraha, 91 n. amṛtavalli, 49 n. ambaṣṭha, 191. ayogikevalaguṇasthāna, 345. arka, 85, 229, 351. arjaka, 62, 351. artha, 3 n. arbuda, 230. avagraha, 9, 348. avadhi (jñāna), IOI n, 103. aśoka, 10, 84, 131, 203, 284, 351. aṣṭādhikaranigrantha, 193 n. asipattra, 295. asura, 163, 211, 341. ahigaraṇa, 193 n. alingipuṣkara, 48. alingimṛdanga, 48 n. avali, 126 n. asrava, 330 ff., 343. āhāraka, 72. Indrakuñjara, 139. indradhvaja, 95. Iryasamiti, 290 n. Ukṣan (āsana), 8 n, 9. uggaha, 9 n. urad, 32 n, 228 n. utkaṭikā, 7, 7 n. uttaragunas, 6, 332. uttaravaikriya, 26, 26 n, 49. uttarasanga, 31. utpāta, 193 n. uddhutā, 40 n, 347. upagrāhikarma, 267 n. upasarga, 78 n. upāya, 140. uvaggaha, 267 n. uṣṭra (āsana), 8, 8 n. Ekatvaśruta, 92. ekāvali, 25, 25, 255, 324. eraṇḍa, 336 n. Page #417 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 392 INDEX OF SANSKRIT AND PRAKRIT WORDS Khagga, 91 n. khājā, 228 n. Kangu, 32 n. kaņaya, 70 n. kadamba, Io. kanakāvali, 25, 25 n. kapālikarana (āsana), 8, 8 n. kapikacchū, 177 n. kampana, 69. karana, 161 n. karandaka, 237 n. karma, 73, 103 ff., 213, 229, 330 Gaņa, 129. ganadhara, 129, et passim, 218, 266. gaṇabhrt, 129, et passim, 251, 265, 286, 311, 322, 334, 345. gati, 265, 294. gandharvānika, 49 n. garuda, 131, 163. galla, 40. gavyūta(i), 94, 94 n, 106, 113, 114. gāndhāra, 81. gita, 325 n. guna, 19 n, 22. gunasthāna, 91, 92, 283, 345. gupti, 22 n, 274. gupyadguru, n. 21, 347. godohikā, 7 n, 8. godhūma, 32 n. gophaņa, 70 n. gorocanā, 37 n. goșirşa, 44, 243, 351. grāmarāga, 284. karma (ārya), 117, 118. karmabhūmi, 117 n. kalāya, 33 n. kalpadruma, 301. kalpātīta, 88. kalyāṇa, 171, 239, 243, 307. kāma, 3 n. kāyotsarga, 8 n, 9, 22, 90, 274 n. kinnara, 39. kimpāka, 176, 273. kunthu, 185, 297. kumuda, 2 n. kumbhika, 48. kurubaka, 84. kula (ārya), 117, 118, kulattha, 33 n. kuśa, 4, 85, 140, 176, 209, 250, 351. ketaki, ro, 84, 351. kevala (jñāna), 101 n, 103. kevalin, 266, 323. kevalisamudghāta, 220 n. kesara, 1o. kodrava, 32 n. kos, 108, 293. kramavistȚti, 113 n. krauñca (āsana), 8, 8 n. kşatriya, 190. kşapakaśreņi, 92 n, 329. kşānti, 274. kşiņamoha, 92, 345. kşetra (ārya), 117, 118. Ghātikarma, 92 n, 219. ghi, 22I. Cakora, 327 cakra, 136 ff., 322. cakravartin, 74, 161. cakravāka, 38. caņaka, 32 n. candāla 14, 196. caturvịtti, 69 n. campaka, 10. cātaka, 132. caugāna, 8 n. cāujātaka, 123 n. Chadmastha, 24, 329 n. chekā, 40 n, 347. Page #418 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX OF SANSKRIT AND PRAKRIT WORDS 393 Jantu, 21 n. | dharmacakrin, 74. jalavājin, 144. dharmadhyāna, 91 n, 100, 100 n. jāti (ārya), 117, 118. dharmalābha, 273. jiva, 24, 132, 164, 233, 258, 278, dhānya, 32 n. 339. juvāra, 32 n. Nandyāvarta, 58. jyotirasa, 40. namaskāra, 86. naya, IOI n. Jhallari, 79 n, 104, 104 n. nayapramāna, 171 n. naraśatodvāhyā, 19. Tațoharā, 317 n. nāgakesara, Io. țițihari, 317 n. nāgadamanī, 143. tittibha, 316, 317 n. nātyānika, 49 n. nānātvaśrutavicāra, 92. Tattva, 288. nidāna, 14 n, 307. nimittaśāstra, 193 n. tapas, 274. tamāla, 10, 277. nirvāṇa, 282, 287, 335. tärkşya (asana), 8, 8 n. nirvāņakalyāṇa, 303. tithi, 161 n. nivștti, 348. tila, 32 n. niskuţa, 147 n, 148. tilaka, 17, 47, 81, 82, 83, 90, 97, Pañcadhāi, 67 n. 140, 147. tirtha, 79, 161, 253. pattiņa, 70. tirthakrtkarma, 24. padma, 7, 7 n. tirthakrtnāmakarma, 96, 232. paramānna, 88. tripuța (°i), 33 n. parişaha, 22 n, 78 n. parokşa, 24 n, 101 n, 299. Daņda (āsana), 8, 8 n. parpața, 228 n. dandapadma (āsana), 8, 8 n. paryanka, 8, 8 n, 220. dattagupyadgurum, io n. palya, III. darbha, 144. palyopama, 4, 126. darśanāvaraniya, 103 n. pādagati, 71. dipakamalli, 48 n. pādapopagama, 219, 220, 252, 349. duhşamasuşamā, 1. pāpada, 228 n. duhsphota, 70. pārijāta, 300. dūrvā, 34, 35, 43, 89, 351. punnāga, 10, 352. devadūşya, 39, 82, 142, 146, 162, pulaka, 40. 192, 243, 244, 341. pūjā, 89, 137, 138, 238, 272, 272 n, deśavirati, 345. 