Book Title: Jainism a Theistic Philosophy
Author(s): Krishna A Gosavi
Publisher: Parshwanath Vidyapith
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Page #1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY (GOD IN JAINISM) Krishna A. Gosavi विद्यापी Bulebah वाराणसी Published by PARSHWANATH VIDYAPEETH OVE For Personal & Private Use Only Page #2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ About the Book HEREIN the author has tried to establish Jainism as a Theistic Philosophy contrary to pre-established theories about God, particularly in Vedic Philosophy. Generally, Jainism is considered as an atheistic philosophy because, like Brāhmanical theology, it does not believe in trinity of God as creator, sustainer and destroyer. But it believes in the existence of the Paramātmā, the supreme soul which has been considered as synonyms of God in other Indian Philosophical systems. Out of three forms of soulBahirātmā, Antarātmā and Paramātmā, Jainism considers Paramâtmâ as God. The author maintains that Jainism is not an atheistic philosophy but it is a theistic one. It holds that classification of Jainism in Indian philosophy as a Nāstika or its English translation, quite often, made as an atheistic or heterodox is quite unjustified and misleading because Jainism is a very much theistic philosophy and religion, if compared with all religions of the world. God of Jains, is the highest state, dwelling as He is at the summit of their world, representing infinite vision, knowledge, bliss and power. According to author, modern scholars need to study with an unbiased attitude and understand philosophy of different religions of the Indian soil, which have exchanged various concepts from time to time including the concept of God and the history of their mutual impact when comparing each other's religion. The scholarly research work presents a balanced scholarship, offering perspectives and raising issues from both the Western and Indian academia. For Personal & Private Use Only Page #3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Parshwanath Vidyapeeth Series NO. 169 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY ( GOD IN JAINISM) Krishna A. Gosavi Published by Parshwanath Vidyapeeth, Varanasi For Personal & Private Use Only Page #4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Parshwanath Vidyapeeth Series No. 169 Book: JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY (GOD IN JAINISM) By: Krishna A. Gosavi First Edition: 2012 © Parshwanath Vidyapeeth ISBN: 81-86715-62-2 Price: Rs. 500.00 US$ 20.00 Published by Parshwanath Vidyapeeth I.T.I Road, Karaundi, Varanasi - 221 005 Ph. 0542-2575890 Typesetting by Vimal Chand Mishra, Varanasi Printed by: Mahavira Press, Bhelupur, Varanasi For Personal & Private Use Only Page #5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Publisher's Note There had been an ongoing debate amongst various philosophers and religious traditions as to who is atheist and who is theist. A cursory review will show the answer to this question depending on the concept of God in the respective religion/philosophy. This becomes clear even when we see views expressed by different philosophers about their concept of the ultimate reality. As an example, noted Indian philosopher Dr. S. Radhakrishnan in his book ‘Indian Philosophy' said “Though there is no divine creative spirit, still every soul when it reaches its highest perfection becomes a Paramātman or Supreme Soul. God is only the highest, noblest and fullest manifestation of powers which lies latent in the soul of man. All perfected souls are divine, and there is no rank among them, since all are equal. The trouble however starts when we try to transform this idealism to the daily life of mankind into a God who satisfies the whole being of a man, a real which exceeds the whole mere infinite (the absolute) and the mere finite thereby an absolute impersonal non-active becomes the active personal Lord creating and sustaining the universe. This is indeed a perplexing situation and labeling one as theist and another atheist becomes stickier. Prof. Krishna A. Gosavi has spent more than ten years delving on this question with particular reference to Jainism and it's being labeled as theist or orthodox by some and atheist or heterodox by others. He has made significant contribution in this quest and needs a thorough review and analysis by the enthusiastic scholars of philosophy and religion. We at Parshwanath Vidyapeeth took upon ourselves, without any favour or opposition, to bring his views on the table for all readers of philosophy and religious traditions. Our task will be fulfilled when Prof. Gosavi has comments (refutations and supporting) from you all, the readers. For Personal & Private Use Only Page #6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ I am grateful to the academic staff at Parshwanath Vidyapeeth, mainly Dr. Shriprakash Pandey and Dr. Ashok Kumar Singh (both Associate Professors) and our Research Associates Dr. Navin Kumar Srivastav and Dr. Rahul Kumar Singh for their valuable contributions in going through the manuscripts and offering valuable suggestions to Prof. Gosavi. Hope the present title “Jainism: A Theistic Philosophy' which is a book based on Prof. Gosavi's Ph.D. dissertation also, will be useful for researchers and common readers both. Shugan C. Jain, PhD President Parshwanath Vidyapeeth, Varanasi For Personal & Private Use Only Page #7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREFACE Jainism is an oldest living Indian religion, practiced by people of Śramaņa tradition of India, long before the advent of Aryan in India. Indian culture consists of two chief currentsSramanic and Brāhmanic. Jainism, Buddhism and other few belong to śramanic current whereas Vedic or Hindu tradition comes under Brāhmanic. Vedic schools were classified in Āstika group while Śramanic schools- Jains and Buddhist, in Nāstika group. In Indian philosophy, Pūrva and Uttara Mīmāṁsā, Sāṁkhya, Yoga, Nyāya and Vaiseșika schools are regarded as 'orthodox' and Jainism, Buddhism and Cārvākas as 'heterodox”. This classification has nothing to do with a belief in God, but it is based on acceptance of authority of Vedas. Among the 'āstika' the schools like- Sāmkhya, Pūrva Mīmāṁsā strongly refute the theory of God. Pātañjala Yogasūtra has accepted God in its metaphysics as a Purușa-višeșa, which is not creator of the universe. Nyāya, a formal school of logic, attempted to prove existence of God, which has not universally accepted. In colloquial language Āstika is a believer in God and Nāstika, a negative term or not believe in God. Western philosophers while studying Jainism labeled it as an atheist philosophy or religion without God, which is not accepted to Jainas. According to Jainas, their religion is with God in it, and is a theistic philosophy. Most European scholars were not aware of Jaina religion and mistaken it as an offshoot of Buddhism which is not true. Also at the same time Jaina religious custodians did not allow others to study their holy books. So due to ignorance and not deep but superficial research in Jainism, scholars have been quoting Jainism without a God. Similarly they have been misquoting about its founder, Lord Mahāvīra. For Personal & Private Use Only Page #8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jaina philosophy has an interstice definition of theism, unlike other schools of philosophy in India. To western philosophers theism means a speculative God and He must create the world. God to them is an absolute and an unconditional being with whom nothing that really exist to be equated. Jaina system of thought is so peculiar and constant with the modern science that one may be compelled to question its antiquity. Still it is a fact that such a system flourished in India centuries before "Christian" era. In Indian Philosophy Jainism is regarded as Nāstika. Āstika and Nāstika classification in Indian philosophy is strictly based on the acceptance of Vedic authority, not on belief in God and hence it was misconstrued by Vedic scholars in classifying Śramanic system in Nāstika group, a heterodox system and Brāhmanic system in Āstika group, an orthodox system. Most of the scholars, as it is obvious, did not study or explore Jainism in depth; its concept of God with attributes attached to Him. This is true that European scholars have speculated God as a personality with immense power of creation whereas Jainism cherishes God-in-man concept rather than in apart. Man can, if he chooses, become God (not god) in this very life because his soul has potency to evolve in such a supreme state. This interstice philosophy was very difficult to digest to the Indian as well as European scholars, so they took easy way to call Jaina, atheist. Vedic philosophy, being very much simpler and similar to the Western theory of God is accepted as a theistic philosophy. Existence of soul has troubled almost all great minds of the world. According to Jainas soul is not perceived by sense organs. Jainas have analyzed universe in two eternally independent categories- jīva (soul) and ajīva (non-soul), which is also called conscious and unconscious entity respectively. Jainas have classified soul into two broad categories, liberated (Mukta) and transmigratory (saṁsārī) soul. Of these two types of Jīvā, saṁsārī soul has four birth types For Personal & Private Use Only Page #9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ vii (1) Human, (2) Animal, (3) Celestial and (4) Infernal. They are further divided on the basis of their sense categories. One sensed jīvas include earth bodied; water bodied, fire bodied, air bodied and plant bodied. Liberated soul has no colour, no shape, no smell, and no touch, etc. and after liberation it rests on Siddhasilā, an abode of liberated soul. Doctrine of transmigration is about rebirth clearly associated with the doctrine of Karma, which has got an important place in Jaina metaphysics. These two are basal preposition of Indian thought which are considered to be postulate of Indian philosophy. Rebirth is a corollary of the principle of karma. Several attempts have been made in different philosophies to explain the problem of inequality in person to person. To some, karma means action, and to others it means rites and rituals. According Jainas, karma is an aggregate of fine material particles which are imperceptible to sense organs. It enters into soul through passions and produces changes. Whole universe is packed with the fine karma particles. But when they get attracted towards the soul, stick to it and bind it through its activity. then only they are designated by term karma. Karmic material particle bound with soul are called dravya-karma (physical karma), while internal mental state of attachment, aversion etc. are called bhāva-karma (mental karma). Passions like rāga (attachment) and dveșa (aversion) produce influx of karma. There are eight types of karmas, which are intimately connected in some form or other with jiva (soul). With the help of Karmas, metempsychosis of transmigration of soul becomes a proven fact and through it their continuity and immortality is established beyond doubt. To Jains, science of karma is the real science of spirituality, unlike Vedic philosophy where karma is subservient to God and hence what is more important is not karma but compassion of God. Jainism very much believes in Paramātman or God and any effort to prove Jainism as atheist is incorrect. God and soul are For Personal & Private Use Only Page #10 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ viii regarded by Indian mind, not as merely concept, speculative and problematic as in the case of Western philosophy, but a thing directly known. Theism is a word given by the Western scholars and philosophers to define belief in God who creates the world or belief in divine creation or existence of God. Theism of Jainas is a spiritual philosophy having belief in God- Tīrthankara. Purāņic details suggest that God as a creator of the universe is broadly discussed in Vedic philosophy. God of Jaina has nothing to do with the creation of the universe. There are four important characteristics of theism, viz. soul, karma, God and Mokșa (liberation). One cannot understand theistic philosophy of Jainism unless he critically evaluates these four concepts in the light of Vedic philosophy, Buddhism, SāmkhyaYoga, Nyāya-Vaišeșika, Pūrva-Mīmāṁsakas and Vedānta. Early Mīmāṁsakas are silent about God and latter ones reject the proofs given for the existence of creator God as universe has neither beginning nor end, hence does not require any creator. Sāṁkhya does not believe in God as creator and according to them God is ontologically irrelevant and logically repellent. The concept of God is an extraneous graft on Yoga system. God had no place in early Nyāya-Vaišeșika school but later on its concept crept in very texture of Nyāya-Vaiseșika philosophy. It is only Yoga and Vedānta, besides Nyāya-Vaišeșika wherein God is formally acknowledged. Buddhist personified Lord Buddha, as God similar to Jainas who believe Tīrthankara as God. For Personal & Private Use Only Page #11 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I have been visiting Jaina Vishva Bharati, Ladnun many times to learn Prekṣā-dhyāna under the auspicious direction of late Acharya Mahaprajnaji. During one of my visits, I had an opportunity to meet with Prof. Ramjee Singh, former Vice chancellor of Jaina Vishva Bharati and discussed with him some of my queries about Jainism, more importantly whether Jainas are theist or atheist; they believe or don't believe in God, which is talked around colloquially in USA where I spent most of my life. Prof. Singh inspired me to do research in Jainology on this very subject. As an engineer and principal of an engineering college in University of Bombay, I was reluctant to enter into philosophy, however, on my next visit to Ladnun Prof. B.C. Lodha, the then Vice-chancellor of JVB took a personal interest in me to start research on the said topic. I express my deep gratitude to my research guide Samani Dr. Chaitanya Prajnaji who encouraged me for original research work. I express my sincere gratitude and deep regards to Prof. Sagarmal Jain, Founder Director, Prachya Vidyapeeth, Shajapur (MP) who not only enriched my knowledge on the subject but also gave his valuable guidance throughout the completion of the work. I am really obliged to Prof. Jain for being so favourable to me. I am very much obliged to Prof. K.C. Sogani, Jaipur for his noble guidance and suggestions. I am thankful to Prof. Dayanand Bhargava for his valuable suggestions and helping me in preparing synopsis for my research work. I am thankful to Prof. Ramjee Singh and Prof. B.C. Lodha for encouraging me to undertake this research work. For Personal & Private Use Only Page #12 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ I am also thankful to Prof. N. Vasupal, Former Head, Deptt. of Jainology, Madras University for providing me research material and guidance. I am indeed thankful to the authorities of Parshwanath Vidyapeeth especially Dr. Shugan Chand Jain and Sh. Indrabhooti Barar for allowing this work to publish from Parshwanath Vidyapeeth. I am very thankful to Prof. Sudarshan Lal Jain, Former Director, Parshwanath Vidyapeeth for extending all kinds of support needed for this publication. My thanks are also due to Dr. Shriprakash Pandey, Associate Professor, Parshwanath Vidyapeeth and Dr. Rahul Kumar Singh, Research Associate, Parshwanath Vidyapeeth, for editing and getting this work to be printed. My thanks are also due to Librarians of Adyar library of Theosophical Society; Chennai, Poona University, L. D. Institute of Indology, Ahmedabad and Parshwanath Vidyapeeth for letting me use their Library. Lastly not the least, I owe special thanks to my wife, Dr. Vijaya Gosavi, who helped me, all along in traveling, collecting material and patiently encouraging me to complete this work; especially arranging meetings with my guide in observance with her religious vows. Krishna A. Gosavi Sanpada, Navi Mumbai For Personal & Private Use Only Page #13 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Chapter-I Introduction Chapter-II History of Jainism prior to Mahāvīra CONTENTS Chapter-III Jain Theism and Concept of Soul Chapter-IV Doctrine of Transmigration: Corollary of Doctrine of Karma Chapter-V Theism and Doctrine of Karma Chapter-VI Jaina Concept of God in Theism Chapter-VII-1 Jain View of Soul in Comparison with Vedic Chapter-VII-2 Karma and Sanātana Dharma (Vedic philosophy) Chapter-VII-3 Jaina View of God Compared with Vedānta Chapter-VII-4 Jaina View of Mokṣa (Liberation) Compared With Vedanta and other Philosophies Conclusion Bibliography Word Index For Personal & Private Use Only 1-30 31-54 55-90 91-110 111-132 133-204 205-235 236-257 258-287 288-297 298-307 308-329 330-340 Page #14 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ For Personal & Private Use Only Page #15 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER - I INTRODUCTION Invariably almost all Indian as well as European scholars of philosophy have quoted Jainism as an atheistic philosophy; even a few cited that Jainism does not believe in God, so it is an atheistic. Some scholars even quoted that Jainas admit the existence of numerous gods; but in the Jaina philosophy the gods are one of the four sub-types of living beings (human, celestial, animal and hellish beings)'. The celestial beings are higher than the human beings. Vedic Brahmins and priests created impression in popular minds that a set of suitable rituals and sacrifices have the magical power to please the gods or even supreme God to get the boons desired. The Vedic God conceived as cause of phenomenal universe or creator, sustainer and destroyer of countless living beings, is infinite, absolute, omnipresent, omnipotent and omniscient. Jainism has no place for such a creator God, but the God of Jaina (Paramātmā) is a pure soul who has attained the state of Godhood only after getting itself freed from all karmas and attained perfect divinity. Jainas did not accept authority of Vedas, so Vedic Brahmins classified Jainism in heterodox school of Indian philosophy and called Jainism an atheist and nāstika. The aim of this work is to explore that the Jainism is not an atheistic philosophy but it is a theistic one. It holds that classification of Jainism in Indian philosophy as a nāstika or its English translation, quite often, made as an atheistic is unjustified and misleading because Jainism is a very much theistic philosophy and religion if compared with all religions of the world. Tattvārtha Sūtra, IV.1 Paramātma-prakāśa by Yogindudeva, 330 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #16 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 2 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" According to Jaina philosophy the pure and perfect soul is considered as a Supreme Being or Paramātmā i.e. God. Following discussion is based on the spiritual development of the Soul from the mundane soul (Bahirātmā) to perfect soul (Paramātmā). I. (i) Stages of Spiritual Quest: As per Acārya Kundakunda, Jaina mysticism comprises realization of the transcendental self (Paramātman) through internal self (Antaratman), after renouncing the external self (Bahirātman)." 3 In Jainism the soul has been defined generally of two types.+ 1. Baddha (mundane soul) 2. Mukta (liberated soul) There are two classifications of spiritual quest in Jainism. 1. Theory of fourteen guṇasthānas. 2. Theory of three stages of spiritual development. 6 The second classification is similar to Upanisadic classification of the soul. The Upaniṣads have two; three and fourfold classification of the soul. In two-fold classification, the soul is of two kinds-inner-self (Antaḥprajña) and outer-self (Bahiṣprajña);° in three-fold classification it is of three kinds- external-self (Bahirātmā), internal-self (Antarātmā) and transcendental or supreme-self (Paramātmā) and in four-fold classification four stages of the soul are: (i) awakened state (Jāgrata), (ii) dreaming state (Svapna), (iii) sleeping state (Sușupti), and transcendental state (Turiya). Keeping in view the spiritual quest three stages of self-have been defined 3 Mokṣapahuḍa, 4, 7 Tattvärtha Sūtra, II.10 Gommaṭasāra, Jīva-kāṇḍa, 9-10 Mandukyopaniṣad, 7 Ibid, 2/12 7 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #17 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION 1. The external self (bahirātmā), 2. The internal self (antarātmā) and 3. The transcendental self (paramātmā). The above mentioned three stages of spiritual quest were not developed during the period of Umāsvāti or Siddhasena Divākara of Śvetāmbara sect. Later on, we find mention of three stages of spiritual quest in works of Haribhadra. In Digambara tradition, these three states have been mentioned clearly by Ācārya Kundakunda, Pūjyapāda,' Svāmīkumāra" and Yogindudeva." These three stages are as follows: (a). The External-self (Bahirātmā): This type of Self possesses perverse attitude hence, consequently does not discriminate soul from body, regards the external things as his own and takes interest in the worldly enjoyment. The opinion of the Cārvāka materialists can be reckoned to the meaning of the Bahirātman though they do not believe in any entity like ātmā. The characteristic of the Bahirātman may in the first place, be accounted for affirming that one identifies himself with the physical body, the wife and children, silver and gold etc., with the logical consequence that he is constantly obsessed with the fear of self-annihilation of the body and like. Secondly, he remains engaged in the transient pleasures of the senses," feels elated in getting coveted things of the unsubstantial world, and becomes dejected when they depart. Thirdly, he desires of beautiful body and physical enjoyment of life, here after as a result of his penances, and tormented even by the thought of death." Mokşapāhuda, Gāthā-41 9 Samādhisataka, 4 Kārtikeyanuprekṣā, Gāthā 192 "Parmātma-prakāśa, Yogindudeva, 61 12 Samădhisataka7,55 13 Ibid, 42, 76 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #18 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM" (b) The Internal-self (Antarātmā): The self, which possesses the right attitude and therefore, clearly distinguishes the soul from body and other external belongings, is called internal self. It does not take interest in the worldly enjoyment but meditates upon one's real nature and regards external belongings as alien to it. At first he is the spiritually converted self, who has relinquished the eight kind of pride, and considers his own self as his legitimate and genuine abode, esteeming the outward physical dwelling places as unnatural and artificial." Secondly, he renounces all identification with the animate objects like wife, children etc., and with the inanimate object like wealth, property etc., and properly weighs them in the balance of his discriminative knowledge.'' Thirdly, by virtue of the sprouting of profound wisdom in him, he develops a unique attitude towards himself and the world around him. He is the only self that has acquired the right of Moksa," and consequently he adopts such attitude as is necessary to safeguard his spiritual status and interest. He gets endowed with such type of insights as will enable him to make spiritual invasion resolutely and then sound the bugle of triumph after defeating the treacherous foes of attachment and aversion assaulting him in his Bahirātman state (c) The Transcendental or Supreme-self (Paramātmā): Paramātmā is the self, completely free from all sorts of impurities and passions such as aversion, attachment, pride, anger, deceit, greed, sexual desire and other sub-passions. According to Jaina tradition, this type of self-possesses four infinities, i.e. infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite bliss and infinite power. There are two categories of Supreme self - (1) Arhats and (2) Siddhas. The embodied Paramātman is Arhat, while disembodied one is Siddha." The Mokşapāhuda proclaims Paramātman to be bereft of 14 Kārtikeyānuprekṣā, 194 15 Samadhisataka, 73 Mokşapāhuda 17 "Ibid, 14, 17 18 Kārtikeyānupreksā, 198 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #19 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION all impurities, body and senses, and to be associated with omniscience and purity. He is free from birth, old age and death; he is supreme, pure and devoid of eight karmas; he possesses infinite knowledge, intuition, bliss and power, and he is indivisible, indestructible and inexhaustible;-' Besides, he is super sensuous and unparalleled, free from obstructions, merit, demerit and rebirth, and is eternal, steady and independent. This pure and perfect stage of soul is accepted as supreme being or God of gods i.e. Devādhideva. I. (ii) Theism & Atheism Western& Indian View: The Jaina system of thought is so peculiarly constant with modern science that one may be tempted to question its antiquity. Still it is a fact that such a system flourished in India several centuries before 'Christian era. Jainas are of the opinion that very attempt to posit an allruling extra mundane God is to conceal the ignorance of true principles of causality under a pomp of delusive reasoning an - ignorance unaware of itself. (a)The Meaning of Theism: Theism of West in day-to-day language is: 1. The belief in one God as creator and ruler of the universe, without rejection of revelation (distinguished from deism). 2. Belief in the existence of God or Gods (opposed to atheism)21 According to Jainism the theism is to believe or have a faith in the Supreme Being i.e. Arihanta Paramātmā. One may develop adoration or love for God but may not try to find out speculative explanation of world, and God himself. Theistic definition of God of West also assumes that the God is from "Mokşapāhuda 5/6, Niyamasāra, 7 20 Niyamasāra, 176 James Hastings (Editor) Extract from “Encyclopedia of Religion” and Ethics; (Extract) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 6 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” whom all others are derived. God is absolute and unconditional being with whom nothing to be equated that really exists. (b) The Meaning of Atheism: Atheism as defined in encyclopedia of religion is sometimes said to be equivalent to Pan cosmism i.e. the doctrine that the universe consist of nothing but those physical and psychical existences which are perceptible by the senses or are cognizable by the imagination and finite understanding or belief that there is no God. (c) The Development of the Idea of God: In early days of civilization uncivilized races developed the concept of supernatural being who could act for their welfare, protect them from supernatural phenomenon, calamities and so forth. Although in the beginning people worshiped several gods, later on concept of One Supreme Reality who is omnipresent and cause of the universe and who controls all forces of nature was established in general. Such doctrine has come into light as theism; and that which oppose to it (theism) is called atheism. (d) In What Sense Jainism is Theist or Atheist? Jainism has been classified under the atheistic schools of Indian philosophy along with Buddhism and the Cārvāka (Lokāyats) system. As a matter of fact, the word atheism is misnomer here. The word ‘atheist’ (Godless, a = not, Theos = God) refers in the context of western thought in general to a person who does not believe in the existence of God. And an atheist is a person who holds that the sentence “God exists” expresses a false proposition. Atheism therefore, refers to that system or belief in which there is no God. Jainism and Buddhism are atheistic system according to western concept of atheism, in the sense that they do not subscribe to the belief in personal God. So far as Christianity and Islam are concerned, God is the ultimate reality, which creates and controls the spiritual and material world. He is the first cause of the world, but is causesui Himself. He is omnipotent and omnipresent. He is For Personal & Private Use Only Page #21 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION benevolent and merciful. Such a God does not exist in Jainism. For that matter, no system of Indian thought, including even the socalled theistic system, has such a conception of God. Jaina tradition, like Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṁsakas, looks upon Loka (universe) as beginning less and endless in its form. It does not accept its creation and destruction as the Paurāṇikas and Vaiseṣikas do. Therefore, there is no place whatsoever for God (Iśvara) as a creator and destroyer in Jaina tradition. According to Jainism, every jīva is the creator of its own world and every soul (jīva) has potential of becoming God (Iśvara) and this fact reveals itself at the time of liberation. 22,, "Jainism is happy to be called as an atheistic one, if the term theism consists of only God as creator," Actually "Theism is a type of religion or religious philosophy which incorporates a conception of God as a unitary being." The Unitarian followers of Unitarianism hold only the highest regard for Jesus but refute to bind that regard to a Trinitarian who believes in or adhere to the doctrine of Trinity, the union of three persons (Father, Son and Holy Ghost) in one God head or as (creator, sustainer and destroyer) in Vedic metaphysics." The same is with Jainism, they regard Mahāvīra as 'Siddha' or God, a 'perfect being'; hence the Jainism is a theistic religion. Thus it is superfluous to consider Jainism as only atheistic one. 23 7 Jainism is theistic as well as atheistic religion both. It depends on the connotation of the word theism. Jainas believe in Anekāntavāda or theory of non-absolutism. Nothing is absolute for Jains. Jainas say that if we mean by the word God as a pure and perfect soul, then Jainism is a theistic religion. But if we mean by the term God as a Supreme Being and creator, sustainer and destroyer of the world, then Jainism would like to be called atheist. 22 Ed. Dr. Sagarmal Jain & Dr. S. P. Pandey, "Jainism in Global Perspective", PVRI, Series No. 113, 1998, Varanasi, P-224 Dictionary of Philosophy, Jaico Books - Delhi P-316, 326 23 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #22 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 8 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Invariably, whenever a person or philosophy or doctrine does not show belief in God as defined by the theistic philosophy, would be called atheist. It so happened in history that, early Christians were called atheist because they did not believe in what Greeks believed, nor as the Jews believed. Spinoza was called an atheist because his concept of God was wider than that of Jehovah; and the reformers were called atheist because they deified the mother of Christ or worshiped saints. Similarly, Jainism is called an atheistic philosophy, because it does not accept the God as creator, sustainer or destroyer of the universe as all others believe or it does not subscribe such attributes to God as all other philosophies or religions of the world do? When M. Lap lace, the world renowned French scientist went to make a formal presentation of his famous work of the world to the conquering Emperor Napoleon, the later remarked "M. Lap lace, tell me, you have written this large book on System of Universe, and you have never mentioned its creator" whereupon M. Lap lace drew himself up and answered bluntly "Sir I had no need of such hypothesis." 24 I. (iii) The View of Modern Indian Scholars about Theistic and Atheistic Nature of Jainism: In India during Vedic period, idea of God was commonly accepted as religious, and the people prayed and worshipped God with devotion. They offered Him offerings of living and non-living things. Slaughter of beasts in various sacrifices in the name of God was very common in India and also in various parts of world. God in this sense was accepted as a personality with immense power, knowledge and pervasion. He was to be a creator, sustainer and destroyer of the universe. Jainism does not believe in such a concept of God and according to Jaina Acaryas, this conception of God is the root cause of degeneration of individual in society and it also belittled the position and dignity of man. 24 Puran Chand Nahar, "An Epitome of Jainism", Calcutta, P- 259 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION Jainas cherish God in-man concept rather than in-apart.“Man can, if he so chooses, becomes God in this very life because his soul has potentials to evolve in such a supreme status. Ignorance, passions and infirmities exist in mind, and if mind is purified the individual is fit to the pathway of supreme state. In Jaina philosophy, the Pañca-paramesthins, the five categories of paragons, take the place of God. There is no God apart from pure soul. Hence, Jainas adore Gods that are in living form before our own eyes, not a hypothetical or a speculative idea of God; and so the Tīrthankara, who attained Kevala-jñāna with their own effort, were personified as God. Jainas, also worship idols with flowers and offer bhogas. Hence Jainism as a religion is not without God, but the Pañcaparameșthins have taken the very place of God in Jainism. So for all practical purposes, Jainas accept pure souls as Arihanta and Siddhas which are for them God and hence Jainism is a theist religion. Jainism believes that soul is divine and almighty. If welldirected efforts are undertaken a soul can well assert and establish its divinity, and divinity is not apart but within the being. Advaita Vedānta?“ of Saṁkarācārya professing a similar one idea was charged of atheism and was called “a prachhannabauddha”. Similar idea was later beautifully given exposition by Swami Vivekananda. All Tīrthankaras have attained Mokşa, a state of perfect bliss. They neither care for, nor have any influence on worldly affair; but, yet they are regarded by Jainas as 'Gods' and are worshipped. Dr. C. N. Mishra, in his classification of Indian Philosophy stated that, though Brāhmanic scholars have classified Buddhist and Jaina philosophies as atheistic philosophies, in the past scholars of 2 Dr. S.V. Atre, “Philosophy of Mahāvīra: A critical study, A Ph. D. Thesis, University of Poona, 1982,P-79 LOC. D. Sharma, A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, For Personal & Private Use Only Page #24 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 10 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" both the philosophies have repudiated the said classification. Candrakīrti had clarified in his “Madhyamika-vịtti' that Buddhism is not atheistic. Jainas feel offended and get exasperated for the word atheist labeled to them. Dr. Puran Chand Nahar,27 in his book “An Epitome of Jainism' explained to the inquiry- "Are Jains atheist?” No’, is the emphatic answer to the enquirer. The Jains do believe in a God after their own way of thinking- a belief which is in and through saturated with all the vigour and strength of life. It does not make us dependent on any almighty ruler for our being and beatitude here or hereinafter. It does not cast us into moulds of those weaklings who love to creep with a quivering prayer on their lips to the silent doors of Deity; nor of those who crawl, beating breast at every step before his fictitious feet or figure to adore. Rather it makes us feel that we are independent autonomous individuals who can curve out paths for ourselves here and herein-after, both for enjoyment of pleasure and emancipation of our souls by our own will and exertion." Vedic scholars classified Indian philosophy in two parts, āstika and nāstika, and included Jainism along with Buddhism and Cārvāka in nāstika category. This classification is supported by eminent scholars like Mādhavācārya in his ‘Sarvadarśana-sangraha’ and Madhusūdana Sarasvati in his ‘Prasthānabheda'. And, since then it has become customary who so ever Indian or European scholars to repeat or carry on with this classification in their work, naming Jainism as nāstika philosophy, which of course in day to day language or in colloquial English language translated as disbeliever in God. Most of the western philosopher labeled Jainism as an atheist religion without pre-researching what Jainism is. Exception to this gross erroneous comparison is Sir Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, the most 2'Dr. Puran Chand Nahar, “Jainism Precepts and Practice (An Epitome of Jainism)” Vol. I, Calcutta, 1917,P-260 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION eminent Indian philosopher. Abhilash Das in his Kabīra Darśana28 opined that to call Buddhism and Jainism atheist philosophy, exhibit their own atheism. According to Dr. S. Radhakrishnan,29 ethical perfection is the first step towards divine knowledge, the knowledge of God, and so far the actual ethical content is concerned, Buddhism Jainism and Hinduism are not inferior to others. Further Dr. S. Radhakrishnan said that the name of Jainism indicates predominantly ethical character of system." Professor Hopkins asserts that Jainism represents a theological mean between Brāhmanism and Buddhism as quoted by George P. Taylor in 'Introduction to the “Heart of Jainism” by Sinclair Stevenson.31 Thomas Easley, a philosopher, maintains that even if the God that man has imagined exists, belief in that God would reduce man's ability to learn about and understand Him. Unfortunately, belief once it has taken hold of a person tends to prevent further questioning and subsequent learning, which arises from questioning. Jainism teaches how to learn about God. Dr. N. N. Bhattacharya maintains that “Jainism is basically an ethical religion, which elaborates a moral of behavior showing what is worth striving for, what is good and what gives meaning to life. Early Jaina metaphysicians wanted to find the common origin of diverse phenomena of nature, in nature itself. Hence their approach was naturally materialistic. They did not run in mad quest 28 Abhilash Das, “Kabir Darshan”, Allahabad, 1992,P-130 - Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, “Indian Philosophy, Vol-1, New Delhi, 1997, P-52 3°Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, “Indian Philosophy”, Vol-1, New Delhi, 1997,P-286 "Sinclair Stevenson, “Heart of Jainism”, New Delhi, 1995,P-XI (E.W. Hopkins, “The Religion of India”, P-283) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #26 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" of God for explaining the mysteries of life and universe. They depended on logic and reason'." The conception of God in Jaina and Hindu religion is integrated with the conception of soul (ātman), salvation (mokşa) and supreme soul (Paramātman) form the empirical point of view. God may be seen in Hindu religion as the creator of the world, it is organizer and compassionate towards living being but for the state of transcendentalism God is pure consciousness, height of knowledge and full of bliss; that is the God (Paramātman) of Jaina. When the Hindu religion, for that matter any other religion, reaches the stage of spiritualism-rooted religion from devotion-rooted doctrine it comes near Jainism.33 The very definition of astika and nāstika in Indian philosophy is based on the verse of Manusmrti which readsnāstikovedanindakaḥ i.e. a nāstika is he who despises the Veda. Similarly then Jaina can say- nāstiko Jaināgamanindakaḥ i.e. nāstika is he who despises Jaina Agamas. Swami Vivekananda, a Vedāntist says that - In the past he who do not believe in God was called nāstika, an atheist, but now a days anyone who does not believe in his soul (ātman) is a real nāstika, an atheist. Jainism believes in soul and also that the soul can reach to the pure and perfect state which is Godhood hence it is theistic religion. European Religious Committee misunderstood Jainism and quoted that according to Jaina belief, the best, the most of excellent and the most renunciated man alone is the God and compared Jainism with the atheist. Jainas repudiated the statement saying that a man may be advanced and renunciated but unless and until there is a perfect faith, perfect knowledge, and perfect conduct and attributes 32 Dr. N. N. Bhattacharya, “Jain Philosophy”, New Delhi, 1999,P- XII 33 Ibid, P-336 34 Swami Abhilash Das, “Kabir Darshan”,P-133 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION 13 of God as ascribed in Jaina scripture, he is not God. The European Religious Committee does not admit even soul as distinct from body and therefore is akin to atheism; hence the most advanced man of committee can never be called God. Therefore, there cannot be any comparison between the European Religious Committee and Jaina religion.95 Dr. Rafiq Zakaria wrote in his book “Discovery of Goď' that “superstition, sacrifice and charms continue to be the favorite form of Hindu worship. That is why Buddha (C.563-483BC) and Mahāvīra (C.540-468 B.C) revolted against it. Buddha was a prince who chose to be pauper, and Mahāvīra, a non-violent ascetic who walked naked in the street to shed every bit of worldly attire. The one became founder of Buddhism and the other of Jainism.”30 This quote is repudiated by Jains, because the author was ignorant of Jainism. Lord Mahāvīra was a prince and 24"Tīrthankara of Jaina tradition. Lord Rşabha was the First Tīrthankara of Jainism. Similar misconception and misunderstanding and ignorance were and are being exhibited by several scholars, European and Indian as well. To name a few here: Dr. John Murphy of Manchester University said “Mahāvīra, whom the Jainas regard as the great founder of their faith was contemporary of Gautama."'"'Jainism has no founder, as such, and it has been in existence in this world since the infinite time (Anādikāla). Scholars are always interested to investigate the beginning of anything and who founded it, which is customary with human thinking. However, to Jaina, Lord Ķşabha is the first Tīrthankara, and not the founder of Jainism, for it has no beginning and end. 39 The Jaina Association of India, “Historical Facts about Jainism”, Bombay, 1925, P-12 3°Dr. Rafiq Zakaria, “Discovery of God, Bombay, 2000, page-446 "Dr. John Murphy, "The origins and History of Religions”, Manchester University Press, 1949, P-446 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 14 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” Another misrepresentation is by Dr. A.N. Lahiri of Calcutta University who said “Jaina, however, were not at all in favour of calling Pārśva and Mahāvīra, the founder of their faith, which for the sake of respectability, had to be declared as eternal.” 18 A similarity, to the above quote, Chandralekha Singh and Prem Nath in their book “The religion of world” quoted Pārsvanātha, the real founder of Jainism." From the above mentioned misunderstanding or misrepresentation by scholars or authors of their books, it is quite clear that they have read here and there books on Jainism and copied the same in their writing without going in depth studies in Jainism. The said practice is still being continued till date. Mrs. Sinclair Stevenson, in her book “The Heart of Jainism, which has been widely circulated and read by most of the scholars, said that “Brāhmanic ascetic had to pass through four stages but once the door of asceticism was forced upon by rebel like Jaina, it was opened widely as possible...” Secondly Mrs. Stevenson described that the heart of Jainism as being "empty” of divine power, betrays her missionary malice. She quoted in the last chapter of the book, “The more one studies Jainism, the more one is struck with the pathos of its empty heart. The Jains believe strongly in duty of forgiving others, and yet have no hope of forgiveness from a higher power for themselves”40 Mrs. Sinclair Stevenson lived, quite a sometime in India and studied Jainism but never really understood Jainism, because what she wrote in her book “The Heart of Jainism” that heart of Jainism being empty and pleaded to Jaina to accept 38 Dr. A.N. Lahiri, “Religion and Culture of Jains”,P-21 99 Chandralekha Singh & Prem Nath, “The Great Religions of the World', Delhi, P- 173 40 Mrs. Sinclair Stevenson, "The Heart of Jainism”Delhi, 1915 (1995) P-5 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION 15 Jesus!!. These remarks have hurt the feelings of several Jaina scholars and they have refuted her statement." Max Weber, a Western scholar, turning a blind eye to Mrs. Stevenson's undisguised prejudices, found it possible to endorse and repeated, “The heart of Jainism is empty”. Of course these statements provoked much opposition in India in Jaina community and Mr. J. L. Jaini took Mrs. Stevenson to task for her pretensions to preach Jainas the value of love and brotherhood. * Also, Dr. John Murphy, professor of Manchester University said “Jaina teachers argue strongly against the monotheistic tendencies in some of the sects of Brahmanism, and attack the belief in one eternal being, the creator of the world.”43 The above said remark made by Dr. John Murphy and another by Dr. Rafiq Zakaria that Jaina revolted against Hinduism, and similar statements made by several other scholars are refutable; Jainism is apriori religion of India, long before Aryans brought with them Vedic (Brāhmanic) religion in India. Brahmins indulged in karmakāņda or sacrifice attacked Jaina teachers and scholars who were opposing animal killing, and who were in favour of casteless society. And hence Brāhmanic teachers, philosophers, have been calling Jaina religion, a nāstika (atheistic) and the same tune have been picked up by the scholars around the world, especially in Western world. A few more misconceptions and baseless attacks, made by Lala Lajpat Rai in his book “History of India" are enumerated as follows: 1. The 24thTīrthankara founded a new religion 2. Jainism openly deny the existence of God 3. Jainism had its origin side by side to Buddhism 4. It is cowardice to be a Jaina 4 The Heart of Jainism, P.5 “Dr. Padmanabh Jaini, “Collected papers on Jaina Studies”, Delhi, 2000,P-33 Dr. John Murphy, “The Origins and History of Religions”, Manchester University, 1949, P-447 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" 5. The treatment accorded by Jainas towards the humanity is very severe and cruel act. 44 The attacks made on Jaina by Lala Lajpat Rai were repudiated point by point by the Jaina Association of India, in their book “Historical Facts about Jainism."-45 Here are some whimsical, absurd and ridiculous theories by some European scholars, which have been effectively refuted by Jaina scholars, in past: 1. Colezer derives Jainism from "Jesus,' a Roman Deity. 2. Colonel Franklin finds strong resemblance between “Jains' and ‘Junnes,' a magician of the Egyptian King Pharoah. 3. A missionary discovers similarity between “Jain' and 'Cain' of the Bible. 4. Scholars like Lassen, Weber and Hunter make Jainism an offshoot of Buddhism. O In conclusion and analysis of the reasons for the misunderstanding, misconception and misrepresentation of Jainism by the scholars, from all around the world, a high court judge, J. L. Jaini, said that Jainas of India were ignorant of the west and western methods of study. Worse than this, Jains were religiously averse to letting non-Jains read or even see or touch their sacred books. In consequence Jainism was misunderstood, misrepresented and misquoted. Jaina tradition and teaching suffered from scholars partially for their accustomed studies in Brahmanism. But by the efforts of men like Weber, Buhler, Jacobi, Hoernle and others, the credibility of Jaina tradition has been established and received recognition due to its antiquity and long preserved tradition through long struggle, hostility from Brahmanism and Buddhism. 44 Jain Association of India, “Historical facts about Jainism, “Bombay 1925, P-IV 45 Jain Association of India, “Historical facts about Jainism, "Bombay 1925, P-IV *Dr. Surendra Kumar, “Glimpses of Jainism", Delhi 1997,P-3 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION 17 Considering countless misrepresentation and misconception about Jainism, which are still persisting, even now and then, there are a few scholars who have made favourable remarks about Jaina and Jainism which are enumerated herein. Dr. John Murphy, Professor in University of Manchester in his book, "The Origin and History of Religions' made a remark about scholarly work of Mrs. Stevenson's 'The Heart of Jainism' where she said: “There is a strange mystery in Jainism; for though it acknowledges no personal God, knowing Him neither as creator, father or friend, yet it will never allow itself to be called atheistic system. Indeed there is no more deadly insult that one could level at a Jaina than to call him a nāstika or an atheist."4! Shri V. R. Gandhi, who accompanied Swami Vivekananda in the ‘Parliament of World Religions' held in Chicago in 1893, said in his speeches and writing that, “Jaina is generic as Christ. We believe that there is not one Christ but many Christ born in all countries." 48 Professor Ramjee Singh maintains that God is nor cognizable by sight, perceivable by senses or visible neither. He can be known by inference, then where is the question of acknowledging God of whose existence is speculated or hypothesized. Hence, Jainism believes a soul can become God (Paramātmā)."' 1. (iv) The Two-Fold Division of Indian Philosophy Āstika (Orthodox), Nāstika (Heterodox) The Indian Philosophy has been classified by Indian thinkers, predominantly Brahmins, in six systems, viz., Gautama's Nyāya, Kaņāda's Vaišeșika, Kapila's Sāṁkhya, Patañjali's Yoga, Jaimini's Pūrva Mīmāṁsā and Bādarāyaṇa's Uttara Mīmāṁsā or the 4'Dr. John Murphy, “The origins and History of Religions”, Manchester University Press, 1949,P-446 48V. R. Gandhi, “Speeches & Writing”,P-4 *Dr. Ramjee Singh, Jaina Concept of Omniscience, L. D. Institute of Indology, Ahmedabad, 1974 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 18 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM" Vedānta. These are Brahmanical systems, and they all accept authority of Vedas. The systems of thought, which admit the validity of the Vedas, are classified as āstika. Other systems of thought or philosophies which repudiate authority of Vedas are Buddhism, Jainism and Lokāyats or Cārvākas (Bārhaspatyas), as nāstika." Āstika is often named as orthodox and nāstika as heterodox. Orthodox system in Western world is construed as theism and heterodox as atheism. This translation in English for āstika as theism and for nāstika as an atheism, given by scholars (modern) does not mean or has the same spirit as in Indian philosophy has meant to be. In day to day English language, and also understood by scholars of philosophy, theistic philosophy means belief in God and atheistic philosophy means non-belief in God. This gross misconception and misinterpretation by the Western scholars is also endorsed by Indian scholars of philosophy, also by a few scholars of Jainology. Acharya Pandit Badrinath Shukla with regards to the classification of Indian philosophy has given following thoughts (conditions) to determine whether a philosophy is a theistic (āstika) or atheistic (nāstika). (1) Eternity (Permanence of soul) (2) Existence of God as a witness to one's Karma (3) Authority of Veda Let us examine these three points. In the first sense, Jainism maintains that death is not the end of life, has firm faith in theory of rebirth i.e. life after death. In the second sense, belief in doctrine of karma and doctrine of transmigration of soul, which are considered foundation to edifice of the classical orthodox system of Indian philosophy, are accepted as 5°Prof. A. Chakravarti, “The Religion of Ahimsă”, Bombay, 1957. Acharya P. Badrinatha Shukla, “Bhāratīya Darśana Ke Vargīkarana Se Sambandhita Praśna Uttara”, Proceedings of Darsana Parishad - P-158. 3, For Personal & Private Use Only Page #33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION 19 soul is considered to fundamental tenets in Jainism. In Jainism become paramātman or God. In the third sense, authority of Vedas does not arise in the case of Jainism because it is an older system than the Vedic philosophy which was brought in by Aryans in India whereas Jainism is a pre-Aryan, indigenous religion of India. According to the Nyāyakośa “a nāstika is a person who does not accept the existence of Isvara. Jaina believes in Iśvara (God) and calls him Paramātmā. The āstika-nāstika dichotomy of Indian religio- philosophical tradition needs serious consideration, especially from the scholars, because with the development in philosophical speculations in course of time, the connotation of the terms āstika and nāstika also grew. Pāṇini, in his Astādhyāyi "refers to asti, nāsti, and dista as three distinct philosophical traditions existing prior to his times (astināstidistammatiḥ). Patañjali, commenting on this aphorism of Pāṇini states “Paraloka astīti yasya matiḥsaḥāstikaḥ tadviparītonāstikāḥ. ’» According to Kāśikā, the āstikas are those who believed in paraloka (other world) and those opposed to it are nāstikas, and in this sense Jainas are āstikas. The term nāstika is mentioned at least two places in Manusmrti. At one place nāstika has been said to be a denouncer of the Vedas (nāstikovedanindakah). *But at another place the ‘nāstikya' Veda-nindā and devatānāmcakutsanam’ term have been placed side by side and one has been instructed not to get indulged in such activities, indicating there by the nāstikya is something more than mere denouncement of Vedas and gods. » Astādhyāyi, Pāṇini, 4.460 Ibid , (Kāśikāvsitti) ** Manusmrti, 2.11 55 Ibid, 4.163 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 20 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" In the dialogues of the Buddha and some later Buddhist works, the nastikas are said to be persons not believing in the doctrine of karma and transmigration."The Lokāyats or Cārvākas have been condemned by Buddha for not believing in the retribution of the karma and consequent future birth. Significantly, the word paraloka has been used in the context-denoting abode of life after death. 57 Kumārila Bhatta" has used the term ästikya and nāstikya as denoting two opposite views meaning thereby that the nastika did not believe in the existence of soul whereas the astika believe in it. In another verse he has placed nastika in the category of those who perish owing to their non-belief in the fruitfulness of the rites prescribed by the śrutis and smṛtis. According to Samkarācārya" āstika is one who believes that the meanings enshrined in agamas are ultimate truth. 58 The oft-quoted references of the Buddhist and Jaina literature about the thinkers of sixth century B.C. clearly show that a number of schools of thought were current which opposed the Vedic philosophy and presented their alternative system. As they were dissenters and non-believers who rejected the Vedic view of life, it may be summarized that they were the first to be dubbed as nãstikas. Panini's two categories of astika and nastika may, thus, be interpreted as the former being the category of those people who believed and endorsed the Vedic view of life while the latter as the category of those who dissented and rejected it. The point of the astika-nastika dichotomy is rendered complicated by the evidence furnished by the commentaries of Patanjali and Kaśikā, the dialogues of Buddha (Majjhima Nikaya) and some later works where the astika is connected with the belief in the paraloka and the nastika with the non-belief in it. As such Jaina, 56 Majjhima-nikāya, 2.2.10, Trans. Rahul Sankrityayan, 2nd edition, P-142 57 Ślokavārtika, 3.65 58 Astikyam Sraddhanata Paramarthes vagamarthesu-Samkarācārya For Personal & Private Use Only Page #35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION 21 Buddhist and Ajīvakas then, cannot be called a nāstika because they believe in paraloka. The term paraloka meant in the Vedic tradition, stay of soul in heaven or hell, which is terminable. Similarly, in the Jaina and Buddhist terminology, soul moves to devagati (heaven) or narakagati (hell) according to its deeds. So, in the early Vedic era, the Vedic theologians called a person nāstika who did not believe in the existence of paraloka. In the beginning centuries after the Christian era, theory of soul had received wide acceptance in India. The believers in this theory, as such, were called āstika and non-believers as nāstikas. The point to be noted here is that the dissenters, who did not endorse the pivotal tenet of the tradition of a particular school, are called nāstika. Contrary to it, one who had steadfast belief in the tradition is āstika. In the same strain, it can be understood why the Godbelievers of a particular tradition consider themselves as Āstika (theist) and called other schools or traditions with a different definition of God, as non-believers in God or nāstika (atheist). But according to Jaina thinkers the definition of nāstika have a different interpretation, for them the nāstika is one who does not have belief in rebirth, karma theory and pure and perfect soul, which is Arihanta Paramātmā. Jainism is a religion, which puts emphasis on karma and rebirth theory in its philosophy along with liberation of soul. Following three Sanskrit grammars have explained meaning of the words Āstika and Nāstika(1) Śāktāyana Vyākarana" (2) Pāṇinīya Vyākaraṇa Siddhānta Kaumudio (3) Hemaśabadānuśāsana" 59 Śāktāyana Vyākaraņa Pāniniya-vyākarana - Siddhānta-kaumudi For Personal & Private Use Only Page #36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 22 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" A dialog between Jambū Svāmī and Sudharmā narrated in Ācārāngao explains soul's transmigration philosophy in Jainism, which is very much similar to, as explained in the dialog between Lord Krşņa and Arjuna in Bhagavadgitā.