Book Title: $JES 302 Jain Philosophy Level 3 Book
Author(s): JAINA Education Committee
Publisher: JAINA Education Committee
Catalog link:

Page #1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L Chapter 01 Pancha Paramesthi Namo Arihantänam: I bow down to Arihanta, Namo Siddhänam: I bow down to Siddha, Namo Äyariyänam: I bow down to Ächärya, Namo Uvajjhäyänam: I bow down to Upadhyay, Namo Loe Savva-Sähunam: I bow down to Sädhu and Sädhvi. PANCHA PARAMESTHI Eso Pancha Namokkäro: These five fold reverence (bowings downs), Savva-Pävappanäsano. Destroy all the sins, Manglänancha Savvesim: Amongst all that is auspicious, Padhamam Havai Mangalam: This Navakär Mantra is the foremost. The Navakär Mantra is the most important mantra in Jainism and can be recited at any time. While reciting the Navakär Mantra, we bow down to Arihanta (souls who have reached the state of non-attachment towards worldly matters), Siddhas (liberated souls), Ächäryas (heads of Sädhus and Sädhvis), Upädhyäys (those who teach scriptures and Jain principles to the followers), and all (Sädhus and Sädhvis (monks and nuns, who have voluntarily given up social, economical and family relationships). Together, they are called Pancha Paramesthi (The five supreme spiritual people). In this Mantra we worship their virtues rather than worshipping any one particular entity; therefore, the Mantra is not named after Lord Mahävir, Lord PärshvaNäth or Ädi-Näth, etc. When we recite Navakär Mantra, it also reminds us that, we need to be like them. This mantra is also called Namaskär or Namokär Mantra because in this Mantra we offer Namaskär (bowing down) to these five supreme group beings. Recitation of the Navakär Mantra creates positive vibrations around us, and repels negative ones. The Navakär Mantra contains the foremost message of Jainism. The message is very clear. If we want to be liberated from the cycle of life and death, we need to renounce worldly affairs by becoming a monk or a nun. This is just the beginning. If we stay on the right path, we will progress to a higher spiritual state, Kevali or Arihanta, and ultimately proceed to become Siddha after nirvana (liberation from the cycle of birth and death). The goal of every soul is to become a Siddha. Arihantas The word Arihanta is made up of two words: 1) Ari means enemies, and 2) Hant means destroyer. Therefore, Arihanta means a destroyer of enemies. The enemies referred to here are internal: inner desires and passions. The passions include anger, ego, deceit, and greed. Until we eliminate these passions, the real nature or the power of our soul will not be realized or manifested. When a person (soul) wins over these inner enemies he/she is called a Kevali (omniscient) and Jina (victor). JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 1 Page #2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PANCHA PARAMESTHI This state of not having passions and omniscience is manifested when that person has completely destroyed the four-Ghäti karmas (destructive) namely: Jnänävaraniya (knowledge obscuring) Karma Darshanävaraniya (perception obscuring) Karma Mohaniya (deluding) Karma Antaraya (obstructing) Karma These karmas are called Ghäti (destructive) karmas because they directly affect the true nature of the soul. When these Karmas are destroyed, a person attains the following four infinite qualities (Anant Chatushtay) and is called a Kevali. • Kevaljnän (Anant Jnän) - Perfect knowledge due to the destruction of all Jnänävaraniya Karmas Keval-Darshan (Anant Darshan) - Perfect perception due to the destruction of all Darshanävaraniya karmas • Anant Charitra - Passionless state due to the destruction of all Mohaniya Karmas • Anant Virya - Infinite energy due to the destruction of all Antaraya Karmas. A Kevali who revitalizes the Jain religion and establishes a Jain Sangh (four-fold Jain order) consisting of Sädhus, Sädhvis, Shrävaks (male householders), and Shrävikäs (female householders), is known as Tirthankar or Arihanta. During every half time cycle, only twentyfour individuals rise to the level of Tirthankar. The first Tirthankar of our time period was Lord Rushabhdev, and the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankar was Lord Mahävir. Lord Mahävir lived from 599 BC to 527 BC. According to some, all Kevalis are called Arihanta as they have destroyed inner enemies. At the time of Nirvän (liberation from the worldly existence), Arihanta sheds off the remaining four Aghäti (Non-destructive) karmas: • Näm (body determining) Karma • Gotra (status determining) Karma • Vedaniya (feeling producing) Karma • Ayushya (life span determining) Karma. These four karmas do not affect the true nature of the soul; therefore, they are called Aghäti karmas. They are related to the physical body of the soul. After attaining liberation (death) the souls of Arihantas are called Siddhas. Attributes of Arihantas Tirthankars have in total 12 unique characteristics. Of those, four are main attributes known as Atishaya. The other eight attributes are endowed by heavenly gods and are known as Pratihärya. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PANCHA PARAMESTHI Four Main Attributes (4 Atishaya) Omniscience Delivers Extraordinary sermon • Worshipped by mundane souls of the whole universe • No calamities or diseases exist in his vicinity. Some Jains believe the four Anant Chatushtay Infinite knowledge, Infinite perception, Infinite Energy, Perfect Conduct) instead of 4 Atishaya. Eight Other Attributes (Pratihärya - endowed by heavenly gods) Simhasan Bhämandal Chamar Chhatras A divine seat from where Arihanta delivers sermons A halo around Arihanta's head Angels are waving fans (Chowries) to show Arihanta's greatness A three tier divine umbrella over the head suggests that he is the king of the entire universe which consist of three regions - Hell, Earth, and Heaven. A tree under-which Arihanta sits A continuous shower of fragrant flowers A divine announcement declaring Arihanta's sermons A celestial music accompanying Arihanta's sermons Ashok Vruksha Pushpavrusti Dev-dundubhi Divya-dhwani Thirty Four Atishaya These 12 attributes, when elaborately explained are counted as 34 Atishaya. Both Shvetämbar and Digambar account for thirty-four Tirthankar Atishay. Some Atishayas are birth related, some are created by heavenly gods (Devas), and some are realized at the time of Kevaljnän. By Birth, Arihanta has the most beautiful, powerful, and proportionally built body with 1008 auspicious birth marks. As he is full of compassion, his blood is white, like milk. His breath is fragrant, like a lotus and his body does not generate any waste. He is always disease free. He has very soothing, peaceful, and serene voice which can be heard from very long distances. His language can be easily understood by all - humans and animals alike. He can be seen and heard from all four directions. Everyone listens to the sermon keeping their animosities aside. In his vicinity the weather is always pleasant and there are no calamities for miles. The Samavasaran can accommodate all. Dharma Chakra (symbolic wheel of religion) and Ashta Mangal (eight embellishments) are also present at the Samavasaran. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PANCHA PARAMESTHI Siddhas Siddhas are liberated souls. They are no longer among us because they have completely ended the cycle of birth and death. They have reached the ultimate highest state, the state of liberation. They do not have any karmas, and they do not collect any new karmas. This state of true freedom is called Nirvan. By destroying all 8 types of karmas Siddhas acquire 8 unique attributes. They are as follows: Eight Attributes of Siddhas: Anant Jnän Anant Darshan Avyäbädha Sukha Anant Charitra Akshaya Sthiti Arupitva Aguru Laghutva Anant Virya Infinite knowledge Infinite perception Eternal happiness Perfect conduct Immortality Formlessness No Status (Neither heavy or light) Infinite energy Acharyas The teachings of Lord Mahävir, the last Tirthankar, is carried on by the Acharyas. They are our spiritual leaders. The responsibility of spiritual (not social or economical) welfare of the entire Jain community rests on the shoulders of the Acharyas. Before reaching this state, one has to do an in depth study and achieve mastery of the Jain scriptures (Agams). In addition to acquiring a high level of spiritual excellence, they have the ability to lead the congregation of monks, nuns and laypeople. Generally, they have the knowledge of various languages and other philosophies and religions of the world. Acharya is the head of the Jain congregation. They possess the following 36 qualities: acquiring of the Jalin to do an Thirty six Attributes of Acharyas : Elimination of Eighteen Impurities Control over the enjoyments of the 5 senses Touch, Taste, Smell, Sight, and Sound To follow 9 restrictions for observance of celibacy Not to live where householders live Not to sit alone with a person of the opposite sex JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L Not to talk alone with a person of the opposite sex Not to observe the body of the opposite sex To eat bland food To avoid food, which produces impurity of mind Not to decorate the body Not to remember past sensual pleasures Not to listen to the private conversations of others To avoid the 4 types of passions Anger, Ego, Deceit and Greed Eighteen Qualities to Acquire Follow The Five Great vows Nonviolence Truthfulness Non-stealing Celibacy Non-possessiveness / Non-possession Observe The Five Codes of conduct Knowledge Faith Conduct Penance Vigor Observe Five Regulations While walking, talking, getting alms, putting clothes and other things and disposing bodily waste Restraint Three Activities Regarding activities of mind, speech and body Digambar Tradition Digambar list of thirty-six attributes of Acharyas as follows: JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I PANCHA PARAMESTHI 04 05 05 Six External austerities 01 Anashan (Not eating for a set period of time) 02 Unodari (Eating less than needed) 03 Vrutti-sankshep (Eating within the limits of predetermined restrictions) a) Material- Eat only a certain number of items b) Area- Eat only within limits of a certain area c) Time- Eat only at certain time d) Mode- Eat food obtained or made only by certain means 04 Ras-tyäg (Eating non-tasty food example. Ayambil Tap) 05 Käyä-klesha (Penance, tolerating physical pain voluntarily) 06 Sanlinatä (Staying in a forlorn place and occupying minimum space) 05 03 5 Page #6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PANCHA PARAMESTHI Six Internal austerities 01 Prayashchitta (Repentance or remorse) 02 Vinay (Humility, Respect for others) 03 Veyävachcham (Selfless service to monks, nuns and needy) 04 Swadhyay (Study of religious scriptures) 05 Dhyana (Meditation) 06 Käyotsarga (Giving up physical activities and staying absorbed in the soul) Ten Virtues 01 Kshama (forgiveness) 02 Märdava (Humility) 03 Arjava (straightforwardness) 04 Shaucha (content - absence of greed) 05 Satya (truth) 06 Sanyam (restraint of all senses) 07 Tapa (austerities) 08 Tyag (charity) 09 Äkinchan (non-possessiveness) 10 Brahmacharya (celibacy) Five Ächär (codes of conduct) 01 Darshanachär (codes of faith) 02 Jnänächär (codes of knowledge) 03 Chariträchär (codes of conduct) 04 Tapächär (codes of austerities) 05 Viryächär (codes of energy or vigor) Six Ävashyakas (essential duties) 01 Devapuja Prayer to Tirthankars 02 Gurupasti Devotion and service to ascetics 03 Swadhyay Studying of Scriptures 04 Samyam Self restraint 05 Tap Penance 06 Dana Charity Three Guptis (control) 1. Mano Gupti (control over mind) 2. Vachan-Gupti (control over speech) 3. Käya Gupti (control over body) JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE Page #7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L Upadhyays This title is given to those Sädhus who have acquired complete knowledge of the Jain scriptures (Agams) and philosophical systems. They teach Jain scriptures to other ascetics and laypeople. Upadhyäys possess 25 attributes. These 25 attributes are the symbolic representation of the 25 Jain scriptures they study. These scriptures are as follows: Twenty Five Attributes of Upädhyäys 11 canonical texts (Angas) compiled by Ganadhar, who were the immediate disciples of Tirthankar 12 canonical texts (Upängas) compiled by Shruta Kevalis 1 scripture of proper conduct 1 scripture of proper practice According to Digambar Tradition Upadhyay has Knowledge of 11 Anga Agams and 14 Digambar Anga Bähya Agams. Sådhus and Sädhvis When householders desire to detach from the worldly aspects of life and gain a desire for spiritual uplift, they renounce worldly lives and become Sädhus (monk) or Sädhvis (nun). A male person is called Sädhu, and a female person is called Sädhvi. Before becoming Sädhu or Sädhvi, a lay person must stay with Sädhus or Sädhvis to understand their life style and do religious studies for several months. When they feel confident that they will be able to live the life of a monk or a nun, they inform the Ächärya that they are ready for initiation. If the Ächärya is convinced that they are ready and are capable of following the vows of Sädhu or Sädhvi, he prepares them for Dikshä. Dikshä is an initiation ceremony, following, which a householder becomes a monk or a nun. At the time of Dikshä, the Sädhu or Sädhvi take five major vows for the rest of his/her life. PANCHA PARAMESTHI JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 7 Page #8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PANCHA PARAMESTHI 5 Great Vows Commitment of Ahinsä Commitment of Satya Commitment of Asteya Commitment of Brahmacharya Commitment of Aparigraha 8 • Forgiveness Avoidance of greed Endure hardship Endure suffering Non-violence • Introspection Truth The great vows of monks and nuns imply not doing, not asking someone to do, nor appreciating someone's act of breaching of these vows by mind, body or speech. Sädhus and Sädhvis have 27 attributes as follows. 27 Attributes of Ascetics (Monks and Nuns) Five great vows as above • Protection of Five one-sensed lives (water, fire, earth, air and plant known as Sthävar souls) and One group of moving living beings (two- sensed to five- sensed living beings) known as Tras souls Non-stealing Celibacy Non-possessive • To control mind, speech, and body Not to eat before sunrise and after sunset and regulations) and Yogal ⚫ Darshan, Jnän, and Chäritra ness • To control pleasures of five senses (Touch, Taste, Smell, Sight, Hearing) To observe restraints Not to commit any type of violence. Not to indulge in any type of lie or falsehood. Not to take anything not given properly. Not to indulge in any sensual pleasures Not to acquire more than what is needed to maintain day-to-day life. Keep heart pure Some scriptures mention following 27 attributes of Ascetics Five Great Vows (Mahävrata) Control of 5 senses • Devoid of Kashaya - Four Passions: Anger, Ego, Deceit, Greed • Guptis - Control of mind, speech and body • Bhäv (Dharma and Shukla Dhyäna), Karan (following prescribed activities • Forgiveness • Samvega - Disinterested in worldly affairs and interested in liberation JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 5 6 5 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 55433 311 Page #9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PANCHA PARAMESTHI • Conquering of Parishaha - Enduring hardships and suffering with equanimity 1 • Sanllekhana - Endurance and fearlessness towards death and associated 1 pains. Also accepts voluntary death Digambar Tradition - Attributes of Monks Digambar account of attributes for their Monks (Sädhus) varies somewhat with one significant requirement that male monks are sky-clad or do not wear any clothes. 5 Great Vows Mahävrata (the same five great vows as described above) 5 Samiti • Irya Samiti (carefulness while walking) • Bhäshä Samiti (carefulness in talking) • Eshana Samiti (carefulness while getting alms) • Ädäna- Nikshepana Samiti (carefulness while putting clothes and any objects) Parishthä Pän Samiti (carefulness while disposing excreta) 5 Control of five senses 6 Ävashyaka (six essentials - same as in Digambar Acharyas) 6 other attributes • Kesha Loch (Plucking of your own hair) Asnäna (No bathing) • Bhumi shayana (Sleeping on the floor) • Adantadhovan (No brushing of teeth) • Uttisthan Ähär Sevan (Eating food in standing posture only) Eka Bhukti (Eating once a day only) Some books include monks do not wear any clothes as an attribute in this section. According to them Monks have 28 attributes instead of twenty-seven. The Jain ascetics follow the above attributes. Their activities are directed towards the uplift of their souls to the state of liberation hence they are very unique. Total Attributes of Pancha Paramesthi No. of Attributes 36 Arihanta Siddha Ächarya Upadhyay Sädhu/Sadhvis (Monks/Nuns) Total 25 27 108 108 beads of Mälä (Navakärväli) symbolically represent these 108 attributes of Pancha Paramesthi. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #10 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ TIRTHANKARS Chapter 02 - Tirthankars Time rolls along in eternal cycles of rise and decline. Utsarpini is a "rising" era in, which human morale and natural conditions improve over time. At the end of Utsarpini, begins Avasarpini, a "declining" era of the same length, in, which human morale and virtues deteriorate. Each era consists of six sub divisions called Aräs. During the 3rd and 4th Aräs of every rising and declining era of each cycle, twenty-four souls become Tirthankars in our region known as Bharat Kshetra. They are the humans like us who rise to that level. They had gradually purified their soul in prior lives after achieving Samyag Darshan and had acquired a special karma called Tirthankar Näm Karma. The Tirthankar Näm Karma is acquired by performing one or more of the 20 specific austerities. Tirthankar Näm Karma matures in the final life and leads the person to become a Tirthankar after taking Diksha and observing austerities to destroy all Ghäti (destructive) karmas. After attaining omniscience (Kevaljnän), Tirthankar organizes the Jain religion to suit the changing times. They reinstate the fourfold order of Sädhus (monks), Sadhvis (nuns), Shrävaks (male householders), and Shrävikäs (female householders) of Jain religion. Tirthankars are also called Arihantas, Jinas, Kevalis, and Vitaragi. Arihanta means "destroyer of inner enemies," Jin means "victor of inner enemies," and Vitaragi means "one who does not have attachment or hatred towards anyone or anything." This means that they are totally detached from worldly aspects. They have destroyed four Ghäti Karmas, namely: • . Dar Jnänävaraniya (knowledge obscuring) Karma Darshanävaraniya (perception obscuring) Karma Mohaniya (deluding) Karma Antaraya (obstructing) Karma • Kalyanak (Auspicious Events) Jains celebrate five major events from the life of a Tirthankar. (auspicious events). They are: They are called Kalyanak Chyavana or Garbha Kalyänak - (Conception Event) This is the event when a Tirthankar's soul leaves its previous body, and is conceived in the mother's womb. Janma Kalyänak - (Birth Event) This is the event when the Tirthankar is born. Diksha or Tapa Kalyänak - (Initiation Event) This is the event when the Tirthankar gives up all his/her worldly possessions and becomes a monk/nun. Kevaljnän Kalyänak - (Omniscience Event) This is the event when a Tirthankar completely destroys four Ghäti Karmas and attains the Kevaljnän (absolute knowledge). Celestial angels create a Samavasaran for JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #11 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ TIRTHANKARS Tirthankars from where he/she delivers the first sermon. This is the most important event for the entire Jain order as the Tirthankar re-establishes Jain Sangha and preaches the Jain path of purification and liberation. Nirvän Kalyänak - (Nirvana Event) This event is when a Tirthankar's soul is liberated from this worldly physical existence forever and becomes a Siddha. On this day, the Tirthankar's soul destroys the remaining four Aghäti Karmas completely, and attains salvation, the state of eternal bliss. Digambar tradition indicates that women cannot become Tirthankar or be liberated because they need to cover their body with cloths after the renunciation (after becoming nuns). Hence they cannot follow the fifth Mahävrata (Non-possession) fully. For liberation, it is essential that all five Mahävrata be followed fully. Swetambar tradition interprets the fifth Mahävrata as Non-possessiveness indicating that monks and nuns may need to wear the minimum cloths needed to properly function their daily activities in the society (e.g. Gochari - Going to laypeople home for food). However they should not have any attachments to their cloths. Number of Tirthankars : It was stated earlier that Tirthankars are born only in 3rd and 4th Äräs in our region called Bharat Kshetra of Jambu Dweep. Since we are in the 5th Arä now, no Tirthankar exist in our region. In the 3rd and 4th Äräs of current Avasarpini cycle, the twenty-four Tirthankars were borne in our region. Generally, we state that there are twenty-four Tirthankars, we specifically mean that there were twenty-four Tirthankars in the 3rd and 4th Arå of the current Avasarpini time cycle. According to Jainism, there are 15 regions in the universe where the possibility of Tirthankars exist. Out of these, 10 regions (5 Bharat and 5 Airävat) are such that the human behavior and natural conditions continuously changes and Tirthankars appear only during 3rd and 4th Aräs. The other five regions (5 Mahä-Videha) are such that the conditions are always conducive to have Tirthankar. At present, there exist four Tirthankars in each Mahä-Videha Kshetra (regions). Thus, there are a total of 20 Tirthankars preaching Jainism in Mahä-Videha regions at present time. Shri Simandhar Swami is one of the 20 Tirthankars. In many Jain temples, an idol of Shri Simandhar Swami is installed which represents and reminds us that at present there are living Tirthankars preaching Jainism in the other part of the universe. This is also important since a soul can transmigrate to and take a human birth in one of the Mahä-Videha regions now and progress to reach liberation even though it is not possible to attain liberation in the present time in our region (Bharat Kshetra). Past and Future Tirthankars : There were also twenty-four Tirthankars (Chovisi) in our region in the past Utsarpini half cycle of time. There will also be twenty-four Tirthankars in the next Utsarpini half cycle. The names of both are found in our scriptures. There have been infinite such chovisis in our Bharat Kshetra as well as Airavat Kshetra. Therefore when we state that there are twenty-four Tirthankars, we must remember that our statement applies only to our current Avasarpini cycle. In reality, there have been infinite number of Tirthankars existed in the past in our region and hence infinite Siddhas. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #12 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ TIRTHANKARS Tirthankar Stutis: There exist many Stutis praising the qualities of Tirthankars in Jain literature. Following is the list of some popular Stutis. Logassa Ujjoyagare (Chaturvishati Stav) Sutra - This sutra is recited in praise of the twenty-four Tirthankars. It consists of names of each Tirthankar and their qualities. Namutthunam (Shakra Stav) Sutra - This sutra is sung by Indra the king of Celestial Beings in the praise of Arihantas (present and past). In this stuti, only their virtues are stated without any specific names. Bhaktamar Stotra - This is most popular Stotra and is accepted by both Digambar and Shvetämbar Jain sects. This was composed by Acharya Manatung-suri in praise of Tirthankar Rishabhadev. Anandghana Chovisi - Jain monk Shri Anandghanji who was a great poet has composed 24 Stutis (one stuti for each Tirthankar) in praise of twenty-four Tirthankars. Role of Celestial Beings: There are other significant events also in the life of a Tirthankar. After Tirthankar's soul is conceived, the mother has fourteen dreams as per Shvetämbar tradition (Digambar texts mention two additional dreams making the total to sixteen). A Tirthankar's soul, while even in mother's womb, possesses three types of knowledge, namely Mati Jnän (sensory knowledge), Shruta Jnän (scriptural knowledge), and Avadhi Jnän (clairvoyance). Celestial beings (Indras and other heavenly beings) are devoted to Tirthankars and take part in ceremonies like birth and the bathing of newborn on Mount Meru. One year before the time of renunciation, a group of celestial angels come to pay homage to the future Tirthankar. They remind him/her to renounce the world and re-establish religious order for the benefit of all living beings. When a Tirthankar renounces the worldly life, he attains Manah-Paryaya Jnän (telepathy), the fourth type of the knowledge, which enables the Tirthankar to read the minds of other living beings. Celestial beings also participate in the celebrations of other Kalyanaks and for setting up 8 Pratihärya during sermons given by Tirthankar. Conclusion There are five very auspicious events in the life of a Tirthankar. They are conception, birth, renunciation initiation into monkhood), attaining omniscience, and nirvana. A Tirthankar has acquired the Tirthankar-Näm Karma in the second previous life by having an intense desire to alleviate the suffering of all living beings. The fruits of that karma resulted in the soul being born as a Tirthankar Bhagawan. We celebrate these five major events of the Tirthankar's life in the form of PanchaKalyänak Pujäs. The nirvana places of Tirthankars are pilgrimage places. Tirthankars are supreme human beings and our faultless human models in whom we take spiritual refuge. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #13 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ TIRTHANKARS Place of Nirvän 103 Ashtapad (Kailasha) Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Emblems and Place of Nirvän of 24 Tirthankars: Tirthankar Name Emblem Number of Ganadhars* 01 Rishabha or Ädi Näth Bull 84 02 Ajit-Näth Elephant 90 03 Sambhava-Näth Horse 105 04 Abhinandan Swami Monkey 05 Sumati-Näth Ruddy Goose 116 06 Padma-Prabha Red Lotus 07 Supärshva-Näth Swastika 08 Chandra-Prabha Crescent Moon 09 Pushpadanta or Crocodile Suvidhi-Näth 10 Shital-Näth Shrivatsa or wishing tree 81 11 Shreyans-Näth Rhinoceros 12 Väsupujya Swami Buffalo 13 Vimal-Näth Boar 14 Anant-Näth Bear or hawk 15 Dharma-Näth Thunderbolt 16 Shänti-Näth Deer 17 Kunthu-Näth Male Goat 18 Ara Näth Nandävarta or Fish 19 Malli-Näth Water pot 20 Muni Suvrata Swami Tortoise 21 Nami Näth Blue Lotus 22 Nemi-Näth Conch 23 Pärshva Näth Serpent 24 Mahävir Swami or Lion Vardhamän Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Champäpuri Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Samet Sikhar Mount Girnar Samet Sikhar Pävä Puri Mahävir Swami attained nirvana at Päväpuri, Nemi-Näth attained nirvana at Girnar, Väsupujya attained nirvana at Champäpuri, Rushabhdev attained nirvana at Mount Ashtapad (Kailasha). Other Twenty Tirthankars attained nirvana at mount Samet Shikhar. *Ganadhars are the chief disciples of the Tirthankars. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #14 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ TIRTHANKARS Birth Place and Parents Name of 24 Tirthankars : Tirthankar Name Father Mother Birth Place 01 Rishabha Dev or King Näbhi- Maru-Devi Ayodhya Ädi Näth 02 Ajit-Näth Jita Shatru Vijay Ayodhyä (Vinita) 03 Sambhava-Näth Nath Jitäri Senä Shrävasti 04 Abhinandan Swami Samvar Siddhartha Ayodhyä (Vinita) 05 Sumati-Näth Megharath Sumangala Ayodhya 06 Padma Prabha Dharana (Sridhara) Susimä Kaushambi 07 Supärshva-Näth Supratishtha Prithvi Väränasi (Banaras) 08 Chandra Prabha Mahasen Lakshman Chandrapuri 09 Pushpadanta or Sugriva Rämä (Supriya) Kakandi Suvidhi-Näth Näth 10 Shital-Näth Draidharatha Sunanda Bhadrikapuri 11 Shreyans-Näth Vishnu Vishnudevi (Vishna) Simhapuri 12 Väsupujya Swami King Vasu Vijayä (Jaya) Champäpuri 13 Vimal Näth Kritvarma Suramyä (Shyämä) Kampilya 14 Anant Näth Simhasen Suyasha Ayodhya 15 Dharma Näth King Bhänu Suvratä Ratnapuri 16 Shänti-Näth Vishvasen Achira Hastinapur 17 Kunthu-Näth Surya (Surasen) Shree-Devi Hastinäpur 18 Ara-Näth Sudarshan Miträ (Devi) Hastinapur 19 Malli Näth Kumbha Rakshitä (Prabha) Mithilä 20 Muni Suvrata Swami Sumitra Padmavati Kusagranagar (Räjgruhi) 21 Nami Näth Vijay Vaprä (Viprä) Mithilä (Mathura) 22 Nemi-Näth Samudravijay Shivädevi Sauripura (Dvaraka) 23 Pärshva Näth Ashvasen Vämä Käshi (Banaras) 24 Mahävir Swami or Siddhartha Trishalä Kshatriyakund Vardhamän JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE Page #15 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LORD MAHÄVIR AND HIS TEACHINGS Chapter 03 - Lord Mahävir and His Teachings Lord Mahavir is the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankar of the Jain religion of this era. According to Jain philosophy, all Tirthankars were human beings but they attained a state of perfect enlightenment through meditation and self-realization. They are faultless human model. They are known as the "Gods" of Jains. The concept of a supernatural God as creator, protector, and destroyer of the universe does not exist in Jainism. About 2600 years ago religion in India had taken a very ugly shape. Original classification of the society in the form of four classes had deteriorated. Brahmins considered themselves to be very superior. They looked down upon people of other castes. Fate of Shudras or untouchables was rendered terrible and they were forever condemned to serve other castes. They were required to perform most degraded tasks. They were not allowed to engage in other professions. The importance of sacrifices as a symbol of giving up and renouncing had lost sight of it and it had taken very violent form. Animal sacrifices were regularly performed and people believed that by sacrifices they would gain the favor of gods. Under such social and religious conditions, Mahävir was born on the thirteenth day of the rising moon half of Chaitra month in 599 B.C. in the state of Bihar, India. This day falls in the month of April as per the Christian calendar. His birthday is celebrated as Mahavir Janma Kalyanak day. His birthplace was Kshatriyakund (also known as Kundalpur), which was a part of famous Vaishali republic in the present Indian State of Bihar. His father's name was Siddhartha who was the king of Kshatriyakund. His mother's name was Trishalä. She was the sister of Chetak, the king of Vaishali. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #16 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LORD MAHÄVIR AND HIS TEACHINGS Lord Mahävir had an elder brother named Nandivardhan and a sister named Sudarshanä. King Siddhärtha began to prosper ever since Queen Trishalä became pregnant. Therefore, his parents gave him the name of Vardhamän, meaning, "increasing". From his early childhood, he was found to be unusually intelligent, fearless, affectionate, and compassionate. At school, he hardly needed any instructions. Once, when he was playing with his friends, a big snake appeared in the field. His friends were scared and ran away when they saw the snake but Vardhamän was fearless. He caught the snake by the tail and threw it away. Another time a giant monster came to frighten him, but Vardhaman was unmoved. He was popularly known as Mahävir since he showed high degree of courage and fearlessness. He was also known by his family name as Jnätaputra. At a mature age, he married a princess named Yashodä and eventually had a daughter named Priyadarshana. (According to Digambar tradition he did not marry). By that time, he firmly realized that worldly happiness and pleasures do not last and are based mostly on the inconvenience, miseries, and unhappiness of others. He therefore planned to renounce the worldly life in search of a solution to eliminate pain, sorrow, and sufferings of life and to find true happiness. However, he knew that his parents would be very unhappy if he becomes a monk and renounces the family and all his possessions. He therefore decided not to renounce during their lifetime. His parents passed away when he was 28. He therefore was ready to renounce, but postponed it for two more years at the request of his elder brother. Hence, at the age of 30 he renounced the worldly life and became a monk. Mahävir spent the next twelve and half years in deep silence and meditation to conquer his desires, feelings, and attachments. He carefully avoided harming or annoying other living beings including animals, birds, and plants. Also during this time he observed severe austerities, fasting for most of the time, moving from place to place on foot, and peacefully faced all types of hardships. During this period, he progressed spiritually and ultimately he destroyed four destructive (Ghäti) Karmas and realized perfect perception, perfect knowledge, perfect power, and total bliss. This realization is known as Kevaljnän (omniscience) or perfect enlightenment. Now Mahävir became Lord Mahävir or Bhagawän Mahävir or Mahavir Swämi. Lord Mahävir spent the next thirty years traveling on bare feet around India preaching the eternal truth he had realized to the people. The ultimate objective of his teaching is how one can attain total freedom from the cycle of birth, life, pain, misery, and death, and achieve the permanent blissful state of one's self. This blissful state is also known as liberation, nirvana, absolute freedom, or Moksha. Lord Mahävir explained that from eternity, every living being (soul) is ignorant about his/her true-self and also is in a bondage of karmic particles. These karmic particles are continuously accumulated by our good or bad deeds. Under the influence of karma, the soul is habituated to seek pleasures in materialistic belongings and possessions. This is the deep-rooted cause of self-centered violent thoughts, deeds, anger, hatred, greed, and such other vices. These result in further accumulation of karmas. 16 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #17 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LORD MAHÄVIR AND HIS TEACHINGS Lord Mahävir preached that right faith (Samyag-darshan), right knowledge (Samyag Jnän), and right conduct (Samyag-chäritra) together is the real path to attain the liberation from karmic matter of one's self. At the heart of right conduct for Jains lie the five great vows: Nonviolence (Ahinsä) - Not to cause harm to any living beings Truthfulness (Satya) - To speak the harmless truth only Non-stealing (Asteya) - Not to take anything not properly given Chastity (Brahmacharya) - Not to indulge in sensual pleasure Non-possession/ Non-attachment (Aparigraha) - Complete detachment from people, places, and material things Jains hold these vows at the center of their lives. These vows can not be fully implemented without the acceptance of a philosophy of non-absolutism (Anekäntaväda) and the theory of relativity (Syädväda). Monks and nuns follow these vows strictly and totally, while the common people follow the vows as far as their ability, and, desire permit. In matters of spiritual advancement, as envisioned by Lord Mahävir, men and women are on an equal footing. The lure of renunciation and liberation attracted women as well. Many women followed Mahävir's path and renounced the world in search of ultimate truth and happiness. Thus, the principles of Jainism, if properly understood in their right perspective and faithfully adhered to, will bring contentment and inner happiness and joy in the present life. This will elevate the soul in future reincarnations to a higher spiritual level, ultimately achieving perfect enlightenment, reaching its final destination of eternal bliss, ending all cycles of birth & death. Lord Mahävir attracted people from all walks of life, rich and poor, kings and commoners, men and women, princes and priests, touchable and untouchable. He organized his followers, into a four-fold order, namely monk (Sädhu), nun (Sadhvi), layman (Shrävak), and laywoman (Shrävikä). This order is known as Jain Sangha. Lord Mahävir's sermons were orally compiled in Ägam Sutras by his immediate disciples. These Ägam Sutras were orally passed on to future generations of ascetics. In course of time many of the Agam Sutras were lost, destroyed, and some were modified. About one thousand years later the Agam Sutras were recorded on Tädpatris (leafy paper used in those days to preserve records for future references). Some Jains have accepted these Sutras as authentic versions of His teachings while others do not accept them as authentic. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #18 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LORD MAHÄVIR AND HIS TEACHINGS At the age of seventy two (527 B.C.), Lord Mahävir attained Nirvän and his purified soul left his body and achieved complete liberation. He became a Siddha, a pure consciousness, a liberated soul, living forever in a state of complete bliss. On the night of his Nirvän, people celebrate the Festival of Lights (Deepävali) in His honor. This is the last day of the Hindu and Jain calendar year known as Deepävali Day. Jainism existed long before Lord Mahävir, and his teachings were based on those of his predecessors. Thus Mahävir was more of a reformer and propagator of an existing religious order than the founder of a new faith. He followed the well-established creed of his predecessor Tirthankar Pärshva-Näth. However, Mahävir did reorganize the philosophical tenets of Jainism to correspond to his times. A few centuries after Lord Mahävir nirvana, the Jain religious order (Sangha) grew more and more complex. There were schisms on some minor points, although they did not affect the original doctrines as preached by Mahävir. Later generations saw the introduction of ritualistic complexities, which almost destroyed the simplicity of the Jain religion. Significant points of Teachings of Lord Mahävir: Lord Mahävir made religion simple and natural, free from elaborate ritual complexities. His teachings reflected the internal beauty and harmony of the soul. Lord Mahävir taught the idea of supremacy of human life and stressed the importance of the positive attitude of life. Lord Mahävir's message of nonviolence (Ahinsä), truth (Satya), non-stealing (Achaurya), celibacy (Brahma-Charya), and non-possession (Aparigraha) is full of universal compassion. Lord Mahävir said that, "A living body is not merely an integration of limbs and flesh but it is the abode of the soul, which potentially has perfect perception (Anant-Darshan), perfect knowledge (Anant-Jnän), perfect power (Anant-Virya), and perfect conduct (Anant Charitra). Mahävir's message reflects the freedom and spiritual joy of the living being. Lord Mahävir emphasized that all living beings, irrespective of their size, shape, and form how spiritually developed or undeveloped, are equal and we should love and respect them. This way he preached the gospel of universal love. Lord Mahävir rejected the concept of God as a creator, a protector, and a destroyer of the universe. He also denounced the worshiping of gods and goddesses as a means of material gains and personal benefits. 18 I JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #19 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN ASCETICS (SADHUS AND SADHVIS) Chapter 04 - Jain Ascetics (Sädhus and Sadhvis) When a person renounces worldly life and all worldly attachments and is initiated into monkhood or nunhood, the man is called Sädhu, Shraman or Muni and the woman is called Sadhvi, Shramani, or Aryä. Their renunciation is total, which means they are completely detached from social and worldly activities and they do not take any part in those activities anymore. Instead, they spend their time in spiritually uplifting their souls and guiding householders such as us on how to uplift ourselves (our souls). Five Great Vows (Mahä Vrata) At the time of initiation, Sädhus and Sadhvis take five major vows and live strictly in accordance with those vows. The five great vows are: 1) Ahinsä Mahävrata - Vow of absolute Non-violence. Ahinsä (Pränätipat Viraman Mahävrata) means Sädhu and Sadhvis will never cause harm or violence to any living being including even the tiniest creatures. 2) Satya Mahävrata - Vow of absolute Truthfulness Satya (Mrushäväda Viraman Mahävrata) means they will not lie. They will speak only harmless truth otherwise they will be in silence. 3) Asteya or Achaurya Mahävrata - Vow of absolute Non-stealing Asteya (Adattädäna Viraman Mahävrata) means without the permission of the owner they will not take anything from anywhere. 