305, 336, dravyasamvara, 343. pūtara, 297 pūrva (14), 252, 266, 286, 319. Dharma, 3 n, 99, 226. pūrva, 219, 220, 242, 253, 266, dharmacakra, 98 n. 287 Page #419 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 394 INDEX OF SANSKRIT AND PRAKRIT WORDS pūrvānga, 220, 242, 253. pausadha, 140 ff. prakirnaka, 211 n. pratimā, 91, 246, 255, 275, 292, 315, 328. pratilekhanā, 21 n. pratyakşa, IOI n, 299. pratyāhāra, 128. pramāņa, IOI n. pramāda, 344 n. praśāntamoha, 345. prastha, 129. prākāra, 61 n. prātihārya, 284 n. prāsuka, 89 n. priyangu, 32 n, 283, 352. priyāla, 263, 352. mada, 2, 75, 140, 167, 344 n. madya, 344 n. manahparyaya, 86. manahparyāya (jñāna), 101 1, 103. mandāra, 300. mayuşthaka, 32 n. marāla, 322. marmarāla, 228, 228 n. malli, 48 n. mallikā, 48 n. masūra, 32 n. mahattarā, 39, 39 n. mahātandra, 177 n. mahāprāna, 209. mahābala, 254. mahāvrata, 218 n. māgadha, 191. mārdava, 274. mālūra, 328, 352. māşa, 32 n, 228 n. mudga, 32 n. muraja, 104, 104 n. muhūrta, 126. mūng, 32 n. mūlaguņa, 6, 332. maina, 18. mokşa, 73, 285 f. Bakula, 84, 351. balākā, 271 n. bimba, 72, 351. brahma, 274 brāhman, 190. Bhanga, 33 n. bhadra (āsana), 8, 8 n. bhadra (elephant), 67, 140, 290. bhavadhāranīya, 26 n. bhavya, 131. bhămandala, 284 n. bhāvasamvara, 344. bhāṣā (ārya), 117, 118. bhindipāla, 69 n. bhujangavsndāraka, 338 n. bhuşandhi, 70. bhūta, 214. bhogabhūmi, 102, 102 n. bhauma, 193 n. Yatanā, 40 n, 347. yatidharma, 273. yatnā, 40 n, 347. yava, 32 n. yavanāla, 32 n. yoga, 161, 264. yogapattaka, 8 n. yojana, 93, 96, 108, 235. yojanāmbole, 349. Mag, 32 n. maņďaka, 228 n. maņņikā, 228 n. mati (jñāna), IOI n, 103. Rajju, 105, 127. ratnāvali, 25, 25 n, 255. rājapiņda, 228 n. rājahansa, 15, 68. rājahansi, 38, 326, 338. Page #420 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INDEX OF SANSKRIT AND PRAKRIT WORDS rājādana, 85, 352. rādhāveda, 71 n. rāsaka, 58, 58 n. riṣṭa, 40. rūkṣa, 349. rūpadheyāntara, 49 n. Lakṣaṇa, 194 n. lakṣadipa, 350. lavali, 10. lāvaṇya, 315 n. lesyä, 127, 332 n. lohitākṣa, 40, 137. Vajra, 7 n, 8. vanaspati, 296. varada, 130, 302. valgulikā (āsana), 8, 8 n. vicāra, 92 n. vicchitti, 61 n. vidya, 257. vinaya, 274 n. vipāka, 100, 102. vibhitaka, 13. vistṛti, 113 n. vicāra, 92 n. vira, 7 n, 8. virāsana, 348. vetalasana, 8 n. vedaniyakarma, 220 n. vedikā, 336 n. vaikriya (body), 97. vaikriyalabdhi, 287. vaikriyasamudghāta, 39, 41, 41 п, 56 n, 235. vaiśākha, 104. vaisya, 190. vyañjana, 194 n. vyutsarga, 274. vrata, 332 n. vrihi, 32 n. Sakti, 69 n. śakradhvaja, 95. śana, 33 n. śatapattṛa, 56. samba, 240. sambi, śimbi, 347. sarabha, 39, 90, 153. śāla, 246, 351. śāli, 33 n. śāsanadevatā, 130, 251, 286, 312, 334. śăstra, 196, 336. śikhā, 113 n. śirīṣa, 309, 352. śilpa (ārya), 117, 118. siṣṭabhāṣā, 118 n. śirṣāsana, 8 n. sila, 332 n. śukladhyāna, 220 n. śudra, 190. sephālikā, 317 n. śaileśī, 220, 252, 267, 335. śaileśidhyāna, 287. sauca, 274. śrīdāmagaṇḍaka, 61, 239. śrivatsa, 58, 339. śrīvallimaṇḍapa, 28, 28 n. śrutakevalin, 266. śruta (jñāna), IOI п, 103. śvāsocchvāsa, 209. Sadguna, 69 n. Samyata, 345. samyama, 274. 395 samlekhanā, 26. samvara, 343 ff. samsara, 4, 100 ff., 209, 230, 264 f., 294 ff. samsthāna, 100; °vicaya, 104. sangita, 325 n. sattakhetti, 226 n. santāna, 300. saptacchada, 85, 91, 352. saprabha, 211 n. Page #421 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 396 samaya, 126 n. supratiṣṭha, 237 n. samavasaraṇa, 93, 95, 216, 247, sūkṣmakriya, 220. 248, 293, 309, 319, 342. sūkṣmasamparāya, 92. samavasṛ, 163 n. sūtamātṛkā, 347. samiti, 22 n. samudghāta, 220. sampheța, n. 430. sopāśraya (āsana), 8 n, 9. stoka, 126, 126 n. sthalapadma, 72. sthalaśṛigāta, II. sambhūta, 240. sahasrapattra, 56. sthanaka, 24, 24 n, 232, 277, 289, sagara, 126, 220, 253, 267, 278, 287. INDEX OF SANSKRIT AND PRAKRIT WORDS sāgaropama, 258. sadhana, 274 n. sādhu, 248. sādhvi, 248. sāmāyika (sūtra), 218, 262, 276. sāmāyika, 134 n. sāla (śāla), 10. sāvana, 80 n. sinhaniḥkriḍita, 25, 26 n. sinhā, 40 n, 347. siddha, 86, 252. sindhunişkuța, 147 n. sunṛta, 274. et passim. sthāla, 109. svapna, 193 n. svara, 194 n. svastika, 58. svastika (asana), 8, 8 n. Hansa (asana), 8, 8 n. hansa, 27, 39, 53, 322, 326 n. hansagarbha, 40. hansi, 269. haricandana, 300. hinsa, 134. hetuvāda, 100, 100 n. Page #422 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Gaekwad's Oriental Series - CATALOGUE OF BOOKS 1937 ORIENTAL INSTITUTE, BARODA Page #423 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SELECT OPINIONS Sylvain Levi: The Gaekwad's Series is standing at the head of the many collections now published in India. Asiatic Review, London: It is one of the best series issued in the East as regards the get up of the individual volumes as well as the able editorship of the series and separate works. Presidential Address, Patna Session of the Oriental Conference: Work of the same class is being done in Mysore, Travancore, Kashmir, Benares, and elsewhere, but the organisation at Baroda appears to lead. Indian Art and Letters, London: The scientific publications known as the “ Oriental Series” of the Maharaja Gaekwar are known to and highly valued by scholars in all parts of the world. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, London: Thanks to enlightened patronage and vigorous management the “ Gaekwad's Oriental Series" is going from strength to strength. Sir Jadunath Sarkar, Kt.: The valuable Indian histories included in the “Gaekwad's Oriental Series" will stand as an enduring monument to the enlightened liberality of the Ruler of Baroda and the wisdom of his advisers. The Times Literary Supplement, London: These studies are a valuable addition to Western learning and reflect great credit on the editor and His Highness. Page #424 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GAEKWAD'S ORIENTAL SERIES Critical editions of unprinted and original works of Oriental Literature, edited by competent scholars, and published at the Oriental Institute, Baroda I. BOOKS PUBLISHED. Rs. A. 1. Kävyamimārsā : a work on poetics, by Rājasekhara (880-920 A.D.): edited by O. D. Dalal and R. Anantakrishna Sastry, 1916. Reissued, 1924. Third edition revised and enlarged by Pandit K. S. Ramaswami Shastri of the Oriental Institute, Baroda, 1934 .. 2-0 This book has been set as a text-book by several Universities including Benares, Bombay, and Patna. 2. Naranārāyaṇānanda: a poem on the Paurānic story of Arjuna and Krsna's rambles on Mount Girnar, by Vastupāla, Minister of King Viradhavala of Dholka, composed between Samvat 1277 and 1287, i.e., A.D. 1221 and 1231 : edited by C. D. Dalal and R. Anantakrishna Sastry, 1916 .. .. .. Out of print. 3. Tarkasangraha: a work on Philosophy (refutation of Vaiseșika theory of atomic creation) by Anandajñāna or Anandagiri, the famous commentators on Sankarā. cārya's Bhāsyas, who flourished in the latter half of the 13th century: edited by T. M. Tripathi, 1917. Out of print. Pārthaparākrama: a drama describing Arjuna’s recovery of the cows of King Virāta, by Prahladanadeva, the founder of Palanpur and the younger brother of the Paramāra king of Chandrāvati (a state in Mārwär), and a feudatory of the kings of Guzerat, who was a Yuvarāja in Samvat 1220 or A.D. 1164: edited by C. D. Dalal, 1917 .. .. Out of print. 5. Rāşgraudhavamsa : an historical poem (Mahākāvya) describing the history of the Bāgulas of Mayūragiri, from Rāstraudha, king of Kanauj and the originator of the dynasty, to Nārāyana Shāh of Mayūragiri, by Rudra Kavi, composed in Saka 1518 or A.D. 1596: edited by Pandit Embar Krishnamacharya with Intro duotion by C. D. Dalal, 1917 .. .. Out of print. 6. Lingānusāsana : on Grammar, by Vámana, who lived between the last quarter of the 8th century and the first quarter of the 9th century: edited by C. D. Dalal, 1918 . .. 0-8 7. Vasantavilāsa: an historical poem (Mahākāvya) de soribing the life of Vastupāla and the history of Page #425 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Rs. A. Guzerat, by Balachandrasuri (from Moḍheraka or Modhera in Kadi Prant, Baroda State), contemporary of Vastupala, composed after his death for his son in Samvat 1296 (A.D. 1240): edited by C. D. Dalal, 1917 8. Rūpakaṣaṭkam: six dramas by Vatsaraja, minister of Paramardideva of Kalinjara, who lived between the 2nd half of the 12th and the 1st quarter of 13th century edited by C. D. Dalal, 1918 9. Mohaparajaya: an allegorical drama describing the overcoming of King Moha (Temptation), or the conversion of Kumarapala, the Chalukya King of Guzerat, to Jainism, by Yaśaḥpala, an officer of King Ajayadeva, son of Kumarapala, who reigned from A.D. 1229 to 1232: edited by Muni Chaturvijayaji with Introduction and Appendices by C. D. Dalal, 1918 Hammīramadamardana : a drama glorifying the two brothers, Vastupala and Tejaḥpāla, and their King Viradhavala of Dholka, by Jayasimhasuri, pupil of Virasuri, and an Acarya of the temple of Munisuvrata at Broach, composed between Samvat 1276 and 1286 or A.D. 1220 and 1239: edited by C. D. Dalal, 1920 .. 