°3 "O Long-lived (Jambū Svāmin)! I (Sudharmā) have heard the following discourse from Lord Mahāvīra: Here many do not have the experience (that is memory of the place from where they have transmigrated) such as - "Have I transmigrated (to this world) from the eastern direction, or from the southern direction, or from the western direction, or from the northern direction, or from the direction above, or from the direction below, or from any other direction, or from any intermediate direction?""64 "Similarly, many do not know- is my soul subject to birth, or is my soul not subject to birth? Who was I (in my previous life), or after departure from here what shall I become in my next birth?” OS Also, Similarly, Blessed Lord said in Gītā, “Many are the births taken by me and you, O Arjuna. I know them all you know not, O Parāṁtapa!.":66 The above two sūtras from Jainism and Vedic philosophy, justify and prove Jainism an āstika system. Hemaśabdānuśāsana by Hemacandra 62 Ācārānga Sūtra, 1/1/1 "Bhagavadgītā, 4/5 Otsuyam me āusam! teņam bhagvayā evamakkhayam - ihamegesim no sanna bhavai, tam jahā - puratthimão va disao agao ahamamsi, dahinao va disao agao ahamamsi, paccatthimao va disao agao ahamamsi, uttarao va disao agao ahamamsi, addhao va disao agao ahamamsi, ahe va disao agao ahamamsi, annayario va disao agao ahamamsi, anudisao va agao ahamaṁsi?, ĀcārāngaSūtra 1/1/1from Ācārānga Bhāsyam, BhāsyakāraAcharya Mahaprajna, Jain Vishwa Bharati, 2001, Ladnun,P-17 "evamegesiṁ no natam bhavati -atthi me āyā ovavaie, natthi me āyā ovavāie? ke ahamāsi? ke vā io cuo iha peccāa bhavissāmi?, Ibid. 1.2, P-17 Bhagavadgītā - 4/5 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION 23 According to Astādhyāyī, āstika and nāstika words comes from asti and nāsti which means, it is and it is not, respectively. A person believes in soul, life after death, virtuous actions and sin is an āstika, and the one who thinks that there is nothing like soul, life after death, virtues and sin, is a nāstika. But, Vedic Brāhmaṇas have changed the meaning of these words. For them the system of thoughts which approves the supremacy of Brāhmaṇas and Vedas as āstika and those systems disapprove Vedas and supremacy of Brāhmaṇas as nāstika. Thus the meaning of words āstika or nāstika does not depend on their etymological meaning of positive or negative conclusions regarding the soul, life after death, virtues or vices, but on the acceptance of the authority of Vedas and supremacy of Brāhmaṇas. Manu says that nāstika is one who despises Vedas. ‘nāstikovedanindakaḥ'. The reason was that Vedic rituals and sacrifices of animals and killing in it, in the name of dharma was always opposed and protested by Jainas as well as Bauddhas and it was deliberate adharma in the name of God. And for this opposition, Manu for instance called them (Jainas and Bauddhas) Vedanindakaḥ or nāstikas. But Pāṇini's interpretation of these terms proves Jainas as Āstika. I. (v) Classification of Indian Philosophy: Traditional View Brāhmanic System Vs. Šramanic System To understand Indian culture completely one has to study Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism collectively as well as individually, because culture of all the three is intermingled and mutually influenced. Although Brāhmanic and sramanic are two distinct trends dominating Indian culture from its earliest days, it is very difficult to distinguish them because neither of the two remained uninfluenced by the other. The earlier Sramanic trends and its later phases, Jainism and Buddhism, were influenced by Vedic traditions and vice a versa. The concept of Nirvāṇa, 67 See. Table of Classification of Indian Schools of Philosophy (at the last of the chapter) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 24 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" meditation, equanimity and non-violence, which were absent in early Vedic literature, came into existence in Hinduism through Śramanic influence. Brāhmanic System: During Monarchic age in Indian history, Brahmanism monopolized the knowledge of Vedic mantras and hymns, which contained prayers to gods and rituals to perform the sacrifices. They were taken from Brāhmaṇas, the second part of Veda, to please the gods who were merely deified forces of the nature. In the Vedic religion different hymns were addressed to various gods, to name a few are Varuņa (water), Sürya (Sun), Pșthvī, (Earth), Vāyu (wind) and so on. Later on Hiranyagarbha, Viśvakarmā, Prajāpati and Indra were evolved. So, the Brāhmaṇas became dominant in the society, and dictated their supremacy in religious functions, cultural matters and social life. Brāhmaṇa's ritualism was represented by the priests who vigorously claimed that the welfare and, indeed, the very existence of the world, including even the Gods, depend upon the maintenance of their system of sacrifice, which grew to immense size and complexity. According to one of the etymological meanings of Brāhmana, the term “Brāhmana' is derived from the root “Brh” which means to grow, to expand and to evolve and to develop the spirit or soul. Prayers described in Brāhmaṇas, the Vedic literature, were kept in custody by the priests who were considered to be the offspring of Prajāpati, the creator-god. A system was evolved thereby generous offerings had to be made to the gods and liberal gifts had to be offered to the Brahmins (priest) for the sacrifices of horses or cattle's or poultry. Rituals of worship and sacrifices were made complicated and hence the Brahmins became the so of cult and obtained high position in the society, at large. Rites or rituals so performed both to gain worldly enjoyment and to injure one's enemies. Ascetic practices in Vedic or Brāhmanic tradition developed a sort of mystical union with a personal God that becomes For Personal & Private Use Only Page #39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION 25 meritorious form of behaviour for salvation or at least a better condition after death. Priests gave emphasis along with the sacrifices, on the observance of cast, the āśramas, and the eternity of Vedas. Priesthood became a profession and hereditary one. The priests who possessed the Vedic lore became accredited intermediaries between God and men and dispensers of divine grace. So the Vedas brought by Aryans was entrusted to priestly class of Brahmins. Later on, as the time passed, the situation in society created struggle between Kșatriya (warrior class of society) and Brahmins and an anti-Brāhmanic ideology and anti-Brāhmanic faith grew up. A significant outcome of this struggle was the birth of Bhāgavatism in Kșatriya milieu. Polytheism of Vedic Aryans was set apart and Bhāgavata (the individual deity) as supreme God was developed. It was the Yoga, Vedānta and Nyāya-Vaiseșika system, which introduced the God in Hinduism, as a supreme and creator of the world. Śramanic System: Sramanic and Vedic (Brahmanical) traditions are very ancient traditions of the Indian philosophy. Vedic tradition came to India with Aryans who pleased their gods with hymns and sacrifices, and pleaded for cattle, strong children, long life and prosperity in their life. They were happy with material pleasure. When they were advancing deeper in India, they fought with the primitive and native tribes whom they called Dravidians, Nāgās, Dasyus, Daityas, Dānavas, Piśāca, Rākṣasas etc. Nāgās and other tribes were serpent worshipers. Jaina's 23rd Tīrthankara Pārsvanātha also has the serpent as his symbol. Thus it can be inferred that native Indian tribes were practicing Šramanic tradition of Jainism, long before Vedic Aryans came to India. Antiquity of Jainism goes back to Lord Rşabhadeva, the first Tīrthankara of Jaina tradition, who is mentioned in Ķgveda," the 68 Rgveda, 6/26/4 & 10/102/6 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" first and foremost in Vedas. Bhāgavata-purāṇa" recapitulates with respect and honours the life history of Lord Rṣabha as the founder of Jainism, and also the master of Yoga. It is also seen in Keśī-sūkta of Rgveda in which Vedic poet expresses awe at the sight of naked longhaired ascetic. 26 Vedic Aryans called Śramanas sages as Sişnadevas and prayed god Indra to protect their animal sacrifices from these sages. These sages were fighting for their religion of Ahimsa-not killing (Jainism). The practice of asceticism and renunciation was seen during the period of Lord Rṣabha. All Tīrthankaras at some time in their life renounced mundane life and accepted ascetic life. Asceticism is derived from the Greek word "askesis" which means exercise, practice, training, etc. In Greek context it means an athlete who trains himself in certain practice or exercises meant for physical discipline. In Śramanic tradition it was interpreted as a voluntary, sustained, systematic program of self-discipline and selfdenial, along with renunciation of immediate sensual or profane gratification of senses in order to attain higher state. In Jaina tradition, ascetic practices aim for attainment of true self. In Buddhism, ascetic practices aim for the liberation of self from cycle of birth and death or wheel of sufferings. 69 The main theme of Śramana tradition is that the mundane routine of this life existence is essentially bad and soul has to be released from the bondage of mundane life, which causes infinite pain and sufferings. This philosophy was totally alien to Vedic (Brahmanic) Aryan's thinking and practice. The Vedic religion appeased several gods of natural powers with simple sacrifices for welfare and happiness of the community, when the ascetic tradition of Śramana kept concentrating upon the inner (atman) soul and its purification. 69 Śrīmadbhāgavata, 5/4/3 & 5/3/20 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION 27 The Vedic tradition upheld pravstti-mārga and importance of sacrifice to the God, whereas the Sramanic tradition followed nivịttimārga the path of renunciation in order to achieve the final goal of freedom from the cycle of birth. Šramaņa tradition is known for its ascetic practices. These ascetic ideals and practices have their basis on knowledge, as against ritualistic tradition of Brāhmanism; knowledge is the key for attainment of the desired end. In attempt to mollify the superiority of Brāhmanism, Buddha and Mahāvīra gave a new definition to Brāhmanhood in terms of moral conduct and purity. From the very beginning, since the Aryans came to India Śramanic tradition of Indian origin was named by Brāhmaṇas as an anti-Brāhmanic and also the same tune was adopted by the European scholars who did no research in Jaina religion or in its history until lately when it was brought in open by Prof. Jacobi. Šramanic tradition, which is often misconstrued by scholars that it is opposed to the idea of God, has their belief in autonomy and centrality of doctrine of karma. The working of human mind is due to direct or through the unseen forces of karma. Hence no prayers or worship are of any avail against the force of karma. It stresses the adorableness of the moral law and put emphasis on selfreliance in the quest for salvation. This philosophy is very much different from Vedic view where illumination comes from outside, either from the grace of God or from eternally revealed Vedas. Jainas believe in authentic revelation and accept omniscient human teacher who after shading off all eight types of karma becomes Arhat or God and after abandoning the physical body obtains the stage of Siddha, Paramātman (God). Jainism aspired after the quest for highest perfection on spiritual level. Śramaņas and Munis were the examples who devoted For Personal & Private Use Only Page #42 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” their lives in the attainment of highest spiritual level through ascetic discipline and religious meditation (tapa). The Upanișadic trend of Hinduism is not pure form of Vedic religion. It incorporated in itself various sramanic tenets also that gave a new dimension to later Vedic religion. The voice was raised by ancient Upanişadic Rşis, Munis and Śramaņas against the ritualistic and cast-ridden Brāhmanism of early Vedic religion. In fact, the Upanișadic trend, as well as, Jainism and Buddhism provided refuge to those fed up with Vedic ritualism. However, Jainism and Buddhism were more candid and vehement in their opposition towards ritualism of animal sacrifices in yajñas, birth-based caste-system and superstition. Jainism and Buddhism did not remain uninfluenced from Vedic ritualism. Ritualism in the form of Tantric practices crept into Jainism and Buddhism. Jainas adopted various Hindu deities and their mode of worship suited to their religious temperament. The Jaina concept of Sāsana-devatā or Yakşa-Yakṣis is nothing but a Jaina version of Hindu deities. The influence of Vedic and Sramanic on each other was reciprocal. Hinduism accepted Rşabha and Buddha as incarnation of God, while Jainism included Rāma and Krsna in iis list of salākā-puruṣas. A number of Hindu gods and goddesses were accepted as consorts of Tīrthankara such as Kālī, Mahākālī, Cakreśvarī, Ambikā, Padmāvati and Siddhāyikā as well as Sarasvatī, Lakşmī as deities of knowledge and wealth respectively. Dr. Sagarmal Jaino opines that different religious traditions of our Indian culture have borrowed various concepts from one another and that it is the duty to study to bridge the gulf existing between different religious systems. °Dr. Sagarmal Jain, “An Introduction to Jain Sadhana", 1995, P.V. Research Institute,P-4 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #43 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION 29 It is sometimes mistaken that emergence of Jainism and Buddhism was result of revolt against Brāhmanism. Western Scholars in particular maintain this notion. But according to Dr. Sagarmal Jain," it was not revolt but reform. It is true that Sramanic and Vedic tradition have divergent views on certain religious and philosophical issues, but this does not mean that they are rivals or enemies of each other. In Ācārānga, Sūtrakstānga and Isibhāsiyāim, number of passages similar to those of the Upanişads in words, style as well as essence can be found. In Sūtrakstānga we find mention of some Upanișadic şșis such as Videhanami, Bāhuka, Asitadevala, Dvaipāyana and Parāśara. Sūtrakstānga addresses them a great ascetics and great men (mahāpuruṣa) who attained ultimate goal of life i.e. liberation." Thus we can conclude that owing mostly to the deep rooted prejudices and not having enough knowledge along with other sentimental reasons, some scholars persisted in believing and asserted that Jainism is an offshoot of Brāhmanism or Hindu dissenters, although there are innumerable references in Brāhmanic literature from Vedas down to Purāņas and other medieval literature referring to Jainas, their religion of Tīrthankara and their doctrines”. Some scholars consider Jainism as an offshoot of Buddhism also which is not true. Prof. Jacobi says “In conclusion, let me assert my conviction that Jainism is an original system, quite distinct and independent from all others; and that, there it is of great importance for the study of philosophical thought and religious life in ancient India.”:74 "An Introduction to Jain Sadhanā ,P-4 72 Ibid.P-4 Dr. Sagarmal Jain, “An Introduction to Jain Sadhanā,P-5 "Dr. yoti Prasad Jain, “Jainism, the Oldest living Religion”, P.V.Research Institute, Varanasi-5, 1988, P-29 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #44 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 30 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” Jainism passed through many storms and upheavals from time to time since its birth, and yet it could survive and did not disappear from the soil of its origin, India, like its sister religion Buddhism. The chief cause of this seems to have the inflexible conversation of Jains in holding fast to their original institution and doctrines. This is the reason, as Prof. Jacobi has pointed out, that although a number of vital rules concerning life and practices of the monks and layman may have fallen into oblivion or disuse, yet the religious life of the Jaina community even now is substantially, the same as it was two thousand years ago." *** "Polenceli Bothbayra Jain, . Life in Ancier Dr. Jagdish Chandra Jain, “Life in Ancient India, as depicted in Jain Canons”, Bombay, 1947, P-30 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #45 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Indian schools of Philosophy Schools not rejecting Vedic Authority Arthodox or Astila Schools rejecting Vedic Authority Heterodox or Nästik wwwwwwwwwwwww Schools Directly based on Vedic Texts Schools based on Independent Grounds Cärvāla Jaina Bauddha Schools emphasising the ritual stic aspects of Vedas viz. Mimām salas Schools emphasising the speculative aspects aspects of Vedas viz, Vedanta Schools not rejecting VEDIC AUTHORITY Orthodox or Āstila Sankhya Yoga Nyāya Vaise silan For Personal & Private Use Only Page #46 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ For Personal & Private Use Only Page #47 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER - II HISTORY OF JAINISM PRIOR TO MAHĀVĪRA II. (i) Introduction Jainism, a representative of Śramaņa tradition of Indian culture is the oldest, well established, fully developed and purely indigenous religion. Also it is a non-Vedic, non-Aryan and preAryan religion. Following are some conclusions from a few notable orient lists: According to Sir Sanmukham Chetty, “Jainism was the religion of Dravidian people who were the pre-Aryan inhabitants of India. I tempted to believe that Jainism was probably the earliest religion prevalent in India and that it was the flourishing religion when the Aryan migration came in India and when the religion of Vedas was being evolved in the Punjab.”! Maj. Gen. J.G.R. Furlong, F.R.A.S opined, “Instead of Jainism being formerly supposed an offshoot of Buddhism, it is shown to extend as far back as 3000 B.C. It is found flourishing alongside the nature worship of the rude tribes in Northern India."2 S.N. Gokhale opined: “Ahiṁsā is the keynote of Jainism, a philosophy which comes from pre-Aryan days.” Dr. Herman Jacobi is also of the opinion that Jainism was related to the primitive philosophy of India, a very original independent systematic doctrine with realistic and rationalistic tone. The Vedic religion which gradually developed into Brāhmanism, 'Dr. Jyoti Prasad Jain, “Religion & culture of Jains", Delhi, 1975 (1999),P - 2 Ibid., P-2 Ibid., P - 2 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 32 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" posed a serious rival to the Rṣabha Cult or the creed of the Arhatas, Vratyas or Śramaņas as Jainism was variously described.1 The creed of the Nirgranthas, another name of Jainism, maintained its position as one of the three major religions of the century till the advent of Islam in India somewhere around 12th Century A.D., the other two religions being Brahmanism (Hinduism) and Buddhism. Oriental or Indological studies by Western scholars commenced around the beginning of last quarter of 18th century. It was Sir William Jones who took the initiative, pioneered the studies and founded Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1874 A.D. It was Brahmanism or Hinduism, which engaged their attention first, and the interest in Jainism came quite late. First publication on Jains was made by Lieut. Wilfred in Asiatic Researches in 1799, and then later by Col. Colin Mackenzi and Dr. F. Buchanan Hamilton in 1807 followed by H.T. Cole Brooke's observation on Jaina. As the time passed, Jaina system of religion and culture was studied intensively. Scholars worked in the field, most notably among them being: Albreech Weber, Leumann, Rice, Fleet Guerinot, Wilson, Jacobi, Buhler, Hoernel, Schubring and Zimmer etc. It is due to sincere efforts put in by these oriental lists, now Jainology has come to be an important branch of Indology, oriental studies and comparative study of religions. Mrs. Sinclair Stevenson said "The genius of the people of India does not lie in historical research; to them metaphysical thought is the chief end of man and they are content to leave to Western scholars the task of filling in the large gaps of unexplored country in their history.' 9,5 Dr. Jyoti Prasad Jain, "Religion & culture of Jains", P - 8 Sinclair Stevenson, "The Heart of Jainism", Delhi, 1915{1995},P -7 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #49 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAINISM PRIOR TO MAHAVIRA Dr. L.B. Keny refuted the statement of Mrs. Stevenson by saying that the Indian legends are not totally detached from historical traditions. The Jaina legends, therefore, contain latent historical facts though they are mixed up with traditions. The Jaina tradition of twenty four Tirthankaras must have a historical basis. A section of modern scholars doubts about the historicity of earlier Tirthankaras, and characterize them simply as mythical is unwise. 6 There is no reason to disbelieve in historical probability in Jaina tradition of Tirthankaras, which can be definitely concluded, outside bounds of acceptable behavior of Vedic culture and religion from the Pre-Vedic and non-Vedic practices of people indigenous to India, pre-Aryan culture.' 33 Another important and interesting account for Jaina tradition relates to the various emblems associated with the all 24 Tirthankaras. For example bull, elephants, snakes, lion etc. a total of 24 emblems for each 24 Tirthankara. It seems that these emblems, shown on their seats affixed, indicates tribal marks or totems. The 23rd Tirthankara Pārsvanatha has the snake as his emblem. Ancient Indian sculpture is filled with pictures of men and women having serpent hood over their head, which seems to represent people having the snake as their tribal mark. It is possible that the Pārsvanatha belonged to the tribe of Nagas. It is a well-known fact that in Indian literature fights between Aryans and Nāgas; and also Aryans offered Nāgas in sacrifices, burning them alive. Other marks like bull, crab etc. is also found to be associated with various tribes, and they reflect the environment of people from whole tribal group the Tirthankara hailed. Among other things, worship of funeral structures, tribal worship of dead, Śraddha offerings for the salvation Dr. L. B. Kenny, "Religion and culture of Jains", by D. C. Sincar, on The Primitive in Jainism, 25th Feb. 1972 Dr. N. N. Bhattacharya, "Jaina Philosophy", Delhi 1999, P-76 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 34 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" of soul of ancestors indicate Jainism to have adopted these primitive customs of tribes. During last two centuries, the European scholars carried out research work on Indian philosophy and culture in accordance with their stand points, with their way of thinking and their cultural background; and consequently there was quite a bit of controversy in their finding, interpretations and knowledge so assimilated; and such history of Indian culture was written incompletely and unsystematically. For example, the primary books of history were written quoting that Jainism was founded by MahāvīraR and a few books indicated Pārśvanatha'. A few or more books, even lately, in year 2000, written by eminent scholars quote Jainism as founded by Mahāvīra. Even today, some publications depict that Jainism is a revolt against Vedic culture. We can see several books written by learned scholars quoting Jainism also as an atheistic religion having no God in it. Many of the publications explain that the Jainism is the oldest, independent and pre-Vedic and a noble religion." 10 Because of very little exposure of Jainism to the outside world and due to not enough interest shown in it by other scholars of philosophy coupled with the Jaina societies offered no cooperation to the scholars to study their sacred books and culture, the history of Jainism, prior to Mahāvīra remained unexplored, for quite some time. Other reasons being that Jaina community mostly engaged in business, trading and banking did not produce enough scholars of its own to interact with the European scholars. Hence many a non-Jaina Pandits, scholars, Indian as well as European may be heard passing cursorily remarks like; Jainism is an insignificant, little known or an 8 Historical Facts of Jainism", P- iv 9 Chitralekha Singh/Prem Nath, "The great Religion of world', P - 173 10 Dr. Rafiq Zakaria, "Discovery of God', Bombay, 2000,P - 44/45 11 Jain Gazette, 1914, page - 35 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #51 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAINISM PRIOR TO MAHĀVĪRA 35 obscure minor sect of Hindus, or a dissenter from Hinduism or an offshoot of Buddhism, and so on."2 Shri Laxman Shastri Joshi, in his book Vedic Sārskrtika Vikāsa wrote that “Jainism and Buddhism are branches of Vedic culture’13 Shri V.R. Gandhi in his book “Systems of Indian Philosophy' writes that Jainism is an oldest religion and philosophy in the world. In India religion is not different from philosophy and both do not differ from science, especially in the case of Jainism.' Prior to Mahāvīra, Lord Pārsvanātha, the 23rd Tīrthankara lived 250 years ago and preached Jainism. In the tradition of Tīrthankaras, Lord Rsabha is the first Tīrthankara, who was born thousands of year before Christ. In India, in a very primitive age when people were illiterate and did not know any art, it was said that Lord Rșabha taught the art of cooking, writing, pottery, painting and sculpture for the first time to the people. At his time, came into existence the institution of marriage, ceremony of cremating dead, building of mounds and festivals in honor of Indra and Nāgas. Barrister Champat Rai said that ‘Hinduism itself has always admitted and never disputed the antiquity of Jainism and its founder Lord Rşabhadeva whom Hindus regard as 9th incarnation (Avatāra) of Lord Vişņu, giving the name of his mother Marudevī, father Nābhi, and his son Bharata after whom India came to be called Bhāratavarșa in the past. 15 II. (ii)Indus Valley Civilization of Mohenjo-Daro Indus Valley civilization of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappā, which has been dated to 3000 B.C. by historians, sheds quite some 12 Dr. Jyoti Prasad Jain, “Religion and Culture of Jains”, P-6 "Acharya Hastimalji Maharaj, “Jain Dharma kā Moulika Itihāsa”, Jaipur, 1979,P - 120 *V. R. Gandhi, “The Systems of Indian Philosophy”, Bombay, 1970(1993), P-120 Dr. Jyoti Prasad Jain, “Jainism: The oldest Living Religion”, Varanasi, 1988, P-40 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #52 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 36 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" light on the antiquity of Jaina culture. Archaeological evidences belonging to the Indus valley civilizations support the antiquity of the Jaina tradition of Tirthankaras and suggest practice of worship of Rṣabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of Jaina tradition. Icons found at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, represent Jaina religion and culture. Also fire pit is conspicuously lacking in the houses of Mohenjo-Daro and many nude figures have been discovered which depict personage who are no other than ascetic yogis. Also there is a great preponderance of pottery figures of female deities over those male deities who are shown naked. Dr. Earnest Mackey, the renowned archaeologist said that female figures, which invariably wear a little clothing, necklaces and bangles but the male deities are entirely nude which clearly reveals the traces of Jaina religion among the Indus Valley people, as the worship of nude male deities is a very well established practice in Jaina religion." 16 Iconism and nudity have been two chief characteristics of Jaina culture. It clearly indicates that people of the Indus Valley practiced Yoga but also worshipped images of yogis. Some seated deities and some standing in kayotsarga postures, which are postures of Yoga and meditation, is peculiarity of Jaina." The figures are nude in standing kayotsarga pose with a triśula- like decoration on their head and eyesight fixed on the tip of nose, which is characteristic of an image of Jaina. 17 Prof. R. P. Chandal discussed it in detail and is of the opinion that the kayotsarga posture is peculiarity of Jainas. Among the Egyptian sculptures of the time of the early dynasties, there are 18 16Dr. Vilas A. Sangave, "Aspects of Jaina Religion", Delhi 1990,P-24 17Jaina Culture/Antiquity & History, P-6 18 Jainthology" Editor Ganesh Lalwani, Calcutta, 1972, Indus Valley Civilization by V.G. Nair, P-21 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAINISM PRIOR TO MAHĀVIRA 37 standing statues with arms, hanging on two sides. But though these early Egyptian and archaic Greek Kouroi show nearly the same pose, they lack the feelings of abandon that characterizes the standing figures on the Indus seals and images of Jainas in the kāyotsarga postures. Another thing marked is that figures of male deities of Jaina Tīrthankara, emblem engraved on the seats in the contemplative mood, are having same faces, which is another peculiarity of Jaina images, while the figures of male deities, supposed to be prototype of Lord Siva are generally having three faces, three eyes and three horns." On some seals, the figure of bull engraved below the figure of nude deity standing in kāyotsarga posture is found. The name Vrşabha means, “Bull” and the bull is the emblem of Jina Lord Rşabhadeva. "Therefore, it is possible that the figure of yogi with bull on Indus Valley seals represents the Mahāyogi Rşabha, the first Tīrthankara of Jaina tradition. Thus the figures on the Mohenjo-Daro seals vouchsafe the prevalence of the religion and worship of Jina Rsabha at early period on western coast of the country, India. 'Also signs of Svastika found engraved on a number of seals No-502, 503, 506 & v514 resembles seals of Supārsvanātha, the seventh Tīrthankara of Jaina tradition.22 From these archeological evidences it is clear that there was the presence of Jaina Tīrthankara, especially Lord Rşabhadeva along with the worship of Hindu God who is considered prototype of Lord Śiva, in the Indus Valley Civilization. "Dr. Vilas A. Sangave, “Aspect of Jaina Religion", P-25 Ganesh Lalwani, Editor, V. G. Nair, 'The Indus Valley Civilization and Rsabha", Jainthology, Calcutta, P-21 2. Ibid., NO.2,P-21 22 Ibid., NO.2,P-25 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #54 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 38 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" The general tendency of scholars has been in favor of theory that the Indus Valley people were of Dravidian stock, which according to the Jaina tradition was devout followers of Śramaṇa religion as preached by Lord Rṣabha. Dravidians are considered as vratyas along with Licchavis, Jñātṛs, etc. by Manu. Also asuras were the followers of Jainism. The Brāhmaṇas say that the asuras were progeny, descendant of Prajapati, (who was no other than Lord Rṣabha) were hostile to Vedic Aryans." 23 Sir John Marshal rightly observes, "A comparison of Indus Valley and Vedic culture shows incontestably that they were unrelated. The Vedic religion is normally believed to be uniconic. At Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa iconism is everywhere apparent.' Jainas are the first Indian people who adopted iconism in their religion worship of Tirthankaras. T.N. Ramchandran, Former Jt. Director General of Indian Archaeology, after studying this question of figures in Indus valley civilization, independently have declared that, "We are perhaps recognizing in Hrappa statuette a full-fledged Jaina Tīrthankara in the characteristic pose of physical abandon (kāyotsarga). The statuette under description is therefore, a splendid representative specimen of this thought of Jainism at perhaps it's very inception." 24ܕܕ Dr. Zimmerman strongly supports this antiquity of Jaina tradition and says, "There is truth in the Jaina idea that their religion goes back to remote antiquity, the antiquity in question being that of the pre-Aryan.' 26 9,25 Although in the words of Prof. Humayun Kabir, "There have been scholars who doubts whether Mohenjo-Daro represents preAryan culture at all. They believe that India was original home of 23V. G. Nair, "Indus Valley Civilization, Jainthology, Calcutta, 1972, P-20 24Dr. Jyoti Prasad Jain, “Jainism, the Oldest Living Religion,P-47 25V. G. Nair," The Indus Valley Civilization and Rṣabha", Jainthology, April, 1972, P-21 26Dr. Vilas Sangave, "Aspect of Jaina Religion", P-25 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #55 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAINISM PRIOR TO MAHAVIRA Aryans and Mohenjo-Daro marks only an early stage in development of Aryan culture.”27 Still the general tendency of the scholars has been in favor of the theory that the Indus valley people were Dravidian stock. Rev. Father Dr. Heras is emphatically of the opinion that Mohenjo-Daro people were Dravidian, that the language of Mohenjo-Daro inscription was a purely Dravidian language and that their culture, religion, etc. was also Dravidian. Dravidian people according to Rislay are the earliest inhabitant of India of whom we have hardly any knowledge28 and which shows ample proof of these people being of Jaina persuasion, long before the birth of Vedic religion or even the beginning of Aryan civilization. These ancient Jainas are called vrātyas or vșsalas in early Brāhmanic literature. They with their well-built cities (Puras) and non-violent, non-sacrificial cult, were the indigenous rivals and enemies whom first Aryans had to encounter for settling in this country. Another point to mention regarding antiquity of Jainism is that Jainas have deified Tīrthankaras as their God and built temples to worship them. The worship as deity of the perfected mortals is a characteristic of all primitive religions. II. (iii) Śramaņa Tradition in Vedic Literature Jainism, when one starts looking into its history, discovers that it is known by different names in different periods of history. From early Vedic period to Araṇyaka period of Vedas, Jains were known by names of Vātaraśanā Muni or Vātaraśanā Šramaņa. Dr. Jyoti Prasad Jain, "Jainism, the oldest living Religion," Varanasi,P-47 28 Ibid., No.1, P-48 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #56 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 40 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" We have ample references of Vātaraśanā Munis in Rgveda?. According to Srimadbhāgavata, Rşabhadeva started religion of vātaraśanā Śramaņa. In Taittirīya-āranyaka disciple of Rşabhadeva were called vātaraśanā ķși. "'The tradition of vrātya or Vātaraśanā does not seem belonging to Vedic tradition because in the beginning there is no trace of people practicing Śramanic way of life in Vedic tradition. In Padmapurāṇa and Vişnupurāņa, Jaina religion was called as ārhat-religion or religion of Arhats." In ancient literature of Jainism, it is called Jina-śāsana, Jina-vacana or Jina-mārga; but it was never called as Jaina religion. Later on in Matsyapurāņa and Devībhāgavata-purāņa, Jainism was called Jaina religion. 2 As per time, period and place, the name of Jainism kept on changing but it does not mean that Jainism is a latest and not an old religion. In any event, whatever it was called, as per the tradition of that period, it has always been connected with the Lord Rşabha. It is interesting and peculiar to note that Śaivism is named after Śiva and Vaişnavism is named after Vişņu. Buddhism is named after Buddha and Christianity is named after Christ, but Jainism is not named after any person nor it is called religion of Rşabhadeva, Pārsvanātha or Mahāvīra, but it is a religion of Arhat being, the omniscient and perfect being. 33 According to Jaina version of Rāmāyaṇa, also a great epic of Hindu religion, Rāvana and his Rākṣasas were highly cultured people, belonging to a race of vidyādharas, which is common name of tribes’ rikșa, yakşa, nāga, phaņi, gandharva, kinnara, vyantara, - Acharya Hastimalji Maharaj, "Jaina Dharma kā Moulika Itihāsa”, First Ch, P-41 30 Ibid.,P-41,note no.6 3 Ibid., P-42,note no.5&6 32 Ibid.,P-43, note no.5 "Acharya Hastimalji, "Jaina Dharma kā Moulika Itihāsa", P-43 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #57 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAINISM PRIOR TO MAHĀVIRA etc. These people were highly cultured and great devotee of Jina. In Hindu version of Rāmāyaṇa, they are depicted as hideous looking irregular demons- Rākṣasas, Piśācas or asurasetc; all of which they were not but certainly as antagonistic to the sacrificial cult of Vedic sages. Vedic people denounced the Rākṣasas because they were Jains and the author of Rāmāyaṇa, described those Rākṣasas in hideous forms, simply out of religious bigotry.94 In Vedic Purāņas, Rākşasas are depicted as a terrible being, embodiment of all evil, dangerous enemies and treated with much disgrace and insult. Actually the root raksa (raksa) from which the word rākṣasa is derived, denotes (means) a protector. Thus the Rākṣasa is one who protects. It seems that they were protectors of indigenous beliefs, cult and rituals from encroaching hands of an alien religious system. The most striking fact about activities of Rakşas is that they were opposed to the sacrificial religion of Vedas, destroying the Vedic sacrifices and creating havoc among participants, or killing the sages who were performing the sacrifices. In Jaina version of Rāmāyaṇa, Rākṣasa and Vānaras have not been described as semi-human animals or demons but highly civilized and cultured human beings of Vidyādhara race, and mostly devotee of Jina. These early non-Aryan inhabitant of India are now generally termed as Dravidian stock." King Dasaratha, the father of Rāma had entertained the Śramaņas"? which according to Bhūṣaṇa's commentary, were Digambara Jaina ascetics, 43 and thus in the time of Rāmāyaṇa, Jainism existed. Lord Muni Suvrata, ** irthankara of Jainas 44 34 Jaina Dharma kā Moulika Itihāsa. P-43 "Dr. N. N. Bhattacharya, “Jain Philosophy," Delhi, 1999, P-78 30Dr. Jyoti Prasad Jain, "Jainism, the oldest living Religion”, P-25 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #58 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" who was a prince of Rajagrah and a senior contemporary of Rāma, was as a real person as Rāma himself. Dr. A.N. Upadhye opines that the details of Rşabhadeva given in Bhāgavata practically and fundamentally agrees with those recorded by Jaina tradition." Dr. S. Radhakrishnan also affirms that "the Bhāgavata Purāņa endorse the view that Rşabha was the founder of Jainism.” The Yajurveda mentions the name of three Tīrthankaras- Rşabha, Ajitanātha and Aristanemi." Rşabhadeva has given in the Jaina Purāņas i.e. Adipurāņa, the Harivassa Purāņa" etc. is quite similar to that of the Brāhmanic Purāņas. Dr. Jyoti Prasad Jain writes that ‘along with the first Tīrthankara, other Ajitanātha, the second and Supārsvanātha, the seventh also got mentioned in Veda.40 II. (iv) 23rd Tirthankara Pārsvanātha “Arhat Pārsva-Jina (Pārsvanātha), as per “Jina-caritra” of the Paryūsaņā-kalpa (c.A.D 503-516) had flourished 250 years before the nirvāṇa of Mahāvīra. His father was a king Aśvasena and mother queen Vāmādevī, in the city of Varanasi (Banaras). After spending 30 years as a layman, he led the life of an ascetic for 70 years and attained nirvāṇa on Mt. Sammeya (Sammeta Sikhara). According to Paryūṣaņākalpa (15a), “Bhagavāna (Arhat Pārsva) passed 83 day-nights in meditation on self on the way to 37Dr. Jyoti Prasad Jain, “Jainism the oldest living Religion”, p-26 38 Ibid, P-37, note no.4 "HarivaṁsaPurāna , VIII-55-104 40Dr. Jyoti Prasad Jain, "Jainism the oldest living Religion", p-26 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #59 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAINISM PRIOR TO MAHĀVĪRA liberation.... and on the 84" day night..... under the dhātaki tree.... while in meditation, he attained omniscience i.e. kevala-jñāna." Pārsva was an historical personage; but as Shubring put it, “what else we are told of him in Jinac, 149f, is merely a copy of Mahāvīra's biography with the exception that Pārsva is said to have been born in Benaras in 877 B.C. and to have died on Sammeya (Sammeta) mountain in Bihar.'4. He is attested as a historic personality by other passages in rendering his teachings and reporting on his followers. Mahāvīra's parents are said to have belonged to Pārsva's lay followers. During Pārsva's lifetime, there have been teachers and monks in accordance with his teachings. ‘Pāsa was obviously of a winsome nature, for he bears the constant title of Puriņādānīya, which seems to be the oldest precursor of the modern occasional title of Lokamānya, Desabandhu, Mahātman etc., (The Puriņādānīya is often translated as the “beloved one” or as the "celebrated one”).42 Avaśyaka-cūrņi incidentally mentions several ascetics of the Pārsva sect who were there, during the course of Mahāvīra's wandering as an ascetic." Pārsvanātha's Visits: Pārsvanātha is said to have visited a number of cities among which prominent were Ahichatra, Amalakappa, Śrāvasti, Hastināpura, Kāmpilyapura, Sāketa, Rājagraha and Kaušāmbi. Buddhist text refers to the existence of a large number of niganthas who followed Cāturyāma-samvara. The Vyākhyāprajñapti records a discussion that took place between Mahāvīra and Áramaņa Gāngeya, a follower of Pārsvain Vajjiyagrāma. Gāngeya gave up the cātujjāma-dhamma and embraced the Pañcayāma of Mahāvīra.* 4'U.P. Shah, “The Historical origin and Ontological interpretation of Arhat Pārsva", in Arhat Pārśva and Dharanendra Nexus, Ahmedabad, 1997, P-29 42 Ibid., P-30 43 Ibid., P-30 44U.P. Shah, “ The Historical origin and Ontological interpretation of Arhat Pārsva”, in Arhat Pārsva and Dharanendra Nexus, ,P-30 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 44 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" 15 The Sūtrakstānga"mentions Udaya Pedhālaputta, a nirgrantha follower of Pārsva, who had discussions with Gautama Indrabūti, a disciple of Mahāvīra. After the discussions Gautama took him to Mahāvīra where he gave up the doctrine of four restrains (of Pārsva) and took five great vows as ordained by Mahāvīra. It is also speculated that Kumāra Śramaņa Keśī, who was a pontiff of the Pārsva's church became follower of the (nirgrantha) Śramaņa after his historical meeting with the Gautama, the Gañadhara of Mahāvīra, in Śrāvasti, in a congregation of 500 monks. Pārsvanātha and Niggantha order: Jaina and Buddhist text presuppose the existence of Niggantha the order founded by Pārsvanātha before the advent of Mahāvīra and there is much to be said in favor of Jaina tradition that Mahāvīra was no more than a reformer of an older Niggantha order. Pārsvanātha was a powerful religious teacher, who fought against the Brāhmanic tyrant of cast system and merciless slaughter of animals. He was a well-wisher of women and gave them freedom by admitting them into his order. It must be mentioned that credit of proving the existence of the Nigganthas before Nātaputta Mahāvīra on the strength of reference in Pāli literature belongs to Professor Jacobi. According to both sects of Jains-Digambara and Svetāmbara, the Jina Pārsvanātha was a dark-blue in complexion and having the snake as his cognizance or Lārchana. Hemacandrācārya as well as Āśādhara (2nd quarter of 13th cent, A.D.) have made it clear that the Lāńchanas are (the Symbols on the dhvajas of the Jinas. Thus snake was originally the heraldic sign of Pārsvanātha. 45 Sūtrakrtānga, 2.7 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #61 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAINISM PRIOR TO MAHĀVĪRA The snake, cobra, stipulated as dhvaja or Lāńchana of Pārsvanātha, generally is seen with five or seven snake-hoods as canopy over Jina's head. In the images of Pārsvanātha the snake cognizance is shown on the pedestal and often the coil of snake's body are shown behind the body of Pārśva either standing or sitting in meditation. The snake-hood as well as the coil suggests Nāgendra Dharana protecting the body of Pārsvanātha. According to the Svetāmbara tradition, the Jina was called Pārsva because his mother had seen, in dream, a cobra by her side (Pārsva) during the period of confinement.“0 When Pārśva grew up, he once saw an ascetic (tāpasa), called Kamatha, practicing penance called pañcāgni-tapa, by burning logs of wood in four directions around him and the fifth fire being the scorching sun above. In one of the logs was a pair of snakes, which were being burnt alive. Pārsva rescued the snakes and freed the ascetic who was no other than Kamatha, the soul of the younger brother of Pārśva in his previous existence as Marubhūti. The snake couple, half burnt, died immediately after the prince Pārśva chanted them the Namaskāra Mangala and were reborn as Dharaṇendra (Indra of the Nāgakumāra class of Bhavanavāsī gods) and his queen (called Padmāvati in medieval texts). Both Digambara Purāṇas and Śvetāmbara caritas give elaborate descriptions of the upsargas (harassment) caused to Pārsva in meditation by a demi-god who in his previous existence was the soul of Kamatha, the younger brother of Marubhūti, who was the soul of Pārśva in the earlier existence of Pārsvanātha. According to the Uttarapurāņa, the Mahāpurāņa of Puspadanta, and the Pāsacariya of Raidhū, this demi-god was called Sambara. In the Svetāmbara tradition, in the Pāsaņāhacariya of Devabhadra, the demy-God is * Kalpasūtra-Sukhabodhikā, P-128 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #62 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 46 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” Meghamālin. The Digambara Padmakīrti, too, in his Pāsaņāhacariu calls him Meghamālī, an “Asurendra”.47 Kamatha-tāpasa who was reborn as a Samvara or Sambara (Dig.) or Meghamāli (Svet.), tried hard to shake Pārśva from his trance. For seven days he poured heavy rains, made terrifying sounds and hurled rocks at him. To frighten Pārsva he conjured up lions, scorpions, terrific Vetāla-genie who spit fire from their mouths. But the great sage, unaffected by these harassments (upasargas), remained steadfast in meditation. Dharaṇa, the Indra of the Nāgakumāra gods, remembering the good turn done by Pārśva in his previous āśrama, came to his rescue. Standing behind the Jina, the Nāgendra held a canopy of his seven hoods over the Jina's head in order to protect the lord from rains, bombardment of rocks, etc. Dharana's chief queens (four) staged dance with music before the meditating sage but the great sage Pārsva was equally unmindful of the pleasure of music and dance and the pain inflicted by Sambara or Meghamālī. His villainy going fruitless, the lord of the demons relented and bowing down before the Lord Pārsva, seeking as he did the Jina's forgiveness and returned with remorse to his celestial abode. It is said that Meghamālī had so much flooded the area that water level rose up to the tip of the nose of Pārśva and that the Dharaṇendra, wrapping his coil all around the body of Pārsva and holding the hood as a canopy over the sage's head, had lifted up the body of Pārśva above water. There are various places, sculptures depicting this episode of Kamatha's attack, from both northern and southern India. A study of all sculptures depicting this incident shows that the earliest *'U.P. Shah, “ The Historical origin and Ontological interpretation of Arhat Pārsva”, in Arhat Pärśva and Dharanendra Nexus, P-29 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAINISM PRIOR TO MAHĀVĪRA datable, according to Dr. U.P. Shah are either late sixth century A.D. or 600 A.D. However, there is no early or archaeological evidence before A.D. 400 to support the prevalence of the belief in the upasarga by Kamatha. Dr. U. P. Shah is of opinion “as is clear from the earliest available examples, the association of Nāga with Pārśva is definitely older and possibly has some historical or an early mythological basis of which we yet know nothing."48 As is well known, it was thanks mainly to the pioneering efforts and consequent findings of Herman Jacobi that originality, antiquity, and distinctness of the Nirgrantha religion visa-versa the Buddhist, and, together with it, the historicity of Arhat Pārsva regarded in the tradition as 23" Jina in succession was unequivocally established in western scholarship.“ 49 The original āgama and āgamic works belonging to the sect of Arhat Pārsva, called as 14 Pūrva texts, a few of which could have thrown clearer (and perhaps considerable) light on the Jina's biography, are largely lost, assumable for many, many centuries. The Caturvidha-samgha or the four-fold congregation of the sect of Pārśva, as was to be with Arhat Vardhamāna, consisted of Munis and Aryās (friars and nuns) together with their ganadhara apostles and the upāsakas or śrāvakas and upāsikās or śrāvikās, lay men and women followers. The Pārśva had eight gaņas or cohorts of friars and nuns with corresponding eight gañadharas.“0 The ganadharas by name were Subha, Subhaghoșa, Vaśiştha, Brahmacārī, 48 U.P. Shah, “The Historical origin and Ontological interpretation of Arhat Pārsva”, in Arhat Pārsva and Dharaṇendra Nexus, P-32 49M. A. Dhaky, “Arhat Pārśva and Dharanendra Nexus”, Ahmedabad, 1997, P-1 Also see Walter Schubring, “The Doctrine of the Jains", Delhi 1978, P-28-31 Malvania Dalsukh, Sthänānga-Samavāyānga, P-79 (some of these names could be genuine) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #64 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 48 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Soma Śrīdhara, Virabhadra and Yasa. The chief leader of friar was Dinna, while chief of nuns or mother superior was Puspacūlā. The principal man lay-votary was Suvrata while the corresponding position of the lady lay-follower was held by Sunandā." 51 Monastic Discipline Formulated by Parśva: At point of discussion in the dialogue between Keśī and Gautama is a clear pointer to the fact that, in Pārsva's Church, friars (munis) were allowed to wear garments. This is further supported by an end statement figuring after the dialogue between Pārsva's follower Kalasyavaiśyaputra and Arhat Vardhamana (as reported in the Vyakhyāprajñapati) when the former ultimately joins the order of Vardhamāna. It seems clear that in the church of Parsva friars did put on robe. Not only that, they did not remove their hair on the skullcap, and they used to clean teeth, did not sleep on floor (or ground). They, moreover, used footwear as well as an umbrella. 53 In Vardhamana's discipline these somewhat lenient practices were not permitted, and those who embrace his order had to accept a much sterner monastic conduct including the Pañca-mahāvrata vows. Pārsva's discipline being not so strict and rigorous came closer to the moderate asceticism of the Buddhists and to some extent also to that of the existing Śvetambara sect.' 54 According to Isibhāsiyāim, Pārśva believed in gati or transmigration of soul, in the existence of Loka or cosmos, also he spoke about the five primary verities (Pañcāstikāyas), the eight kinds of karmas and their connection with the gati of soul, and the relationship of gravity on the gati or motion of matter. And already Agamic Index, Vol.-I, pt.1, P-468 52 Uttaradhyayana-Chapter 23 53Cf. the Vyakhyāprajñapti, pt.1, Bombay 1974, P-67.24 54 *Isibhāsiyāim, English Trans. by Dr. Sagarmal Jain, Prakrit Bharati Academy, Jaipur For Personal & Private Use Only Page #65 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAINISM PRIOR TO MAHĀVIRA 49 in his sect there is mention of Siddha-Buddha, which implies the inherent concept of the ultimate liberated soul. M.A. Dhaky opinions that the surviving early works (and the later developed text based on original teachings) would lead to believe that Arhat Pārśva was an ascetic-scientist, a systematic and methodical thinker, though speaking through an archaic mould of style. Arhat Nātaputta, (Vardhamāna), by contrast, was an ascetic philosopher who, as his original words and phrases (resembling the Upanișadic genre) preserved in the Ācārānga reveal cared more for contemplating on ātman or ‘self' and its absolute purification from Kaşāya (passions) for making it free from the karma latencies so as to attain total salvation. In the ultimate analysis, it is very likely that the Nirgrantha religion for the past many centuries stands for and preaches is based on the original teachings of Pārsva. Even the wellknown Nirgrantha methodology of examining the idea or object from four-fold viewpoints of dravya, kşetra, kāla and bhāva, is also the gift of Pārsva. Also, it may be stated that the rite of sallekhanā, also comes from him, for he had passed away on the Sammeta Hills, assumable by that rite which apparently had initiated that practice known and followed till now." The earliest inscription relating to Pārsva, of the 2nd or 3rd century A.D. has been found from the Kankālī Țīlā, Mathura. It is inscribed on an image of Pārśva, which was installed by Ghoska, a disciple of Gaņi Aggahiņīya. A metal image of Pārśva in the prince of Wales Museum variously dated between the 2nd-1" cent. B.C. to 2nd cent. A.D. is one earlier piece in evidence.” 5SM. A. Dhaky "Arhat Pärśva and Dharanendra Nexus”, p-5 56Ibid., p-6 "Sagarmal Jain, “The teaching of Arhat Pārśva and the distinctness of his sect” in Arhat Pārsva and Dharanendra Nexus, P-15 and cf. U.P.Shah, Studies in Jaina Art, Varanasi, 1955, plate 1.fig.3 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #66 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM" Teaching of Arhat Pārśva and the distinctness of his sect from that of Arhat Vardhamāna is known only through the available Ardhamāgadhī canon preserved in the northern church of Mahāvīra, because the ancient church of Pārśva was later progressively absorbed in the former and the records and texts relating to its hagiology and history are long lost. Pt. Sukhlalji Sanghvi, a Nirgranthologist was of the opinion that the Pūrva literature, (so often mentioned in the canonical literature from the late Kuşāņa period onward) had belonged to Pārsva's tradition." And at present, however, no text of that category or specification exists. The knowledge of Pārsva's teaching and tradition is solely dependent on the canonical literature of Mahāvīra's tradition and to a very small extent, on the Pāli canon of the Buddhist as well. According to Dr. Sagarmal Jain, it is in the Isibhāsiyāiń alone that the original version of Pārsva's teaching is directly and implicitly present. Elsewhere such as in the Sūtrakstānga, the Uttarādhyayana, and the Vyākhyāprajñapti, Pārsva's views are met with proxy, through the discussions between the followers of Pārsva and that of Mahāvīra or in a few instances by Mahāvīra himself. Distinctness of Pārsva's Sect: Pārsva as well as Mahāvīra belonged to the Nirgrantha section of Śramanic tradition, which had several similarities in doctrine, philosophy and religion practices. So far as the philosophical aspect of their teaching is concerned, the traditions of Pārśva and Mahāvīra have much common. Pt. Sukhlal Sanghvi and other scholars of Nirgranthology are of the opinion that the 58Pt. Sukhalal, Cāra-Tīrtharkara (Hindi), PVRI, Varanasi 1989, P- 141-143, see also “Introduction” The Sacred Books of East, vol. XXII, P- XIIV 59 Arhat Pārśva and Dharanendra Nexus''P-20 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #67 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAINISM PRIOR TO MAHĀVĪRA Mahāvīra tradition has considerably borrowed from that of Pārśva in the field of metaphysics and Karma Philosophy. Following are the similarities in tradition of Pārśva and Mahāvīra: Concept of world, is eternal as well as dynamic Concept of nature of reality Doctrine of anekāntavāda or non-absolutism Concept of five astikāyas and eight-fold karmas Concept of asrava, samvara, nirjarā, sāmāyika, pratyākhyāna and pausadha. The distinctness of Pārsva's sect lies in its code of conduct and not in dogma or doctrine, philosophy or principles of ethics. Following are distinctive features of Pārsva's tradition, which lies in its code of conduct. Pārśva propounded Cāturyāma-dharma or four-fold religion consisting of abstinence from himsā (violence) untruth, stealing and possession, while Mahāvīra preached Pañcayāma-dharma or five mahāvratas. According to Ardhamāgadhi canon, Mahāvīra added celibacy as an independent vow to the Cāturyāma-dharma of Pārsva. The Sūtrakstānga mentions that Mahāvīra prohibited having woman, and eating during night hours. According to Dr. Sagarmal Jain, explanation to why Mahāvīra added celibacy as an independent vow is given in Sūtrakstānga. In the times of Pārśva, woman was considered a property or possession and it was taken for granted that prohibition of possession implied the prohibition of sexual relationship, for no one can enjoy the woman without having her. But, as the 60 Cāra-Tīrtharikara by Pt. Sukhlal Sanghvi, for detailed discussions Sūtrakrtānga, 1/6/28 "Sūtrakrtānga, 1/3/4/9-10 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #68 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 52 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Sūtrakṛtānga informs, in the time of Mahāvīra, there were some pāsattha (wayward) Śramaṇas, who believed that the prohibition of possession did not imply (or include) the prohibition of sexual enjoyment." If any woman invited or offered herself for enjoyment to a Śramana, then the fulfillment of her sexual desire was no sin, just as the squeezing of a blister or boil (causes relief) for some time (and has no dangerous consequences), so it is with (the enjoyment of) attractive woman. How could, then, there be sin due to that?"63 From the above explanation some Śramaņas were interpreting the concept of non-possession in their own way. It only meant that, for one who takes the vow of non-possession, cannot have a wife or woman. So it became necessary for Mahāvīra explicitly to add celibacy as an independent vow and to lay considerable stress on the observance of this vow. Repentance (Pratikramaṇa), in Pārsva's tradition, was not required as an essential daily duty. Only when a monk committed sin or transgression of his vow, he may repent. But Mahāvīra made repentance an obligatory daily-duty to his all followers. They must repent every morning and evening whether sin or transgression committed and violated vows or not. This practice of Mahāvīra's discipline is known as pratikramaṇa-dharma. Another difference in monastic practice was that Pārsva did not lay stress on nudity; he rather allowed one or two apparel for his monks (who thus were called sacelaka) while Mahāvīra stressed on nudity and so Mahāvīra's tradition was known as acela-dharma. 64 There is also a few more difference in two traditions; such as Pārsva's tradition a monk could accept the invitation for food and 63 Sūtrakṛtānga, 2/7/81 64 "Arhat Parsva and Dharanendra Nexus, P-22 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #69 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HISTORY OF JAINISM PRIOR TO MAHĀVĪRA also could take food prepared for him, but Mahāvīra forbade this practice. Pārśva allowed his monk to accept the meals prepared for the king; but Mahāvīra prohibited it. In Mahāvīra's tradition it was vital for a friar or nun to move from place to another, except during the rainy season. Also, an ascetic, he had said, must not stay at one place for more than a month. But according to Pārsva's tradition, a friar could stay at one place as long as he wished. In short, to keep on wandering was essential in Mahāvīra's tradition but was optioned in Pārsva's disciplinary code. Mahāvīra had stressed that an ascetic must stay on at one place during four months of the rainy season; whereas this disciplinary code in Pārsva's tradition was optional. One more point that according to Mahāvīra an aspirant to friar hood must be initiated probation ally and only after probationary period of testing, if he is proven eligible, then he may be allowed to be ordained; and his seniority was fixed accordingly in the Order or Samgha. Dr. Sagarmal Jain opined, from the above-narrated distinctive features of Pārsva's philosophy, teaching and monastic discipline, which has been traced from early literature. The belief that all Jinas teach the same code of conduct receives no support from the evidence locked in the earlier canonical books. The most notable contribution of Pārśva, as opinioned by Dr. Jyoti Prasad Jain, was his emphasis on ethical note in the practice of religion and he considerably succeeded in infusing a moral spirit in the contemporary world. Moreover, he raised his voice against meaningless self-torturing practices which had become fashion with the ascetics of different orders, who indulged in curbing the flesh without paying any heed to self-purification and mental and spiritual elevation of the soul. It was a step forward. As is seen in history, it was in time of the 20'"TīrthankaraMunisuvrata, that an opposition to and condemnation of violent Vedic sacrifices involving the killing of various animals were first started; in that of the For Personal & Private Use Only Page #70 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 54 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" 21STīrthankaraNaminātha and his spiritual thinking led to the Upanișadic philosophy of ātmā-vidyā had commenced; and the 22ndTīrthankaraAristanemi, had raised his voice against killing animals for food. Pārsva advocated the eradication of hatha-yoga practices among ascetics, since they involved incidental injuries to life without doing any spiritual good to those who indulged in such practices. Pārsva kept the doors of his Church open to all people, irrespective of caste, status or creed and thus insisted on the equality of birth. In order to do this, he was equipped with more than anybody else, as by birth he belonged to the royal race among the Kșatriyas. His contact and connection with these powerful ruling magnates must have helped a lot in spread of his church. It is unfortunate; however, that many of his royal followers cannot identify with certainty Of the interval of 250 years between Pārśva and Mahāvīra, it is very difficult to say whether, after Pārsva's death, his church was in flourishing condition or otherwise. One thing, however, may be noted and that is pertaining to the existence of the followers of Pārsva's system even in the time of Mahāvīra. Among the various important disciples of Pārsva mentioned before, many came in contact either with Mahāvīra himself or with his chief disciple Gautama Indrabhūti. It is interesting to note that at Tungiya as many as five hundred disciples of Pārśva met Mahāvīra, and accepted his fivefold dharma (Pañcayāmadharma), which was or is but an extension of the four-fold religion. *** For Personal & Private Use Only Page #71 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER- III JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL III. (i) The Nature of Soul: Its Eternity The complicated problem of the existence of soul has troubled almost all the great minds of the world. There have been such philosophers who did not believe in an independent existence of soul like the Carvākas in India, and earlier Greek philosopher as Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus, and the like. In the times Lord Mahāvīra such thoughts were not altogether absent. He attempted in a successful manner to prove the independent existence of soul.'Lord Mahāvīra in the opening presents the views of those opponents who do not believe in existence of independent soul. 'O! Indrabhuti you have doubt a about the existence of soul (jīva), since it is not directly perceived by the senses as is the case with a jar (ghața). And so you argue that whatever is imperceptible does not exist in the world, e.g., a flower in the sky. Soul has no colour what so ever, so like physical objects, it is not perceived by visual sense organs. If atoms having physical qualities cannot be grasped by sense perception, then how can one expect the soul bereft of physical qualities to be an object of sense perception. Atoms (aņus) are not in the range of perception, yet, they do exist and when they are transformed as to perform function of a jar etc., they no longer remain so. However such is not the case with soul. It never attains a stage when it can be directly perceive." 