4) Brahmacharya Mahävrata - Vow of absolute Celibacy Brahmacharya (Maithuna Viraman Mahävrata) means they have to observe celibacy with an absolute adherence to it. The Sädhu or Sädhvis should not even touch a member of the opposite sex regardless of their age. 5) Aparigraha Mahävrata - Vow of absolute Non-attachment Aparigraha (Parigraha Viraman Mahävrata) means they do not possess anything and do not have any attachment for things they keep for their daily needs. In summary, while taking these vows, they say, "O Lord Arihanta! I will not commit the sins of violence, express falsehood, steal, enjoy sensual pleasures, and be possessive. The above sins I will not commit by speech, thought or deed; nor will I assist or order anyone to commit these sins. I will not approve or endorse anyone committing such sins. Oh Lord! I hereby take a sacred and solemn vow that throughout my life, I will follow these five major vows and strictly follow the code of conduct laid out for a Sädhu and a Sadhvi." Therefore, Jain Sädhus and Sadhvis never cause harm or violence to any living being. They live according to the pledge that they do not harm even the tiniest creatures. They always speak the absolute truth. They do not lie on account of fear, desire, anger or deceptive intentions. Without the permission of the owner, they do not take even the smallest thing such as a straw. They observe the vow of celibacy with an absolute adherence to it. They JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN ASCETICS (SADHUS AND SADHVIS) do not touch the members of the opposite sex, even children. If members of the opposite sex touch them by mistake or ignorance, they must undergo a ritual of repentance (Prayashchitta) for self purification. Jain Sädhus and Sadhvis do not keep money with them. They do not own or have control of any wealth, houses, or movable or immovable property or organization. They limit their necessities to the lowest limit and apart from these limits they do not have any attachments or possessions. Special Rules of Conduct for Specific Activities: In addition to the five great vows, the Jain Sädhus or Sädhvis follow special rules of conduct such as not consuming food or water after sunset or before sunrise, and wait 48 minutes after sunrise before even drinking boiled water. Gochari (Alms): Jain Sädhus and Sadhvis do not cook their food, do not get it prepared for them, and do not accept any food, which has been prepared for them. They go to different householders and receive a small amount of vegetarian food from each house. This practice is called Gochari. Just as cows graze the top part of grass by moving from place to place, taking a little at one place and a little at another, in the same way Jain monks and nuns do not take all their food from one house. They collect it from various houses. The reason Jain Sädhus/Sadhvis accept a small amount of food and not all the food from one house is because this way the householders will not have to cook again. The cooking process involves much violence in the form of fire, vegetable chopping, water consumption, etc., and Sädhus or Sädhvis do not want to be a part of any violence due to their needs. They do not receive food standing outside the house; but they go inside the house where food is cooked or kept. This way they can understand the situation that their accepting food will not require the householders to cook again. They accept food, which is within the limit of their vows. Digambar monks do not keep any utensils required for food to carry from one house to another. They eat the food given into their hands only. Hence on each day they have food (Ahär) at one house only. They eat and drink only once a day, standing in one position. They do not use any utensils for food and drink. They fold both hands together so that householder can put a small amount of food in their hands till they have finished eating. Vihär (Travel) Jain monks and nuns always walk bare footed and continuously travel from one place to another. They do not use any vehicle like bullock cart, car, boat, ship or plane for traveling. Whether it is cold weather or scorching sun; whether the road is rough, unpaved, or full of thorns; whether it is burning hot desert sand or sun-baked asphalt, they do not wear any footwear at any time. They move about on bare feet JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #21 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN ASCETICS (SADHUS AND SADHVIS) all their life. The reason for not wearing shoes is that while walking, they can avoid crushing the bugs or insects on the ground. When they travel from place to place, they preach religion (Dharma) and provide proper spiritual guidance to people. They do not stay more than a few days in any one place except during the rainy season, which is about four months in duration. The reason they do not stay anywhere permanently or for a long period in one place is to avoid developing an attachment for material things and the people around them. The Sädhus and Sadhvis generally do not go out at night. The place where they stay is called Upäshray or Paushadha Shälä. They may stay in places other than the Upäshray if those places are suitable to the practice of their disciplined life and if they do not disturb or impede the code of conduct. Loch (Plucking of hair) The Jain Sädhus and Sadhvis after receiving the Dikshä (initiation), pluck their hair twice a year or at least once a year at the time of Paryushan. They pluck their hair or they get the hair plucked by others. This is called Kesh-lochan or Loch. It is also considered as one kind of austerity where one bears the pain of plucking hair calmly. Clothing: Digambar Jain monks do not wear any clothes. Shvetämbar monks wear un-stitched or minimally stitched white cotton clothes. A loincloth, which reaches to the shins, is called a Cholapattak. Another cloth covering the upper part of the body is called Pangarani (Uttariya Vastra). A cloth that passes over the left shoulder and covers the body up to a little above the ankle is called a Kämli. They also carry a bed sheet and a mat to sit on. Shvetämbar monks also have a Muhapatti- a square or rectangular piece of cloth of a prescribed measurement either in their hand or tied on their face covering the mouth. They also have Ogho or Rajoharan (a broom of woolen threads) to clear insects from where they sit or walk. Digambar monks have a Morpichhi (peacock feathers) instead of an Ogho and a Kamandal (small wooden pot) in their hands to keep water for purification of the body. These are the articles by which they can be distinguished. This practice may vary among different sects of Jains but the essential principles remains the same to limit needs. Conferring a Title: The Jain Sädhus, after being initiated (receiving Dikshä), devote their lives to spiritual activities such as meditation, seeking knowledge, acquiring self-discipline, etc. Proceeding on the path of spiritual endeavor, they reach a higher level of attainment. Their spiritual elders, for the preservation of the four-fold Jain Sangha, confer upon them special titles. The Title of Ächärya: This title is considered to be very high and involves a great responsibility. The entire responsibility of the Jain Sangha rests on the shoulders of the Acharya. Before attaining this title, one has to make an in-depth study and a thorough exploration of the Jain Agams and JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 21 Page #22 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN ASCETICS (SÄDHUS AND SÄDHVIS) attain mastery of them. One must also study the various languages of the surrounding territory and acquire a thorough knowledge of all the philosophies of the world related to different ideologies and religions. The Title of Upädhyay: This title is given to a Sädhu who teaches the other Sädhus and Sädhvis and has acquired a complete knowledge of the Agams (Scriptures) and other religious books. The Title of Panyäs and Ganipad: To attain the status of Ganipad one should have in-depth knowledge of the Bhagawati Sutra along with other Ägams. To attain the Panyäs-pad one should have attained a comprehensive knowledge of all aspects of the Jain Agams. The Title of Pravartini: This title is given only to Sädhvis after attaining the knowledge of certain Ägam Sutras such as Uttaradhyayan Sutra, Ächäräng Sutra and ten Payanna Sutra. Conclusion The Jain Sädhus and Sädhvis are unique. Their entire life is dedicated to the spiritual uplift of their souls and others. They bestow their blessings on all, uttering the words Dharma Läbha (may you attain spiritual prosperity). They bless everyone alike irrespective of their caste, creed, gender, age, wealth, poverty, and social status. Some put Väskshep (scented sandal wood powder) on the heads of people. Monks and nuns show the path of a righteous, and disciplined life to every one through discussions, discourses, seminars and camps to attain spiritual prosperity. They perform the Pratikraman (introspection) daily and perform other austerities. 22 I The spiritual pilgrimage is a flight from alone to alone. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN LAITY OR HOUSEHOLDERS (SHRÄVAKAS AND SHRÄVIKÄS) Chapter 05 - Jain Laity or Householders (Shrävakas and Shrävikäs) Monks and nuns are very keen about the uplift of their souls and hence they sacrifice all worldly enjoyments and family relationships, and adopt the five great vows (Mahä-vratas). For those who want to remain in family life, the complete avoidance of the five principle sins are difficult. For them Jain ethics specifies the following twelve vows to be carried out by the householder. Of these twelve vows, the first five are main vows of limited nature (Anuvratas). They are somewhat easier in comparison with great vows (Mahä-vratas). The great vows are for the ascetics. The next three vows are known as merit vows (Guna-Vratas), so called because they enhance and purify the effect of the five main vows and raise their value manyfold. It also governs the external conduct of an individual. The last four are called disciplinary vows (Shikshä-vratas). They are intended to encourage the person in the performance of their religious duties. They reflect the purity of one's heart. They govern one's internal life and are expressed in a life marked by charity. They are preparatory to the discipline of an ascetic's life. The three merit vows (Gunavrata) and four disciplinary vows (Shikshä-vratas) together are known as the seven vows of virtuous conduct (Shilä). A person may adopt these vows, according to his individual capacity and circumstances with the intent to adopt ultimately as full or great vows. The layperson should be very careful while observing and following these limited vows. These vows being limited or restricted vows may still leave great scope for the commitment of sins and possession of property. The twelve vows are described as follows: Twelve Vows of Laity (Householders) Five Main Vows of Limited Nature (Anuvratas): 01 Ahinsä Anuvrata - Non-violence Limited Vow 02 Satya Anuvrata - Truthfulness Limited Vow 03 Achaurya Anuvrata - Non-stealing Limited Vow 04 Brahmacharya Anuvrata - Chastity Limited Vow 05 Aparigraha Anuvrata - Non-attachment Limited Vow Three Merit Vows (Guna-Vratas): 06 Dik Vrata 07 Bhoga Upbhoga Vrata - Limited area of activity vow - Limited use of consumable and non-consumable items - Avoidance of purposeless sins vow 08 Anartha-danda Vrata JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 23 Page #24 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN LAITY OR HOUSEHOLDERS (SHRÄVAKAS AND SHRÄVIKÄS) Four Disciplinary Vows (Shikshä-vratas): 09 Sämäyika Vrata - Meditation vow of limited duration 10 Desävakäsika Vrata - Activity vow of limiting space 11 Paushadha Vrata - Ascetic's life vow of limited duration 12 Atithi Samvibhäg Vrata - Charity vow Five Main Vows of Limited Nature (Anuvratas) 1. Non-violence Limited Vow (Ahinsä Anuvrata) In this vow, a person must not intentionally hurt any living being (plants, animals, human etc.) or their feelings either by thought, word or deed by himself or through others, or by approving such an act committed by somebody else. Intention in this case applies to selfish motives, sheer pleasure, and even avoidable negligence. A person may use force, if necessary, in the defense of his country, society, family, life, property, and religious institute. His agricultural, industrial, occupational living activities do also involve injury to life, but it should be as minimum as possible, through being careful and using due precaution. In Jain scripture the nature of violence is classified in four categories: Premeditated Violence: To attack someone knowingly Defensive Violence: To commit intentional violence in defense of one's own life Vocational Violence: To incur violence in the execution of one's means of livelihood Common Violence: To commit violence towards one sense living beings such as plants in the performance of daily activities Premeditated violence is totally prohibited for all. A householder may not have a choice but to incur violence defensively and vocationally provided he maintains complete detachment. Common violence may be unavoidable for survival, but even here, one should minimize violence in all daily activities such as in preparing food, cleaning house, etc. This explains the Jain's practices of filtering drinking water, vegetarianism, not eating meals at night, and abstinence from alcohol. Nonviolence is the foundation of Jain ethics. Lord Mahävir says: 'One should not injure, subjugate, enslave, torture or kill any living being including animals, insects, plants, and vegetation.' This is the essence of religion. It embraces the welfare of all living beings including animals, insects, vegetation ect. It is the basis of all stages of knowledge and the source of all rules of conduct. 24 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN LAITY OR HOUSEHOLDERS (SHRÄVAKAS AND SHRÄVIKÄS) 2. Truthfulness Limited Vow (Satya Anuvrata) The second of the five limited vows is Truth. It is more than abstaining from falsehood. It is seeing the world in its real form and adapting to that reality. The vow of truth puts a person in touch with his inner strength and inner capacities. In this vow, a person avoids lies, such as giving false evidence, denying the property of others entrusted to him, avoid cheating others, etc. The vow is to be followed in thought, action, and speech, by doing it himself or by getting it done through others. He should not speak the truth, if it harms others or hurts their feelings. He should, under these circumstances, keep silent. 3. Non-stealing (Achaurya / Asteya) Limited Vow In this vow, a person must not steal, rob, or misappropriate others goods and property. He also must not cheat and use illegal means in acquiring worldly things by himself or nor through others or by approving such acts committed by others. 4. Chastity (Brahmacharya) Limited Vow The basic intent of this vow is to conquer passion and to prevent the waste of energy. Positively stated, the vow is meant to impart the sense of serenity to the soul. In this vow, the householder must not have a sensual relationship with anybody but one's own lawfully wedded spouse. Even with one's own spouse, excessive indulgence of all kinds of sensual pleasure need to be avoided. 5. Non-possession / Non-attachment (Aparigraha) Limited Vow Non-possession is the fifth limited vow. As long as a person does not know the richness of joy and peace that comes from within, he tries to fill his emptiness and insecure existence with the clutter of material acquisitions. One must impose a limit on one's needs, acquisitions, and possessions such as land, real estate, goods, other valuables, animals, money, etc. The surplus should be used for the common good. One must also limit every day usage of the number of food items, or articles and their quantity. The Jain principle of limited possession for householders helps the equitable distribution of wealth, comforts, etc., in the society. Thus Jainism helps in establishing socialism, economic stability, and welfare in the world. Non-possession, like non-violence, affirms the oneness of all life and is beneficial to an individual in his spiritual growth and to society for the redistribution of wealth. Three Merit Vows (Guna-Vratas) 6. Limited Area of Activity Vow (Dik Vrata) This vow limits one's worldly activities to certain area in all the ten directions; north, south, east, west, north-east, north-west, south-east, south-west, above and below. A person gives up committing sins in any place outside the limited areas of his worldly activity. This vow JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 25 Page #26 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN LAITY OR HOUSEHOLDERS (SHRÄVAKAS AND SHRÄVIKÄS) provides a space limit to the commitments of minor sins such as defensive, vocational, and common violence for our survival not restricted by the limited vows of non-violence. Thus outside the limited area, the limited vows assumes the status of full vow (Mahä Vratas). 7. Limited use of Consumable / Non-consumable items vow (Bhoga-Upbhoga Vrata) Generally one commits a sin by one's use or enjoyment of consumable (Bhoga) and non-consumable (Upbhoga) objects. Consumable (Bhoga) means enjoyment of an object, which can only be used once, such as food and drink. Non-consumable (Upabhoga) means enjoyment of an object, which can be used several times, such as furniture, clothes, ornaments, and buildings. One should, therefore, limit the use of these two objects in accordance with one's need and capacity by taking these vows. This vow limits the quantity and number of items to the commitment of minor sins not restricted by non-possession limited vow (Aparigraha Anuvrata). 8. Avoidance of Purposeless and Unnecessary Sins Vow (Anartha-danda Vrata) One must not commit unnecessary or purposeless sin or moral offense as defined below. Thinking, talking, or preaching evil or ill of others Doing inconsiderate or useless acts such as walking on grass unnecessarily Manufacturing or supplying arms for attack Reading or listening to obscene literature, or carelessness in ordinary behavior Four Disciplinary Vows (Shikshä-vratas) 9. Equanimity or Meditation Vow of Limited Duration (Sämäyika Vrata) This vow consists in sitting down at one place for at least 48 minutes concentrating one's mind on religious activities like reading religious books, praying, or meditating. This vow may be repeated many times in a day. It is to be observed by mind, body, and speech. 26 The meditation of 48 minutes makes a person realize the importance of the life long vow to avoid all sinful activities and is a stepping-stone to a life of full renunciation. During Sämäyika time, one meditates on the soul and its relationship with karma. One should practice this vow of Sämäyika by giving up affection and aversion (Rag and Dvesha), observing equanimity towards all objects, thinking evil of no one, and being at peace with the world. 10. Limited Duration of Activity Vow (Desävakäsika Vrata) This vow sets new limits to the limitations already set by Dik Vrata and Bhoga Upbhoga Vrata. The general life long limitation of doing business in certain areas and the use of articles are further restricted for particular days and times of the week. This means that one shall not, during a certain period of time, do any activity, business, or travel beyond a certain city, street, or house. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN LAITY OR HOUSEHOLDERS (SHRÄVAKAS AND SHRÄVIKÄS) 11. Limited Ascetic's Life Vow (Paushadha Vrata) This vow requires a person, to live the life of a monk for a day or longer. During this time one should retire to a secluded place, renounce all sinful activities, abstain from seeking pleasure from all objects of the senses, and observe due restraint of body, speech and mind. A person follows five great vows (Mahä-vratas) completely during this time. He passes his time in spiritual contemplation, performs meditation (Sämäyika), engages in self-study, reads scriptures, and worships Gods (Arihantas and Siddhas). This vow promotes and nourishes one's religious life and provides training for ascetic life. 12. Charity Vow (Atithi Samvibhäg Vrata) One should give food, clothes, medicine, and other articles of his own possession to monks, nuns, and pious and needy people. The food offered should be pure and given with reverence. One should not prepare any food especially for monks or nuns because they are not allowed to have such food. Donating of one's own food and articles to monks and others provides an inner satisfaction and raises one's consciousness to higher level. It also saves him from acquiring more sins if he would have used the same for his nourishment, comfort and pleasure. Peaceful Death (Sanllekhana): In the final days of life, a householder can attain a peaceful death if he/she truly follows the above twelve vows. The peaceful death is characterized by non-attachment to worldly objects and by a suppression of passions at the time of death. The last thought should be of a calm renunciation of the body, and this thought should be present long before death supervenes. Conclusion: By performing these twelve vows, a lay follower may live a righteous life and advance towards a fuller and more perfect life, and conquer desire. While earning wealth, supporting family, and taking up arms to protect himself, his family, his country, against intruders, he is taught self-restraint, love and enmity. On one hand, he is debarred from doing any harm to himself, to his family, to his country, or to humanity by reckless conduct. On the other hand, by giving up attachments he gradually prepares himself for the life of ascetics. If one goes deeper into the rules laid down, he will find that the practice of limiting the number of things to be kept or enjoyed eliminates the danger of concentration of wealth at one point, which will help to minimize poverty and crime in society. Thus limiting the desires of individuals, results in an ideal society. I JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GURU GAUTAM-SWÄMI Chapter 06 Guru Gautam-Swämi In 607 B.C., in the village of Gobar of India, a Brahmin couple called Vasubhuti and Prithvi Gautam (family name) had a son named Indrabhuti. He was tall and handsome. He had two younger brothers named Agnibhuti and Väyubhuti. All three were well versed in the Hindu literature (Vedas) and other rituals at an early age. They were very popular and great scholars in the state of Magadh, India. Each one of them had 500 disciples. Indrabhuti stood out as a bright star. Somil was a staunch supporter of the Brahmin sacrificial rite and was very happy during the ceremony. The whole town was excited by this event in which they were going to sacrifice sheep and goats. Suddenly, Somil noticed many celestial beings from heaven descending towards his sacrificial site. He thought that this would make his offering ceremony the most popular in history. He told the people, "Look at the sky. Even the angels are coming to bless us." The whole town eagerly looked at the sky. To their surprise, the celestial beings did not stop at their site, instead they went further down. Somil's ego melted away as he learned that the celestial beings paid homage to Lord Mahavir, who had come to nearby Mahasen Forest for sermon. Indrabhuti was outraged by this incident and his ego was bruised. He started thinking to himself, "Who is this Mahävir who does not even use affluent Sanskrit, but speaks the common public language of Ardha Mägadhi." Everyone in the ceremony was overpowered by the mere presence of Lord Mahävir. Indrabhuti once again thought, "Mahävir opposes animal sacrifices, and if he succeeds then we Brahmins will lose our livelihood. I will debate with him." He left the Yajna site to challenge Lord Mahävir. 28 Somil's Yajna Once in the city of Apäpä, a Brahmin named Somil was conducting a Yajna (sacrificial ceremony) at his home. There were over forty four hundreds Brahmins present for the occasion, and there were eleven popular scholars among them. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GURU GAUTAM-SWÄMI Mahävir welcomed Indrabhuti by calling him by his name even though they had never met. Indrabhuti was surprised, but then he said to himself, "Who does not know me? I am not surprised he knew my name. I wonder if he knows what I am thinking." Omniscient Mahavir knew what was going through Indrabhuti's mind. Indrabhuti, even though a great scholar, had doubt about the existence of Ätmä (soul) and was thinking to himself "Can Mahävir tell that I doubt the existence of the soul?" The next moment Mahävir said, "Indrabhuti, Ätmä (soul - consciousness) is there and you should not question it." Indrabhuti was shocked and began to think very highly of Mahävir. Then they had a philosophical discussion and Indrabhuti changed his beliefs and became Mahävir's first and chief disciple. Indrabhuti was fifty years old at the time, and from then on he was called Gautam-swämi, because he came from Gautam family. Meanwhile in the town, Somil and other scholars were waiting to greet the expected winner of the debate, Indrabhuti. They were shocked to learn that Indrabhuti had become a disciple of Mahävir. The other ten Brahmin scholars also went to debate with Mahävir, but instead became his disciples the same way as Indrabhuti did. The people present at Somil's place began to leave and Somil canceled the ceremony and turned all the animals loose. Anand Shrävak's Special Power Once, Gautam-swami was returning after the Gochari (getting food or alms) and he noticed many people going in another direction. He asked them what was going on. They said, "We are going to see Anand Shrävak. He has been performing austerities and has attained a special power (Avadhijnän)." Anand Shrävak was Lord Mahävir's follower so Gautam-swämi decided to go and visit him. When Anand saw Gautam-swämi coming to his house he was very happy that his guru (spiritual teacher) visited him. Though he was very weak due to his austerities, he got up and welcomed Gautam-swämi. Gautam-swämi inquired about his condition. Anand replied, "With your blessings, I am fine." After some time Anand told Gautamswämi with respect, "Reverend teacher, I have attained a special power (Avadhijnän) and because of which I can see as high as the fourteenth heaven and as low as the seventh hell." Gautam-swämi thought, "A Shrävak can attain Avadhijnän, but not to this extent." Aloud he told Anand, "You should do Prayashchitta (atonement) for your wrong imagination." Anand JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GURU GAUTAM-SWÄMI was puzzled. He knew that he was correct but his teacher told him to atone for it. So he politely asked Gautam-swämi, "Does one have to atone for telling the truth?" Gautam-swämi replied, "No," and then left the place thinking, "I will reconfirm this with Lord Mahävir." Gautam-swämi returned to Lord Mahävir and asked about Anand's special power. Mahävir said, "Gautam, Anand was telling the truth. How could a person like you with so much knowledge make such a mistake? You should atone for your mistake." Mahävir believed in the truth and he would never cover up the mistake of his disciple just to make their group look good. Gautam-swämi put his alms aside and immediately went to Anand's house to ask for forgiveness for his doubt about his special power. Anand was proud of his humble teacher who did not mind admitting his own fault to his followers. Kheer Offerings to 1500 Hermits On another occasion, Gautam-swämi went to town for the alms. He was returning with the kheer (a sweet made from rice and milk) in a Pätra (bowl) when he saw fifteen hundred hermits. Gautam-swämi felt that they were hungry and offered them the kheer. They began to wonder how Gautam-swämi would feed all of them. Gautam-swämi requested all of the hermits to sit down. Since he possessed a special power call Akshinmahanasi Labdhi (non-diminishing power), he then served everyone the kheer from his bowl. While serving the kheer, he kept his thumb in it to invoke the power. To everyone's surprise they were all well served from the small Pätra (bowl). The hermits were all so impressed by Gautamswämi that all fifteen hundred decided to become Jain monk under Lord Mahävir. 30 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GURU GAUTAM-SWÄMI Many Sädhus, including those hermits, attained Kevaljnän, the ultimate knowledge but Gautamswami was still unable to attain it. He was worried that he would never attain kevaljnän. One day Gautam-swami asked Lord Mahavir, "There were eleven of us (main disciples - Ganadhars) who accepted Dikshä and most of them have attained kevaljnän. Why am I so unlucky that I am not able to attain kevaljnän?" Lord Mahävir replied, "Gautam, you have too much affection for me. In order to attain kevaljnän you must overcome the attachment. So, until you give up your attachment towards me, it will not be possible for you to attain Kevaljnän." On the day when Lord Mahävir was to attain Nirvän (liberation), Mahävir sent Gautamswämi out to a nearby village to preach to a man named Devsharma. On his way back, Gautam-swämi learned that Lord Mahävir had attained (died). Gautam-swami went into a state of shock and sorrow, lamenting, "Lord Mahävir knew this was going to happen. Why did he send me away." Gautam-swämi could not stop his tears and started weeping. Within a few minutes he came back to his senses and began thinking, "No one can live forever, no relationship is permanent. Why was so attached to Lord Mahävir?" May be Mahävir sent me away at this time so that I can understand the reality". He contemplated that he was wrong and gave up attachment for Mahävir. During this deep thinking he destroyed his destructive (Ghäti) Karmas and attained the ultimate knowledge, (Kevaljnän) at the age of eighty. He attained Nirvän, at the age of ninety-two in 515 B.C. Key Message: Gautam Swami was Brahmin by birth and a very well learned Pundit. When he met Lord Mahävir and found that the Lord was far more learned than him, he let go his ego and became His disciple. Thus, his life teaches us that one should always respect those who are spiritually and religiously more advanced than us. Gautam Swami was the first and the main disciple of Lord Mahävir. However, he could not attain omniscience even though many other disciples had attained omniscience. This was due to his deep love for the Lord. Love is a passion. To attain omniscience, one must get rid of all passions. When Gautam Swami, realized this and got rid of all his passions, he attained omniscience. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GOING TO THE TEMPLE - SHVETÄMBAR TRADITION Chapter 07 - Going To The Temple - Shvetämbar Tradition One can pray at anytime, anywhere. But a special sacred place, set-aside just for prayer, is the temple. Because it is a sacred place, there are special rules one should follow while in the temple. First of all, before you go to a temple, you should take a bath and wear clean clothes. These clothes cannot be made of leather, wool, or silk. For Pujä there should be special clothes worn only when going to the temple. Shoes must be removed outside the temple. When one sees the idols for the first time, the hands should be folded, the head should be slightly bowed and 'Namo Jinänam' should be recited. This means I salute Jin' and is a sign of respect. Afterwards, one performs Dasha -Trika, or the ten rituals that should be followed at a temple. Ten Rituals of the Temple (Dasha-Trik) 01 Nissihi Renunciation 02 Pradakshina Circumambulation - going around the Jin's idol 03 Pranam Salutation 04 Pujä Worship 05 Avasthä-chintan Contemplation upon the various states of the Lord Dishatyag Concentrate only on Jin's idol 07 Pramärjana Cleaning the floor before sitting down Älambana Mental support 09 Mudras Postures for meditation 10 Pranidhana Remain meditative 06 32 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GOING TO THE TEMPLE - SHVETÄMBAR TRADITION 1. Nissihi (Renunciation) Nissihi means renunciation (giving up). It is said three times in the temple: The first Nissihi is said while entering the temple to discard all the thoughts relating to worldly affairs (Sansär). Having entered the temple, it is the duty of the laypeople to make sure temple management is running smoothly. One may help to clean the temple. After having taken care of such duties, the second Nissihi is said while entering the actual area of the Jin idol sanctum (Gabhäro); to discard thinking of such things as the cleaning of the temple and its management. The third Nissihi is said right after finishing worship with the physical substances (Dravyapuja) and at the beginning of the internal devotional worship (Bhävapujä/ Chaityavandan). it is the duty of the daype 2. Pradakshinä (Circumambulation) You circumambulate (go around in a circle) the Jin idols three times, from the left to the right, keeping the Jin idols on your right side. The circumambulations remind you that there are three remedies to overcome attachment and hatred and to attain liberation : Samyag Darshan (Right Faith) • Samyag Jnän (Right Knowledge) • Samyag Charitra (Right Conduct) For eternity we have been revolving in the cycle of birth and death. When we obtain these three jewels of our faith in the teachings of the Jin, obtaining knowledge about the self as experienced and explained by the Jin, and instill these teachings into our behavior, our liberation becomes a certainty. We reflect upon these lines as we circumambulate around the idols. 3. Pranam (Salutation) We salute the idols of Tirthankars three times. • The first salutation is offered either when you see the Shikhar, or when you see the idols of the Tirthankars (usually at the time of entering temple), by placing the folded hands over the slightly bent forehead and saying Namo Jinänam. • The second salutation is done with folded hands and bowed body as you enter the sanctum (Gabhäro - place of idols). The third salutation is done while touching the ground with five body parts (2 knees, 2 hands, and the forehead) before performing Chaityavandan / Bhävapujä (internal devotional worshipping). This is called Panchanga-pranipät. 4. Puja (Worship) According to the Shvetämbar tradition, worship is offered in three different ways: (1) The first worship is called Angapujä. This is done by anointing the different parts of an idol of Arihanta with water, sandalwood paste, and a flower. (2) The second worship is called Agrapujä, which is done by placing incense, a lamp, rice, fruit, and sweets in front of idols. (3) The third worship is Bhävapujä, which is done by performing Chaityavandan. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GOING TO THE TEMPLE - SHVETÄMBAR TRADITION The first and second worships together make Ashta-prakäri Pujä (eightfold worship). Collectively these two Pujäs are called Dravyapuja (physical worship). Ashta Prakäri Pujä (eightfold worship) The Ashta-prakäri Puja is done by offering eight different types of substances during worship. Internal devotional worship is reflected within. Jain Pujä symbolizes various aspects of our religion. One should reflect on such aspects while performing the Pujä rituals. There are different types of Pujä being performed for various religious and social ceremonies. The following eight materials are used in performing Pujä. 1. Jal (Water) Pujä: By bathing the idol in the right manner we ask; may the impurities of our Karmas wash away from our soul. Let us bathe the idol of Arihanta with water in the form of equanimity from the Kalash in the form of knowledge; so that our karmas get destroyed. My soul, a Kalash made of knowledge, I fill, with the water of equanimity. And as / bathe the Arihanta, My karmas are washed away. 2. Chandan (Sandal-wood) Puja: To achieve the tranquility (coolness) in our soul we worship the idol of Arihanta with the sandalwood paste because tranquility resides in Arihanta and his face is also tranquil. He whose face beams of the tranquility within The one whose very nature is tranquil To that Arihanta / worship To make my soul tranquil. 3. Pushpa (Flower) Pujä: We should live our life like flowers full of love and compassion towards all living beings. By offering fragrant and unbroken flowers to Arihanta we reflect upon to live our life like flower. Perfumed, a flower in full bloom I hold; For this Pujä, which destroys the misery of birth. Just as a bee hovers around the flower; To be around you always, I ask that Samyaktva be imprinted upon me. 34 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GOING TO THE TEMPLE - SHVETÄMBAR TRADITION 4. Dhoop (Incense) Pujä: By placing incense (Dhoop) on the left side of the idol, we initiate the upward meditation to destroy the bad odor of Mithyätva (false faith) and manifest our pure soul. Meditation illuminates the dense darkness, Just as I offer the incense before the beautiful eyes of the Jin; Driving away the bad smell of wrong faith, The innate nature of the soul emerges 5. Deepak (Lamp) Pujä: The flame of a lamp (Deepak) represents a Pure Consciousness, or a Soul without any bondage, or a Liberated Soul. When we light the lamp in the right manner, our miseries get destroyed. As a result, we get the knowledge in the form of Kevaljnän, which illuminates the whole universe. Like a lamp, help us distinguish between good and bad To avoid sorrow in this world and one day, my internal lamp of knowledge will Illuminate the entire universe 6. Akshat (Rice) Pujä: Household rice is the kind of grain seeds which are non-fertile. One cannot grow rice plants by seeding household rice. Symbolically it means that rice is the last birth. By doing this Pujä, one should thrive to put all the efforts in life in such a way that this life becomes one's last life and after the end of this life one will be liberated and not born again. By offering pure and unbroken rice grains in the form of Nandävarta, we meditate in front of Arihanta, keeping all our worldly attachments away. Pure unbroken Akshat I hold And draw this large Nandävarta In the presence of my lord, I wish all my worldliness Will postpone indefinitely 7. Naivedya (Sweet) Pujä: In the course of the cycle of birth and death, I have remained hungry many times but that was transitory. O! Arihanta! give me the permanent state where there is no desire of food. The ultimate aim in one's life is to attain a life where no food is essential for our existence. That is the life of a liberated Soul who lives in Moksha forever in ultimate bliss. Many a times I have gone hungry O Pure One! Without a trace of desire, Do satiate me eternally. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GOING TO THE TEMPLE - SHVETÄMBAR TRADITION 8. Fal (Fruit) Pujä: For the Puja of Arihanta, the Supreme Being, heavenly gods bring fruits with devotion and ask for the Moksha, the ultimate fruit. Fruit symbolizes Moksha or Liberation. Just as Indra and other Devas Out of their extreme love for you, I bring along 'fruits' to worship. Upon meeting you, O Supreme soul, I renounce worldly aspirations and desire only Moksha as the fruit of all my actions. The main purpose of Puja is that by reciting the virtues of the Tirthankar we also remind ourselves that these same virtues are also possessed by us, and that by taking the path of the Tirthankars we can also achieve Nirvän. 5. Avasthä Chintan (Contemplating On The Different States of Arihanta) After completing the external worship, you must carry out this contemplation. The male should stand on the right side of the idol of Arihanta (that is the left side while facing the idol) while the female should stand on the left side of it (that is the right side while facing the idol). Standing this way, you should contemplate on the three different states that Arihantas went through. They are Pindastha Avasthä (ordinary embodied souls) • Padastha Avasthä (omniscient embodied souls) Rupätita Avasthä (liberated souls). Pindastha Avasthä In Pindastha Avasthä you contemplate on Arihanta's (1) Janmävasthä (2) Rajyavasthä (3) Shramanävasthä (1) Janmävasthä: Oh Lord, during your third previous life, you acquired Tirthankar Näm Karma, compassion towards all living beings, etc. When you were born to be a Tirthankar, all of 56 female angels of directions and 64 Indras performed birth rituals to you. How great you were that even at such an occasion, you did not feel proud of what was happening around you. Your loftiness is blessed. (2) Rajyävasthä: Oh Lord, you had the status of a Prince. You had princely power and grandeur, and yet you were neither attached to them nor felt hatred about them. You were like a Yogi who is detached. Glory to your renunciation. (3) Shramanävasthä: Oh heroic Lord, you renounced worldly power and luxury without any hesitation and became a Sädhu (monk). You carried out heroic endeavors for the attainment of spiritual elevation, bearing the most bitter obstacles and calamities. At times you carried out incomparable and arduous spiritual austerities and penance. You stood for days absorbed in deep meditation. By doing so, you destroyed all the Ghäti Karmas. Glory to your austerity. Glory to your bravery. Glory to your tolerance. 36 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GOING TO THE TEMPLE - SHVETÄMBAR TRADITION Padastha Avasthä In Padastha Avasthä, you contemplate the state of life as a Tirthankar. Oh Tirthankar, you have acquired the 34 Atishaya (super specialties) and offered us spiritual sermons on Tattvas. Oh Tirthankar, you then established the four-fold Jain Sangha, Tirth, and Shäsan. Oh Tirthankar, you explained the noble doctrines of Jiv Tattva (living substance) and Ajiv Tattva (Non-living substance) of the universe. You showed the path of salvation comprised of the right faith, right knowledge, and right character. You expounded the immortal philosophical doctrines like Anekantaväda (multiplicity view points), Syädväda, and Naya. Rupätita Avasthä: In this, you contemplate on the pure form of Jin. Oh, Paramätmä (supreme being)! You have totally destroyed all your Karma, and you have become bodiless, pure, awakened, liberated, and perfect. Having attained this state, you are absorbed in infinite knowledge and infinite bliss. You possess countless virtues. Your state is absolutely free from impurities, distortion, and agitation. In this state, death, disease, distress, or poverty, and all other adversities do not exist. O Lord, you are blessed! 6. Dishätyag (Concentrate Only On Jin's idol) Now you should prepare for the Bhävapujä worship, known as Chaityavandan. You should not be distracted by anything. Your eyes and mind should concentrate on the idol and you should not look up, down, sideways, or behind. 7. Pramärjana (Cleaning The Ground Before Sitting Down) Before sitting you should clean the ground three times with your upper cloth, so that no small insect may be hurt by you sitting there. 8. Älambana (Support) Having sat down, you must keep three supports in your mind: (1) the image of the Lord, (2) the sutras you recite, and (3) their meanings. Your mind should be concentrated on these three things. 9. Mudrä (Posture) The correct posture is very much necessary to attain sublime concentration during Chaityavandan. Yoga Mudra: During Chaityavandan and the recital of the sutras, you must sit straight with both palms together and the fingers of one hand in the spaces between the fingers of the other hand, with the elbows to the sides of your stomach. Mukta-shukti Mudrä: You must keep your hands in the posture of an oyster shell, with both hands together so that there is a space between the two palms where the fingers meet. This posture is used at the time of recitation of the sutras Jävanti Cheyi Ayim, Jävanti Kevi Sähu, and Jai Viyaräya. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GOING TO THE TEMPLE - SHVETÄMBAR TRADITION Jin Mudra: At the time of Käyotsarga, you stand up in such a way that there is a distance of 4 inches between your two feet at the toes in the front while the distance between two heels must be less than four inches. Your hands should be hanging down. Your eyes should be fixed on the tip of your nose. Jin stood in Käyotsarga with this posture. 10 Pranidhana (Remain Meditative) You should engage your mind, speech and bodily senses in Chaityavandan. By the correct bodily postures and senses focused on the Bhäv Pujä, by correct pronunciation of sutras, and by focusing your mind on Chaityavandan and not letting it wander, you complete the final procedure of Pranidhana. Members of some Jain sects e.g. Sthänakaväsi and Teräpanthi do not worship in a temple. Precautions Here are the precautions to be taken in respect of worship. 01 You must respect the idols as living Arihantas. In case, the idol of Arihanta has to be carried from one place to another; it should be carried in reverence by holding it straight with the support of both hands beneath it. 02 The flowers selected should have naturally fallen down, and should not be plucked from plants for this purpose. The buds of the flowers should not be removed. When making a garland of the flowers, a needle should not be used for stringing them together, and they should not be washed. 03 While using a soft brush to clear things stuck to the idols of the Jinas, it should not make even the slightest noise. You may clean the idols with a wet thick cloth to remove sandalwood marks. Do not rub the idols roughly. 04 The flowers, the decorations, and the sandalwood paste should be kept on a clean plate and should not be allowed to fall to the ground. In case they do fall, they should not be used in Pujä. 05 While preparing the sandalwood paste, you must cover your mouth with a clean cloth. When you finish, you should wash your hands and the stone slab properly. 06 You must recite the hymns and sutras relating to the Chaityavandan (prayer) in such a way, that you do not disturb the concentration and devotion of others. 07 While reciting Chaityavandan, you should not engage in any other activities, including forming the swastika from rice. 08 When you leave the temple, you should not turn your back towards the idols of Arihantas. Rather, you should walk backwards a few steps first and then leave. The Jain religion is based on internal devotion. The Kriya (associated outside activities) are simply to strengthen your internal devotional thought processes. Conclusion Going to a Jain temple is one of the most important daily essential activities in a householder's life. There are several different procedures to be observed in the temple. It is of utmost importance not to wear silk or leather articles inside the temple (or anywhere). 