11. Udayasundarîkathā: a romance (Campu, in prose and poetry) by Soḍdhala, a contemporary of and patronised by the three brothers, Chchittaraja, Nagarjuna, and Mummuņirāja, successive rulers of Konkan, composed between A.D. 1026 and 1050: edited by C. D. Dalal and Pandit Embar Krishnamacharya, 1920 10. 2 .. 12. Mahavidyāviḍambana: a work on Nyaya Philosophy, by Bhatta Vadindra who lived about A.D. 1210 to 1274 edited by M. R. Telang, 1920 .. 13. Pracinagurjarakāvysangraha: a collection of old Guzerati poems dating from 12th to 15th centuries A.D. edited by C. D. Dalal, 1920 14. Kumarapalapratibodha : a biographical work in Prakṛta, by Somaprabhacharya, composed in Samvat 1241 or A.D. 1195: edited by Muni Jinavijayaji, 1920 15. Gaṇakārikā: a work on Philosophy (Pasupata School), by Bhasarvajña who lived in the 2nd half of the 10th century: edited by C. D. Dalal, 1921 Out of print. 16. Sangitamakaranda: a work on Music, by Narada: edited by M. R. Telang, 1920 .. .. 17. Kavindracārya List: list of Sanskrit works in the collection of Kavindracārya, a Benares Pandit (1656 A.D.): edited by R. Anantakrishna Shastry, with a foreword by Dr. Ganganatha Jha, 1921 .. 18. Vārāhagṛhyasūtra: Vedic ritual (domestic) of the Yajurveda edited by Dr. R. Shamasastry, 1920 19. Lekhapaddhati: a collection of models of state and private documents, dating from 8th to 15th centuries A.D.: 1-8 2-0 2-0 2-4 2-8 2-4 7-8 1-4 2-0 0-12 0-10 Page #426 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 21. 3 edited by C. D. Dalal and G. K. Shrigondekar, 1925 20. Bhaviṣayattakahā or Pañcamikahä: a romance in Apabhramsa language, by Dhanapala (circa 12th century): edited by C. D. Dalal and Dr. P. D. Gune, 1923 A Descriptive Catalogue of the Palm-leaf and Important Paper MSS. in the Bhandars at Jessalmere, compiled by C. D. Dalal and edited by Pandit L. B. Gandhi, 1923 22. Parasurāmakalpasūtra: a work on Tantra, with commentary by Ramesvara: edited by A. Mahadeva Sastry, B.A., 1923 23. Nityotsava : a supplement to the Parasuramakalpasūtra by Umanandanatha: edited by A. Mahadeva Sastry, B.A., 1923. Second revised edition by Swami Tirvikrama Tirtha, 1930 .. .. .. 26, 41. Sadhanamālā: a Buddhist Tantric text of rituals, dated 1165 A.D., consisting of 312 small works, composed by distinguished writers: edited by Benoytosh Bhattacharyya, M.A., Ph.D. Illustrated. 2 vols., 1925 1928 27. A Descriptive Catalogue of MSS. in the Central Library, Baroda: compiled by G. K. Shrigondekar, M.A., and K. S. Ramaswami Shastri, with a Preface by B. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D., in 12 vols., vol. I (Veda, Vedalakṣaṇa, and Upanisads), 1925 Out of print. 24. Tantrarahasya: a work on the Prabhakara School of Purvamimāmsā, by Ramanujācārya: edited by Dr. R. Shamasastry, 1923 Out of print. 28. Mänasollasa or Abhilaṣitārthacintamani: an encyclopædic work treating of one hundred different topics connected with the Royal household and the Royal court, by Somesvaradeva, a Chalukya king of the 12th century edited by G. K. Shrigondekar, M.A., 3 vols., vol. I, 1925 29. Nalavilāsa: a drama by Ramachandrasuri, pupil of Hemachandrasuri, describing the Pauranika story of Nala and Damayanti: edited by G. K. Shrigondekar, M.A., and L. B. Gandhi, 1926 Rs. A. 25, 32. Samarāngaṇa: a work on architecture, townplanning, and engineering, by king Bhoja of Dhara (11th century): edited by Mahamahopadhyaya T. Ganapati Shastri, Ph.D. Illustrated. 2 vols., 1924-1925 10-0 30, 31. Tattvasangraha: a Buddhist philosophical work of the 8th century, by Santarakṣita, a Professor at Nalanda with Pañjika (commentary) by his disciple Kamalasila, also a Professor at Nalanda: edited by Pandit Embar Krishnamacharya with a Foreword by B. Bhattacharyya, M.A., Ph.D., 2 vols., 1926 2-0 6-0 3-4 5-0 14-0 6-0 2-12 2-4 24-0 Page #427 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Rs. A. 33. 34. Mirat-i-Ahmadi: by Ali Mahammad Khan, the last Moghul Dewan of Gujarat: edited in the original Persian by Syed Nawab Ali, M.A., Professor of Persian, Baroda College, 2 vols., illustrated, 1926–1928 19-8 35. Mänavagshyasūtra : a work on Vedic ritual (domestic) of the Yajurveda with the Bhāsya of Astāvakra: edited with an introduction in Sanskrit by Pandit Rāmakrishna Harshaji Šāstri, with a Preface by Prof. B. C. Lele, 1926 . 