'Dr. Mohanlal Mehta, “Jaina Philosophy: An Introduction” P-80, 1998 2 Viseṣāvasyaka-bhāṣya, 1549 'Dr. Mohanlal Mehta, "Jaina Philosophy: An Introduction",P-80 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #72 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Jainism has analyzed the whole universe into two eternally independent categories, jīva' (soul) and 'ajīva' (non-soul). The jīva is 'cetana' (conscious)* or the enjoyer and ajīva is Jada’(unconscious) or the object enjoyed. The Jīva has consciousness while the ajīva is devoid of consciousness. It is important to understand the difference between “jīva' andʻ ajīva’ that it does not correspond to I and not-I. It is an objective classification of things in the universe that underlies the distinction of jīva and ajīva.' Jīva and ajīva are not incompatible but are related to each other in an organic unity. “Soul is a subtle substance while ajīva (pudgala) matter has weight and fills the space; but the essence of soul conceived is self-consciousness absolutely devoid of any material thing." Moreover, it should be borne in mind that there are five sense organs in body, now if we regard them as souls, there will be an undesirable contingency of being five souls in one body. We do experience, such as “I saw a particular thing, then I touched it, and after that I smelt it and tasted it; if we reflect a little on this experience, it will become quite clear to us that one who saw the things, the one who touched it, the one who smelt it and the one who tasted it, is not different but one and the same. Soul can remember the things experienced in the past because past experience has left its impression which soul continues to retain and carry with it, and it is these impressions when revived, that give rise to the memory of the thing which was the object of that experience The soul is not an object of inference, because no inference is possible without some element of perception and is the outcome 4Tattvārtha-sūtra, 2.8 Pañcāstikāya, 4 Daśavaikālika-sūtra, 4.12 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #73 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL 7 of the universal concomitance (vyapti). The soul is not even within the range of scriptural authority, because scriptural knowledge is not quite distinct from inferential knowledge, neither perceptible to any one whose words can be regarded as scripture. The fact is that there are mutual contradictions between scriptural passages or authorities. Hence on that account, too, the doubt is justifiable; and therefore the existence of soul cannot be established by any means of valid cognition. The existence of soul cannot be established even by the means of analogy, because in the entire universe there is no object what so ever that resembles the soul. Even implication does not help in proving the existence of soul. There exists no other such an object seen or heard whose postulation can prove independent existence of soul. Thus, when the existence of soul cannot be proved by any of the five means of valid cognition, each of which establishes the existence of an object, it automatically follows that it comes within the range of negation (abhāva), this sixth means of valid cognition whose function is to establish non-existence. After giving above argument, which is in fact, a view of opponent (who does not believe in the existence of soul), Lord Mahāvīra said to Indrabhūti that it is proved that the soul does not exist! 57 Lord Mahāvīra then refuted the argument of the opponent in the following manner: "O Gautama! The soul is indeed directly cognizable to you as well. Your knowledge about it which consists of doubts, etc. is itself soul. What is proved by your experience need not be proved by other means of cognition, or knowledge. No proof is required to establish the existence of happiness, misery, etc. The Viseṣāvasyaka-bhāṣya, 1550-51 Ibid,1552 Ibid, 1553 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #74 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 58 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" soul directly experiences, owing to the 'aham-pratyaya (realization as "I" in 'I did', I do, and I shall do) the realization which is associated with the function to all the three tenses. If there is no soul, how do you realize 'aham"? How can there be a doubt whether soul is or not? Or, if there is a doubt in whose case is this 'aham-pratyaya' justifiable?"The various aspects of cognition, viz., memory, recognition, doubt, judgment etc. are never possible, if there is no soul. All these psychological functions are centered in conscious and sentient entity, which is not material but spiritual. Cognition, feeling and conation are not possible unless we regard the existence of all the three aspects of our mental life, viz., knowing, and feeling and willing, are not "scattered phenomena". The process of memory certainly proves the existence of soul. The four stages of memory, viz., retention, recall, recognition and localization, are systematically connected with one another and the source of this systematic connection is the soul. A purely material brain cannot work in such a systematic and well-adjusted matter. The concept of self has been most famous doctrine of Upanisads. Chandogyopaniṣad maintains that, "The basic problem of ethics, removal of misery can be solved only by self-realization". Taittirīya Upanisad describes five forms of ātman viz. annamaya, prāṇamaya, manomaya, vijñānamaya and ānandamaya." Atman is everywhere in everything. 13 After Upanisads, the most representative and authoritative text of Brahmanical theology is Bhagvadgītā. It represents a remarkable synthesis of the diverse doctrines of Vedic and non 10 Viseṣāvaśyaka-bhāṣya, 1554-56 11 Chandogyopaniṣad, 7:1:3 12 Taittiriya Upanisad, II/1/5 13 Ibid, II/6 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #75 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL Vedic origin. Bhagvadgitā talks of the unity of ātman and God. It makes a clear distinction between the self and spirit and matter or the material world. According to Bhagvadgītā, ātman is eternal, unborn, all pervasive, ancient, unman fest and unthinkable. It is identical with supreme Lord. ! Lord Mahāvīra proved the existence of soul on the ground of doubt. He argued that without a doubter who is beyond all kinds of doubt but still remains in all doubts, no doubt is possible. Doubt presupposes the existence of a doubter as its ground. That ground is soul, a self, a sentient being, and a conscious principle. If the object which one has doubt in certainly non-existent, who has a doubt as to whether I do exist or I do not exist? Oh Gautama! When you yourself are doubtful about yourself what can be free from doubt? What is directly experienced needs no other proof, such as pleasure, pain etc.. Lord Mahāvīra in Ācārānga-sūtra says, “One who knows one, knows all.“ In Uttarādhyayana-sūtra, in his last teachings, Lord Mahāvīra says, Soul is the doer and destroyer of deeds, soul is the friend and soul is the enemy." 17 A body (being a statue made of physical elements, viz. earth, water, etc.) is insentient. Hence it cannot have feeling: “I am happy, I am unhappy'. If the body treated as 'a corpse' not have the light of cognition? And why is such a body not considered to be sentient being? As a matter of fact, the qualities, viz., cognition, desire, feeling, etc. are not found in the dead body. This proves that the body is not the substratum of these qualities. There should be some other qualities to reside in. This substratum is ‘soul' (ātman), whereas the body constituted of element matter, viz., earth, water, 14 Bhagvadgītā, II.18, 0-22 Ganadharavāda, 6 10 Ācārānga-sutra, 1.1.1 "Appẫkattāvikattaya, Uttarādhyayana-sutra, 20-37 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #76 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” fire and air is physical and hence insentient. The physical body being insentient cannot be the substratum of qualities of cognition, desire, feeling etc., just as the physical objects like pots, clothes etc., being insentient cannot be the substratum of these qualities. There are five senses-organs! in a body but the soul is different from them. The soul cognizes colour etc. through the sense organs. It sees colour with eyes, experiences taste with tongue, grasps smell with nose, hears words with ears and cognizes touch with skin. Soul cognizes colour, etc., with sense organs, but the cogniser, the soul, is different from the sense organs. Moreover, sometimes it is seen that the qualities such as sensation, perception, memory, etc. are absent even when the body is present as in sound sleep, death, etc. From this it is evident that the body is not necessarily related to mental activities, i.e. there is some substance other than the body and that is soul. Also, body as material (pudgala) cannot by itself account for consciousness. If the body as a whole does not possess consciousness as an attribute of its various parts, consciousness, which is found associated with the body, must be the characteristic of the soul, which associates itself with the body. The soul's association with the body brings consciousness to it and disassociation of the soul brings about absence of consciousness in the body. This indicates clearly that consciousness is the essential characteristic of the soul or the self. Hence the Jaina conception of the soul is thus understood in terms of consciousness, its essential characteristic. Shrimad Vijaya Laxman Suri says “most important characteristic of soul is its consciousness. In fact, consciousness is the essence of soul. In our 18 Tattvārtha-sūtra, II.20 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #77 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL daily affair, the same consciousness is called as "life" and according to the sacred scriptures also the soul is characterized by life." ! J. L. Jaini, explaining the nature and characteristic of soul (Jīva) writes, “The soul is a dravya, therefore, like every other dravya it is also eternal. Its peculiar attributes are perception and knowledge. It is different from karma or matter, therefore immaterial. It has identified with matter therefore it assumes body, to which it must fit. It is responsible for its karma, because it has power to get rid of them all. It must reap the harvest of all seeds that it has sown; and therefore, must remain in the field of saṁsāra, or a cycle of existence. And still all these evils are self-assumed; and in its pure condition the soul is Siddha."-20 Things seen by the visual sense-organ in the past are remembered neither by the visual sense-organ nor by any other sense-organ. Soul can remember the things experienced or seen in the past because the past experience has left behind its impression, which soul continues to retain and carry with it, and it is these impressions when revived, give rise to memory of the things which was the object of that experience. It is observed that the acts performed by a person do not give their fruits to that person in his entire life and that the fruits he enjoyed in his entire life are not the fruits of the act he performed. So we are left with no other alternate but to postulate on the one hand a previous life before the present birth. Where lay the causes (good or bad act) of the fruits he experienced in the present birth and also to posit on the other hand a life beyond the death of the present body, where he will enjoy the fruits of the acts performed in present birth. And we can easily understand that, that which was in previous birth, is in the present one and will be in the next one, can neither be "'Shrimad Vijaya Laxman Suri, “Philosophy of soul", (1963), P-4 20J.L. Jaini, “Outlines of Jainism”, (1979), P-18 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #78 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 62 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" body nor the sense organs, but something else. This something else is a sentient (capable of perceiving senses) substance, the soul. Acts are momentary and give their fruits through their impressions, which serve as a link between acts and fruits, and acts leave their impressions on the soul. These impressions remain associated with the soul till the souls enjoy or suffer their fruits at destined time. These impressions are material and called karma. Some people who are happy while others are miserable, some are intelligent while others are dull, some are rich while others are poor, and some are masters while others are servant. Infinite inequalities and difference exist here in this world. These irregularities, abnormality and differences are governed by the cause called karma". In this way Jaina and other philosophers have proved the existence of karma and the existence of karma automatically proves the existence of Soul. Therefore when the existence of soul and karma is understood, existence of life after death (Paraloka) can be easily convinced. 21 22 "The Soul is not an exclusive possession of human being, according to Jainism. It allows the soul principle to extend to all the living things of the universe.' With reference to existences of the soul, Nahar writes, "It is these souls in plasma that lie scattered in every nook and corner of the universe and each is the doer of good and bad deeds to reap the consequences of which each takes the repetition of birth and deaths according to the merit of own karma and thus traverses through the various grades (gatis) of Saṁsāra. Heaven, hell and a purgatory of ultimately release itself from the fetters of bondage by dissipation of its own karma whereupon it becomes pure and perfect and fixed as it were in the region of 'Aloka' (non-loka)." 23 21 Pañcāstikāya, V.27 22Dr. G.N. Joshi, Ātmā and Mokṣa, (1965), P-229 23 Nahar and Ghosh : An Epitome of Jainism, P-279 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #79 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL III. (ii) Classification of Soul Early Jaina thinkers first made a distinction between the animate (jīva) and inanimate (ajīva) objects to explain the mysteries of life in this universe. “These two categories were further analyzed and classified, and there is reason to believe that the original classification was made from purely scientific point of view”. The soul was further classified in two broad category i.e. (1) Transmigratory (samsārī) and (2) Liberated (mukta).- Liberated (Mukta) Soul Liberated (mukta) soul means the soul which is free from all kinds of karmas,o cycles of birth and death i.e.; never to born again. It has no shape, no colour, no smell, no taste, no weight, no touch, no rebirth and no attachment. It is neither male nor female. All liberated souls are essentially equal and none of them enjoy any privileges. Transmigratory (samsāri) Soul Those who transmigrate in the world from birth to birth are called saṁsārī. Term saṁsārī is derived from Sanskrit root "sr" prefixed with the preposition ‘sam. Sỉ means to go, to wander or to transmigrate and preposition ‘sam’ is simply to strengthen this meaning. So the meaning of term “saṁsāra” is wandering, transmigration etc. Saṁsārī also means souls who are attached to their corporeal bodies or birth or souls state of bondage with Karma. The meaning of term saṁsārī also can be ‘eighty four lac birthtypes (species) or yoni' four main birth-types (species) which are: 24 Bhagavati-sūtra, XXV.2, XXV.4 - Tattvārtha-sūtra, II.10 26 lbid, X.3 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #80 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Human existence (manusya-gati) Animal existence (tiryañca-gati) Celestial existence (deva-gati) Infernal existence (Nāraka-gati) The Saṁsārī or transmigratory souls are divided into two main classes- mobile (trasa) and immobile (sthāvara). Mobile souls can voluntarily move from one place to another in order to seek pleasure and avoid pain. Immobile souls cannot move voluntary from one place to another in order to seek pleasure and avoid pain. The characteristic of all these organisms is the possession of vitalities (prāņa), which are ten in number: five senses, three powers of body, speech and mind, respiration and the life span (āyusya). Out of these, the four vitalities must be present in every living being, e.g. the finest, lowest amoeba possesses the sense of touch, bodily power by which it moves respiration and the life- span. As we ascend the scale of beings, the vitalities grow till we reach the man with all five senses, three powers (body, speech and mind), respiration and life span. One Sensed Soul: Five types of immobile soul have one sense organ, invariably connected with the sense of touch. These souls include earth-bodied, water-bodied, fire-bodied, air-bodied and plant-bodied. These are also called one-sensed souls.' One-sensed immobile souls are again divided into two classes- subtle and gross. The subtle one sensed souls- earth, water, fire, air and plant-bodied are present everywhere in the universe and their bodies are very subtle and imperceptible. The gross one sensed souls- earth, water, fire, air and plant-bodied are amenable to visual perception. 21 Tattvārtha-sūtra, II.13 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #81 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL 65 Souls with bodies of various forms of earth, viz. stone, clay, etc. which have not suffered attack of friction, collision, cutting, etc. are to be understand as gross earth-bodied soul. Souls with bodies of various forms of water, viz. well water, river water, pond water, step well water, etc. which are not attacked by fire or not influenced by mixing some other substance with it are to be regarded as grosswater-bodied souls. Similarly, souls whose bodies are lamp, fire, lightning etc. are gross fire-bodied souls. Souls, whose bodies are tree, its branches, sub-branches, twigs, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, bulbous roots, etc., are gross plant-bodies souls. When above-mentioned forms of living beings on earth are attacked by cutting, colliding, piercing, baking, etc.; souls depart from these leaving dead and soulless. Similarly, when water is boiled or mixed with sugar, etc. becomes dead and soulless. Even different forms of vegetation become dead and soulless when they are cut, burnt, etc. The above discussion is about one sensed soul (Ekendriyajiva) who possesses only one organ of touch. Early Jaina observers saw the emergence of life everywhere from the element of earth, water, fire and air. Life manifested in vegetative forces became a special subject of study, for it provided better scope of observation. Strange to say that from the Jaina doctrine of microscopic being filling the whole universe, some scholars are led to believe that Jainism is a very primitive since it believes that nearly everything is possessed of a soul; not only have plants their own souls but particles of earth, water, fire and air also. Thus Jaina philosophy is called sometimes animistic philosophy; however, Jaina scripture reveals that Jainism is not an animistic faith. “Jaina philosophy does not teach that everything from the solar system to the dew-drops has a soul.”-The whole universe is packed with the 28 Jacobi, ‘Jaina Sūtras’, Part 11, P-XXXIII For Personal & Private Use Only Page #82 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" minute beings imbued with souls. In fact, there are souls even in the inorganic objects like metals and stones. Two-Sensed Souls: Two-sensed souls also called 'dvīndriya-jīva possesses the organs of taste and touch. This category belongs to the animals-worms, things living in shells, leeches, earthworms etc. Three-Sensed Souls: Three sensed souls or trīndriya-jīvas possess touch, taste and smell. This includes various kinds of ants, moths, etc. Four-Sensed Souls: Four-sensed soul or caturendriya-jīvas possess touch, taste, smell and sight and these include wasp, scorpions, and mosquitoes, flies' locusts, butterflies etc. Five-Sensed Souls: Five-sensed soul or pañcendriya-jīvas have touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing. In this category mainly quadrupeds and bipeds are included." The animals possessing five organs of sense are of two kinds: those who originate by coagulation and those born from womb. “Men are of two kinds: originating by coagulation and born from the womb.931 The aforesaid classification of soul is based upon direct observation and keen scientific approach. Later on, however, owing to dogmatic influence and especially as a means to explain and justify the theory of karma different types of classification have been derived. The five-sensed Jīvas were classified into four divisions: hellish beings, lower animals, human beings and demigods. The other modes of classification led to the following divisions: 2'Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, “Indian Philosophy”, Vol.-I, P-322 3° Tattvārtha-sūtra,II.15 31 Ibid 11.36 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #83 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL 1. 2. 3. Liberated and mundane (Siddha and Saṁsārī) Born in hell (Nārakī), Lower animal (Tiryaka), Human Being (Manusya) and Spirits, gods and demons (Devatā) Hell-being male lower animals, female lower animals, male human beings, female human being, male demigods and female demigods. The five sub-divisions of one, two, three, four and five sensed jīvas. 4. Living Matter (sacitta) and Lifeless Matter (acitta): The division of living matter (sacitta) and lifeless matter (acitta), according to Jainism, is a noteworthy in this connection. As long as a piece of rock has the vitalities and possesses the capacity of growing, it comes under the category of immobile organism. But when this rock is taken out, it loses all vitalities together with its capacity of growing, coming in contact with dissimilar objects, such as water, air, etc. It is then called acitta and it possesses no more a soul. The same is the case with water-bodied, fire-bodied, and plant-bodied soul. To take another example, water is a living-matter according to Jaina biology, but when it is taken out of the well and heated, it loses all the characteristic of a jīva. Similarly, a fruit, as long as it is green, is a living-matter, but it becomes dead matter or ajīva when it is ripe. Thus, it is very clear that Jainism is not animist in the sense that “everything is possessed of soul,"27 but on the other hand it makes a clear distinction between soul and non-soul. As regards life in vegetable kingdom, Jainism holds a very important view. "Though some other Indian philosophers admit that the plants possess souls, the Jaina thinkers have developed this theory in remarkable way.” Jainism holds that the plants may be the body of one soul (pratyeka) or it may possess a multitude of embodied souls (sādhāraṇa). In former case, the plants are always gross, while in latter the being are very subtle and invisible and they possess a common body and have their respiration and nourishment in common, but are otherwise separate and distinct from each other. For Personal & Private Use Only Page #84 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” These beings are technically called monads (nigodas). It is said that these organisms are in the lowest and most miserable condition of existence. They supply souls to the vacant spaces caused by liberated souls. The Jaina philosophers were great observers of nature. They had a direct approach to nature. They loved nature as they loved their own self. That is why they could see souls not only in earth, water and plant but also even in substance like fire and air. Jaina philosophers do not take ordinary view of these jīvas but they go into deeper and greater details and place before us such a remarkable and minute description of the little beings, as was not attempted by any other philosopher in ancient India. The Jaina scripture are full of these details. Indeed all this shows the “all merciful spirit of Jaina Ācāryas who maintained “all breathing, existing, living, sentient creature should not be slain, nor treated with violence, non-abused nor tormented, nor driven away.” Some Unique Characteristic of Soul: The various psychic phenomena, which are the manifestations of consciousness, are, in terms of contemporary psychology “active states and these imply the existence of a concrete agent, the self or the soul (jīva). The self is non-material since its activities are selfdetermined and spontaneous. Were it to be made of matter, its activities would have been determined from outside and it would not have been capable of immaterial thought activities, hence it is held that the self or the ‘soul is both substantial and non-material in nature. William James, a philosopher implies that a non-material conception of a soul is not unacceptable." Soul as Equal in Extent to Its Body: Soul is said to be equal in extent to its own body. It is unique conception of Jaina. A thing must 32 Ācārānga,1. IV.I For Personal & Private Use Only Page #85 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL be where its quality found. A soul is not all pervasive, because its qualities are not found everywhere. Infinite Souls in the World: Souls in this world are infinite (ananta) in number, so at no time in future the number of souls will become nil. Since many souls have attained liberation, the question arises in the mind that at one time world might get emptied of souls. No system of Indian philosophy will think that or endorse a view that the world at some time will become empty of souls, because the infinity has no measure. Variety of Souls: Jainism is a pluralistic system and teaches the reality of an infinite number of selves. This view is radically different from the monistic Vedānta doctrine of the reality of one absolute self. Jainism rejects the notion of one absolute soul and believes that each body possesses a different soul and hence there are many souls. One soul cannot occupy more than one body. If there were only one soul, there would be nothing like happiness, misery, bondage and emancipation. Therefore, all souls are different. One never becomes another or absorbs another. Every self is proportionate with the body it occupies. So they are not one but many. The mundane self is capable of adjusting its size according to its body as light illuminates a large or small space of room." Apart above classification, some more classifications of soul are prominent in Jainism. Some texts divide multitude of the soul into two classes-paryāpta (developed) and aparyāpta (undeveloped). "4 In several Jaina texts three forms of the self are distinguished, i.e. External Self (bahirātmā), Internal Self (antarātma) and Supreme self (paramātmā)”. 33 Tattvārtha-sūtra, V.16 ** Gommațasāra, Jivakānda, V.72 Paramātmaprakāśa, 1.12.14, Samayasāra, V.25, Samadhitantra, 7.11.13 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #86 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" The external self, out of ignorance and attachment, take the body for the self. It says, “I am the body and the physical objects are mine. The internal self, that is mind, is aware of the difference between the self and non-self. It knows that the self is the supreme reality, free from objectivity and untouched by sense enjoyment. The word Paramātmā denotes the real and ultimate form of the supreme which is pure, perfect and luminous. Such a soul is called siddha or perfected. This is the last stage of the spiritual development. III. (iii) Stages of Spiritual Development: A way to Godhood The soul has inherent capacity of emancipation to attain Godhood but this capacity remains dormant and inactive unless and until it gets an opportunity for expression. Sometimes intrusions or association with those who have realized the truth or sometimes automatically soul realizes it. Tīrthankara, the soul who is enlightened and omniscient, reveals and preaches this inherent capacity of soul to others. Soul always have tendency to run away from the cycle of the world existence but this is counter acted by the forces of passion of affection (rāga) and aversion (dveșa) and other perverted attitude (mithyātva). However, the soul, during the course of its eternal wandering in various forms of existence, sometimes gets an indistinct vision of it and feels to realize itself. This feeling some time leads to spiritual development and eventually its emancipation. But the forces of passions attached with the soul from eternity, obstruct its goal. During the struggle from forces of passions soul get attached to the karmic matter. Function of karmic matter is to delude the soul's right attitude towards predilection or truth. As the spiritual strength of soul develops by being attentive to cause of karma bondage, it starts advancing towards its goal and sooner or later within a limited time it gets emancipated. 36 Samădhitantra, 5.15.27, 30, 37 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #87 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL 71 Karmas bind the soul due to perversity of attitude (mithyātva), non-abstinence (avirati), spiritual inertia (pramāda), passion (kaņāya) and also three-fold activities of body, speech and mind (yoga). The stages of spiritual development in which the jīva reduces inauspicious karma and develops auspicious karmas to get the final emancipation, is called states of virtue i.e. Guņasthāna. Here the word 'virtue' does not mean an ordinary moral quality but stands for the true nature of soul which is knowledge, belief and conduct." During the stages of spiritual development, the soul frees itself from all kinds of karmas and manifests its natural qualities of knowledge, belief and conduct in perfect form. The State of Virtue 'Guņasthāna': The whole scheme of 'Guņasthāna’ is devised in a logical order to decrease sinfulness and increase purity of the soul. The detailed descriptions of these stages are as follows: 1. Mithyādęsti This is the lowest stage of spiritual development of a soul. It is the state of perversity of attitude towards truth or wrong belief. At this stage, a soul (jiva) has very minimum indistinct enlightens. Even souls, which have experienced spiritual vision on account of absolute suppression and subsidence of the vision deluding karmas, can fall down to this stage on the rise of the relevant karmas. 2. Sāsvādana Samyagdrsti Sādana means that which slackens or weakens. This stage is the stage characterized by the fall from right faith. When at the end of the dawn of right faith or enlightenment, the most intense passions rise, the soul falls down from the right faith (enlightenment) to this stage. Sometimes, the soul climbing up the "Tatraguņāhjñānadarśanacāritraupanjivas vabhavvisesan” Karma Grantha, 11.2 (Commentary) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #88 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” ladder of subsidence also falls down to this stage. The soul does not pass on to second from the first, but only halts at it while falling down from higher stage of spiritual development." 3. Miśradęsti At this stage soul goes through peculiar internal transformation, where in there is a rise of semi-pure heap of vision deluding karmas, a mixture of truth and false which last only for a short period and then the soul attains wrong or right belief, and afterward it either falls back to the first stage or rises up to a higher stage. 39 4. Avirati Samyagdęsti Meaning of the term is right faith'. The soul at this stage has acquired right vision but lacking spiritual strength, and so, in spite of knowledge and the will it cannot abstain from the wrong path. Soul is lacking in capacity for spiritual self-control in conformity with vision. At this stage right vision could be due to subsidence of the vision deluding karmas or due to annihilation of the four lifelong passions. If the soul obtains energy for self-control, it can rise to the next stage. 40 5. Deśavirata Deśavirata means to practice properly the householder's vows of right vision with capacity for partial abstinence. At this stage the soul is not capable of complete abstinence from immoral deeds on account of the rise of the third type of passions, which obscure the capacity of total abstinence. In this stage the soul does not have full energy for self-control. Those states by which, arising in them at the maturity, etc. of karmas the spiritual position of souls is recognized and determined, are by the allseeing ones designated by the names guņas, Gommațasāra, Jiva-kānda, 8 39 Ibid., 26 40 Labdhisāra, 107 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #89 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL 6. Pramatta Samyata Monks, in this stage, take great vows and there is a complete abstinence from un-virtuous acts, however there does exist lethargy or carelessness (Pramāda). Pramāda means negligence of religious acts or acts of duty; not performing them or performing them carelessly. Pramāda is due to rise of mild passion, which is there in soul up to tenth Guņasthāna.“! 7. Apramatta-Samyata This is the stage of spiritual inertia and lethargy. Eleven the self-controlled monk fluctuates between the state of spiritual lethargy and that of spiritual vigilance and vigor. In this stage, all careless conducts are stopped and practice of vows becomes perfect and faultless. 8. Apūrvakaraņa ‘Karaņa' means activity of soul. In this stage, soul attains special purification and is capable of reducing the duration and intensity of the previously bound karmas and binds new karmas of reduced duration and intensity. From this stage onward begins the process of either suppression or annihilation of the karmas, and increase in purity of soul more rapidly. The stage is called apūrva because the soul performs these processes with a vigor and rapidity unprecedented (apūrva) in its history. 9. Anivștti Bādara Samparāya Unprecedented spiritual favor and vigor already attained in the previous stage, here become uniform in all souls climbing up the same ladder of suppression or annihilation. 4 Gommatasāra, 32 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #90 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 74 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" 10. Sūkṣma-Samparāya Sūkṣma means subtle and samparāya means passions in general but in the present context it means a particular passion. At this stage only subtle greed can disturb the soul now and then. Soul is free from the influence of all passions. This subtle greed can be interpreted as the subconscious attachment to the body. 11. Upaśānta-Kaṣāya (Vitarāga Chadmastha) The souls, which had started suppressing conduct deluding karmas of the form of four passions in ninth stage, enter in this stage after suppressing them completely. The subtle greed that was active in the previous stage is also suppressed in this stage and the soul is free from the rise of all types of passions. It has suppressed attachment and hence is known as free from attachment (vītarāga) at this stage. Souls who have attained this stage, invariably fall down to some lower stage on the rise of suppressed passions. 12. Kșiņamoha This stage is the summit of the ladder of annihilation where No. 11" stage is the summit of the ladder of subsidence. At this stage of spiritual development, the soul enters into the pure trance (sukla-samādhi) or the highest meditation and totally destroys all sub-types of knowledge-deluding, intuition-deluding and obstructive (antarāya) karmas. In this stage after annihilation of all types of karmas, the soul becomes absolutely free from all the four types of obstructing (ghātiā) karmas, and as a result attains (kevala-jñāna) omniscience. 13. Sayogakevali The term 'sayoga' means possessed of yoga. The term ‘yoga?42 in Jaina philosophy is used as a technical term. It means activity of the mind, speech and body. Even after the attainment of 4-Activities of mind, body and speech (Yoga), Tattvārtha-sūtra, VI. 1 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #91 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL 75 omniscience, a jiva performs mental, vocal and bodily activities. He walks, speaks having three-fold activities and hence is called “sayoga'and since he is possessed of kevala-jñāna (omniscience), he is called 'kevalī”. Thus he is sayoga-kevali or according to other Indian philosophical systems, he is jīvanamukta (the liberated-while living). In this stage, the soul out of five conditions of bondage viz. perversity, non-abstinence, spiritual inertia, passions and activity; annihilates the first four. The last one however still remains. The soul is now omniscient (kevalin) and has attained full and perfect intuition and spiritual energy. There is however still the rise and existence of the four non-destructive karmas, viz. feeling producing (vedanīya), longevity-determining (āyusya), body-making (nāma), and the status determining (gotra). There is also the three-fold activity of body, speech and the mind. But there is no new bondage leading to worldly life. Now the soul prepares for stoppage of activity, gross and subtle. 14. Ayogi Kevali Ayogi means absence of activities of body, speech and mind and kevalin means omniscience. This stage is a highest state of virtue, which is a transitory state leading to a stage of absolute motionlessness, and lasting only for a short time. It is immediately followed by final emancipation, which is consummation of spiritual development and attainment of Godhood. To stop all activities, soul at first stops the gross activities of speech and mind by gross activity of the body. Then it stops the gross activity of the body as well as the subtle activities of mind and sense organs of speech by subtle activity of the body. Then, soul enters the third stage of śukla-dhyāna, which is accompanied by subtle vibration. Due to this dhyāna the soul contract and fills the cavities created by embodied state. It is now reduced. Then it enters the fourth stage of the sukla-dhyāna, which is bereft, (deprived of life) and all vibration. Soul is now as motionless as a mountain rock For Personal & Private Use Only Page #92 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" (śailesi) and here all karmas are annihilated. This state of absolute motionlessness is the fourteenth stage of ayoga-kevalin, a state of pure meditation which lasts as long as is necessary “to pronounce five short syllables (a, i, u, ?, ?) and the liberated soul goes to the end of universe which is called Siddhasilā.” It dwells there without visible shape. There it enjoys infinite, incomparable and indestructible with supernatural happiness of salvation. The soul in its perfect nature is God. Every soul has got the innate nature of Godliness and it can attain that state of God. Bondage and Liberation Jaina fundamentals are closely connected with Jaina conception of karma. The term “karma' means a mental, vocal or bodily act as also a trace or impression that it leaves and acts on the soul. Doctrine of karma is common to most of the philosophical systems of India and it is accepted universally in Indian thought. But to Jainas, it has a special significance. Ordinarily, karma means human action. It is a general conception of Indian philosophers that sorrow and happiness are the result of good or bad actions performed by the doer in this life or in other life. But in Jainism karma is conceived as something essentially materials which get attached to the soul just as dust get attached to the cloth. Hence the highest goal of Jains or the philosophy of Jainism is to get rid of all old karmas and stop influx of any new karma. Soul as Possessor of Material Karma: Soul is said to be the possessor of material karmas. Some Indian philosophers do regard valid existence of karma or adrsta material while some do not. Lord Mahāvīra told to Agnibhūti that his doubts about the existence of karma are faulty because karma, which is a multitude of paramāņus (atoms), can be established by any one of the pramāņas (means of valid knowledge). This karma is certainly pratyakșa to me. For Personal & Private Use Only Page #93 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL Moreover, its existence is such as can be realized by anyone by means of inference. Hence, it is not justifiable to believe that no pramāņa can establish its existence. The karma is either good or bad. The good karma makes us experience happiness, whereas the bad karma misery. There is kāraņa (cause) for experiencing happiness and misery, since it is a kārya (effect). It is of no use arguing that since the karma is not pratyaksa to everybody, it does not exist. There is no rule that what is pratyakṣa to one, should be necessarily so to others. A lion is not pratyakṣa to all but on that account, it is not true to say that the lion does not exist. Therefore, the karma does exist since it is directly perceived by an omniscient being. Moreover, the karma is pratyakṣa to the doubter too, since he realizes its kārya. Just as the body in youth is preceded by a body in childhood, similarly, the body in childhood is preceded by another body. The body prior to that in childhood is karma. ** Following illustrations are conclusive for the fact that karma has a physical form as per Jaina thinkers: Karma has a physical form because of the experience of pleasure, pain etc. The food has physical form, which gives pleasure. Fire has a physical form in association with which burning sensation arises. One experiences pain or pleasure when he is associated with karma, hence, it has a form. Jaina thinkers formulated karma theory to find the answers of the born diversify and inequality prevailed in the world. They question: when all souls are equal by nature, then what causes inequality in them? What explains the born diversity among different individuals? What is it that which gives rise to unequal and vastly diverse states experienced by even one and the same individual at different times? The answers to these questions are that 45 Vrtti on Višeşāvaśyaka-bhāsya, 1611 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #94 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" the inconsistency of life depends on karma. Again, the theory of rebirth is a natural corollary of theory of karma. Every act must necessarily be followed by its consequences. If the consequences of our acts have not been experienced in the present life, they necessarily demand a future life for fruition. The auspicious acts form and leave behind auspicious traces on the soul, which leads the soul happiness, and on the other hand, the inauspicious acts form and leave behind inauspicious traces on soul, which leads soul to misery. Defilement of the soul takes place in the following way: Subtle matter ready to be transformed into karma pours into the soul (jīva); called as influx (āśrava). In the usual state of things a soul harbours passion (kaşāya) which acts like a viscous substance and retains in subtle matter coming into contact with the soul. The subtle matter thus caught by soul enters, as it were, into a chemical combination with it. This is called binding (bandha) of karma matter. Muni Nyāyavijayji defining bondage says that through āśarva contact of karmic matter with soul is called bondage (bandha). Just as water flows into the lake through streams, so also karmic matter flows into soul through the channel of activities of mind, body and speech called as influx (āśrava). Influx is of two types: psychical (bhāva-āśrava) and physical (dravya-āśrava). That modification of consciousness by which karma gets into the soul, is called psychical influx. The karmic matter itself which enters the soul is called physical influx. In other words, psychical influx is nothing but mental, bodily or vocal activities whereas physical influx is a peculiar type of matter. The influx of karma is also divided into virtuous (punya) and sinful (pāpa) activities. The meritorious activities cause the influx of For Personal & Private Use Only Page #95 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL virtuous karmas, while wicked actions are responsible for the inflow of sinful karmas. Bondage is also of two types: psychical (bhāva-bandha) and physical (dravya-bandha). That conscious state by which karma is bound with the soul is called psychical bondage. The contact of the karmic particles with the soul is known as physical bondage. The cause of bondage is due to perverse attitude (mithyādarśana), perverse knowledge (mithyā-jñāna) and perverse conduct (mithyā-cāritra). The worldly existence is due to the joint working of these three and so it is the destruction of all these three that leads to emancipation. Perversity of knowledge and conduct depends upon the perversity of attitude. The perverse attitude (mithyā-darśana) defiles, as it were, the very texture of soul and it is but natural that all functions of the soul becomes defiled. Purification of attitude (darśana), therefore, is regarded as the purification of knowledge (jñāna) and conduct (cāritra). The Āvaśyaka-niryukti44 says that conduct (cāritra) is the fulfillment of scriptural knowledge, while emancipation (nirvāņa) is the fulfillment of conduct. One, even though possessed of scriptural knowledge does not attain emancipation, if fails to bear the austerities or tapas and samyama (restraints), which constitute right conduct. Just a vessel, although having expert pilot does not cross the great ocean and reaches the shore desired by the trader in the absence of the wind, in the same way a soul-vessel, although competent, being possessed of knowledge (jñāna) as its guide, does not reach abode of the emancipated souls in the absence of wind of spiritual penance and restraints. Training and discipline of the intellect without the training and discipline of the will do not lead to freedom. * Višeşāvasyaka-bhāsya, 1126 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #96 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 80 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” As the donkey carrying sandalwood enjoys only the weight and not the sandalwood itself, exactly so does one possessed of knowledge (jñāna) without will, enjoys only the knowledge and not its consummation viz. emancipation. Futile indeed is knowledge without will (kriyā). Even so is will without knowledge. Knowledge enlightens, penance purifies and restraint protects. Even omniscience is not immediately followed by emancipation. Right knowledge and spiritual discipline (kriyā) are equally necessary for emancipation. Soul possess a number of capacities such as consciousness, vision, knowledge, intuition, energy, bliss and the like, which are obstructed by different karmas, and result is worldly existence. These capacities find expressions in their mutilated and imperfect form while the soul is in bondage. On attainment of emancipation, the soul reveals these capacities in their natural form. When the capacity of right vision (samyak-darśana) is obstructed, there emerges mithya-darśana. When the capacity of right knowledge (samyak-jñāna) is mutilated, it is called mithyājñāna. When the energy of the soul is obstructed, there emerges mithyā-cāritra. Bondage, in the ultimate analysis, consists in the obstructed and mutilated condition of the various capacities of soul. The soul has these capacities as a matter of common experience. On many occasions, we feel that there is something wrong in our attitude, that there is some flaw in our knowledge, that there is some check in our energy. On many occasions, again, we become conscious of our capacity for right vision, infinite knowledge and our strength against the corruptions of the world. On the basis of these experiences, we can postulate different capacities of the soul, and this is what Jaina thinkers did. Capacities of soul are obstructed in various ways due to various causes. These capacities can be classified into three groups, For Personal & Private Use Only Page #97 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL viz. right attitude, right knowledge and right conduct, their corresponding mutilated forms being perverted attitude, perverted knowledge, and perverted conduct. 81 The soul, for the Jainas, undergoes changes every moment without losing its identity. The soul has a number of potencies; each moment of its existence is an integration of those potencies. The nature of karmic body is determined by this integrated existence of the soul at any moment. The soul is pure and perfect in its intrinsic nature. It is due to only its relation with karmas that is the soul comes in contact with passions (kaṣāyas). The relation of soul with passions is beginning less. Inauspicious mental states cause bondage of inauspicious karmic matter, and auspicious mental states cause the bondage of auspicious karmic matter. But the attachment free pure mental state causes no bondage what so ever. Hence this is the reason why mind is regarded as the one of the causes of liberation. The omniscient one stands, sits, speaks, walks etc. like any ordinary man and performs other activities too, yet he does not bind karmas. His activities are caused by attachment free mental state (passionless universal affection) and hence they do not cause bondage of karmas. Stoppage of the inflow of karmic matter into the soul is called 'samvara'. A pure and highly spiritual internal state of soul, causing control and restraint of the mental, vocal and bodily activities, can affect the stoppage of karmic matter. The partial disassociation of karmic matter is called 'nirjara'. It is also of two kinds: psychical and physical. The cessation of activities that leads to transmigration is psychical stoppage (bhāva-saṁvara). Dissociation of the karmic particle with soul is also psychical as well as physical. That modification of consciousness by which karmic matter (bondage) partially disappears is called psychical dissociation. Thus dissociation For Personal & Private Use Only Page #98 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" is regarded as partial destruction of the karmas that are bound with the soul. Dissociation takes place in two ways: 1. Removal of karmas timely after its fruition and 2. Destruction of karmic matter through penance etc. before actual time of fruition. The annihilation of all karmas is liberation. That modification of soul, which is the cause of the total destruction of karmas, is known as psychical liberation (bhāva-mokṣa) and the actual separation of karmic matter with the soul is called physical liberation (dravya-mokṣa). In the state of liberation, i.e. selfattainment, inflow of new karmas is totally stopped in absence of their causes. The soul exists in to pure and perfect state. It attains its natural form and possesses infinite knowledge and infinite bliss. The expansion or contraction of the soul is determined by the physique making karma. Since there is no physique making karma in the state of emancipation, there is neither expansion nor contraction of soul in liberation. The emancipated soul, maintains the form of its last physique forever Liberation (mokşa): The liberation means freedom from all currents of transmigration. It cannot be described by words. “All sounds recoil thence. Where speculation has no room, the mind cannot penetrate there. 9:45 The liberated soul has no shape, no colour, no smell, no taste, no weight, no touch, no rebirth, and no attachment. It is neither male, nor female, nor otherwise. There is no analogy. It is formless existence (arūvi-sattā). In liberation the soul is totally and absolutely free from all karmas and consequently established in its pure and pristine state. 46 * Savvesarāniyattanti, maitakka.., Ācārāngasūtra, 1.5.6 46. Tattvārtha-sūtra, X.2 X.3 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #99 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL Soul moves upward and when reaches the end of the universe, it stops there and rests there. It cannot move further upward because beyond the upper limit of the universe there is no medium of motion, an assisting cause to the motion of soul. Nor it can move back downward, because it has no weight, nor sideways, because it is devoid of any urge generated by karmas. The bliss or happiness that the liberated soul experience is not conditioned and perverted any more. It is eternal, infinite and pure. It is indescribable and matchless. All sensual pleasures taken together of all three world are nothing before the highest natural bliss of the liberated one. Some have doubt in their mind as to how can there be any pleasure or happiness in the state where there is total absence of all means of sensual pleasure? But how can we forget that all the miseries a soul experiences in the world, are due to its desire for sensual pleasures. Afflictions due to desire for sensual pleasures are the only afflictions that we find in the world. The reason why we enjoy sweet and delicious dishes is that we are afflicted with hunger. When one's belly is full, one does not like even the nectar-sweet food. We do not like to wear in scorching heat of the summer those very clothes which we like to wear in winter. One, who has sat for long, wishes to walk and one, who is tired of walking, wishes to sit down and rest. Enjoyment of sensual pleasure which seems favorable in the beginning appears unfavorable. How queer are the events in this world? Do the objects that we regard as means of happiness produce any positive happiness besides some relief? When a suppurated boil bursts, we experience relief. But that is no real positive happiness but merely subsidence of pain. Thus the pleasure we experience in sensual enjoyment, is nothing but subsidence of pain and distress. For Personal & Private Use Only Page #100 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Bhartrhari, an exponent of Hindu Ethics writes in his English rendering of Vairāgyaśataka, 'A person drinks sweet fragrant water when his mouth is dry with thirst. He eats rice mixed with vegetables, etc. when he is afflicted with pain of hunger; he strongly embraces a woman, when he is burning with sex desire'l. He wrongly regards the subsidence of disease (miseries) as positive happiness. And how long does this sensual pleasure continues? It is perishable and momentary. Within a moment it disappears and a whirlwind of miseries, afflictions and distress rises. And that slight sensual pleasure is not a positive state of happiness, but simply a negative condition of the absence of misery. Again, it is always mixed with grief and sorrow. Are there in this world only a few distress and agonies due to attachment and aversion? Are there only a few grieve caused by desires and anger? Are there only a few attacks of diseases and sorrows? Are all these situations pleasant? Is the degree of distress and dissatisfaction not infinite times more than that of peace and satisfactions? One who is suffering from eczema, experiences pleasure in scratching skin affected with. Others do not have any desire to scratch skin, nor do they experience pleasure in doing so. Similarly, those who are afflicted with desire arising from delusion or nescience, find pleasure in activities inspired by it. 47 Referred to by Muni Shri Nyāyavijayaji, “Jaina Philosophy and Religion”, (1998), P-30 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #101 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL 85 But how can others (i.e. those free from delusion, nescience and hence from attachment or the liberated ones) find pleasure in such activities? Sensual pleasure experienced in enjoyment of worldly objects is like the pleasure experienced in scratching skin affected with eczema. The liberated souls, who are completely cured of the disease of delusion, always remain blissfully engrossed in their pure natural state. Such bliss as is there in the absolutely pure state of soul (i.e. in liberation) is ultimately real, perfectly pure and completely unmixed with sorrow. The Indian philosophers have given to such absolutely pure, supremely blissful and perfectly luminous (i.e. omniscient) souls various names, viz. śuddha (the pure), Buddha (the enlightened), siddha (the perfect), nirañjana (the unstained) etc. Liberation is attained through human body only. Heavenly gods are by nature lacking in restraint and so it is not possible for them to attain the supreme state of liberation directly from their state of godhood. All worldly souls are divided into two major categories, viz. the bhavyas and abhavyas. The bhavyas are those who are capable of attaining liberation whereas abhavyas are not capable of attaining liberation. Liberation Everlasting and Endless: Liberation is not something producible. Liberation is nothing but removal of all karmas from the soul. No new thing (quality) is produced in it, so there is no question of its destruction or end. When the clouds move away, the bright sun shines in its fullness. Similarly, when all types of karmas are removed from the soul, all its qualities get fully manifested. Now the soul is manifested fully in its original nature, which is luminous For Personal & Private Use Only Page #102 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" and sentient. This is liberation. Thus in liberation, nothing is produced which may be destroyed. The soul that has attained absolute purity on total removal of all karmas, it never again binds any karma and consequently is never born again in this world. When a seed is completely burnt, no sprout is produced from it. Similarly when the seed of karma is burnt, the sprout of birth does not grow out of it. The cycle of birth and death depends on soul's bondage with karmas, and bondage depends on the density of attachment, aversion and delusion. How can the souls, absolutely pure and free from the defilement of karmas can again be associated with attachment, aversion and delusion? How can the liberated soul get bound again with karmas? Hence thinkers consider it to be absolutely impossible for the liberated soul to be born again in the world and thus to be caught again in the cycle of birth and death. III. (V) Jaina and Non-Jaina Conception of Soul The Upanișadic literature quotes the soul as intelligent luminous self-existing in the heart as small as a grain of rice or barley, and it is ruler of all this whatever exists. Also being infinite by nature and not restricted to any part of the body but occupying all space, the soul is eternal, all-pervading (vibhu), omnipresent, subtle, and imperishable. It is the origin of all beings. The wise alone can perceive it. The whole Indian Philosophy with exception of Cārvākas is unanimous on the existence of the soul; however, there are radical differences in the concept of soul of the different schools of philosophy. For Personal & Private Use Only Page #103 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL 87 The Sūtrakrtānga" records a number of old doctrines regarding soul, creation and morality. There were some who regarded soul as an evolutes of five material elements viz. earth, water, fire, air and ether and regarded it perishable with the dissolution of the elements. Some held that the intelligent principle (vinnu) appeared in various shapes in the universe." There were again some who regarded soul as the sixth element and contended that both the world and soul were eternal; further more they believed in determinism, 'according to which human action is not free but determined by motives regarded as external forces acting on the will (hetu-mülakavāda). Another group believed in five momentary aggregates (skandhas), which were regarded, neither as different, nor as identical, nor as caused, nor as uncaused. The common term to denote this self is ātman, which is often equated with soul (jīva). The term ātman is also used by the Jains in a restricted sense of self. Sāṁkhya-Yoga calls it purușa and Buddhism calls it nāma-rūpa. Association of ātman is different and distinct in each system of philosophy in transmigratory stage. According to Sāṁkhya-Yoga, soul is peculiarly associated with Prakrti whereas Nyāya-Vaišeșika associates ātman with atoms. Vedānta associates ātman with avidyā or māyā (mithyātva, term used by Jaina) and the Buddhism relates it with nāma-rūpa. Jainas associate ātman or soul with karmic atoms." There is a general agreement among almost all systems of Indian philosophy with regards to the existence of the soul or self; however, there is a wide divergence of opinion about its nature. 