38 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L Every idol-worshipping religion attaches great significance to Puja of the idol and corresponding rituals. A person feels gratified and experiences great joy upon catching a glimpse of the idol, which he/she adores the most. GOING TO THE TEMPLE - DIGAMBAR TRADITION Chapter 08 Going To The Temple Digambar Tradition The Six Daily Essentials Prescribed for a Jain Householders are : • Dev Pujä Dev Pujä is the foremost of the essentials for Jains. Pujä is usually done in the presence of an idol and with some offerings (Dravya Pujä), but it can also be done in the absence of an idol and with no material offerings (Bhäv Pujä). Pujä is usually performed in the temple before an idol of an Arihanta, but it can also be performed at home with or without an idol. Guru Upasti Swadhyay Saiyam Tap or penance Däna or charity Before visiting the temple, a person must take a bath and put on washed clothes, which are usually kept in the temple for this purpose. While going to temple, utmost care should be observed that no living beings are harmed due to ones carelessness. Before entering the temple one must wash his hands and feet. As he enters the temple hall, he should ring the bells slowly so the Devas and people around acknowledge his presence. As one enters into the temple, one should chant : Nissihi, Nissihi, Nissihi Om Jai Jai Jai Namostu, Namostu, Namostu One then recites the Namokär Mantra three times and bows before the idol. He then walks around the vedi or alter in a clockwise direction three times. He then enters the Gabhäro for Pujä • Pujä Consist of the following Rituals: • Abhisheka or Prakshal (i.e. Bathing the Idol) • Pujä - Prarambh . Main Pujä Jaimala Shanti Path Visarjan Aarti JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 39 Page #40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GOING TO THE TEMPLE - DIGAMBAR TRADITION Abhisheka Bathing the idol is called Abhisheka and is usually done with pure water. On certain occasions, people perform the Panchamrut Abhisheka, which consists of five substances (dravyas): water, milk, curd, sandal water, and ghee. However, seeing the way in which milk is obtained these days, one should not use milk and its products in Pujä. The main purpose of the abhisheka is to wash away any bad thoughts in our mind. It also serves the purpose of keeping the idol clean. The prayer usually used during this pujä is Papacharan taj nabha karke chitt me ese dharu, sakchayat sri Arihant ka mano nabhansparsan karoo, which is given under Janmkalyanak in Pujä books. It reminds us of how Indra felt as he was bathing the newborn Tirthankar. We pray to God to remove all evil thoughts, desires, passions and worldly attachments so that what remains of us will be pure self. After bathing the idol is dried with clean clothes. At this time one recites the prayer "Prabhu Patit Pawan". Pujä - Prärabdha In this ritual one recites the Swasti Mangal Stotra Main Pujä: The main pujä is done with eight substances (Asta-dravya) 40 Jal Pujä In this pujä, pure water is offered to rid oneself of the cycle of birth, aging, and death (Janma Jara Mrityu Vinashnaya). Every living being continuously travels through the miseries of birth, life, and death. The Jal reminds us to live our life as pure as water; this way one will be able to attain Moksha. Chandan Pujä In this pujä, sandal wood powder or saffron mixed in water is offered to subside the suffering of the world (Sansär taap vinashnaya). The very nature of Chandan (sandal) is to overcome our miseries thru knowledge of our religion. Akshat Pujä In this pujä, white washed rice without husk (called Akshat) is offered which symbolizes the end of the birth, life, and death cycle (Akshay pad praptaya) just as white rice can not be re-germinated. Pushp Pujä In this pujä, flower or saffron colored rice is offered. Flower symbolizes passion and sensual pleasure. Offering the flower means abandoning all passions, which are the root cause for the accumulation of karmas (Kamvaan Vinasnaya). Saffron colored rice is used most of the time instead of picking flowers, which causes hinsa to plants and carries insects in them. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GOING TO THE TEMPLE - DIGAMBAR TRADITION Naivedya Puja Naivedya symbolizes tasty food. In this puja small white pieces of uncolored coconut representing tasty food are offered. It signifies the desire of the person doing puja to be able to reduce or eliminate desire of tasty food (Chuda rog Vinasanaya). The ultimate aim of ones life is to avoid the need for any food at all by attaining nirvän. Again, to avoid the violence involved in the making of sweets, Digambar sect uses pieces of coconut. Deepak Puja In this pujä, lamp (diya or deepak) is offered to destroy the darkness of ignorance and false beliefs (Mohandhakar Vinashnaya). Most of the time saffron colored pieces of coconuts are used to represent lamp or Deepak. Because the flame of a lamp causes hinsa to the living beings in the air. Dhup Puja In this pujä, cloves or sandal dust representing dhup is offered to destroy all the eight karmas (Astkarma Vindhansanya). Fal Pujä In this pujä, shelled almonds or coconut representing fruits are offered. Fruit symbolizes nirvän or Moksha, which is the ultimate goal of every living beings in the universe (Moksha Phal Praptaya). Here again, whole almonds or coconut are used to minimize possible violence involved in offering fresh fruits. Arghya Puja A mixture of all eight pujä substances (dravyas) is called Arghya. Arghya puja is performed when one does not have time to do full pujä using all eight dravyas separately (Anargh Pad Praptaya). Jayamala (Adoration): In this ritual, one recites the virtues of the Tirthankar Bhagawän. While reciting his virtues, one is also reminded that our soul possesses similar virtues and is capable of attaining Moksha by getting rid of Karmas (Siddha Swaroopo Hum; Atma so Parmatma) Shanti Path : Essentially wishing peace and happiness for all the living being by reciting peace prayer (Shanti Path). Visharjan : This ritual concludes the pujä. In it one prays to all of the celestials beings present during the pujä to return to their respective places and asking for their forgiveness for any mistakes or negligence committed during the Pujä. Ärti : Ärti of Panch parmesti or Tirthankar is recited to end the pujä. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #42 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GOING TO THE TEMPLE - DIGAMBAR TRADITION Following the Ärti, one reads scripture (Swädhyay) and does meditation. Swädhyay is also built into the Pujä; carefully reciting the Pujä can lead to better understanding of the concepts of Jain philosophy. Although Pujäs are usually directed to Tirthankars, regular worshiping of the Jain scriptures (Dev Shästra Guru Samuchchaya Pujä) is also part of the daily pujä. Also certain types of Pujäs are associated with special occasion or festivals, which helps to strengthen our belief in our religion. Following is the list of various Pujäs performed in Digambar traditions • · • • Panch Kalyanak Pujä, which adores the five Kalyänaks of Tirthankars Panch Parmesti (Arihant, Siddha, Acharya, Upadhyay, and Sädhu) Puja Jin Dharma, Jin Agam, Jin Chetya and Jin Chetyalya Puja Nav Devta Pujä, a prayer to the nine religious leaders Das Laxan Pujä, which adores the ten great virtues of ascetics 42 Ratnatrya Pujä, which adores the path of liberation Deevali Pujä, which celebrates the Nirvän Kalyänak of Lord Mahävir Sohlakaran Pujä Dhoopdashmi Puja Rakshabandan Pujä The whole purpose of puja is that by reciting the virtues of the Tirthankar, we also remind ourselves that these same virtues are also possessed by us and that by taking the path of the Tirthankars, we can also achieve the liberation. I "Meditation is neither a journey in space nor a journey in time but an instantaneous awakening" JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #43 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN SYMBOLS Chapter 09 - Jain Symbols Main Symbol This Jain Symbol is an arrangement of various symbols, each having a significant meaning. This symbol was adopted by all sects of Jainism while commemorating the 2500th anniversary of the nirvana of Lord Mahävir. The outline of the symbol represents the shape of the universe (Loka). The lower part of the symbol represents the seven hells (Näraki). The middle part of the universe contains the Earth and the planets (Manushya-Loka). The upper part contains the heavenly abodes (Deva-Loka) of all the celestial beings and the abode of the Siddhas (Siddhashilä). Jains believe that this universe was neither created by anyone, nor can it be destroyed by anyone. It is Static and will remain at the same location in the vast empty space of the entire existence. The raised hand means stop. The word in the center of the wheel is "Ahinsä". Ahinsä means nonviolence. Together they remind us to stop for a minute and think twice before doing anything. This gives us a chance to scrutinize our activities to be sure that they will not hurt anyone by our thoughts, words or actions. We should also not to ask or encourage others to take part in any harmful activity. The wheel inside the hand indicates that if we are not careful and carry on violent activities, then just as the wheel goes round and round, we will go round and round through the cycles of birth and death. परस्परोपग्रहो जीवानाम् The four arms of the Swastika remind us that during the cycles of birth and death we may be born into any one of the four realms: heavenly beings, human beings, animal beings, (including birds, bugs, and plants) and hellish beings. Our aim should be liberation and not rebirth. To show how we can do this, the swastika also reminds us that we should become pillars of the four folds Jain Sangha. Only then can we achieve liberation. The four pillars of the Jain Sangha are Sädhus, Sädhvis, Shrävaks, and Shrävikäs. This means that first we should strive to be a true Shrävaks or Shrävikäs, and when we overcome our social attachments, we should renounce worldly life and follow the path of a Sädhu or Sädhvi to be liberated. The four arms are also representative of Däna (charity), Sheel (virtue), Tapa (austerities), and Bhäv (noble thoughts) The three dots above the swastika represent the three jewels of Jainism: Samyag Darshan (Right Faith), Samyag Jnän (Right Knowledge), and Samyag Charitra (Right Conduct). We JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 43 Page #44 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN SYMBOLS should have all three: with right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct together we can achieve liberation. Right knowledge means having the knowledge that soul and body are separate and that the soul, not the body attains salvation. Right faith means one must have faith in the true knowledge of soul and matter and its relationship as defined in Jain Karma Philosophy. Right conduct means that our actions should be devoid of attachment and hatred. At the very top part of the Jain symbol is a small crescent. It is known as the Siddhashilä. This crescent represents the abode of the Siddhas. It is the final resting place of liberated souls. The dot represents a Siddha. In order to achieve this stage, a soul must destroy all attached karmas. Every living being should strive for this state of Salvation or Liberation. Symbol Adopted by JAINA: Federation of Jain Associations in North America (JAINA) has adopted this symbol. The Swastika from main symbol has been replaced by the Om (Aum) symbol. In western world, Swastika is not viewed as a pious symbol. Let us see what Om represents: The Sanskrit word Om (Aum) is made up of five sounds and letters; a, a, aa, u, and m: • The first letter "a" represents Arihanta (human being who has realized the true nature of reality and has conquered passions) The second "a" represents A-shariri (Ashariri means a soul without physical body, liberated soul or Siddha or perfected being) The third letters "aa" represents Acharya (Ascetic who is head of the congregation) • The fourth letter "u" represents Upadhyäy (Ascetic teacher) • The fifth letter "m" represents Muni (Sädhu or Sädhvis who practice Jain principles). Hence, the Om represents a salutation to the five revered personalities in the Jain religion. Om is a short form of the Namokar Mantra. The text underneath the symbol, "Parasparopagraho Jivänäm" translates as "Living beings (souls) render services to one another". 44 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #45 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DREAMS OF MOTHER TRISHALA Chapter 10 - Dreams of Mother Trishalä Tirthankar Mahävir's soul was a heavenly god in the tenth heaven before being born as Prince Vardhamän. At midnight on the sixth day of the bright half of Ashädh, his Ayushya Karma ended, and so did his life as a heavenly god (Dev). His soul transmigrated to earth and was conceived in the womb of a Brahmin lady named Devananda. That night Devananda had 14 unique dreams. She woke up and told her husband about the dreams. He told her that their son would be a great one and gifted with many virtues. 82 days later, on the thirteenth day of the month of Aso, Saudharma Indra, the King of heavenly gods was in his court. His throne started shaking, so he used his special power (Avadhijnän), through which he can see distant things. He learned that Lord Mahävir's soul had been conceived in Devananda's womb who belongs to Brahmin caste. For a moment he was puzzled, but then he realized that this was the result of Lord Mahävir's Gotra (caste or social standing) karma from his previous life. In the life of Marichi (3rd life), Lord Mahävir bragged about his race (caste), indicating that his race is the best among all other races existed then (At that time in India, Brahmins earn their living by performing religious rituals for warrior caste people such as king. Hence it was considered that the warrior caste is the best among all other castes). However Indra said to himself, "Tirthankar may be conceived in any caste due to his/her Karma but he/she must born in a Kshatriya (warrior) caste. It is the characteristics of a warrior caste to fight against evils. Mahävir's soul must take a birth in a warrior caste so that he will be able to fight his Karma until he attains Kevaljnän. I will move his soul (fetus) to a Kshatriya family." He summoned Angel Hari Naigamesin to his court and commanded him to migrate the fetus from the womb of Devananda to the womb of Queen Trishalä, the wife of King Siddhartha, and to migrate Queen Trishalä's fetus in Devananda's womb. Angel Hari Naigamesin left the court of King Saudharma Indra to go to Devananda's home. With his divine speed, he soon arrived at the bedside of Devananda and paid his reverence to the soul of Lord Mahävir. With his divine power, he put Devananda into a deep sleep, removed the fetus and then left to go to Queen Trishala's palace. Again with his divine speed, he reached Queen Trishalä's palace within a very short time. He used his divine power to put Queen Trishalä into a deep sleep and then he performed the exchange of the fetuses. Once again, he paid reverence to Lord Mahävir's soul. Then he left with the fetus of Queen Trishala and went to Devananda's home to replace the fetus in her womb. (Digambar sect believes that Mahävir was conceived by queen Trishala and not by Devanda). That night, Queen Trishalä had the fourteen great dreams (sixteen dreams as per Digambar tradition). The dreams filled her with immense wonder and joy. She woke her husband, King Siddhartha and told him what she saw in the dreams. He told her that those dreams seemed very auspicious. The next day, King Siddhartha summoned scholars to his court and asked them about the meaning of these dreams. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE Page #46 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DREAMS OF MOTHER TRISHALÄ 01 Elephant The first dream Queen Trishalä had was of an Elephant. It was big, tall, and had four tusks. It was an auspicious elephant endowed with all the desirable marks of excellence. This dream indicated that she would give birth to a child with exceptionally high character. The four tusks signified that he would guide the spiritual chariot with its four components: monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen. 02 Bull The second dream Queen Trishalä had was of a Bull. The bull was noble, grand, and had a majestic hump. It had fine, bright and soft hairs on its body. Its horns were superb and sharply pointed. This dream indicated that her son would be highly religious and a great spiritual teacher. He would help cultivate the religion. 03 Lion The third dream Queen Trishalä had was of a Magnificent Lion. His claws were beautiful and well poised. The lion had a large well rounded head and sharp teeth. His lips were perfect and his eyes were sharp and glowing. His tail was impressively long and well shaped. The Queen saw this lion descending towards her and entering her mouth. This dream indicated that her son would be as powerful and strong as the lion. He would be fearless, almighty, and capable of ruling the world. 04 Goddess Laxmi The fourth dream Queen Trishalä had was of the Goddess Laxmi, the goddess of wealth, prosperity, and power. She was seated on a lotus and wore many rows of pearls interlaced with emeralds and a garland of gold. A pair of earrings hung over her shoulders with dazzling beauty. This dream indicated that her son would enjoy great wealth and splendor. He would be a Tirthankar, the supreme benefactor of all. 46 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #47 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L 05 Garland The fifth dream Queen Trishalä had was of a Beautiful Garland descending from the sky. It smelled of mixed fragrances of different flowers. The flowers bloomed during the different seasons. The whole universe was filled with their fragrance. This dream indicated that the fragrance of her son's teachings will spread throughout the universe, and he would be respected by all. 06 Full Moon The sixth dream Queen Trishalä had was of a Full Moon. It was a very auspicious sight. The moon was at its full glory. It made the lilies bloom fully. This dream indicated that the child would help lessen the suffering of the all living beings. He would bring peace to the world. He would help the spiritual progress of entire humanity at large. 07 Bright Sun The seventh dream Queen Trishalä had was of the Bright Sun. The sun was shining to destroy the darkness. It was as bright as the flames of the forest fire. The sun rose and ended the evil activities of the creatures who thrive at night. This dream indicated that her son would have the supreme knowledge and would dispel the darkness of delusions. 08 Flag The eighth dream Queen Trishalä had was of a Large Flag flying on a golden pole. The flag fluttered softly and auspiciously in the gentle breeze. It attracted everyone's attention. A radiant lion was pictured on it. This dream indicated that her son would carry the banner of the religion. He would reinstate religious order throughout the universe. DREAMS OF MOTHER TRISHALÄ JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I S 47 Page #48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DREAMS OF MOTHER TRISHALÄ 09 Golden Vase The ninth dream Queen Trishalä had was of a Golden Vase filled with the clear water. It was a magnificent, beautiful, and bright vase. It was decorated with a garland. This dream indicated that her son would be perfect in all virtues and would be full of compassion for all living beings. He would be a supreme religious personality. 10 Lotus Lake The tenth dream Queen Trishalä had was of a Lake full of Lotuses. Thousands of lotuses were floating in the lake, and they all bloomed and opened at the touch of the sun's rays. The lotuses had a very sweet fragrance. This dream indicated that her son would be beyond worldly attachment. He would help liberate human beings who were tangled in the cycle of birth, death, and misery. 11 Ocean The eleventh dream Queen Trishalä had was of an Ocean. Its water rose in all directions to great heights. The wind blew gently and created the waves. This dream indicated that her son would have a serene and pleasant personality. He would achieve infinite perception and knowledge and would escape from worldly life, which is the ocean of birth and death and the misery. This would lead his soul to the Moksha (liberation). 12 Celestial Plane The twelfth dream Queen Trishalä had was of a Celestial plane. The plane resounded with celestial music. It was full of the pleasant and spiritual aroma of the incense. This dream indicated that all of the Angels in the heaven would respect, honor, and salute her son's spiritual teachings. 48 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #49 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DREAMS OF MOTHER TRISHALÄ 13 Heap of Jewels The thirteenth dream Queen Trishalä had was of a big heap of various jewels. This dream indicated that her son would have infinite virtues and wisdom and he would attain the supreme spirit. 14 Smokeless Fire The fourteenth dream Queen Trishalä had was of a Smokeless Fire. The fire burned with great intensity, but there was no smoke. This dream indicated that her son would reform and restore religious order. He would remove blind faith and orthodox rituals. Furthermore, he would burn or destroy his karmas and attain salvation. Additional Dreams as per Digambar Tradition Digambar scriptures indicate that Queen Trishalä had sixteen dreams. 15 Pair of Fish The fifteenth dream was of a pair of Fish, which indicated that her son would be extremely handsome. 16 Lofty Throne The sixteenth dream was of a Lofty Throne, which indicated that her son would have a very high spiritual status. The meaning of all these dreams is that the child to be born would be very strong, courageous, and full of virtues. He would be very religious and would become a great king or a spiritual leader. He would reform and restore the religious order and guide all the creatures of the universe to attain salvation. He would also be liberated. As a matter of fact, all Tirthankars' mother have same dreams. Lord Mahävir was born on the thirteenth day of the bright half of the month Chaitra, five hundred and forty-three years before the Vikram Era (Hindu calendar), or in 599 BC. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 49 Page #50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ WHAT IS DHARMA (RELIGION) Chapter 11 - What Is Dharma (Religion) May the entire universe attain bliss, May all beings be oriented to the interest of others, Let all faults be eliminated and May people be happy everywhere. Jain Verse May all persons be happy, May all be disease free, May all attain well being and Let no one be overtaken by miseries. Hindu Verse is now these objectivesd can avoid everything form to his liki Every living being desires happiness and endeavors to avoid pain and suffering. The question is how these objectives can be achieved. Generally, a person will feel happy if he gets whatever he desires and can avoid everything that he does not like. However, situations do occur, which are not in his interest or do not conform to his liking. Even in favorable situations it is not always within his power to prolong the situation. Every situation changes and a person feels miserable when the new situation is not to his liking. Moreover, desires and likes or dislikes of all beings are not identical. What one person loves may be of utter distaste to another. It is therefore impossible that everything can happen to everyone's taste. Viewed in this light, it would seem that there couldn't possibly be a way for making everyone happy. Fortunately, however, there is a way. Two verses, one each from Jain and Hindu traditions quoted above, address that way. It should be noted that they have identical meanings. Both of them convey the same message of well being for all, for the whole universe, and for the elimination of evil. Shraman (Jain, Buddhist) and Vedic (Hindu) traditions have flourished together; both have borrowed from and influenced ideologies of the other. It is therefore not surprising that Jain scholars have time and again insisted on the study of not only Jainism, but also the six schools of thought prevalent in India and collectively known as Shad-darshan. Broadly classified, they are known as Vedic and Shraman traditions, both having originated from the same Indo-Aryan culture. Both of them have addressed the subject of universal happiness and have discovered that the way to universal happiness is to wish and act for happiness and well being for all. If every one acts accordingly, the world can turn into paradise and there would not be any misery; at least man-made misery would come to an end. Indian philosophies go beyond seeking happiness in this life. Almost all of them believe in the existence of an eternal soul and in a continually changing pattern of every thing else. Therefore, they seek happiness that lasts beyond the present life. Their ultimate goal is to present the path of liberation leading to the termination of the cycle of life and death. However, as long as we are not liberated, their approach is to seek continuing happiness. The above two verses therefore urge everyone to look earnestly for the well being of all others, to stay meritorious in this life to be sure of reaping fruits of their merits in subsequent lives. 50 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #51 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ WHAT IS DHARMA (RELIGION) When one talks of religion, the question may arise, 'Why do we bother about religion? Could we not be happy in this life without worrying about religion?' One may be healthy, have a loving spouse and children that they love, have plenty of money, and possess all the amenities that one needs. What more is religion going to offer? These are legitimate questions. The concept underlying these questions revolves around our body. Its health, its relations, its well being, and comforts and luxuries it can indulge in are supposed to bring forth happiness. Accordingly, when such situations are to our liking, we happen to consider ourselves happy. Unfortunately the body with which we identify ourselves and also everything around it happens to be transitory. All the situations are ephemeral. The happiness that we might be experiencing from such situations can disappear at any time. We do not know what is going to happen at the next moment. As such, our so-called happiness happens to be unstable and short-lived. Even if situations conducive to our interest were likely to continue indefinitely, peace and happiness may not always materialize. As the poet Percy Shelley put it in one of his poems, we are prone to 'look before and after and pine for what is naught.' Hardly anyone feels satisfied with what he has. We have the tendency to desire what we don't have. Our desires are endless and as long as desires remain unsatisfied, no one can ever feel happy and experience real peace that can lead to blissful pleasure. We may strive hard for achieving that pleasure but hardly any one attains it any time during life. This is because we seldom try to explore who we are and what is our true nature. Nothing against our nature is going to give us lasting happiness or real satisfaction. Jain scriptures therefore define religion as Vatthu Sahavo Dhammo! It means that religion is the nature or property of all substances (Dravyas) including soul and matter. Without knowing ourselves and without realizing our own nature, we have been trying to gain happiness. No wonder that it eludes us, because we have been trying to gain it from extraneous circumstances. In a way, we have been dwelling all the time in a state of delusion about ourselves. We can just as well say we have been pursuing a mirage. Herein comes the role of religion. A generally accepted definition of religion is 'Dhärayati Iti Dharmah' It means that what holds (from falling) is religion. Our remaining in a deluded state constitutes a fall and religion tends to protect us. It teaches us that the physical body with which we identify ourselves, is alive on account of the soul that abides within it. The soul is our true self. We are the consciousness pervading the body and our association with a body terminates at the end of life. The true nature of consciousness is to know whatever happens without any sense of craving or aversion. It is therefore futile to be pleased or displeased with different situations. Thus by revealing our true nature, religion helps in extricating us from the deluded state in which we have been entangled since time without beginning. Religion teaches us to know ourselves. "He who knows one (soul), also knows all; He who knows all, knows the one." JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #52 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ WHAT IS DHARMA (RELIGION) This quotation taken from Jain scripture Ächäräng Sutra states that he who knows the soul, knows every thing else. This is so because the knowledge of true Self as pure, enlightened, not aging, immortal and ever blissful soul can lead to the state of having no desire. This, of course, does not mean that we should not try to change an undesirable situation; nor does it endorse inaction. As long as the soul is embodied, it will stay active. There are different types of activities that a monk or a layman should undertake. Religion, however, prescribes that everyone should undertake activities vigorously but without any degree of attachment. This would mean facing any situation dispassionately without reacting in terms of craving or aversion. The common objective is to enable one to view every situation, comfortable or uncomfortable, with equanimity and without getting agitated. That would amount to knowing oneself and abiding in one's own blissful nature. 52 I "Love is the secret key: It opens the door of the divine" Sharing is the most precious religious. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PATH OF LIBERATION - THREE JEWELS Chapter 12 - Path of Liberation - Three Jewels The ultimate goal of all life and conduct in Jainism is to realize the free and blissful state of our true being. True philosophy should result in removing all bondage (karma) in the process of purifying the soul. The central theme of Jainism considers religion as a science of ethical practice. The conduct of the present life should be aimed to attain liberation (Moksha), the state of eternal bliss from which there is no return to the cycle of life and death. Every soul can attain liberation and a supreme spiritual state by realizing its intrinsic purity and perfection. Jainism lays down a definitive course of practical moral discipline, contemplation of the highest truth, and reorientation of life for attaining ultimate reality or truth. Lord Mahavir and the other Tirthankars have shown the effectiveness of spiritual progress by putting it into the practice in their own lives. The prominent Monk, Umäsväti, around the 1st or 2nd century A.D., reminded us of it again in the very first verse of his Tattvärtha Sutra. It reads: "Samyag-darshan-jnän-chäriträni Mokshamärgah". This prescribes a path to liberation (Moksha), which consists of the following trinity (RatnaTraya): • Right perception • Right knowledge • Right conduct Samyag Darshan Samyag Jnän Samyag Charitra Right perception creates an awareness of reality or truth, right knowledge impels the person to proper action, and proper conduct leads him to the attainment of total freedom. They must coexist in a person if one is to make any progress on the path of liberation. Right Perception or Faith (Samyag Darshan) The first step in the process of self realization is to discard superstitious beliefs and to adopt a rational attitude in life. Right perception consists of seeing the true nature of every substance in the universe. Jainism advocates that one should first try to know, comprehend, and understand the nature of reality, one's own self, religious goal, and the path. One should analyze, examine, test, verify, and then, if satisfied, be convinced of its truth and efficacy. From a practical point of view, perception in the nature of the reality means to have a total faith in the preaching of Tirthankars and their scriptures, known as Agams. Right Knowledge (Samyag Jnän) Right perception or faith makes us realize the reality of life, and the seriousness of our purpose in life. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 53 Page #54 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PATH OF LIBERATION - THREE JEWELS Right knowledge is the true, correct, proper, and relevant knowledge of the reality. To understand reality, one should know the fundamental elements of the universe and their relationships. From the practical point of view, right knowledge means the proper knowledge of the six universal substances and nine principles or Nine Tattvas. Which defines the relationship between Soul and Karma. Six Universal Substances are: Soul, Matter, Medium of Motion, Medium of Rest, Space, and Time Nine Tattvas are: Soul, Non-living elements, Asrava, Bandha, Punya, Päp, Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha Right perception is essential in recognizing right knowledge from wrong knowledge (Mithyä Jnän). Both are mental processes. Right knowledge must be free from three main defects: doubt, delusion, and indefiniteness. Right Conduct (Samyag Charitra) Soul's ultimate destiny is Moksha. Right conduct must ultimately lead to liberation. The main goal of a human life is to free one from attachment (Räga) and aversion (Dvesha). That is to be free from all impure activities of thought, word, and deed. This will attain the state of perfect equanimity. For practical purpose, right conduct comprises ethical codes, rules, and discipline which a human being is required to pursue for ultimate freedom. This resolves into taking the five great vows of an ascetic or twelve limited vows of householder Non-violence Truth Non-stealing Chastity Non-possession/Non-attachment Ahinsä Satya Asteya Brahmacharya Aparigraha Right faith and right knowledge are required for right conduct, and all are interdependent. Jains dedicate themselves to proper conduct through vows and sub vows. Vows are at the heart of Jain morality and are undertaken with a full knowledge of their nature and a determination to carry them through. Understanding of Samyag Darshan, Samyag Jnän, and Samyag Charitra itself is not good enough to take us anywhere but we would have to apply them in real practice to their fullest 54 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #55 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PATH OF LIBERATION - THREE JEWELS to get the actual results. It should also be remembered that we would have to follow all three, Samyag-darshan, Samyaginän and Samyag-charitra, at the same time because if we follow only one or two of them, they will not take us too far on the road of spiritual pursuit. The trinity is necessary for a successful life. This threefold discipline helps us realize our own intrinsic purity. The trinity must be cultivated collectively to ensure liberation. Individually, they are incomplete and insufficient because they are mutually dependent. Collectively, the three jewels produce harmony, contentment, and bliss with the progressive march of the soul to higher planes. Prayer is the fragrance of a silent heart. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #56 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ FOUR REALMS Chapter 13 Four Realms If we look around us, we see not only men and women, boys and girls, but also cats, dogs, birds, bugs, plants, etc. These are various forms of living beings in this universe. At the same time every second, someone dies and someone is born. Nothing is permanent. This makes us wonder what happens to those who die, and who decides what one will be born as. Jainism explains this in a very simple and sound logical way based on karma theory. Due to the karmas associated with their souls, living beings have been going through the cycle of life and death in various forms since time immemorial. Unless the soul gets rid of its karmas, it will never be free from the cycle of birth, life, and death in different forms. When a living being dies, it can be reborn into one of the four Gatis (destinies). These four destinies are as follows: Manushya (Human) beings. Dev (Heavenly) beings. Tiryancha (Animal, birds, insects, vegetations) beings. Näraki (Hell or Infernal) beings. Present science is inconclusive about life after death or rebirth or reincarnation. But Jinas who had Kevaljnän (omniscience) have explained that there is life after death and it is us, and no one else, who decides what will happen to us after our death. No God or super power decides our future. Our past and current deeds accumulate karmas, which govern what we will be reborn as. Let us discuss these destinies. Human Beings: As human beings we have been endowed with the ability to think. We can make out right from wrong. We can decide what is good for us, and what is not. We also have the capacity to control our minds and activities. We can learn about principles of Jainism and practice them by adopting the appropriate vows and restraints. We can also renounce worldly life (Sansär) for monk-hood, which can help lead us to liberation. Heavenly Beings: As a heavenly being, one has superior physical capabilities, numerous supernatural powers, and access to all luxuries. But heavenly life is also transient and when it comes to an end, heavenly beings feel very unhappy. They cannot adopt restraints or renounce their lives to become monks or nuns. Therefore, there is no salvation in heavenly life, and such beings will have to be reborn as human beings in order to attain liberation. It may be said that the soul is born as a heavenly being due to relative accumulation of more good karmas (Punya). But at the same time it should be remembered that the soul uses up a number of good karmas there too. Tiryancha Beings: As a Tiryancha (being born as an animal like a lion, an elephant, a bird, a plant, a bug, etc.) one is considered to be a lower form of life. Animals, birds, sea creatures and reptiles have minds but the rest of Tiryancha do not. Therefore most Tiryancha suffer passively. Even 56 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #57 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ FOUR REALMS animals and birds, etc., who have minds cannot think or restrain nearly as much as humans and therefore their progress is compromised. Overall there is a great degree of passive suffering and dependency in their life. Infernal Beings: As an infernal being (living beings of hell), one has to continuously suffer. Most of the time, infernal beings fight among themselves and cause more suffering to each other. Such a life is, therefore, absolutely unsuitable for spiritual pursuit. Conclusion : Thus, it is clear that out of these four Gatis or destinies only human life is suitable for spiritual pursuit and capable of freedom from the cycle of birth and death. Let us now try to understand what leads a soul to different destinies. Those who engage in violence, lying, stealing, and excessive sensual pleasure or are too possessive, angry, egoistic, greedy, deceptive, or intensely attached to the worldly life are likely to be re-born as infernal beings in hell. Those who are selfish, deceptive, cause troubles, or wish evil for the others are likely to be re-born as the Tiryancha. Those who are simple and disciplined, observe vows, behave well, have a good character, and follow a good moral life are generally re-born as heavenly beings. Those who are simple, straightforward, observe vows and restraints, have faith in true teachers, attempt to gain true knowledge, have only a slight attachment, have a controlled level of anger, greed, or deception, and try to follow the religious teachers are generally re-born as humans. In conclusion, we (the souls) are the masters of our own destiny and we should not blame anyone or anything else for our destiny. Let us aspire to lead a spiritual life without delay so that we may be reborn as human beings again and continue to progress on the path of liberation. Here and now is the only existence. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #58 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ FIVE GREAT VOWS Chapter 14 - Five Great Vows Right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct known as Ratna Traya, are the three essentials for attaining liberation. In order to acquire them, one must observe the five vows: The Vrata or vow is a specific code of conduct. In Jain scriptures dealing with the ethical code of householders, the term 'Vrata' has been defined as: "Vrata or vow is a (religious) rule (of behavior) observed with determination (for a particular or indefinite period) and always indicates aversion or abstinence from doing foul and shameful acts or deeds. It reveals an inclination or disposition towards doing good and virtuous acts or deeds." Jainism has laid down a number of such vows for actual observance and they are considered very significant from religious and social point of view." Five Great Vows 01 Non-violence - Ahinsä 02 Truth - Satya 03 Non-stealing - Achaurya or Asteya 04 Celibacy/Chastity - Brahmacharya 05 Non-attachment/Non-possession - Aparigraha Non-violence (Ahinsä) Ahinsä Parmo Dharma Non-violence is the supreme religion Among these five vows, non-violence (Ahinsä) is the cardinal principle of Jainism. Hence it is known as the cornerstone of Jainism. It is repeatedly said in Jain literature; "Do not injure, abuse, oppress, enslave, insult, torment, torture, or kill any creature or living being." According to Jainism all living beings, irrespective of their size, shape, or different spiritual developments are equal. No living being has the right to harm, injure, or kill any other living being, including animals, insects, and plants. Every living being has a right to exist and it is necessary to live with every other living being in perfect harmony and peace. Nonviolence is based upon the positive quality of universal love and compassion. One who accepts this ideal cannot be indifferent to the suffering of others. Violence of every type should be completely forbidden. Mental tortures by way of harsh words, actions, and any type of bodily injury should also be avoided. Even thinking evil of someone is considered violence in Jainism. In reality, it is impossible to survive without killing or injuring some of the smallest living beings. Some lives are killed even when we breathe, drink water, or eat food. Therefore Jainism says that minimum killing of the lowest forms of life should be our ideal for survival. 