5-0 36, 68. Nātyaśāstra : of Bharata with the commentary of Abhinavagupta of Kashmir: edited by M. Ramakrishna Kavi, M.A., 4 vols., vol. I, illustrated, 1926, vol. II, 1934 11-0 Vol. I (out of print). 37. Apabhrarśakāvyatrayi: consisting of three works, the Carcari, Upadeśarasāyana, and Kālasvarūpakulaka, by Jinadatta Sūri (12th century) with commentaries : edited with an elaborate introduction in Sanskrit by L. B. Gandhi, 1927 38. Nyāyapraveśa, Part I (Sanskrit Text): on Buddhist Logic of Dinnāga, with commentaries of Haribhadra Sūri and Pārsvadeva: edited by Principal A. B. Dhruva, M.A., LL.B., Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Hindu University, Benares, 1930 40 39. Nyāyapraveśa, Part II (Tibetan Text): edited with introduction, notes, appendices, etc., by Pandit Vidhusekhara Bhattacharyya, Principal, Vidyabhavana, Visvabharati, 1927 .. | 1-8 40. Advayavajrasangraha: consisting of twenty short works on Buddhist philosophy by Advayavajra, a Buddhist savant belonging to the 11th century A.D., edited by Mahāmabopādhyāya Dr. Haraprasad Sastri, M.A., C.I.E., Hon. D.Litt., 1927 42, 60. Kalpadrukośa : standard work on Sanskrit Lexico graphy, by Keśava : edited with an elaborate introduction by the late Pandit Ramavatara Sharma, Sahityacharya, M.A., of Patna and index by Pandit Shrikant Sharma, 2 vols., vol. I (text), vol. II (index), 1928-1932 .. 14-0 43. Mirat-i-Ahmadi Supplement : by Ali Muhammad Khan. Translated into English from the original Persian by Mr. C. N. Seddon, I.C.S. (retired), and Prof. Syed Nawab Ali, M.A. Illustrated. Corrected reissue, 1928 .. .. 6-8 44. Two Vajrayāna Works : comprising Prajñopāyavinis cayasiddhi of Anangavajra and Jñānasiddhi of Indrabhūti-two important works belonging to the little known Tantra school of Buddhism (8th century A.D.): edited by B. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D., 1929 45. Bhāvaprakāśana : of Sāradātanaya, a comprehensive work on Dramaturgy and Rasa, belonging to A.D. 1175-1250; edited by His Holiness Yadugiri Yatiraja Swami, Melkot, and K. S. Ramaswami Sastri, Oriental Institute, Baroda, 1929 7-0 2-0 Page #428 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 9-0 Rs. A. 46. Rāmacarita : of Abhinanda, Court poet of Hāravarsa probably the same as Devapāla of the Pāla Dynasty of Bengal (cir. 9th century A.D.): edited by K. S. Ramaswami Sastri, 1929 .. .. 7-8 47. Napjarājayasobhūsaņa; by Nrsimhakavi alias Abhi. nava Kalidāsa, a work on Sanskrit Poetics and relatos to the glorification of Nañjarāja, son of Virabhūpa of Mysore : edited by Pandit E. Krishnamacharya, 1930 5-0 48. Nāțyadarpaņa: on dramaturgy, by Rāmacandra Sūri with his own commentary : edited by Pandit L. B. Gandhi and G. K. Shrigondekar, M.A. 2 vols., vol. I, 1929 .. 4-8 49. Pre-Dinnāga Buddhist Texts on Logic from Chinese Sources : containing the English translation of Satáśāstra of Aryadeva, Tibetan text and English translation of Vigraha-vyāvartani of Nagarjuna and the re-translation into Sanskrit from Chinese of Upayahrdaya and Tarkaśāstra : edited by Prof. Giuseppe Tucci, 1930 .. .. 50. Mirat-i-Ahmadi Supplement: Persian text giving an account of Guzerat, by Ali Muhammad Khan: edited by Syed Nawab Ali, M.A., Principal, Bahaud. din College, Junagadh, 1930 .. 6-0 51,77. Trişastiçalākāpuruşacaritra: of Hemacandra, trans lated into English with copious notes by Dr. Helen M. Johnson of Osceola, Missouri, U.S.A. 4 vols., vol. I (Adiśvaracaritra), illustrated, 1931; vol. II, 1937 . 26-0 52. Daņdaviveka: a comprehensive Penal Code of the ancient Hindus by Vardhamāna of the 15th century A.D.: edited by Mahamahopadhyaya Kamala Krsna Smrtitirtha, 1931 .. 8-8 Valt, 1901. . .. 53. Tathāgataguhyaka or Guhyasamāja : the earliest and the most authoritative work of the Tantra School of the Buddhists (3rd century A.D.): edited by B. Bhatta charyya, Ph.D., 1931 54. Jayākhyasamhitā: an authoritative Pañcarātra work of the 5th century A.D., highly respected by the South Indian Vaisnavas : edited by Pandit E. Krishnamacharyya of Vadtal, with one illustration in nine colours and a Foreword by B. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D., 1931 . 12-0 55. Kāvyālankārasārasangraha : of Udbhata with the commentary, probably the same as Udbhata viveka of Rājānaka Tilaka (11th century A.D.): edited by K. S. Ramaswami Sastri, 1931 2-0 56. Pārānanda Sūtra : an ancient Tantric work of the Hindus in Sūtra form giving details of many practices and rites of a new School of Tantra : edited by Swami Trivikrama Tirtha with a Foreword by B. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D., 1931 3-0 Page #429 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Rs. A. 57,69. Ahsan-ut-Tawarikh : history of the Safawi Period of Persian History, 15th and 16th centuries, by Hasani-Rumlu: edited by C. N. Seddon, I.C.S. (retired), Reader in Persian and Marathi, University of Oxford. 2 vols. (Persian text and translation in English), 1932-34 19-8 58. Padmānanda Mahākāvya : giving the life history of Rsabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of the Jainas, by Amarachandra Kavi of the 13th century: edited by H. R. Kapadia, M.A., 1932 .. 14-0 59. Sabdaratnasamanyaya : an interesting lexicon of the Nānārtha class in Sanskrit compiled by the Maratha King Sahaji of Tanjore: edited by Pandit Vitthala Šāstri, Sanskrit Pathasāla, Baroda, with a Foreword by B. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D., 1932 .. 11.0 61. Saktisargama Tantra : a voluminous compendium of the Hindu Tantra comprising four books on Kāli, Tārā, Sundari and Chhinnamastā : edited by B. Bhatta charyya, M.A., Ph.D., 4 vols., vol. I, Kālikhanda, 1932 2-8 62. Prajñāpāramitās: commentaries on the Prajñāpāra. mitā, a Buddhist philosophical work: edited by Giuseppe Tucci, Member, Italian Academy, 2 vols., vol. I, 1932 12-0 63. Tarikh-i-Mubarakhshahi: an authentic and contem porary account of the kings of the Saiyyid Dynasty of Delhi: translated into English from original Persian by Kamal Krishna Basu, M.A., Professor, T.N.J. College, Bhagalpur, with a Foreword by Sir Jadunath Sarkar, Kt., 1932 . •. 7-8 64. Siddhāntabindu : on Vedānta philosophy, by Madhusü dana Sarasvati with commentary of Puruşottama : edited by P. C. Divanji, M.A., LL.M., 1933 11-0 65. Işțasiddhi : on Vedānta philosophy, by Vimuktātmā, disciple of Avyayātmā, with the author's own commentary: edited by M. Hiriyanna, M.A., Retired Professor of Sanskrit, Maharaja's College, Mysore, 1933 .. 14-0 66, 70, 73. Shabara-Bhāsya : on the Mimāṁsā Sūtras of Jaimini: Translated into English by Mahāmaḥopādhyāya Dr. Ganganath Jha, M.A., D.Litt., etc., ViceChancellor, University of Allahabad, in 3 vols., 19331936 .. .. .. .. .. 48-0 67. Sanskrit Texts from Bali : comprising a large num ber of Hindu and Buddhist ritualistic, religious and other texts recovered from the islands of Java and Bali with comparisons: edited by Professor Sylvain Levi, 1933 .. .. .. .. 3-8 71. Nārāyaṇa Sataka: a devotional poem of high literary merit by Vidyākara with the commentary of Pitambara : edited by Pandit Shrikant Sharma, 1935 .. . 2-0 Page #430 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Rs. A. 72. Rajadharma-Kaustubha: an elaborate Smrti work on Rājadharma, Rājanīti and the requirements of kings, by Anantadeva: edited by the late Mahamahopadhyaya Kamala Krishna Smrtitirtha, 1935 .. 10-0 Portuguese Vocables in Asiatic Languages : translated into English from Portuguese by Prof. A. X. Soares, M.A., LL.B., Baroda College, Baroda, 1936 .. 12-0 Nāyakaratna: a commentary on the Nyāyaratnamālā of Pārthasārathi Misra by Rāmānuja of the Prābhākara School: edited by K. S. Ramaswami Sastri of the Oriental Institute, Baroda, 1937 4-8 76. A Descriptive Catalogue of MSS. in the Jain Bhan dars at Pattan : edited from the notes of the late Mr. C. D. Dalal, M.A., by L. B. Gandhi, 2 vols., vol. I, 1937 8-0 78. Ganitatilaka : of Sripati with the commentary of Simhatilaka, a non-Jain work on Arithmetic with a Jain commentary: edited by H. R. Kapadia, M.A., 1937 4-0 79. The Foreign Vocabulary of the Quran : showing the extent of borrowed words in the sacred text: compiled by Professor Arthur Jefferey of the School of Oriental Studies, Cairo. Shortly 80. Tattvasangraha : of Santara kşita with the commen tary of Kamalasīla : translated into English by Maha mahopadhyaya Dr. Ganganath Jha, 3 vols., vol. I, 1937 17-0 81, Hamsa-vilāsa: of Hamsa Mitthu: forms an elaborate defence of the various mystic practices and worship: edited by Swami Trivikrama Tirtha and Mahamahopadhyaya Hathibhai Shastri, 1937 5-8 padhyaya Howami Trivikrystic practices's an elaborate II. BOOKS IN THE PRESS. 