4 Sūtrakrtānga, 49 Ibid, I. 1.1.15-16 SDr. N.N. Bhattacharya, “Jain Philosophy Historical Outline (P-223) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #104 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM" The Cārvākas identify self with the gross body. The Buddhist conception is ambiguous but they appear to identify the self with momentary streams of consciousness. The Nyāya-Vaišeșikas and a group of Mīmāṁsakas maintain that self is an unconscious substance which may acquire the attribute of consciousness under certain conditions, while another group of Mīmāṁsakas hold that the self is pure eternal consciousness which is one in all bodies. According to the Sāṁkhya the self is a conscious spirit, which is always the subject of any knowledge. All the above-mentioned systems assume in fact, the ātman or self apart from the physical entities like body etc. as casual factor responsible for transmigration. The self may be ubiquitous or nonubiquitous, momentary or eternal, material or immaterial, but there is no dispute among the systems with regards to its connection with the casual factor-ajñāna or avidyā (ignorance) responsible for transmigration. The soul of Jainism is inherently perfect. Infinite knowledge, faith, power and bliss can all be attained by self if it removes from within itself all obstacle that stand in the way. The obstacles are constituted by matter-particles, which infect the self and obscure its natural qualities. This self is non-self-revelatory when it is blinded by passion and self-revelatory when it is free from them. Furthermore, cognition is not an adventitious quality of the soul. It is its natural quality and constitutes its real nature. According to Jainism by nature the soul is cogniser. As cognition is its very nature, in state of liberation, it is manifested in its infinity. Hence, Jaina view differs from the Nyāya-Vaiseșika and other philosopher. Sāṁkhya philosophers maintain that the soul is absolutely changeless, performs no action whatsoever and is not real enjoyer of For Personal & Private Use Only Page #105 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA THEISM AND CONCEPT OF SOUL the fruits of action. Jaina philosophers regard the soul as changing (pariņāmī), doer (kartā) and direct enjoyer (sākṣātbhoktā). It undergoes transformation. It takes births in various species of the four main classes of existence, viz. godly, human, animal and infernal. It passes through different states. It is a doer of actions and directly and primarily an enjoyer of fruits of its actions. Jaina philosophers maintain that the dimension of soul is equal to the body in which it lives or occupies (madhyamaparimāņavādī). This characteristic of soul refutes the view of the Naiyāyikas, Vaišeșikas, Sāmkhyas, and the Mīmāṁsakas who hold that the soul is omnipresent like ether. They believe in the existence of many souls but do not admit that they are in extent to their own bodies. They say that all souls are all pervasive, i.e. present everywhere. It is a unique concept of Jains that soul is of madhyamparimāņa or equal to the body in which it exists. M.L. Mehta argues, “Since Naiyāyikas, Vaiseșikas, Sāṁkhyas and Mīmāṁsakas hold that ātmans are many, and if each of them is vibhu (all-pervasive) also, as they believe, then what a wonderful clash and interpenetration of ātmans would ensue? Moreover, each of them would be the ātman of God Himself and each would thereby become a creator, for they believe that God is the creator of this universe.”'S! Jainism believes that each body possesses a different soul, and hence, there are many souls. It is also held that one body can be occupied by more than one soul but one soul cannot occupy more than one body. Thus, they believe in plurality of souls. On this point Jains differ from Advaita Vedāntins who maintain that soul is one in all bodies. Dr. Mohan Lal Mehta, “Jain Philosophy: An Introduction",P-103 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #106 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 90 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Jainism believes in plurality of the souls. According to Jainas there are infinite jīvas or souls. Not only human beings, but also each animate being, each living organism possesses a soul. About innumerable number of jīvas, Nahar writes, “This soul substance of Jains is not a single, all pervading reality without a second of its kind to stand by it. There is infinity of these souls. And though it is true that an infinite number of these has become free from the turmoil's of the world; yet there remains an infinite struggling for freedom; for if infinity is taken from infinity the remainder is infinite itself."-S2 52 The Jains do not reduce all the particular finite souls to one single principal or universal self; they, on the contrary maintain the existence of infinite independent souls. Mrs. S. Stevenson writes, they (Jains) also differ, of course, from the Vedantist, who believe in one all-soul not in numberless individual souls like this.”53 *** Nahar and Ghosh, “An Epitome of Jainism”, P-279 "Sinclair Stevenson, “Heart of Jainism”, P-98 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #107 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER - IV DOCTRINE OF TRANSMIGRATION: COROLLARY OF DOCTRINE OF KARMA IV. (i) Introduction Rebirth is clearly associated with the doctrine of karma and the two are basal presupposition of Indian thought and also considered to be postulate of Indian philosophy. Rebirth is a corollary of the principle of karma.' Rebirth and karma are the two most important presuppositions of all schools of Indian philosophy, with the solidarity exception of the system of Cārvāka. India is the birth place of a galaxy of spiritual leaders throughout its history and it is no wonder that her heritage is so rich with speculations about rebirth and karma and the pathways leading to emancipation from them.? Although nearly every religious or philosophical tradition of India has accepted the idea of karma as valid, a wide divergence exists in the extent to which various schools have developed this idea into a coherent system of doctrine best measured by amount of sacred and scholastic works devoted to it-one tradition, that of the Jains, stands clearly apart from all others." The doctrine of karma seems to have developed against number of other doctrines, especially doctrine of creation of '(i) Ācārānga, 1.2.6 (ii) Devendra Muni Shastri, “A Source Book in Jain Philosophy, P-493 "(i) Sanmati-tarka-prakarana of Siddhasena Divākara, 111.53 (ii) Šāstravāratā-samuccaya of Haribhadra, 11, 79-81 (iii) Dr. Nathmal Tatia, “Studies in Jaina Philosophy”, P-220 Dr. Padmanabh S. Jaini, “Collected papers on Jaina Studies”, P-121 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #108 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" universe, etc. Every event is determined by kāla or time. Some believed that things are determined by their inherent nature and there were other who believed in after-effect of a good or bad action." The Jaina philosophers accorded proper place to these doctrines, as testified by experience, and installed karma in supreme position. Large number of karma-grantha text found among the Svetāmbara scriptures and Digambaras possess some 38 volumes of texts with commentaries, even pre-dated of Mahāvīra time.' All these materials deal in great detail with various problems relating to karma in its four aspects, namely influx (āśrava), bondage (bandha), duration (sthiti) and fruition (anubhāga). Jainas have been pre-occupied with these problems, long before Vedic Aryans came to India. Certain Buddhist writing has mentioned in their text which attempted to discredit Jaina theories of karma. Scholars of Jainism hold that the person's situation, life and the experience are in fact the result of deeds committed in various lives by him, may not be Aryan origin at all, but rather may have developed as part of the indigenous Gangetic tradition from which the various Śramaņa movements arose. However it will be seen, here that the Jaina view on the process and possibilities of rebirth are distinctively non-Hindu. The doctrine of transmigration or rebirth also can be traced in Vedic hymns. The Vedic people had a belief in the existence of the soul (ātman) as distinct from the body, which after death goes to 4(i) Svetāśvatara-Upanișad, 1.2 (ii) Šāstravärattā-samuccaya (Haribhadra), II,52-64 (iii) Dr. Nathmal Tatia, “Studies in Jain Philosophy”, P-220, foot note No.1 Svetāmbara Karma-grantha literature, See Glasenapp, The Doctrine of Karman in Jain Philosophy, Bombay, 1942, P-Xi-XX. Dr. Padmanabh S. Jaini,“ Collected papers on Jaina Studies”, P-138 note No. 1, Ibid - 3, P-121 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #109 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DOCTRINE OF TRANSMIGRATION: COROLLARY... 93 the other world to reap the fruits of its action. In Upanişads, however we find a clear development of the doctrine, although even then it is not as developed as with the Buddhist and the Jainas. Vedic Aryan's outlook was deeply spiritual praying to gods for robust life affirmation. Sacrifices to gods, penance, philosophical wisdom and religious intuition were there chief characteristics. There are scholars who think that the Vedic Aryans had no special doctrine about life after death and that the suggestion of the conceptions of karma and rebirth belonged to the aboriginal Indian thinkers who had their own distinct culture and philosophy, the remnant of which can still be traced in non-Brahmanical system of Jainism and Buddhism. Spiritual and religious characteristic of Vedic Aryans inspired secularism, whereas Jaina's exclusive attitude in spirituality and religiousness, more or less, neglected them from being secular which helped in growth of their asceticism. But before the development of asceticism there was the natural development of ideas of rebirth and karman and development of corresponding metaphysics. IV. (ii) Concept of Life and Death Soul is an eternal, indestructible substance. In its pure state, it is beyond birth and death. But in its impure mundane state, it manifests itself in any of the life-species (yoni) by assuming a physical body; this manifestation of soul through a physical body is called “birth”. Thus, its every new association with a new body is its new birth. And its separation from a physical body is called “death."10 '(i)Brhadāranyaka Upanişad, VI.2.16 (ii)Dr. Nathmal Tatia, “Studies in Jain Philosophy”, P-4 A. B. Keith, “The Religion and Philosophy of Veda and Upanisad", Harvard Oriental Studies, Vol.32, P-570, lbid - 8, P-4 "(i) Bhagavadgitā, 2.22 & 8.26, For Personal & Private Use Only Page #110 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 94 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM" The fixed due duration of life can be reduced by untimely death. But the fixed due duration of life can never be increased even by one moment in any way by any attempt. Under the chief influence of deluding karma (mohanīya-karma), life-quantum of the immediate next birth is bound in the present birth. Therefore, the series of successive birth and consequently the wandering in the trans migratory existence continue so long as soul is under the influence of the deluding karma, and because of its (soul's) association with karma, the soul transmigrate from birth to birth in the world. Once we are convinced of the existence of soul and karma nothing is required to convince us of the existence of life after death. Rebirth is very closely associated with the karma and jīva. The karma of past life is responsible for the present life. Similarly, karma of the present life will be responsible for the future life." The accretion (growth or increase by accumulation) of karma, as karmic particles of āyușya (age determining) karma enter the soul, which are responsible in various ways for determining the state of existence in succeeding life, the length of life and status of the individual in all its different lives. Bhagavāna Mahāvīra said that the passions like krodha (anger), māna (pride), māya (deceit) and lobha (greed) are the root cause of the cycle of birth and death."2 In Bhagavadgītā, we get an analogical description about birth and the chain of birth. As a man takes out the old clothes and wears the new one, similarly the soul casts away the worn out body (ii) Muni Shri Nyāyavijayaji, "Jaina Philosophy and Religion”, P-287 "Jaina Philosophy and Religion P-493, Ācārānga, 1.2.6 12 Daśavaikālika, 8.39 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #111 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DOCTRINE OF TRANSMIGRATION: COROLLARY.... and takes on a new body, after death. This is possible through the process of “āvartana” (transference)." The Tathāgata Buddha once explained that the pricks of thorn that he suffered were due to the violence or injuries caused to a human being in his ninety-one previous lives. The newborn infant expresses various emotions like joy, fear and sorrow. These are due to its memories in the past life." The new born infant, starts sucking the milk from mother's breast, the moment he is born. This is due to its learning and habit that it had acquired in the past life." As the young boy grows into a youth, similarly the jīvas enter a new life and the body grows into full stature. The new born infant experiences pleasure and pain and expresses various emotions. All these can be traced to the dispositions (samskāra) acquired by the infant from its previous life due to the heritage of its karma, may call it collective unconscious, the rational-unconscious. These are due to impressions (saṁskāras) dragged on from previous life. In this way Indian philosophers have adduced arguments and have tried to show that rebirth is a fact of life. The soul gets involved in the wheel of life and is born and reborn in different existences." Karma and rebirth are basal pre-suppositions and if we do accept the theory of karma, rebirth can be explained on the basis of karma. If rebirth were not to be accepted as a fact principle of life, it would be difficult to explain the prevalent inequality in this world and the experience of various types of existences in this world without reference to karma. The Western philosophers also were not unaware of doctrine of rebirth although this doctrine was largely ignored in Western 13 Gītā, 2.22 "Nyāyasūtra, 3,1,11 15 Ibid, 3,1,12, "Muni Shri Nyāyavijayaji, “Jaina Philosophy and Religion”, P-495 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #112 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 96 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" thought. Pythagoras was aware of principle of the rebirth. Plato said that soul always weaves new garments. The soul has a natural strength, which will hold out and is born many times. Schopenhauer explicitly mentions the doctrine of rebirth and says that the doctrine has relevance for explaining the concept of distribution that it is at once obvious to everyone who hears the rebirth for the first time." 17 The Jainas have given an elaborate study of the doctrine of rebirth as based on the karma theory. There are four states of existence: the human, the lower animal, the heavenly being and the infernal world. They move one to the other according to fruition of their karmas. The present life is, in its duration and conditions, the result of the past actions, and actions performed during the present existence are the causes of the future existence. Everybody's existence and life is determined as per the previous karma. Hence the doctrine of karma has been intimately connected with the doctrine of the reincarnation of soul. Karma and rebirth are the two concepts, which cannot be considered in isolation. The two are casually connected from the beginning. The common basis of all religious systems of India is the dogma of retribution, causality of deed (karma) and conditioned by this beginning less chain of existence following one another." 19 It is surprising to note that the postulate, aims and conditions for such a realization (liberation) were found to be identified in all the conflicting systems." 20 If the karma is fully exhausted, the series of rebirth will come to end, but it is not possible to exhaust all karmas that have "Muni Shri Nyayavijayaji, "Jaina Philosophy and Religion",P- 18 18(i)T.G. Kalghatgi, "Karma and Rebirth", 1972, P-4 (ii)Dr. Hemant Shah, "Jain Theism", 1997, P-86-87 19 H. V. Glasenapp, "Immortality and Salvation in Indian Religion", P-25 20 Prof. S. N. Dasgupta, “A History of Indian Philosophy', 1975, Vol.1, P-71 20 Acaränga 1,2,6, See also Devendra Muni Shastri, "A source book in Jaina Philosophy", 1983, P-493 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #113 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DOCTRINE OF TRANSMIGRATION: COROLLARY... 97 been accumulated in one single life. The karmas that we have accumulated in the past give rise to various births. It is a cycle of existence and rebirth.“ IV. (iii) Cause and Effect Relationship Between Karma &Transmigration. The term “karma' means- mental, vocal or bodily act as also a trace or an impression that the act leaves behind on the soul. In the present context, the term 'karma' has the latter meaning and consequently the meaning karmic matter constituting the trace. The trace is material in nature and bears its fruit in future in present or next life. The karmic matter of the form of the trace gets bound to the soul on account of its mental, vocal or bodily act and gets dissociated from it as soon as it bears its fruit. It remains bound with the soul till its fruition is fully experienced by it. The auspicious acts form and leave behind auspicious traces on the soul. The auspicious traces, material in nature, lead the soul to the attainment of the means of happiness, viz. health, wealth, fame, good family, long life, etc. on the other hand, the inauspicious acts form and leave behind inauspicious traces on the soul, and these inauspicious traces, material in nature, lead the soul to attainment of the means of misery. The karmic matter constituting the auspicious traces is regarded as auspicious and the karmic matter constituting the inauspicious traces is regarded as inauspicious.“ The karmic matter gets dissociated from the soul as they yield their fruits completely and reach the limit of their time duration. The process of partial dissociation of this type goes on incessantly in the case of worldly soul caught in the cycle of transmigration. But the spiritually beneficial partial dissociation is "Muni Shri Nyāyavijayaji, "Jaina Philosophy and Religion”, (1998), P-16 23 Ibid, P-17 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #114 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” that which takes place in association with stoppage of karmic inflow. When the process of stoppage of the inflow of new karmic matter and that of the dissociation of the bound karmas reach their acme, the absolute and total dissociation of karma, which characterizes liberation, is attained.24 Liberation is attained through human body only. Heavenly gods are by nature lacking in restraint. So, it is not possible for them to attain the supreme state of liberation directly from their state of godhood. The cycle of birth and death depends on soul's bondage with karma and the bondage depends on the unctuousness of attachment, aversion and delusion. How can those who have become absolutely pure, absolutely free from defilement of karmas, have unctuousness of attachment, aversion and delusion? And how can there be any possibility of their being bound again with karma? We cannot even imagine such a situation. It is only on this account that Jaina thinkers consider it to be absolutely impossible for the liberated soul to be born again in the world and thus to be caught again in the cycle of birth and death.” Cause and Effect: The doctrine of rebirth or that of karma is not the doctrine of nourishing and encouraging inactivity or idleness. On the contrary, it is the doctrine that inspires man to make proper efforts and to undertake good works leading to progress. So it is very useful doctrine conducive to all progress. It advises man to put forth proper efforts to destroy veils of karma, to advance on the path of liberation and ultimately to attain liberation. It is function of the doctrine of karma to connect the present birth with the past and the future births in the cause effect chain. If the future birth is not good, then it is in the hands of a man to make efforts to improve it as also to effect changes in inauspicious karmas and in their fruition. This is what the 24 Jaina Philosophy and Religion, P-28 2%Dr. Padmanabh S. Jaini, “Collected paper on Jaina Studies”, P-132 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #115 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DOCTRINE OF TRANSMIGRATION: COROLLARY.... 99 doctrine of karma teaches. So the doctrine of karma is not in any sense the doctrine of fatalism. In Jaina doctrine concerning the types and modes of operation of karmic matter are ghātiyā karma (destruct five karmas) and aghātiyā karma (non-destructive karmas). Ghātiyā karma keeps soul in bondage whereas aghātiyā karma is responsible for the mechanism of rebirth and embodiment. The four types of aghātiyā karma are: 1) Nāma-karma, a term for the collection of karmic material whose fruition determines some ninety-eight different aspect of the future body, for example, its destiny or class of existence (human, animal), its sex, colour, number of senses, confirmation of limb and the like. 2) Gotra-karma, controlling whether the environment into which one falls is or is not conducive to the leading of a spiritual life. 3) Vedanīya-karma, producing either pleasant or unpleasant feelings in response to the environment, hence the level of happiness or unhappiness, which characterizes an individual. 4) Āyuşya-karma, whereby the exact duration of life (ostensibly measured among human beings by the number of breaths to be taken) is established. (IV)Philosophical Ground for Transmigration: A Comparative View The doctrine of transmigration concerns with the soul leaving one body and entering into another body and liberating itself from the said process, which is also called death, new birth and emancipation. Jainism is the only school of Indian philosophy which holds that ātman (soul) is of body size, meaning expanding it to the size of the body, say as elephants and contract to size of the ant's body. However, it is a significant issue in Indian philosophy. Virtually all Vedic Darśanas, the Naiyāyikas, the Vaiseșikas, the Sāṁkhyas, the Mīmāṁsakas and the like, hold that soul is For Personal & Private Use Only Page #116 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 100 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" omnipresent (vibhu) all pervading. An all-pervasive (i.e., present everywhere) soul would of course be from spatial limitation of the body; indeed the very idea of “dimension” cannot be applied to such an entity at all. Jaina Ācāryas have rejected the vibhu theory of Hindu doctrine, which call vibhu (all pervasive) to all ātmans. If the ātman is regarded as vibhu, each of them would enter the ātman of God Himself, and each would thereby become a creator of this Universe. "27 Jain as argue that since a soul cannot experience the sorrow or happiness resulting from its karma except in the context of mind, senses and body, any existence of the soul outside that context becomes incompatible wide the function of the karmic mechanism. This line of thought leads directly to the basic Jaina doctrine that a soul is exactly coterminous with the body of its current state of bondage. Even a fully liberated soul (siddha) having completely transcended contact with the material realm, is said by the Jainas to retain the shape and size of that body which it occupied at the time mokṣa was attained.28 According to Hindu or Brahmanical schools, soul is eternal and cannot change whereas for Jains, all existent, whether sentient (jīva or soul) or insentient (ajīva or not-soul) are eternal as substance or dravya and at the same time subject to change as modes or paryāya at every moment. And hence, it is possible in Jaina doctrine for a soul to move, to expand or contract into various shapes and so forth. How, then, can it be said to be eternal? Because, Jainas suggest every existent (sat) possesses a quality called agurulaghutva (neither gross nor subtle) whereby its total 26Dr. Mohan Lal Mehta, “Jaina Philosophy, An Introduction”, 1998, P-103 27 Ibid, 29, P-102 28 Mallisena, “Syādvādamañjari”, edited by J.C. Jain, Bombay, 1970, P-67-7, See also: Sarvärthasiddhi, 9.4, Ibid (3), P-122 and note No. 5, P-139 29(i) Sarvārthasiddhi, V.2, 5.3, (ii) Tattvārtha-sūtra, V..29-31 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #117 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DOCTRINE OF TRANSMIGRATION: COROLLARY.... 101 number of space-points (pradeśas) remains unchanged regardless of the area into which these points must be accommodated. This is analogous to a piece of cloth, the total material of which is the same whether it is folded or spread out that. Another problem with vibhu theory of Hindu doctrine has some difficulty in explaining the limitation of soul's experiences. If the soul is in fact at all the time everywhere, how does it come to undergo the experience of only one individual being at a time? Explanation to this was deal with by a postulation of the so-called subtle body (sūkşma-śarīra) and so forth."0 The philosophical views of Brahmanical philosophy regarding rebirth processes are compared here with the Jaina views. According to Brahmanical rebirth description, which is a kind of biological, soul after leaving human body dwells in a ghostly form (preta), for some twelve days, in a transition mode. Thereafter, the son of the deceased performs rituals, which frees the soul from ghostly state, and then it travels upward to the “realm of fathers” called pitr-loka where it remains for some time. Soul then eventually brought back to earth with rain and then it enters the food chain through absorption by a plant and finally eaten by man by way of fruits of that plant." Upon copulation of man with woman, the soul then enters into the womb where its new body grows and so the entire process begins once more. Here the karma determine as to which potential father will eat which plant, thus guaranteeing the soul a set of circumstances appropriate to its prior experience. Jaina texts make absolutely no mention whatsoever of how a soul actual enters the body of the mother-to-be. It is said only that 30 Samkhyakārikä of Isvarakrsna, 40 'Paul Deussen, The System of Vedānta, New York, 1973, P- 357-398 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #118 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 102 the soul moves into a new embryo within a single moment (samaya) after death of the previous body. 32 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" The karmas accumulated determine its existence and status in the next life. The soul moves one to other according to its fruition of karmas. The time gap between death in a particular life and rebirth in the next life is called antarakāla. This duration of time varies from one to three or four samayas. In the antarakāla the gross physical body has already left, jīva is without the gross physical body and is seeking to get into the new body. This process of movement from the old body to the new body is called antarala-gati. This may be "rju" (short and direct) and Vakra (curved and indirect). The direction of the movement depends upon its previous performances. If the directions are straight and direct, it is called rjugati. If the direction of the movement is uneven and indirect, it is called vakragati. The direct movement (rjugati) requires one samaya and the least effort on the part of the jiva to enter from the previous to the next life. When soul departs from the previous bodies, it acquires the speed of that body and it goes to its next destination like an arrow In the case of the curved direction it has to make certain efforts. When the soul reaches the point of curve, the previous body is to some extent arrested, and then the jīva (soul) has to depend on the energy of the sūkṣma (subtle) karmic body. The time required for traversing the distance from birth to another birth in the next body depends on the number of curve in the direction of the next body. 33 . If there is only one curve, then it will require two samayas, for two curves it requires three samayas and for three curves it requires four samayas and so on. Generally, the universe is extended in three directions like; upward, downward, in the case of the 32 Sarvarthasiddhi2.29, Tattvartha-sutra, II.30 and also see note 1 in S. A. Jain "Reality", P-70 33 Tattvärtha-sūtra, II.26, 27,29, Sarvärthasiddhi, II.25, 26,27 & 28 See also, Devendra Muni Shastri, "A Source Book in Jaina Philosophy', 1983 P-495 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #119 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DOCTRINE OF TRANSMIGRATION: COROLLARY.... 103 residence of heaven, hell and crosswise in the case of triyak-gati (lower animal) The movement of jīva is with the help of the sūkşmaśarīra (subtle body), as the gross body is no longer. But the gross body will be created in next life with saṁskāra and with the help of the subtle body and energy available. The question is asked, if the gross body were not there, there would be no sense organs and if the sense organs are not there, there would be no cognition or sensing of the direction. In that case how can the jīva continue its journey in proper way? Bhagavāna Mahāvīra clarified this point saying that there are no physical sense organs (dravyendriyas) but the function of the sense organs is not altogether lost. They are expressed through Taijasa and kārmaņaśarīra", just as the modern machines are controlled by electric motivations through the computers. We can, therefore, say that during the movement of Jīva from one body to other, there may not be the physical sense organs, but there is the presence of the psychic sense organs. Jaina philosophy maintains four birth categories of gods, men, hellish being and tiryañcas (those going horizontally e.g. animals), which are almost similar to Indian philosophers. Each of these categories is generally associated with a particular vertically ordered tier of three dimensional universe; men for example dwell in the centrally located “madhyaloka”, gods above them in the “devaloka” and hell beings below in the various infernal regions." Emancipated souls the Liberated ones or siddhas, who are out of the cycle of birth and death, and said to have gone beyond 34 Tattvārtha-sūtra, II.37 "Dr. Padmanabh S. Jaini, “Collected papers on Jaina Studies”, P-137-138 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #120 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 104 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" samsara altogether, another postulation of Jaina philosophy; remains forever at the very apex of the universe. 36 Jaina thinkers have carefully made classification of soul categories in four divisions, as mentioned above, according to the scale of "consciousness" (upayoga) on the part of the soul. Hence the top level is of liberated soul. They are omniscient (sarvajña), then gods who have wider range of knowledge than the men have and so on infernal beings and tiryañcas. Tiryañcas are categorized similarly as explained in the case of souls. At the top of this group are those animals that have five senses - faculties (indriya) and a certain capacity for reflection (samjñī), such as lion.37Next are those having five senses but lacking reflective capacity (asaṁjñī). And then next are creatures having four, three and two senses respectively. And finally, the creatures having only one sense (ekendriya) and whose whole awareness is limited to the tactile mode. Ekendriya creatures are too numerous to count and may be found in every part of the universe, whereas higher tiryañcas are limited in number and dwell in "madhyaloka." Ekendriyas are of five distinct types: 38 Pṛthvīkāyika (earth-bodied), Apkayika (water-bodied), Tejokayika (fire-bodied), Vayukayika (air-bodied) and Vanaspatikāyika (vegetable bodied) As the names suggest, the first four of these are little more than single "molecule" of the various fundamental elements, each one a rudimentary body for some soul. 36 Tattvärtha-sutra, X.5 37 Gunabhadra's Uttarapurāṇa, 74, 167-220 38 Tattvärtha-sutra, II.13, Sarvärthasiddhi,2.13 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #121 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DOCTRINE OF TRANSMIGRATION: COROLLARY.... 105 The vanaspatikāyika-jīvas are again of two kinds: Pratyeka, which have an entire plant-body “to themselves" (i.e., one plant/one soul) and finally the sādhāraṇa, or nigoda, those which are at so low a level that they do not even possess an individual body, but rather exist as part of a cluster or “ball” (golaka) of organism of the same type. Souls in such clusters, moreover, must live and die as group, supposedly attaining rebirth in the same state eighteen times within the space of a single human breath." Nigodas dwell in colony, such as algae and the cluster in which they dwell may in turn occupy the bodies of other higher souls; thereby achieving an almost parasitic mode of existence. Nigodas are said to be found in virtually every corner of the universe; only the bodies of gods, hell beings and the “element bodies” do not harbor them. It is further believed that these tiny creatures tend to become especially concentrated in the flesh of human being and animals as well as in certain roots and bulbs. Such likely "hosts” are therefore banned as food for the devout Jaina, since their consumption would involve the death of an unacceptably large number of souls.' It is said that only some shockingly evil act could send a soul to the “nigoda” realm. There are in fact two distinct types of souls in nigoda; those, which have at some time been higher state but have fallen, and those, which have never yet been out of nigoda existence. The souls in question are referred to as 'itara-nigoda' and 'nitya-nigoda' respectively. Nitya here has the sense not of “forever” but of “always up to now”; itara means simply "those other than” member of the nitya class. The souls in ‘nitya-nigoda' are in some sense beyond operation of karma, just as the liberated souls, the Siddhas. Nityanigoda are infinite in number (anantānanta) and only one hundred and eight souls becomes emancipated, leaves from mokșa, in each Gommatasāra (Jivakāņda), 191-193 40 R. Williams, “Jain Yoga”, London 1963, P- 110-116 *'Gommatasāra (Jīvakāņda), 197 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #122 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 106 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" period of six months and eight moments, from the entire universe, hence the reservoir souls of the universe never gets depleted. * In Jainism the movement of the soul itself is fundamental to the operation of the rebirth process. The movement of soul is an inherent property of every soul. In its purest form this movement proceeds directly upwards, like a flame; hence the Siddha, free of all restraints, shoots like an arrow to the very top of the inhabited universe (Lokākāśa). When still under karmic influence, the soul will dart in similar manner to its next embodiment. In both cases, the speed involved is so great that according to the Jainas, the distance between any two points connectible by a straight line will be traversed in a single moment, and in certain circumstance rebirth will require as many as two to three moments. It is impo rtant to recognize here that karma is not in any sense considered to impel the soul; it functions, rather to channel or direct the motive force which is already present, much as a system of pipes might be used to "send” upwardly gushing water to a desired location. The state, under which soul moves between two gross physical bodies, is called 'Vigraha-gati." But is not totally free of embodiment Jainas say that the transmigrating soul is said to be housed by a “karmic body' (kārmaņa-śarīra) as well as by a socalled luminous body (taijasa-śarīra).“- The former is composed of the sum total of one's karma at a given moment; the latter act as a substratum for this karmic matter during the 'Vigraha-gati and also functions to maintain body temperature during gross physical existence. Both of these invisible bodies are said to suffuse the gross and visible one during life; thus they not only ‘Convey' the soul from one birth state to the next but constitute a real physical link between these states as well. 4 Gommatasara, 196 Tattvārtha-sutra, II.26, Sarvärthasiddhi, II.25 44 Tattvārtha-sūtra, II.37 - 2.43, Sarvārthasiddhi, II.36 - 2.42 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DOCTRINE OF TRANSMIGRATION: COROLLARY.... 107 Vigraha-gati typically occupies only a single moment, then the question arises how the "choice” of exactly appropriate circumstance for the next birth could possibly be made in so short time. (In this connection, in Hindu rebirth processes the gandharva's lengthy “search” for a proper birth environment is required) Jainas have dealt with this problem by positing the existence of a unique factor, the so-called āyuşya (longevity) karma. The 'āyusya-karmas' function in a most unusual manner. Every other sort of karma in Jaina system is said to be in constant bondage (bandha) and fruition (anubhāga) relationship with the soul. For example some nāma-karma, is at every moment being bound, to come to fruition at some future time, whereas other karmas are at every moment producing their result and falling away (nirjarā) from the soul. Āyusya-karma*, however, is bound only once in a given lifetime, and its fruition will apply only to the very next life. And it is the nāma-karma that determines next existence in rebirth before the moment of death, and hence there is no search during the vigraha-gati, since all choices have already been made. The Āyuşyakarma, as per, Jaina teachers, is fixed during the final third of present life time, and that indeed it will often not occur until death is very nearly at hand. Thus the devout Jaina is encouraged to pay ever more strict attention to his religious vows and duties, as he grows older. It must be emphasized here that one is not aware of the moment at which the Āyusya-karma is fixed; thus it will behoove him to live until his last breath as if it were still possible to influence the specific outcome, as to next rebirth and it existence. In Jaina practice of “Sallekhanā4°mendicant of advance age may undertake a ritual fast ending only in death, to face his final moments in a state of absolute tranquility, free of desire, fears or other strong volitions. The fixing of Ayusya-karma under such a * Tattvārtha-sūtra, VIII.21, Sarvārthasiddhi, VIII.20 40R. Williams, "Jaina Yoga”, P-166-172, Srāvakaprajñapti, 382 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #124 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 108 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” controlled and peaceful conditions is held to be extremely auspicious; not only will rebirth in lower existence be effective precluded in this way, but the individuals in question is deemed likely to find himself in an environment conducive to rapid spiritual development. We see that almost all religions, especially those of Vedic origin, emphasize importance of old age, last moment of life; however, Jaina's karma philosophy is a unique philosophy, based upon the idea of Āyuşya-karma. The distinctive Jaina doctrine pertaining to rebirth namely, the momentariness of vigraha-gati is based on the Āyusya-karma, which is in contrast with Brāhmanic or Hindu system. Hence, the basic social distinction between Jainas and their Hindu neighbours derives mainly from the disagreement of these communities over the period of time required for transmigration of soul to occur. Jains living side by side with the Hindu society, for over years, have adopted many Hindu customs and ceremonies, such as pājās (rituals); marriage customs and rituals, New Year and child birth and so on. However, Jainas have not adopted most important ritual of Hindu society, namely Śrāddha," which is pertaining to death and rebirth, and very much expressive of Vedic or Hindu philosophy of rebirth. Śrāddha, a Hindu ritual, is offering a food by son to the spirit of his dead parent. The belief (held by Brāhmanic class & caste) is that this offering is essential if the soul of the parent is to obtain a body suitable for entrance into the pitr-loka and hence to gain chance for eventual rebirth. It is further believed that the failure of a son to perform the ritual will result in loss of inheritance and his wife is being rendered barren by the curse of the spirit (of father) thus stranded in the disembodied state. 4/Dr. Padmanabh S. Jaini, “Collected papers on Jaina Studies”, (2000), P-134 in note No. 38 on page 143 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #125 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DOCTRINE OF TRANSMIGRATION: COROLLARY.... 109 The Srāddha ritual provides, perhaps most important function of the Brahmanical castes in the Hindu society. Because Brahmin's monopolization of the role of intermediary between donor and departed; only if Brahmins consume the offerings can these be "converted” into the material from which the new body of the spirit is built up. It will be apparent that for Jainas the very idea of Śrāddha is doctrinally invalid; a soul which goes to its next (new) body (transmigrate) in one moment cannot be fed, propitiated or dealt with in any other way by those left behind. Śrāddha practice in Hindu Society clearly assumes that the actions of one person can affect the destiny of another. Jaina tradition has always held that an individual soul can experience results accruing only to actions, which it has itself performed. The tenth century Ācārya Amitagati said: “Whatever karma a soul has acquired through its own prior deeds, it will obtain the good and bad results thereof. If one could obtain results from the deeds of others, then surely his own deeds would be meaningless. 48 In addition to Śrāddha, we find among Hindus wide spread adherence to the notion of divine intervention in one's fate, while Buddhist eventually came to propound such theories as boongranting “bodhisattvas” transfer of merit, and the like. Only the Jainas have been absolutely unwilling to allow such ideas to penetrate in to their community, despite the fact that there must have been a tremendous amount of social pressure on them to do so." Doctrine of rebirth or that of karma is not the doctrine nourishing and encouraging inactivity or idleness. On the contrary, it is the doctrine that inspires man to make proper efforts and good **Dvåtrimśikā, Nitya-naimittika-pāthāvali, Karanja, 1956, P-22 and Ibid (3), P-136 note no. 40 on P-143 Muni Shri Nyāyavijayaji, “Jain Philosophy and Religion”, P-275 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #126 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 110 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY GOD IN JAINISM" work leading to progress. So it is very useful doctrine conducive to all progress. It advises man to put forth proper effort to destroy veils of karmas to advance on the path of liberation and ultimately to attain liberation. It is the function of the doctrine of karma to connect the present birth with the past and the future birth in the cause-effect chain. If the future birth is not good, then it is in the hands of man to make efforts to improve it as also to effect changes in inauspicious karmas and in their fruition. This is what the doctrine of karma teaches. So the doctrine of Karma is not in any sense the doctrine of fatalism. The soul binds karmas and also can dissociate the bound karmas from it by its own activities. All karmas are not unalterable. Many of them are such as can be altered by proper spiritual efforts. The karma philosophy goes to the extent of declaring that even the unalterable (nikācita karmas) can be altered and even destroyed by highly pure and intense spiritual discipline. What is meant is that we should not become inactive and hazy depending on karmas. The other extreme is materialism, which believes in death as total extinction of personality. It denounces all efforts for final release as absurd and irrational. Self-interest is the only thing worth pursuit. Absence of self-interest means absence of everything else. Annihilation of individuality means annihilation of all. If I cannot remember the past, the past is non-existent. If I cannot keep my individuality of this life intact after death, there cannot be anything beyond death. This is materialism." The Buddha's attitude was more ethical than metaphysical, Karman and rebirth were acknowledged as facts. His interest was riveted on finding out pathway to freedom from this cycle of existence. Sufferings and sorrow are universal facts and every individual seeks redemption from them. The Buddha starts from this fact 51 *** "Dr. Nathmal Tatia, “Studies in Jain Philosophy", P-15 Studies in Jain Philosophy, P. 15 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #127 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER - V THEISM AND DOCTRINE OF KARMA V. (i) Introduction Karma theory is the most important doctrine in Indian thought and it has profound influence in the life of people in India. In this world there is evident inequality in the status and experiences of individuals. Some are happy and others are unhappy and miserable. Very often virtuous man lead miserable life and evil, corrupt men are happy. Several attempts have been made in the different philosophies of the world to find out an adequate solution to the problem of inequality in life. The Indian philosophers presented the theory of karma as a possible solution to the inequality in the life of human beings. There have been other theories, besides theory of karma, which have attempted to explain the inequality in the life of human beings. Some of them are discussed here. Theory of time (Kālavāda) Theory of nature (Svabhāvavāda) Theory of necessity (Niyativāda) Accidentalism (Yadschhāvāda) Theory of elements (Bhūtavāda) Theory of creator (Puruşavāda) Theory of fate (Daivavāda) Theory of self-effort (Puruşārthavāda) 1) Kālavāda (Theory of Time): The various states of existence and happiness and misery of individual being are determined by Kāla (time). Kāla is the determining principle which creates and 6) 8) Pt. Dalsukh Malvania, “Ātmamīmāṁsā”, P- 86-94, Jaina Sāhitya kā Brhad Itihāsa, Part 4, P-8, Dr. Mohan Lal Mehta, Jaina Dharma aura Darśana, P 416-424, Devendra Muni Shastri (DMS), “A source Book in Jaina Philosophy”, (1983), P 414 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #128 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 112 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” destroys.' It has been stated in Šāstravārttā-samuccaya' that the time determines everything, living being entering into the womb of the mother, the childhood and all other incidents connected with the life. It is not possible to transgress the limits of kāla and also not possible to have any events or experiences in the absence of kāla. Naiyāyikas assigned very important status to time equal to creation of the universe. *Mahābhārata states kāla as the first cause of the universe and the basis of life and death, happiness and misery." 2) Svabhāvavāda (Theory of Nature): According to this theory, everything, events and experiences are determined by very nature of objects, nature of individual.oĀcārya Haribhadra in his Šāstravārattāsamuccaya says that according to svabhāvavāda the events and experiences are determined by the very nature of the objects. For example, the various stages of life like the childhood, young age and old age are determined by the nature of the individual. There is no any other external force. Svabhāva plays an important part in the life, incidents and experiences of individual being. In fact even pulses and rice can be cooked due to their very nature.' 3) Niyativāda (Theory of Determinism). According to this theory, everything happens out of necessity. What is to happen must happen; there is no change in that. Everything is determined and there is nothing left to chance. Spinoza says that it is due to ignorance that we say that we are free and that freedom of the will is an important factor. Ācārya Haribhadra while describing the nature of the niyativāda states that everything is determined by the origination of a thing in a particular way, the states of a thing and its 2 Atharvaveda, 19, 53-54 Šāstravārttāsamuccaya, 165-168 * Nyāyasiddhānta Muktāvali, 45 Mahābhārata (Šāntiparva), 25,28,32 Bhagavadgītā, 5,14 Šāstravārattāsamuccaya, 169-172 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #129 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEISM AND DOCTRINE OF KARMA destruction are all determined. Under these circumstances it is difficult to refute its theory because refutation would be a form of niyati according to them. Necessity devours everything. 4) Yadṛcchāvāda (Accidentalism): Whatever happens, it happens accidentally without any reason. There is neither the cause nor the reason for happening of the event. Therefore, it is not necessary to explain the causal relation between the different things. Yadṛccha means accident and without any reason." According to Naiyāyikas no explanation can be given for any phenomenon." 10 5) Bhutavada (Theory of Element): Everything in the universe is due to primary elements like earth, water, fire and air. Material and mental phenomena are due to these four elements. There is nothing outside these elements. According to believers of this theory, there is no ātman, which is different from these elements. There is nothing like a spiritual substance. The body is formed of the combination of elements and when body is destroyed the elements are separated and there is no trace of atman at all. Combination of different forms of four elements give rise to consciousness; and it is a by-product of metabolic changes in organism and if the body is destroyed, the consciousness is also destroyed. 113 According to the theory of elements, whatever is amenable to sense is alone real. Whatever is not verifiable to sense-experience is not real. In this sense, the other world, heaven and hell, the soul and God are unreal. Pratyakṣa is only one pramāṇa. It is in this sense materialist and pragmatic in its approach. 6) Puruṣavāda (Theory of Creator): According to this theory, Isvara is creator, sustainer and destroyer of the universe; also he is 8 Sastravarattasamuccaya, 7, P-174 9 "Nyāyabhāṣya, 3.2.3 10 Nyayasutra.4.1.22 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #130 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 114 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" the person responsible for the origination, protection and destruction of the Universe. The intelligence and the power of Iśvara remain intact even at the time of pralaya (dissolution) of Universe. Puruşavāda is therefore theistic in approach." Purusavāda can be distinguished in two forms, as Brahmavāda and Iśvaravāda. Brahmavāda maintains that just as spider is the efficient cause of web, and the banyan tree is the cause of the numerous roots branching downward, so also puruṣabrahma is the efficient cause of the entire universe, in its creation, maintenance, and destruction. Brahman is, therefore, the basic principle of the universe. It is the upādānakārana, in a sense, the primary or the material cause. īśvaravādins maintain that matter and spirit are primordial and original substances. The interaction between matter and space and their association is due to īśvara. In this sense, īśvara is the efficient cause of the creation, sustenance and destruction of the universe. Without Isvara, nothing is possible and nothing moves. He is the controller of the universe and he determines the nature of things and movement of things. 7) Daivavāda (Theory of Fate): Daivavāda emphasizes the predominance of fate which is the determining factor in the human life. Everything is predetermined by fate and destiny. Destiny shapes our end and we have to experience the karma determined by fate.““Daivavāda accepts the authority of karma as a determining factor in the prevalent inequality of status. But in niyativāda, fatalism and determinism are absolute and unexplainable and inexplicable. 8) Puruşārthavāda (Theory of Self-effort): According to the theory of self-effort, individual Jiva is responsible for shaping its "Prameya-kamala-mārtanda, P-55 12 Ātmamimāṁsā, Kārikā, 89-91 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #131 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEISM AND DOCTRINE OF KARMA 115 own destiny. There is nothing as fate or destiny, which is supreme. Men are masters of their own destinies. Self-effort is the main cause of the success of our work or the failure, as it may be. The principle of freedom of the will is the basis of this theory. The Jaina View: Jaina maintains that the things of this world and activities are complex, and as they are complex, we cannot explain the cause of the things and activities with reference to one or other cause like: kāla, niyati, svabhāva and puruṣārtha. We have to find out the causes and the predominance of one or another in the complexity of things. It is necessary to introspect and find out the cause of happiness and misery within oneself. Ācārya Siddhasena Divākara says that it is not proper to give importance to one of the five causes like, kāla, svabhāva, niyati, karma and puruṣārtha and to involve the other. A phenomenon or an event is complex and all the cause may operate in various degrees." Ācārya Haribhadra says 'we have to take synoptic view of things and look at these problems from the point of view of anekānta (many-sided approach). "Ācārya Samantabhadra says that we have to seek the cause for the effect form without any individual efforts in fate or destiny. But self-effort and conscious efforts make towards attaining a goal makes us give importance of purușa for understanding the result in activities. In some cases (daiva) destiny plays an important role and in some other way puruṣārtha also plays an equally important role. 15 Jaina do not accept the predominance of Isvara for explaining the living and non-living substances of the Universe. It would be fruitless to believe that īśvara or Brahman is the primary cause of the origination, maintenance and destruction of the ''Sanmati-tarka-prakarana, 3.53 14 Šāstravārattāsamuccaya, 191-192 Aptamīmāṁsā, kārikā, 88-91 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #132 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 116 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” universe. Karma is an important factor, which cannot be ignored in explaining the inequality of beings of the universe." Karmavāda: A Historic Perspective in Indian Philosophy The Vedas are earliest literary record of the world. There are two opinions regarding whether Vedic seers were aware of karma theory or not? The first view maintains that the Vedic seers were not aware of the karma theory, since there is no mention of it in Vedic literature. Vedic philosophers explained elements which are the root cause of the diversity in the world and others maintained that Prajāpati Brahmā is the ultimate source of this variety in this world. Thus the cause has been referred to as some divine destiny i.e. they looked outward to seek cause of the complexity in the universe. Mitra, Varuna and other gods were worshiped and invoked to give them happiness in the wcrld. Yajña were performed and oblation like material objects and living animals were offered in Yajñas. This stream of thought could be traced in the age of the Samhitā and Brāhamaņas." Later on, in the age of Upanișads there is a shift in the emphasis in philosophical speculation and emphasis on karma casually gained round. The second view maintains that the karma theory in its real form could be traced in Ķgveda, wherein it has been suggested that one who performs auspicious karma attains immortality (amaratva). Jiva or soul continuously takes birth and dies in this world. Men worship gods and pray to them for the sake of getting themselves away from the evil effects of karma and rebirth. It has also been described that the Jiva (soul) due to its karma takes different forms in the different births like a tree or a creeper etc. Primarily, a Jīva experiences the fruits of karma due to the activities performed by oneself, but sometimes through a peculiar influence of ''Āptamīmāṁsā, kārikā, 8-91. "Dalsukh Malvania, “Ātmamimāṁsā”, P- 78-80 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #133 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEISM AND DOCTRINE OF KARMA 117 a peculiar power, one Jīva can experience the fruits of the karma of the other Jiva." From the discussions of the two views, it has been noted that there has not been a full-fledged discussions of the development of the theory of karma in the Vedic literature, although there is mention of the concept of karma. But the concepts like theory of fate and Yajña have gained prominence and karma theory becomes secondary. During the Vedic period Yajña karma were given more importance and gods have been invoked for the sake of equitable distribution of karma. In the Brāhmaṇas a gradual substitution of Prajāpati can be observed in the place of many gods who are responsible for dispensing of the fruits of karmas. Prajāpati dispenses the fruits of karmas, just like a judge dispenses judgment. Similar thought is also found in the philosophical systems like Nyāya, Vaiseșika, Sāṁkhya and Vedānta. Devendra Muni Shastri says “If īśvara was not being responsible for dispensing the fruits of karmas to the Jiva, the fruits of karma would be meaningless." The formulation of Jaina karma theory is the result of the Jaina thinker's sincere efforts to find answers to these questions: if all souls are equal in nature, then what causes inequality in them? What explains the born diversity among different individuals? What is it that gives rise to unequal and vastly diverse state experienced by even one and the same individual at different times?<0. According to Dr. Ramjee Singh, “Jainas maintain that karma is the matrix of universe and evolution takes place due to karma. Karma is not only the groundmass of individual's divinity but also the moulds in which anything and everything takes shape. Our past karma put a world before us otherwise it would not be possible to 18 (i) Umesh Mishra, “Bharatiya Darśana”, P 39-41 (ii) Mohan Lal Mehta , Jaina Dharma aura Darśana, P-432 (iii) Ibid. P-423 19 Ibid., P-424 "Muni Shri Nyāyavijayaji, “Jaina philosophy and religion", P-16 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #134 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 118 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" get appropriate pleasures and pains. Like the Leibnitz a world, the set is different for different individuals." 21 V. (ii) Karma &Theory of Causation Literally, karma means 'action' or 'deed'. The common people use it in the sense of 'work' or 'profession'. But the sastras give a much wider denotation to it to include all types of actionvoluntary or non-voluntary of human beings or other beings. It is also used in the sense of "rites and rituals" by the Mimamsakas, in the sense of duties of the four-fold occupations (varnas) and stations (Asramas) by the Smṛtikāras in the sense of religious vows and disciplines by paurāṇikas. According to Jaina conception, karma is an aggregate of material particles, which are very fine and are imperceptible to the senses. It enters into the soul and produces changes in it." 22 Dr. Ramjee Singh explained "karma, however, as technical philosophical term, signifies not only action but also its actual potential effects. In Jainism, this means the activity of the soul, which invites and enables matter to flow into it, as also the matter, which does not flow into the soul. The first is known as thought activity (Bhava-karma) and second as material-activity (Dravyakarma) "23 Fine material particles that get attracted towards, stick to the soul on account of its activities. Etymologically, that which is being done is karma. Both these meaning are appropriate in the context. The whole universe is packed with the fine karmic material particles. But when they get attracted towards the soul and stick to it and bind it through its activity, then only they are designated by the term 'karma'. Thus the material particles bound with the soul (i.e. transformed in to karma) are called karma. The karmic material 21Dr. Ramjee Singh, "Jain Concept of Omniscience", P-104 22Dr. Mohan Lal Mehta, "Jaina Philosophy, An Introduction", 1998, P-189 23Dr. Ramjee Singh, "Jaina Concept of Omniscience", P-110 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #135 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEISM AND DOCTRINE OF KARMA particles bound with the soul are called dravya-karma (physicalkarma) while internal mental states of attachment; aversion, etc. are called bhava-karma (mental-karma). In other words, the Jainas distinguish between material karma called dravya-karma and its spiritual counterpart called bhava-karma." 24 Mr. V. R. Gandhi explained 'karma is that finest matter which a living being attracts to itself by reason of certain impellent forces which are in the individual; not only attracted to but assimilated by the individual itself, it changes individuality of living being." ,25 119 Nature of Karma according to Jainism Jainas have considered karma as material in nature. The karmic particles envelope the soul but do not destroy real nature of the soul. They (karmic particle) have an obscuring function. Therefore, they affect different forms (paryayas) of the soul. Man is in bondage due to handcuffs, he get intoxicated by liquor and becomes unconscious by chloroform. These are material objects. Similarly, soul gets obscured and not destroyed due to influx of karma. The bondage of jīva (soul) is subtle, yet material in nature. The karmic particle enters the soul and vitiates its purity. The effect is very subtle and strong. The karmic particles affecting soul are called karma-vargaṇās (a group of karmic particles)." 