58 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #59 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ FIVE GREAT VOWS In the universe, there are different forms of life, such as, human beings, animals, insects, plants, bacteria, and even smaller lives, which cannot be seen even through the most powerful microscopes. Jainism has classified all the living beings according to the number of senses they posses. It is more sinful if the life of higher forms (more than one sense) is killed. Hence Jainism allows laypeople to use only vegetables as a food for survival. All non-vegetarian food is made by killing a living being with two or more senses. Therefore, Jainism preaches strict vegetarianism, and prohibits non-vegetarian foods. Jainism explains that violence is not only defined by actual harm, for this may be unintentional, but it is the intention to harm, the absence of compassion, unawareness, and ignorance that makes an action violent. Violence caused unintentionally is also a sin. Non-violence should be observed in action, speech, and thought. One should not be violent, ask others to do so, or approve of such activity. Truth (Satya) Anger, greed, fear, and jokes are the breeding grounds of untruth. To speak the truth requires moral courage. Only those who have conquered greed, fear, anger, jealousy, ego, and frivolity can speak the truth. Jainism insists that one should not only refrain from falsehood, but should always speak the truth which should be wholesome and pleasant. One should remain silent if the truth causes either physical or mental pain, hurt, anger, or death of any living being. Truth should be observed in speech, mind, and actions. One should not utter an untruth, ask others to do so, or approve of such activities. Non-stealing (Achaurya or Asteya) Stealing consists of taking the property of others without their consent, or by unjust or immoral methods. Further, one should not take anything, which does not belong to him. It does not allow anyone to take away anything, which may be lying, unattended or unclaimed. One should observe this vow very strictly and should not touch even a worthless thing, which does not belong to him. When accepting alms, help, or aid, one should not take more than what is needed. To take or to earn more than one's need is also considered theft in Jainism. The vow of non-stealing insists that one should be totally honest in action, thought, and speech. One should not steal, ask others to steal, or approve of such activities. Celibacy / Chastity (Brahmacharya) Total abstinence from sensual pleasure and the pleasure derived by the five senses is called celibacy. Sensual pleasure is an infatuating force, which sets aside all virtues and reasoning at the time of indulgence. This vow of controlling sensuality is very difficult to observe in its subtle form. One may refrain from physical indulgence but may still think of the sensual pleasures, which is also prohibited in Jainism. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 59 Page #60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ FIVE GREAT VOWS Monks are required to observe this vow strictly and completely. They should not enjoy sensual pleasures and pleasure derived from the five senses. There are several rules laid down for observing this vow for householders. They should not have a physical relationship with anyone other than one's own spouse. The relationship with your own spouse should also be limited. Non-attachment / Non-possession (Aparigraha) Jainism believes that the more wealth a person possesses, the more he is likely to commit sin to acquire and maintain the possessions, and in the long run he will be unhappy. Wealth creates attachment, which results in continued greed, jealousy, selfishness, ego, hatred, violence, etc. Lord Mahävir has said that wants and desires have no limit. An attachment to worldly objects results in the bondage of Karma, which leads to the cycles of birth and death. Therefore, one who desires liberation should withdraw from all attachments to the pleasures of all five senses. Monks observe this vow by giving up attachments to all things while householders should limit possessions. Non-possession and non-attachment are to be observed by speech, mind, and actions. One should not possess, ask others to do so, or approve of such activities. Jainism has described in much detail the five great vows (Mahä Vrata) for the path of liberation. They are to be observed strictly and completely by monks and nuns. Limited observance is laid down for householders in the form of the five minor vows (Anu Vrata). 60 I Until we extend our circle of compassion to include every living creature we cannot enjoy 'World Peace'. --Albert Schweitzer JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #61 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L APPLICATION OF NONVIOLENCE (AHINSÄ) Chapter 15- Application of Nonviolence (Ahinsä) Introduction Vegetarianism has been known for thousands of years as a principle of health and environmental ethics throughout India. It remains to this day a cardinal ethic of Jain thought and practices. Each form of life, even water and trees possesses consciousness and energy. Nonviolence, (Ahinsä), the primary basis of vegetarianism, has long been central to the religious traditions of India, especially Jainism. Religion in India has consistently upheld the sanctity of life, whether human, animal, or the most elemental. More than twenty-five hundred years ago, Lord Mahävir made a simple yet profound statement based on the inclusion of Non-violence into the very fabric of his consciousness. "All of life is just like me. I want to live. So do all souls, all living beings. The instinct of self-preservation is universal. Every living being clings to life and fears death. Each one of us wants to be free from pain. So let me carry out all my activities with great care so that I am not harmful to any living being." The philosophy of Non-violence is a living practice. More than refraining from violence, it is a deep reverence for all life. When anger, jealousy, or unfulfilled ambitions provoke us, the one whom we damage first is our own self. This is equally true of harsh, slanderous, or critical speech. It works like a matchstick; before it ignites something else, it burns its own self. Before putting anybody down, judging them, or treating anyone as an inferior, we must examine ourselves. Before buying or using any product, we must ask, "By my action, am I causing any living being to pay a price in pain? Directly or indirectly, am I destroying any life?" From the moment this awareness becomes a part of our daily life, we find that traits and habits, which used to limit us, disappear naturally. We are no longer able to invite pain and disease to our bodies through uninformed eating habits. The vegetarian way of life becomes a natural outcome of inner understanding. By doing everything we can to minimize violence and pain to life, we enjoy living with a pure consciousness and a clean conscience. Jain philosophy emphasizes taking care to minimize the harm one does to other living beings and to direct one's actions with the intention to revere life. This requires vigilance, awareness of motives, and fearlessness to live in tune with nature's laws. The underlying feeling is not to inspire fear in any living being; it is opening one's heart to life. It is true that just by breathing, using water, walking, and taking plants as wood, we are causing lives to be lost. The emphasis lies in reducing to a minimum the harm we do in order to survive. The more developed its sensory apparatus is, the more a life form is sensitive to pain. Since fish, birds, and animals have a well-developed sense of pain, we must refuse to be a cause to their agony and pain. Also, when we observe how dearly animals cling to life and struggle to survive, how much they are dominated by fear, we must drop any notion of using or exploiting them. We feel for their helplessness in the face of man's gluttony, greed, and callousness; we want to see them live unmolested. Even for vegetables, we must realize JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 61 Page #62 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ APPLICATION OF NONVIOLENCE (AHINSÄ) that every fruit, leaf, grain that ends up on our plate had to lose its life in order to give us life. But the sad fact is that without plants we would not survive. What Do Vegetarians Eat? The staples of a vegetarian diet are grain, legumes, vegetables, fruit, nuts, and seeds. Protein can be obtained easily through a variety of grains and legumes. Fiber and essential vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates can be obtained from many raw vegetables; iron especially is in rich green leafy vegetables. Do Vegetarians Eat Dairy and Eggs? Vegetarians who use dairy products are called lacto vegetarians. Those who do not even use dairy products are vegans. In particular, vegans believe that cow's milk is meant for calves, not humans. Nowadays, dairy (milk, butter, ghee, ice-cream, cheese) foods are produced with cruelties, which vegetarians and vegans should refuse to support. Also the dairy industry is inherently linked to the meat industry. When female cows stop giving milk or reduces its quantity at a certain age, they are sent to the meat industry for slaughtering. If they give birth to a male calf, it is raised on an iron deficient diet, to make tender meat. Hence one should not consume any dairy products in order to avoid cruelty to animals. In poultry farms, chickens are considered no better than egg-producing machines. They are housed in small-congested cages known as chicken-havens. Due to shortage of space, they naturally become violent, offensive, obsessed and quarrelsome. They attack one another in a barbarous manner. To prevent them from fighting and wounding one another, they are debeaked. Due to de-beaking, they are unable even to drink water. A fertilized egg is a pre-birth stage of a chicken. To eat fertilized egg is in fact to consume a chicken before its birth. Unfertilized eggs are the result of the sexual cycle of a chicken and very unnatural. The egg produced without any contact with the male bird (and thus producing an infertile egg) is also animate because it is born out of the chicken's body with its blood and cells. No egg - fertile or infertile - is without life inanimate). Both are nonvegetarian food. Animal Cruelty and Ecological Impact Planet earth is suffering. In large measure, the escalating loss of species, destruction of ancient rain forests to create pasturelands for livestock, loss of topsoil and the consequent increase of water impurities and air pollution have all been traced to the single fact of non-vegetarian food (meat, chicken, and dairy products) in the human diet. No single decision that we can make as individuals or as a race can have such a dramatic effect on the improvement of our planetary ecology as the decision to not eat non-vegetarian food. Many seeking to save the planet for future generations have made this decision for this reason and this reason alone. The choice of a vegetarian (absolutely no animal products) diet is an expression of a sincere consideration for the ecology of the planet as well. In addition, there are billions of starving people who can be fed if only the raising of livestock was stopped. Consider these facts: 62 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ APPLICATION OF NONVIOLENCE (AHINSÄ) Slaughtering of Animals in USA • Cattle - 130,000 slaughtered per day • Calves - 7,000 slaughtered per day • Hogs - 360,000 slaughtered per day • Chickens - 24,000,000 slaughtered per day Cruelty to Cows by Dairy Industries Cows are kept pregnant continually Slaughtering their 70% to 80% of baby calves within six months by Veal industry or within five years by beef industry Slaughtering the mother cows after five years of their fertile life life expectancy is 15 years) Everyday hormones or drugs are injected to increase milk yield. Greenhouse Effect • World's 1.3 billion cows annually produce 100 million tons of methane a powerful greenhouse gas which traps 25 times as much solar heat as CO2 Water Consumption Slaughtering animals requires hundreds of millions of gallons of water every day. The waste in these places, estimated at about two billion tons a year, mostly ends up in waterways, polluting and killing thousands of fish, and creating a human health problem. Livestock (Cattle, Calves, Hogs, Pigs) production accounts for more than half of all the water consumed in USA. Land Usage • A third of the surface of North America is devoted to grazing • Half of American croplands grow livestock feed for meat and dairy products 2% of US cropland produces fruits and vegetables, while 64% of US cropland is for producing livestock feed • One acre of prime land can make 5,000 lb. Cherries, 10,000 lb. Green beans, 30.000 lb. Carrots, 40,000 lb. Potatoes, 50,000 lb. Tomatoes, or 250 lb. Beef • 220 million acres of land in the USA have been deforested for livestock production 85% of annual US topsoil loss is directly associated with raising livestock • 25 million acres in Brazil, and half the forests in Central America Cost Comparison The cost of raw materials consumed to produce food from livestock is greater than the value of all oil, gas and coal consumed in America • Growing grains, vegetables and fruits uses less than 5% as much raw materials as does meat and dairy production 2 calories of fossil fuel used for 1 calorie of protein of soybeans, while 78 calories of fossil fuel used for 1 calorie of beef • 6.9 kg of grain and soy to make 1 kg of boneless trimmed pork JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE 63 Page #64 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ APPLICATION OF NONVIOLENCE (AHINSÄ) Solution to World Hunger Problem According to DIET FOR A NEW AMERICA: If Americans reduced their meat/dairy intake by just 10%, the savings in grains and soybeans could feed 60 million people per year (same as the number of people starve to death worldwide) Rejection of Drinking Liquor For the observance of the Nonviolence Vow (Ahinsä -Vrata), it has been specifically laid down that a person should renounce drinking alcohol. According to the sacred text of Purushärtha Siddhi-Upaya, "alcohol stupefies the mind; one whose mind is stupefied forgets piety; and the person who forgets piety commits violence without hesitation.” Again, it is important to understand that drinking liquor leads to the commitment of violence because liquor is the reservoir of many lives which are born in it. Similarly, it is significant that many dishonorable passions like anger, pride, deceit, greed, fear, disgust, ridicule, grief, boredom, and lust, arise due to the inhibition of senses while drinking liquor and these passions are nothing but different aspects of violence. Abandonment of Honey Along with the renunciation of liquor drinking and meat eating, giving up of honey is also included in the observance of the non-violence vow. The use of honey invariably entails the destruction of life as even the smallest drop of honey in the world represents the death of bees. It is also clear that even if a person uses honey, which has been obtained by some, trick from a honeycomb or has dropped down from it, there is violence because there is destruction to the lives spontaneously born therein. Also, it is important to note that it takes nearly a million bees to create 1 pound of honey. Dress and Decoration Jains are required to pursue the path of nonviolence in the way they dress also. They should not wear furs and the plumes that are obtained by torturing, and then killing animals and birds. For the same reason, the use of silk and woolen garments is prohibited for all Jains. We should also avoid all leather articles. Conclusion : Jainism prohibits all kinds of intoxicants and stimulants. Regarding the question of food and drink, one thing must be remembered; mundane souls have to commit violence for their maintenance, as life thrives only on life. Though violence is unavoidable in the sustenance of life, Jainism, by rules of conduct tries to limit it for essential purposes only. The rules of conduct never sanction injury, but they try to restrict it to the lowest possible minimum by taking into account the level of development of injured living beings. The higher the stage of development of the injured being is, (the closer it has approached the state of perfection), the more sin is committed. Thus, from a practical point of view, the sin of hurting a plant is smaller than that of hurting an animal; the sin of hurting an animal is smaller than that on hurting a human being, etc. From this standpoint, it can be understood why Jainism forbids flesh eating and, on the other hand objects little to the eating of vegetables. 64 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #65 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L Chapter 16 King Megharath Once there was a discussion going on in Indra's (head of heavenly beings) court. One of the demi-gods said that there are brave and merciful kings on Earth who would not hesitate laying down their own lives to protect those who come to them for shelter. Another demi-god doubted his statement. The two began to argue and so Indra intervened by asking them to go to Earth and see for themselves. The two demi-gods made a plan of action. One of them decided to take the form of a pigeon, and the other took the form of a hawk. On the Earth, King Megharath was sitting in his court surrounded by his courtiers. At that time a pigeon flew in through an open window and started circling inside the hall. To the king's surprise, it landed on his lap. The king realized that the pigeon had come there out of fear. KING MEGHARATH At that very instant, a hawk flew into the king's court too. He said to the king, "This pigeon is my prey." The king was struck with a wonder to hear a bird speak. However, he replied, "It is true that this pigeon is your prey, but now it is under my shelter. I will not give you this pigeon, but I can give you some other food." He ordered his servants to bring a basket of fruits and vegetables. But the hawk said, "I am not a human being. I am not vegetarian. I need flesh for my food." The king said, "Let me give you my own flesh instead of this pigeon's flesh." Upon hearing this, one of the courtiers said, "Your Majesty, why should you give your own flesh? Let's get the flesh from a butcher's shop." The king replied, "No, because butcher's trade flourishes when we use meat. He will have to kill another animal in order to supply us the meat. This pigeon has sought refuge and it is my duty to protect it. At the same time, it is my duty to see that no one else is harmed in this process. Therefore, I will give my own flesh to the hawk." With these words, he took out his dagger and cut off a piece of flesh from his thigh and offered that to the hawk. The whole court was stunned. But the hawk said to the king, "Oh, king! I want the same amount of flesh as the pigeon." Therefore, a weighing scale was brought to the court. The king put the pigeon on one side and a piece of his own flesh on the other. The king kept putting more and more of his flesh on the scale, but it was still not enough. Finally the king got ready to put his JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 65 Page #66 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ KING MEGHARATH whole body on the scale. The court was stunned that the king was giving his own life for an insignificant bird. But the king considered it his duty to protect the bird to be above everything else. He sat in the scale on the side opposite to the pigeon, closed his eyes, and began meditating. As soon as the king started meditation, the pigeon and the hawk assumed their original divine forms. Both demi-gods bowed to the king and said, "Oh great king! You are blessed. We are convinced that you are a brave and merciful man." With these words, they praised and saluted the king again and left. The whole court resounded with the cheers of joy, "Long live King Megharath." Later on, the soul of King Megharath became the sixteenth Tirthankar, Shänti-Näth. Key message: This story teaches us that it is the utmost duty of everyone to protect and help those, who are less fortunate than us. A merciful person is someone who is not only influenced by seeing the misery and suffering of others, but goes a step further and attempts to alleviate the pain. He gives financial aid to those who are poor, and gives food to those who are hungry and needy. A merciful person would not harm others to promote himself but on the contrary, would sacrifice even his own life to save the lives of the others. 66 I Anything that can feel pain should not be put to pain. -R. M. Dolgin JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #67 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX SUBSTANCES PART 1 - LIVING BEINGS (JIV) Chapter 17 - Six Substances Part 1 - Living Beings (Jiv) Jain Philosophy does not give credence to the theory that the God is the creator, survivor, or destroyer of the universe. On the contrary, it asserts that the universe has always existed and will always exist in exact adherence to the laws of the cosmos. There is nothing but infinity both in the past and in the future. The universe consists of two classes of objects: Living beings Conscious, Soul, Chetan, or Jiv Non-living objects Unconscious, Achetan, or Ajiv Non-living objects are further classified into five categories; Matter Space Medium of motion Medium of rest Time Pudgal Äkäsha Dharmästikäya Adharmästikäya Käl or Samay These six entities, five non-living and one living being, are described as aspects of reality in Jainism. They are also known as the six universal entities, or substances or realities. These six entities of the universe are eternal but continuously undergo countless changes. During the changes nothing is lost or destroyed. Everything transform into another form. Six Universal Substances (Shad Dravyas) As explained above Jainism believes that the universe is made from the combination of the six universal substances. All of the six substances are indestructible, imperishable, immortal, eternal and continuously go through countless changes. Soul or Consciousness Matter Medium of motion Medium of rest Space Time Jiv Pudgal Dharma Adharma Äkäsha Käl or Samay Living being Nonliving being Nonliving being Nonliving being Nonliving being Nonliving being Soul (Jiv) or Living being Soul's essential characteristic is consciousness. In Jainism, Jiv and soul are more or less described synonymously. When the spiritual or psychic status is described it is referred to as the soul, and when the physical structure is described, it is called Jiv. The Jiv, which grows, decays, fluctuates, varies, eats, sleeps, awakes, acts, fears, rests, has knowledge and perception, attempts to self defend, and reproduces. These and many more qualities of the jiv are obvious through a physical body when the soul is present in it but when the soul leaves, these qualities cease. These qualities are external features and consciousness (Chetan) is the basic inner feature of the soul. This also helps us understand that the body and the soul are separate entities. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #68 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX SUBSTANCES PARTI - LIVING BEINGS (JAV) Since the soul is flexible, it pervades the entire body it occupies. For example, the same soul can occupy the body of an ant or an elephant. Such bodies stay alive as long as there is a soul. A live body, or rather, a body with a soul is described here as a Jiv. Soul or Jiv is the only substance, which has a capacity to possess knowledge, vision, power, and bliss. It also possesses the property of contraction and expansion like that of light. There are innumerable souls in the universe. Souls cannot be created or cannot be destroyed. The total number of souls remains same in the entire universe all the time. All living beings are classified into two major categories. • Liberated or Siddha Jiv • Non-liberated or Sansäri Jiv. Liberated (Siddha) Soul Liberated souls have no karmas and therefore, they are no longer in the cycle of birth and death. They do not live among us, but reside at the uppermost part of the universe just above Siddhashilä. They are formless and their shape exist in 2/3 size of the last existence as human. They have perfect knowledge and perception, and have infinite vigor and bliss. All Siddhas are unique but they are equal in their qualities and nature. There is no difference in their status. Worldly (Sansäri) Soul Worldly soul is defined as a soul that is covered by karma particles. Hence its qualities are different from the liberated soul as follows: • Limited knowledge Limited Vision Limited Power Limited Bliss Possesses a body (plants, hellish, animal, human, or angel) Wanders in the cycle of life and death Suffers from birth, death, pain, and pleasure Doer of all kinds of karmas (actions) Enjoyer of the fruits of the karmas • Innumerable number of worldly souls • Capable of becoming free from worldly life Jivs exist on earth, as well as in water, air, and fire, and are present all over the universe. Human beings, celestial beings, infernal beings, animals, fish, birds, bugs, insects, plants, etc., are the most common forms of Jiv with, which we can easily relate. However, Jain scriptures state that there are 8.4 million types of birth places of Jiv in all. They are classified by the number of senses they possess. There are five senses in all, namely touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing. Different types of Jivs possess a different number of senses. Based upon the number of senses and mobility, Jivs are further classified into different categories. Based on mobility, all Jivs are divided into two broad categories: • Non-mobile or Sthåvar Jiv - those that cannot move on their own and have only one sense. • Mobile or Tras Jiv - those that can move on their own and have two to five senses. Non-Mobile Souls (Sthävar Jiv, One Sensed Being, or Ekendriya Jiv): Jivs having only one sense, the sense of touch, is called Ekendriya. They are further divided into the following five sub-categories. 68 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #69 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX SUBSTANCES PARTI - LIVING BEINGS (JIV) Prithvikäya or Earth Bodied Jiv: Seemingly inanimate forms of earth are actually living beings, e.g. clay, sand, metal, coral, etc. They have earthly bodies, hence the name Prithvikäya, which is derived from the Sanskrit term for earth, which is Prithvi. Apkäya or Water Bodied Jiv: Seemingly inanimate forms of different types of water are living beings. Examples are dew, fog, iceberg, rain, etc. They have water bodies, hence the name Apkäya, which is derived from the Sanskrit term for water, which is Ap. Teukäya or Fire Bodied Jiv: Seemingly inanimate forms of different types of fires are living beings. Examples are flames, blaze, lightening, forest fire, hot ash, etc. They have fire bodies, hence the name Teukäya, which is derived from the Sanskrit term for fire, which is Tejas. Väyukäya or Air Bodied Jiv: Seemingly inanimate forms of air are actually living beings. Examples are wind, whirlwinds, cyclones, etc. They have air bodies, hence the name Väyukäya, which is derived from the Sanskrit term for air, which is Väyu. Vanaspatikäya or Plant Bodied Jiv: It is well known that plants grow and reproduce and hence they are accepted as living beings. Trees, plants, branches, flowers, leaves, and seeds are some examples of plant life. The Sanskrit term for plant is Vanaspati and therefore such Jivs are called Vanaspatikäya Jiv. Jainism explains that innumerable souls (Vanaspatikäya Jiv) live in every plants, trees, fruits and vegetables. And a single cell of every plant contains one soul or many souls. Depending upon this, plant life is further divided into the following two sub-categories: Pratyeka Vanaspatikäya Jiv: Pratyeka means each or one. Such plant lives have one soul exist in a single cell of a plant. Therefore, they are called Pratyeka Vanaspatikäya. Trees, plants, bushes, stem, branches, leaves, and seeds, etc., which grow above the ground are all examples of Pratyeka Vanaspatikäya Jiv. Each plant of Pratyeka Vanaspatikäya possesses infinite number of cells hence infinite number of souls exist in every plant. Sädhäran Vanaspatikäya Jiv: Sädhäran means common. In such plant life many souls occupy the same cell or body making this type of plant life multi-organic. Therefore, such plant life is called Sädhäran Vanaspatikäya Jiv. These kinds of plants have an infinite number of souls in a single cell and therefore are called "Anantakäya". Roots which grow under the ground such as potatoes, carrots, onions, garlic, beats, etc., belong to this category. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE 69 Page #70 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX SUBSTANCES PARTI - LIVING BEINGS (Jiv) In summary Pratyeka Vanaspatikäya plant contain infinite number of cells and each cell contains one unique soul. However Sädhäran Vanaspatikäya plant that also contains infinite number of cells, and its each cell contains infinite number of souls. Mobile Souls (Trasa Jiv, Multi Sensed Being, or Bähu Indriya): Mobile Jivs have two, three, four or five senses and are divided into the following categories: Two Sensed Beings (Beindriya Jiv): Two sensed beings have the senses of touch and taste. Examples are shells, worms, insects, termites, and microbes in stale food. Three Sensed Beings (Treindriya Jiv): Three sensed beings have the senses of touch, taste, and smell. Examples are bugs, lice, white ants, moths, insects in wheat, grains, and centipedes. 70 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #71 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX SUBSTANCES PARTI - LIVING BEINGS (JIV) Four Sensed Beings (Chaurindriya Jiv): Four sensed beings have the senses of touch, taste, smell and sight. Examples are scorpions, crickets, spiders, beetles, locusts, and flies. Five Sensed Beings (Panchendriya Jiv): Five sensed beings have all the five senses of touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing. Examples are human beings, cows, lions, fish, birds, etc. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #72 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX SUBSTANCES PARTI - LIVING BEINGS (JIV) The following are four sub-categories of the Panchendriya Jiv. Näraki (Infernal) Tiryancha (Animals) Dev (Celestial) Manushya Among the five sensed beings some have minds and some do not. Those having a capacity of rational thinking are called Sanjni Panchendriya and those without it are called Asanjni Panchendriya. Summary: Among all of these Jiv the worldliest happiness is found in celestial beings, while the worldliest suffering is found in infernal beings. Neither celestial nor infernal beings can take any vows. They cannot attain salvation during that life. Animals possess limited restraint only and, therefore, they also cannot attain salvation directly. The human state of existence is the most preferable to attain salvation, because during that life one can use logic to the fullest extent, can perform austerities, and can live with restraint. Thus, only through the human phase can a Jiv attain salvation or Moksha. Paryäpti and Präna: All Jivs have special attributes related to the body such as Paryäpti (power) and Präna (vitality). The inert substance or Ajiv does not possess any such quality. Following is the discussion relating to Paryäpti and Präna. Jiv living in hell, Elephants, lions, birds, fish, etc., Heavenly beings, Human beings. Paryapti (Bio-potential Power): Paryäpti means a special power through which the Jiv takes in matter (Pudgals) like food and converts it into different kinds of energy. There are six kinds of Paryäptis: 01 Food 72 02 Body 03 Senses 04 Respiration 05 Speech 06 Mind When the life of a Jiv is over, the soul along with Tejas (fiery body) and Kärman (karmic) bodies leaves the current body and acquires a new body. As soon as a Jiv is conceived, the first thing it does is consume food. The Jiv, with the help of Tejas body, digests the food. After this, the Jiv gradually attains the power of acquiring a physical body and the power of senses. The activities of consuming food, developing a body, and forming and strengthening sense organs go on continuously. The body is formed in duration called the Antarmuhurta (within 48 minutes). Next, the Jiv, receives the power of respiration, and eventually the powers of speech and mind. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #73 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX SUBSTANCES PARTI - LIVING BEINGS (JAV) The Ekendriya, one sensed jivs, have four Paryäptis, (1) Food (2) Body (3) Sense, and (4) respiration The Beindriya, the Treindriya, the Chaurindriya and the Asanjni Panchendriya jivs possess (5) Speech Paryäpti in addition to the above four. The Sanjni Panchendriya jivs possess (6) Man Paryäpti (capacity of rational thinking) in addition to the above five. Depending upon the development of the Paryäptis the jivs are also classified as (1) Paryäpta Jiv, (2) Aparyäpta Jiv. The Paryäpta Jiv means that their corresponding Paryäptis have developed to their fullest capacity. The Aparyäpta Jiv means that their Paryäptis are not developed to their full capacity. Präna (Vitality): Depending upon the development of the Jiv, there are up to ten kinds of präns or vitality present in each Jiv. These are: 01 Sparsha-Indriya (Touch): The ability to feel the sensation of touch 02 Ras-Indriya (Taste): the ability to taste 03 Ghrän-Indriya (Smell): the ability to smell 04 Chakshu-Indriya (Vision): the ability to see 05 Shravan-Indriya (Hearing): the ability to hear 06 Mano-bal (Mind): the ability to think 07 Vachan-bal (Speech): the ability to speak 08 Käyä-bal (Body): the ability to move the body 09 Shwäsochchhväs (Respiration): the ability to inhale and exhale 10 Ayushya (Longevity): the ability to live Pility mabilis body The Ekendriya Jivs possess only four präns: 01 Touch 02 Body 03 Respiration 04 Longevity The Beindriya Jivs possess six präns. They possess the taste and speech vitality in addition, to the above four präns. The Treindriya Jivs possess seven präns. They possess the smell vitality, in addition, to the above six präns. The Chaurindriya Jivs possess eight präns. They possess the vision vitality in addition to the above seven präns. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE Page #74 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX SUBSTANCES PARTI - LIVING BEINGS (JAV) The Panchendriya Jivs are divided into two groups: 01 The Asanjni (non-sentient) Jivs, whose minds are not fully developed. 02 The Sanjni (sentient) Jivs, whose minds are fully developed. The Asanjni Panchendriya Jivs possess nine präns. They possess hearing vitality in addition to the above eight präns. The Sanjni Panchendriya Jivas possess ten Pränas. They possess mind vitality in addition to the above nine präns. The reason we need to know these präns is because any injury, no matter how little it may be to any of these präns, is considered Hinsä (violence). When we do Hinsä, our soul accumulates bad karmas or Päp (sin). Therefore to prevent the accumulation of karma, observe Ahinsä (non-violence) related to all of these ten präns for all the categories of Jivs. The first vow of non-violence is very important for the householders, monks, and nuns. Now you may understand why we say "Ahinsä Parmo Dharma" (nonviolence is the supreme religion), because by observing Ahinsä we are protecting the vitality of the soul. Table of Paryäptis and Präns: Type of Jivs Abilities Paryäptis Power Präns Vitality Ekendriya Dvindriyas Treindriya Chaurindriya Asanjni Panchendriya Sanjni Panchendriya Souls having one sense Souls having two senses Souls having three senses Souls having four senses Souls having five senses without a mind Souls having five senses with a mind OOOO Science without religion is lame, Religion without science is blind. 14 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #75 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX SUBSTANCES PART II - NON-LIVING SUBSTANCES (AJIV) Chapter 18 - Six Substances Part II – Non-Living Substances (Ajiv) Non-living Substances (Ajiv) Anything that does not have life or consciousness is Ajiv. Ajiv literally means without a soul and therefore, they cannot accumulate any karma. They do not have birth, death, pleasure, or pain; they are Achetan (inert). Examples of Ajivs are: a box, car, fan, television, photo frame, iron, watch, etc. Jain Philosophy has classified Ajivs into the following five categories: (1) Dharmästikäya (Medium of Motion). (2) Adharmästikäya (Medium of Rest). (3) Äkäshästikäya (Space). (4) Pudgalästikäya (Matter). (5) Käl (Time). Dharmästikäya (Medium of Motion) Dharmästikäya is made up of two words: Dharma and Astikäya. The term Dharma here does not refer to religion, but means the medium of motion. Astikäya means collection of spaces. It denotes the medium of motion for things in the universe. In the absence of this medium, Jiv and other matters would be unable to move. This medium prevails in lok (cosmic space), but is absent in alok (trans cosmic space) Its primary function is to help in the movement of soul and matter in a similar way water provides a medium for fish to move. It exists in the entire cosmic universe (Lokäkäsh) Adharmästikäya (Medium of Rest) This word is also made up of two words: Adharma and Astikaya. Here again, Adharma does not refer to a lack of religion, but rather it means the medium of rest. In the absence of this medium, jivs and other things would continuously move. This medium also prevails in lok, but is absent in alok. Its primary function is to help to rest the movement of soul and matter in a similar way. People rest in the shade of a tree. It exists in the entire cosmic universe (Lokäkäsh) Äkäshästikäya (Space) Äkäshästikäya is made up of two words: Äkäsha and Astikäya. Whole space in the universe is called Akäsha. In Jainism, Akäsha is divided into two parts: Lokäkäsh (Loka or cosmic space) and Alokäkäsh (Aloka or trans cosmic space). Jiv, Pudgal, Dharmästikäya, and Adharmästikäya exist only in Lokäkäsh. Alokäkäsh is an empty space and does not contain any Jiv, Pudgal, Käl, Dharmästikäya, and Adharmästikäya. The qualities are as follows: Provides room to soul, matter, medium of motion, and medium of rest Pervades everywhere (infinite) Supports everything and thus it is self supported JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 75 Page #76 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX SUBSTANCES PART || - NON-LIVING SUBSTANCES (AJIV) Has no form, color, taste, smell, and touch Does not perform any active action (inactive) Provides accommodation to soul and matter of their actions Is one and whole Pudgalästikäya (Matter) SKUNDH DESH PRADESHİPARMANUS SOFIA NOUS DOUTUBE The word Pudgal is made up of two words: Pud means addition and Gal means division. In other words, what continuously changes by addition and/or division is called the Pudgal or the matter. All the matters in the universe are called Pudgals. Matter is a nonliving substance. It is the only substance, which possesses a physical body consisting of mass and volume. Its qualities are as follows: • Possesses a physical body Has qualities, which can be perceived by our senses of touch, taste, smell, sight, and/ or hearing Possesses color Does not have consciousness • Does not have any knowledge • Are of infinite number The smallest particle of matter is known Paramänu (atom). It occupies only one unit of space called Pradesha. There are four categories of matter: Skandha (whole matter): Any object, which has a mass of matter, is called Skandha. e.g. stick, stone, knife, a particle of sand Skandha-Desha (portion of matter): Desha means a part, portion, or division. An undetached portion of Skandha is called Skandha Desha. When a part of the Skandha (Skandha Desha) is separated from the whole, it also becomes another Skandha. e.g. The hand of a statue is known as a Skandha Desha but when separated from the statue is known as Skandha. Skandha-Pradesha (smallest particle of matter): The smallest undetached portion of Skandha, which cannot be further divided, is called Skandha Pradesha. 76 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #77 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX SUBSTANCES PART II - NON-LIVING SUBSTANCES (Ajiv) Paramänu or Anu (atom): When the smallest portion of the matter is separated from its Skandha, it is called Paramänu or anu. Paramänu matter cannot be further sub-divided, cut, or pierced. Karma or Karmic Matter (Karma Pudgal): Karma is one of the categories of matter. It is known as karmic matter (karma Pudgal). Karma particles are of very fine matter and are not perceptible to the senses. The entire universe is filled with such karmic matter. Karmic matter from eternity covers every living being. It is the karmic matter that keeps the soul from the realization of its true nature. It is due to karma that one feels pleasure and pain, reincarnates into different forms of life, acquires a certain type of physical body, and the duration of life. Käl (Time) Käl means time, which measures changes in living beings and non-living substances. It is not the cause of such changes. A child becomes a young person, a young person becomes an old person, and the old person dies. In other words, something, which is new, becomes old, worn, and torn over a period of time. All of these changes do not happen because of time. Käl is merely the measure of time, over, which those changes occur. The past, present, and future are different modes of time and are measured in terms of years, months, days, hours, minutes or seconds. According to what is commonly known for all practical purposes, a second is the smallest measurement of time. Jainism however, recognizes a very tiny measurement of time known as Samay, which is an infinitely small part of a second. Two views exist in Jainism with regards to time. (1) Time is an imaginary thing; it has no real existence. (2) Time has a real existence consisting of innumerable time atoms. The smallest indivisible portion of time is called Samay. Combination of Samays are called moment, second, minute, hour, day, month, year, etc. Innumerable Samays 16,777,216 Avalis 30 Muhurts 15 days 2 fortnights 12 months 5 Years 8,400,000 x 8,400,000 years Innumerable years 10 x 10,000,000 x 10,000,000 Palyopams 10 x 10,000,000 x 10,000,000 Sägaropams 20 x 10,000,000 x 10,000,000 Sägaropams One Ävali (time required to blink an eye) One Muhurt (48 minutes) One day One fortnight One month One year One Yuga One Purva (70,560,000,000,000 Years) One Palyopams* One Sägaropam Avasarpini or Utsarpini (Half Cycle) One Time Cycle Time is infinite, without any beginning or end. Time is divided into infinite equal time cycles (Kälchakras). Every time cycle is further sub-divided in two equal halves. The first half is JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #78 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX SUBSTANCES PART II - NON-LIVING SUBSTANCES (Ajiv) the progressive cycle or ascending orders, called Utsarpini. The other half is the regressive cycle or the descending order called Avasarpini. Every Utsarpini and Avasarpini is divided into six unequal periods called Aräs. During the Utsarpini half cycle; progress, development, happiness, strength, age, body, religious trends, etc., go from the worst conditions to the best. During the Avasarpini half cycle, progress, development, happiness, strength, age, body, religious trends, etc. go from the best conditions to the worst. Presently, we are in the fifth Ärä of the Avasarpini phase. When the Avasarpini phase ends the Utsarpini phase begins. The Kälchakra repeats and continues forever. Each Ärä is divided into six parts. The duration and the name of each part is as follows: The six Äräs are: • Sukham Sukham Käl- Happy Happy (happiness all the time). • Sukham Käl- Happy (happiness). • Sukham Dukham Käl- Happy Unhappy (happiness with some unhappiness). • Dukham Sukham Käl- Unhappy Happy (unhappiness with some happiness). • Dukham Käl- Unhappy (unhappiness). • Dukham Dukham Käl- Unhappy Unhappy (unhappiness all the time). KAL CHAKRA (TIME CYCLE) REGRESSIVE HALF CYCLE 6.VERY HAPPY 1. VERY HAPPY SHAPPY 2. HAPPY L HAPPY UNHAPPY UNHAPPY 4. UNHAPPY HAPPY 2. UNHAPPY HAPPY 2. UNHAPPY 1- VERY UNHAPPY PROGRESSIVE HALF CYCLE SUNHAPPY EVERY UNHAPPY Six parts of Declining Era (Avasarpini) Time Cycle 01 Happy_happy 4 x 1014 Sägaropams 02 Happy 3 x 1014 Sägaropams 03 Happy_unhappy 2 x 1014 Sägaropams 04 Unhappy_happy 1 x 1014 Sägaropams - 42000 years** 05 Unhappy 21000 years 06 Unhappy_unhappy 21000 years 1 This is current Ärä, which began about 2500 years ago Six parts of Rising Era (Utsarpini) Time Cycle 01 Unhappy_unhappy 21000 years 02 Unhappy 21000 years 78 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #79 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX SUBSTANCES PART || - NON-LIVING SUBSTANCES (AJIV) 03 Unhappy_happy 1 x 1014 Sägaropams - 42000 years 04 Happy_unhappy 2 x 1014 Sägaropams 05 Happy 3 x 1014 Sägaropams 06 Happy_happy 4 x 1014 Sägaropams 1. Sukham Sukham Käl - This is a time of great happiness. During this phase people are very tall and live for a very long period of time. All the needs and desires of the people are fulfilled by ten different kinds of Kalpa-vriksha (wish-granting trees). These trees provide places to live, clothes, pots and pans, good food, fruits, sweets, harmonious music, jewelry, beautiful flowers, radiant lamps, and a bright light at night. There is no killing, crime, or vices. There is no need of religion an no Tirthankar exist during this time period. 