1. Nātyaśāstra : edited by M. Ramakrishna Kavi, 4 vols., vol. III. 2. Mānasollāsa or Abhilaşitārthacintamani, edited by G. K. Shrigondekar, M.A., 3 vols., vol. II. 3. Alamkāramahodadhi: a famous work on Sanskrit Poetics composed by Narendraprabha Sūri at the request of Minister Vastupāla in 1226 A.D.: edited by Lalchandra B. Gandhi of the Oriental Institute, Baroda. 4. Sūktimuktāvalī: a well-known Sanskrit work on Anthology, of Jalhana, a contemporary of King Krsna of the Northern Yādava Dynasty (A.D. 1247): edited by Pandit E. Krishnamacharya, Sanskrit Pathaśālā, Vadtal. 5. Dvādasāranayacakra : an ancient polemical treatise giving a résumé of the different philosophical systems with a refutation of the same from the Jain stand Page #431 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ point by Mallavadi Suri with a commentary by Simhasuri Gani: edited by Muni Caturvijayaji. 6. Krtyakalpataru: of Laksmidhara, minister of King Govindachandra of Kanauj: edited by Principal K. V. Rangaswami Aiyangar, Hindu University, Benares. 7. Bṛhaspati Smṛti, being a reconstructed text of the now lost work of Bṛhaspati: edited by Principal K. V. Rangaswami Aiyangar, Hindu University, Benares. 8 8. A Descriptive Catalogue of MSS. in the Oriental Institute, Baroda: compiled by the Library staff, 12 vols., vol. II (Srauta, Dharma, and Grhya Sutras). 9. Madhavānala-Kāmakandalā : a romance in old Western Rajasthani by Ganapati, a Kayastha from Amod: edited by M. R. Majumdar, M.A., LL.B. 10. Tattvopaplava: a masterly criticism of the opinions of the prevailing Philosophical Schools by Jayarashi: edited by Pandit Sukhalalji of the Benares Hindu University. 11. Anekantajayapataka: of Haribhadra Suri (c. 1120 A.D.) with his own commentary and Tippanaka by Murichandra the Guru of Vadideva Suri: edited by H. R. Kapadia, M.A. 12. Parama-Samhita: an authoritative work on the Pancharatra system: edited by Dewan Bahadur S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar, of Madras. Rs. A. III. BOOKS UNDER PREPARATION. 1. Prajñāpāramitās: commentaries on the Prajñāpāramita, a Buddhist philosophical work: edited by Prof. Giuseppe Tucci, 2 vols., vol. II. 2. Saktisangama Tantra: comprising four books on Kāli, Tārā, Sundari, and Chhinnamastā: edited by B. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D., 4 vols., vols. II-IV. 3. Natyadarpana: introduction in Sanskrit giving an account of the antiquity and usefulness of the Indian drama, the different theories on Rasa, and an examination of the problems raised by the text, by L. B. Gandhi, 2 vols., vol. II. 4. Gurjararāsāvalī: a collection of several old Gujarati Rāsas: edited by Messrs. B. K. Thakore, M. D. Desai, and M. C. Modi. 5. Tarkabhāṣā: a work on Buddhist Logic, by Mokṣākara Gupta of the Jagaddala monastery: edited with a Sanskrit commentary by Pandit Embar Krishnamacharya of Vadtal. 6. A Descriptive Catalogue of MSS. in the Oriental Institute, Baroda: compiled by the Library staff, 12 vols., vol. III (Smrti MSS.). Page #432 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Rs. A. 7. An Alphabetical List of MSS. in the Oriental Insti tute, Baroda : compiled from the existing card cata logue by the Library Staff. 8. Nitikalpataru : the famous Niti work of Kşemendra : edited by Sardar K. M. Panikkar, M.A., of Patiala. 9. Chhakkammuvaeso : an Apabhramsa work of the Jains containing didactic religious teachings : edited by L. B. Gandhi, Jain Pandit. 10. Sarhrāt Siddhānta : the well-known work on Astro nomy of Jagannatha Pandit : critically edited with numerous diagrams by Pandit Kedar Nath, Rajjyotisi, Jaipur. 11. Vimalaprabhā: the famous commentary on the Kāla cakra Tantra and the most important work of the Kālacakra School of the Buddhists: edited with comparisons of the Tibetan and Chinese versions by Giuseppe Tucci of the Italian Academy. 