26 Palatable food brings the experience of pleasure, while injury by Sastra (weapon) brings pain. These two are experienced as paudgalika (physical). From the point of view of bondage (bandha), jīva (soul) and pudgala (matter) are not different; but are correlative. From the point of view of their nature they are different. Jīva is immaterial and 24 *Gommaṭasāra, (Jīvakāṇḍa), 606-8 25V. R. Gandhi, "The Karma Philosophy", P.3 26 Ibid.", 25 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #136 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 120 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" formless and is characterized by consciousness while pudgala is material and is unconscious (acetana).'' In Upanişads and the Bhagavadgītā, the auspicious and inauspicious activities have been referred to as karma. But the Jainas use the word karma in the sense of the after-effect of activities.28 Soul attracts the karma-vargaņās by the activity, which is three fold, i.e. bodily, speech, and mind. The karmic encrustation with the jīva is due to these activities and the activities are in turn specified by the karmic encrustation. Karma and the tendency to activity are intimately related with each other with mutually causal relationship.29 As said earlier, Jainism has mentioned two forms of karma, bhāva-karma and dravya-karma. Bhāva-karma is psychic in nature, it refers to the psychic states responsible for activities and dravyakarma refers to the material particles of karma accruing to soul and vitiating the pure nature of soul. Ācārya Amộtacandra says that the influx of karma is due to the activities (Yoga) that the soul has in contact with the pudgala. Dravya-karma affects the bhāva-karma and bhāva-karma affects dravya-karma. They are mutually interactive. Just as the seed becomes the tree and tree gives seeds (and both are to be considered in material nature). In the bhāva-karma there is the ātmika aspect, which is predominant; it is primarily psychological; while in the dravya-karma, the aspect of the material particle prominent. The soul (in its impure or perverse state) is the doer of bhāva-karma as -Soul (jiva), non-soul (ajīva), merit (punya), sin or demerit (pāpa), inflow of matter (āśrava of meritorious or sinful karmas), its cessation (samvara), falling away (nirjarā), bondage (bandha) and final liberation (moksa) are the (nine) principles (padārthas). Pañcāstikāya, 108 28 Pañcāstikāya, 141 and 142 2 Nemicandrācārya, Karmaprakrti, 6 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #137 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEISM AND DOCTRINE OF KARMA 121 also dravyakarma. They are mutually related as cause and effect, each of the other, just as a seed and sprout are." V. (iii) Karma: How it operates, who binds the Karma? The karmic bondage is possible only to those who are in bondage. Jīva (soul) who are in bondage get encrustation of karma more and more." Due to rise of mohanīyakarma, passions like rāga and dveșa (attachment and hatred) are produced. They give rise to the influx of aśubha-karma (inauspicious karmas). 92 Out of two broad categories of soul, saṁsārī (empirical) and Mukta (liberated), only empirical jīvais bound. The new bondage of soul by the karma is not dependent of the earlier bondage. And the souls, which are free from bondage (mukta), have no karmic bond. Gautama asked Mahāvīra: “Bhagavan! Is the jīva that is in misery, affected by misery? Or the jīva that is not in misery affected by misery?” Mahāvīra said: "O, Gautama! The jīva that suffers from misery is involved to suffer more misery, but the jīva that is free from attachment and misery does not experience misery. The sorrow afflicts those jīvas, which suffer from sorrow, through passion and the increase of misery. The souls that are free from misery do not attract sorrow.” Gautama asked Mahāvīra: “Bhagavan! Who binds the karma, saṁyata (self-controlled), asaṁyata (non-self-controlled) or samyatā-samyata?” (Partially-self-controlled). Bhagavāna replied, “Gautama! The self-controlled, the nonself-controlled and partial-self-controlled, all of them attract the Kundakundācārya, Pravacanasāra-tikā 2,25 Muni Shri Nyāyavijayaji, “Jaina Philosophy and Religion”, P-279 Prajñāpana, 23.1.292 Bhagavati, 9, DMS "Bhagavati, 7.1.266 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #138 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 122 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" karmic particles. The empirical jiva, which is active, gets itself bound by karma, and it is affected by the karmas.°Ð4 Causes of Karmic Bondage: The bondage of soul with the karma is from the time immemorial. Gautama asked Mahāvīra to explain the cause of bondage. Mahāvīra replied “Gautama! The rise of jñānāvaraṇīyakarma brings the intensity of the darśanāvaranīya-karma. From Darśanāvaraṇīya karma emerges darśanamoha-karma. Due to Darśanamoha-karma arises mithyātva or perversity of attitude and from the mithyātva karmic influx arises." The karmic material particles are first get attracted to the soul and then bound with it. The function of attracting them to a soul is performed by the activity (the activity of mind, speech and body). So the activity is called āśrava (influx), rather cause of the influx. And the function of binding of the karmic material particle with soul is performed by mithyātva (unwholesome inclination or faith or conviction), avirati (nonrestraint), pramāda (non-vigilance) and kaṣāya (passion). So they are called causes of bondage. Any activity performed there with these four, viz., mithyātva, and etc. cause bondage. This is the reason why the Tattvārtha-sūtra"says ‘Yoga (activity) alone is called aśrava; the remaining four are not called āśrava (influx), rather cause-of āśrava. Hence the function of attracting (in fluxing) and binding are done by five as mentioned above. Parts of Karmic Bondage: The karmic bondage is of four types depending on the processes of the karmic influx. They are: Prakrti - nature of karma Sthiti - relation or duration Anubhāga - intensity of experience of karma Pradeśa- the extension of karmic particles 54 Bhagavati, 7.1.266 Prajnapana, 23.1.289 30 Tattvārtha-sūtra, VI. 1 37 Ibid, 8.4 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #139 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEISM AND DOCTRINE OF KARMA 123 The bondage based on prakrti and pradeśa is possible due to Yoga, while sthiti and anubhāga are due to passions. Passions are the primary force for the bondage of karma. In the development of the stages of self-realization, the two causes of passions and Yoga work up to 10"Guņasthāna. 38 In case of the souls those are free from passions, still the karmic flow may take place, but it is only due to activity (Yoga). Passions bring intensity and duration of karma." Types of Kaşāya (Passion): Kaşāya or passion is of four types: krodha (anger), māna (ego), māyā (deceitfulness) and lobha (greed).*'In brief passions can be considered of two types (1) rāga (attachment) and (2) dveșa (aversion) include all the four forms of passions. In rāga (attachment) deceitfulness and greed and in dveșa we find anger and ego included. ** Rāga and dveşa bring about the bondage of eight-fold karmas, and considered to be bhāva-karma. The root cause of rāgadveşa is moha (infatuation). Ācārya Haribhadra says that just as if a man anoints oil on his body and anointed body attracts the particles of dust get deposited on the anointed body. So also the karmic particles get glued to the soul due to rāga-dvesa '. We should remember that the perversity, which is the cause of the bondage of karma, is developed by attachment and hatred. The intensity of attachment and hatred * Bhagavati, 8.4 Ibid.8.2 (a) Sūtrakrtānga, 2.26 (b) Sthānānga, 4. 1. 251 (c) Prajnāpana,23.1.290 4(a) Uttarādhyayana, 32.7 (b) Sthānānga, 2.3 (c) Prajnapana, 23 (d) Pravacanasāra, Gāthā 35 42 Avaśyaka-tikā, P-435 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #140 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 124 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" clouds the understanding, and brings the perversity of outlook. It clouds the capacity of discrimination. Limits of Karma: In Jaina theory of karma, karma is intimately associated with the body, mind and the ātman (psyche), of the individual; it has to operate within limitation. Otherwise, without limitation, the karma would be all-pervasive like the ākāśa (sky). The self has the characteristics of pervading the body. Due to karma, the ātman get involved and associated with the body it pervades all. When soul gets freed from the body, it also gets freed from karmas. But the saṁsārī-ātman is somehow associated with one or other body, and therefore, associated with the karmic particles within that limitation.43 In brief the function of karma according to Jainism is to get the soul involved in the cycle of life and death; and as long as the flow of karmic bondage continues, the soul gets involved in the cycle and is not free. In the specific sense different types of karma have their different functions, in creating bondage, to the individual soul. Types of Karma: The Jaina theory of karma mentions eight types of karmas, which are intimately connected in some form or other with the Jiva." 2) Knowledge-obscuring (Iñānāvaraṇīyakarma) Intuition-obscuring (Darśanāvaraṇīyakarma) Deluding (Mohanīyakarma) Power-hindering (Antarāya karma) Feeling-producing (Vedanīya karma) 4. Devendra Muni, " A Source-Book in Jaina Philosophy”, 1983, P-440 44(a) Karma-grantha, 1.2 (b) Uttarādhyayana, 33.2-3 (c) Prajñāpana 23.1 (d) Tattvārtha-sūtra, 8.5 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #141 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEISM AND DOCTRINE OF KARMA 125 7) 8) Age-determining (Āyusya karma) Physique-making (Nāmakarma) Status-determining (Gotrakarma) Jñānāvaraņa, Darśanāvaraņa, Mohanīya and Antarāya karmas are considered as ghāti karmas (destructive karmas) because they affect essential characteristics of soul, like Iñāna (knowledge), darśana (intuit in), sukha (bliss) and vīrya (energy). Vedanīya, Ayusya, Nāma and Gotra karmas are aghāti karmas (non-destructive karmas) because they do not affect the original capacity of the soul nor do they obscure soul's capacity, and produce different states of the body. In this way, all the eight karmas are intimately associated with Jiva (soul).* There are four kinds of karmic bondage and eight fundamental types of karma. A brief description of types of karmas is given here: (1) Knowledge-obscuring (Jñānāvaraniya) Karma: That karma which obscures the discriminative faculty of the soul is called knowledge obscuring karma. Just as a piece of cloth tied around the eyes obstruct the perception through eyes so as the knowledgeobscuring karmas bound with soul obstruct the very nature of discrimination of the soul. This type of karma is divided into five sub-types according to the five kinds of knowledge the Jīva possesses." 46 (2) Intuition-obscuring (Darsanāvaraņiya) Karma: In Jaina philosophy, the word 'darśana’ is used to signify two meanings. One, it means belief, opinion or faith, and other is awareness of an object or cognition of thing in its general form. It is the first stage of knowledge, which is known as indistinct knowledge. Here the word ‘darśana' means intuition, indeterminate perception, indistinct 4 Gommattasära (karmakāņda), 9 40 (a) Prathama Karma Grantha, 9 (b) Gommatasāra (karmakānda), 21 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #142 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 126 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” 47 knowledge or undifferentiated cognition or" perception in the sense of general cognition. Hence the karma, which obscures the faculty of intuition, is called intuition-obscuring karma, and it has nine subdivisions according to four kinds of intuitions and five kinds of sleep. (3) Deluding (Mohaniya) Karma: This kind of karma obstructs true belief and right conduct of the soul. It has two main divisions: one obstruction of belief and other obstruction of conduct, which are called darśana-mohanīya and cāritra-mohanīya karma respectively. This is the most powerful amongst the eight types of karmas, and primarily responsible for the transmigration of the soul.* (4) Power- hindering (Antarāya) Karma: This type of karma hinders and also obstructs the inherent energy (vīrya) of the soul. By rise of this karma, constriction would be created for the enjoyment of normal pleasures of life and experience of an individual. Antarāya karma is of five types.** (5) Feeling-producing (Vedaniya) Karma: Through this type of karmas, the soul experiences pleasure and pain. It has two forms concerning body and mind.""Vedanīya karma is of two types Sātāvedaniya and Asātā-vedanīya. It is compared with a drawn out sword be smeared with honey. Sātā-vedanīya is like honey on the sword, while asātā-vedanīya is like cutting one's tongue while licking the sword. (6) Age-determining (Ayusya) Karma: It confers on a being a certain quantum of life in any four states of existence. When the age determined by the karma is over the individual jīva embraces death. The consequential distinction of āyusya karma is of four types, 47 Bhagvatī, 6,3, Karma-grantha IV, 10-12, Vinaycandra Caubīši (DMS, P-465) ** (a) Prathama Karma-grantha, 13 (b) Sthānānga, 2.4.105 49(a) Uttarādhyayana, 33.2-3 (b) Sthānānga, 8.3.596 (c) Bhagavati, Sataka 6 Karma-grantha 1.12, Ibid - 47 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #143 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEISM AND DOCTRINE OF KARMA 127 which determines life span of individual in hell (Nāraka), lower animal (tiryañca), human beings (manusya) and residents of heaven (deva) gods. (7) Physique-making (Nāma) Karma: Nāma karma determines the different formulation of bodily forms of different individual status and experiences. (8) Heredity-determining (Gotra) Karma: "This type of karma destines the heretical characters or status possessed by a person. It has two sub-types: (i) Uccagotra-karma destines superior status, (ii) Nicagotra karma determines inferior status V. (iv) Auspicious Karma and Inauspicious Karmas Specialty of the Jaina Conception of Karma Matter (Pudgala) is an insentient (not sentient, inanimate) substance. It has infinite energy and power. Karma is a form of matter, which is closely associated with soul. Good or bad actions (thoughts, speeches, overt behaviour) leave behind their traces on the soul. These traces are in the form of aggregates of material atoms. They are karmas. Good or bad actions give rise to auspicious or inauspicious karmas, which in turn, gives auspicious or inauspicious fruits to the soul. Various differences found among living beings and even among human beings are due to these auspicious and inauspicious karmas. In the world, we find two types of human being, viz. some living virtuous life and others living vicious. Again each of these types has two sub-types, viz." 51 Tattvārtha-rājavārtika, 8.10.2 » Gommattasāra (Karmakāņda), 12 Prajñāpanā, 23/1288 Tīkā ** Karma-grantha, 1-52 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #144 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 128 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Those living virtuous life and happy Those living vicious life and happy Those living virtue life and unhappy Those living vicious life and unhappy 1) Auspicious Karma Related to Auspicious Activities and Resulting in Auspicious Karmas (Punyānubandhi-punya) All auspicious karmas give a person means of happiness on their fruition. That person acquires wealth, house, etc. on account of fruition of auspicious karmas. He does not indulge in sensual pleasures and spends his wealth in religious and philanthropic activities. He is humble, does not hurt feelings of others, and lives virtuous life. These auspicious karmas are related to auspicious, wholesome and good activities. And as they are related to auspicious activities, they cause, through those auspicious activities, the bondage of the auspicious karmas, and thus auspicious karmas of this type makes man's life happy, righteous and auspicious, and leads to next birth to experience bondage of further auspicious karmas. It is called punyānubandhi-punya. 2) Auspicious Karmas related to Inauspicious Activities and resulting in Inauspicious Karmas (Pāpānubandhi-punya). As stated before, all auspicious karmas give a person means of happiness, etc. on their fruition. Of all the auspicious karmas, only some are related to auspicious activities and others are related to inauspicious activities, which would lead a man astray. He spends his wealth in luxurious and vicious activities, indulging in sensual pleasures, and does not like religious and good activities. So these types of karma degrade one's life; and cause low birth. Auspicious karmas of this type are related to inauspicious activities; they The soul knows and sees all; desires happiness; is afraid of pain; does friendly or unfriendly actions, and enjoys (or suffers) the fruits of them. Pañcāstikāya, 129 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #145 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEISM AND DOCTRINE OF KARMA 129 cause through them the bondage of inauspicious karma and hence are ignoble. 3) Inauspicious Karmas related to Auspicious Activities and resulting in Auspicious Karmas (punyānubandhi-pāpa). All inauspicious karmas put man in miserable condition on their rise. On account of their fruition, a person becomes or remains poor and cannot acquire means of happiness. But some inauspicious karmas are such which does not shake man's faith in religion. Even in adverse conditions, he practices religion and helps others according to his capacity. He does not lose his peace of mind. Inauspicious karmas of this type are called punyānubandhī because they are related to auspicious activities. Though they cause miseries to man, they do not degrade his life. They, through the good and auspicious activities, cause the bondage of auspicious karmas and also next good birth. They do not obstruct wholesome activities, which lead to good future birth. 4) Inauspicious Karmas related to Inauspicious Activities and resulting in Inauspicious Karma (pāpānubandhi-pāpa). We have already stated all inauspicious karmas cause misery to man on their rise. On account of their fruition, a person is deprived of means of happiness; he cannot acquire wealth in spite of his efforts. As shown above, of all inauspicious karmas, only some are related to auspicious activities, while others are related to inauspicious activities. On account of fruition of inauspicious karmas of this type, man suffers from poverty and other miseries, but at the same time he does not refrain from indulging in vicious activities; on the contrary, he remain, engaged in them. The inauspicious karmas are called pāpānubandhi-pāpa and it causes low next birth and bondage of inauspicious karmas.“ Whatever soul has attachment only to right conduct (e.g. devotion to the Arhats, etc.) whose evolution is penetrated with compassion, and the inner nature of which is without impurity of a grosser kind, punya (meritorious karmas) flows into it. Pañcāstikāya, 135 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #146 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 130 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" V. (v) Karman: Freedom of Will vs. Necessity; Responsibility Destiny is incomprehensible. Man is, therefore free just to make efforts. If we dig the ground, we shall get water, provided it is there. Similarly, if the good fortune is in store for man, it is manifested or brought about through efforts only. Human efforts accompanied with pure light or right knowledge destroys man's present miserable state and opens up the door of happiness, as also strongly counters the future onslaughts of inauspicious karmas. That is to say, under the pretext of karma theory, man should not be lazy, depressed and down cast, but should become industrious and brave, taking into account the supreme importance of spiritual power. If it is not possible for him to remove or allay suffering already befallen on him and hence he has no alternative but to experience it, then, instead of experiencing it with cowardliness and as a result binding new inauspicious karmas, he should experience with praiseworthy equanimity and peace, which evinces true understanding and heroic spirit; and at that time karma theory gives him required strength to keep the mind cool, composed and un-agitated. The karma theory points out that inevitable karma never allows man to escape from the consequences of past actions; it compels him to experience its fruits completely. Even great men could not escape the consequences of their karmas. 57 "Excessive accumulation of wealth is a sin; not only that, but it deprives man of his peace of mind." Each individual is responsible for his or her own action and so is the whole society is responsible for its joint, corporate or collective actions. So the entire society-all its members and all future generations have to experience fruits of the joint actions, which the society as a whole might have performed. The people of India had to experience hardships humiliation of dependence and slavery to "Muni Shri Nyāyavijayaji, “Jaina Philosophy and Religion", P-272 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #147 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THEISM AND DOCTRINE OF KARMA 131 which India was subjected owing to internal dissension and mutual fighting in which its forefathers indulged. “As man sows, so does he reap.'? Our actions are the cause that produces proper effects at proper time. This is the eternal and universal law of karma. If he bears in mind that goods actions generate good fruits and bad actions generate bad fruits, he will shiver and hesitate to perform bad actions and feel elated to perform good actions.58 It is wise to experience the fruits of karma with equanimity, when the karmas rise to give their fruits. Karmas do not generate new karmas when their fruits are experienced with equanimity. If the man enjoys the pleasant fruits with attachment and experiences the painful ones with evil contemplation, then this way of experiencing the fruits of karma causes the bondage of new karma. Therefore, when the karmas rise to give their fruits, man should not be engrossed in or infatuated with enjoyment of their pleasant fruits, that is, he should experience the pleasant fruits of karmas without attachment and with equanimity, and in his miserable state, he should experience the painful fruits of risen karmas with courage, keeping the mind calm and un-agitated. As a result of this, the risen, karmas get dissociated from the soul in such a way that they could not cause the bondage of new karmas in their trail." Only those persons whose minds are not disturbed or agitated even in the presence of the cause of mental disturbances, (that is in the presence of the object of sense-pleasure) are really The good evolution (pariņāma) of the soul is merit (punya); the bad evolution is sin (pāpa). It is the materialization of these two which becomes (good or bad). Pañcāstikāya, P-55 »The good evolution (pariņāma) of the soul is merit (punya); the bad evolution is sin (pāpa). It is the materialization of these two which becomes (good or bad). Pañcāstikāya,58, P-268 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #148 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 132 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” wise and steady. The objects of sense do not forcibly yoke him to the enjoyment of sense-pleasures against his will. The only means for keeping one's mind calm and composed even in the midst of sense objects presented to one by fruition of one's karmas is the extermination of the longing for sense-pleasure by means of the fire of knowledge.60 But if he loses patience, courage and self-confidence, he will surely slip into the deep valley of degeneration. It is, therefore more proper and meaningful to blame one's own spiritual weakness than to put blame on one's karma. Behind any event-taking place in the life of a mundane soul, there is certainly the force of its past karmas. Thus, when a physical (natural) or financial calamity befalls on a person, that force is indubitably working behind it. In spite of this fact, if a person intentionally invites the calamity, he cannot escape from the crime of inviting it. The worldly laws may or may not punish him for this crime, but the law of nature (karma) will certainly punish him. *** Who so, occupying himself with activities which stop the inflow of karmas persists in ascetic practices of various kinds-verify such an one makes many karmas fall away from his soul. Pañcāstikāya, 144 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #149 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER- VI JAINA CONCEPT OF THEISM AND GOD VI. (i) Introduction Due to imperfect acquaintance with the Jaina literature, Jainism is criticized by some scholars, especially western, as a mere bundle of rules of ascetic disciplines or a system metaphysically barren. Paramātma-prakāśa' clearly shows what part of mysticism plays in Jainism and how it is worked out in the background of Jaina metaphysics. The Jaina mysticism is sure to be all the more interesting, if we remember the fact that Jainism is polytheistic religion (believes in numerous celestial beings-devas) and believes in, that, it is not the responsibility of God to create the world. Jainism belongs to śramaņa tradition, one of the two chief currents of Indian thought i.e. Vedic or Brāhmaṇa and Sramaņa. “Brāhmanic system belongs to Vedic Brāhmaṇas whereas Šramaņic system belongs to the Śramaņas of which Jainism and Buddhism is the two main exponents. The term Śramaņa is derived from the words “Sam', 'Sama' and 'Srama.'The word “Sam' represents equality (sāmya), “Sama' represents Samana or dissipation of karmas and finally “śrama' denotes hard life or asceticism. The term Brāhmaṇa has multiple meanings, two out of which are (1) prayers or worship and (2) rituals.? Both these currents of ancient Indian thought have sufficiently interacted with each other in the area of theology. Like all other living beings man struggles for existence, while the lower beings struggle more or less blindly without any conscious Yogindudeva, "Paramātma Prakāśa", Shrimad Rajchandra Ashram, Agas, 1960 Pt. Sukhlal Sanghvi, “Jaina Dharam no Prāna”, referred by Dr. Hemant Shah “Jain Theism”, Ahmedabad, 1997 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #150 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 134 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" plan and purpose, and work by instinct. Man uses the superior gift of his intellect to understand the conditions and meaning of the struggle to devise plan and instruments to ensure success. 355 Desire for knowledge always springs, therefore, from the rational nature of man. Philosophy is an attempt to satisfy this very reasonable desire. As an eminent English writer puts it, "Men live in accordance with their philosophy of life, their conception of the world. It is impossible to live without metaphysics. The choice that is given to us is not between some kind of metaphysics and nometaphysics; it is always between a good metaphysics and a bad metaphysics. Indian philosophy denotes the philosophical speculations of all Indian thinkers, ancient or modern, Hindus or non-Hindu, theist and atheist. Even in the ancient writings of ancient Hindu philosophers like Madhavācārya. In his Sarva-darśanasangraha he has tried to present views of all (sarva) schools of philosophy (darśana) of atheists and materialists like Cārvākas, also called Lokayata, an unorthodox thinkers because they did not accept the Vedic authority like Bauddhas and Jainas, along with those of the orthodox Hindu Vedic thinkers." 4 There were many schools of Indian philosophy and their views differed from each other, at a time quite widely, yet each school took care to learn the views of all the others and did not come to conclusion before considering thoroughly what others had to say and how their points could be met. Openness of mind, willingness to listen to what others have to say, has been the chief causes of the wealth and greatness of Indian philosophy. In ancient India, philosophers never felt that the world was field of battles when men in other part of world struggled for power, wealth and domination, but they thought and were in search of 3 'Aldous Huxley, "Ends and Means", P- 252, Dr. Chattarji and Dr. Datta, "An Introduction to Indian Philosophy", 1984, P- 1-3 4 Ibid For Personal & Private Use Only Page #151 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM higher life and to live more perfectly in the spirit. Indian philosophy deals with problems of this nature, knowledge of truth and vision of truth (darśana). Every Indian philosophy holds, in its own way, that there can be a direct realization of truth (tattva-darśana). A man of realization becomes free; and one who lacks it is entangled in the world. The word darśana, which is usually, translated as 'philosophy' means to see or have experience. From this we may gather that Indian philosophy is not merely metaphysical speculation, but has its foundations in immediate perception. God and the soul are regarded by Indian minds, not as concept speculative and problematical, as is the case in Western Philosophy, but as a thing directly known. They can be experienced not merely by a chosen few, but, under right conditions, by all humanity. Theism is the word created by the Western scholars and philosophers to define belief in god or God, or belief in divine creation, or more commonly taken as belief in existence of God. Philosophies in India are essentially spiritual. Except a few, allphilosophical schools of Indian philosophy believe in God, according to their own definition of God. Ignorance of this subject, classification among philosophies, even Indian scholars are confused. To western mind, Indian philosophy means two or three "Silly notions about māyā or delusiveness of world, karma or belief in fate, tyaga or the ascetic desire to get rid of the flesh.7 135 VI. (ii) Vedic Ritualistic Sacrifices V/s Jainism During Vedic period, settlement of Aryans and gradual expansion of Aryan culture and civilization spread in India, and also it was a beginning of sublime idealism. Thoughts (philosophic) were signified by Mantras, hymns envisaged in Brāhmaṇas and the "Samyag-darśana-sampannāḥ karma bhirna nibadhyate; vihināstu sanisaram pratipadyate. Manu-samhita, 6.74 Swami Prabhavanada "Spiritual Heritage of India", 2000, P-5 Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, “Indian Philosophy", Vol. -1, 1997, P-24 55 For Personal & Private Use Only darśanena Page #152 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 136 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Upanisads. Views put forward in this age were not philosophical in technical sense. It was the age of griping where superstition and thoughts were yet in conflict. Sacrifice, as a ritual, a method to gain release and to please gods was quite popular amongst the Hindus. Sacrifices of popular five kinds of animals: goats, sheep, cows or bulls and horses were included in Vedic rituals. Of course, the purpose was to get desired boon and spiritual benefits from God. "Ritual is simple and uniform. It consists of prayer accompanied by sprinkling of grains, followed by animal burnt offering. Part of flesh is tasted by the worshipers and made over by burning to the Gods. The rest is eaten as banquet with abandons of wine." 5,8 Regarding Vedic sacrifices, Sanatana Dharma mentions "As for reaching as the law of karma is the law of sacrifice, the law by which the world was built, the law by which they are maintained. All lives can only be supported by absorbing other lives."Further it is said, "Life is sustained by life only; all forms can only be preserved by absorbing other forms. Sacrifice permeates all religions as it permeates the universe." 10 Says Lord Śrīkṛṣṇa, 'this world is not for the non-sacrifice: 11 how then the other? O best of the Kurus. The Bṛhadaranyaka Upanisad says - "Om! The dawn verily is the head of the sacrificial horse". The dawn is explained as the beginning of the Day of Brahma, the day of creation. Then is the great Harrison, Stages of Grecian Life, P- 87-88 (See Dr. S. Radhakrishnan "Indian Philosophy" Vol. 1, P-107) 'Jīvojīvasyabhojanam, Sanātana Dharma, Dr. Annie Besant and Bhagwavan Das, P-77 10 Ibid. 11 Nayamlokojstyajñasyakuto' nyaḥkuru sattam, Bhagavadgītā, IV.31 (also Ibid - 9, P-77) 12 Om uṣāvāaśvasyamedhyasyaśiraḥ//-Bṛhadaranyaka Upanisad 1.1 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #153 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 137 horse sacrifice, the horse whose body is universe, the sacrifice of the one who carries the many - devas, gandharvas, asuras, and men. The approach of śramaņas towards worship, especially of Jainas, was quite different. Non-violence principle of Jainas is quite opposite to the Vedic ritualistic sacrifices or killing animals to please gods. As a result the very spirit of sacrifice innocent animals was opposed by the Sramaņa tradition- Jainism and Buddhism. But it was not revolt against Vedic rituals. Some scholars maintain that emergence of Jainism and Buddhism was the result of revolt against the Vedic system. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan says, “This cry of revolt taken up by the Upanişads are carried on by the Buddhist and Jaina schools,"13 Dr. Sagarmal Jain observed that it was not a revolt but a reformer's crusade. In fact, Vedic and Sramanic traditions are not rival traditions, as some of the Western and Indian scholars think, but they are complementary to each other.' Jains advocated asceticism by means of temperance, chastity and mental concentrations. They maintain that tapas or austerities are better than sacrifices regarded as means of higher knowledge and divine favour. Jainism and Buddhism, due to their ascetic practices by which the unchangeable essence could be freed from the changing trammels, tried to purify Hindu religion, which included impurities such as dogmatic approach and ritualistic sacrifices. Indian and Western scholars pointed out that both Mahāvīra and Buddha protested against ritualistic sacrifice tradition of Vedic Aryan. This kind of writing on the part of scholars was to create a deliberate gulf between Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism, because Lord Mahāvīra, who was preaching philosophy of non-absolution and non-violence 13 Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, “Indian Philosophy”, Vol.-1, 1997, P-107 * Dr. Sagarmal Jain, “An Introduction to Jaina Sadhana", 1955, P-5 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #154 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 138 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” along with austerity and compassion. In reference to animal sacrifice for the rituals, Lord Mahāvīra said, “Know it for certain that as you dislike pain, the other animals also dislike, knowing this show compassion to other Jīvas (souls)”. "So did Buddha. He preached, “I do not approve of sacrifices, for I do not care for happiness which is sought at the price of other's suffering.” VI. (iii)Concept of God (a) Early Vedic Concept of Polytheism Vedas are the highest authority in Hindu religion. The word 'Veda' comes from Sanskrit “vid', it means in English “to wit” that is realization or experience of Divinity. There are four Vedas: Rg, Yajur, Sāma and Atharva. These Vedas are the earliest documents of the human mind that we possess. Bloomfield observed that the hymns of Rgveda are sacrificial composition of primitive race, which attached great importance to ceremonial rites'." Aurobindo Ghosh, the great Indian scholar-mystic, is of the opinion that Vedas are replete with suggestions of secrete doctrines and mystic philosophies. He looks upon the gods of hymns as symbols of the psychological functions. Sūrya signifies intelligence; Agni will, and Soma feeling. The gods are also called deva. 'Deva is one who gives to man'. The sun, moon and sky are devas because they give light to all creation?. 18 Prof. Keith observes that the divines are kind to their worshipers and they do not deceive. Further, they give blessings for which offerings are bestowed on them. Besides, boons many a times 's Encyclopedia Britannica (11'"Ed), Vol. XXII, P-777 (Also Dr. Hemant Shah, “Jain Theism”, 1997, P-13 Dr. Radhakrishnan, Reader, 1988, P-361 Ibid, Vo. 1, P-68 18 Ibid Vo. 1, P. 72 "Max Muller, India what it can teach us? P-18-19 (See Dr. Ajay Kothari “The Concept of Divinity”, 2000, P-23) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #155 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 139 a worshiper wants to wipe away his sins. God wipes sin off on trita, the sacrifice. Early Vedic Aryans, who were primitive, if not semicivilized and semi-barbarous, settled down and began to wonder at charming, tempting, terrible and destructive aspect of the nature. They personified them in an anthropomorphic fashion and called them gods and goddesses and began to worship them. Hinduism calls itself Sanātana Dharma, that which is eternal. It has eternal faith in Vedas, Upanişads, and it is based not upon the teachings of a single preceptor, but on the collective wisdom and inspiration of great seers and sages, from the very dawn of Indian civilization. Devas are heavenly, the kind, the powerful, the invincible, the immortal and in the end something like theoi or du of Greek and Romans. Father and mother and spiritual guides are also devas. Even a guest is deva.' We have to take into account only that notion of deva which answers roughly to the modern concept of God. It then means bright. ?'The word Devatā means the deity who accept oblation. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan says, “The Indo-Iranian gods of Dyaușa, Varuņa, Vyās, Mitra, etc. were the product of poetic consciousness found in hymns of Rgveda, and in the period of conquest and battle, useful utilitarian deities as Indra were conceived. Thus the polytheism spread among Vedic Aryans and later, in ordinary course of time, polytheism lead to monotheism and the most powerful god among the hierarchy of gods is enthroned as the ruler of this universe. And it can be seen that the permanent elements of the universe, as sky, wind, fire, rain, etc. were deified and hence cosmology became confused with religion, which is Mātridevobhava, pitrdevobhava, ācāryadevobhava/ atithidevobhavall Dr. Radhakrishnan, “Indian Philosophy”, Vo. 1, P-73 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #156 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 140 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" reflected in Rgveda mythology, cosmology and so the religion found intermixed"> Varuņa, the god of sky, is identical with the Greek Ouranos and Ahuramazda of Avesta. “Var' mean to cover or compass. Sun is his eyes, sky is garment and storms are his breath and at time he was considered the God of gods.23 Mitra, his constant companion, when mentioned together expresses as night and day, darkness and light. Varuņa was considered, a moral god who watches over world, forgives and punishes.24 Soma,“the god of inspiration, about whom Whitney observes: The simple minded Aryan people whose whole religion was a worship of the wonderful powers and phenomena of nature, had no sooner perceived that the liquid had power to elevate the spirit, etc. It was to their apprehension a god, endowing those into whom it entered with god like powers. Indra'is the most popular god of Vedas. When Aryans entered India they found that, as at present, their prosperity was a mere gamble in rain. Hence, Indra, the rain god naturally became the national god of the Indo-Aryans. Commenting on the Vedic tendency Dr. S. Radhakrishnan observes 'the process of god-making in the factory of man's mind cannot be seen so clearly anywhere else as in the Rgveda.” (b) Later Evolution of the Idea of Supreme God or Monotheism 22Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, "Indian Philosophy”, Vo. 1, P-70 -Satpathabrāhmaṇa, IV, 2.15 Rgveda,3.59.1 2Ibid, 8.48.8 26 Ibid, 11.12.1 27 Dr. Radhakrishnan “Indian Philosophy Vol. 1, P-73 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #157 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 141 As the time passed by, it was seen that in Rgveda, names of goddesses, as Ușas, Aditi, Sarasvatī, Vāk, Aranyani, etc, appeared and was added to the list of 333 gods and goddesses. Philosophers and Rșis who were intellectuals, got concerned of the crowding of gods and goddesses, and concept of viśvedevāḥ or pantheon evolved. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan said "This tendency at systematization had its natural end in monotheism, which is simpler and more logical than the anarchy of a crowd of gods and goddesses thwarting each other.”:28 The implicit demand of the religious consciousness for one supreme God made itself manifest in what is characterized as henotheism (belief in one only God) of the Veda. It is, according to Max Muller, who coined the term, the worshipping of each divinity in turn, as if it were the greatest and even the only God. Prof. C. D. Sharma” refuted Max Muller's interpretation of henotheism of the Vedas; because Vedic Aryans regarded any god they were praising as the most supreme and the only God. Dr. Sharma remarked: 'If this western interpretation is taken literally and in its entirety, we have no hesitation in saying that it is based on an ignorance of the Vedic literature. Neither polytheism nor henotheism nor even monotheism can be taken as the keynote of the early Vedic philosophy. The root fallacy in western interpretation lies in the mistaken belief that the Vedic seers were simply inspired by primitive wonder and awe towards the force of nature. On the other extreme is the orthodox view that the Vedas are authorless and eternal, which too cannot be philosophically sustained. The correct position seems to us to be that the Vedic sages were greatly intellectual and intensely spiritual personages who in their mystic moments came face to face with Reality and this mystic experience, this direct intuitive spiritual insight overflew in literature as the Vedic hymns. Further he said: instead of taking the trouble of coining the word 'henotheism', Max Muller could have simply said 28 Indian Philosophy Vol. 1 p-90 29 Dr. C.D. Sharma, “A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy”, 1997, P-15 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #158 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 142 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” that the gods are regarded as mere manifestation of the Supreme God so that when any god was praised, he was not praised in his individual capacity, but merely as the manifestation of the supreme God. The gods are praised; yet not the gods, but God is praised through them. Hence there is no development from polytheism through monotheism to monism, but only monism from the first mantra portion to the last Upanișadic portion. Hence Vedic Aryan felt keenly the mystery of the ultimate, true conception of God. The Supreme Being can be only one. Vedic seers, to establish, monotheism introduced system of subordinating gods under one higher being; or controlling spirit, which could regulate the working of lower gods, as such satisfied the craving for one God, and yet allowed them to keep up the continuity with the past. This resulted in today's Hinduism a heterogeneous mass of philosophies, religious mythologies and magic. Many gods were looked upon as the different embodiments of the universal spirit. They were ruling in their own respective spheres under the suzerainty of the supreme. Even Indra and Varuņa become departmental deities. The highest position in the later part of Rgveda is granted to Viśvakarmā." Max Muller says: Whatever is the age when the collection of our Rgveda-saṁhitā was finished, it was before that age that the conviction had been formed that there is but One, One Being, neither male nor female, a Being raised high above all the conditions and limitations of personality and human nature and nevertheless the Being that was really meant by all such names as Indra, Agni, Mātriśvan, nay, even by the name of Prajāpati, Lord of creatures.' "Rgveda, X. 81.82; 87.2; X.170.4 31 Dr. Radhakrishnan, “Indian Philosophy, Vol. I, P-96 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #159 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM All forms of religions, which have appeared on earth, assume the fundamental need of human heart, a power above him on which he could depend. The gods of Vedic religion are the reflection of growing wants and needs, that they would hear man's prayer, accept their sacrifices. So Vedic seers searched a nameless God, who alone could satisfy the restless craving of the human hears and the skeptic mind. It is of course clearly understood by all Hindus that the vast host of devas no more obscures the unity of Isvara, (God), in his triple form as Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva, than do the vast host of men, animals, plants and minerals. As said in the śruti: "Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Agni, they call Him, and He is golden-feathered (suparno Garutman). Of what is one, sages speak as manifold; they call him Agni, Yama, Mātarisvān 32 33 Manusmrti said: 'All the gods are even the self; all rests on the self. Some call him Agni, others Manu, (others) Prajapati, Some, Indra, others Life-breath, others the eternal Brahman. ,34 143 But the devas, gods, have their own place in nature, as the ministers of the will of Isvara (God), ruling, protecting, adjusting, guiding with intelligence and power for greater than human but still limited. Sometimes a man wins the favours of a deva by some service done in this or previous birth, then all his efforts proper, and he 32 Indraṁmitramvaruṇagnimāhurathodivyaḥsasuparṇogarütmān/ Ekam sad viprāḥbahudhāvadanti Agnimyamaṁmātariśvānamāhuḥ// Rgveda, I. 164. 46 33 Atmaïvadevatāḥsarvaḥsarvamātmanyavasthitam, Manusmrti-12.19, P .46 34 Etamekevaḍnyāgnimanaumanyeprajāpatim, Indrameke 'pareprāṇamapare brahma śāśvatam// Manusmrti, XII. 23 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #160 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 144 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” succeeds where others fail and he is called "lucky'. "Good Luck' is the result of the working of devas, and as their working is invisible, men think the result is a chance or accident. But it must be remembered that all devas work within law, and not by arbitrary fancies. The sacrifices and offerings prescribed in Vedas form a great occult system for obtaining and regulating this cooperation between devas and men, whereby the work of both is carried on with the largest results. Those who desire success in action here, worship devas, or gods but the benefits obtained from them are transient, impermanent. Hence the worship of devas is not practiced by men whose heart are set on spiritual things. They worship īśvara, the God, rather than his ministers, either Brahman, or as revealed in Trimūrti. Brahman is the witness of all beings, the propelling power, all pervading and self-existent. One gets free from birth by merging into Brahman. “Brahman is part-less and so there cannot be any real part of it. Hence, it must be viewed as a part, as it were of fire.' In this aphorism the individual soul is explained as a delimited entity." The Trimārti, supreme triple unity, as it is said in Vişnupurāņa, the one and only God Janārdana takes designation of Brahmā, Vişņu and Siva, accordingly as He creates, preserves or destroys." Brahmāis the creator, pictured as with four heads, one looking towards each quarter, riding on (hamsa) the Swan."Vişņu is the preserver and sustainer, the principle underlying and sustaining the universe in order, and preserving forms, holding them together by his attracting force." He is the source of avatāras, reincarnation, 35 Svetāśvatara Upanişad, VI. 18; 1.7 30 G. Mishra, The Anubhūti Paksa of Vidyāranya, Introduction, P-XVII 3 Martin, E.Q., Gods of India, P-133 38 Keneith Morger, Ed, The Religious of Hindus, P-85 “Encyclopaedia of Britannica, Vol. VIII, P-892 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #161 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 145 and in them, or in His own person, is perhaps the most generally worshipped manifestation of Iśvara, the God; and worshipped as Saguņa-Brahman, dwelling in matters.40 Śiva or Mahādeva or Maheśvara, is the destroyer, He who frees ātman from imprisoning forms, who destroys avidyā (nescience) and so gives vidyā (right cognition) and who finally rolling up universe, brings the peace of liberation. He is pictured ever as an ascetic. He is being object of worship for Yogins, who have renounced the world. He rides on bull, the emblem of mind and some times of physical nature, as having subdued it and wears the tiger skin, the emblem of the slay desire nature. Hence he is as the name Siva implies, ānanda, the peace and bliss of ātman, freed from desire and master of mind." These supreme forms of Isvara or God, separated by functions, but one in essence, stand as the central life of Brahmānda, and from and by them it proceeds, is maintained, and is withdrawn. Their functions should not be confused, but their unity should never be forgotten. (c) Early Vedic Conception relating to the Creation of the World (Theology) Brahmā, as the creative God, born in the golden Egg, which grows out of the seed of the one in the waters of matter. He, having meditated, desiring to produce various beings from his own body, first put forth in the waters; in these he placed the seed. “That became a Golden Egg, equal in radiance to the thousand rayed (the sun) in that was born Brahmā himself, the grandfather of all worlds. 42 A brief detail of world creation as mentioned in the Sivapurāņa" is as follows: 'Brahmā emanated water first and therein 44 4° Mahābhārata (śāntiparva), VV. 1514, VV. 1616 *Kenopanişad, III, 12 “? Manusmrti, 1.8-9 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #162 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 146 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" sowed a handful of the seeds, which was his. The same grew up as an egg, made up of the 24 tattvas. Brahmā spent twelve years doing austerity, concentrating his thought on Visnu. Visņu appeared before him to whom Brahmā said that he was placed by Śiva in his charge to create world. But the world created by him (Brahmā) was motionless and material. So Brahma requested Visņu to put life in the world created by him. The universal Purușa, Visņu who touched heaven and earth, pervaded the Egg, and the Egg of 24 tattvas became full of life and consciousness (sa-caitanya) from Pātāla to Satya-loka. Brahma created a number of sons born of His mind; however, they all became ascetic. So Brahmā, approached the Mahadeva, Śiva who resolved to do what Brahma desired, and hence the creation of Brahma became everlasting from thereon. In summary, the work of Brahma consisted in producing all material, and formed the archetypes of all living things. Šiva-purāṇa and Viṣṇu-bhāgavata explained, Visņu being that aspect of Isvara, God, helped to put in, Prāṇa that is the life that holds forms together and preserves them as forms, together with cit(consciousness). Further, Śiva-purāṇa said that when these forms had been fully developed, Mahadeva, Śiva, the God was appealed who then gave to it immortality, that is, he linked to the forms the Jīvātmans evolved in previous kalpas, life." 43 VI. (iv) Philosophical Evolution of the Idea of Supreme God as a Creator: (a) In Ṛgveda Hymns of Mandala X - 129: The Rgveda Samhita or collection consists of 1,017 hymns, covering a total of about 10,600 stanzas. It is divided into eight aṣṭakas, each having eight adhyāyas or chapters, which are further subdivided into Vargas. It is sometime divided in ten mandalas. The first mandala is ascribed roughly to fifteen different authors or Ṛsis (seers or sages) such as Gautama, Kanva etc. Next six mandalas are ascribed to a single family of 43Dr. Annie Besant, "Sanatana Dharma", 1940, P-53 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #163 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM poets. The eighth mandala ascribed to numbers of different seers. Ninth mandala consists of hymns addressed to Soma. Many of the hymns of eighths and ninth mandalas are found in Samaveda also; mandala tenth seems to be later appended. At any rate, it contains views current at last period of the development of Vedic hymns. Speculative hymns about the origins of creation, etc. are to be met with. Together with these abstract theorizing are also found in it the superstitions, charm belonging to Atharvaveda period. While the speculative parts indicate the maturing of the mind, the feature shows that by that time the Vedic Aryans must have grown familiar with the doctrines and practices of native Indians and both these are clear indications of the late origin of the tenth Mandala." 44 When we get to the monotheistic level, the question arises as to whether the world came out of God's own nature without any preexistent matter or through His power acting on eternally pre-existent matter. The former view takes us to the higher monistic conception while the latter remains at lower monotheistic level, and we have both views in the Vedic hymns. In hymn X.121, we have an account of the creation of the world by an omnipotent God out of preexistent matter. Hiranyagarbha arose in the beginning from the great water, which pervaded the universe. He evolved the beautiful world from the shapeless chaos, which all that existed.45 But how did it happen, it is asked, that the chaos produced Hiranyagarbha? What is that unknown force or law of development, which led to his rise? Who is author of the primeval waters? According to Manu, Harivamsa and the other Purāņas, God was the author of Chaos. He created it by His will and put a seed in it, which became golden germ in which he; himself was born as the Brahma or the creator God. "I am Hiranyagarbha, the Supreme spirit himself become manifest in the form of Hiranyagarbha.' Thus the two eternally co 946 Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, “ Indian Philosophy", Vol. 1997, P-68 45 Rgveda, X. 123.1 46 Manusmrt, V.9, MacDonnell, Vedic Mythology, p-17 147 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #164 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 148 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" to be the evolution of one ultimate existent substances seem substratum. (b)Views of Nyāya-Vaiseșikas Philosophy Regarding Evolution of the Idea of God and Creation of World: It is generally held that Indian philosophy is essentially spiritual, moving around the idea of God as the basic fact of life; however it is only in Yoga and Vedānta, besides the NyāyaVaiseșika darśana (schools) that God is formally acknowledged. All other orthodox systems of Indian philosophical schools quote, as atheist. Ancient philosophers of India were of the opinion that the world is spontaneous growth, promoted by the chance combination of material elements, and no intervention of God is needed for creation. God had originally no place in the Nyāya-sūtra of Gautama and in the Vaiseșika-sūtra of Kaņāda. The Nyāya and Vaiseșika were independent in their origins, but in the course of history, the two systems were amalgamated. Nyāya was the science of argumentation, predominantly intellectualistic and analytical. Special attention is paid in this system to the question of formal logic. The Vaiseșika is derived from word 'višeșa', which means difference, and the doctrine so designated because, according to it, diversity is at the root of the universe. The purpose of original Vaiseșika was purely scientific, and hence, materialistic, to find out the basis of substance which is substratum of qualities and actions, and the material cause of the basis of substance, the Vaišeșikas developed the atomic theory. The inference by which they sought to prove the existence of atoms is like this. Whatever produced must be made up of parts. Therefore if the parts of composite things be separated, we shall pass from larger to smaller, from smaller to still smaller, and from smaller to the smallest part which cannot be further divided in any For Personal & Private Use Only Page #165 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 149 way. This invisible and minute part is called paramāņu or atom. An atom cannot be produced, because it has no parts, and to produce means to combine parts. Nor it can be destroyed, for to destroy a thing is to break it up into its parts, whereas atom has no parts. Thus being neither produced nor destructible atom of a thing is eternal. The founders of the schools, Nyāya and Vaišeșika, Gautama and Kaņāda were indifferent to the question of God; it was their commentators Vātsyāyana and Prasastapāda who were mainly responsible for introducing the concept of God in the system. The cause of the admittance of God into a basically scientific and materialistic system was purely technical need of defending an essentially scientific hypothesis, namely, atomism. The main weakness of atomic theory was want of satisfactory explanation of the process of atomic combination, by which the shaping of matter and consequently that of physical world was believed to have been possible. How could the atoms being defined as partless combine with each other? The Nyāya-Vaiseșika had to face this question from the challenging Buddhists, Vedantists and Mīmāṁsākas. The NyāyaVaišesika defended this question, in terms of technology, known to them, of potter producing the jar or weaver producing the cloth. So, in the Nyāya-Vaišeșikas terminology, the potter or the weaver is the intelligent agent without whose operation there can be any production at all. In the image of this potter or craftsman, the Nyāya-Vaišeșika conceived an intelligent agent, the God, to effect the first atomic combination. They argued that just as potter produced the jar by combining two kapālas i.e.; pre-fabricated parts of the jar, so did God produced the first dyad by combining two atoms. Thus was introduced God, the grand macrocosmic potter, into the atomic philosophy. Thus according to the later Nyāya-Vaiseșikas, the world has the atoms for its material cause and God for its efficient. 4?Nyāyasūtrabhāsya, 1.1.21 48 Vaiseșikasūtrabhāsya, 48-9 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #166 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 150 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" The result was the growth of a mass of theology that tended to overshadow the scientific hypothesis, which it was designed to fortify.49 The atoms can act only when, prior to beginning of creation, they are controlled by an intelligent being. God creates the world for the sake of making the beings experience the fruits of their past deeds. The creation and destruction of the world follows one another in regular order. The periodic dissolution is brought about by God's desire to re-absorb the whole creation within him. These are the natural overgrowths rising from the momentum, which the conception of God acquired when admitted into the system. (c) Refutation of Concept of God as World's Creator in the Early Vedic Texts Rgveda, Atharvaveda, Kathopanișad and Gitā The Rgveda Mandala X.129 presents a doubtful attitude towards the creation of world by Supreme God, as oppose to hymn of Mandala X.121 which narrates account of the creation of the world. 50 This is exactly the theory of a later hymn of Mandala X.129 called the Nāşadīya-sūkta (hymn), which is translated by Max Muller. There was then neither what is not, nor there was no sky, nor the heaven, which is beyond. What covered? Where was it, and in whose shelter? Was the water the deep abyss (in which it lay)? There was no death, hence was there nothing immortal. There was no light (distinction) between night and day. That one breathed by itself without breath, other than it there has been nothing. Chattopadhyaya, D. P., “Indian Atheism”, Calcutta 1970, P-254-7 S'Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, “Indian Philosophy”, Vol.1, P-100 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #167 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM Darkness there was in the beginning of all. This was a sea without light: the germ that lay covered by the husk that one was born by the power of heat (tapas). 