2. Sukham Käl - This is also a time of happiness, but it is not great happiness. The wishgranting trees still continue to provide for the people's needs, but the people are not as tall and do not live as long. There is no need of religion an no Tirthankar exist during this time period. 3. Sukham Dukham Käl - This is a phase consisting of more happiness than misery. During this period the Kalpa-vrikshas do not consistently provide what is desired. The first Tirthankar of a given half time cycle is born towards the end of this Ärä. Towards the end of this period in the current time cycle Rushabhdev became the first Tirthankar. He realized that things were going to get worse. So, he taught the people useful arts including, pot making, farming, and cooking to enable them to depend upon themselves. He introduced a political system and became the first king. This Arä came to an end three years and eight months after the nirvana of Rushabhdev. The first Chakravarti (king of kings) Bharat, his brother Bahubali, well known for his strength, Brähmi, his sister, who devised eighteen different alphabets and, Sundari, also his sister, who devised math, were Rushabhdev's children. 4. Dukham Sukham Käl - This is a phase of more misery, sorrow, and suffering than happiness. The other twenty-three Tirthankars and eleven Chakravartis were born during this Ärä, which came to an end three years and eight months after the last Tirthankar Lord Mahävir's Nirvän. 5. Dukham Käl - This is the currently prevailing Ärä. It is an Ärä of unhappiness, which began a little over 2,500 years ago and will last for a total of 21,000 years. No one born during this period will gain liberation in his or her present life, because no one will be capable to follow the true religion to the fullest extent. It is said that by the end of this Ärä, the Jain religion will be extinct (only temporarily, to be revived in the next half cycle by future Tirthankars). 6. Dukham Dukham Käl - This is a time of great misery and unhappiness. During this time, people will experience nothing but suffering. There will be no trace of religious activity. The life span of people will be very short, exceeding no more than twenty years. Most people will be non-vegetarian and the social structure will be destroyed. The weather will become extreme, the days will be very hot, and the nights will be very cold. At the end of this Ärä, a period of Utsarpini will start and the time wheel will take an upward swing. Miseries will gradually diminish and happiness will increase until every phase is once again reached. 23 Tirthankars will be born during the 3rd Ärä and last one during beginning the 4th Ärä of the next half cycle. These cycles go on forever. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #80 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAV TATTVA PARTI: JIV, AIVA, PUNYA, PÄP, ÄSARVA AND BANDHA Chapter 19 - Nav Tattva Part 1 : Jiv, Ajiva, Punya, Päp, Äsrava, and Bandha Jiv, Ajiv, Punya, Päp, Asrava, Bandha, Samvar, Nirjara and Moksha are the nine fundamentals or Nav Tattva. The nine tattvas or principles are the single most important subjects of Jain philosophy. They deal with the theory of karma, which provides the basis for the path of liberation. Without proper knowledge of these tattvas, a person cannot progress spiritually. The Nine Tattvas (Principles) are as follows: Name Meaning Jiv Ajiv Äsrava Bandha Punya* Päp* Samvar Nirjarä Moksha Soul or living being (Consciousness) Non-living substances Influx of karma Bondage of karma Virtue Sin Stoppage of the influx of karma Partial exhaustion of the accumulated karma Total liberation from karma 8 9 *Some scriptures define Punya (virtue) and Päp (sin) not as separate tattvas. They include them in Asrava and Bandha. In reality Punya and Papa are the result of Asrava and Bandha. Hence truly there exist only seven tattvas. Samyaktva or Samyag-Darshan (Right Faith) is attained when one fully understands the six universal substances and nine fundamentals. the living bearmas through Ninjară, one liberane should there The philosophy of Nav Tattva is very practical. Omniscients have explained to us the existence of the living beings, and their relationship with Karmas through these nine aspects. One stops the influx of Karmas through Samvar, and eradicates the Karmas through Nirjarä; and by these two processes, Samvar and Nirjarä, one liberates himself from the karmic bondage, and attains the ultimate goal, the liberation (Moksha). One should therefore pursue the path of Samvar and Nirjarä to be successful in discovering the truth about one's own self. Jain philosophy views nine fundamentals or Nav Tattva in 3 categories: Jneya meaning those to be known Heya meaning those to be avoided Upädeya meaning those to be adopted 80 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #81 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAV TATTVA PARTI: JIV, AJIVA, PUNYA, PÄP, ÄSARVA AND BANDHA Of the nine fundamentals, Jiv and Ajivs are Jneya (to be known) • Asrava and Bandha are Heya (to be avoided) • Samvar, Nirjarä and Moksha are Upädeya (to be adopted) Päp is Heya and • Punya is Upädeya for the beginners and Heya for spiritually advanced person Punya is a meritorious deed done with a feeling of self-satisfaction and accomplishment (in other words with ego). However if the same deed done without the feeling of accomplishment and attachment (with our ego) is not Punya but the action or deed is considered the true nature of a person (Shuddha Bhäv). Hence Punya activity is considered Upädeya in the beginning stages of spiritual development to progress towards liberation (for laymen). For those who are active aspirants of liberation it is considered Heya, because such aspirants should not have the feeling of accomplishments and attachments to even meritorious deeds. Their activities or deeds are always be meritorious without the feeling of attachments to the activities. No karma can attach to a person if his/her action is done without any attachments or feeling of accomplishments. Some description of Jiv has been given in the earlier chapter while dealing with Shad-dravya. It should however be clear from the discussion thus far that the knowledge of these fundamentals or of anything else is meant for knowing the Self. This Self is variously known as Jiv, Atmä, Paramätmä, Chaitanya, Brahma, consciousness, etc., Thus soul being the focal point and ultimate objective of all knowledge, it would be useful to discuss it here at some length. Jiv (Living Beings) 'What is this soul after all?' No one has ever seen it. Therefore atheists (people who do not believe in God), who refuse to believe in anything that cannot be perceived or grasped by senses, deny the existence of the soul. Most scientists contribute to this view. They think that the body is a biochemical composition and is made from a peculiar combination of genes from the parents. As long as the composition is active, it is said to be a living organism; and when the activity comes to an end, it is considered to be dead. But science does not clarify what exactly makes it active and why does the activity come to an end. It is a fact that when a person dies, his heart, kidneys and other limbs may still be active but the body is unable to use them and therefore they cease to function. If however, they are removed from that body in time, they can be transplanted in another body and function effectively in the new body. Does it not mean that there was some sort of invisible energy that was activating different limbs of the body while it was alive? That energy happens to disappear at the time of death and the presence or loss of that energy is the difference between life and death. Spiritual science calls that energy soul. There exist an infinite number of souls and every living body has a soul. (Sädhäran Vanaspatikäya has infinite number of souls in the one body). The soul is invisible and has no form or shape. It cannot therefore be experienced by the senses. It is an element of its own and cannot be created by any sort of combination or composition and can never be JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #82 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAV TATTVA PARTI: JIV, AJIVA, PUNYA, PÄP, ÄSARVA AND BANDHA decomposed. It is eternal and lasts forever. From time to time, worldly soul resides in different organisms through, which it manifests itself. This type of transmigration and new embodiment birth after birth has been going on since the time without beginning. Even though a particular body happens to be its temporary residence, soul tends to take it as its permanent abode and gets happy or unhappy depending upon the type of that body and its environment. Forgetful of its true nature, it aspires to get maximum happiness within the framework of its given embodiment and surrounding situations. This attachment results from the delusion of the soul about its true nature. Attachment gives rise to the disposition of craving for the desirable and of aversion for the undesirable. These craving and aversion are the causes of the bondage of Karmas. Every living being wants to be happy. The deluded sense of being one with the body however causes the soul to feel happy or unhappy depending upon the prevailing situation, as a consequence of its previous Karmas. Our ancient seers have dwelt deeply in search of true happiness. They tried to explore the Self by raising the question, 'Koham', which means 'Who am I'. The appropriate answer that they obtained was 'Soham', which means that I am that (soul). They also perceived that the l' or the true Self is the source of true happiness and the abode of perfect bliss. They realized that lifeless matter does not have the property to make any one happy or unhappy and that happiness is the inherent property of the soul. We however do not experience lasting happiness, because we do not realize the true properties of the soul. After thoroughly exploring the nature of the soul, the seers have concluded that the principal property of the soul that distinguishes it from lifeless matter is the capability to know or capability of being aware. None of the five lifeless substances possesses that property. The scriptures have described this as Upayoga Lakshano Jivah It means the capability to know is the characteristic of the soul. This attribute is inseparable from consciousness and therefore it is its basic characteristic. As such, the soul should simply stay aware of any given situation without in any way reacting to it because none of the situations really belong to it. This would result in a sense of detachment to any extraneous influence, which will ultimately enable the soul to exist forever in ultimate bliss. It is not surprising that the seers have called this bliss as indescribable. To sum up, the soul is pure consciousness. Infinite awareness and eternal bliss are its principal characteristics. Sanskrit words for eternity, consciousness and bliss are respectively Sat, Chit and Anand. Therefore a perfect soul is variously known as Sachchidananda, Chidanand or Sahajänand. It is intangible, invisible, colorless, odorless, tasteless, formless, and shapeless. It is therefore described by Neti, Neti (Not this, not that). It can however be experienced by dwelling deep within oneself. Ajiv (Non-living Substances) The description of Ajiv and its five categories has been discussed earlier. Jiv and the five categories of Ajivs are not in any way dependent on one another. Each of these six substances has potential to undergo changes in its own states. Other substances play the role of being 82 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #83 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L NAV TATTVA PART I: JIV, AJIVA, PUNYA, PÄP, ÄSARVA AND BANDHA instrumental in effecting the changes. For instance, Dharmästikäya, Adharmästikäya, Äkäsha and Käl play the role of being instrumental in the change of location and time. Worldly soul does not try to identify itself with these four substances. The role of Pudgal on Jiv and of Jiv on Pudgal has been the source of a lot of confusion. Worldly soul does not realize that its embodiment and all its surroundings have resulted from its past Karmas. It tends to identify with all those situations ignoring the fact that they are momentary. This has been the root cause of continued bondage of Karma to the soul and resulting transmigration. The discussion of Nav Tattvas will analyze the state of worldly soul and the factors that prevent or help in attaining liberation. Therefore Pudgal and particularly Karma Pudgal, will be discussed in detail. Punya and Päp (Good Deeds and Bad Deeds) Punya is acquired by meritorious or virtuous deeds and Päp is acquired by evil or vicious acts. As long as the soul is embodied with karma, it indulges in one or the other activity. This activity may be physical or mental or both. It is possible that a person may refrain from physical activity for some time. His mental apparatus however never rests. It functions even when he rests or sleeps. Every activity involves Karma and one has to bear the consequences sooner or later. If one undertakes meritorious activity with the feeling of attachment, he earns Punya or Shubha (wholesome) Karmas; if he indulges in evil activity, he acquires Pap or Ashubha (unwholesome) Karmas. Depending upon the intensity and accumulation of wholesome Karmas, one may be blessed with happy and comfortable situations like, handsome and strong or beautiful and graceful body, good health etc. Unwholesome Karmas on the other hand result in unhappy and miserable situations like ugliness, illness, poverty etc. It is therefore generally accepted that everyone should try to undertake meritorious activities and refrain from evil ones. Many physical activities may be called either good or bad. Organized societies endeavor to encourage beneficial or virtuous activities and to discourage the wicked or vicious ones. There may also be legal provisions to forbid some of the manifestly wicked activities so as to maintain peace and order within society. Some of the activities however cannot be clearly labeled as good or bad. In the spiritual sense, the intention behind performing them, and the disposition in which an activity is performed, play an important role in deciding whether it would attract wholesome or unwholesome Karmas. Let us examine this aspect with the help of examples. Doctor and Burglar A burglar, for instance, comes across a person who he wants to rob. He fatally stabs the person. On the other hand, a patient with tumor in stomach is advised to undergo surgery. He goes to a surgeon who opens his belly with the surgical knife. Unfortunately for the patient, the tumor is in a very advanced stage or there are other complications. Consequently, the patient dies during surgery. In both these cases a person hurts other person with a knife and the other person dies. Does it mean that the burglar and the surgeon would attract the same type of Karma? This is not true. The burglar's activity is evidently sinful, while that of the surgeon is meritorious. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 83 Page #84 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAV TATTVA PARTI: JIV, AIVA, PUNYA, PÄP, ÄSARVA AND BANDHA Two Buddhist Monks The two Buddhist monks named Suresh muni and Raman muni, who have taken a vow of celibacy including not to touch opposite sex person, were traveling from one place to another. On the way they come across a river that is flooded. On the bank of the river, there was a beautiful young girl intending to go across but she was scared of so much water. Realizing her anxiety, Suresh muni offers his hand and leads her into water. Watching this, Raman muni objected the action of Suresh muni, but Suresh muni ignored his objection and went ahead. The flow of the river got swifter causing the girl to drift. Suresh muni therefore holds her waist and leads her ahead. For Raman muni, this act of Suresh muni was beyond imagination and he severely reproached Suresh muni for his audacity. Suresh muni again ignored his objection. Water gets deeper ahead. The girl did not know how to swim. Suresh muni therefore carried her on his back and swims across the river. This is too much for Raman muni who cursed Suresh muni for gross violation of the vow. Suresh muni did not respond in any way. He leaved the girl on the other bank and quietly proceeded with Raman muni. On the way, Raman muni rebuked him again and again for what he had done and warned him of the dire consequences when they confront Guru Maharaj. Suresh muni maintained his silence while reproaches of his friend continue unabated. After listening for one hour Suresh muni pointed out that he left the girl one-hour back while Raman muni was still holding her in his head. It is evident that in this example that Suresh muni had no intention other than helping a girl cross the river. While holding her hand or while carrying her on his back, he had no other thoughts. Therefore, he left her as soon as he reached the other bank. He even did not look at her beauty. For him, she was simply a person who was in need of help. He rendered it without any passionate thoughts throughout. Raman muni's attitude on the other hand was totally different. Though he did not even touch the girl, he was thrilled by the imaginary sensation of close contact of a beautiful girl. In his heart he longed to have the feel of her touch. He did not actually do so simply because it was forbidden. In the spiritual sense he therefore, committed the sin of indulging in undesirable activity while Suresh muni earned the Punya of helping a person in need. Thus Päp and Punya are to be viewed in relative terms and they depend upon one's mental attitude in a given situation. Punyänubandhi Punya Concepts of Punya and Päp are more or less identical with most religions. The latter concept is however more subtly treated by Indian philosophies. They take into consideration not only the actual act but also the intention behind it. They are unanimous in adoring the meritorious intentions and activities and in condemning the sinful ones. As explained above, one may obtain material happiness and comforts as a result of wholesome Karmas, but then what? Material happiness does come to an end and comfortable situations do not last forever. And then one has to undergo miseries unless one has in the meantime earned other Punya Karmas. This earning of new Punya Karma while enjoying the fruits of earlier ones is known in Jain terminology as Punyänubandhi Punya. In summary, while enjoying the fruits of wholesome Karmas one acquires further wholesome Karmas. 84 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #85 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAV TATTVA PARTI: JIV, AJIVA, PUNYA, PÄP, ÄSARVA AND BANDHA Päpänubandhi Punya While enjoying the fruits of Punya or wholesome Karmas, one may acquire Päp Karmas is called Päpänubandhi Punya. Very few people endeavor to earn Punyänubandhi Punya, because most of the people are infatuated by happiness and comforts. By virtue of infatuation they indulge in unwholesome activities. This type of action is known as Päpänubandhi Punya or wholesome Karmas leading to unwholesome activities. Misery is thus destined for them in the end. Punyänubandhi Päp While suffering the consequences of Päp or unwholesome Karmas, one may acquire Punya Karmas is called Punyänubandhi Päp. As a consequence of Päp Karmas, a person does undergo varying degrees of miseries. If however that person realizes that his miseries are the consequence of his previous Karmas, he will bear the miseries calmly and with a sense of detachment and objectivity. He will tolerate pain and misery with equanimity. This attitude will earn him Punyas. This action is known as Punyänubandhi Päp. In Summary, while suffering for unwholesome Karmas one acquires wholesome Karmas. Päpänubandhi Päp While suffering the consequences of Päp or unwholesome Karmas, one may acquire Pap Karmas is called Päpänubandhi Päp. Most of the people who suffer miseries blame some one else or some extraneous factors for causing miseries. They indulge in anger, jealousy, animosity etc., and react violently or wrongly to the pain and miseries. Thus, they acquire new unwholesome Karmas or Päp. This type of action of such people are therefore known as Päpänubandhi Päp or unwholesome Karmas leading to further accumulation of unwholesome Karmas. The wholesome as well as unwholesome Karmas cause bondage to which the soul gets chained. If unwholesome Karmas are shackles of iron, wholesome ones are those of gold. Both of them gets in the way of the soul's liberation and eventually even the wholesome Karmas must be avoided to attain liberation. However, wholesome karmas are needed to proceed on to the path of liberation. One should understand that the wholesome karma (Punya) is a meritorious deed done with a feeling of self-satisfaction and accomplishment. However if the same deed done without the feeling of accomplishment and attachment, then it is not a Punya but the action or deed is considered the true nature of a person. No karma can attach to a person if his/her action is done without any attachments or feeling of accomplishments. This can be done by cultivating a sense of detachment in all situations, favorable as well as unfavorable. No situation lasts forever and every conceivable situation come to an end sooner or later. Why get infatuated or feel miserable in a situation, which is ephemeral? If a person stays tuned to such a detached attitude and maintains equanimity, he does not attract new Karmas. His earlier Karmas would steadily drip off as he bears their consequences. In due course he will shake off all Karmas and proceed on the path of liberation. Unfortunately, however, it is not possible for a worldly soul to stay continuously tuned to its true nature for very long. The seers have stated that no one can continuously concentrate on any object more than two JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 85 Page #86 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAV TATTVA PART I: JIV, AJIVA, PUNYA, PÄP, ÄSARVA AND BANDHA Ghadis or 48 minutes. Beyond that time the attention of the aspirant gets diverted. Thus after staying tuned to true nature, attention reverts to other aspects. During periods of such reversals it is better to be involved in wholesome activities rather than indulging in unwholesome ones. Therein lies the preference of Punya Karmas over Päp Karmas. Äsrava and Bandha (Inflow of Karmas and Bondage of Karmas) The next two fundamentals which are Äsrava and Bandha, are closely related. In a way these two fundamentals are two aspects of the same phenomenon pertaining to bondage of Karma. The term Äsrava is made up of two words, 'Aa, meaning from all sides and 'Srav' meaning dripping in. So Äsrava, which is also spelled as Äshrava, means inflow of Karma. Bandha means bondage of incoming Karma with the soul. As explained earlier, every activity involves Karma. Whether one indulges in activity by mind, words or physical action, he does acquire Karma. Since worldly soul continually stays involved in one or another activity, the resulting Karmas continue to flow towards it. Its involvement with activities, serve as Äsrava or doors through which Karmas enter. Thus Äsrava of Karma continues to occur more or less incessantly. If the soul gets involved in virtuous activities, Äsrava happens to be of wholesome Karmas. If it is involved in unwholesome activities, Äsrava happens to be of unwholesome Karmas. This involvement mainly occurs because of defilements or Kashayas that exist in soul. None of such situations really belong to the pure soul. They are not and in no case can become part and parcel of the pure soul. If one understands it correctly, one can remain unaffected by any given situation and stay in equanimity. The term correctly is very pertinent in this context, because the true nature of the soul happens to be pure, enlightened and full of blessed consciousness. In its pure state it is devoid of any defilement or Kashayas. As such, the soul is supposed to simply observe whatever happens as a result of operative Karmas and stay aware of any given situation without reacting to it in any way. Since time without beginning, worldly soul has stayed deluded about its true nature and has been conditioned to react to any situation with a sense of craving or aversion. If it does not react that way and views all possible situations with equanimity, it does not attract new Karmas and can avoid Äsrava or incoming of Karmas and the resulting Bandha. Thus Äsrava and Bandha mainly occur on account of ignorance of the soul about its true nature. One may, however, question how any conscious person can be ignorant about one's self. The ignorance of the soul regarding its true nature, happens to be on account of its delusion. Its perception remains deluded, just as a drunken person stays deluded about himself. This wrong perception is known as Mithyätva. On account of this delusion and ignorance, the soul views any given situation as the cause of its own happiness or unhappiness. If the situation is pleasing to the senses, the soul identifies itself with that feeling and craves for continuance of such situations. If it is unpleasing, soul identifies with the resulting unhappiness and tries to avoid it. Thus it continues to react to different situations with the sense of craving or aversion. These cravings and aversions are the defilements of the soul because they defile its true nature of staying in equanimity. These defilements are expressed in the form of Krodha (Anger, enmity etc.), Mäna (Ego and arrogance), Mäyä (Deception) and Lobha (attachment and greed). These 86 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #87 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAV TATTVA PARTI: JIV, AJIVA, PUNYA, PÄP, ÄSARVA AND BANDHA are known as the four Kashäyas or four passions, which drag the soul downwards. In addition to these, there are No-kashayas or semi defilements like joy, gloom, affection, disaffection, fear, disgust and certain sensual impulses. On account of these Kashayas and No-kashayas. the soul indulges in arrogance, greed, joy, affection, love etc. when it views any given situation as favorable. If it views the situation as unfavorable, it indulges in anger, deception, gloom, disaffection, fear, disgust etc. Äsrava Äsrava is the cause, which leads to the influx of good and evil karma and which leads to the bondage of the soul. Äsrava may be described as attraction in the soul toward sense objects. The following are causes of Asrava or influx of good and evil karma: Mithyatva - Ignorance Avirati - Lack of self restraint Pramada* - Unawareness or unmindfulness Kashaya - Passions like anger, conceit, deceit, and lust - Activities of mind, speech, and body Yoga * Some Jain literatures mention only four causes of Asrava. They include Pramäda in the category of Kasaya. Bandha The detail of Bandha is described in the chapter - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation Non-violence and kindness to living beings is kindness to oneself. For thereby one's own self is saved from various kinds of sins and resultant sufferings and is able to secure his own welfare. --Mahavira JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #88 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAV TATTVA PART II : SAMVAR, NIRJARÄ AND MOKSHA Chapter 20 - Nav Tattva Part II : Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha (Prevention of Karmas, Eradication of Karmas and Liberation) Samvar means prevention of the incoming Karmas Nirjarä means the eradication of acquired Karmas Both are to be resorted to and are therefore considered Upädeya. We should continually strive to achieve Samvar and Nirjara. They are meant to guide us in adopting the right conduct. After all, the purpose of studying religion is to learn the appropriate mode of behavior so as to attain salvation in the end. Samvar and Nirjarä describe the ways one can use to prevent the Karmic bondage and to get rid of Karmas in order to gain liberation. If bondage of Karma is considered a disease that afflicts the soul and Asrava the door through which the disease enters, Samvar is the prevention of the disease and Nirjarä is the cure. Since prevention is better than cure, let us first examine how to prevent the influx of Karmas. Samvar (Prevention of Karmas) It has been stated earlier that a living being happens to be in various situations due to its Karmas. One has to accept the given situation with a sense of equanimity. If he views it dispassionately without in any way reacting to it, operative Karmas are exhausted in due course and he does not acquire new karma. Worldly soul is however conditioned to react to any given situation favorably or unfavorably. If the situation is to his liking, he feels happy over it and craves for its continuation. He usually tends to think that the happy situation is a result of his efforts and takes pride for it. He may also think that people who are unhappy, have to blame themselves for their miseries, because in his opinion they lack or do not put enough effort into improving their condition. As such, his success may lead him to such a level of pride and grandiosity that it would be hard for him to cultivate a sense of compassion for the miseries and unhappiness of others. His arrogance may also make him prone to develop a sense of disgust and contempt for the miserable. If the situation is not to one's liking, the person feels unhappy and strives to make it better. There is nothing wrong in striving to improve a given situation. Unfortunately people do not mind resorting to foul means for this purpose. An ordinary person usually tends to think that some extraneous factors or some people have contrived to create the unhappy conditions or they are otherwise instrumental in bringing unhappiness and misery to him. As such, he harbors ill feeling for them and cultivates a sense of jealousy or hostility towards those whom he suspects of being responsible for his misery or unhappiness. Thus, an ordinary person is conditioned to interact to any given situation with a sense of craving or aversion. Wrong perception, absence of restraint, indolence and passions are the main causes of the influx of Karmas. Craving and aversion lead people to indulge in such defilements from time to time. Of all these, the four Kashäyas of Krodha, Mäna, Maya and Lobha are the principal defiling factors. If the soul avoids them, it can stay in equanimity in all-conceivable situations. It can prevent the influx of new karmas while facing the consequences of the current operative Karmas. This is similar to closing all openings of our house when dirt and trash happen to 88 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #89 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L NAV TATTVA PART II: SAMVAR, NIRJARÄ AND MOKSHA be flung inside due to a tornado. Staying in equanimity may not be as easy as closing the doors. It should not however be too difficult, and it does not mean that one should not make an effort to change a given situation. Making effort is also Karma and if that Karma happens to give instant results, the situation may change. One should avoid the sense of pride and arrogance in favorable circumstances and stop blaming anything or anybody else for unfavorable circumstances. In short, one should have the right perception so as to avoid indulging in Kashäyas in all circumstances. Staying free of Kashäyas is Samvar and it helps prevent the inflow of new Karmas. The method that stops fresh karma from attaching into the soul is called Samvar. This process is a reverse process of Äsrava. It can be accomplished by constant practice of : Right belief Observance of vows Awareness Passionlessness Peacefulness of vibratory activities 57 Ways of Samvar Jain literature explains 57 practical ways, a person can stop the influx of karma. 5 3 10 225 12 57 Samitis Guptis Yati Dharma Bhävanä Parishaha Chäritra Carefulness Preservation Religious Virtues Reflections or Thoughts Subduing of Suffering Conduct Five Samitis (Carefulness): Samitis purify the actions Iryä Samiti Proper care in walking Proper care in speaking Proper care in begging Proper care in taking and keeping Proper care in disposing waste Bhäshä Samiti Eshanä Samiti Ädäna Nikshepa Samiti Utsarga Samiti Three Guptis (Preservations): Guptis prohibits sinful activities Mano Gupti Vachan Gupti Proper control over Mind Proper control over Speech Proper control over Body Käya Gupti Kshamä Märdava Ten Yati Dharma (Religious Virtues) : Forbearance, Forgiveness. Modesty, Humility JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 89 Page #90 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAV TATTVA PART II : SAMVAR, NIRJARÄ AND MOKSHA Arjava Straightforwardness, Candor Shaucha Contentment Satya Truthfulness Samyam Self-restraint, Control of Senses Tapa Austerity, Penance Tyag Renunciation Akinchanya Non-attachment Brahmacharya Celibacy, Chastity Twelve Reflections (Thoughts, Bhävanä, or Anuprekshä): Anitya Bhävanä Impermanence of the world Asharan Bhävanä No one provides protection Samsara Bhävanä No permanent relationships in the universe Ekatva Bhavana Solitude of the soul Anyatva Bhavana Separateness Asuci Bhavana Impurity of the body Äsrava Bhävanä Influx of karma Samvar Bhävanä Stoppage of influx of karma Nirjarä Bhävanä Shedding of karma Loka Bhavana Transitoriness of the universe Bodhi-durlabha Bhävanä Unattainability of the right faith, knowledge, and conduct Dharma Bhävanä Unattainability of true preceptor, scriptures, and religion Reflections on Universal Friendship (additional reflections): Maitri Amity Pramod Appreciation Karuna Compassion Mädhyastha Equanimity Twenty-two Parishaha : A person should remain in the state of equanimity when hardship occurs in the life. There are 22 types of hardships defined in the scripture. Following are some examples: Hunger, Thirst, Cold, Heat, Insect bites, Hearing of evil words, Diseases, etc. Five Chäritra or Conduct : To remain steady in a state of spiritual purity is called conduct or Charitra. Charitra has been divided into the five classes depending upon the spirituality of an individual Sämäyika Charitra Chhedopasthäpana Charitra Parihäravishuddhi-Charitra Sukshma-Samparaya-Charitra To remain in equanimity during our life To live a life of an ascetic To follow special types of penance as an ascetic To live a life without any kashay (No anger, greed, ego, deceit) as an ascetic Living life of an Arihant Yathäkhyäta or Vitaraga-Chäritra 90 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #91 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAV TATTVA PART II : SAMVAR, NIRJARÄ AND MOKSHA Nirjarä (Eradication of Karmas) Eradication of previously acquired Karma is Nirjarä. This is similar to cleaning the inside of the house after closing the doors to prevent incoming dust, trash etc. Previously acquired Karmas that become operative get exhausted as they mature. When Karmas get exhausted on their own after giving the end results and no active effort was made to eradicate them, it is known as Akäm Nirjarä. This type of Nirjarä is automatic. Accumulated Karmas, which are not currently operative, continue to stay with the soul in a dormant state due to bondage. Efforts such as penance, austerity etc. can eradicate them before they become operative. This process of eradication by deliberate effort is Sakäm Nirjarä. Jain scriptures lay a considerable emphasis on austerities, i.e. Tapa. In Tattvärtha-sutra, Ächärya Umäsväti states: 'Tapasä Nirjarä Cha' It means that Nirjarä can be achieved by Tapa or austerities. Jains are therefore encouraged to perform Tapa. Tapa is usually taken as and is equated with fasting. Jains therefore fast longer to achieve Nirjarä. It is generally overlooked that our scriptures have described 6 types of internal and 6 types of external Tapa. Fasting is only one of them. Three stanzas from the Panchächär Sutra, which are very pertinent in this respect, state as follows: Internal and external Tapa laid down by the Seers is of 12 types. When they are observed while staying unperturbed and without any other consideration, it is known as Tapächär or code of austerity. Fasting, eating less than needed, curtailing desires, relinquishing tasty foods, bearing physical pain and braving discomfort constitute the six types of external Tapa. Repentance, reverence, rendering service, self-study, meditation and renunciation constitute the six types of internal Tapa. When we talk of Tapa as a means for Nirjarä, we mean internal Tapa. External Tapa is important as long as it is helpful and is conducive to internal Tapa. In practice we hardly think of internal Tapa and usually feel content by observing fasts or Anashan, the first of the six external austerities. Ashan means eating and Anashan means non-eating or fasting. Thus eating and non-eating are physical phenomena. As long as the body survives, it is going to need food. The body can survive for some time without food. One however tends to get conditioned to eating at regular intervals. In order to inhibit this conditioning, it is useful to fast from time to time. Thus fasting is also very important. The term 'Upaväs' that we generally use for fasting is not synonymous with Anashan. Upa' means closer and 'Väs' means abode. Thus Upavas really means abiding in proximity with or in tune with the soul. If a person sincerely tries to stay in accordance with the real nature of soul, he cannot indulge in any sense of craving or aversion. As such, he would stay away from all defilements and achieve a very high level of Nirjarä. Thus Upaväs in the true sense of the term amounts to right activity and is one of the important way to eradicate Karmas. We however hardly observe that kind of Upavas. It is wrong to believe that Upaväs can be observed simply by abstaining from food. When someone observes the penance of Upavas, he should spend his day in meditation, prayers, and spiritual activities. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 91 Page #92 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAV TATTVA PART II : SAMVAR, NIRJARÄ AND MOKSHA As previously mentioned Jain scriptures define twelve ways to perform austerities, which are the principal ways to achieve Nirjarä. These are further categorized six external and six internal austerities. External austerities • Anashan (Not eating for a set period of time) • Unodari (Eating less than needed) Vrutti-sankshep (Eating within the limits of predetermined restrictions) Material - Eat only a certain number of items Area - Eat only within limits of a certain area Time - Eat only at certain time Mode - Eat food obtained or made only by certain means • Ras-tyäg (Eating non-tasty food - example. Ayambil Tap) Käyä-klesha (Penance, tolerating physical pain voluntarily) • Sanlinatä (Staying in forlorn place and occupying minimum space) Types of External Austerities (Tapasyäs) External austerities are practiced various ways depending upon individual capacity. Following is the list of some Tapasyäs. Navakärashi One must take food or water forty-eight minutes after sunrise. Even brushing teeth and rinsing the mouth must be done after sunrise. Porsi Taking food or water three hours after sunrise. Sädh-Porsi Taking food or water four hours and thirty minutes after sunrise. Purimuddha Taking food or water six hours after sunrise. Avadhdh Taking food or water nine hours after sunrise. Biyasan Taking food twice a day while sitting in one place. Ekäsan Taking food only once while sitting in one place. Äyambil Taking food only once in one sitting. The food should not have any taste or spices and should be boiled or cooked. Also, one should not use milk, curds, ghee, oil, sweets, sugar or jaggery and green or raw vegetables. Upaväs One must not take any food for twenty-four hours starting from sunrise to sunrise the next day. Tivihär Upavas One may drink only boiled water during Upavas. Chauvihär Upavas One does not even drink water during Upavas. Tivihär After sunset no food or juice shall be taken, but one may take water once before going to bed. Chauvihär After sunset no food or water is taken until sunrise the next day. Chhath Upaväs for two consecutive days. Attham Upaväs for three consecutive days. Atthai Upaväs for eight consecutive days. Mäsakshaman Consecutive Upaväs for one month. Navapad Oli Every year for 9 days starting from the 6/7th day of the bright fortnight until the full moon day in Ashwin and Chaitra months, one does Ayambil. These Äyambils can also be restricted to only one kind of food grain per day. Varsitap Alternate day Upaväs for one year 92 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #93 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L NAV TATTVA PART II: SAMVAR, NIRJARÄ AND MOKSHA In Ekäsan, Biyäsan, Äyambil, or Upaväs one can drink boiled water only and only between sunrise and sunset. It is better if one can do a Chauvihär or Tivihär on the night before starting these austerities. If any of the austerities allow food, one shall not take raw vegetables, anything, which grows underground, or raw grains while performing such austerities. Internal austerities Prayashchitta (Repentance or remorse) Vinay (Humility, Respect for others) Veyävachcham (Selfless service to monks, nuns and needy) Swadhyay (Study of religious scriptures) • Dhyana (Meditation) Kayotsarga (Renunciation of body) Moksha (Liberation) Moksha or liberation is the last of the 9 fundamentals. It is also known as Mukti, salvation or emancipation. Moksha is the liberation of the soul after complete exhaustion or elimination of all karmas. A liberated soul regains totally its original attributes of perfect knowledge, perfect vision, perfect power, and total bliss. It climbs to the top of universe (Lokäkäsh) and remains their forever in its blissful and unconditional existence. It never returns again into the cycles of birth, life, and death. This state of the soul is the liberated or perfect state, and this is called "Nirvana." Summary Jainism does not believe in a Creator. All liberated souls are Gods according to Jainism. However, since Tirthankars show us and lead us to the path of liberation, they are considered Gods (before their total liberation from karmas) to whom we pray and revere. Tirthankars have said that nothing can be created out of nothing and the original substances or matter, as science would call it, is indestructible. Every such substance exists of its own, with its own properties and continues to exist in one form or another. Whatever products we come across are merely transformations, not creations. They are produced out of something that existed before. Jainism believes in six original substances of which soul is the only conscious substance. Jainism is concerned with the soul's well being and happiness. All living beings are embodied souls. Every soul is an independent entity and has been undergoing cycles of birth and death as a result of the bondage of Karma. For liberation of the soul, Jainism does not look for whim or favor of an Almighty. Its concept of liberation is totally different. Material or situational happiness is not everlasting. True happiness lies within the soul. Whatever happiness we experience in life is due to the existence of the soul within the body. No dead body has ever experienced happiness or any other feeling. It is not the property of the physical body to experience anything. Happiness is the inherent property of the soul. This inherent happiness does not manifest itself on account of physical and mental limitations resulting from the bondage of Karma. Everlasting happiness can manifest itself when soul shakes off all its bondage. For this purpose we study the nature of soul, the bondage of Karmas that obscure and obstruct the manifestation of its inherent properties, and how to shake off the bondage. We saw that JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 93 Page #94 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAV TATTVA PART II: SAMVAR, NIRJARÄ AND MOKSHA the soul is a substance on its own. It is eternal. It acquires bondage on account of Äsrava of Karmas that can be prevented by Samvar and eradicated by Nirjarä. This eradication process has two stages. The State of omniscience or Kevaljnän is attained when one totally overcomes delusion and all Ghäti or defiling Karmas are destroyed.. After attaining Kevaljnän one may continue to live if he still has to destroy Äyu, Näm, Gotra and Vedaniya Karmas. These four are Aghäti Karmas that are destroyed only upon death. For instance, Lord Mahävir lived for 30 years after attaining Kevaljnän. With the destruction of Aghäti Karmas, the soul attains ultimate liberation. This is the final state which is known as the state of Siddha. Since there is no more Karmic bondage, the soul is forever freed from the cycle of birth and death. It is now a pure a consciousness whose nature of infinite enlightenment and infinite happiness manifests by itself, because there are no longer any factors that obstruct or inhibit its full manifestation. Even a casual reflection of our routine experience would indicate that desire is the cause of all miseries, problems and unhappiness. In the liberated state, where there is no body, there are no requirements, and hence there is an eternal happiness. That state of no desire is the blissful state of liberation. Until the soul gets rid of all Karma, it has to continually go through the cycle of birth and rebirth. Arihantas are destined to be liberated and Siddhas have achieved salvation. We therefore worship them. In common parlance, they are Jain Gods. They do not bestow liberation or any other favor on worshippers. Liberation is to be gained by one's own efforts. Listening to the teachings of Arihantas, provide directions for attaining liberation. Devotion to them and to Siddhas simply provides incentive for the aspirants to strive for the attainment of ultimate happiness. They serve as ideals for devotees. It is natural to question: 'What is the form and shape of the liberated soul?' 'Where does it stay, move, rest or sleep?" "What does it do?' Answers are simple. Not being a physical entity, it has no form; it does not move and does not need rest or sleep. Being intangible, its shape is invisible; but the seers have stated that its size and shape would be equal to 2/3rd the size and shape of the one in the last life immediately prior to liberation. Now being free of all bondage, it rises up in space and stops at the top of Lokäkäsh. That part of the space is known in Jain terminology as Siddhashilä, the abode of liberated souls. Beyond that it is Alokäkäsh where there is no Dharmästikäya. So there is no movement beyond that point. Liberated souls continually stay engrossed in their true nature of infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite energy, and infinite bliss. That state is permanent. Now, let us use a simple analogy to illustrate these Tattvas. There lived a family in a farmhouse. They were enjoying a fresh cool breeze coming through the open doors and windows. The weather suddenly changed, and a terrible dust storm set in. Realizing it was a bad storm, they got up to close the doors and windows. Before they could close all the doors and windows, lots of dust came into the house. After closing all the doors and windows, they started cleaning away the dust that had come into the house. We can interpret this simple illustration in terms of Nine Tattvas as follows: 94 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #95 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAV TATTVA PART II : SAMVAR, NIRJARÄ AND MOKSHA 1. Jivs are represented by the people. 2. Ajiv is represented by the house. 3. Punya is represented by worldly enjoyment resulting from the nice cool breeze. 4. Päp is represented by worldly discomfort resulting from the sandstorm which brought dust into the house. 5. Asrava is represented by the influx of dust through the doors and windows of the house, which is similar to the influx of Karma particles to the soul. 6. Bandha is represented by the accumulation of dust in the house, which is similar to bondage of Karma particles to the soul. 7. Samvar is represented by the closing of the doors and windows to stop the dust from coming into the house, which is similar to the stoppage of influx of Karma particles to the soul. 8. Nirjara is represented by the cleaning up of accumulated dust from the house, which is similar to shedding off accumulated karmic particles from the soul. 9. Moksha is represented by the clean house, which is similar to the shedding of all karmic particles from the soul. Truth is One; Sages call it by different name JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 95 Page #96 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEORY OF KARMA AND REINCARNATION Chapter 21 - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation We have seen that our comfortable or uncomfortable situations lie in the activities undertaken by us during this life or earlier lives. Thus, this assumes a theory of rebirth. It is the law of nature that we reap what we sow. However, this reaping does not necessarily occur in the same life. The law, moreover, is not restricted to physical activities. It applies to our persisting tendencies and instincts as well, even though they may not be translated into action. Whatever thoughts we may relish, whether in the midst of mountains or within a remote cave, they will have their consequences. No one can escape these consequences. It is not possible to deceive nature. The consequences have to be borne sooner or later, and no one is immune. This law of Karma as a spiritual science is not different from the law of cause and effect, or that of action and reaction, as from physical sciences. In the spiritual field, the scope of this Karma law is extended to the realm of emotions and feelings as well. This law of Karma and theory of rebirth should not be brushed aside as a fancy of spiritual thinkers. In fact, recent psychological research bears testimony to their validity. Modern psychologists have been increasingly moving to accept it. Dr. Alexander Cannon, during his experiments of age regression observed that the causes of his patients' phobias lay in earlier lives. The reasons for such ailments in many cases could be traced back, to the Roman period. After surveying the results of 1382 reincarnation sittings, as he calls them, he compiled a book entitled 'The Power Within'. The following is a quote from the book. • "For years the theory of reincarnation was a nightmare to me and I did my best to disprove it but I have to admit that there is such a thing as reincarnation. It is therefore only right and proper that I should include this study as a branch of psychology, as my text bears witness to the great benefit many have received psychologically from discovering hidden complexes and fears, which undoubtedly have been brought over from past lives. • This study explains the scales of justice in a very broad way showing how a person appears to suffer in this life as a result of something he has done in a past life through this law of action and reaction known in the East as Karma. A person cannot see why he suffers one disaster after another in this life, yet reincarnation may reveal atrocities committed by him in lives gone by." We can consider ourselves fortunate that we can obtain, as part of our heritage, what science has only now been revealing. Most of us have in the background of our minds the consequences of what we are now doing. That helps us in restraining our emotions and tolerating adversity. We should not react violently even when hurt physically or otherwise. It is worthwhile to examine the impact of this theory of Karma for the broad spectrum of society. If everyone knew that one day, he is surely going to bear the consequences of whatever he does or thinks, no one would dare to indulge in any activity that would hurt others. All conflicts and wars, disputes and violence, enmity and vengeance, parochialism and selfishness, would come to an end. If one ponders rightly, he can realize that hatred and jealousy may or may not hurt the person against whom they are aimed at, but they surely will hurt him; since his 96 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #97 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEORY OF KARMA AND REINCARNATION sense of discretion and equanimity would be obscured by such defilements. In that case, no one would harbor any evil and everyone would abide by the code of conduct that is beneficial to society. Even if someone gets hurt by others, he would be inclined to consider it as a consequence of his own past evil Karma and nothing else. Instead of adversely reacting, he would therefore bear it with a sense of equanimity and tranquility. The world would turn into a paradise. omeone gets hure would abide by Unfortunately, not everybody is going to realize this, and living beings have to bear the brunt of evils generated from passions and different types of evil instincts. The seers have brought out the truth that every being is governed by the inviolable law of Karma. Realizing that meritorious deeds would be ultimately helpful in pursuit of happiness, one can try to ensure one's own future well-being by making use of his ability and resources for the benefit of all. Nature has left to us whether to abide by that law and stay happy by extending happiness to others or to learn the lesson the hard way by undergoing the miseries and pains arising from evil Karmas. Classification of Karma It is well known that some students do very well in class even though they don't study, while others have to struggle to get good grades in spite of studying very hard. In the same way, some people make a lot of money without much effort, while others cannot even find a job. You might have also heard that some people are sick all the time, while others never get sick and some people live to be over a hundred years old, while others die as young children. Everybody is searching for an answer to these strange disparities. Some may say it is the God's will, others may say it is his luck, and so on. Jainism says every thing happens due to the result of our past Karmas. You reap what you sow and no God or anyone else can make this happen or change. We and only we are the cause of our suffering or happiness. This can be explained by the theory of Karma. Therefore, it is very important that we understand this process very clearly. It also explains what karmas are, why and what role karmas play in our life with the soul), and how we accumulate different kinds of karmas as well as how we get rid of them. If you sit back and think, you will realize that you are doing something all the time. Sometimes you might be talking, listening or thinking if not doing something physically. In other words you are always doing something. This is only natural. These activities may be harmful or helpful to others. It is important to realize that everything we do brings karmas to our souls. When these karmas mature, that is when they are ready to give results they bring happiness or suffering to our lives. This is how the karmas are responsible for our happiness or suffering. Karmas are made up of Kärman particles. The Kärman particles are made up of non-living matter (Pudgals). They are scattered and floating all over the universe (Loka). They are invisible even with the help of any kind of microscope. A cluster of such innumerable Kärman particles is called a Kärman Varganä. Kärman Varganä have the subtlest particles. When the soul acts with a passion like aversion or attachment; or anger, greed, ego, or deceitfulness, it attracts these Kärman Varganäs to itself. When these Kärman Varganäs get attached to JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 97 Page #98 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEORY OF KARMA AND REINCARNATION the soul, they are called karmas. Karmas are classified into eight categories depending upon their nature. The karmas can be good (Punya) or bad (Päp). The good karmas are the result of good or pious activities while the bad karmas are the result of bad or sinful activities. Process of the Bondage (Bandha) of Karmas Bandha soul has had this karm. This karmic m Bandha is the attachment of karma particles (karma Pudgal) to the soul. Jainism believes that the soul has had this karmic matter bondage from eternity. Also from eternity the soul is ignorant about its true nature. This karmic matter is known as the Kärman body or causal body or karma. At every moment some of the Karmas continually produce their effects creating pleasure or pains to the soul. After producing the effects, Karmas separate from the soul. Also at every moment the soul continually attracts new Karmic matter because of its ignorance, lack of self restraint, passions, unmindfulness, and activities of body, mind, and speech. Hence the soul, which was covered by karmic matter from eternity, continues acquiring new karma from the universe and exhausting old karma into the universe through the above mentioned process at every moment. Because of this continual process of acquiring and exhausting karma particles, the soul has to pass through the cycles of births and deaths, and experiencing pleasure and pain. So under normal circumstances the soul cannot attain freedom from karma, and hence liberation. Our activities are: 1. Physical, 2. Verbal or 3. Mental We further do these activities in three different ways, 1. We do the activities ourselves, 2. We ask someone else to do for us, or 3. We encourage someone else to carry out these activities. Thus, in different combinations, we do our activities in nine (3x3) different ways that cause bondage of the karmas to the soul. At the time of the bondage of karmas to the soul, the following four characteristics play an important role. They are: What kind (Nature) of Karmas will these be? How many Kärman particles (Quantity) will attach? How long (Duration) will these karmas stay with the soul? How strong (Intensity) will the bondage of these karmas be? Prakruti Bandha Pradesha Bandha Sthiti Bandha Ras Bandha The nature and the quantity of the bondage of the karmas depend on the vigor of activities while the duration and the intensity of the bondage of the karmas depend on the intensity of the passion behind those activities. 98 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #99 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L Nature of the Bondage of Karmas (Prakruti Bandha) Depending upon the nature of the results they give when they mature, karmas are grouped in eight categories. These eight categories are further grouped in two main categories, 1. Destructive (Ghäti) Karmas 2. Non-destructive (Aghäti) Karmas THEORY OF KARMA AND REINCARNATION Ghäti means destructive or obscuring. The karmas that obscure the true nature of the Soul are called destructive or Ghäti karmas. The karmas that do not obscure the true nature of the soul, but only affect the body in which the soul resides are called non-destructive or Aghäti karmas. · A. Ghäti Karmas (Destructive Karmas): 1. Knowledge obscuring (Jnänävaraniya) karma As the name implies, knowledge obscuring karma obscures the full potential of knowledge of the soul. Those who have less knowledge obscuring karma are more intelligent and learn more easily, while those who have more knowledge obscuring karma have problems retaining knowledge and learning. There are five sub-types of knowledge obscuring karma. They are: Empirical-cognition knowledge obscuring (Mati-Jnänävaraniya) karma Articulate knowledge-scripture knowledge obscuring (Shrut-Jnanavamiya) karma Clairvoyance knowledge obscuring (Avadhi-Jnänävaraniya) karma Telepathy knowledge obscuring (Manah-Paryay-Jnanävamiya) karma Omniscience knowledge obscuring (Keval-Jnänävaraniya) karma 2. Perception obscuring (Darshanävaraniya) Karma Perception means to perceive the right meaning and cognition. Perception obscuring karma diminishes the powers of our correct perception through the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the extent that we may not be able to see well, hear well, smell well, etc. Perception obscuring karma therefore reduces the real meaning of the things we see, hear, smell, feel, taste and read and how we correlate them with each other. 3. Obstructing (Antaraya) karma The inflow of Antaräya (obstructing) Karma is caused by obstructing others in Charity (depriving food, water, and cloths) Gain (depriving of their due profit) Enjoyment of consumable things Enjoyment of non-consumable things • Making use of their powers to progress It produces the following types of result in one's life • Even though a person has a large savings but not able to donate some to charity A rich person cannot eat a regular meal or cannot do meditation because of medical problem (diabetes). JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 99 Page #100 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEORY OF KARMA AND REINCARNATION Consequently Obstructing Karma is responsible for all the obstacles we face in our lives. There are five sub-types of Obstructing Karma: 01 Charity obstructing (Dänäntaraya) Karma 02 Gain obstructing (Läbhäntaraya) Karma 03 Enjoyment Obstructing (Bhogantaraya) Karma 04 Re-enjoyment obstructing (Upabhoganträya) Karma 05 Will power obstructing (Viryanträya) Karma 4. Deluding (Mohaniya) Karma Deluding Karma creates doubts about religion and spiritual teachers and destroys faith in the Jinä. It obscures right belief and right conduct of the soul. Deluding Karma causes attachment and hatred and passions such as anger, ego, deceit, and greed. Deluding Karmas are divided into two groups. Faith Deluding Karma (Darshan Mohaniya) This Karma is so powerful that it brings in its train all other causes of Bondage of soul. They are undisciplined life (Avirati), Negligence (Pramäda), and Passion (Kashäya). As such it completely overpowers and misleads the soul and not only does it vitiate Right faith but also obstructs acquisition of Right knowledge and Right conduct. Conduct Deluding (Charitra Mohaniya) Karma Conduct Deluding (Charitra Mohaniya) Karma are those which obscure or obstruct Right conduct and are further sub-divided into twenty five categories, sixteen of Passion Deluding (Kashäya Mohaniya) and nine of Pseudo-passion Deluding (No-Kashaya Mohaniya) Karma. Of all the karmas, Deluding Karma is the most dangerous and the most difficult to overcome. It is well known that the senior most learned disciple of Lord Mahavir, Ganadhar Gautam could not attain Omniscience or Perfect knowledge (Keval Jnän) due to this Karma and his resultant attachment (Moha) for Lord Mahävir. Gautam Swami became omniscient only when he realized this and gave up such delusion (Moha) after the death of Lord Mahävir. Once this karma is destroyed, salvation or liberation is assured. B. Aghäti Karmas (Non-destructive Karmas): 5. Feeling Producing (Vedaniya) Karma Feeling Producing Karma is responsible for all the pleasure and pain we feel. Some of the effects of Feeling Producing Karma are good health, happiness, sickness, sorrow, etc. This is divided in 2 subtypes: Pain producing (Ashätä Vedaniya) Pleasure producing (Shätä Vedaniya) 6. Body Determining Karma (Näm Karma) This Karma bondage determines the physique or the body that the soul will occupy. It has got numerous sub-categories, varying from two to one hundred three, according to different schools and classification and sub-classification. There are two main divisions namely (1) Happy Physique Karma (Shubha Näm Karma) and (ii) Unhappy Physique Karma (Ashubha Näm Karma). 100 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #101 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L 7. Status-Determining (Gotra) Karma Status determining karma determines your social and economical status. There are two subtypes of status determining Karma: THEORY OF KARMA AND REINCARNATION • High status determining (Uchcha Gotra) Karma High Status Karma involves a high and respectful status in respect of (i) family; (ii) community (iii) learning (iv) power (v) profit (vi) penance (vii) looks and (viii) luxury. • Low status determining (Nichcha Gotra) Karma Low Status Karma results in the opposite equipment and attainments like low and disrespectable family. 8. Life Span-Determining (Ayushya) Karma Age determining karma determines our life span. Our life span may be shortened by natural calamities or accidents. The age determining karma determines the lifespan for the next life when two thirds of our current life has passed and it is based on precisely what kind of activities we are doing with our mind, speech or body. If we are involved in good deeds at that time in point, we will have a longer and a better next life. Since nobody knows which point in our life is this point; we should be constantly involved in doing good deeds. If our next lifespan is not decided at the first two thirds then it is decided at two-thirds of remaining time. If it is still not decided yet then again at the two thirds of remaining time and so on and so forth, or at the time of death. Age determining karma will not be acquired if the soul is going to be liberated in the current life. There are four sub-types of age determining karma: Infernal Age Determining Sub-Human Age Determining Human Age Determining Celestial Age Determining Narak Ayushya Karma Tiryancha Ayushya Karma Manushya Ayushya Karma. Dev Ayushya Karma Quantity of the Bondage of Karmas (Pradesha Bandha) If the physical vigor of our activities is weak, then we accumulate a smaller number of Kärman particles, but if the physical vigor is stronger, then we accumulate a larger number of Kärman particles on our soul. The higher the number of Kärman particles bonded, the stronger is the resultant effect. Duration of the Bondage of Karmas (Sthiti Bandha) The duration of karmic particles on the soul is decided by the quality of our passions at the time of our activities. If our desire for the activity is mild, then the duration of the bondage will be for a short time. On the other hand if the passions are stronger, the duration of the bondage will be for a long time. The minimum time could be a fraction of a second and the maximum time could be thousands or even millions of years. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 101 Page #102 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEORY OF KARMA AND REINCARNATION Intensity of the Bondage of Karmas (Ras Bandha) The intensity of karmas depends upon how intense our passions are at the time of our activities. The lesser the intensity of our passions, the less strong is the resulting effect of the karma; the greater the intensity the stronger the resulting effect is. The tightness of the bondage of the karmas to the soul is categorized in four different kinds. Loose Bondage: This is like a loose knot in a shoestring, which can easily be untied. The Karmas, which are attached loosely to the soul, can be easily shed off by simple austerities and repentance. Tight Bondage: This kind of bondage needs some more effort to untie it. Similarly, the Karmas, which are attached tightly to the soul, could be shed off with some effort like atonement. Tighter Bondage: This kind of bondage needs even greater effort to untie it. Similarly the Karmas, which are attached tighter to the soul, could be shed off with special effort like greater austerities. Tightest Bondage: This kind of bondage cannot be undone, no matter how hard you work at it. Similarly the Karmas, which are attached so tight to the soul, cannot be shed off by any kind of effort but we have to bear their results for this karma to be shed off. 102 I World has enough for our need but not for our greed. The Word is Divine, Meaning is Human JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #103 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE THEORY OF KARMA - Q AND A Chapter 22 - The Theory of Karma - Q and A In this chapter we shall discuss answers to some questions that usually come up regarding the theory of Karma. Q.1: Do you mean to say that whatever situation we may be in, it is the result of our previous Karmas and that we can't do anything about it and we can't change it anyway? A. In any present situation or circumstances, we may feel happy or unhappy. This feeling is due to the result of our past Karma. The happiness is due to past Punya Karma and unhappy feeling is due to past Pap Karma. However our present feeling behind our action constitutes new karma and that too is going to have its effects in future. Suppose, we are not financially well off. We may undertake a new business activity or find a better paying job. Undertaking any activities with a desire of accomplishment constitutes new karma. The new undertaking may turn out to be useful in improving our financial condition. In that case we have effectively changed the given situation and the result of the new Karma produces happiness within our self. However we have no knowledge of which Karma would exert its effects and at what time. Some karmas give an instant effect and some after a long time or even after many births. Q.2: Can you shed some light on destiny (Prärabdha) vs. effort (Purushärtha) in light of the theory of Karma? A. Karmas can be divided into three categories. • Sanchit or accumulated Karmas : These Karmas are not currently operative. They are like certificates of deposit. However, we know when our C.D. is going to mature but we never know when Sanchit Karmas are going to mature. Vartamän or present Karmas : We are currently acquiring these Karmas. They can give effects immediately or later on. • Uday or operative Karmas : The consequences of these Karmas are currently destined for us. They therefore constitute our destiny (Prärabdha). Operative (Uday) Karmas thus constitute destiny (Prärabdha) and present (Vartamän) Karmas constitute effort (Purushärtha). By effort we are in a position to change our destiny, if our present (Vartamän) Karmas are going to be instantly fruitful. We can however never be sure of their instant fruitfulness. That is why our every endeavor does not necessarily succeed. Thus destiny and efforts are not at odds with each other. Rather, they are two sides of the same coin. Q.3: The soul is conscious and Karmas are lifeless. How can lifeless matter modify the property of the soul, which is supposed to be pure, enlightened, and full of bliss? A. There is no rule that a lifeless matter cannot influence conscious soul. We experience different types of sensations because we are alive. A dead body does not feel any sensation. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 103 Page #104 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THE THEORY OF KARMA - Q AND A That means that sensations are experienced on account of the existence of soul or consciousness. The sensations are however not felt while a patient is under the influence of anesthetic drugs. If lifeless drugs can thus affect the sensations of a live being, there is no reason to think that lifeless Karma cannot affect the property of the soul. As the bodily sensations revive when they are no longer under the influence of drugs, the soul also can attain self realization when it is no longer subjected to the bondage of Karmas. Q.4: Karmas are lifeless and hence unconscious. How can they be conscious enough to bear specific fruits appropriate to that type of Karma? A. Karmas do not have to be conscious of bearing fruits. It is their property that automatically works. If a person consumes poison, the result would be death. For this purpose, poison is not conscious of killing him. It is the inherent property of poison that works. Similarly different types of Karmas have their own respective properties that become effective in their own ways. Q.5: If purity, enlightenment, bliss etc. are the properties of the soul, when did it initially get polluted with Karma? A. Worldly soul has been smeared with Karma since time without beginning. It has never been devoid of Karma. Therefore, the question of the soul's initial bondage with Karma does not arise. Q.6: If the soul has been associated with Karma since the time without beginning, there can never be an end to it. As such the soul can never be devoid of Karma. Then why worry about it? A. Though the bondage of Karma is without beginning, it is not the same bondage throughout time. Every Karma has a time limit during which its consequences have to be borne and that Karma sheds off at the end of that time. Meanwhile the soul indulges in new Karma and thereby gets new bondage. If the soul does not indulge in new Karma, it can be devoid of Karma when the consequences of previous Karmas are fully borne and the soul gets disassociated from them. In religious terminology this disassociation is called Nirjarä. 104 I "Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said even if I have said it unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common sense." it - The Buddha - JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #105 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PUNYA (GOOD DEEDS) Chapter 23 - Punya (Good Deeds) Why are some people in more desirable situations than the others? Why are some rich while others struggle? Why do some suffer more sickness than others? The answer to such a disparity lies in the understanding of the Punya and the Päp. What are the Punya and the Päp? Punya and Päp are the categories of Karma. Punya karma is earned when our activities are good and comforting to others while a Päp karma is earned when our activities are bad and cause suffering to others. When the Punya karmas mature or give result, they bring happiness and comfort, and when the Päp karmas mature or give results, they bring nothing but suffering and miseries. Now, it is obvious that what we experience is nothing other than the result of our past actions. Knowing this reminds us that our activities should be wholesome if we want happiness and comfort in life, otherwise we should be ready to suffer unhappiness and discomfort. When talking about activities, people mostly think of physical activities, but we should not forget that verbal expressions, and mental thoughts are also considered activities. For this reason, not only our physical activities have to be pious or wholesome, but our speech and thoughts should also be pure. We should remember that we also accumulate Punya and Päp (karmas) by asking someone else to do something good or bad or by encouraging someone else to do good or bad. Lord Mahävir's message is "Live and let live". Everybody desires to live and enjoy the comforts of life. We should not come in the way of anyone else seeking the same. If we properly understand the implications of this message, it will go a long way in molding our attitude towards other living beings. But, around us we see and hear that many people hunt or fish and they eat meat, chicken, fish, eggs, etc. Some meat-eating people argue that they do not actually kill animals or they say these creatures were created for our food. Therefore, eating meat or other animal foods would not affect them. They do not realize that by eating meat or other animal foods they are directly or indirectly instrumental in killing animals, birds, fish, etc., The more they eat, the more killing there will be. They do not realize that their direct as well as indirect actions bring Päp or Punya. Unfortunately, because most Päps do not show their results immediately, the people do not care about the consequences. We also hear about riots in, which people plunder, hit, and kill others and set fire to shops, homes, and buildings. By doing so, they put a lot of people through suffering. These people while doing such heinous activities may think that they are getting even; however, they fail to realize that by causing suffering to others they themselves will have to suffer the consequences of their evil acts at some point, in this life, or future lives. Consequently, our actions should not disturb the comforts of other living beings, hurt or kill them in any way, directly or indirectly. By providing comfort and security to others, we gain Punya. Punya brings happiness during this life or following lives. On the other hand, if we cause suffering or unhappiness to others, we acquire Päp. Päp brings unhappiness in this or future lives. Let us understand from the following story how we accumulate the Punya and the Päp. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 105 Page #106 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PUNYA (GOOD DEEDS) Story of Shälibhadra A long time ago, a poor widow had a young son. She had to work hard to provide for herself and her son. Once, there was a day of a great festival and neighboring families prepared a tasteful pudding of milk and rice called kheer. The neighborhood kids were enjoying the kheer, and seeing this the poor boy went to his mother and asked her to make kheer for him too. He did not realize that his mother did not have enough money to buy the milk, rice, and sugar needed for making kheer. The mother tried to explain the situation, but the boy started crying for kheer. The mother could not tolerate his crying, so she said, "Don't cry, my son, I will make kheer for you." She went to the neighbors and borrowed milk, sugar and rice and made kheer. She served the kheer in an earthen plate, and told him to wait until it had cooled down a little. Then she left to get the water from the well. While the boy waited for kheer to cool, a monk came to the boy's home for alms (to get food). The boy was very happy to have this opportunity to offer alms to the monk and invited him come in. While he was serving the kheer, he decided to serve all the kheer to the monk with joy. After the monk left, he ate whatever kheer was stuck to the plate and the pot. He did not regret for his action but instead felt very happy that he could offer the food to the monk. Since he had offered the kheer to the monk willingly, he earned a lot of Punya. As a result of this Punya, in his next life he was born into a very wealthy family with all luxuries. His name was Shälibhadra. Shälibhadra later in life realized what life is all about. He renounced the luxuries of life, and uplifted his soul by becoming a monk of Lord Mahävir. Story of a Butcher and King Shrenik There lived a butcher in Magadh City. He enjoyed his job. One day, King Shrenik requested that there would be no more killing in the city. All slaughterhouses and the killing of animals in the city stopped at the request of king but the butcher continued killing the animals. When he was asked why he did not follow King Shrenik's request, he said he loved his job of killing and could not stop. King Shrenik decided to put him in a dry well so that there would be nothing for him to kill. To everyone's surprise, the killing did not stop there either. The butcher made animals from wet clay and then pretended to kill them. Since, he enjoyed killing so much, he accumulated Päp (bad karmas) that gave rise to a situation where he has to suffer again in his next life. From these two stories, we learn that if we want happiness and comfort, we should offer comfort to others. As the saying goes you reap what you sow. List of Good and Bad Deeds : The following is a list of some activities that can bring comfort to others and can ultimately provide the same for us. They are: . 106 Offering food to the needy (only vegetarian food) Offering clothes to the needy Helping the sick JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #107 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L · • Here is a list of some of the activities that can cause discomfort to others and can ultimately cause discomfort to us. They are: · Helping others to acquire knowledge Giving charity (be sure that the money is used for a good cause) Helping parents, brothers, sisters, grandparents, monks, and religious teachers Helping animals or organizations that help animals Studying religious scriptures and following its precepts in our daily lives Worshipping Tirthankars like Lord Mahävir. Not following the religious principles in the daily life Being angry or greedy Being arrogant Being deceptive. Someone has rightly said that: Sow a good thought and reap a good action Sow a good action and reap a good habit Being cruel or violent to others including humans, animals, birds, bugs, etc. Showing disrespect to parents, teachers or others Speaking harsh words or planning violence PUNYA (GOOD DEEDS) Sow a good habit and reap a good character Sow a good character and reap a good destiny. Our life is nothing but full of habits and we are free to cultivate our own good habits. I "Do all the good you can, By all the means you can, In all the ways you can, In all the places you can, At all the times you can, To all the people you can, As long as ever you can." - John Wesley JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 107 Page #108 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PÄP (SOURCES OF SINS) Chapter 24 - Päp (Sources of sins) We are always busy doing something good that may be helping others or being bad and causing trouble to others. When we help someone, not only does it bring comfort to that person, but it also brings us comfort by Punya. But when we cause trouble for others, it causes us to suffer too due to Päp (sins). The kinds of activities that cause others to suffer are called sinful activities and they can range in various levels from simply telling a tale to actual killing. Jain scriptures describe eighteen kinds of such activities, which are considered the sources of the sins that lead to bad deeds or Päp. These Päp cause troubles in our current live as well as future lives. Therefore, we should be careful not to carry out any of the following 18 sinful activities, which are interconnected with one another. Eighteen Sinful Activities: Pränätipät Mrushäväda Adattädäna Maithuna Parigraha Krodha Mäna Mäyä Lobha Räga Dvesha Kalah Abhyakhyana Paishunya Parparivada Rati-Arati Mäyä-Mrushäväda Mithya-Darshan-Shalya Violence Untruth Theft Unchaste Possessiveness Anger Arrogance Deceit Greed Attachment Hatred Quarreling Accusation Gossip Criticism Liking and disliking Malice Wrong beliefs 18 01. Pränätipät (Violence): This word is formed by two words. 1) Präna means vitalities of a living being, and 2) Atipäta means to kill or to hurt. Therefore, Pränätipat means to cause suffering or kill any of the vitalities of living beings. This is caused by our physical activities as well as by our harsh words or even by our thoughts. Everybody agrees and understands that physical violence is wrong. Non-vegetarian people do not realize that by eating eggs, chicken, poultry products, fish, seafood, or flesh they cause violence. Hunting or fishing games also cause violence. Name calling and offensive, hateful, bitter or harsh words or sentences cause verbal violence. Example of mental or verbal violence : Ramesh is a tall and heavy guy and Anil is a skinny guy. Anil wanted to beat Ramesh for some reason but he cannot beat him physically. So, Anil thinks that he will become a friend 108 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #109 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L PÄP (SOURCES OF SINS) of some bully and ask him for help. He also thinks about various other ways to beat Ramesh. During all these thoughts process, even though he does not undertake any physical action, his feelings were to hurt Ramesh so he gets sins (Päp) as if he was hurting Ramesh. Thus mental thoughts affect us the same way as physical or verbal expressions. Thinking is tremendously faster, easier, and has no inhibition factors like actual physical or verbal activity and hence it increases the potential for accumulation of Päp (or even Punya due to good thoughts) much faster and easier. Some other forms of violence are piercing, crushing, binding, torturing, and overloading animals; starving or not feeding them at proper times, and exploiting laborers. Cosmetics, ivory, silk clothes, or leather articles involve the direct or indirect injury to animals and are reasons for accumulation of sins. One should be careful even while walking, running, or sitting that one does not step on small insects like ants and tiny bugs. We should be careful not to walk on plants or grass because they have life. Taking such care is called "Jatanä" "Upayoga" in Jainism. Therefore, we should be very careful and live a simple peaceful life. This leads one to be compassionate and tolerant of others. 02. Mrushäväda: It is formed of two words. 1) Mrushä means lie, and 2) Väda means to tell or speak. So Mrushäväda means to tell a lie. Common reasons to speak a lie are anger, greed, fear, and deception. Some other kinds of lies are spreading rumors, revealing secrets, writing false documents, or not returning to someone things that were given for safekeeping. Besides accumulating Päp, by lying we lose our friends. Therefore, we should not tell lies. 03. Adattädäna: It is formed of two words. 1) Adatta means without permission and 2) Ädäna means to take. To take something without permission of the owner or to steal is known as Adattädäna. To acquire something which does not belong to us by adopting wrong means is also considered stealing. Even if we do not steal directly, but ask or encourage someone else to do so, or receive or buy stolen property, evade taxes, adulterate, keep false weights and measures to deceive people, indulge in smuggling activities, it is considered stealing. Once, we start doing such things, there will be no limit as to how far we would go. Moreover, this habit will bring calamity to other family members as well. Therefore, we should not steal. 