12. Nişpannayogāmbara Tantra: describing a large number of mandalas or magic ciroles and numerous deities : edited by B. Bhattacharyya. 13. Basatin-i-Salatin : a contemporary account of the Sultans of Bijapur: translated into English by M. A. Kazi of the Baroda College and B. Bhattacharyya. 14. Madana Mahārņava : a Smrti work principally dealing with the doctrine of Karmavipāka composed during the reign of Māndhātā son of Madanapāla : edited by Embar Krishnamacharya. 15. Trisastiếalākāpuruşacaritra : of Hemacandra: trans lated into English by Dr. Helen Johnson, 4 vols., vols. III-IV. 16. Vivāda Chintāmaņi: of Vachaspati Misra : an authorita tive Smrti work on the Hindu Law of Inheritance : translated into English by Mahamahopadhyaya Dr. Ganganatha Jha. 17. Bșhaspatitattva : a Saiva treatise belonging to an early stratum of the Agamic literature written in old Javanese with Sanskrit Slokas interspread in the text : edited by Dr. A. Zeiseniss of Leiden. 18. Aņu Bhāşya : a standard work of the Suddhadvarha School : translated into English by Prof. G. H. Bhatt, M.A. of the Baroda College. 19. Aparājitapşcchā: a voluminous work on architecture and fine-arts: edited by Mr. P. A. Mankad, L.C.E. 20. Hetubindu: the famous work of Dharmakirtti on Buddhist logio : edited from a MS. discovered at Pattan by Pandit Sukhalalji of the Benares Hindu University. Page #433 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Rs. A. 21. A Descriptive Catalogue of MSS. in the Jain Bhan dars at Pattan : edited from the notes of the late Mr. C. D. Dalal, M.A., by L. B. Gandhi, 2 vols., vol. II. For further particulars please communicate with THE DIRECTOR, Oriental Institute, Baroda. Page #434 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 11 THE GAEKWAD'S STUDIES IN RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY, Rs. A. 1. The Comparative Study of Religions : [Contents: I, the sources and nature of religious truth. II, supernatural beings, good and bad. III, the soul, its nature, origin, and destiny. IV, sin and suffering, salvation and redemption. V, religious practices. VI, the emotional attitude and religious ideals] : by Alban G. Widgery, M.A., 1922 15-0 2. Goods and Bads : being the substance of a series of talks and discussions with H.H. the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda. [Contents : introduction. I, physical values. II, intellectual values. III, æsthetic values. IV, moral value. V, religious value. VI, the good life, its unity and attainment]: by Alban G. Widgery, M.A., 1920. (Library edition Rs. 5) 3. Immortality and other Essays : [Contents: I, philog ophy and life. II, immortality. III, morality and religion. IV, Jesus and modern culture. V, the psychology of Christian motive. VI, free Catholicism and non-Christian Religions. VII, Nietzsche and Tolstoi on Morality and Religion. VIII, Sir Oliver Lodge on science and religion, IX, the value of confessions of faith. X, the idea of resurreotion. XI, religion and beauty. XII, religion and history. XIII, principles of reform in religion]: by Alban G. Widgery, M.A., 1919. (Cloth Rs. 3) .. 2-0 Confutation of Atheism : a translation of the Hadis-2 Halila or the tradition of the Myrobalan Fruit: translated by Vali Mohammad Chhanganbhai Momin, 1918. 0-14 Conduct of Royal Servants : being a collection of verses from the Viramitrodaya with their translations in English, Gujarati, and Marathi: by B. Bhattacharyya, M.A., Ph.D. 0-6 Page #435 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SELLING AGENTS OF THE GAEKWAD'S ORIENTAL SERIES England Messrs. Luzac & Co., 46, Great Russell Street, London, W.C. 1. Messrs. Arthur Probsthain, 41, Great Russell Street, London, W.C. 1. Messrs. Deighton Bell & Co., 13 & 30, Trinity Street, Cambridge. Germany Messrs. 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Page #436 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ERRATA 33 39 56 69 69 71 161 203 228 240 243 285 1*********** Line For 2 ukşa 34 Sunāsiras 6 Sumitrā n. 70 Ava. n. 99 Varadāma n. 125 JIV n. 115 sado n. 132 good 220 13 ornament n. 380 Sesa 6 sambā 31 Siddhārtha n. 430 samo Read ukşan Sunāsīra Sumitra Ava. Varadāman Jiv. şado goad 320 comb Sesā samba Siddhārthā samo 32 Page #437 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________