151 Love overcame it in the beginning, which was the seed springing from mind, poets having searched in their heart found by wisdom the bond of what is in what is not. Their ray, which was stretched across, was it below or was it above? There were seed-bearers, there were powers, self-power below, and will above. Who then knows, who has declared it here, from whence was born this creation? The gods came later than this creation, who then knows whence it arose? From whom this creation arose, whether he made it or did not make it, the highest seer in the highest heaven, he forsooth knows, or does even he not know? Dr. Radhakrishnan remarked on the above Rgveda Mandala X.129 as follows: "We find in this hymn a representation of the most advanced theory of creation. First of all there was no existent or non-existent. The existent in its manifested aspect was not then. We cannot on that account call it the non-existent, for it is positive being from which the whole existence arrives. The first line brings out the inadequacy of our categories. The absolute reality, which is at the back of the whole world, cannot be characterized by us as either existent or non-existent. The one breathed breathless by its own power. Other than that there was not anything beyond. First cause of all it is older than the whole world, with the sun, moon, sky and stars. It is beyond time, beyond space, beyond age, beyond death and beyond immortality. We cannot For Personal & Private Use Only Page #168 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 152 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" express what it is except that it is." Thus in Rgveda, we find that the poets were not sure about the creation, because he clearly mentions that he made it or did not make it, for that he knows, even he does not know. The verse clearly shows that the seers of Rgveda were not definite regarding the creation of the world. Thus in we find that seers of Rgveda were not definite regarding the creation of the world. Not only Vedas but some other philosophers of Vedic tradition such as Kumārila Bhatta and also other thinkers of Mīmāṁsā School do not accept the God as the creator of the world. It is Nyāya-Vaiseșikas scholars who for the first time logically propounded the theory of God and His creation. The creation theory has been questioned in Vedas, which is generally cited in its support. Upanişads, Gītā and Mahābhārata have also not supported it. In Ķgveda: 1) Rgveda2 says, “Sun is eternal and never destroyed”. 2) Atharvaveda” says, “The sun is throwing out several trillions tons of energy but it is being replenished naturally." 3) Rgveda questions: If the universe was created then what for? From where? Who saw it being created? 4) According to Atharvaveda”, “Brahmā says - I do not know who the creator was first.” 5) Kumārila Bhatta, head of one of the Mimāṁsā School, also opposed creation theory in his treatise Ślokavārtika”. He says: Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, “Indian Philosophy”, Vol. 1, p-101 32 Rgveda , 1.64.2 5 Atharvaveda, 12.26.62 54Rgveda, 1-185-1 Atharvaveda, 10-7-43 so ślokavārtika, Sambandhaksepaparihāra-prakarana, 4-47 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #169 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 153 6) “What was the reason for creation of universe? If it is because of wishes of God, then how God, who is without body, can have wishes?” Unknown Poets said in their ślokas that “Veda cannot be trusted because they are work of God who may have mentioned creator to glorify Him.” The stanzas, which have mentioned creation, are mere poetry by poets in praise of their own gods. Kathopanişad mentions that the universe is eternal. 8) Gītā states, “God is not creator of universe nor does he designs actions of substances. These happen because of their inherent properties.” (d) Refutation of God as World's Creator by Mimāṁsakas The basic weakness of Nyāya-Vaišeșika conception of God has rightly been challenged by Mīmāmsakas, that God does not create the world out of nothing, but out of eternal atoms. In spite of his alleged Omnipotence, God is in fact helplessly obliged to work with the material already existing. Kumārila has raised the important question, how God could come into existence if such was the condition that there was no world before the creation of the world. Creation cannot be possible without any material and it is impossible to conceive that there were materials of creation prior to creation, who was the creator of these materials of creation or when did these materials come into existence? For this we are to postulate another creator, and another, and so on ad-infinitum, but problem will remain all the same. The same argument may be put forward also in the case of the formulation that God created the material out of his own body. If God is viewed as being without a body, He cannot have the desire to create, and if He was viewed as having a body, assuredly He would not have created this body. Kathopanisad, 2-3-1 * Gītā, 1.5.1 & V.14 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #170 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 154 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” The Nyāya-Vaišeșika defended their position that there must be an intelligent cause or agent (kartā) without whose guidance these objects cannot be what they are, and which should enable them to produce as definite effects. This intelligent cause must have a direct knowledge of the material cause; the atoms desire to combine and reproduce them in different form and also the power to accomplish the task. So he requires to be omniscient (Sarvajña), because only an omniscient being can have direct knowledge of all these. Secondly, the difference in the lot of human beings require an explanation which must be in terms of karma i.e.; good or bad deeds. This stock of merit and demerit accruing from good and bad actions is called adrsta in Nyāya-Vaiseșika terminology. This adrsta manages to produce different consequences in the case of the individuals, but since it is an unintelligent principle, by itself incapable of leading to just that degree of joy and sorrow which are due to the past actions of the individuals, it requires to be guided by some intelligent agent to produce the proper consequences. It is only such an intelligent agent, the omnipotent and omniscient God, who can control the adrsta of the human beings and dispense all the joys and sorrows of human life, in strict accordance with it. Mīmāṁsakas further said: God cannot create the world out of pity because there was no being on which compassion could be shown. If the creation is said to be for the amusement of God, then it contradicts to his perfection. If the will of God is responsible for the world, then there is no room for the doctrine of karma. Also, the idea of the utter dissolution of the world (Pralaya), which is a corollary of the Nyāya-Vaišeșika argument, cannot be admitted because this is not supported by experience. Like creation we shall have then to think of destruction of the world in terms of the will of Supreme Being. (e) Refutation of God as World Creator by Jainas &Buddhists The Nyāya-Vaiseșika's speculative conception of God has also been refuted by Buddhists. The Jainas also refuted the For Personal & Private Use Only Page #171 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 155 speculative concept of God and, it is said that they launched most sophisticated argument against the so called theism in the Syādvādamañjarī of Mallișeņa Sūri, the Tarkarahasya-dipikā of Gunaratna, which is a commentary on Haribhadra's famous polemic work Şaļdarśana-samuccaya against the doctrine of God of NyāyaVaiseșika. Jainas were against the God as creator; and they had presented several arguments against theistic concept of God: According to Jaina arguments: (i) It is difficult to understand the nature of world as an effect: A. If the effect is to mean that which is made of parts (sāvayava) then even space is to be regarded as effect; B. If it means coherence of a cause of a thing, which was, previously nonexistent, in that case one cannot speak of the world as effect as atoms are eternal. C. If it means that which is liable to change, then God would also be liable to change; and he would need a creator to create him and another and so on ad-infinitum. This leads to infinite regress. (ii) Even supposing that the world as a whole is an effect and needs a cause, the cause needs not be an intelligent one as God because, A. If he is intelligent as the human being is, then he would be full of imperfections, as human intelligence is not perfect. B. If his intelligence is not of the type of human intelligence but similar to it, then it would not guarantee inference of the existence of God on similarity, as we cannot infer the existence of fire on the ground of seeing steam which is similar to smoke and also because it lacks Vyāpti (the permanent relationship of cause with effect). 59 (i) Gunaratna Sūri. Saddarśana-samuccava Tīkā. Ed. Mahendra Kr Jain, Bharatiya Jnanpeeth, Delhi, 1989, P-166-187 (ii) Mallisena Sūri, Syādvādamañjarī, Jina Shasan Aradhana Trust, Bombay, Samvat 2042, P-61-82 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #172 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 156 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” C. We are led to a vicious circle of argument if we can say that the world is such that we have a sense that one made it, as we have to infer the same from the fact of being created by God (iii) God's omnipresence and omniscience as proposed by Naiyāyikas cannot also be accepted, because: A. If he is everywhere, he absorbs into himself everything into his own self, leaving to exist nothing outside him, B. His omniscience would make him experience hell, as he would know everything and his knowledge would be direct experience. (iv) It is not possible to accept the Naiyāyika's contention that without supposition of God, the variety of the world would be inexplicable, because we can very well posit other alternatives: A. The existence of the natural order and B. A society of gods to explain the universe. But if society of gods were to quarrel and fall out as it sometimes contended, then the nature of gods would be quite so unreliable, if not vicious, that we cannot expect elementary co-operation that we find in ants and bees. The best way, therefore, is to dispense with God altogether. We find similar objections against the acceptance of a theistic God, in Buddhism also. Buddha was opposed to the conception of Isvara as a creator of the universe. If the world were to be thus created, there should be no change, nor destruction, nor sorrow, nor calamity. If īśvara were to act with a purpose, He would not be perfect, that would limit his perfection, but if He were to act without a purpose his actions would be meaningless like a child's play. 60 Buddhacarita- Trans. D. Kaushambi, JSPS, 1937, Parisista-2 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #173 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 157 There is nothing superior to the law of karma. The sufferings of the world are intelligible only on the basis of the law of karma. Though the Buddha admits the existence of the gods like Indra and Varuņa, they are also involved in the wheel of saṁsāra. It is believed that nothing happens, moves; even a leaf does not flicker without His express will. There is obvious flaw and contradiction in this theory. If such almighty God is kind and benevolent, flawless and perfect, then how and why did he creates such an imperfect unkind world full of wars, pestilences, famines, droughts, floods, hunger, and untold miseries? If all that happens is by His express will, then no one does any wrong even a murderer, as he is ordained to do so. The scriptures of all sects and religious exhort the respective followers against bad deeds and extol good deeds. These preaching's will be irrelevant if all manifestations, actions, good and bad are by express wish of one almighty God. Also no good person will destroy his own good creation and God being good and perfect should not have created anything bad. It is ignorance about causes of various phenomena and events that conceptualizes imaginary power of God, controlling all events also solving all problems. It proved dangerous by killing the initiative, confidence and action by individuals, groups and societies. It is seen, so far, that the Jainas, also the Buddhists, were against theistic concept of God, and God as a creator is not necessary to explain the universe. The Jains sought the divine in man and established the essential divinity of man. This conception has been developed on specific direction in Jaina philosophy. This Jaina and Buddhist attitude towards conception of God, being against this background, Jainism was classified in heterodox division, an atheist thinker of Indian philosophy. VI. (v) Jaina Concept of God (Paramātmā) (a) Jaina Concept of God Interpreted on the basis of Anekāntavāda: For Personal & Private Use Only Page #174 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 158 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Jaina logic is based on Anekāntavāda, which mean that every judgment is relative and expresses an aspect of reality and subject to some conditions. Jaina thinkers, particularly, Haribhadra Sūri explained the concept of God on the basis of Anekāntavāda as it is prescribed in the theistic schools and tried to synthesize both views. In Šāstravārtā-samuccaya, first of all, he said īśvara is the other name of Paramātmā.°'While synthesizing both the views through Anekāntavāda, he said as in other systems of Indian philosophy God has been explained as the creator, this creatorship of God is acceptable to the Jainas, according to their philosophy in the manner as: God is creator or propounder of the path of liberation, and secondly every soul is potentially Parmātman or God and it is also creator of his own destiny, and in this way God or Paramātman is also the creator. 9-Thus the creatorship of God is also acceptable by the Jainas, though in some different way on the basis of their theory of Anekāntavāda.63 Further, Haribhadra says “self or ātman possesses infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite power and infinite bliss. He is called parameśvara or God. In other schools of thought God is explained as only omniscience and all-powerful, these two qualities are also accepted by Jainas under the four infinites, as explained”. He describes Jaina God as one who is free from all attachments, who has destroyed all temptations, who has attained omniscience, who is worshiped by the gods, and one who has after annihilating all the karmas, attained liberation. Gunaratna Sūri, in his commentary on Saddarśanasamuccaya, discusses even the issue of Avatāravāda and at the end says that the Jaina God in his state of liberation is going to be like that for an infinite period; Jinendra (The Jaina God) is the real God and to him only one should treat as God. 6 Šāstravärttāsamuccaya, 3.204 62 Ibid. 3.205 63 Ibid, 3.206 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #175 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 159 (b) Jaina Concept of God, Paramātmā (Theology) According to tradition, Jainism goes back to the beginning of time and its truth gradually revealed to certain divine men called Tīrthankaras. Its cosmogony postulates a series of cosmic cycles, consisting of utsarpiņī or ages of expansion, and avasarpiņi or ages of contraction, or decay our own present age being one of the latter. During the present period of contraction, twenty-four Tīrthařkaras have appeared from time to time, Rşabha being the first and Mahāvīra the last.“ Rşabhadeva is, then, the founder of the sect for the present cycle; having uttered the truth by the cycle is governed. His name is found in Ķgveda," and the story of his life is told in two of the Purāņas i.e. the Vişnu-purāņaand Bhāgavata-purāņa. In all these scriptures, he is regarded as a great saint. God has been described in ancient Jaina scripture as described here, (as per Jaina Šāstras) that the position of Arhat and Siddha is that of God. This position attained by soul is stated below in detail:” When a soul goes through a great number of births, and has been assiduously practicing the path of virtue, rectitude and justice according to the teaching of Arhats, and practices the difficult path of twenty virtues, in his last third birth, aspiring to be an Arhat, it becomes fit to attain the position of a Tīrthankara. In course of time such a one is born in a celestial region from where he becomes down and takes his birth in a happy, prosperous, noble and good royal family. Such a being as are to attain the position of Arhat, is born with three kinds of knowledge i.e. Mati, (sensory) Śruta (scriptural) and Avadhi (clairvoyance). "+Swami Prabavananda, "Spiritual Heritage of India”, 2000, P-155 Rgveda, 6/26/4 & 10/102/6 VisņuPurāņa, 2/1/82 BhagavataPurāna, 5/4/14 Shrimad Vijayanandsuri, (Shri Atmaramji) "Chicago-Praśnottara", 1918, P-97-102 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #176 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 160 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" He knows by his own knowledge the time when he should adopt renunciation. He takes permission from his parents to retire from the world. A year before his initiation, countless celestial beings come to him and says "O Lord, show the path of virtue and rectitude." A year after, he enters the path of initiation with great festivities, but he makes no one his teacher or preceptor as he himself is supposed to be the preceptor of the three worlds. As he is full of knowledge, he relinquishes all sins and practices severest austerities. He destroys all four kinds of destructive karmas that impede soul's progress and becomes self-enlightened. He then preaches truths and reveals virtue and rectitude. The Tīrthankara, never desires any reward for his good act; his teachings is beneficial alike to a prince and a beggar, a Brāhmaṇa and a Cāņdāla and take one beyond the ocean of rebirth, a fundamental philosophy accepted by most systems of Indian philosophy. The merits of Tīrthankara cannot adequately be described, even by high celestial beings, such as Indra and therefore, impossible for a human. Even then Jaina Ācāryas have made some attempts. A Tīrthankara is endowed with infinite qualities-a few of which are as under: Infinite pure knowledge, infinite pure vision, infinite power of action, infinite five-fold possession, forgiveness, un-covetousness, uprightness, pridelessness, humility, truth, self-control, selflessness, celibacy, compassion, benevolence, absence of hatred and passion, equality of disposition towards friend and foes, gold and stone, abstinence from flesh-food, wine and other uneatable things and immovability. He is ocean of compassion. He is powerful valiant, sober, courageous, fearless, devoid of evil speaking, un-egoistic, and desirous to save even those who do him ill. This is the description of For Personal & Private Use Only Page #177 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 161 the form of the Jain's God Paramātmā with body, and not god or celestial beings. When the body is discarded, the Tīrthankara or Arihanta attains the position of Siddha who dwells in his own eternal and infinite bliss. The God Paramātmā of the Jaina has nothing to do with the creation of the world or task of taking incarnation or punishing or rewarding people according to their merit or demerits or sending them to heaven or hell or showing pride in his being ruler of the world. So this is, in brief, the description of God believed in by the Jainas and as said in Jaina Šāstras. Jaina Concept of God, Paramātmā (Philosophy): Lord Mahāvīra preached Jainism against the sanctity of Vedic lore. At that time Vedic priests and Brāhmaṇas who were custodian of divine words of Vedas, succeeded to create impression in the popular minds that a suitable combination of rituals and sacrifices has the magical powers; to please the gods (or God) and to get boons desired. The presence of god gave strength for man in his struggles in this life. The ways of god to man and man to god have been rich and varied. It may be as Prof. Leuba pointed out, that fear was first of the emotions to become organized in human life, and out of this fear God was born.“ In the Vedic tradition God conceived as prime cause of the phenomenal universe, the non-dual, self-determining self-existent, free creator, sustainer and regulator of the countless living and nonliving beings - (infinite), absolute, omnipotent, omnipresent and omniscient. Jainism challenged this concept of God. In Jainism, in sense of extra cosmic personal creator, God has no place at all. It flatly and distinctly denies such a creator as illogical and irrelevant in the scheme of Universe. 6'Dr. T.G. Kalghatgi, “Jaina view of Life”, (1984), P-206 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #178 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 162 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Dr. John Murphy' opines that “something very far from what we (westerner) understand by theism and even from personal deities of the well-known polytheism, in the Jaina conception of the soul, the human soul becoming God. Thus a Jaina scholar of today writes, “The fully evolved soul is God.” The soul, “he goes on, as inhabiting the bodies of living beings in the world, is not perfect. In its perfect condition it has the infinite quaternary, of infinite perception, knowledge, power and bliss. By following the proper method, the soul gradually frees itself from all matter and becomes perfect, i.e. attains emancipation, salvation or Godhood.” And furthermore, he said “it is however, worth observing that how near this doctrine of the soul becoming God approaches to the Brāhmanic doctrine of the Upanișads, in which the human self becomes through meditation the very self of the Universe, the Brahman=Ātman. Such, then, is the place of Deity, God, in the Jain religion. In Upanişads and Vedāntic tradition God has been defined as Sākṣī or mere perceiver who is not affected by his own creation, and by the passage of time polytheism of Vedic religion culminated into monotheism or monistic philosophy like Advaita Vedānta. Jainism holds neither God as a creator nor as a sustainer as well as destroyer. The concept of God in Jainism denotes the highest state of existence of Jiva or soul. When a soul gets itself free from all karmas (deeds), it attains perfect divinity. A soul is itself God but it is mundane till it is covered by the encrustations of karmas; and no sooner it becomes free from all types of karmas, it gets transformed in its real nature, infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite 7°Dr. John Murphy, “The Origins and History of Religions”, 1949, P-448 ?J. L. Jaini, “Religions of the Empire”.P-217 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #179 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 163 bliss and infinite power. This purified soul (self) is called as Paramātmā or God in Jainism." Though Jaina religion negates the existence of God who causes creation and destruction, still Jaina ethics accepts the existence of that pure form of soul, which has become enlightened because of its excellent qualities. Jaina religion has recognized a number of such enlightened souls who have been called “Arhat and Siddha'. They have realized the real form of self by winning over senses. These Siddhas are far more above gods or deities. They neither create nor destroy any thing. They have conquered once for all, their nescience and passions, and cannot be molested by them again. (d) Definitions of Jaina God, Paramātmā, (Arhat, Tirthankara and Siddha) 1. Paramātmā Etymological meaning of Paramātmā is (Parama = supreme, ātmā = soul or jīva) supreme jīva or soul. English translation of paramātmā is not god; because god is one of the categories of worldly soul in Jainism, above human beings. Paramātmā is superior to gods. Jaina theology and scriptures described Paramātmā as Jaina's God," but not as construed by western theology that He is creator or ruler of the universe. Jaina God or Paramātmā is not creator, ruler or destroyer of the universe. Paramātmā is the highest reality, self-manifesting in pure qualities and modes, pure and free from karmas both material and psychical and without any material body." "Dr. Jitendra B. Shah, “Concept of God in Jainism, in “Jainism in a Global Perspective”, PV, Varanasi (1998), P-218 "Umāsvāti, Tattvārthādhigma-sūtra, 1/5 74Dr. Ramesh Chand Jain, “Sudhā Sāgara”, Jaina Dictionary 1999, P-176 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #180 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 164 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM" According to Jaina philosophical works, the definition of God is as follows: God is that soul which has completely removed all karmas. Thus He is not in any way different from the liberated soul described above. The defining characteristic of Godhood is identical with that of liberation itself. To attain liberation is to attain Godhood. The meaning of the term Iśvara is powerful. So, the term īśvara can very well apply to the soul that has become powerful by attaining its perfectly pure nature constituted of four characteristic, viz. infinite knowledge, infinite vision, infinite power and infinite bliss. The basic idea of Paramātmā, God of Jaina, is that which possesses fourfold quality of infinite knowledge, infinite vision, infinite power and infinite bliss. Thus, the undisputable nature of Paramātmā is constituted of these four qualities. We must recognize that every living being is essentially pure and has the capacity of developing its own nature. Jaina philosophical works maintain that by constant practice of spiritual disciplines, right perception, right knowledge and right conduct, the means of liberation, the soul gradually develops and ultimately attains perfection. And when the perfection is attained, all coverings get removed and the soul's natural qualities of infinite belief, infinite knowledge, etc. get fully manifested. Therefore that one who steadily advances on the path of spiritual development and makes right efforts to attain the state of absolute purity, i.e. liberation, can well become God. Nature of Paramātmā The nature of God in Jainism is somehow different in many ways than the nature of God found in other religions. In other religions, God is popularly metaphysical and purely theoretical. Several attributes are attached to him such as he is almighty; he is sustainer, destroyer and so on. Contrary to this theoretical idea of For Personal & Private Use Only Page #181 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM popular God, in Jainism, it is empirical, a reality and attainable to everyone. Thus, Jainism has a perfect realistic concept of God, a pure soul, with a total theism. God according to Jainas is the symbol of good and great, moral and virtuous. He is not in any sense responsible for creating, preserving and destroying the world as well as for the destiny of the universe or individual. Nor is He capable of granting grace to any individual. Nor He Himself is eternally free, but has worked out his own freedom exactly in the way as others do. 165 Attributes of God that all religions more commonly hold with a few differences are: without age, without death, without birth, without measure, without impurity, without form, unthinking, uncountable, Brahma, Lord, infinite, immutable, lord of ascetics, full of knowledge, stainless, unchangeable, undeceiving, supreme lord, supreme goal, controller, bliss, self-existence, incomprehensible, knower of present, past and future, lord of universe, immovable, imperishable, etc.' 75 2. Arhat Arhat literally means 'adorable.' The word Arhat is variedly referred to as 'arhanta' or arihanta. Arhat is vītarāgī, i.e. free from rāga (attachment). Arhat is Jina, he who has conquered the anger, deceit, greed and pride. He is one who has destroyed the seeds of all karmas and possesses infinite knowledge and bliss." Arhat is He who has attained omniscience (kevala-jñāna) and is still associated with the corporeal body. He remains in the world till the end of his lifetime. He is the lord of three world according Jaina scriptures. 3. Tirthankara (Ford maker) 75Muni Shri Nyāyavijayji, “Jaina Philosophy and Religion", 1998, P-31 Acharya Ghasilal, Āvaśyaka-sūtra, P-46 and Dr. Ajay Kothari 76 P-183 Samana Suttaṁ Cayanika, 7 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #182 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 166 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” This word Tīrthankara is very often used, meaning a divine sage who makes a bridge or ford (tīrtha) to cross over the ocean of pain, suffering, misery and transmigratory existence.78 The capacity to reveal and effectively preach the truth, however, does not belong to all the enlightened and omniscient souls. It is only those rare souls, who have acquired the potency of revealing the truth and establishing a religious community (tīrthakrtittva) by their moral and virtuous activities of the past life, that are capable of revealing the truth and preaching it to the world at large on their attainment of omniscience (kevala-jñāna). Such soul becomes the Tīrthankara, founder of religion. This is the Jaina conception of Godhood. God, according to the Jainas, is the symbol of all that is good and great, moral and virtuous. But he is not the creator or the preserver or the destroyer of the world. He is not in any sense responsible for the destiny of the universe or the individual. Nor is he himself eternally free, but has worked out his own freedom exactly in the same way as the others do. The difference between the ordinary omniscient and Tīrthankara is that the latter can reveal and preach the truth and form a religious community while the former cannot. This is the conception of God in Jainism without having any personal God. But Tīrthankara cannot shape destiny of Man; neither bestow mercy upon suffering soul. Tīrthankaras are supposed to be twenty-four in each ascending and descending eon of one time cycle. 4. Siddha Attainment of this stage is possible, only after complete annihilation of both destructive and non-destructive karmas. As total karmas are exhausted, the soul attains dis-embodied liberation." It 78 Uttarādhyayana-sūtra, XXII, 26, 27 and P-183 (i) Krtşnakarmakşayomokşaṁ, Tavārthādhigama-sūtra, X.3 (ii) Uttarādhyayana-sūtra; XXXVI - 66 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #183 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 80 JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM experience bliss, which is super sensuous, unique and infinite. This stage can be compared by Videhamukti of Vedanta system of Indian philosophy. After attaining this stage of perfection the siddha has upward motion and goes to Siddhaśila- plateau at the apex of the universe which is abode of the omniscient souls. Siddha is without any shape, size, colour, smell and taste; and is devoid of body and is neither female nor male; a formless reality; is also unconditioned without condition. That which is unconditioned is undesirable Siddha is worshiped as God. According to Jainism all liberated souls, Arhats and Siddhas on attaining salvation are adorned as Gods. Dr. Surendranath Dasgupta rightly observes that "All Tirthankara have reached Mokṣa at their death, and they neither care for nor have any influence on worldly affairs, but yet they are regarded as "Gods" by the Jains and are worshipped. 81 Dravyasamgraha, 51 81 S. N. Dasgupta, "History of Indian Philosophy", 1992, P-170 Dr. J.B. Shah, "Concept of God in Jainism" in "Jainism in a Global Perspective",(1998), P-222 167 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #184 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 168 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" VI. (vi)Connotation of Word God with Jainism by Scholars Invariably, in general, philosophers and scholars are misguided or have imbibed in their mind that Jainism is without God or there is no God in it. Especially in western philosophy, Jainism is categorized as atheistic philosophy, that it does not accept the God. Hence whenever someone say or write “Jaina God” immediately questions flashes in their mind, because they do not have clear conception of God in Jainism nor they are willing to accept the concept of God in Jainism. In this chapter quotes from renowned scholars are given regarding their opinion on Jaina God (a) Dr. John Murphy, Ph.D. D. Litt.82 “There is, however, something very far from what we understand by theism, and even from personal deities of the wellknown polytheism, in the Jaina conception of the soul, the human soul becoming God. Thus a Jaina scholar of today writes, “The fully evolved soul is God”. The soul, "he goes on, “as inhabiting the bodies of living beings in the world, is not perfect. In its perfect condition it has the infinite quaternary, of infinite perception, infinite knowledge, infinite power and infinite bliss. By following the proper method, the soul gradually frees itself from all matters and becomes perfect, i.e. attains emancipation, salvation or Godhood. “Furthermore he said" It so, however, worth observing how near this doctrine of the soul becoming God approaches to the Brāhmanic doctrine of the Upanişads, in which the human self becomes through meditation the very Self of the universe, the Brahman-ātman such, then, is the place of Deity in the Jain Religion. (b) Dr. Surendra Nath Dasgupta83 All Tīrthankaras have reached Moksa at their death, and they neither care for nor have any influence on worldly affairs, but yet they are regarded as “Gods” by the Jains and are worshipped. *The origins and history of Religions, Manchester University Press, 1949, P- 448 ** A History of Indian Philosophy, P- 169,170 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #185 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 169 (c) Dr. Nathmal Tatia, D. Litt. 84 God, according to the Jainas, is the symbol of all that is good and great, moral and virtuous. But he is not the creator or the preserver or the destroyer. He is not in any sense responsible for the destiny of the universe or the individual. Nor is he capable of granting grace to any individual. (d) Dr. Ramesh Chand Jain, Ph.D., D.Litt.85 Paramātmā (God) - He is said to be Paramātmā because he is highest reality. Paramātmā (God) - He is samaya as he is self-manifesting in pure qualities and modes. Paramātmā (God) - Jaina do not deny the existence of God (Paramātmā). God is described in Jaina scriptures, but there is difference between the description of God as given in these books and description given in the religious books of other faiths. The chief difference is that while God is described in the books of other faiths as being a creator and ruler, God is not so described in the Jaina books. God according to Jaina description is all knowing and perfectly happy soul with infinite capacities of activity a pure and perfect soul without any material body, a being that cannot perish or become degenerated. (e) Dr. K.C. Sogani, Ph.D.86 Soul and God, according to Jainism, are identical in as much as they are two stages of the same entity. The embodied Paramātman is Arhat, while the disembodied one is Siddha. Devotee is led to singing of praise of God. (f) Dr. Prem Suman Jain, Ph.D.87 84 Studies in Jaina philosophy, P.V.R.I. Varanasi, 5, 1951, P- 268 so Sudhā Sāgara, Jaina Dictionary, Sanganer, Jaipur, India, 1999, see P-176 * Ethical Doctrine in Jainism, P- 35, 69, 119, 2001 * Jainism and Prakrit in Ancient and Medieval India, P- 332-333 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #186 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 170 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" “Names and Virtues of the Supreme Being." God devoid of virtues cannot be worshipped. In western philosophy also God is imbibed with several virtues, such as He is omnipotent, omniscient, and completely knowledgeable and so on. Names used in the Jaina and Hindu religions are: Lord of Universe, Supreme Knower, One who eliminates sorrows (Hari or Hara), transcendental reality (Brahman), and best among soul (Purusottama). Several other hundreds of such names used for supreme elements in Hinduism are also used for the Jaina Tīrthankaras. According to Jaina tradition Brahman is one by the remembrance of which virtues are increased; a soul which has observed complete celibacy (brahmacarya) is supreme Brahman, and a soul, which is imbued with excellence of supreme knowledge (Kevala-jñāna) etc, is God. All Tīrthankaras have attained Kevalajñāna (omniscience). A soul, which detaches itself from the fruits of all deeds and imbibes the greatness of eight virtues, is the supreme soul, the merger of soul in its body becomes Visnu, and because it is responsible for its own development it is self-developed (Svayambhū). In the Adipurāņa, Rsabhadeva, the first Tīrthankara of Jains, has been adored with title of Hiranyagarbha, (Golden Germ), Prajāpati (Lord of people) etc. these titles indicate several virtues of Rşabhadeva. Similarly in the Hindu scriptures among the thousands names of Vişnu many names of Tīrthankara are included. (g) S. M. Jain88 "Cyclic changes not creation.” Arhats and Siddhas on attaining salvation are adorned as Godhood and worshipped only because they have shown the world ideal path, prescribed a code of ** Pristine Jainism' (beyond rituals and superstitious), P-55, PVRI, Varanasi For Personal & Private Use Only Page #187 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 171 conduct they themselves practiced and lived and attained the ultimate goal, the salvation and inherent happiness. VI. (vii) God is not Responsible for Creation of the World Questions, answered by Muni Ātmārāmaji prepared for “The Parliament of World Religions” held in 1893 Chicago USA, published in London. 89 Following questions and their answers by Muni Ātmārāmajī, were prepared for 'The Parliament of World Religions' held at Chicago U.S.A. in 1893, based on the commentaries of Guņaratna and Mallișeņa respectively on Haribhadra's Şaļdarśana-samuccaya and Anyayoga-vyavacchedikā of Hemacandra for its polemic against the doctrine of God as creator of world, especially against the Nyāya-Vaišeșika' arguments. Muni Ātmārāmajī began answering questions by invoking salutation to Him who is devoid of all blemishes and full of all virtues whether He be Brahmā, Vişnu, Śiva or Jina (Lord of Jaina) Following questions and answers given by Muni Ātmārāmaji are regarding God and He being creator of the world. (1) Question was given: God has created the universe out of His own power or nature. The material cause of the world is therefore God's power.90 Muni Ātmārāmaji answered: 89 Muni Ātmārämaji, “Chicago Praşnottara i.e. Questions & Answers on Jainism” for the Chicago Parliament of World Religions”, 1918 published by Shri. Atmanand Pustak Pracharak Mandal, Roshan Mohalla, Agra Muni Atmārāmaji, “Chicago Praşnottara i.e. Questions & Answers on Jainism” for the Chicago Parliament of World Religions”, 1918 published by Shri. Atmanand Pustak Pracharak Mandal, Roshan Mohalla, Agra. Q.No. 11, P-23 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #188 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 172 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" (1) Is the power of God separate or non-separate from him? If you consider this power non-separate from God, then all things are God. Everything becomes i.e.; God- good and evil, heaven and hell; merit and demerit; virtue and vice; the king and beggar; the virtuous and wicked; a good man and a thief; and so on. If that is the case, then instead of creating the universe he has brought on his own ruin. (2) When Iśvara (God) has become everything, then what is the use of his creating the Vedas and other scriptures and what is the use of reading them. This is another imperfection of Him. (3) If these Vedas and other scriptures were created for his own knowledge, then he must be without knowledge before creation. This is the third fallacy. (4) He is proved to have become impure from being pure and to have under gone the labour of creating the universe, which is fruitless. This is fourth fallacy. (5) The fifth objection arises that no distinction between good and evil is proved. (6) The sixth objection arises that why the God has involved himself in this difficulty. In this way you impute many imperfections to God. 91 (2) Another question:" If God is omnipotent; hence He can produce the universe without any material cause. Muni Atmārāmaji answered "Muni Atmārāmajī, "Chicago Prasnottara i.e. Questions & Answers on Jainism" for the Chicago Parliament of World Religions", 1918 published by Shri. Atmanand Pustak Pracharak Mandal, Roshan Mohalla, Agra. Q.No. 12, P-25 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #189 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 173 That which has no material cause can never come into existence, for instance ass's horns. Argument like this is liable to weaken, rather than strengthen your position. If you insist upon the things of your own imagination out of prejudice you can never be considered a critic. Your statement involves a fallacy of mutual dependence. If one pure existence of God, not depending upon any material cause before the creation were premised, then only can He is proved Omnipotent, and when he is proved omnipotent. He can be said to have created the universe without any material cause. Until one of these two propositions is established, the other cannot be proved. This is reasoning in a circle. The two propositions are either to prove the creator of the universe or to prove God omnipotent. When He is proved omnipotent, then can He be proved to have created the universe without any material cause? When He is proved to be the creator of the universe, then only can He be proved Omnipotent. Is not this reasoning in a circle? (3)Another Question." The Existence of God is self-evident. Why do you not consider Him as the creator of the universe? Muniji answered: If the creation of the universe by God is proved self-evident, then none can have dispute about it and our controversy about God may also cease because what is self-evident admits of no argumentation. But that the presence of God cannot be known by direct perception, has been laid down in Vedas. * *Note: - Without feet and hands, He walks and grasps, without eyes He sees, without ear, He hears; He knows the "Muni Atmārāmaji, Ibid. Q.No. 13, P-27 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #190 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 174 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Universe best but there is none in the Universe who knows Him, He is called primeval ancient purusa. 93 (4) Another Question asked:" How has the world come into existence without a creator? This inferential proof establishes that God is the creator of the world. Why do you not accept this? Muni Atmārāmaji replied: We shall refute this argument of yours when dealing with the other aspect of God. Although it is not proved that there was only one God before the creation without any material cause, even then we proceed and ask: Whether these souls when created by God were pure, Whether they were endowed with merits, Whether they were impregnated with sins, Whether they were mixed with virtue and sin together, Whether they had more sin and less virtue and Whether they had more virtue or less sin, If you maintain the first position, then all souls in the world ought to be pure and all the injunctions of the scriptures regarding them ought to be futile. Besides, the author of these scriptures is also proved to be unwise; for it was useless to compose these scriptures for the guidance of the souls which are already pure. No sensible man washes a clean cloth; if he does so, he is a fool. This shows that if these scriptures were put together for the guidance of the author thereof was not a Wiseman. pure souls, (5) Another question (with reference to SamkaraVedānta)" 93 Muni Atmārāmajī, "Chicago Prașnottara i.e. Questions & Answers on Jainism" for the Chicago Parliament of World Religions", 1918 published by Shri. Atmanand Pustak Pracharak Mandal, Roshan Mohalla, Agra, Q.No. 14, P-27 94 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #191 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 175 This universe is like show of a juggler and God acts like a juggler. By the creation of this universe God simply amuses Himself by His tricks. There are no such things as heaven, hell, virtue and sin. • Muni Ātmārāmaji replied: If the God created this world simply for His amusement, the results thereof ought to be simply like the effects of juggler's performance. But in this world there are men who are sick, leprous, grief stricken, penniless, and infirm and extremely wretched wallowing in the depths of squalor and misery. The very sight of these persons evokes our compassion and excites our horrification. Does not the sight of these miserable creatures move God with pity? If God is not moved with pity, He cannot be God. The performer of a trick is like a foolish child full of passion and animosity. If He is affected by passion and hatred, He is full of all defects. When He is full of all defects He cannot be God. He can only be a worldly man. He who has passion and hatred cannot be omniscient and He who is not omniscient can never be called God. (6) Another question: God rewards or punishes men according to their actions therefore He is not to blame. As one sows so does he reaps? Muniji answered: Your statement proves that world is beginning less and God is not creator. Bravo! You have undermined your own position yourself. You are coming to the position that whatever condition the 94 Muni Atmārämaji, “Chicago Prasnottara i.e. Questions & Answers on Jainism” for the Chicago Parliament of World Religions”, 1918 published by Shri. Atmanand Pustak Pracharak Mandal, Roshan Mohalla, Agra Q.No. 21, P-36 "Muni Ātmārāmaji, “Chicago Praşnottara i.e. Questions & Answers on Jainism” for the Chicago Parliament of World Religions”, 1918 published by Shri Atmanand Pustak Pracharak Mandal, Roshan Mohalla, Agra. Q.No. 22, P-37 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #192 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 176 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" living beings have in this life, was the result of their actions in the one preceding it. In this way the chain goes back ad-infinitum. This argument proves that the world is beginning less and that God is not its creator. (7) Another question:% It is declared in the Upanișad as well as stated by Anandagiri, the disciple of Samkara in the third chapter of the "Samkara-digvijaya'that the Supreme Spirit is the material cause of the universe. The material cause is that which transforms itself into effect. This shows that whatever there is in the universe is the transformation of the Supreme spirit. The universe thus being the form of the Supreme Spirit, what objection is there that God is the creator of the Universe? Muniji answered: You are certainly the prince of atheist. Do you at all consider what you say? Your statement shows your position to be atheist When the world is the transformation of the Supreme Being, then there are no such things as a sinner, a virtuous man, a sage, a fool, the heaven and hell, a good man, or a thief, truthful or untruthful scripture, etc. From this point of view there is no difference between an act of sexual intercourse with one's wife and that with one's other relatives, no difference between an ascetic and an ass, because when God is material cause of all things, the whole world is of one essence and forms as there nothing else. (8) Another question:97 Muni Ātmārāmaji, Ibid. Q.No. 31, P-47 Muni Ātmārāmaji, "Chicago Praşnottara i.e. Questions & Answers on Jainism” for the Chicago Parliament of World Religions”, 1918 published by Shri Ātmanand Pustak Pracharak Mandal, Roshan Mohalla, Agra. Q.No. 34, P-51 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #193 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 177 The Vedic sayings such as “God alone is the creator of all” prove only the monistic theory. Muniji answered: This statement of yours is also untrue. If the whole mankind is of one essence and form, then all phenomena such as one being happy and another miserable etc. will become eventually unreal. If this is your problem, then the statement that “the world having been found to be useless, one should avoid and evade it” would be as meaningless as speaking of the fragrance of sky flower. If there is only one essence without a second, there is no such thing as rebirth of souls in this world, which is to be avoided as something useless and abominable. (9)Another question:98 Evidence proving God to be creator of the world is of the character of inference. One who dispenses fruits to beings according to their actions must be an intelligent judge. Tools such an axe or a saw gradually cut a piece of wood into two under the supervision of an artisan, so do the good or evil consequence of action take effect under the direction of intelligent judge. It can be never said that such tools as an axe and a saw move themselves to cut. This is not the case. By this example it is proved that different souls attain their fruits gradually under the direction of God-just as circular triangular and rectangular villages and towns are the work of an intelligent town-planner. As are pots, etc. exactly so are the earth, mountains, trees, etc. the work of God. Muniji answered: The inferential proof by which you establish that God is the creator of the world is not sound as it suffers from the fallacy of taking for granted what is to be proved. The view held by Jains as 98 Muni Ātmārāmajī, Ibid. Q.No. 40, P-62 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #194 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 178 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” heretofore alluded to, is that the variety that we see in the world is due to the effects of actions. Karma or actions alone is the cause of the conditions of happiness or sorrow of the various kinds of people inhabiting in India, all other countries, islands, and cold mountainous tracts. There is nothing else than karma. From experience too, karma is found to be the prime cause. depend upon men who being sentient are intelligent. It is therefore that actions being dependent upon rational beings gradually unfold their effects. If you say that your aim is to prove only a superintelligent God, and not ordinary intelligent beings, then your proposition is devoid of what is to be proved. The connection of God as a supervisor in regards to the action of an axe or a saw is not established but the connection of potter and others in regard to making pots etc. is established. (10) Another question: It is the men themselves who do right and wrong actions, but it is God who rewards or punishes for them. Men are in a position to enjoy the fruits of their actions themselves just as thieves who commit thefts themselves are not able to punish themselves for their nefarious deeds. It is another man who sends them to a prison. Muniji answered: This statement is also fallacious. When men are competent to do right or wrong actions, why are they not competent to enjoy their fruits themselves? Accordingly as a man does right or wrong, he becomes the cause of enjoying its fruits himself. A thief commits theft. The king punishes him or thief is affected by such unclean diseases as leprosy, ulceration etc., it is not often that such a man "Muni Ātmärāmajī, “Chicago Praşnottara i.e. Questions & Answers on Jainism” for the Chicago Parliament of World Religions”, 1918 published by Shri Atmanand Pustak Pracharak Mandal, Roshan Mohalla, Agra. Q.No. 45, P-68 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #195 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 179 dies being burnt by fire, or being drowned in water or being cut up by a sword or killed by a cannon ball or bullet or being destroyed by the fall of a building or a rock or is turned a starving wretch. In various such ways, he undergoes the punishment for his evil deeds. In such a case, there is no need of the intervention of God. It is only the cause that fructifies in these evil effects and the cause is the man himself who performs the deed. Similarly there are various ways in which man undergoes punishment in hell or attains reward in heaven. If you ask what cause will lead to punishment in a case of fornication, I cannot answer. But I can say so much that there are certainly causes, which bring reward or punishment for good or evil actions. What fruit will a man attain and how and when and where, only the blessed Arhat, God of Jains, can say. Without a cause, none can attain the consequences of his acts. It is, therefore, superfluous to bring in God for dispensation of these fruits. Can a sensible man say that a man fit enough to cook his food but unfit to eat it? Suppose a man is slain by a sword by another man. How was it that the slain man got his suffering and pain? Who was it that led to this suffering? If you say that it was God who drove the slayer to slay the man, then why is the slayer liable to be hanged? Is this the law of God? He (God) first prompted the slayer to slay a man and punished him with gallows. Your statement renders God extremely unjust. If you say that the slayer slew the man himself without any prompting from God, then it is proved that man attains reward or punishment by reason of his own acts and that no intervention of God is required as only the puny-witted men imagine. O believer in God, I ask you another question. If it is God, who, for good deeds, gives one the reward of enjoyment of sexual pleasures in the company of youth-inebriated celestial nymphs, does He at the same time punish others for misdeeds by throwing them into the fire of hell and subjecting them to various excruciating mortifications? For Personal & Private Use Only Page #196 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 180 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" (11) Another question:100 It is for his own entertainment or amusement God sends one to heaven, and another to hell, makes one a crawling snail and another a man. When these beings skip and jump for merriment or weep or beat their breast for sorrow, God derives enjoyment from spectacle of his own creation. It is for this purpose that the world created. Muniji answered: If this is the case, God is certainly not wise. What is a mere amusement to him, involves infinite suffering to the created beings. It is unwise to call God merciful. One who is compassionate and all knowing; never enjoy the fun consequent upon sufferings of others. God has been said to be without passions, but now you say that He creates the world for His own enjoyment and amusement. Is amusement consistent with dispassion? If God is dispassionate, it is impossible that He feels pleasure in such a show. (12) Another question: 101 If an omniscient and passionless God is not creator of the world, how has the world sprung up of itself? It is evident nothing is made without a maker just a clock, etc. Muniji answered: O, Enquirer, you do not seem to fully understand my argument and it is therefore you call God the creator of the world. We also hold that the finished articles that we see were made by Muni Ātmārāmajī, “Chicago Praşnottara i.e. Questions & Answers on Jainism” for the Chicago Parliament of World Religions", 1918 publi by Shri Atmanand Pustak Pracharak Mandal, Roshan Mohalla, Agra. Q. No. 47, P-72 10 Muni Ātmārāmaji, “Chicago Praşnottara i.e. Questions & Answers on Jainism” for the Chicago Parliament of World Religions”, 1918 published by Shri Atmanand Pustak Pracharak Mandal, Roshan Mohalla, Agra. Q. No. 58, P-85 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #197 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 181 someone, for example pot, cloth, clock, house, stall, chain etc., but such thing as sky, time, atoms, soul, etc. have not been made by any one. All learned man agrees in the view that all things, which have forms of effects, must have material cause. Without a material cause no such effect can be produced. Only a fool can say against this view but soul, time, atoms and sky have no material causes and are therefore beginning less and none has made them. The statement that all things have been made by God is therefore untenable. As regards the earth, water, fire, air, plats, moving creatures, and such portions of earth as heaven, hell and sun, moon, planets, stars, constellation, etc.; these are made by the combination of matter and spirit. The earth etc. is eternal by reason of their continuity and non-eternal by their apparent forms. The matter and spirit embodying them are of infinite potentialities. These eternal forms manifest themselves when combined with their respective causes such as time, etc. and all the creation in the world that has been, is and will be, is due to the following five material causes- time, nature, continuity, action and energy. Except these five causes, no other creator or director of the world as God is proved. A single seed is charged with infinite potentialities. A variety of colours, leaves, roots, fruits, bark, branches, flowers, seeds etc. abide in the seed in potential forms. When the seed is burned to ashes, its potential forces reside in its atoms but none of these forces comes into manifestation without its cause or concomitant. If no such characteristic forces reside in the seed, why is it that a seed of wheat does not produce mangoes, thorns, men, animals, bird etc.? All things have therefore their peculiar infinite forces. As they combine with their peculiar causes, they come into manifestation. A seed contains in miniature all the features of a tree but until it combines with its external concomitants, it does not blossom. These external concomitants are (1) rain (2) earth and water. Even if rain, earth etc. combine they cannot produce a blossom unless the seed is endowed with potentiality to blossom. Even granting that all the four For Personal & Private Use Only Page #198 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 182 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” causes above-mentioned exist no blossom will come forth regularly unless the feature of continuity is combined with the force of the seed. The previous action has also a great deal to do, for if there no previous actions to reckon with, the present form in which things are produced would not be determined. If there were no man to sow a seed or the seed itself by its gravity were not to fall on the ground, it would never put forth a blossom. Therefore there are five causes in growth of a seed and these are: (1) Time, such as rainy season (2) Nature (3) Continuity (4) Previous action and (5) effort. Except these five causes, no other cause, such as God, is proved in regards to the growth of a seed. Similar is the case in regards to birth of a child. The pregnancy would effect in its proper time The womb must have the power to hold an embryo The continuity of the pregnancy without any disturbance The previous action, which would induce birth as a man The effort of parents in the direction of producing a child All the things that are seen in this world are produced by the agency of these five causes. The view that the earth being in the form of an effect is bound to be entirely dissolved someday, just as a pot is not correct, because the earth has not exactly the same effect as a pot. A pot never involves forces to growth but earth involves such forces, countless bodies are daily produced and destroyed. By the combination and destruction of these countless bodies, the earth remains the same. The earth is therefore bound to eternally exist and phenomena of life seen on it will never disappear. It will exist everlastingly and the God is not its creator. There are simple many minded men who on seeing men, animal, earth, air, vegetables, the sun and the moon and the For Personal & Private Use Only Page #199 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 183 ingenious arrangement of the bones of bodies of men and animals, lid of eyes, semi-spheres of brain, the wonderful arrangement of arteries in the body, become puzzled and when they are unable to explain the phenomena, they come to believe that none but God can create these thing and therefore call God the creator of the Universe, but they do not know that by making this statement they bring about the destruction of God. VI. (viii) The Concept of God in Indian and Western Theism and Atheism (a) God in theistic philosophy Theism means belief in God and where God is believed, it is also believed that upon God everything else depends, and thus without discussions of 'God', of world, of 'soultheism is not justified. A detailed survey of the history of theism reflects approaches and attitudes towards human freedom, immortality and their conception of God. What is most interesting to note, in medieval and modern times, is the fact that theism has been much simplified and attention has been concentrated upon God? Subsequently to this, as a second step, the question: Does God exist? Has been to theistic proofs replied “Yes”. Theism deals with “What is God, for the simplest reason that it believes in existence of God. What then is God? Leading argument here is the cosmological concluding to God as cause. In its “Great first cause” we recognize God. This argument, for the first time, is found well formulated in Aristotle's philosophy. This argument, though never considered isolated was the main one for intuitionalism as well as for empiricist theism. From moral element point of view we find “as against empiricism, For Personal & Private Use Only Page #200 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 184 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" intuitionalism is morally strong."102 Thus we find a conception of God as “Moral Law-Giver” among intuitionalism though intuitionalist theism rests upon the conception of God as first cause. (b) God in Indian Theism Theism or atheism for Indian thinkers is decided by the acceptance or rejection of authority of Vedas. We find system in Indian philosophy, which are theistic, and not believing in God in traditional sense, as well as systems, which are atheistic, and yet believing in God as the perfect soul or being. “The essence of the Vedic religion may be summarised as worship of Devas (i.e. shining deities) who were regarded as manifestation of Supreme Being, conceived as supreme power."103 In Hindu religion God is the reality of the world, not monopoly of this or that sect."04 "He is kavi or the poet. God as person is deeply concerned in the affairs of this world. He is the friend, judge and redeemer of mankind. God is the absolute spirit, timeless and unchanging”, absolute assumes the form of God who is guiding the world. God himself is Sat, Cit and Ananda, reality, truth and bliss. Bhagavadgitā has accepted the metaphysical creed of Sāṁkhya philosophy, of course, with certain fundamental modifications. Modification of Gītā accepts dualities of Sāṁkhya Puruşa and Praksti as the very nature of supreme principle God. In Indian theism to believe in God does not mean to accept the proofs and logical arguments in favour of His existence. 