04. Maithuna: Maithuna means being unchaste or engaging in sensuous enjoyment. This occurs when we enter in improper sexual activities. In Jainism, there is no place for pre or extra marital sexual relationship because excessive sensual desire brings bad karmas. Even within the bounds of marriage, it is advised to observe restraint. Unnatural gratification, indulging in profuse speech, or excessive passion even for one's own spouse are considered unchaste. A person who suffers from high desire for lust and sensual pleasures cannot resist temptations and thus indulges in immoral deeds. If there is a control over the urge for material gratification, sexual desire can be restrained. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 109 Page #110 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PÄP (SOURCES OF SINS) 05. Parigraha: Attachment to worldly possessions is known as 'Parigraha'. Unlimited possessions and hoarding things beyond a person's basic needs is considered a sin. This occurs when we try to accumulate more than our needs. We should learn to live happily with what our needs are rather than accumulating more just because we like those things. This is easy to say, but rather hard to follow. We should remember that unnecessary accumulation is the root cause of all unrest and keeps our craving alive for more possessions. Therefore, we should be content and should learn to control our desires. 06. Krodha: It means anger. Whenever we do not get what we want, we get upset and mad, and depending upon the situation either we throw things, use harsh words or have negative thoughts. When a person is angry, he cannot distinguish between right and wrong or good and bad. To overcome this anger, we should develop tolerance. This way, we can stay calm even if things do not look quite right. If we can achieve that, there will be no place for quarrels around us and we will be able to live peacefully. One should replace anger with forbearance and tolerance. 07. Mäna: It means the ego. Egoism, pride, arrogance, self-admiration, and conceit are all synonymous. The ego means thinking too much of the self. Due to the ego, we tend to look down upon others. Ego can be overcome by cultivating a sense of humbleness. 08. Mäyä: It means to deceive, cheat, or mislead. Deceit, cunning, and Mäyä are synonymous. When we cheat and succeed in doing so, it leads to ego because we feel proud of what we have done even though it was wrong. When we get caught cheating, then we get into big trouble. So instead of cheating, we should be honest. 09. Lobha: It means greed. When we have enough to meet our needs but we want more for the sake of having it, it is called greed. We should realize that there is no end to our desires. We should not forget that when we do not get what we want, we get angry. We become jealous of someone who may have what we want. To get what we want, we may use all means from buying it to deception, stealing or even killing. Most of the wars between nations are the result of greed of one to take over the other. Therefore, instead of being greedy let us be content and share with others what we have. If everybody does that, then there will be peace and harmony among us. 10. Räga: Räga means attachment. Suppose you went shopping at a clothing store and saw a T-shirt that was cute. You liked it very much and you wanted to buy it. You checked its price tag and it was high. You thought, "Well, I will wait until it goes on sale." You kept on checking every two to three days to see if it was on sale. Your going back to the store was due to 110 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #111 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PÄP (SOURCES OF SINS) your attachment to the T-shirt. Sometimes this attachment can blind us to get what we want and to do so, we may even use harmful methods. Therefore, we should avoid developing attachments for things. After all that is not the only thing in the whole world. In other words, we should learn to live a life where it is all right whether we get what we like or not. 11. Dvesha: Dvesha means hatred. Every now and then, we may come across a situation where we do not like something. Most of the time we can ignore that, but sometimes it develops into hatred towards someone. If the hatred is due to the loss of something, then it can turn into anger and may cause harm to others and to us. Hatred brings enmity. Instead, we should develop love and friendship for everybody. Even if someone is cruel to us, we should show compassion. 12. Kalah: It means to fight or quarrel. Most of the time, when someone does not agree with us, the first thing we do is fight. Many people even fight over a trivial matter. Sometimes, it may seem that we win by fighting, but we lose in the long run. Frustration and anger are a few of the causes for fighting. We should not forget that fighting breaks up even a good friendship. Therefore, we should learn to let go and believe in forgiveness. 13. Abhyakhyana: Making false accusations on somebody is called Abhyakhyana. Some people cannot accept their losses and blame others for it even when the others are not at fault. When the others find out the truth, they are going to lose trust in these people. Therefore, before accusing anyone, we should ask ourselves, "What is the truth and why am I blaming others without proper evidence ?" No wise person will do this. Therefore, accept the truth and live by that even though sometimes it may not be in our favor. 14. Paishunya: Talking behind someone's back or spreading rumors are all known as Paishunya. Many people try to look smart by spreading rumors about others. This is a wrong habit that leads to unnecessary friction and quarrels. This takes time away from constructive activities. Instead of indulging in gossip, we should form the habit of appreciating others. 15. Parparivada: It is formed of two words. 1) Par means the other person and 2) Parivada means to criticize. Many people do nothing but criticize others. Instead of admiring others, they always find fault instead. If criticism is done with the good intention of improvement, then it is considered positive or constructive criticism, and is welcome. But if the criticism is done to put others down, then it is considered negative criticism and it should be avoided. It creates unnecessary friction, cultivates anger in people, and can lead to unfortunate events. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 111 Page #112 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PÄP (SOURCES OF SINS) 16. Rati-Arati: Rati means liking, while Arati means disliking. When a friend comes to our house, we like him, but on the other hand if a funny looking stranger comes to our door we dislike him. This liking or disliking seems to be a natural response but we should not forget that they can bring feelings of attachment or hatred in our minds. Even though our expressions may look innocent, we should be careful about them and try to balance them. 17. Mäyä-Mrushäväda Telling a malicious lie is called Mäyä Mrushäväda. Any lie is bad, but when it is done with malice it is worse. Malicious behavior causes nothing but quarrels and friction. Not only should we avoid such habits, but we should stay away from those who have such habits. Instead of being vicious, we should be kind to others. 18. Mithya-Darshan-Shalya This word is combination of three words. 1) Mithya means false, 2) Darshan means faith, and 3) Shalya means a thorn. This means to believe in false faith is a thorn. We know thorns never give pleasure, but rather they always hurt. In the same way, keeping faith in a false belief will lead us to nothing but sufferings. False beliefs can start from believing in false teachers, false religions and false gods. False teachers are those who do not believe in the five major vows as prescribed by the Jinas. They promote violence, lying, stealing, immoral sensual activities, and possessiveness. These activities will bring our downfall. In the same way, false religions will promote teaching opposite of what the Jinas have taught. False religions can promote violence, anger, ego, deceit, and greed. They will nourish attachment and hatred. That will be bad for us. In the same way, a false god would be the one who is tinted with attachment and hatred. When someone is biased, he cannot give proper advice. But Jinas do not have any attachment or hatred; therefore, they do not expect anything from what they advise. There is no reason for them to give us any advice that will hurt us. They have reached the higher state by following the same path they have shown to us. They have taught us that we are our own saviors, and only we can save ourselves. Thus, we should have faith in the right teachers, the right religion, and the right god if we want to progress in our spiritual journey. From the discussion we realize that any of these 18 types of sinful activities are harmful. As long as we are living, we are bound to undertake some of these activities, but we should be careful and replace the sinful activities with good activities to minimize harm to our soul. If we have to get involved in sinful activity due to unavoidable circumstances, we should do it with regret and repent for doing such acts and never enjoy doing them. Sympathy for the lowest animals is one of the noblest virtues with which man is endowed. --Charles Robert Darwin 112 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #113 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ÄCHÄRYA HEMCHANDRA Chapter 25 - Ächärya Hemchandra Ächärya Hemchandra was born in 1088 A.D. in the caste of Modha Vanik (merchant) in the town of Dhandhuka, sixty miles from the city of Ahmedabad in Gujarat State. His parents were Chachadev and Pahini. When Pahini was pregnant, she had a beautiful dream. She narrated her dream to Acharya Devasuri, who was in Dhandhuka at that time. The Acharya said that Pahini was to give birth to a son who would make great progress in the areas of spiritual knowledge, intuition, and conduct. Upon his birth the child was named Changdev. The next time Acharya Devasuri was in Dhandhuka, he saw Pahini carrying her son. He said to Pahini, "Let me take care of this brilliant son. He is destined to be a great spiritual leader." However, he could not convince her to give her son to him. The Acharya kept pursuing her and reminding her that her son would become a famous monk and would glorify the Jain order. Again, he requested that she should sacrifice self-interest and love for the child for the good of the people. Ultimately, Pahini let the Acharya take her son with him. He initiated Changdev into monkhood and named him Somachandra. The disciple was very intelligent and soon mastered various philosophies, logic, scriptures, Nyäya, grammar, etc. At the same time, he cultivated excellent virtues like forbearance, tolerance, holiness, simplicity, discipline, chastity, and generosity. Somachandra was incomparable in administration and efficiency. Acharya Devasuri made Somachandra an Ächärya when he was only twenty-one years old. At that time, he was given the name Acharya Hemchandra. The fame of Hemchandra's efficacy and knowledge gradually spread everywhere. The noble culture was on the rise in Gujarat due to the ability of Hemchandra and the cooperation of King Siddharäj of Gujarat. King Siddharaj was succeeded by Kumärpäl. Hemchandra had predicted seven years earlier that Kumärpäl would be the king. Also, the Acharya had once saved Kumärpäl's life. King Kumärpäl considered Hemchandra his spiritual teacher (guru) and benefactor. Kumärpäl gave him exceptional honor and sought his advice in the shaping of his kingdom in Gujarat. In a very short time, Gujarat became a center of non-violence, learning, and good culture. Hemchandra did not only think of the development of his own spiritual progress, but always thought of universal welfare. In spite of this, some Brahmins were very jealous and they tried to disgrace Hemchandrächärya and Jainism. Some Brahmins approached King Kumärpäl and said, "Hemchandrächärya is a very egoistic person and he does not respect Hindu Gods." King Kumärpäl was not ready to accept these views about his spiritual teacher, Hemchandrächärya. The Brahmins requested King Kumärpäl to invite Hemchandrächärya to come to the temple of Lord Shiva. The purpose of this was to humiliate Hemchandrächärya because they thought he would not go to the temple of Lord Shiva and bow down to him. When Hemchandrächärya came, King Kumärpäl said, "We will go to the temple of Lord Shiva." He accepted the offer without any hesitation. The Brahmins were happy in their mind thinking JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 113 Page #114 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ÄCHÄRYA HEMCHANDRA that they would be able to make their point today and glorify their religion. Yet, they were wrong. They underestimated Hemchandrächärya. To the surprise of the Brahmins, Hemchandracharya bowed down in front of Lord Shiva and said, "Bhavbijänkura jananä Rägädyähä Kshayamupägata Yasya; Brahmä Vä Vishnurvä Haro Jino Vä Namastasmai." "I am bowing down to that god who has destroyed passions like attachment (Räga) and hatred (Dvesha), which are the cause of worldly life, whether he is Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, or Jina." This showed that indeed the Acharya was a genius and had a broad-minded attitude based on basic Jain principles. Under Hemchandra's influence, King Kumärpäl accepted Jainism. He prohibited violence and the killing of any animal in his kingdom. King Kumärpäl made many laws that nurtured the Jain religion. Vegetarianism was found not only in the Jains, but also in all the people of Gujarat. Jainism became the religion of the region. Hemchandra composed several literary works that included many verses. The Acharya was the first one to put non-violence on a political platform. He was the architect of the greatness and unity of Gujarat. In the field of metaphysics, he was a Yogi. His work Yoga-Shästra, a treatise on yoga, is very famous. People called him 'Kali-Käl Sarvajna' meaning 'all-knower in the dark period'. He died in 1173 AD at the age of eighty-four. The Jain culture still shines brightly in Gujarat, due to the influence of the literary works contributed by the great Ächarya Hemchandra. Summary : Ächärva Hemchandrächärva was the spiritual teacher of King Kumärpäl of the state of Gujarat. It is because of Hemchandrächärya that Kumärpäl accepted Jainism and became a Jain. It is because of this reason that Jainism and vegetarianism flourishes well in the state of Gujarat. Hemchandrächärya has composed many literary masterpiece works and has written treatise on many original Jain texts and Agams. Every soul is in itself absolutely omniscient and blissful. The bliss does not come from outside. 114 114 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #115 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LESHYAS - STATE OF MIND AND KARMIC STAINS Chapter 26 - Leshyäs - State of Mind and Karmic Stains Leshyä means state of mind. In Jainism, a great deal of importance has been given to Leshyäs. Our activities reflect the state of our mind. Classification of Leshyäs : Let us understand how a person with different Leshyäs behaves and what the outcomes of such Leshyäs are. 1. Krishna (Black) Leshyä: People in this state of mind do not show any compassion or mercy. Everyone is afraid of them as their anger turns into violence. They are always burning with jealousy and have ill will for everyone. They are full of enmity and malice, and do not believe in spirituality. This state of mind is the worst and most dangerous. If anyone dies in this state of mind, that living being will go to hell. 2. Neel (Blue) Leshyä: People in this state of mind are proud, arrogant, and lazy. They are not trustworthy and other people avoid their company. They are cheaters, cowards, and hypocrites. Such people also avoid religious discourses. If anyone dies in this state of mind, that living being gets reborn as a one sense living being. 3. Kapot (Gray) Leshyä: People in this state of mind always remain sad and gloomy. They find fault in others and are vindictive. They boast about themselves, become excited over small matters, and lack mental balance. If anyone dies in this state of mind, that living being is reborn as a bird or an animal. 4. Tejo (Red) Leshyä: People in this state of mind are very careful about their actions and discriminate between good and evil. They know the difference between what is right and what is wrong. They are kind, benevolent, religious, and lead a harmonious life. If anyone dies in this state of mind, that living being may be reborn as a human being. 5. Padma (Yellow) Leshyä: People in this state of mind are kind and benevolent and forgive everyone, including their enemies. They observe some austerities and are vigilant in keeping their vows till their last breath. They remain unaffected by joy and sorrow. If anyone dies in this Leshyä, that living being will be reborn in heaven as a celestial being. 6. Shukla (White) Leshyä: There are two levels of this Leshyäs. In the first level one strictly observes the principles of non-violence, truth, non-stealing, celibacy, and non-attachment. They are trustworthy, treat every soul as if it was their own soul, and do not have any ill feelings even for their enemies. They remain calm even if someone abuses them. If anyone dies in this state of mind, he will be reborn as a human being or an angel. In the second level one has perfected the state of mind where there is no more attachment or hatred and treats everyone alike. They do not become happy or sad. Their state of mind is the purest. If anyone dies in this perfected state of mind, he or she will be liberated from the cycle of life and death. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 115 Page #116 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LESHYÄS - STATE OF MIND AND KARMIC STAINS The following illustration shows how our activities vary with the state of our mind. Six Friends and a Fruit Tree : Once there were six friends, who were going on a hiking trip. Along the way, they got lost in a forest. After a while they were hungry and thirsty and they had no food or water. They searched for food for some time, and finally found a fruit tree. As they ran to the tree, the first man said, "Let's cut the tree down and get the fruit." The second one said, "Don't cut the whole tree down, cut off a big branch instead." The third friend said, "Why do we need a big branch? A small branch has enough fruit." The fourth one said, "We do not need to cut the branches, let us just climb up and get the bunches of fruit." The fifth man said, "Why pick so many fruit and waste them, instead just pick the fruit that we need to eat." The sixth friend said quietly, "There are plenty of good fruit on the ground, so let's eat them first." You can see that the state of mind of these six friends caused a range of thoughts that begin with the cutting of the entire tree and ended with the picking up of the fruit fallen on the ground. The six friends' minds represent six types of Leshyäs. 1) The first friend's state of mind represents Krishna (black) Leshyä. 2) The second friend's state of mind represents Neel (blue) Leshyä. 3) The third friend's state of mind represents Kapot (gray) Leshyä. 4) The fourth friend's state of mind represents Tejo (red) Leshyä. 5) The fifth friend's state of mind represents Padma (yellow) Leshyä. 6) The sixth friend's state of mind represents Shukla (white) Leshyä. The Krishna Leshyä is the worst and the Shukla Leshyä is the best. Krishna, Neel, and Kapot Leshyäs lead the soul to ruin and the last three leads the soul to spiritual prosperity. We know that our minds wander into different states all the time for better or for worse. Therefore, we should strive for better state of mind -Leshyä progressively. The story of King 116 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #117 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LESHYÄS - STATE OF MIND AND KARMIC STAINS Prasannachandra who lived during Lord Mahävir's time, illustrates how fast surroundings can affect our mind and in turn our Leshyäs as well as our spiritual progress. Story of King Prasannachandra : One day, King Shrenik was on his way to pay homage to Lord Mahävir, and he saw a sage who was meditating and had a bright glow around him. This sage in fact was King Prasannachandra before he became a monk. He bowed down to the sage and continued on his way. After reaching Lord Mahävir, King Shrenik asked the Lord, "Oh Lord, I saw a brilliant sage who was engrossed in meditation. If he died at that moment, what would be his destiny?" The Lord replied, "He would have been hurled down to the seventh hell The king was very much surprised to hear this reply from the Lord. He thought, "Why would such a sage go to hell? Perhaps the Lord might have misunderstood me" He asked the Lord again, "Oh Lord, if his soul leaves this body just now, where will it go?" The Lord replied, "He will be an angel in the Sarvärtha-siddha, a heavenly region." The king was much surprised at this reply, too. He thought, "The Lord first said he would go to the seventh hell, and now he says that the sage would be an angel." The king was puzzled. At that very moment, drums began sounding in the sky and voices of "praise to the sage' were proclaimed. The king asked the Lord, "What is the cause of these sounds?" The Lord said, "Oh, king, the sage about whom you were inquiring has attained Omniscience and so the angels are sounding the drums and proclaiming praise to the sage. The king was extremely confused by these answers and requested to the Lord if he would kindly explain the situation in detail. war and evewas betrayediverted hi So Lord Mahävir explained, "Oh king, right before you approached the sage, two soldiers leading your procession diverted his mind with their conversation that the sage's son (who is now a king) was betrayed by his entrusted ministers and they were planning to overthrow his son and even kill him. His meditation was disturbed due to the affection for his son. He was infuriated with rage, and he lost his mental equanimity. Therefore, he started to fight with his ministers in his thoughts. He very violently discharged his weapons one after the other against his ministers. Soon his weapons were exhausted and his enemies were still not destroyed. So, he thought of throwing his steel helmet against them in order to destroy them. If he had died at that moment, he would have gone to the 7th hell. As he reached for the steel helmet, he realized that he was not King Prasannachandra any more, but that he was a sage. His anger calmed down immediately. He remembered that he had been initiated into the vow of equanimity and of non-violence to all living beings mentally, verbally, and physically. He deeply regretted and repented for the breach of his vow JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 117 Page #118 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LESHYAS - STATE OF MIND AND KARMIC STAINS and indulgence in severe anger. He further thought that he ought to have maintained love for all the creatures of the world, ought to have no malice for the ministers, and no attachment for his son. He severely condemned his mental act. He despised it and withdrew himself from such a feat of anger and malice. Oh king, when he thought this way, you asked me the next question and I replied that he would be born in the Sarvärtha-siddha (heaven) as an angel. Thereafter, he continued the purification of his mental reflections and gradually he reached the stage of 'Kshapak', where he annihilated all of his destructive (Ghäti) karmas, and attained omniscience." King Shrenik's doubts were resolved and he learned how mental reflection could fluctuate. He also learned that not only can physical acts or verbal abuses have such devastating effects, but mental acts also can have devastating effects. We, too, must learn from this story. God is neither the creator nor the destroyer of the universe. He is merely a silent observer and omniscient. 118 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE Page #119 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BHAVANA (REFLECTIONS) Chapter 27 - Bhävanä (Reflections) Jain religion puts a significant emphasis on the thought process of a human being. A person's behavior and his actions are the reflection of his internal thoughts. It is not only the action but also intention behind the action results in the accumulation of Karma. Hence, one should be very careful about his thoughts, and the subject matter of his thought. To make room for pure thoughts, and to drive out the evil ones, Jainism recommends reflecting or meditating on the twelve thoughts known as the Twelve Bhävanä (Anuprekshä), or Reflections. The Twelve Bhävanäs cover a wide field in Jainism. They are designed to serve as an aid to spiritual progress leading to the path of renunciation. They are reflections upon the fundamental facts of life. They stop entry of new karmas as well as eradicate old karmas while one is engaged in these reflections. The followings are main twelve Bhävanäs or Contemplation Twelve Main Bhävanäs Anitya Bhävanä: Impermanence All external substances including the body are transitory (Anitya). They are perishable and therefore, we should not have attachment for them. Asharan Bhävanä: Helplessness Human beings are experiencing tremendous agitation. When death occurs and the soul has to leave the body there is no one who can save a Jiv who is helpless. Wealth, family etc. have to be given up at such a time. No worldly things can provide refuge so why should we depend upon them. Sansär Bhävanä: Cycle of life and death In the cycle of Sansär, i.e. birth and death, mother can become wife; wife can become mother, and an enemy can become a friend; etc. How futile is the world? We should not have any attachment for it. Ekatva Bhävanä: Solitariness "I am alone, I was born alone, I will die alone, I am sick alone, I have to suffer alone, I have to experience the karmas, which I have acquired alone." Therefore, one should be cautious and keep away from attachment and hatred. Anyatva Bhävanä: Otherness of the body "This body is transitory and it is different from me. I am the soul, which is not perishable. The body is perishable and wealth and family are not mine. They are different from me, therefore, I discard attachment for all these things." Ashuchi Bhävanä: Impurity of body "This body is made up of impure substances. Impure substances are nourishing it. I will discard my attachments for this body and engage myself in self-discipline, renunciation, and spiritual endeavors." JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 119 Page #120 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BHAVANA (REFLECTIONS) Äsrava Bhävanä: Inflow of karma Thinking on inflow of karmas. All causes that create the inflow of karmas should be discarded. Samvar Bhävanä: Stoppage of karma Samvar means blocking the inflow of karmas. One must contemplate on Samiti, Gupti, Yati-dharma etc. One must carry out these activities and try to reduce or stop new bondage of karma. Nirjarä Bhävanä: Eradication of karma Nirjarä means to shed off whatever karmas we have. One must think of the benefits that accrue from each of the 12 kinds of Tapas or the austerities, which cause Nirjarä. One must contemplate on these austerities in order to destroy sins. Lokasvabhäva Bhävanä: The nature of cosmos Lokasvabhäva means one must contemplate on the three Lokas, namely: 1) the upper world, 2) the middle world, 3) the lower world, and also the whole universe filled with souls and Pudgals (matters) Bodhidurlabh Bhävanä: Rarity of enlightenment One must contemplate on how difficult it is for the souls that are wandering aimlessly in the four stages of existence in the Sansär to attain the Jin dharma. There should not be even the slightest negligence in observing the religion propagated by the Jin." Dharma Bhävanä: Religion "Oh: Arihanta Bhagawän, the omniscient, has expounded an excellent Shruta Dharma and Charitra Dharma. I will engage myself in these Dharma." One should carry out this contemplation again and again. However, there are four auxiliary Bhävanäs that represent the positive means of supporting the Five Vows. They are intended to develop purity of thought and sincerity in the practice of religion. They play very important role in the day-to-day life of a householder and these reflections can be practiced very easily. Adopting these Bhävanäs in daily life can make a person very virtuous. Four auxiliary Bhävanäs. Maitri Bhavanä Pramod Bhävanä Karunä Bhävanä Mädhyastha Bhävanä Contemplation of Friendship Contemplation of Appreciation Contemplation of Compassion Contemplation of Neutrality Maitri Bhävanä (Contemplation of Friendship) Lord Mahävir said, "We must be friends to all living beings." The feeling of friendship brings love and respect to others. It also initiates a feeling of brotherhood among all and in turn 120 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #121 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BHAVANA (REFLECTIONS) leaves no room for harm or deceit with anybody. If we contemplate on Maitri Bhävanä, our thoughts, words, and actions will not be harsh, and we will not hurt anybody. On the contrary, we will support and protect everybody. Friendship will lead us to be tolerant, forgiving, and caring for one another. Therefore, if we develop a friendship with all living beings, we will avoid bad karma. Pramod Bhävanä (Contemplation of Appreciation) In this Bhävanä, we admire the success of our friends, spiritual leaders, and the Arihantas. One of the most destructive forces in our lives is jealousy. However, friendship combined with admiration, destroys jealousy. As jealousy subsides, negative impulses are turned into positive ones, and in due time, we will be at peace. By appreciating the virtues of others we develop that virtue. Karunä Bhävanä (Contemplation of Compassion) Instead of succeeding, many of our friends may be getting into trouble for things that can be avoided and should not be done. Even some of those who are successful may be accumulating vices such as greed and ego. They are not on the right path. They may be weak, helpless, and in distress. At a time like this, we should contemplate on the Karunä Bhävanä and show compassion for them instead of disgust or hate. We should show them the right path with patience, tolerance, and forgiveness and offer them needed support. This way we can avoid accumulating bad karma for us as well as for them. Mädhyastha Bhävanä (Contemplation of Neutrality) Life appears to be nothing but involvement. Sometimes the situation works out favorably and sometimes it does not. So instead of being disappointed, angry, or more involved, we should contemplate on Mädhyastha Bhävanä, which leads to the feeling that "I did my best to resolve the situation." This leads our mind to decide that if someone does not want to understand, then leave that person alone without getting further involved. We should simply hope that one of these days, that person may understand things and change. By observing Mädhyastha Bhävanä, we remain in equanimity, instead of provoking turmoil in our mind. When our mind stays neutral and uninvolved, then karma stays away. In short, we can avoid the influx of bad karmas and live peacefully in this worldly life by developing friendships with all living beings, admiring their success, holding their hands when they are in distress, and leaving them alone at the times when they do not understand what is right or wrong. So until it becomes the natural way of life to observe the above Bhävanäs, one should contemplate on them as many times as needed. If there is a goal, then there is an achievement! JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 121 Page #122 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX ESSENTIALS (ÄVASHYAKA) Chapter 28 - Six Essentials (Ävashyaka) Jainism is a very practical religion, which helps us in every day affairs of life. Jainism has to be practiced and lived. Jain ethics is meant for all men and women in every walk of life. Contemplation of the soul is the main part of Jainism. Contemplation of the soul includes thinking, analyzing and meditating as a part of the right conduct. The rituals are interwoven in the daily life of a pious Jain. Going to the temple, listening to the Guru, practicing vows, giving alms to Sädhus, performing Sämäyika for equanimity, performing Pratikraman for introspection, practicing non-violence, carrying out charitable acts, living an honest life and many similar acts constitute the daily rituals of a Jain. The soul, in its pure form, has infinite perception, infinite knowledge, infinite vigor, and infinite bliss. These attributes are not realized by a worldly soul because it is smeared with karmas. The karmas are mainly due to four passions (Kashaya); anger, ego, deceit and greed. Tirthankars have expounded on many ways to free us from these four Kashaya to attain Moksha. One of the ways is a daily practice of six Avashyaka (essentials). Practicing six essential rites with true faith helps us progress spiritually. These six essential rites are to be practiced daily. Six Essential Observances : Both Digambar and Shvetämbar traditions have six essentials but there exist some differences. Six Essential Observances of Shvetämbar-Tradition Sämäyika To remain calm and undisturbed in a state of equanimity for 48 minutes. Chauvisattho To pray and appreciate the qualities of the twenty-four Tirthankars. Vandana Devotion and service to Guru Maharaj. Pratikraman To repent, reproach, and reflect upon past wrong thoughts and deeds. Käyotsarga Non-attachments to the body (standing or sitting motionless and meditating for a set period of time). Pratyakhyan or Taking religious vows renouncing certain activities and certain Pachchakhan f oods for a set period of time to discipline one's self Six Essential Observances of Digambar-Tradition Devapuja To pray and appreciate the qualities of the twenty-four Tirthankars Gurupästi Devotion and service to Guru Maharaj Swadhyay Studying of Scriptures Self restraint - to carry out the householder's vows (Anuvrata) with Sanyam complete self discipline Tap Penance or austerities, which include Pratikraman, Pratyakhyan, and Käyotsarga Dän Charity - giving alms to mendicants and needy 122 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L 1. Sämäyika- Equanimity. Sämäyika means to remain calm and undisturbed, to get detached from daily activities and to engage in spiritual activities to be free of all passions, and not to have feeling of liking, disliking, attachment, desire, or aversion. Sämäyika is the process that enhances the quality of equanimity. It helps to take one closer to the soul and to acquire a stable mind and temperament. SIX ESSENTIALS (AVASHYAKA) No one has attained Moksha and no one will attain Moksha without the practice of Sämäyika. To treat all living beings equal is the Sämäyika. To abandon wrongful activities and to practice spiritually right activities is Sämäyika. Sämäyika is the true conduct. Sämäyika is the essence of Tirthankar's teachings. One has to practice Sämäyika to attain the right perception, the right knowledge and the right conduct. Jain monks and nuns are in the state of equanimity (Sämäyika) throughout their life. A devout Shrävak practices Sämäyika everyday. Great detail on the subject of Sämäyika is in the Jain canonical books. One should practice at least one Sämäyika a day, if not more. Time spent in Sämäyika is time spent as a Sädhu. 2. Chaturvimshati-Stava - Praying and appreciating the qualities of the twenty-four Tirthankars. Logassa Sutra is the Chaturvimshati-Stava. By reciting Logassa Sutra with true faith, one purifies their thoughts, and attains the right perception. One who has the right perception attains Moksha in a relatively short time. By praising the qualities of Tirthankars, passions are subdued. 3. Vandanä - Respecting and saluting Guru Maharaj. In the absence of Tirthankar, our true teachers are our Jain Ächäryas, Upadhyäys and Sädhus, who show us the path of liberation. They are the practitioners of the true path of salvation. By paying respect to Jain monks and nuns, one becomes humble, controls his ego and pride; and develops the quality of humility (Vinay). This process subdues our passions, and helps us advance spiritually. 4. Pratikraman - Reviewing our daily activities, and expressing remorse for sinful activities. Pratikraman is the most important Ävashyaka (essential rite). "Prati" means "back" and "Kraman" means "to go", i.e. to go back, review, confess, and repent the bad thoughts and deeds from our activities. It also means going back to the path of nonviolence, truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy and non-attachment, and forgiving the faults of others, asking forgiveness for our faults without any reservation, and extending friendship. This will stop (Samvar) the influx (Äsrava) of karma that covers the true nature of our soul (self, Jiv, or Ätmä), which has the qualities of perfect knowledge, vision, bliss, and power. Pratikraman is like a mirror where we see our selves internally, the way it is. We see our faults, and wrong doings. We ask for forgiveness for all wrongful acts, and take vows to minimize such acts. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 123 Page #124 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SIX ESSENTIALS (ÄVASHYAKA) 5. Käyotsarga - Renouncing attachments to the body and tuning with oneself. Since beginningless time (Anädi-Kä) we have been considering our body as ourselves, not the soul. This is the main reason for our misery. The process of Käyotsarga involves forgetting body, mind and emotions as much as possible so that one can concentrate on the soul and experience that the soul and body are two separate entities. This process helps reduce attachment to material things. This gives the experience that our self is our soul and not our body. 6. Pratyakhyän/Pachchakhän - Renouncing certain activities for certain time, to discipline one's self. One takes vows according to one's capabilities to disengage from extraneous substances and to engage in the self-substance. The Shrävaks take partial vows and ascetics take the great vows. Importance of Pratikraman Among all six essentials, the Pratikraman ritual is the most important one. It covers the other five essentials during the performance of its rites as follows: One is required to do the Sämäyika before starting the Pratikraman ritual. During the Pratikraman ritual, by reciting Logassa and Namutthunam Sutras one salutes the twenty-four Tirthankars and their qualities. By reciting Panchindiya and Khamasamano Sutras one salutes the ascetics and their qualities. Thus, the Pratikraman includes Chaturvimshati-Stava and Vandana essentials. The Pratikraman ritual is done while sitting or standing in the meditating posture, and this is Käyotsarga. During the Pratikraman ritual one is required to take the Pachchakhän according to one's capacity covering Pratyakhyan essential. The Pratikraman ritual includes many Sutras. The original sutras are written in Ardha-Magadhi (language of the common people during Bhagawan Mahävir's time) and Sanskrit languages, which consist of many hymns in praise of Lords and many verses of repentance and confession Jains are required to perform Pratikraman twice a day, in the morning and in the evening. The Devasi (evening) Pratikraman is for the sins committed during the day. Räi (morning) Pratikraman is for the sins committed during the night. However, if someone cannot perform Pratikraman daily, he can do a biweekly, quarterly, or yearly Pratikraman. The yearly Pratikraman is called Samvatsari and the scriptures indicate that all Jains must do Samvatsari Pratikraman. 124 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE Page #125 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L Spiritual Meanings Behind the Items Used in Sämäyika & Pratikraman SIX ESSENTIALS (AVASHYAKA) Charavalo: is used to gently clean the floor (to make the space free of subtle living beings) before setting Katäsanu on the floor. Charavalo is also used to sweep the floor before stepping on it, and for necessary movements during the Sämäyika or Pratikraman. Its spiritual meaning is to remind us that we need to clean our soul of all karma particles. It reminds us of non-violence. Its wooden handle is 24 fingers long. Its white-wool strings are 8 fingers long, to remind us that we are entrapped in the worldly existence (journey of misery) because of the eight main karma. Charavalo and Muhapatti, both constantly remind the aspirant that he/she is in Sämäyika and exercise equanimity during the Sāmāyika. Katäsanu: It is also known as Äsan. Katäsanu means the piece of mat on which one sits. It should be of white wool. It insulates the body from losing the energy that is generated due to the practice of Sämäyika. It protects subtle mobile living beings underneath. The white color promotes peace and enhances the spiritual environment. Muhapatti: It is a small piece of white cloth folded in a particular way, used in front of the mouth about 2 to 3 inches away while reciting Sämäyika Sutras. Because of Muhapatti, one becomes careful about what he/she speaks, and stops him/her from saying lies and making provocative and nonbeneficiary speech to others. One controls his/her speech and speaks only when it is necessary. Uncontrollable spits are stopped by the Muhapatti from falling on the holy things such as books. It prevents insentient and warm breath that is coming out of the mouth from mixing with sentient and cold air of the outside thus is an act of non-violence. By use of Muhapatti, one becomes humble and courteous. The Muhapatti is about 10 to 12-inch square piece of white cloth, folded in half, then folded about one inch from the closed side, and then it is folded laterally. This way it has three open sides and one closed side, and it symbolizes that living beings attain Moksha through only one destiny - human beings, and not from the other three destinies. In some Jain traditions they tie the Muhapatti around their mouth Sthäpanächärya: When a Guru is not present, a preceptor's seat is installed by putting a religious book that contains Navakär Mahä-mantra and Panchindiya sutra on a Säpadä (book stand) and / or with Navakärväli on it. The aspirant sits facing East or North or any direction in front of the preceptor's seat. This enables the aspirant to maintain discipline and to develop the quality of humility. One does not gain spiritually without proper guidance from the right guru. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 125 Page #126 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ANEKÄNTAVÄDA - AN ELEPHANT AND THE BLIND MEN Chapter 29 - Anekäntaväda - An Elephant and The Blind Men Once upon a time, there lived six blind men in a village. One day the villagers told them, "Hey, there is an elephant in the village today." They had no idea what an elephant was. They decided, "Even though we cannot see the elephant, let us go and feel it anyway." All of them went where the elephant was. Each of them touched the elephant. "Hey, the elephant is like a pillar," said the first man who touched his leg. "Oh, no! It is like a rope," said the second man who touched the tail. "Oh, no! it is like a thick branch of a tree," said the third man who touched the trunk of the elephant "It is like a big manual fan" said the fourth man who touched the ear of the elephant. "It is like a huge wall," said the fifth man who touched the belly of the elephant. "It is like a solid pipe," said the sixth man who touched the tusk of the elephant. They began to argue about the elephant and every one of them insisted that he was right. They were getting agitated. A wise man was passing by saw this. He stopped and asked them, "What is the matter?” They said, "We cannot agree on what the elephant is like." Each one of them told what he thought the elephant was like. The wise man calmly explained to them, "All of you are right. The reason every one of you is telling it differently is because each one of you touched a different part of the elephant. So, actually the elephant has all those features that you all said." "Oh!" everyone said. There was no more fighting. They felt happy and content that they were all right. The moral of the story is that there may be some truth to what someone says. Sometimes we can see that truth and sometimes we cannot because they may have a different perspective that we may not agree to. So, rather than arguing like the blind men, we should say, "Maybe you have your reasons." In Jainism, it is explained that truth can be stated in seven different ways. One should know the complete truth, and then analyze the truth from all different angles. So, you can see how broad our religion is. It teaches us to be tolerant towards others to 126 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #127 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L ANEKÄNTAVÄDA - AN ELEPHANT AND THE BLIND MEN their viewpoints. This allows us to live in harmony with people of different thinking. This is known as the Syädväda, Anekäntaväda, or multiplicity of viewpoints According to Jain metaphysics, innumerable material and spiritual substances, each of, which is the locus of innumerable qualities, constitute reality. Not only are there innumerable substances, each with innumerable quality, but each quality is susceptible to an infinite number of modifications. Clearly ordinary knowledge (non-omniscient) cannot comprehend this complex reality, for ordinary knowledge is limited not only by the limited power of the senses and reason, but also by the perspectives adopted by the knower as well as by the conditions of space, time, light, and so on. Emphasizing the limits of ordinary knowledge, Jainism developed the theory that truth is relative to the perspective (Naya) from, which it is known. Furthermore, because reality is many sided and knowledge true only from a limited perspective, all knowledge claims are only tentative (Syät) having the form, "X may be Y," rather than "X is Y." Like the blind men, each person perceives things from their own perspective. These perspectives are determined by many factors, including socio cultural conditioning, particular place, time, light, hopes, fears and, of course, subject to the limitation of our sensory receptors and reasoning power. A person seeking profit sees everything in terms of gains and losses; insecure people sees threats everywhere and a person devoted to God sees everything as God's blessed creation. When it is understood that knowledge is limited by the particular perspective from which side it is achieved, it becomes easy to see that knowledge claims are conditioned by the limitation of the perspective that it assumes and should always be expressed as only tentatively true. Just as the blind men should have been more circumspect, saying for example, "Standing here, feeling the object with my hands, it feels like a winnowing fan. It may be a winnowing fan." So should everyone understand that their knowledge claims should be asserted only conditionally. I Fight with yourself, why fight with external foes? He, who conquers himself through himself, will obtain happiness. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 127 Page #128 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAIN SECTS AND SCRIPTURES Chapter 30 History of Jain Sects and Scriptures Lord Mahavir's preachings were orally compiled into many texts (scriptures) by his disciples. These scriptures are known as Jain Ägam or Ägam Sutras. The Ägam Sutras teach great reverence for all forms of life, strict codes of vegetarianism, asceticism, compassion, nonviolence, and opposition to war. In olden times, Jain ascetics believe that the religious books and scriptures are possessions and attachments. Therefore the scriptures were not documented in any form but were memorized by ascetics and passed on by oral tradition to future generations of ascetics. The memorized sutras were divided into two major groups: Ang Ägam Sutras: Ang Ägam sutras contain direct preaching of Lord Mahävir. They consist of 12 texts that were originally compiled by immediate disciples of Lord Mahävir known as Ganadhars. Collectively these Sutras are known as Dwädashängi. They were compiled immediately after Lord Mahävir's nirvana (death). The twelfth text is called Drastiwad, which includes 14 Purvas. The foremost of these Angas is Ächäräng Sutra. Other well-known Angas are Sutrakrutang, Samaväyäng, Sthänäng and Vyakhyä Prajnapti or Bhagawati Sutra. Angbayha Agam Sutras: Angbayha Agam sutras provide further explanation of Ang Agam sutras. They were originally compiled by Shrut Kevali monks, who possessed total knowledge of the soul by studying 12 Ang Agams. They consist of 14 texts according to the Digambar sect, 34 texts according to the Svetambar Murtipujak sect, and 21 texts according to the Sthänakaväsi and Teräpanthi sects. They were compiled within 160 years after Lord Mahävir's nirvana. They are sub-classified into Upängs, Mul Sutras, Chheda Sutras, Chulikäs, and Prakirnas Sutras. Dashä Vaikälika, Uttarädhyayan and Ävashyaka are the most well known Sutras belonging to this category. They Ägam literature is composed in Ardhamägadhi, Präkrit language, which was the language understood in the area where Lord Mahävir went about during His life. Also, during the course of time many learned Ächäryas (elder monks) compiled many commentaries on the Ägam literature and independent works on various subjects of Jain philosophy and religion. In the course of time, it became extremely difficult to keep memorizing the entire Jain literature (Agam sutras scriptures, Commentary literature, and Independent works) compiled by the many scholars. About 160 years after the Lord's nirvana, when Bhadrabähuswami was the head of the religious order and the Nand dynasty was ruling over Magadh region. Pataliputra, the capital city, became the center of learning and knowledge. At that time, there occurred a twelve years of famine (around 350 BC). During that period of shortage and scarcity, it was hard for Jain monks to observe the code of conduct of religion. Bhadrabähuswami therefore decided to migrate to the south along with many followers. Under such circumstances they could not preserve the entire canonical literature. A convention was therefore called at Patliputra under the leadership of Ächärya Sthulibhadra, after the famine. That convention prepared uniform version of all the Ägams. In Jain tradition this is known as the first Vächanä of Ägams. 128 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #129 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAIN SECTS AND SCRIPTURES The version so prepared was not found acceptable to most of those who had migrated to the south. They considered the version unauthentic and contended that the original Agams had gotten lost. This was the first major schism among the followers of Lord Mahävir. In this connection it would be interesting to dwell a little on the background of this cleavage. When the Lord renounced the worldly life, he seems to have retained a single cloth to cover His body. During the first year of His renounced life, that cloth seems to have been worn out, torn or entangled in a thicket somewhere. After that He did not care to get another one. For the rest of life He therefore stayed without clothes. His immediate followers were also presumably unclad. Later on, followers of Pärshva traditions acknowledged His leadership. They were covering their bodies with two pieces of cloth. While admitting them in His fold, the Lord does not seem to have objected to their being clad. Thus His Order (Sangha) constituted clad as well as unclad monks amicably staying together. The amity between these two however might not have survived after the age of Omniscients. Though there was no open dispute, there could have been some misunderstanding and unfriendliness between these two groups. Venerable Sthulibhadra and most of those who stayed in the north used to cover their bodies with plain, white cloth; while those who had migrated with Bhadrabähuswami were mostly unclad. They had clear doubts on the authenticity of the Agams compiled under the leadership of Sthulibhadra. They took pride in them being true unclad followers of the Lord and in due course came to be known as Digambars, which means Sky-clad. Those on the other side came to be known as Shvetämbars (Shvet means white and ambar means cloth) on account of the white cloth that they wore. The history of the Agams from that time onwards thus takes two different courses. Even after the Patliputra convention, Agams remained unwritten and continued to be passed on orally from preceptor to pupil. Memorizing must have taken its own toll. Moreover with the fall of the Mauryan dynasty in 150 B.C., Patliputra ceased to be the main center of Jainism, because the Mitra dynasty that took over was not favorably inclined to it. There was therefore a large-scale migration of Jain monks and laymen towards Udaygiri (Near present Bhuvaneshwar) in the southeast and towards Mathura in the west. All these factors contributed once again to variations in the version of Agam Sutras. By the end of the first century, most probably in 97 A.D., another convention was called at Mathura under the leadership of Honorable Skandilächärya. Curiously enough, another convention was simultaneously held at Vallabhipur in Gujarat under the leadership of Honorable Nägärjun-ächärya. There were some differences in the versions arrived at the two conventions. We are not exactly sure whether any attempt was made to reconcile the varying versions. Anyway, this is called the second Vachana of the Agams. Even after this, the Agams remained unwritten. Variations in the versions were therefore bound to occur. Ultimately one more convention was held at Vallabhipur in 454 A.D. under the leadership Devardhi-Gani Khshamäshraman. An Authorized version of all the Agams was prepared at that convention and they were written down for the first time. At the present time the following 45 Agams are available that are acceptable to Shvetämbar Murtipujak sect :- 11 Angas (The 12th one is lost long back), 12 Upangas, 4 Mul Sutras, 6 Chheda Sutras, 10 Prakirnas and 2 Chulikäs. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 129 Page #130 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAIN SECTS AND SCRIPTURES Digambars started writing their text of the Agams on the basis of knowledge at their command. Acharyas Dhärsen and Gunadhara who happened to be in the line of Bhadrabähuswami, were very knowledgeable. Their successors prepared the Shatakhand-agam, (also known as Mahakammapayadi-pahuda or Maha-karma-prabhrut) and Kasay-pahud that are collectively known as Pratham Shruta Skandha or the first collection of scriptures. This could have occurred some time after the Patliputra convention. During the second century AD the most venerable Kundkundächärya wrote Samay-sär, Pravachan-sär, Niyama-sär, Panchästikäya, and Ashtapähud, which are known as Dwitiya Shruta Skandha or second collection of scriptures. His Samay-sär, Pravachan-sär and Panchästikäya are held in high esteem even by Non-Digambars. Digambar sect accepts these works as the most authentic Jain Agams and most of the subsequent Digambar literature is based on them. In about 200 A.D. Honorable Umäsvämi or Umäsväti wrote his Tattvärtha-sutra in the Sanskrit language giving the entire essence of Jainism. Luckily this book happens to be acceptable to all the sects of Jainism. This shows that despite the outward differences, there are no disputes among them about any of Jainism fundamentals. Many Acharyas of both denominations have written several commentaries on this book. A subsequent well-known author is Honorable Acharya Siddhasen Diwäkar Suri who lived during the time of King Vikramaditya. He seems to have written on many aspects of Jainism. His Sanmati-Tarka is considered a masterly book and is enthusiastically studied by scholars even at present. Sarvärtha Siddhi of Pujyapäd-swami in the 5th or 6th century and Shad-darshan Samuchchaya and Yoga Drishti Samuchchaya of Acharya Haribhadra-suri in the 8th century are the major works after the compilations of the Agams. By that time, idol worship was firmly established and many temples were built. This necessitated the help of well-versed people for consecrating the idols and for performing various rituals. In the Shvetämbar sect this led to the rise of renegade monks known as Yatis. They used to stay in the temples and therefore came to be known as Chaityaväsis. They lived in affluence and availed themselves of all the comforts of life. Haribhadra-suri was the first to criticize their excesses. The evil however seems to have continued long after that. Noteworthy works after this period are the Mahäpurän of Digambar Acharya Jinsen (770-850 A.D.) and the Trishashti Shaläkä Purusha of (Hemchandrächärya 1088-1173 A.D.). Both these works are voluminous and deal with the lives of Tirthankars and other illustrious personalities. Serious efforts were made to curtail the excesses of Yatis in the 11th century by Vardhamänsuri. This was continued by his successors Jineshwar-suri and Jindatta-suri. The latter is popularly known as Dada. He founded the Kharatar Gachchha meaning purer sect in about 1150 A.D. So far we have talked about the contribution of well-known Acharyas. Now we come to the contribution of a layman. He was Lonkashah of Ahmedabad. He could not believe that excesses of the Yatis could have religious sanction. However scriptures were not accessible by householders. Luckily, a monk once happened to see the neat handwriting of Lonkashah. He therefore hired him to make copies of the scriptures. Equipped with that knowledge he came out with a heavy hand against temples and temple rituals (Chaityaväsis) in 1451. Based on his study of the Agams, he also disputed idol worship as being against original Jain tenets. This was the preamble for setting up the Sthänakaväsi sect, which came into existence as 130 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #131 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ l worshipp was thuse evils of Yaples (Chaits HISTORY OF JAIN SECTS AND SCRIPTURES non-idol worshippers in 1474. Bhanajimuni was the first known Muni of that sect. The Shvetämbar sect was thus divided into two sub-sects. This division was however helpful in dealing a deathblow to the evils of Yatis. Sthänakaväsis introduced strict codes of conduct for their monks in contrast to the temples (Chaityas). Hirvijay-suri was the well-known Acharya of the next century. He seems to have impressed even emperor Akbar who issued a proclamation prohibiting animal slaughter on certain days. Poet Banarasidas also lived during that period. He was born in a Shvetämbar family and was an easy going youth. He however happened to read Samay-sär and was very much impressed. He has written Samay-Sär-Nätak, which is a dramatic version of Samay-sär. The next two well-known personalities are Yogi Anandghanji and Upadhyay Yashovijayaji. The real name of the former was Labhanandji. Since he remained more absorbed in the nature of soul, he is popularly known as Anandghanji. He has written many thought provoking Padas. The best known is his Anandghanji Chovisi that contains devotional songs in admiration of all 24 Tirthankars. Upadhyay Yashovijayaji was a prolific writer. He has written on almost every aspect of Jainism in the Sanskrit, Präkrut and Gujarati languages. Soon after that Acharya Bhikshu split the Sthänakaväsi sect in 1727 A.D. on the issue of the role of charities etc. in Jainism. The new sect that was set up is known as the Teräpanthi sect. Digambars also experienced a significant change during the late sixteenth century through a famous poet and scholar named Banarasidas. He was a devout scholar of the works of Kundkundächärya. He revolted against the lax behavior of Bhattäraks and felt their ritualistic practices were excessive and involved a high degree of Hinsä in offering of flowers, fruits and sweets in temple rituals. He called for abolishment of such offerings from daily rituals in the temples. Banarasidas' influence was further felt through Pundit Todarmal of Jaipur. His doctrinal pursuits emphasized Nishchaya Naya (absolute) aspects of Kundkundächärya writings. This greatly revitalized the Digambar tradition and allowed them to move forward during a period of difficult changes. Following this period of change, even within the Digambar tradition, sects known as Teräpanthis and Bisapanthas came about. Their beliefs and practices vary from one region to the other. It is important to note that Banarasidas was born into a Shvetämbar family. The last person to be mentioned is Shrimad Rajchandraji who was born in 1868. He was a highly gifted person. He could heavily impress even Mahatma Gandhi, who considered Shrimad his guide. He has compiled many devotional songs and has written at length about the true nature of the soul in the form of letters. Most of his writings are in the Gujarati language. Mokshamälä and Atmasiddhi-shästra are his outstanding independent publications that have influenced a lot of people. He had plans to freshly propound true Jainism. Unfortunately he did not survive long and left the mortal body in 1901 at the young age of 33. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 131 Page #132 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS Chapter 31 - Jain Festivals and Celebrations Jainism has a rich tradition of rituals and festivals. Jain rituals and festivals emphasize the spiritual aspects of Jainism. During Jain festivals, many events of Lord Mahävir's life are acted out in symbolic form to bring out the message of Lord Mahävir in a simpler way. Rituals and festivals involve the practice of Jainism as well as revitalization and strengthening of our beliefs in Jainism. The Jain festivals are known as Parvas. The word "Parva" means auspicious day. Paryushan Mahä Parva: Paryushan Parva consists of eight days per Shvetämbar tradition and ten days per Digambar tradition. It starts on twelfth or thirteenth day of the dark half of the month Shravan. The month of Shravan is in the monsoon season. Jain monks and nuns do not stay at one place more than a few days during non-rainy season. Monsoon showers and torrential rains, however make it impossible for the monks to travel across the country. This coupled with the principle of Ahinsä or non-violence, make it difficult for them not to trample on and squash insects and other forms of life that emerge in the monsoon. According to our scriptures, the last of Paryushan Parva known as Samvatsari day is celebrated on 50 th day of the monsoon season. Monks and nuns must settled during this time period and remain at that place for the remaining Monsoon season of next 70 days. Meaning of Paryushan The word "Paryushan" has several different meanings: 1. Pari + Ushan = all kinds + to burn = to burn (shed) our all types of Karmas. To shed our Karmas, we do twelve different types of austerities including fasting. 2. Another meaning of "Ushan" is to stay closer. To stay closer to our own soul from all directions and to stay absorbed in our own-self (soul), we do Swadhyay (self-study), meditation, austerities, etc. 3. Pari + Upashamanä = Upashamana means to suppress, to suppress our passions (Kashayas - anger, ego, deceit and greed) from all directions. Therefore, the real purpose of the Paryushan is to purify our soul by staying closer to our own soul, to look at our own faults, to ask for forgiveness for the mistakes we have committed, and take vows to minimize our sins. We should try to forget about the needs of our body (like food) and our business so that we can concentrate on our soul during Paryushan. Recitation of Kalpa Sutra Per Shvetämbar tradition, there are regular ceremonies in the temple and discourses of Kalpa Sutra (one of the sacred books) in the Upäshray during this time. Kalpa Sutra, which contains a detailed account of Mahävir's life in addition to the lives of other Tirthankars. It is read to the Jain congregation by Guru maharaj. On the third day of the Paryushan Parva, the Kalpa Sutra receives a very special reverence and may be carried in the procession. On the fifth 132 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #133 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS day at a special ceremony, the replicas of auspicious dreams of Mahävir's mother, queen Trishalä, are exhibited to the people, which are then honored by them. Listening to the Kalpa Sutra, among others are the most important activities that should be performed by Jain during Paryushan. Scripture define that Shrävaks and Shrävikäs should perform following five essential activities during Paryushan. 1. Amäri Pravartan (Spread the message of non-violence) 2. Attham Tap (Fast for three consecutive days) 3. Chaitya Paripati (Go for a visit and prayers to different Derasars in town in group) Swami Vätsalya (Honor and respect fellow Jains) 5. Kshamäpanä (Extend and ask for forgiveness by performing Pratikraman) 4. Samvatsari or Day of Forgiveness The final day of Paryushan, called Samvatsari, is the most important of all. This is the day when Jains perform Samvatsari Pratikraman and ask for forgiveness to family, friends and foes alike for any wrongful acts they might have committed towards them during the year. Therefore this annual opportunity of repentance and forgiveness is very important. Many perform different penances and austerities during the days of Paryushan day these individuals eight are specially honored. To ask for forgiveness is probably the most difficult thing to do. Therefore, our great Acharyas have said: "Kshamä Virasya Bhushanam, kshamäväni Michchhami Dukkadam" To ask for forgiveness is a great quality of the brave ones and if I have committed any mistake, knowingly or unknowingly, I ask for your forgiveness. There are several great aphorisms (Sutras) to ask for forgiveness with the unity of the body, speech and mind, and one of them is as follows: Khamemi Savva Jiva, Savve Jiv Khamantu Me Mitti Me Savva Bhuesu, Veram Majjham na Kenai. Meaning: I forgive all the living beings of the universe, May all the living beings forgive me for my faults. I do not have any animosity towards anybody, and I have friendship for all living beings. The process of shedding our Karmas really begins by asking for forgiveness with true feelings, and by taking vows not to repeat mistakes. The request for forgiveness requires humility (Vinay - absence of ego) and elimination of hatred. Dash Lakshana Mahä Parva Digambars celebrate the festival known as DASH LAKSHANA MAHÄ PARVA (Festival of Ten cardinal virtues) for ten days starting a day after the last day of Shvetämbar Paryushan.“ What are these cardinal virtues which Digambars Jains celebrate during this festival? JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 133 Page #134 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS Kshama (forgiveness) Märdava (Humility) Arjava (straightforwardness) Shaucha (content - absence of greed) Satya (truth) Sanyam (restraint of all senses) Tapa (austerities) Tyag (charity) Äkinchan (non-possessiveness) Brahmacharya (celibacy) These cardinal virtues are the inherent qualities of a soul. They are various forms of right conduct. The practice of observing these virtues is not limited to one particular religion or sect only. They belong to the universal faith. The results of observance of these virtues are equally beneficial to all mankind and not only to a follower of the Jain faith only. 01. Forgiveness (Kshamä): Kshama means forgiveness - forbearance. This means not to allow anger to rise and in case it does, then to render it ineffective through internal power. For cultivating forbearance, five ways have been suggested: (a) by way of considering whether or not the cause of anger lies in oneself (b) by way of considering the harm that follow from an angry mood (c) by way of considering the childish nature of the offender concerned (d) by way of considering the whole affair to be a consequence of one's own past karma (e) by way of considering the merits of forbearance Total lack of anger with a state of equanimity is defined as the supreme forgiveness. "Forgiveness is the virtue of the brave and not a coward" "KSHAMÄ VIRASYA BHUSHANAM" Forgiveness is the virtue of the brave Anger is the greatest enemy of the soul and it is the root of all evils. Real forgiveness comes from within, without any feelings of reward. To forgive because of respect for elders and upbringing is not the highest kind of forgiveness, it is merely good behavior. 02. Humility (Märdava): Lack of pride, selfishness or ego is humility. Pride is the attitude of a superiority complex. Flattery is the main cause of pride. To show humbleness because of poverty or weakness is meekness, lowliness and not a true humility. To accept what one is, is humility. A person should understand the difference between self-respect and pride and not confuse them. 03. Straightforwardness (Arjava): Lack of cunningness or a fraudulent attitude is defined as simplicity or straightforwardness. Only a weak person will resort to deceit, because he is afraid of being caught. To hide his 134 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE Page #135 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L JAIN FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS deceit, he will resort to further deception. There is no synchrony between the thoughts, speech and actions of a cunning person. He thinks one thing, says something else, and acts absolutely in a different fashion. 04. Contentment (Shaucha): Lack of greed is contentment. Greed is a desire to possess. Greed is the one of the root causes of all sins. Greed is as dangerous as anger for the spiritual welfare of a person. It is the strongest vice and the last one to conquer, persisting almost to the end of the spiritual path of purification. With eradication of greed, the soul is practically passionless. Contentment is the highest and purest of all the virtues. 05. Truthfulness (Satya): Lack of falsehood is truthfulness. Truthfulness for most people means not to lie. Absolute truth is in knowing the thing as it is, and not just to differentiate bad from good. 06. Self-Control (Sanyam): Control over violence caused by thoughts speech or physical means against all living beings and control over worldly pleasures is the true definition of self-control. Self-control can lead to liberation. 07. Austerity (Tapa): Austerity or penance is the repentance of one's sins. It is the fire, which burns and reduces the forces of karmic dust to ashes. Austerities are of two kinds: a) the external types, which consist of physical restraints and, b) the internal types, which deal with mental purification. 08. Renunciation (Tyäg): Renunciation is defined as giving up possessions, both internal and external. Charity should not be mistaken for renunciation. Charity means giving up things, which belong to you. It is done for the benefit of the recipient. Renunciation, on the other hand, does not need a donor. It is primarily done for the benefit of self. There is no need for a second or third party as in charity. 09. Detachment (Aparigraha, Äkinchanya): A lack of possessions is detachment. External possessions are wealth, house, etc. Internal possessions are attachment, aversion and desire. To lack in internal possessions is the ultimate virtue. 10. Celibacy (Brahmacharya): Absolute restraint from all sensual pleasures by mind, speech, and body is the ultimate celibacy. One must always remember that the powers of the sense organs are limited to recognizing the outer world and mundane knowledge, not the real inner self. Self-realization is the mother of all the supreme virtues. Without it, virtues are not supreme but mere acts of good behavior and still the cause of bondage. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 135 Page #136 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS Mahavir Janma-Kalyanak (Mahavir Jayanti): This is the birth anniversary of Bhagvän Mahävir. We celebrate this day in various ways At present the birth event is celebrated by expressing Bhagvän Mahävir's message through cultural activities like play, songs, and dances. This day reminds us the supreme compassion of Bhagvän Mahävir and the path to liberation he has preached. There is no universally acceptable consensus on the exact date of Bhagvän Mahävir. According to the Digambar tradition, Lord Mahävir was born in the year 615 B.C, in the city of Vaishali. However most scholars and Shvetämbars believe that He was born in 599 B.C. In the city of Kshatriya kunda in Lachhavad district. On this day we get together to hear Mahävir's message expounded, so that we can follow his teachings and example. According to the Indian calendar, it was the thirteenth day of the bright half of the month of Chaitra. He was the son of Siddhartha and Trishalä. The expectant mother had fourteen auspicious dreams per Shvetämbar tradition (sixteen per Digambars) before the child was born. Astrologers interpreting these dreams stated that the child would be either a supreme king or a Tirthankar. Diwali: Diwali is the most important festival in India. For Jains, Diwali marks the anniversary of the attainment of Moksha by Mahävir-swami in 527 BC. The festival falls on the last day of the month of Ashvin, the end of the year in the Indian calendar. But the celebration starts in the early morning of the previous day as Lord Mahävir commenced his last sermon (final discourse known as Uttaradhyayan), which lasted until the night of Diwali. At midnight, he soul left his body and attained liberation, Moksha. Eighteen kings of northern India were present in his audience at the time of His final sermon. They decided that the light of their master's knowledge should be kept alive symbolically by lighting of lamps. Hence it is called Deepavali or Diwali, (Deep means a lamp and avail means series or multiple). But the light of Lord Mahävir's knowledge cannot be kept alive by just lighting the lamps. That is an external approach. Realistically, we should light up our internal lamps - awaken our inner vision by practicing the path preached by Lord Mahävir. As a traditional Diwali lamp needs a clay bowl, oil, and cotton wick. The inner lamp needs the right faith, right knowledge, right conduct and right Tap (austerity). External lamps needs oxygen while internal lamp needs self-effort. The resolution to adopt the practice of good conduct is the way to celebrate the Diwali. Some fast for two days as Lord Mahävir did. Some people recite "Shri Mahavir Swami Sarvajnäya Namah" on every bead of the rosary (108 beads in one rosary) first followed by 19 rosaries of reciting "Shri Mahävir Swami Päragataya Namah" on each bead. In brief, Diwali is for enhancing the spiritual wealth. From a social aspect it is celebrated in traditional Indian fashion by greeting and offering sweets to family, friends and neighbors. Jain businessmen would close their accounts for the year and perform a simple Puja for the new account books. New Year: Lord Mahävir's chief disciple, Indrabhuti Gautam, had not been able to overcome his attachment to his master and that prevented him from achieving Kevaljnän. The barrier was only broken after a period of grief over his master's Nirvan. He at last managed to achieve the highest degree of non-attachment, which enabled him to attain the stage of omniscience, the full 136 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #137 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L JAIN FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS enlightenment, in the early morning of the first day of the New Year. The Jains begin the New Year with a prayer of Guru Gautam Swämi; and listen with devotion to the nine Stotras (Nav-smaran) and the auspicious Räs (epochal poem) of Gautam Swami. Some people fast for three days including New Year's day. The real wish should be "may the whole year be filled with realistic Dharma, intellectual serenity and equanimity". Bhai Bija (Festival day for brothers): King Nandivardhan, the brother of Bhagawan Mahavir was in great sorrow due to the Nirvän of Mahävir. His sister Sudarshanä took him to her house and comforted him. This happened on the day after New Year's day. This day is observed as Bhäi Beej. This festival is like Raksha Bandhan. On the day of Raksha Bandhan, the sister goes to the brother and ties the Raksha; but on this day, the sister invites her brother to her house to show her respect and love for him. Jnän Panchami (The holy day for worshipping knowledge): Jnän Panchami is the name given to the celebration that takes place on the 5th day of the first month of the Indian calendar year. This day is designated for the worship of pure knowledge. On this day, the scriptures, which impart knowledge to the people, are worshipped with religious devotion by offering Väskshep (sandalwood powder). Swadhyay, meditation, and Pratikraman are also carried out on this day. Moreover, the books preserved in the religious libraries are cleaned and refurbished as may be necessary. To pay respect to educational material, notebooks, pens, pencils etc. are offered during Pujä. Oli: Twice a year, falling in March/April (Chaitra) and September/October (Ashwin), the nine-day Oli period of semi-fasting called Äyambil is observed by taking only one meal a day of very plain food (without any spices, salt, milk, oil, butter, fruits or vegetables). It is observed to meditate upon Pancha Paramesthi, Jnän, Darshan, Chäritra, and Tapa, which are collectively known as Navapad. The importance of Navapad is preached by the sermons given during these days. King Shripal and Mayanasundari were ardent devotees of Navapad. Mauna Aglyäras It falls on the eleventh day of the bright half of the month of Magshara during November/ December when a day of complete silence and fasting are observed and meditation is directed towards the Tirthankars whose various Kalyanaks (auspicious life events) fall on this day. Varsitap: This yearlong austerity (Tapa) consists of fasting every other day followed by only one or two meal on the next day. This yearlong austerity signifies the event in the life of our first Tirthankar who did not get Gochari (alms) for one year after his initiation (Dikshä). Mastaka Abhisheka (The Head Anointing Ceremony): Perhaps the most famous example of Pujä performed on a grand scale in Jainism is the Mastaka Abhisheka (head anointing) ceremony held every twelfth year in Shravanbelgola. This JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 137 Page #138 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS honors the spiritual hero Bahubali, who is represented by a colossal fifty seven-foot image carved from rock nearly a thousand years ago. Thousands of Jains of both traditions come to pay homage during the several weeks during which the celebration goes on; Bahubali thus receives the kind of adoration otherwise reserved exclusively for Tirthankars. The image depicts Bahubali as standing erect, free of clothing and immersed in deepest meditation. For the period of the Mastaka Abhisheka, temporary scaffolding is built behind the huge statue, terminating in a platform just atop the head; thus the faithful can anoint Bähubali in the proper manner, by pouring various sacred substances (such as purified water and sandalwood paste) over the statue from above. The festivities associated with this ceremony continue for several weeks; participation in them is said to bring great merit and perhaps to make possible the experience of Samyag Darshan (Right perception) itself. All Souls are alike and potentially divine. None is Superior or Inferior. 138 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE Page #139 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ YAKSHAS AND YAKSHINIS Chapter 32 - Yakshas and Yakshinis Jains pay their respect and worship idols of Jinas for three reasons: • He has liberated Himself and attained Moksha • He expounded the path of Liberation • To get an inspiration to become like Him The only goal of Jainism is to free ourselves from worldly sufferings and attain liberation. Jin is a liberated soul, free of its material body and resides at the top of the universe, called Siddha-loka. The images of Jinas are intended to serve as a reminder to the faithful of the possibility of liberation. They serve as role models for Jain lay people in, guiding their ethical code of living; and for the aspirant Jin provides inspiration and a reminder that spiritual liberation is an attainable goal. As a detached soul, free from this world, the Jin is incapable of responding to a devotee's prayers or requests. This inability to intervene and, to respond to the prayers and offerings from the faithful, sets Jin images apart from all Hindu and most Buddhist deities, who can be called upon to help a devotee by different rituals. In addition to images of Jinas, we notice images of Yakshas and Yakshinis (deities) in many Jain temples. These deities are neither eternal nor divine, and they themselves are the worshippers of the Jinä and, true devotees of Jinä. In addition, these Yakshas and Yakshinis are full of passions and are wandering through the cycle of birth and death just like us. Yakshas are males and Yakshinis are females. They are also called Shäsandevtäs (male ones) and Shäsandevis (female ones). They are guardian angel deities. They are heavenly beings of the Vyantar group who have supernatural powers including the ability to change their forms and sizes. These Yakshas and Yakshinis were either appointed by Indra (king of heavenly gods) or were themselves associated with Tirthankars in their previous lives. Even though, Tirthankars do not require or ask for any protection, these Yakshas and Yakshinis due to their devotion for Tirthankars took upon themselves to protect them and Jain religion whenever it becomes necessary. The earlier scriptures like the Sthänänga-sutra, Uttaradhyayan-sutra, Bhagawati-sutra, Tattvärthasutra, Antagadadasäo-sutra, and Pauma-chariya have frequent references to Yakshas and Yakshinis. Many Jains pay their respect to these Yakshas and Yakshinis because they provided protection to the Tirthankars and to the existence of Jain religion. These are the reasons they are found around the images of Jinas. Their individual images are also found in many Jain temples. Yaksha is usually found on the right side of the Jin idol while Yakshini on the left side. In Jain temples, they are never situated at a higher locations in relation to images of the Jinas. These are benevolent Yakshas and Yakshinis. There are also malicious Yakshas and Yakshinis who caused sufferings to Tirthankars and troubles to Jains and existence of Jain religion. For example, Yaksha Sulpäni troubled Lord Mahavir in his mediation and inflicted many sufferings. There are similar stories in, which malicious Yakshas troubled others as well. We Jains do not pay our respects or worship Yakshas and Yakshinis for the material gains, favor and freedom from danger, illness and disease. We pay our respect to them because of their service to Tirthankars and Jain religion. Asking for materialistic gains from them will be quite opposite to the teachings of the Jinas. JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 139 Page #140 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ YAKSHAS AND YAKSHINIS The following provides a brief description of commonly found Yakshas and Yakshinis in Jain temples: Chakreshwari Devi She is the dedicated attendant deity of lord Adi Näth (Rishabhadev). She is also known as Apratichakrä. The color of this goddess is golden. Her vehicle is an eagle. She has eight arms. In her four right hands she holds the blessing Mudrä (posture), arrow, rope and wheel. In her four left hands she holds the rein, the bow, the protective weapon of Indra, and the wheel. Ambika Devi She is the dedicated deity of Lord Nemi-Näth the 22 Tirthankar. She is also known as Ambai Amba and Amra Kushmändini. Her color is golden and the lion is her vehicle. She has four arms. In her one right hands she carries a mango in one hand and in the other a branch of a mango tree. In one left hand she carries a rein and in the other she has her two sons. Padmavati Devi She is the dedicated deity of Lord Pärshva-Näth, the 23" Tirthankar. Her color is golden and her vehicle is a snake with a cock's head. She has four arms. Her two right hands hold a lotus and a rosary and two left hands hold a fruit and a rein. Saraswati Devi Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge, is considered to be the source of all learning. Her divine energy is the source of spiritual light, eradicator of all ignorance and promoter of all knowledge. She is respected and adored by all faiths, worldly people and saints. She has four arms, one hand holding a book, one holding a rosary and two hands holding a musical instrument Veenä. Her seat is a lotus and the peacock is her vehicle representing equanimity in prosperity. In some books it is mentioned that the swan is her vehicle. Lakshmi Devi Goddess Lakshmi represents wealth. The people worship her as the goddess of wealth, power, money etc. In her upper two hands, she holds a lotus with an elephant, in the lower right hand a rosary and in the lower left hand a pot. Manibhadra Dev Shri Manibhadra is originally a Yaksha, worshipped by Indian masses since very olden times. His introduction to Jain worship is only a later adaptation. It is an image of a six-armed Yaksha with an elephant as his vehicle. Ghantäkarna Vir This deity is worshipped for protection and for driving away evil influence created by the malicious Yakshas and Yakshinis. His arrow indicates penetration of evil forces. The bow gives forceful momentum to the arrow. His symbol is the bell that resounds to create auspicious sounds in the atmosphere. Sometimes people who are not aware of the facts call 140 JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I Page #141 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ YAKSHAS AND YAKSHINIS him Ghantakarna Mahavir by mistake. That creates confusion between Lord Mahavir and Ghantakarna Vir. He is not connected to Lord Mahavir in any way. Nakoda Bhairava This is the deity of Bhairava. This deity is usually found near the entrance of the temple. People from far and near visit the shrine and make offerings to the deity upon fulfillment of their material desires. It is a positive force around the temple. Bhomiyaji This deity is in the shape of a mountain. It is the natural positive energy of the mountain Sametshikhar. This energy inspires and guides believers and the pilgrims in completing their pilgrimage of Sametshikhar peacefully. "Be true to your inner being and all religions are fulfilled" JAIN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE I 141