102 Encyclopaedia Britannica, P-747 and Dr. Hemant Shah (HS) “Jain Theism”, 1997, P-6 103 Chaudhari H.K.D., “God in Indian Religion” (1969), P.34, also (HS, P 7) 104 Dr. Nagaraja Rao, “Radhakrishnan Reader”, An anthology (1988) P188, also (HS, P-7) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #201 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 185 To believe in God is to love Him, to be devoted to Him to enter into Him." God becomes ruling passion of the mind, he sees God in himself and himself in God. Whatever God one worships is identified with the supreme. He is all in all the creator, the protector and destroyer. Prof. S. C. Chatterjee, after a long-discussion on nature of God concludes “God which we find in it, we are to say that the Hindu conception of God is monistic, but not pantheistic. Western critics have sweeping favour of Hindu philosophy and religion as pantheism. God in Hinduism is not simply immanent but also transcendent, we favour call the Hindu theory of God favour rather than pantheism. 106 God, in Indian theism, does not become only at issue in its metaphysical aspect. Indian theism thus provides sufficient grounds to justify it having various shades, all-shaping into a way of life-an approach to reality-an acceptance of the supreme. (c) God in Western Theism God in western theism is more traditional and religious. Western theism deals theism with reference to belief in the existence of God, with various theories and proofs appealing the concept of God but almost all coming out of an emphasis on critical intelligence, as stress on logic and science. God in western theism is more determined by arguments through which His existence is proved. God is the “first great cause" for those who put the cosmological argument. He is the “supreme mind” as per assumption of the teleological argument and a “moral God” according to the moral argument. 105 “Jain Theism, P-8 106 Dr. Chatterjee, S.C., “The Fundamentals Hinduism”, 1970, P- 33-34, (HS, P-8) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #202 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 186 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Truth, beauty and goodness and as such moral values mould God into an absolute. (d) God and Indian & Western Theism and Atheism The concept of God in its traditional, religious or theological sense dose not differ much between the Indian and the western concept and the worship of God also resembles quite a bit Indian and western. However, the Indian concept God is much wider and deeper in sense from the point of view of spiritualism and intuitionalism. God is not understood or viewed as a critical intelligence but as an inner-consciousness. According to Dr. Hemant Shah," theism and the place of God in it, is a logical pursuit in the western theology. God is proved and then accepted whereas in Indian philosophy God is to be realized, and for that one has to accept Him by faith, and not by reason. Not by intelligence but by intuition. God in the western theism enjoys the status of a master or father or a great first cause or a moral lawgiver or a creator. In Indian philosophy “Thou are that” God is totality of supreme spirit, omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent. God is both personal and absolute. The term 'Atheism' is negative sense of theism, which would in literally or most popular term means 'No Belief in God' or No existence of God. Socrates was charged with ‘not believing in Gods the city believes in.' We hear the cry in the Roman Empire against Christians as “away with the Atheist” for the lack of idolatry in all Christian worship. Spinoza for whom God alone existed and who was known as the “God intoxicated” was persecuted as an Atheist. In Indian philosophy, we find Jainism and Buddhism termed as Atheist for not accepting Vedas as an authority. 1"Dr. Hemant Shah, “Jain Theism”, 1997, P-9 & 10 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #203 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 187 But then ‘Atheism' in its most scientific and serious usage is applied to the state of mind which does not find deity (either one or many gods) in or above the physical universe. Atheism according to western mind, which lays great stress on science, logic and humanism, is different from eastern thought. Philosophy in India, which is essentially spiritual, dominates life in India. Hence western and Indian approaches with regards to both theism and Atheism are very much different. VI. (ix). Jainism not an Atheism but a Theism Atheism, both by etymology and usage, is essentially a negative concept and exists only as an expression of dissent from the positive theistic belief. The definition of theism, as stated in Encyclopedia is, theism is the belief that all entities in cosmos, which are known to us through our senses or inferred by our imagination and reason, and so on. In the earlier stages, theism conceives of God simply as the cause of ground for all finite and dependent existences; but as it develops, it realizes the idea of God as an imminent and selfmanifesting as well as creative and transcendent. Dr. Kothari, in his thesis, “Concept of Divinity in Jainism” while comparing Jainism with Buddhism and Hinduism has argued that Jainism cannot really be called atheistic. Then again, when discussing Atheism and Jainism, he observes, “Jainism rejects existence of a first cause or creator of universe. Still it is very far from being purely atheistic, for it posits definitely the divinity of the soul and possibility of our realizing its destiny."108 Though Buddhism and Jainism do not believe in Hindu speculative concept of God, they are not opposed to super-mundane beings. Jaina believes in divinity and Godhood, and lay emphasis that each soul is potential God (Paramātmā). 108Dr. P. Ajay Kothari, “The Concept of Divinity, 2000, P-134 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #204 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 188 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Dr. N. Vasupal commented "Those who believe God as a creator, sustainer and destroyer of universe, look upon Jainism as an atheistic religion, but Jainism cannot be so called, as such Jainism does not deny the existence of God (Paramātmā)."" Prof. T. G. Kalghatgi observes "we have not to seek God there in the world outside, nor is God to be found in the dark, lonely corner of a temple with doors all shut, He is there within us. He is there with the tiller tilling the ground and path maker braking stones in the sense that each individual soul is to be considered as God, as he is essentially divine in nature. Each soul when it is perfect is God.":110 It is interesting to note here in history of Vedic philosophy, how the concept of God evolved. In the beginning, Vedic Aryans worshipped gods, and it changed to powerful gods and then on to one supreme God who is a creator, sustainer and destroyer of the universe. And this philosophical speculation is given basis for classification of āstika or nāstika by Vedic philosophers. Jainism being the oldest religion of Indian soil, much older than Vedic philosophy brought in India by Aryans, has maintained its original basic concept of God, (Arhat and Siddhas) as their God. But the Vedic philosopher misconstrued Jaina belief that Arhat and Siddha, Jaina's God, as merely gods because creation etc. are not the attributes of the Jaina God, (Paramātmā) and hence classified Jainism in nāstika category. Other scholars who did not understood this and further more misinterpreted it, especially westerner and labeled Jainism as an atheist philosophy. It is very disappointing that even some Jaina scholars supported this classification. Another interesting point to note here is the evolution of one supreme God, from several gods, who is a creator, sustainer and destroyer of the Universe, which is a Vedic philosophical speculation. However the Jain philosophers, being aware of it, did 1" The Concept of Divinity, Some opinions-2 "Dr. Kalghatgi, T.G., “Jain view of Life", P-210, (APK, P-134) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #205 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 189 not find any divinity or need to speculate their God, Paramātmā (Arihanta and Siddhas) to be supreme Gods as creator, sustainer and destroyer. To sum up, it is observed in Indian philosophy that on the basis of above mentioned arguments, Vedic Brahmana scholar's discriminated against Jainas and classified Jainism as a nāstika religion. VI (x) Scriptural and Canonical Literature (Agama) Supporting Theism of Jainism In order to present Jainism not an atheistic but a theistic school of Indian Philosophy, with a God (Paramātmā) in it, following supporting testimonial arguments from Jaina āgamas and other canonical literature are included as follows: (1)Ācārānga-Sūtra Ācārānga-sūtra, which discusses the Jaina metaphysics and especially the nature of the Jiva (Soul), provides number of instances where Mahāvīra has been addressed as God. Moreover, in its 24h chapter; it describes Mahāvīra attaining omniscience and thus attaining Godhood. He is the Jaina God being worshipped by Devas, human beings and others." (2) Upāsakadasānga-Sūtra In this āgama Mahāvīra being addressed as Super human being (Mahā-Mānava) propagator of great religion or great regulator (Mahāgopa Dharmakathika)" and, more over at number of places Mahāvīra has been addressed as Lord."* This āgama deals with many aspects related to the theistic aspect of a religious life e.g. it tells how Lord Mahāvīra is praised and worshiped. Acārānga-sūtra,991-92-93 and in Dr. Hemant Shah (HS), “Jain Theism”, 1997, P-145 "Upāsakadaśānga-sūtra, (HS, P-145 & 146) 113 lbid, Bhant, Bharite, (HS, P-146) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #206 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 190 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" (3)Nandi-Sūtra It is one of the āgamas of Ardhamāgadhi cannon, containing detailed worship to Lord, Jaina God (Jineśvara Bhagavāna). A variety of phrases and aphorism are used all reflecting the reverence and sense worship towards Tīrthankara who is the Jaina God, the divine, the pure, the perfect and the powerful. Nandīsūtra is also known as the balance sheet of all the Āgamas. It contains detailed description of the worship to lord."'Lord Jineśvara, the Tīrthankara is addressed as the knower of all generating states. (4)Aupapātika-Sūtra Aupapātika-sūtra is the first among the twelve Upāngas. The scripture narrates the account of honor and reverence offered to Lord Mahāvīra. Also it discusses nature of Siddhas who are Jaina Gods. A famous Jaina hymn (stuti), full of attributes of God, Tīrthankara) at the end, of Sūtra, gives the nature of soul that has attained the state of Siddhahood, and describes the location where Siddhas reside permanently. '16 (5) Daśavaikālika-Sūtra This sūtra is one of four Mūlasūtras of Jaina canonical literature. It is a mini Agama. The very first verse of this āgama describes the famous aphorism served as Jaina definition of Dharma: “Religion is the highest bliss. It is made up of non-injury (Ahiṁsā), self-restraint (Samyma) and penance (Tapa); even gods bow down to him who has firm belief always in religion is the highest bliss'. 11 The chapter 4 of this Mūlasūtra through 14 to 25 describes stages in spiritual development to become an eternally perfect being." (6) Uttarādhayayana-Sūtra 14 Nandisūtra, (HS, P-146) "Aupapātika-sūtra, 20 116 lbid, , 38-39 117 Daśavaikālika-sútra, 1 118 Ibid, IV-14 to 25 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #207 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 191 The Uttarādhyayana-sūtra is also one of the four Mūla-sūtras of Jaina canonical literature. It is supposed to contain the last sermons of Lord Mahāvīra. The sermons of Lord Mahāvīra constituted into 36 chapters. It is the last expression of the last Tīrthankara, Lord Mahāvīra. In this scripture, at number of places Mahāvīra has been addressed as Lord or God of Jaina, an omniscient. The entire eulogy (vīratthui) is an example of the Jaina conception of God and its theistic approach towards life and reality. 119 (7)Yogasāra This is an authentic text comprising 206 verses into five sections. In its very first section the nature of Jaina God is described; and in the very first time of its third verse it says: "This very soul in its pure form is God. It narrates the nature of God and says, "This God is worshipped, mentally through the fulfillment of vows and physically through “Bhakti” and “Pūjā'. From Nyāya-Vaišeșika point of view all liberated souls are one. Such Gods (liberated souls) thought numerically many are all having infinite power and infinite bliss and thus are qualitatively only one.. 120 To such a pure form of soul the Lord Tīrthankara, whether you call him Lord Buddha or Visnu or Brahmā or Mahādeva or you call him Jinendra. It makes no difference. Thus Yogasāra provides number of instances supporting Jain concept of God and Jain's nature of theism. 21 (8)Adhyātmasāra The central theme of this work is "Soul is one”. The Adhyātmasāra at the end defines God and says, “One who has attained absolute knowledge, detached from the worldly activities, annihilated all-the karmas and has attained Siddhhood is God.":122 "Uttarādhyayana-sūtra, Ch. 36 “Virathui" 120 Dr. Hemant Shah (HS), “Jaina Theism" (1997), P-150 12. Yogasāra, 3, 13 and 36, (HS, P-150 & 151) 122 Adhyātmasāra, 24, (HS, P-151) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #208 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 192 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" (9) Samana-Suttam This sacred text of Jainas conveys the essence of Jaina religion. It opens with a holy hymn as a prayer to Pañcaparameşthins: the God (Arihanta), the absolute (Siddha), the great preceptors (ācāryas), the preachers (upādhyāyas) and all the good persons/monks (sādhus)."- With reference to Jaina God it says that, “it is the commandment of the Jaina God that one should give up the soul's outer activities of the mind, of the speech and of the body and should enter into the inner world of the soul and should thus concentrate on God”. It also says "one who knows the Jain God knows the Soul.”124 (10) Syādvādamañjari This scripture, in fact, is the commentary on Hemacandra Sūri's “Mahāvīra-stuti-dvātrimśikā" which was written by Mallişeņācārya in 1293 A.D. and reflects author's deep study of the other systems of Indian philosophy. It discusses the omniscience and logically proves that the Jain God (Vītarāga Bhagavāna) is omniscient.” 125 (11) Yogaśāstra Ācārya Hemacandra has his own place in the history of the Jaina religion. He enjoys a very respectable status mainly due to his multifarious personality and his services in various fields like religion, Yoga, literature, grammar, politics and sociology. In the third section it tells that one who is practicing Yoga should concentrate on his own soul as not different (Abhinna) from God”l20 Like Jñāna and Bhakti, Yoga is treated as way (a marg) to release the soul from the bondage and attain highest unity with Siddhas." 12 Samana-suttaṁ, 1 & 2, (HS, P-151) 124 Ibid, 5, 16-17, 44.1, (HS, P-152) 12 Syādvādamañjarī, 17, 28, (HS, P-152) 120 Yogaśāstra, P-199, (HS, P-153) 127 Ibid, IV-89, IV-93, IV-113 & IV-118 (HS, P-153) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #209 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 193 (12)Dravyasaṁgraha: The Dravya-saṁgraha by Nemicandra is considered to be one of the authentic treatises on Jain metaphysics. In this work, through the verses no. 50 and 51 the nature of Jaina Tīrthankara and Siddhas is described. The Jaina God in its conception of Tīrthankara and Jaina Para-Brahman in its Siddhas are found." (13) Şaddarśanasamuccaya Authored by Haribhadra Sūri, it is one of the most popular philosophical treatises mainly amongst the scholars of Indian philosophy. In this work the author has given the views of the different system of Indian Philosophy. It also reflects Haribhadra Sūri's deep knowledge of the other systems of Indian philosophy, and attitude of Jain monks towards the other systems. Haribhadra Sūri describes Jaina God as one who is free from all attachments, who has destroyed all the temptations, who has attained omniscience, who is worshipped by gods, and one who has after annihilating all karmas, attained liberation. 28 Gunaratna Sūri, in his commentary on Șaddarśana-samuccaya, discusses even the issue of Avatāravāda. He also quotes Siddhasena in this connection and at the end says that the Jaina God in his state of liberation is going to be like that for an infinite period; Jinendra (the Jaina God) is the real God and to him only one should treat as God."29 VI. (xi). Meaning of Theism for Jaina (a)The Jaina Attitude Referring to Jaina attitude, Dr. Nathmal Tatia says, “The main emphasis of Jainism is on ahiṁsā (non-injury). This attitude of Jainism is more due to its rational consciousness than emotional compassion. Jainism presumes infinite capacity for spiritual. Infinite knowledge and joy is the innate character of every soul. What is needed is complete non-interference from our side. Interference Dravyasamgraha, 50,51, (HS, P-154) 129 Şaddarśanasamuccaya, 45-56, (HS, P-165) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #210 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 194 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" means spiritual dragging. Life is not for enjoyment but for exertion. Deep spiritualism was the characteristic of the age of Mahāvīra. It is not for an improved life that exertion is recommended, but it is for a transformed existence that penances are prescribed. Jaina attitude is not in the least pessimistic, but it is realistic and optimistic. Suffering is as much an evil as worldly pleasures. Deep faith in spiritual freedom inspires self-imposed suffering. The Jainas believe God to be omniscient, unchanging and holy. The popular belief and the strong faith with which Jainas follow their creed are far away from the metaphysical or ontological technicalities. To them Tīrthankara and Siddhas are Gods. Their temple (Jaina Prāsāda) is the seat of such idol-worship." A Jaina layman who aspires to follow the path of Jaina and spiritual progress required to do scriptural study or svādhyāya, and to deal with the conception of devotion in Jainism. Four types of scriptures have been recognized- 1) Prathamānuyoga, 2) Karaṇānuyoga, 3) Caraṇānuyoga, 4) Dravyānuyoga. (1) Prathamānuyoga- depicts one man's character or portrays the characters of sixty-three great personalities or concerned with both. 132 2) Karaṇānuyoga- speaks of the Universe (Loka) and the beyond (aloka), the vicissitudes of times and the four conditions of transmigratory existence.133 Caraṇānuyoga-dwells upon the conduct of the householders and that of Muni with a view pointing out its evolution, development and maintenance." Dravyānuyoga- investigates the nature of Jiva and Ajīva, Punya and Pāpa, Bandha and Moksa." 13°Dr. Nathmal Tatia, “Studies in Jaina Philosophy" (1951), P-21 15 Pt. Dalsukhbhai Malvania, “Jaina Dharma Cintana” (1965), P-116 132 Ratanakaranda-śrāvakācāra, Comm. II.2 and Dr. K. C. Sogani" Ethical Doctrine in Jainism”, (EDJ) (2001), P-187 (EDJ) 133 Ibid. 44 134 Ibid. 45 135 Ibid. 46 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #211 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 195 The Pravacanasāra, Pañcāstikāya, Samayasāra etc., have been regarded as delineating the subject of this Anuyoga. The Tattvārtha-sūtra is the embodiment of all three Anuyogas. (b)Significance of Scriptural Study: According to the Jaina, that is the right knowledge which enlightens the essence of life, foster self-control, directs the mind from the “abyss of sensuality to the plane of the spirit”, 15”instills the spirit of detachment, encourages the pursuance of noble path, and helps to develop fraternal feeling with all beings.!? The man with knowledge of sūtra saves himself from being led astray, just as the needle with thread is not lost. '* Pūjyapāda points out the purpose of the Svādhyāya is to enrich the intellect, to refine moral and spiritual efforts, to infuse detachment and fear from mundane miseries, to effect advancement in the practice of austerities, and to purify defects that may occur when one pursues the divine path."" For those who are tickle-minded, intellectually unsteady nothing is potent to terminate such a state of mind as the pursuance of Svādhyāya or scriptural study, just as darkness can only be nullified by the light of the sun.' Scriptural study offers an incentive to the householder to local the life of a saint by consecrating himself completely to meditation and devotion. It is at once a “tonic to the brain and sauce to the heart”. 141 (c) God of Jains, Arihantas & Siddhas: Arihanta is the ideal saint, supreme guru, and divinity realized soul; hence he is Paramātman or God to Jaina. Siddha has also been called God. But “neither Arihanta nor Siddha has on him the responsibility of creating, supporting and destroying the world. The 150 Yoga of saints, P-66 (EDJ-187) 137 Mūlācāra, 267, 268 (EDJ-187) 138 Ibid, 971 (ED-187) 139 Sarvārthasiddhi, IX-25 (ED-187) 140 Amitagati Śravakācāra.XIII-83 (ED,P-188) 4 Yoga of Saints, P-64 (ED, P-188) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #212 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 196 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" 142. aspirant receives no Boones, no favours, and no curses from him by way of gifts from the divinity. The aspiring souls pray to him, worship him and meditate on him as an example, as a model, as an ideal that they too might reach the same condition.' But it should not be forgotten that unified, single-minded devotion to Arihanta or Siddhas accumulates in the self the Punya of the highest kind, which, as a natural consequence, brings about material and spiritual benefits. Samantabhadra observes that the adoration of Arihanta deposits great heap of Punya.143He who is devoted to him relishes prosperity, and he who cast aspersions sinks to perdition; in both these Arihanta is astonishingly indifferent. "The aspirant, therefore, should not breathe, in despondency for aloofness of God, (Arihanta & Siddha). Those who are devoted to him are automatically elevated. The ultimate responsibility of emancipating oneself from turmoil's of the world falls upon one's own undivided efforts, upon the integral consecration of energies to the attainment of divine life." "144 (d)Worship of God Paramātmā in Theism of Jaina 145 Paramātman (God) is the highest, Supreme Being, or also called parameṣthti, who is established in the supreme station." Pt. Sukhlal Sanghvi defines difference between parameṣthins and Jīvas (soul) as, "The difference lies in presence or absence of spiritual development. Those who have attained to spiritual development and have acquired scathe less prowess of the soul are parameṣthins. The Jīvas, tardy in their process of soul, are different from them." There are pañca-parameṣthins viz., Arihanta (omniscient with body), Siddha (omniscient without body), Acarya (Preceptor Leader), Upadhyaya (Preacher) and Sadhu (sage). The pañca 146 147 142 Paramātma-prakāśa, Introduction by A. N. Upadhye, P-36 (EDJ-199) 143 Svayambhustrotra, 58 (EDJ-200) 145 144Dr. K.C. Sogani," Ethical Doctrine in Jainism (EDJ)" (2001), P-200 Svayambhu-stotra-ṭīkā; Jainendra-siddhanta-kośa, Vol. II; P-22, Dr. P. Ajay Kothari (PAK), "The Concept of Divinity in Jainism" (2000), P-150 146 Pt. Sukhlal Sanghavi, Essence of Jainism", P-139 (PAK, P-150) 147 Mokṣapahuḍa, 104, (PAK-151) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #213 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 197 150 paramesthins are supreme divinities. 48 Arihanta and Siddha are omnipotent, omniscient are supreme divine while Ācārya, Upādhyāya and Sādhu are ascetic sages who are themselves striving to reach the end of journey in Siddha hood or Supreme Divinity. "*' Pañca-paramesthins takes place of God in Jainism. There is no God apart from pure human soul. The ideal of Pañcaparameșthins also corroborate to this God-in-man conception." When a man lives a life of purity, it makes him Sādhu or Muni by renouncing his worldly belonging and starting penance and meditation. And he achieves a stage of Upādhyāya and become a guide to masses and teaches to other Sādhu. Later stage is Ācārya who is authority on the path of spirituality with further penance and austerity.151 Some of the Ācāryas may become Siddhas, a stage in which an individual gains superior power and practically he is supposed to have destroyed karmapudgala in the form of passions and becomes Siddha and Buddha. 152 The last stage is the supreme state of Kevalin, who is otherwise called Arhat. He with his effort has become omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent too. In this stage soul enjoys its inherent powers, luster and knowledge. Such a soul is free from all fetters of existence and is the very God, incarnate."" In Jaina philosophy there is no God apart from pure human soul. Thus spiritual life becomes possible even in absence of God. With this line of thinking one may ask, why not adore Gods that are in living form before our own eyes? Lord Mahāvīra and other 148 Dr. P.S. Jaini, “The Jaina Path of Purification”, P-163 (PAK-151) 14%Dr. P. Ajay Kothari, “The Concept of Divinity in Jainism”, 2000,P-151 "Dr. S.V. Atre, “Philosophy of Mahāvīra, A Critical Study” (1982), University of Poona, P-78 151 Ibid, P-78 152 lbid, P-80 Dr. S.V. Atre, “Philosophy of Mahāvīra, A Critical Study” (1982), University of Poona, P-80 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #214 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 198 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” twenty-three Tīrthankaras were deified. "S4 Later period temples were erected; idols of Tīrthankara were established in it. People started worshipping them like Hindu in temple. When a Jaina devotee worships his God or Paramātmā Tīrthařkara, he does not think, at all, whether his God has created this universe or not, because the Tīrthařkara is his personal God, and no other thought or question comes in mind. (e) Devotion to God, Paramātmā in Jainism: Devotion implies the sublime affection, circumscribed by immaculacy of thought and emotions towards the divinity realized souls or towards those who are much advanced on the path of divine realization. The devotee profoundly knows the object of his devotion, namely, Arhat and Siddha. Every fiber of his being feels the supremacy and sublimity of the object of his devotion to such an extent that when the devotee finds himself confronted with omniscient and omnipotent God, (Arhat & Siddha) he absolutely and spontaneously, proclaims he to be shameless, 150 ignorant like a child\57 and obstinate owl,158 etc. This is sort of religious humility self-depreciation, self-devaluation and a consciousness of creature hood.159 The devotee is led to the singing of the praise of God (Arihanta & Siddha) on account of being captured by the fire devotion like the deer which resort out of love to save its child from the clutches of lion or cuckoo (koyala) which sings in autumn merely by presence of small mangoes. This refers to the “elements of fascination.” Again the devotee who finds all the objects of the Dr. S.V. Atre, “Philosophy of Mahāvīra, A Critical Study, P-80 1 Sarvārthasiddhi, VI-24, Dr. K.C. Sogani, “Ethical Doctrine in Jainism (EDJ)” (2001), P-188 15°Bhaktāmara-stotra, 15 (EDJ, P-188) 157 Ibid, (EDJ), P-189 158 Kalyānamandira-stotra, 3 (EDJ) P-189 159 Idea of the Holy, P-21 (EDJ) P-189 1° Bhaktāmara-stotra, 5,6 (EDJ) P-189 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #215 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM 199 world as quite impotent to bestow upon him, spiritual solace surrender himself to God (Arihanta and Siddha)for putting an end to transmigratory existence and to tribulations and fears. The devotee is so much attracted by the divine consciousness, that he expresses his deep yearning of establishing the holy feet of God in his heart forever.'Intoxicated by devotional juice; the devotee announces that he keeps the God in his heart, and so allows him (God) to cross the ocean of mundane miseries. (f) Worship of God, Paramātman necessary to Jaina: Regarding the doctrine of God that he needs not to create world then, there arises a question: what is the use of worshipping such a God? 162 That is, if God Arihanta or Siddha is free from attachment and consequently is neither pleased nor displeased, then what is the use of worshipping him? But the Jaina philosophers say that worship of God Arihanta or Siddha is not to please Him, but to purify one's own self. It is highly useful and spiritually beneficial to worship God who is absolutely free from attachment and aversion. One should worship such God in order to cleanse one's own soul of attachment and aversion-the only cause of all miseries. The soul is by nature as pure as a crystal. But it is highly tainted with the defilements of attachment, aversion, delusion and desires. The pure crystal assumes the red colour of the red flower placed in its vicinity. Similarly, the soul gets tainted with attachment and aversion as soon as it comes in contact with them. The degree of taint depends on the degree of their contact. From this follows the necessity of our seeking and securing good purifying situations as also of our living through them." The nature of attachment-free God is absolutely pure and peaceful. Tainting influences of attachment and aversion are totally absent there. So, by worshipping Him, by contemplating on Him, the feeling of non-attachment arises in the worshipper and gradually 1 Amitagati-Sāmāyikapātha, 4 (EDJ) P-189 Muni Shri Nyāyavijayaji, “Jaina Philosophy and Religion”, 1998, P-35 163 Ibid, P-36 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #216 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 200 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" advancing on this path, he can ultimately become attachment-free. It is a common experience that in the company of a beautiful woman one experiences feeling of a special type, the sight of son or friend generates a feeling of affection and an unperturbed and calm monk causes experience of calmness and mental peace. The company of good inculcates good qualities; while that of the bad, bad qualities. Good company-good influence Bad company - bad influence So saying goes." 164 Now imagine as to how beneficial the company of the attachment-free God (Arhanta/Siddha) can be. What does this company mean? His company means to recall Him in one's mind, to contemplate on Him, to praise Him and to worship Him. His constant and close company has purifying influence on the worshipper, with the result that the vicious feeling of attachment and aversion start subsiding. This is the prime and real fruit of worshipping God. He expects nothing from the worshipper, or does He favours him with something. The devotee worships Him simply to elevate himself spiritually. Making God an object of his worship and meditation, the devotee earns the proper fruit, viz., and internal purity." 165 One who goes near the fire is relieved of shivering pain due to cold simply on account of the nearness of fire. Fire does not call any person, nor does it give any fruit to anybody. Similarly, by the fire of meditation of Paramātmā (God) the cold of attachment by itself disappears and the fruit of spiritual development or internal purity is attained. Constant recalling of good qualities of Paramātmā (God) to mind removes mental impurities, causes the development of internal purity and leads the soul on the path of spiritual progress. The devotee attains this fruit by his own spiritually elevating efforts, and not by the grace of Paramātmā (God). It is true that the person who passes his time in the company of a prostitute acquires bad desert. But who gives him bad desert. So 164 Jaina Philosophy and Religion,P.36 165 Ibid, P-36 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #217 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM it is only the impurity of one's own mind that is the cause of one's bad desert. This is easily understandable. From this follow the principle that the cause of one's pleasure and pain is one's own karma, which is ultimately governed, by one's mental states. And the means by which one can make mental state good and wholesome, is the worship of Paramātmā (God) ultimately leads the devotee to spiritual welfare." 166 In short, according to the Jainas, whether (Paramātmā) God is creator or not, does not matter, as much, it concerns to philosophers and scholars. For them, He is a perfect soul. He is absolutely pure. He has destroyed all passions and removed all impurities. As a result of this, He manifests infinite knowledge, infinite vision, infinite bliss and infinite power. This is reason why he is regarded as Paramātmā (God). By meditating on his pure qualities, the Jaina reminds daily of the possibility of attaining this highest state. He purifies his mind by contemplation of the pure and strengthens his heart for the uphill journey to liberation Worship, for the Jaina, is not seeking for mercy and pardon." 167 (g) Divine Grace 201 Divine grace, though more related to theology than philosophy; however it is one of the common characteristics of theistic religions. Theism means, primarily, belief in God and it is by pleasing that God through prayers, as said in Vedanta, one can obtain salvation through His mercy. But the Jains cannot accept this position. In Jainism, the Tirthankara makes the individual the architect of his fortune and the maker of his destiny." 168 169 The descent of the Divine Grace cannot be arbitrary. It presupposes a spiritual preparation of the individual self as a condition. The Jaina would have it that this very condition 166 Jaina Philosophy and Religion", P-37 167 Muni Shri Nyayavijayaji, Ibid, P-37 168S.C. Chatterji and D.M. Datta: Philosophy"P-420 169Dr. Nathmal Tatia, "Studies in Jaina Philosophy"" (1951), P-218 "An Introduction to Indian For Personal & Private Use Only Page #218 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 202 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" automatically leads to the succeeding stages of spiritual development. If the descent of Divine Grace were interpreted as a necessary result of spiritual preparation, the Jaina philosopher would have no objection to this interpretation in spite of its mystical appearance." 170 In Jaina conception of emancipation the soul realizes its own four infinites, and at that stage soul is totally pure devoid of the karmic veil. There is, however, no realization of one's unity with Paramātmā (God), as it is in Vedanta philosophy. Thus in Theism of Jaina we find neither God, as an outside agency, nor God's grace is required to attain salvation. On the contrary one is led to conclude, as said by Dr. Ramjee Singh "apart from theoretical difficulties of introducing God in the realm of nature and his occasional intervention etc. this leads to fatalism and pessimism. The doctrine of Grace is indeed a disgrace to the idea of man as maker of his own destiny. This loss of ethical autonomy takes away the very basis of own moral life." 171 (h) Theism of Jaina Emphasis on Emancipatory Self-efforts: The ultimate purpose of everyone's life is to get complete release from pain and suffering, attainment of wisdom and Joy. "Moreover, all Indian system of philosophy, except Cārvāka, accepts the idea of "Liberation (Mukti or Mokṣa) as the highest of goal of life. "172 In Jainism the soul is in state of bondage i.e.; cycle of birth and rebirth and its consequent miseries. The root cause of bondage and miseries in life, according to Jainism is karma, Soul (Jīva) is essentially a knowing substance and is potentially omniscient, omnipotent etc. So in the state of Mokṣa or emancipation when there is a total destruction of all karmas and the consequent installation of soul in its state of essential purity i.e.; as a being having the four infinites of immediate apprehension, cognition, Joy and power, is its mokṣa or final emancipation. Jainism believe, "the 170 Studies in Jaina Philosophy, P-218 Dr. Ramjee Singh, "The Jaina Concept of Omniscience" (1974), P-107 &108 17266 173 Radhakrishnan Reader", 1988, P-361 (HS P-13) Dr. Ramjee Singh, "The Jaina Concept of Omniscience" (1974), P-26 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #219 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA CONCEPT OF GOD IN JAINA THEISM ,,174. way (marga) to Mokṣa is three-fold combination of "Samyakdarśana, Samyak-jñāna and Samyak-caritra" i.e.; Right faith, Right knowledge and Right conduct of which ahimsa or non-injury is the corner stone. On this point Jainism differing from other system of Indian philosophy. Some emphasize only faith, some knowledge and some conduct. Faith or act of devotion or bhakti alone is considered not enough to lead to salvation."175 154 ,,176 Jainism advocates duties of householder, which are simpler and are in miniature those of a monk. This exhibit ideology entirely different from the Vedic philosophy." Jainas attitude in practicing its creed and doctrine is found "remarkable for their originality, acuteness and subtlety." To achieve goal, the practitioner is not to depend upon outside agency or grace are the chief fundamental aspect that lead to a Jaina way of Life and liberation. Not God or any divine agency but individual's sincerity of purpose is the way to liberation for Jains. Hence, Jainism thus on one side excludes the need for divine grace or any divine agency for liberation and on other side immensely emphasize solely on emancipatory self-efforts of individual to all perfection and mokṣa. 203 177 VI. (xii) Why Jainism is Theism The meaning of speculated theism, especially in western philosophy carries a great burden on God to create world, whereas in Hindu philosophy, God has to create universe, sustain it and destroy it. In comparison to these philosophies, Jainism do not bestow upon God, (Arhatand Siddha), any responsibility of creation of universe or sustaining it or destroying it. 174 Tattvärtha-sūtra, - 1.1 175 Prof. A. Chakravarti, "Mahāvīra and his Teachings", P-47 176 Dr. S. N. Dasgupta, forward, Mukharjee, "Jain Philosophy of Nonabsolutism, PP VII (HS-15) 177 Ibid (HS-15) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #220 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 204 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" The theism of Jaina differs from the theism of Western and Indian philosophy, but it is not atheism as labeled by misled philosophers and scholars, but it is an alternate theistic philosophy and therefore it is appropriate to call Jainism as theism. Jainism is a theistic philosophy because it believes that all the pure and perfect souls are Paramātmā (God), which are worshipped in different schools of philosophies in different names. They are to be worshipped by Jainas also. Ācārya Hemacandra says that I worship the one who is free from the attachments, aversion and above from cycle of birth and death whether he may be Brahmā, Vişnu, Siva or Jina. Difference in name is immaterial since every name at its best connotes the same spiritual perfection. Haribhadra in the Yogadrstisamuccaya remarks that the ultimate truth transcends all states of worldly existence, called nirvāṇa and is essentially and necessarily ‘Single' even then it is designated by different names like Sadāśiva, Parabrahman, Siddhātmā, Tathāgata etc. Not only in the general sense but etymologically also they convey the same meaning. In the Lokatattva-nirņaya he says, “I venerate all those who are free from all vices and filled with all virtues, be they Brahmā, Vişņu, Siva or Jina”. This is further supported by various Jaina thinkers of medieval period as Akalanka, Yogindu, Mānatunga, Hemacandra and many others. So, with this philosophical assumption Jainism is a theism; and not atheism at all. * * * For Personal & Private Use Only Page #221 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER - VII. 1 VII.1. (i) Jaina view of soul in comparison with Vedic and other philosophies Jainism and Buddhism held a strong aversion against violence of animals life. Jainas believe that animals have soul, similar to humans, where in Vedic tradition, as they believe in offering animals in Yajña, they do not maintain it. Both the two sister religions of Sramaņa tradition- Jainism and Bauddhism condemned the Vedic sacrifices and as the result, they were called anti-Vedic and hence classed in Indian philosophy under Nāstika group. Of course, it was but natural for Jains not to accept the authority of Veda and the supremacy of Brāhmaṇas. Prof. S. N. Dasgupta opined, '“The main departure of the systems of Jainism and Buddhism from the sacrificial creed consisted in this that they tried to formulate a theory of the universe, the reality and position of sentient beings and particularly of man. The scarified creed was busy with individual rituals and sacrifices, and cared for principles or maximize only so far as they were used for the actual performances of sacrifices.” Dr. N.N. Bhattacharaya quoted, “Both these systems (Jainism and Buddhism) were originated among peoples living outside the pale of rigid Brāhmanic influence.” This statement is refuted, as the Jainism is the oldest religion, indigenous to India, long before Aryans came to India with Vedic Culture, as discussed in the first chapter. The teachings of Upanişads reveal about ātman and Brahman, the individual soul and the universal soul. Brahman is the ultimate essence of the universe while ātman is the inner most essence of the man. The Brahman and the ātman are one and the same. Chāndogya Upanişad explains about ātman- "The self 'S. N. Dasgupta, “History of Indian Philosophy”, Vol-1, P-210 ?Dr. N. N. Bhattacharyya, “Jain Philosophy, Historical Out Line”, P-190 Chandogya Upanisad, VIII.7.1 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #222 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 206 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" (ātman) which is free from sin, free from old age, from death and grief, from hunger and thirst, whose desires are true, whose cognitions are true, that is to be searched for, that is to be enquired." Further the same Upanişad reads as, “This ātman in my inner most heart, is smaller than a grain of rice or a mustard seed and also it is greater than earth, greater than sky, greater than heavens, greater than spheres. In Brahmanical speculation of Brahman and ātman as well as its relation with the external world was not defined by the Vedic thinkers. Buddha and Mahāvīra taught and explained this relation to the world, which is painful, full of hunger, thirst, sorrow and confusion, old age and death. Their doctrine of karma, which explained migration of the soul from one state of being to another, reward of good action is impermanent, arising out of some kind of desire and hence the doctrine of deliverance gradually came to be based upon the conquest of all desire through knowledge. The doctrine of ātman plays an important part in Upanişad, though it is conspicuously absent in earlier stages of Vedic literature. Outside the circle of the priests, who devoted all their energies to sacrificial rituals, there was class of hermits and ascetics who devoted much of their time to this ātmavidyā (science of soul) for which real zeal is shown in Upanişads and in later literature. An earnest search after ātman was instituted and various attempts made to analyze individuality." Paul Deussen", with Chāndogya (8.7-12) in view, deduces three positions of the ātman: the corporal soul, the individual soul and supreme soul. More than once Upanişads passages distinguish Chandogya Upanişad, Ibid, III.14, See also Winternitz, History of Indian Literature, 1, P-250 Paramātma-prakāśa of Sri Yogindudeva, Introduction, by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, ,P-31 Ibid, P-31 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #223 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH 207 the body from the soul. Ātman, which indicated breath in early Vedic literature, implies in the Upanişads a universal soul of which the individual soul is merely a miniature. Then follows the conception of unitary ātman, which is the source of everything else. Ātman is as much cosmic principle as the Brahman both of which are used as synonyms in many passages. Ātman is conceived as Reality, everything besides being illusion only. At times the actual agency etc., are attributed to Bhūtātman who under the influence of Prakrti becomes manifold. As a lump of iron, buried in the bosom of earth, reduced to earth, so the individual ātman is merged into Brahman. It is through delusion that the human self, the self within us, considers itself as an individual, but in fact it is identical, with Brahman, the impersonal absolute. There is neither duality nor plurality of the self, but every personal self and impersonal Brahman is one and the same. According to Jaina thinkers, the ātman is not created by anybody nor does ātman create anybody. As a substance the soul is eternal, but only its modifications (paryāya), qualities (guņa) are coborn (Sahabhuva) with the substance, while modifications present themselves in succession on the substance. The ātman or soul is substance, insight and knowledge (darśana and Jñāna), are the qualities; the appearance in the four grades of existence are the modifications caused by karman. In Jainism the ātman is itself, and can never be anything else, so far as nature of ātman is concerned, it is not born, it does not die, nor it does brings about anything like bondage or liberation. Various terms like birth, old age, death, disease, gender and colour do not, in fact, refer to soul but only to the body.® Furthermore the restraint (samyama), chastity, knowledge and austerity are the name of the Soul, the ātman. Religious treatises, sacred works and austerities do not bring liberation for him whose Paramätma-prakāśa, P-33 Ibid, 67-70, P-12 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #224 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 208 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM" mind is not occupied with (the reflection) on our self. When self is known, the vision of world reflected in the self is like that of stars reflected in clear water. VII.1. (ii) Jaina View of Soul in Comparison with Vedānta The Vedānta philosophy is based on the Upanişad portion of the Vedas. The Chāndogya Upanişad contains several allegories, which have become the starting point of philosophy. The ritual of the Vedas was considered the karmakāņda, the portion related to activities (kriyā), the Upanișads constituted jñānakāņda or the portion related to knowledge, which propounds a certain theory of the world. Just as ritualistic portion of the Vedas became object of comments by Jaimini, the author of the Mīmāṁsā Sūtras so did Brhadāranyaka Upanişad commented on or rather composed aphorisms based on Upanişads. According to Šamkara" all distinctions between objects and objects, the subjects and the subjects, the self and God are illusory creation of māyā. He holds fast to the conception of identity without any real difference and tries to follow it out logically in every respect. He accepts, therefore, without any reservation, the identity of the soul and God that is repeatedly taught in Upanișads. Man is apparently composed of body and soul. But the body, which we perceive, is like every other material object, merely an illusory appearance. When this is realized, the reality that remains is the soul, which is nothing but God. The identity that is taught between man and God is a real identity between terms, which appear as different. Being identical Paramātma-prakāśa of Sri Yogindudeva, Introduction, by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, 6770.P-13 10V.R. Ghandhi (VRG), “The systems of Indian philosophy”, 1993, P-73 "Dr. Chatterjee and Dr. Dutta, “An Introduction To Indian Philosophy", 1984, P-397 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #225 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH ...... 209 with God, the soul is in reality what God also really is. It is the Supreme Brahman-the self-luminous, infinite, consciousness. The soul appears as the limited, finite self because of its association with the body, which is a product of ignorance." The self, viewed apart from the conditions that differentiate it from pure consciousness, identical with God viewed apart from the attributes that differentiate Him from pure consciousness. Such identity judgment is not tautological and superfluous; because it serves the purpose of pointing out that what is illusory taken as different is really one. The individual (jīva) can be imagined metaphorically as the reflection (pratibimba) of the infinite consciousness on the finite mirror of ignorance (avidyā) and compared to one of many reflections of the moon cast on different receptacles of water. The human self, the reflection of the infinite, varies with the nature of avidyā. The human body gross and subtle, is the product of ignorance, and the mind (antahkarana) is thus a product of avidyā. Now, the mind may be more or less cultured, it may be ignorant, impure, swayed by passion or enlightened pure and dispassionate. The analogy of reflection, which varies with the nature of reflecting water, appearing clear or dirty, would thus explain how the same Brahman could appear as different kinds of individual selves, without really becoming different and only being reflected in different kinds of minds constituted by different avidyās. Every soul, even when supposed to be finite is really nothing other than Brahman. Liberation consists only in breaking the illusory barrier. Šāṁkara Vedānta in its different aspects is an attempt to follow the Upanișadic idea of unity of all existence to its logical conclusion. 12Dr. Chatterjee and Dr. Dutta, "An Introduction To Indian Philosophy”, P-398 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #226 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 210 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" V. R. Gandhi, who was probably the first exponent of Jainism in the West opined, “The non-enlightened soul is unable to look through and beyond Māyā, which like a veil hides from it its true nature. Instead of recognizing itself to be Brahma it blindly identifies itself with its adjuncts- the fictitious off springs of Māyā, and thus looks for its true self in the body, the sense organs, etc. The soul, which in reality is pure intelligence, non-active, infinite, becomes limited in knowledge and power. Through its actions it burdens itself with merit and demerit, the consequences of which it has to bear or enjoy in series of future embodied-existences. The Lord, Isvara, as retributor and dispenser, allotting to each soul that form of embodiment to which it is entitled by its previous actions” 13 Vedānta philosophy then rests on the fundamental conviction of the Vedāntists that soul and Absolute Being or Brahma is one in their essence. In the old Upanişads this conviction rises slowly; but once it was recognized that the soul and Brahma were in their essence one, the old mythological language of Upanişads was given up. Samkara says, “that he who is free from all attachment, unchangeable and unmoved, should move or go to another place? The highest oneness if once truly conceived, excludes any like an approach to a different object or to a distant place.” 14 “By true knowledge” says Samkara, "the individual soul does not become Brahma but it is itself Brahma. As soon as it comes to know the reality it becomes Brahma. Being and knowing are one here."15 Characteristic difference between Yoga and Vedāntism is, in Yoga the human soul is represented as burning with love for God, as filled with a desire for union with or absorption in God. We find little of that in Upanişads, and when such ideas occur they are argued away by the Vedānta philosophers. They always cling to the 13VRG, The systems of Indian philosophy”, 1993, P-73-76 14 Ibid, P-82 15 Ibid, P-83 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #227 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH ... 211 conviction that the Divine has never been really absent from the soul, that it is always there though covered by darkness or nescience, and that as soon as that darkness or that nescience is removed the soul is once more and in its own right nature what it always has been, it is - it does not became - Brahma.“ William James"? puts it (in appreciation of Śāṁkara's Vedānta as presented by Swami Vivekananda in America); “The Paragon of all monistic systems is the Vedānta, philosophy of Hindustan.” It is true that such a system fails to appeal to those who turn to philosophy for the justification of their imperfect ideas, distinctions and worldly values. Like the teaching of early Buddhism and Jainism, the monistic philosophy of Saṁkara is only for the strong-hearted who can follow logic dauntlessly and face conclusions, however, subversive of ordinary ideas of reality and value. Yogindudeva," a Jaina Ācārya mentioned in Paramātmaprakāśa that more than once Upanişad's passages distinguish the body from soul. The distinction of Jīvātman and Paramātman in Nyāya-Vaišeșika is quite famous. In later period, Rāmadāsa speaks of four kinds of ātman: Jīvātman, one limited to the body; Śivātman, one that fills the Universe; Paramātman, one that fills the space beyond Universe; and Nirmalātman, one who is pure intelligence with spatial connotation and without taint of action. But all these, according to Rāmadāsa, are ultimately one." He is in the world and yet out of it. This conception of Šamkara has become well known in later Vedānta as ‘Jīvanamukti', the liberation of one when one is alive. It is the state of perfection attained here. Like Buddha, the Sāṁkhya, the Jaina and some other 16VRG, Ibid., p. 84 "Dr. Chatterjee & Datta, An Introduction To Indian Philosophy, P-412 Paramātma-prakāśa of Sri Yogindudeva, Ed. by Dr.A.N.Upadhye, 1960,P-31 19 Ibid, , P-31 and Vol. VII, See also Mysticism in Maharashtra, P-386 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #228 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 212 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Indian thinkers, Śamkara believes that perfection can be reached even here in this life. It is not a mere extra-mundane prospect, like heaven, to be attained hereafter in an unperceived future." 20 Jaina Soul-Psychology and Omniscience Knowledge is the natural and distinguishing characteristic of the soul (jiva). If it were not the nature of soul, it would either the nature of the non-soul (ajiva) or of nothing whatsoever. Knowledge and the knower cannot be separated from each other. For Jainas, unlike Vaiśeşikas, a thing and its attributes are not two separate entities brought together by a third category samavāya or inherence. According to Jaina metaphysics, a substance and its attributes form an inseparable and indivisible unity. Just as a serpent is identical with the coil of his body that he makes so also knowledge is in fact identical with the soul, though it has different types of modes. This view of consciousness and self is also corroborated by actual experience. We are always aware of ourselves as the knower and never as unconscious or first being, unconscious and then becoming conscious as a result of our relation with the consciousness. To Vedantins, the quality of knowing does not constitute the nature of Brahman, for Brahman is above these limitations. He is pure consciousness. The quality knowing is the function of consciousness when associated with the antaḥkaraṇa. Brahman is free from the duality of object and subject, knower and known. 21 The Jains claim that they preserve the concreteness of knowledge and empirical knowledge; because they neither treat intellect as unconscious nor do they accuse empirical knowledge 20 Samkara Bhāṣya on Kathopanisad, 6-14 21 Vedānta-paribhāṣā, Dharmarajādhvarindra, P-17 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #229 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH ...... 213 as being of the nature of pseudo-knowledge. This amounts to saying that the Jainas are realistic and empiricists in the broad sense of the term. As long as jñānin (knower) does not know the self, who represents knowledge, by means of knowledge, he will not, being an ajñānin (ignorant), realize the highest Brahman who is an embodiment of knowledge. By knowing one's self Para-Brahman, the God (Śiva) Paramātmā is visualized and realized whereby the highest realm of liberation is reached.25 The Upanişads inform about two kinds of knowledge: aparāvidyā and parā-vidyā; the former consists in knowledge of Vedas and later in the apprehension of imperishable Brahman. This distinction amounts to difference between the intellectual and intuitional apprehension of reality, and can be favourably compared with the above points of view. Buddhism accepts the distinction of partial truth and absolute truth. Samkarācārya too often appeals to Vyavahāra and Paramārtha points of view. Such a distinction are seen in modern definitions of religions of which William James recognizes two aspects, viz., institutional and personal.24 Vyavahāra point of view is useful and essential so far it leads to the realistic point of view. Vyavahāra by itself is insufficient and can never be sufficient. The Vyavahāra point of view may be perchance a support of the hand for those who are crawling on the primary stages of spiritual life, but it is absolutely of no use to those that are inwardly realizing the object, the embodiment of sentiency, independent of anything else.“ Dr. Ramjee Singh, “Jaina Perspective in Philosophy and Religion", 1993,P-78 Paramātma-prakāśa of Sri Yogindudeva, Ed. by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, 1960,P-13 -4 Paramātma-prakāśa, P-30 - Samayasāra-kalasa on Samayasāra, 12 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #230 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 214 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" The Ātman (soul) is of three kind, viz., external soul, internal soul and supreme soul. One should give up attachment for the external and then by knowing oneself realize the soul. But he is an ignoramus who takes body for the soul. But he is a Wiseman who considers himself as an embodiment of knowledge and as free from karman after quitting everything external: that is Paramātman. Thus it is the Internal by leaving everything External that becomes the Supreme. Samyag-darśana or Right Faith is attained by the ātman, when finding an opportune time delusion is destroyed: thus necessarily the ātman is realized. And the Wiseman is neither of any of the perverted attitudes, created by Karman, he identifies with himself. Ātman is without old age and death, which refer to the body; so one should not be afraid of them. One should meditate on pure spirit, ātman, without minding whether the body is cut, pierced or destroyed. The soul is essentially different from attachment etc., which are occasioned by karmas and other insentient substances. Some say that the soul is Omnipresent; some hold it to be devoid of knowledge; some say that it is body size; and some other says that it is void (sūnya). The ātman is all pervading in the sense that, when free from karmas, he comprehends by his Omniscience physical and super physical worlds. Sensitive knowledge no more functions in the case of souls who have realized spiritual light; and in this sense the soul is devoid of knowledge. The pure soul, there being no cause neither expands nor contracts, but it is of the same size. It is void in the sense that, in his pure condition, it is not amenable to any of the eight karmas and eighteen faults. In Jainism both spirit and matter are equally real; the number of souls is infinite; and each soul retains its individuality even in immortality. In the Upanişad there nothing real besides ātman, which is, conceived as impersonal pervasion identical with Brahma, the cosmic substratum. Ātman in Jainism is not a miniature of any Universal soul as in Upanişads, but it carries with it the For Personal & Private Use Only Page #231 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH ...... 215 seeds of Paramātman which status it will attain, when freed from karma - matter. Jaina View of Soul Refuted by Samkara Śaṁkara refuted Jaina view the dehaparimāņavāda on the ground that as bodies of different classes of creatures are of different size, it might happen that the soul of a man-which is of the size of human body-when entering in consequences of its former deeds, on a new state of existence in the body of an elephant, would not be able to fill the whole of it. The same difficulty would moreover arise with regard to the successive stages of one state of existence infancy, youth and old age. If it be said that the soul consists of an infinite number of parts capable of undergoing compression in a small body and dilation in a big one, the question will arise whether the countless particles of the soul may occupy the same place or not. If the former is admitted it follows that the infinite number of particles cannot be contained in a body of limited dimension, and if the latter is admitted, it follows that since the space occupied by all particles may be the space of one particle only, and hence soul must be of minute size. Nor can the doctrine of soul having the same size as the body be satisfactorily established by means of the hypothesis of the successive accession and withdrawal of the particles, which involves the souls undergoing changes and the like. This would mean that the soul is non-permanent, like the skin or similar substances by which it is impossible to establish its states of bondage and release. If it be said that the soul consists of some permanently remaining parts, it would be impossible to determine which the permanent are and which the temporary parts are. Since the soul is immaterial it cannot spring from material elements and reenter the element. According to the Jaina logic itself the soul is of indefinite nature and also the size of the particles and departing is itself indefinite. The above refutation noted by Śamkara by Dr. N.N. Bhattacharya is regarding Jaina's belief that soul as equal in extent Dr. N. N. Bhattacharyya, "Jain Philosophy, Historical Out Line”, 1999,P-221 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #232 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 216 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" to its body. Similarly refutation quoted by Dr. M.L. Mehta about the speculation of Vedānta, that ātman is vibhu (all-pervasive). Since Vedantin hold that "atmans are many, and if each of them is vibhu (all-pervasive) also, as it believed, then what a wonderful clash and interpenetration of atmans would ensure? Moreover, each of them would enter the atman of God Himself, and each would thereby become a creator, for they believe that God is the creator of this universe." There are a number of dissimilarity in the philosophy of Vedanta and Jainism and quite a few similarities also. VII.1. (iii) Jaina view of Soul in Comparison to Buddhism Buddhism is one of the schools of Indian philosophy, which have discarded Vedas and followed its own line of thoughts. Mr. V.R. Gandhi said, "A philosophy is not born in a day and therefore to say that Buddha while sitting under the Bodhi-tree was inspired as it were with the truths which he afterwards circulated has no meaning. Truths are not reached in a moment. Science and arts are not discovered in a day and therefore Buddha who was a Hindu by birth and a follower of the Brahmanical faith must have been the outcome of his time." ,, 28 Jainism and Buddhism are known among scholars, appose to the authority of the Vedas and the supremacy of the Brāhmaṇas who believe in speculative existence of an intelligent first cause, and insist upon moral values, right conduct and self-discipline. Jainas believe in soul (jīva) in animal; though Buddhists do not believe in soul, think it sinful to take life of animal. In most of the nineteenth century European scholars who did not study Jaina philosophy and misunderstood it, called Jainism an offshoot of Buddhism and also hold misconception that the both system adore deified saints. To Jainas their Tirthankara who are omniscient, all-knowing are Gods 27 Mohan Lal Mehta, "Jaina Philosophy: An Introduction", 1988,P-100 28 VRG, "The systems of Indian philosophy", P-93 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #233 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH 217 and not merely saints which is gross mistakes being opted by Western scholars and even several Indian scholars have supported it." To western scholars and orthodox Indian scholars, Buddhism and Jainism in spite of their common basis of philosophical doctrine, appeared to be rival creed. During the period of Buddha his disciples were profusely spreading their religion, attacking Brāhmaṇas and also Jainas, who then counter attacked them. Belief in self or soul is regarded in Buddhism as a heresy. Two kinds of heresies in Buddhism are advocated: one of these is called Sakkāyaditthi - the heresy of individuality, one of three primary delusions which must be abandoned at the very first stage of the Buddhist path of freedom. The other is Attavāda", the doctrine of soul; it is classed with sensuality, heresy and belief in efficacy of rites- as one of the four upādānas. In Buddhist work Brahmajālasutta, Gautama discusses sixtytwo different kinds of wrong belief: among them are those who believe that soul and world are eternal. According to Gautama there are sixteen heresies teaching a conscious existence after death; which includes soul is material or immaterial or is both or neither, that it is finite or infinite or is both or neither, that it will have one or many modes of consciousness, that its perceptions will be few or boundless, that it will be in a state of joy or misery, or both or of neither. Though Buddhism does not believe in the doctrine of soul or that it is eternal. The basic theoretical difference between Buddhism and Jainism was on the question of momentariness. The Buddhist regarded all changes as being due to the assemblage of conditions absolutely momentary (kșanika) in character, and went so far as to 29 Dr. N. N. Bhattacharyya, “Jain Philosophy, Historical Out Line”, 1999,P-194 VRG, “The system of Indian philosophy”, P-110 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #234 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 218 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" deny the existence of any permanent soul. The Jainas also believed that changes were produced by assemblage of conditions and held that, since no ultimate and absolute view of things could logically be taken, the reality of the permanence of the world, at least some of the fundamentals must be acknowledged side by side with the question of change. According to Jainas, those who hold that there is nothing really permanent in the universe and everything changes from moments to moment are one sided because change and permanence are both real. Reality consists of three factors: permanence, origin and decay-utpāda-vyaya-dhrauvyayuktam sat. Jainas hold that, if everything is taken to be momentary, it will be impossible to explain memory, recognition, the immediate feeling of personal identity, etc. And hence the concept of liberation will not be able to stand in the absence of any permanent soul to be liberated. Momentariness cannot explain the constitution of any individual series, because without something permanent behind the changing modes (paryayas), the changing states cannot be held together to form continuity in the individual. The doctrine of momentariness cannot also be proved by perception or inference. To the Buddhist, there is no problem of relation between the soul and consciousness. They do not believe in the existence of any substance like soul. Cognition to them is a function of the beginning less stream of consciousness (citta), which takes the form of Ālayavijñāna and Pravṛtti-vijñāna. These are no permanent substratum or central matrix of the process. But in the state of Mukti or salvation, when consciousness is devoid of the influx of avidya or tṛṣṇā it does not cognize any external object.31 Gautama was a non-believer in permanent soul and to all questions about a future life after the attainment of Nirvāņa; his reply was: "I do not know. It is not given me to know." They 3Dr. Ramjee Singh," Jaina Perspective in Philosophy and Religion”, „P-78 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #235 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH ...... 219 maintain that all conditioned things are impermanent, all conditioned things are sufferings; and all conditioned things are not-self.” Malunkyaputta pressed the question on Gautama to know definitively if the perfect Buddha did or did not live beyond death. Gautama said, “Do not press the enquiry.???) 53 If a man does not attain, while he is living, the state of Nirvāṇa he is liable to future birth. Gautama did not believe in the existence of soul, nevertheless the theory of transmigration of soul was too deeply implanted in the Hindu mind to be eradicated and Gautama therefore adhered to the theory of transmigration without accepting the theory of soul! But if there is no soul, what is it that undergoes transmigration. The reply is given in Buddhist doctrine of karma is that the doing of a man cannot die but must necessarily lead to its legitimate result. And when a sentient being dies a new being is produced according to the karma of a being is dead. The cause which produces the new being is Trsņā (thirst) or Upādāna (grasping). Sensations are the contact of organs of sense with the exterior world; from sensations springs a desire to satisfy a felt want, a yearning, and a thirst. From thirst results a grasping after objects to satisfy that desire, that grasping state of mind causes a new being (not, of course, a new soul, but a new set of Skandha (aggregate), a new body with mental tendencies and capabilities. The karma of the previous set of Skandha (aggregate) or sentient being then determines the localities, nature and future of the new set of Skandha (aggregate) or the new sentient being. The doctrine of karma, as opinioned by Mr. V.R. Gandhi, as propounded by Gautama is an incomprehensible mystery. 34 VII.1. (iv) Jaina View of Soul in Comparison to Sāmkhya It is opted by some of few scholars that Jainism and Buddhism borrowed some of their philosophical characteristic from »-The Dhammapada, 277-79, English trans. by L. M. Joshi "SVRG, “The systems of Indian philosophy”, P-114 34 Ibid, P-116, 117 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #236 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 220 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Sāṁkhya which is probable the oldest of all Vedic philosophical speculation of India. But its antiquity is hoary, whereas Jainism is the oldest and its origin lies far back in the prehistoric times. Sāṁkhya's non-Vedic origin may be substantiated by the fact that (i) the Sāṁkhya conception of Prakrti as the material cause of the universe is incompatible with the Vedāntic conception of Brahman, that (ii) greatest care is taken in the Brahmasūtra to refute the Sāmkhya philosophy which is looked upon as the most important challenge to the Vedic system and that (iii) there had always been a conscious attempt to revise and fabricate the Sāṁkhya in the light of the Vedānta:35 Sāṁkhya philosophy, as per the scholars who differentiate in terms of theistic or atheistic is not only atheistic but also hostile to Veda, and has remained up to the present day, in its real contents, non-Vedic and independent of Brahmanical tradition. Essentially the non-Vedic Sāṁkhya is the doctrine of pradhāna or Prakrti (Female Principle), but within it has a place for the Purușa (Male Principle) or soul, and the place is highly irregular and abnormal. 36 The Sāṁkhya philosophy together with Yoga, Nyāya, Vaišeșika, Mīmāṁsā and Vedānta accept Veda as its guide. It is the philosophy of Sāṁkhya or enumeration or the analysis of the Universe. It has been partly composed with the metaphysics of Pythagoras. Sāṁkhya's proposition is that the world is full of miseries of three kinds: (1) due to one's self, (2) due to the products of elements and, (3) due to supernatural causes. An object of man is to attain complete cessation of pain from the three kinds. The doctrine Sāṁkhya is similar to the tenets held by the Buddhists whose main doctrine is that the world is full of miseries. Dr. N.N. Bhattacharya, "Jain Philosophy, Historical Out Line”, 1999.P-204 36 Ibid. P-205 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #237 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH The miseries are results of the properties of matter (Prakṛti) and not of its correlate intelligence of consciousness (Puruṣa). Matter is eternal and is co-existent with spirit. It was never in a state of non-being but always in a state of constant change, it is subtle and insentient. According to this view, Prakṛti existed before the evolution of Universe and will continue so to exist for ever, but with the time it has so much been changed that the non-emancipated soul is but accountable to comprehend its nature. It has lost its original state and has become earthy. In other words, Prakṛti has assumed diverse shapes both gross and subtle. Here is the Samkhya doctrine that it is only in the eyes of an unenlightened soul that Prakṛti assumes the form of the world of day-to-day experience (while an enlightened soul views Prakṛti in its pristine form). Samkhya philosophy holds that miseries are the properties of matter and not of its correlate intelligence of consciousness, out of the primordial essence. Prakṛti comes out of the whole universe, by reason of the pre-dominance of one or other of three qualities of (sattva) passivity, (rajas) activity and (tamas) grossness. All pain is the result of (rajas) activity, all grossness, darkness, ignorance of (tamas); all pleasures, passivity, knowledge, peace of sattva. The mind is result of rajas and it is sattva, alone which by its light illumines it and enables it at times to catch glimpses of the blissful Puruşa ever near to the sattva. As mind or thinking principle plays an important part in the Samkhya and more so in the Yoga philosophy, for its chief article is "stop the transformation of thinking principle and you will realize the self." " 37 221 Purusa (soul) is charaterised by passivity and indifference, but somehow come to be influenced by the three qualities of Prakṛti. It is only by the cooperation of the "blind Prakṛti and lame Purușa" that the creation starts out. The whole of the cosmos exist in a subtle 37VRG, "The systems of Indian philosophy", P-21 (Yoga) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #238 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 222 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" (Sūksma) form in Prakrti and becomes manifest in creation. It is impossible for an entity to come out into existence out of non-entity. In the Sāṁkhya the nature of Puruşa or soul is similarly defined as being intelligence or light, and three guņas are described as goodness, energy and delusion, or light, colour and darkness. Prof. Garbe adequately calls them, constituents of primitive matter." Kapila defines Praksti: it is the state of equipoise of goodness or passivity, passion, energy or activity and darkness or grossness." These three qualities passivity, activity and grossness are not qualities in the ordinary sense. Qualities in the ordinary sense are attributes which can be connoted of certain things but in the Sāṁkhya system they are not attributes of Praksti they are rather the cords which when in a state of equipoise constitute Prakrti. On account of the disturbance of this state of equilibrium the whole world comes out. First Prakrti and then altogether twenty four elements come out and the twenty fifth is the Purușa- the soul, which is neither producer nor produced but eternal like Praksti. It is quite distinct from the producing or produced elements and creation of the phenomenal world, though liable to be brought into connection with them. Kapila argues for existence of soul as a separate entity, distinct from Praksti; soul is not material because of its superintendence over Prakrti, it is intelligent being while Praksti is unintelligent.Also a soul is not material because of its being the experiencer. It is the Praksti that is experienced, the experiencer is soul. According to Sāṁkhya the soul is neither bound, nor is it liberated. It is free. It has a delusive resemblance of being bound. 38Dr. Bhattacharya, "Jain Philosophy, Historical Out Line”, P-207 39 Sāṁkhya-sūtra, 1.61 40 lbid. 1.142 4' Ibid, 1.143 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #239 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH ...... 223 The nature of the soul is constant freedom and indifference to pleasure and pain alike. What is the nature of soul? Kapila answers: since light does not pertain to the unintelligent, light is the essence of soul. The followers of the Vaišeșikas system think that intelligence is only an attribute of soul; really it is without quality. According to Sāṁkhya it is essentially intelligent. Kapila does not agree with the Vedāntists when they say that soul is one only for it is eternal, omnipresent, changeless and void of blemish; on the contrary, he says that from the fact [that] when one person is born another dies and third one becomes old at the same time [it follows that] there is a multiplicity of soul. If soul were one only, when one is born all must born. Both the Vedāntists and Sāmkhyas are followers of the Veda and in Veda there is a passage like, Brahma is one without a second. Kapila say: In the Purāņas it is said that Vāmadeva has been liberated, Suka has been liberated. If soul were one, since the liberation of all would take place on the liberation of one, and the mention of diverse liberation would be self-contradictory. 42 Similarities between the essential of Sāṁkhya and those of Jainism can be explained here. The Sāṁkhya wants to explain world in terms of two basic categories namely, Puruşa and Praksti, just as Jainism wants to explain everything in terms of Jiva and Ajīva. The Sāṁkhya concept of Purușa and Prakrti are very primitive, scholars think so, and these concepts evidently stood for male and female principles of creation. Later, in subsequent stages of its (Sāṁkhya) philosophy Puruşa came to denote as soul and Praksti or the female principal, the primordial substances, as the inanimate matter. The 4- Sāṁkhya-sūtra, 1.157 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #240 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 224 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" same holds good in the case of Jaina's Jiva and Ajīva, which later came to denote animate and inanimate substance respectively. Also, as in Sāṁkhya, so in Jainism, the souls are infinite in number." The evolution of world has its starting point, in the Sāṁkhya, in the contact (Saṁyoga) between Purușa and the self and Praksti or Primordial matter. This contact does not however mean any kind of ordinary conjunction, but a sort of effective relation through which Prakrti is influenced by the presence of Purusa, more or less in the same way as the Jīva attracts pudgala in Jainism. These are no evolution unless the two become somehow related to each other. There are differences between Jaina and Sāṁkhya concept of soul. Jainas believe the soul is possessed of infinite perception (ananta-darśana), infinite knowledge (ananta-jñāna) and infinite power (ananta-vīrya) and it is all-perfect. Also souls are infinite in number. They are substances and are eternal. According to Sāṁkhya although souls are many but they are without parts and qualities. They do not contract or expand with their occupation of smaller or larger bodies but are always all pervasive and are not contained in the bodies in which they are manifested. Sāṁkhya's soul is devoid of characteristic such as infinite knowledge, power and perceptions.43 The agreement between Sāṁkhya and Jaina position is really very great. In fact, the Sāmkhya, Vedānta and Jaina school of thought are united in their opposition against the NyāyaVaišeșika theory of soul and its relationship to the knowledge in so far as according to all of the three schools; consciousness is not merely a quality of the soul but is its very nature of the Soul. 4*Dr. Bhattacharyya," Jain Philosophy, Historical Out Line", P-208 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #241 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH ...... 225 Therefore, the question of relating knowledge to the soul becomes a warranted question.44 However, Sāmkhya School holds a very peculiar view about the role of the intellect, which according to them is really not a source of knowledge but it is material (therefore unconscious) evaluates of Prakrti. In this regard they say that even if the “buddhi? as the first evaluates of Prakrti is unconsciousness by itself, in the combination with the Puruşa, which mirrors itself in it, “knowledge' is certainly not weakened. Similarly in the system of Advaita Vedānta, even if it is true that from the Paramārtha point of view all empirical knowledge forms parts of Avidyā, on the Vyavahāra level all the true criteria of knowledge are valid. According to Jaina thinkers the soul is said to be changing. This characteristic of soul is meant for refuting the theory of the Sāmkhya and other systems that regards soul as an absolutely permanent entity, and not admits it, soul, as changing. According to Sāṁkhya system, Purușa (soul) is devoid of form, enjoyer, permanent, omnipresent, static, inactive, devoid of the three guņas (attribute) which are (sattva, rajas and tamas) and subtle. Now, if Purușa is permanent, i.e.; apariņāmī, he is above modifications of any sort, he is not liable to undergo bondage, for the same reason, he is devoid of action (Kriyā) and cannot transmigrate from one life to another. Hence, there is no occasion for mokṣa (liberation) in his case. Therefore, Puruşa is neither bound nor liberated. He does not transmigrate. It is the Prakrti (Primordial matter) that is bound, liberated and reborn. Jaina asks: if Praksti is bound and liberated, what is that which binds it? If Prakrti itself is bound and liberated, there will be no difference between bondage and liberation, because Praksti is **Dr. Ramjee Singh, “Jaina Perspective in Philosophy and Religion”, 1993,P-77 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #242 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 226 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" always present. Hence no question of bondage and liberation will arise in this case. 45 The Samkhya School does not regard Purușa (soul) as agent, an active entity. Puruşa (soul) according to this school is merely a silent and passive spectator. This view is refuted by Jaina thinkers. Pleasure and pain cannot belong to an unconscious entity. Puruṣa (soul) is subject to pleasure and pain because consciousness belongs to Purusa only. When it is proved that pleasure and pain belongs to Purușa, it is obvious that Puruşa is active; moreover, consciousness itself is active, because the term consciousness implies knowledge or intelligence which is active in character. Another characteristic of soul, according to Jaina, is its direct enjoyment. The Samkhya maintains that Puruşa (soul) is enjoyer in an indirect manner i.e.: through buddhi (intellect). The Jaina says that material buddhi cannot enjoy anything. Puruşa is kartṛ and bhoktṛ (agent and enjoyer) directly and not through buddhi. Enjoyment is the function of a conscious substance and Puruşa is conscious. VII.1. (v) Jaina View of Soul in Comparison to Yoga Philosophy In India there have been six schools of thought, starting with a more or less rational demonstration of the universe and ends up with a sublime code of ethics. There are first the Vaiseṣika and the dialectic Nyāya schools seeking mental peace in devotion to the ruler of the Universe. Then there are the materialist Samkhya and practical Yoga schools teaching mental peace by proper analysis and practical training. Lasting there are the orthodox Mīmāmsā and the Unitarian Advaita 45 Mohan Lal Mehta, "Jaina Philosophy: An Introduction", P- 98,99 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #243 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH ...... 227 schools, placing spiritual bliss in strict observance of Vedic injunction and in realizing the unity of the cosmos. The Yoga philosophy then is based on the idea that if man wants at all to understand his place in nature and to be happy and progressing he must aim at that physical, psychological and moral development which can enable him to pry into depth of nature. He must observe, think and act, he must live, love and progress. His development must be simultaneous on all three planes. Yoga is a complete suppression of tendency of thinking principle to transform itself into objects thoughts etc. It should distinctly be borne in mind that the thinking principle in this philosophy is not the soul who is the source of all the consciousness and knowledge. In short, the suppression of all these transformations is the Yoga, which leads to the realization of the self. The Yoga-sūtra says that complete suppression of the transformation of the mind is secured only by sustained application and non-attachment. Yoga is suppression of the manifestation of the mind. The source of the positive power therefore lies in the soul. In the very wording of the definition of Yoga is involved the supposition of the existence of a power which can control and suppress the manifestation of the mind. The power is power of soul-otherwise familiar to us as freedom of the will. So long as the soul is subject to the mind it is tossed this way or that in obedience to the mental changes. Kapila refutes the views of Paurāņikas, Tantricas and Vedāntins, on the location of mind in the body of a person. He says: if minds and soul were one and same, one would say “I am the mind' instead of ‘my mind, my hands'. According to him all experiences consists of mental representation, the sattva (purity, passivity) being 46VRG, “The system of Indian philosophy", P-20 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #244 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 228 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” clouded, obscured or entirely covered over by the nature or property of representation. This is the root of evil. The Yoga school's conception of the self as a transcendent subject, which is quite distinct from the body, the mind and the ego, is far removed from common sense and the ordinary psychological concept of it. As compared with these the spiritual conception of the self in the Yoga is apt to be regarded as unintelligible and mysterious. It is to be observed that the Yoga scheme of selfrealization has a solid foundation in the Sāmkhya metaphysics, which proves the reality of the self as a metaphysical and eternal principle of consciousness. Dr. N. N. Bhattacharya opined that the influence of Yoga on Jaina philosophy" can also clearly observed in the conception of transcendental perception. This transcendental perception is named differently in different system of Indian philosophy. In the Sāmkhya, Nyāya-Vaiseșika and Buddhist system it is known as yogi-pratyakşa (i.e.; yogic perception) or yogi-jñāna (i.e.; yogic knowledge) and is supposed to be born as result of competence acquired through yogic practices. In Jaina philosophy, the Āgamic, i.e.; earlier or canonical tradition, insists transcendental perception alone should be treated as direct perception to which category it places the avadhi (limited direct clairvoyance), manahparyaya (modes) and Kevala-jñāna (omniscience). Later Jaina logicians however attempted to bring empirical perception under the category of Pratyakșa. In any case, the conception of yogic perception, indeterminate as well as determinate, has some bearing on Jaina avadhi-darśana (apprehensive clairvoyance) and kevala-darśana (apprehensive omniscience) which a type of cognition arising independently of 4'Dr. N. N. Bhattacharya, “Jain Philosophy, Historical Out Line”, 1999,P-213 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #245 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH ...... 229 sense-object contact on account of Yoga or special competence of soul (Viśista-ātmaśakti).48 VII.1. (vi) Jaina View of Soul in Comparison to Nyāya-Vaiseșika This philosophy starts with the proposition that in order to obtain summum bonum one must acquire the knowledge of the truth; knowledge of the truth drives away miseries, births, mundane existence faults and false knowledge and result is mokşa, the freedom of soul. There are four main view of self in Indian philosophy. Cārvākas says the self is living body with the attribute of consciousness. Buddha reduces the self to stream of thought or series of cognitions. Like some empiricists and sensationalists, they admit only the empirical self. The Advaita Vedānta takes the self as one, unchanging and self-shining intelligence (Svaprakāśa Caitanya), which is neither a subject nor an object, neither the 'l' nor the ‘me.' The Nyāya-Vaiseșikas adopt the realistic view of the self. According to them, the self is a unique substance, to which all cognitions, feelings and conation belong as its attributes. Desire, aversion and volition, pleasures, pain and cognition are all qualities of the soul. According to Nyāya to investigate into the nature of things you must proceed first to mention (uddeśya) object i.e. only to name the things by their responsive names. Then you have to give the (lakṣaṇa) differentia of those things, i.e. those qualities which belong to them only and to nothing else and which at the same time are essential qualities, without which they cannot exist. This means that after naming them you have to give their logical definition. And thirdly you have to examine whether those definitions are right. Their sixteen topics of Nyāya philosophy are treated in that way. *Dr. N. N. Bhattacharya, "Jain Philosophy, Historical Out Line”, P-213 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #246 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 230 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" The Nyāya philosophy of Gautama does not aim at a (demonstration of the) universe; it only mentions the objects or subjects to be known but it is Kaņāda, the author of the Vaiseșika, who tries to analysis the things and then lays down the right understanding of things. Kaņāda divides substance in to nine classes - a) earth, b) water, c) light, d) air, e) ether, f) time, g) space, h) soul and i) mind. Of the nine substances, earth, water, light and air are considered eternal and non-eternal. The atoms of these substances are eternal but their different manifestations are not eternal. With regards to the creation of the universe the Vaišeșika supports the atomic theory and states that the material universe is created out of these four elements. The Vaišeșikas believe in a personal creator because they think that although the elements were here yet there must be someone to form them into different shapes. For the formation of a pot, although the clay is there, still there is the necessity of a potter. By the will of this divine power motion is imported to the atoms and evolution follows. Besides, these four elementary substances, there are five other substances- ether, time, space soul and mind. These are eternal and all of them except mind are all pervading, i.e. they exist everywhere. This means that soul of every man exist as much in Chicago as in Bombay. The mind however is atomic and is connected with soul. When the soul becomes related with mind knowledge is the result; knowledge is a special characteristic of soul but it is mind, which receives the sensation of pleasure and pain. The different senses are only the instruments of knowledge. The effects of acts are stored in the mind and they manifest themselves as pleasures and pains in future incarnation. When by the grace of God the soul acquires the right knowledge of things all miseries vanish supreme bliss follows. *YVRG, “The system of Indian philosophy", P-67 & 68 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #247 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH ...... 231 The Nyāya-Vaišeșikas adopt the realistic view of the self. According to them, the self is a unique substance, to which all cognitions, feeling and conation belong as its attributes. Desire. aversion and volition, pleasure, pain and cognition are all qualities of soul. These cannot belong to the physical substance, since they are not physical qualities perceived by the external senses. There are different selves in different bodies, because their experiences do not overlap but are kept distinct. The self is indestructible and eternal. It is infinite or ubiquitous (vibhu) all pervasive, since it is not limited by time and space. The body or senses cannot be self because consciousness cannot be attribute of the material body or sense. The body is, by itself, unconscious and unintelligent. The senses cannot explain functions like imagination, memory, ideation, etc. which are independent of the external senses. The manas too cannot take the place of the self. Pleasure and pain are experienced or perceived by us. Nor can the self be identified with series of cognitions as in Buddha philosophy for them memory become inexplicable. The Advaita Vedāntin's idea of the self as eternal self, shining intelligence is no more acceptable to the Naiyāyikas than that of the Buddhist. There is no such thing as pure intelligence unrelated to some subject and object. Consciousness cannot subsist without a certain locus. Hence the self is not intelligence as such, but a substance having intelligence as its attribute. The self is not mere consciousness or knowledge, but a knower, an ego or the land also an enjoyer (bhoktā). 50 Although knowledge or consciousness belongs to the self as an attribute, yet it is not an essential and inseparable attribute of it. All cognition or conscious state arise in the self when it is related to the manas (mind), and the manas is related to the senses, and senses Nyāya-sūtra-bhāsya, 3.1.4 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #248 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 232 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” come in contact with the external objects. Otherwise, there will be no consciousness in self (soul). In its disembodied condition, therefore, the self will have no knowledge or consciousness. Thus the attributes of cognition, feeling and conation- in a word, consciousness are an accidental attribute of the self, the accident being its relation to the body. Jaina thinker's view is that soul is essentially conscious, and refutes views of Nyāya-Vaišeșika school, which regard consciousness as an accidental quality of soul. Caitanya (consciousness) which one would expect to be regarded as the very essence of ātman (soul) is treated by the Vaišeșikas and Naiyāyikas as an adventitious (aupādhika) quality which comes temporarily into the soul as a result of the working of the machinery of cognition. Caitanya or Jñāna is, thus, something different from ātman (soul). This view is refuted by Jainas.' The Vaiseșikas and Naiyāyikas argue that the distinction between ātman (soul) and Jñāna (knowledge) is essential owing to there being related as KartỊ (agent) and Karaṇa (instrument), ātman being Kart; and Jñāna the Karana. The Jaina thinkers hold that the position of Jñāna is different from that of an ordinary Karaṇa such as a scythe (datra). Iñāna is an internal Karaņa, while the scythe is an external Karaņa. 2 Dr. Ramjee Singh maintains that the Nyāya-Vaiseșika does not accept the Jaina position regarding consciousness. To them it is an entities quality of the soul which comes temporarily as an effect of a complex cognitive machinery i.e.; grasp between sense and object and then between sense and the mind and finally between mind and the soul. They do regard soul as the substratum of all cognition but they maintain that self and cognition are two different "Mohan Lal Mehta, “Jaina Philosophy: An Introduction", 1988,P-95 & 96 »Syādvādamañjari, P-42 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #249 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH ...... 233 things. Or, since the soul is agent (Kartā) and cognition the instrument (Karaña) the distinction between the two is necessary. Their relation is like that of eye and the vision and not like that of lamp and vision. VII.1. (vii) Jaina View of Soul in Comparison to Mimāṁsaka Mīmāṁsakas admit the validity of determinate and indeterminate perception but do not accept the idea of transcendental perception, which Jainas do. They depend upon validity of sense perception. They believe in the reality of the perceived world and of other objects. Here it is found their agreement with the Jainas. The Mīmāṁsakas in accordance with their belief in the reality of the world rejects the Buddhist theories of voidness and momentariness, as well as the Advaita Vedānta theory of the unreality of phenomenal world. The soul according to them is permanent eternal substance, and so also are the material elements by the combination of which the earth is made. The soul, according to them, has the capacity for consciousness, but is not the essence of soul. This is the point Mīmāṁsakas disagree with the Jainas. Mīmāṁsakas deny any claim for yogic experience or transcendental perception and hold that the so-called unique experience yielded by Yoga is nothing but a subjective fancy and as such quite useless in determining the validity of any philosophical view. Their sole insistence upon pure empirical perception and flat denial of transcendental perception has been criticized by Jaina logicians. 54 Consciousness is an adventitious quality which arises when some conditions arises. In dreamless sleep and in the state of »Dr. Ramjee Singh, “ Jaina Concept of Omniscience”, 1974, P-75 & 76, Nyāyamañjarai, P-77 »Dr. N. N. Bhattacharyya, “Jain Philosophy, Historical Out Line”, 1999, P-215 & 216 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #250 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 234 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” liberation the soul has no consciousness, because its conditions, such as relations of sense to object, are absent. There are many souls as there are individuals. The souls are subject to bondage and can also obtain liberation.55 Jain thinker's views that soul is said to be equal in extent to its own body it occupies, whereas Naiyāyikas, the Vaišeșikas, the Sāṁkhyas, and the Mīmāṁsakas who hold that the soul is omnipresent like ether. They believe in the existence of many souls but do not admit that they are equal in the extent to their own bodies. According to them all souls are all-pervasive, i.e.; present everywhere. To admit a soul to be equal in extent to its own body is a unique conception of the Jaina. The doctrine which advocates the vibhutva of ātman (a soul is everywhere) is contrary to the Jaina concept of soul. A soul is not all-pervasive, because its qualities are not found everywhere; that thing whose qualities are not found everywhere is not all-pervasive. The point is that the measure of soul, as per Jaina, is only as much as that of body it occupies, that is there is no soul outside the body it occupies, for its attributes are found only in that body an important thing, Jaina point out that since all other schools of thought hold that ātmans are many and if each of them is Vibhu (all-pervasive) also, as they believe, then it would result in interpretation of ātmans and each of them would enter the ātman of God Himself, or each would thereby become a creator, for they believe that God is the creator of universe." Jainism is the only school of Indian philosophy, which holds that ātman is body-size. The only other school which hold an analogous, though not the same doctrine, is the school of Rāmānuja 5Dr. Chatterjee and Dr. Dutta, “An Introduction to Indian Philosophy”, 1984, P-336, Sloka-vārtika, (ātmavāda), Šāstra-dipikā, ātmavāda, P-119 Mohan Lal Mehta, “Jaina Philosophy: An Introduction", 1988,P-100 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #251 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF SOUL COMPARED WITH ....... 235 of Vedānta, according to which, the Jñāna of ātman, though not the ātman itself, undergoes contraction and expansion. Jainas maintain that each body possesses a different soul and hence, there are many souls. It is also held that one body can be occupied by more than one soul but one soul cannot occupy more than one body. Vedāntin differs with this Jaina concept and say that varieties of soul are unwarranted, for the soul is everywhere the same. Like the sky, it is all-pervasive. On account of illusion, we think that there are many, different souls in different bodies. In reality it is one.57 Jaina Philosophy: An Introduction, P-102, 103 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #252 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER -VII. 2 VII.2. (i) Jaina view of Karma, Sanātana Dharma (Vedic) and other philosophies Karma literally means action, but as every action is triple in its nature, belonging partly to the past, partly to the present and partly to future, it has come to mean the sequence of events, the law of cause and events, the succession in which each effect follows its own cause. The word karma, action, simply should however remind us that what is called consequence of an action is really not a separate thing but is a part of the action, and cannot be divided from it. The consequence is that part of the action, which belongs to the future, and is as much a part of it as the part done in the present. The suffering is not the consequence of wrong act but an actual part of it, although it may be only experienced later. A soldier is sometimes wounded in battle, and in excitement does not feel any pain; afterwards, when he is quite he feels the pain; so a man sins and feel no suffering, but later the suffering makes itself felt. The suffering is not separated from the wounded, any more than heat from fire, though experienced as a result. Hence all things are linked together indissolubly, woven and interwoven inseparably; nothing occurs which is not linked to the past and to the future. How shall there be in this saṁsāra an uncaused action?' Boat without oars sails or rudder is carried himself drifting about helplessly by the wind and current, and sailor find along under the pressure of forces. But a clever sailor, with oars, sails and rudder, can sail along his boat in any direction he pleases, not because he has changed the wind and the currents, but because he understands 'Dr. Annie Besant and Bhagawandas, "Sanatana Dharma”, 1940, P-67 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #253 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF KARMA COMPARED WITH ...... 237 their directions, so can a man who knows the laws of nature utilize those whose forces are going his way and neutralize those which oppose. Therefore knowledge is indispensable; the ignorant are always slaves. The law states conditions under which certain results follow. According to the results desired conditions may be arranged, and, given the conditions, the results will invariably follow. Hence law does not compel any special action, but only renders all actions possible, and knowledge of law is power. The jīvātman,' as we have seen, are three fold in its nature; it consists of icchā, jñāna and kriyā, i.e. will wisdom and activity. These in the lower world of upādhis, of forms, express themselves as desire, knowledge and actions and these three fashion a man's karma, and each works according to a definite law Man verily is desire-formed, as is his desire, so is his thought; so he does actions. Samkara comments that desire is the root of the world. "Desire carries the man to the place where the object of desire exists and thus determining the channels of his future activities.' Desire attracts a man to the object of desire, binding him to them with links unbreakable; wherever the object of desire, there is must go the man who desires it. The object of desire is called fruit, and fruit which the man has sought he must consume, in whatever place it is found. The man impelled by desire, attached to fruit be good or evil, pleasurable or painful, the law is the same. So long as a man desires fruit, he is bound by his attachment to that fruit, and is said to have good or bad karma according as the fruit is pleasant or painful. When a man understand this law, he can watch over this desires, and allow them to attach themselves only to objects the possession of which will yield happiness; then in another life, he will have Dr. Annie Besant and Bhagawandas, “Sanātana Dharma”, P-68 3 Ibid, P-68 * Brhadāranyaka Upanişad, IV.4.5 SIbid, IV.4.6 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #254 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 238 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” opportunities to attain them, for they will come and place themselves in his way. The second law of nature concerns about mind: Mind is the creative power, and a man becomes that which he thinks. “Now verily man is thought formed; as a man thinketh in this world, so, having gone away hence, he becometh.”? Action is only thought thrown outward, objectified and a man's actions are only his past thoughts materialized. As Brahma created His world, so manas creates his vehicles and by the same means, thought character, the nature of man, is thought-crested; this is the first of the three factors of karma. So what the man essentially is in himself that is the outcome of his thinking. Third law of nature concern actions: Circumstances are made by actions. “Nothing can sprout forth without a seed. No one can obtain happiness without having accomplished acts capable of leading to happiness. If a man spread happiness around him, he will reap happiness hereafter. If he spreads misery, he will reap misery. Thus knowing the law, he can prepare for himself favorable or unfavorable circumstances, as he prepared a good or bad character, and pleasure giving or pain-giving objects. This is the third law, belonging to actions. These three laws cover the making of karma, for the jīvātman consist of will, wisdom and activity, and these show themselves in the world by desires, thoughts and actions. A view of karma that paralyses human efforts is a crude and mistaken one, and men should see in karma a guide and not a paralyser of action. °Bhagavadgītā, V-12 Chāndogya Upanisad, III. 14.1 Mahābhārata, 291.12 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #255 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF KARMA COMPARED WITH ...... 239 One very commonly felt difficulty in connections with karma is this. Men ask 'If I am destined by my karma to be bad or good, to do this or not to do it, it must be so; why then I make any effort? The fallacy of this line of thought should be very clearly understood. The effort is part of the karma, as much as the goodness or badness; karma is not a finished thing awaiting us, but a constant becoming, in which the future is not only shaped by the past but is being modified by the present. “By his karma may ajīva become an Indra, By his karma a son of Brahmā, By his karma he may become Hari's servant and free from birth, By his karma he may surely obtain perform, immortality, By his karma he may obtain fourfold (mukti), sālokya, sārupya, sāyujya and the rest, connected with Vişņu." Godhood and manhood and sovereignty of the world empire may a man obtain by karma, and also the state of Śiva and of Gaņeśa. There remains the question: how can a man become free from karma? From the general karma of the universe he cannot be freed so long as he remains in the universe; devas, men, animal, plants, mineral, all under the sway of karma; no manifested life can escape from this everlasting Law, without which the universe would be chaos. "All, Brahma and the rest, are under its sovereign rule, O’king!” Says Devībhāgavata." Devibhāgavata, IX.27.18-20 10lbid, IV.2.8 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #256 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 240 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" If a man would escape this universal karma he must go out of the universe-that is he must merge in the Absolute. When all the desires hidden in the heart are loosed, then the mortal becomes immortal, the he here enjoys Brahman." Jaina view of Karma Compared with the Veda Philosophy According Dr. N.N. Bhattacharya, “Karma and its fruits are meant in the Vedas to be the sacrificial acts and their results-not so much for any moral elevation, as far the achievement of objects of practical welfare. Knowledge to Vedic thinkers meant only the knowledge of sacrifice and of the dictates of the Vedas. It was not taken in its widest and most universal sense. These were the points on which Jainism and Buddhism had a significant departure from Vedic line. In quest of true knowledge Buddhism regarded all production and destruction as being due to the assemblage of conditions and reached at least to the doctrine of absolute momentariness. Jainism also believed that changes were produced by the assemblage of conditions but instead of carrying this idea to that of absolute momentariness, it accepted the doctrine of permanence in a relative sense. The Jaina philosophers held that no ultimate, one-sided and absolute view of things could be taken. Thus, according to Jainism, not only the happening of events is conditional, but also even all our judgments are true only in limited sense. By the assemblage of conditions, old qualities in things disappear, new qualities come in, and parts remain permanent." ! The doctrine of karma, transmigration of soul and its rebirth as per Jainism and Buddhism inspired Vedic tradition. In early Vedic ideas of karma denoted sacrifices; however in the later Vedic texts, especially in the Upanişads, the idea of the agriculture maxim, 'as one sow so he reaps' was introduced. "Kathopanişad, 11.6.14 Dr. N. N. Bhattacharyya, “Jain Philosophy, Historical Out Line”, P-191 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #257 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF KARMA COMPARED WITH ...... 241 Jacobi had pointed out that karma doctrine in its agricultural sense was evolved among the non-Vedic people and it was, later on adopted in Upanişad. Upanişad presented karma in two forms -simple and sophisticated. The simple form of karma is just as good seed brings a good harvest and bad seeds bring bad harvest. Similarly man becomes good by good deed and bad by bad deed. So every deed must produce its natural effect in the world. A man cannot escape the deeds but can control them, by self-discipline. In the sophisticated level, however, karma is regarded as a blind unconscious principle, governing the whole universe. It is not a subject to the control even of God. Karma in Jaina doctrine is conceived, unlike other systems, as a being material. Through the action of body, speech and mind, karma is formed as subtle matter. The passions of man as acts like a viscous substance that attracts the karma matter, which thus pours into the soul and sticking to it, gradually ripens and exhaust itself in accordance with the suffering and enjoyment of the individual. If through proper self-discipline all karma is worked out, the jīva (soul) becomes free. Upanişad's concept is similar to the Jaina doctrine and it seems appear it has acquired the Jaina doctrine. The word jīva (soul) used by Jains, derived in the Sanskrit, from root 'Jīva' which means ‘to continue breathing.' Upanişads use two other terms for Jīva (soul), viz., bhoktā or experiencer and kartā or agent.'*Each soul is conditioned by these two principles throughout its existence. Doctrine of karma is a corollary of doctrine of transmigration of soul and rebirth, which is generally common to almost all-Indian system of philosophy. Jainism belief in transmigration of soul is a peculiar one, its conception of karma, is the governing principle of "Dr. N. N. Bhattacharyya, "Jain Philosophy. Historical Out Line”. P-192 14 Praśna, IV.9, Kathopanişad, 1.3.4,Bhatt, P-193 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #258 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 242 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” transmigration. The karma matter accumulated around the soul during the infinite number of past lives is technically called kārmanaśarīra, which encloses the soul as it passes from birth to birth. In the Rgvedic eschatology there is no direct reference to soul's transmigration or to the doctrine of rebirth in any form. In Upanișad the theory of transmigration of the soul has emerged in three distinct stages. In the first stage the earlier Vedic idea of heaven or abode of Yama has been replaced by the conception of Yāna or way, of the fathers (pitr) or of the gods (deva). In the second stage the doctrine of transmigration is present without any reference to the idea of karma and in the final stage; however, complete presentation of the transmigration of soul is seen strictly in terms of the doctrine of karma or reaping the fruits of deeds. That is good deed in one life secure a better future for the next life. It can be easily observed that Upanişad drew much from Jaina theory of transmigration. Hence, transmigration and karma theory of the Jaina and Buddhist conception of liberation and that of Upanişads are almost alike. The Jainas believe that liberation of soul is possible only when it is free from bondage of karma. The idea of liberation in early Vedic is absent. In Upanişad, emancipation or mukti, the state of infiniteness, that is a man attains when he knows his own self and thus becomes Brahman.16 Turning to ethics of Rgveda, we find that the conception of sta is of great significance. It is the anticipation of the law of karma, one of the distinguishing characteristics of Indian thought. It is the law, which pervades the whole world, which all Gods and men must obey. Řtafurnishes us with a standard of morality. It is the universal essence of things. It is the Satya or the truth of things. Disorder or Ansta is falsehood, the opposite of truth. Chăndogya, V.10, Brhadāranyaka, IV.4 ''Dr. N. N. Bhattacharyya, "Jain Philosophy, Historical Out Line”, 1999, P-194 Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, "Indian Philosophy", Vol.-1, P-109 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #259 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF KARMA COMPARED WITH....... VII.2. (ii) Jaina View of Karma Compared with Samkara Vedanta. According to Samkara, owing to ignorance, the beginning of which cannot be assigned, the soul erroneously associates itself with the body, gross and subtle. This is called bondage. In this state it forgets that it is really Brahman. It behaves like a finite, limited, miserable being which runs after transitory worldly objects and is pleased to get them, sorry to miss them. It identifies itself with a finite body and mind (antaḥkaraṇa) and thinks that 'I am stout,' 'I am lame', 'I am ignorant' etc. There arises the conception of self as the 'Ego' or 'I'. This limited ego opposes itself to the rest of existences, which is thought to be different from it. The ego is not, therefore, the real self, but is only an apparent limitation to it. 18 In Śāmkara Vedanta' the attempt of Śamkara and his followers is to show how the intrinsic, pure condition of the self can be regained. The fact that the blissful state of dreamless sleep is not permanent and once more returns to his finite, limited embodied consciousness on waking up shows that there remain even in dreamless sleep, in a latent form, the forces of karma or avidya which draw man into the world. Unless these forces, accumulated from the past, can be completely stopped, there is no hope of liberation from the miserable existence, which the self has in this world." 20 243 19 Furthermore Śamkara said one should first, be able to discriminate between what is eternal and what is not eternal (nityānitya-vastu-viveka). He should, secondly, be able to give up all desires for enjoyment of objects here and hereafter (ihāmutrārthabhogaviraga). Thirdly, he should control his mind and his senses and 18Dr. Chatterjee and Dr. Dutta, “An Introduction to Indian Philosophy", 1984, P-399 19 Ibid, P-405 20 Sankara-bhāṣya on Brahma-sutra, 1.1.1 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #260 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 244 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” develop qualities like detachment, patience, power of concentration (samadamādi-sādhana-sampat). Lastly he should have an ardent desire for liberation (mumuksutva). Vedānta teaches that: the forces of deep-rooted belief of the past do not disappear as soon as truth of Vedānta is learned. Only repeated meditation on the truths and life led accordingly can gradually root them out. When wrong beliefs become removed and belief in the truths of the Vedānta becomes permanent, the seeker after liberation is told by the teacher thou art Brahman'. He begins then to contemplate this truth steadfastly till at last he has an immediate realization of the truth in the form “I am Brahman”. Thus the illusory distinction between the self and Brahman at last disappears and bondage too, along with it. Liberation (mukti) is thus attained. Even on the attainment of liberation, according to Šamkara, the body may continue because it is the product of karmas, which had already borne their effects (prārabdha-karma). But the liberated soul does never again identity itself with the body. According to Vedānta of Samkara, three kinds of karma can be distinguished. Karmas gathered in past lives admit of a two-fold division, those that have borne their effects (Prārabdha-karma) and those that still lay accumulated (sancita-karma). In addition to these two kinds, there are karmas, which are being gathered here in this life (sańcīyamāna/kriyamāņa). Knowledge of reality destroys the second kind and prevents third and thus makes rebirth impossible. But, the first kind of karma, as per Samkara, which has already borne effects, cannot be prevented. Hence the present body, the effect of such karma, runs its natural course and ceases when the force of the karma causing it becomes automatically exhausted, just Sārkara-bhāsya on Brahma-sūtra, , 1.1.4 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #261 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF KARMA COMPARED WITH ...... 245 as the wheel of potter which has been already turned comes to stop only when the body, gross and subtle, perishes. The Jivana-mukti is said to attain the dissembled state of liberation (videha-mukti).22 Liberation in Vedānta is not the production of anything new, nor is it the purification of any old state; it is the realization of what is always there, even in the stage of bondage, though not known then liberation is nothing but identity of the self and Brahman, which is real, though not always recognized. The attainment of liberation is, therefore, compared by the Advaitins to the finding of the necklace on the neck by one who forgot its existence there and searched for it hither and thither. As bondage is due to an illusion, liberation is only the removal of this illusion.“ Furthermore, liberation is not merely the absence of all misery that arises from the illusory sense of distinction between the self and God. It is conceived by the Advatin, after Upanişad, as a state of positive bliss (ānanda), because Brahman is bliss and liberation is identity with Brahman. Šamkara24 following the Gītā, told that work fetters a man only when it is performed with attachment. But one, who has obtained perfect knowledge and perfect satisfaction, is free from attachment. Samkara tries to attach great importance to disinterested work. For one who has not yet obtained perfect knowledge, such work is necessary for self-purification (ātma-suddhi) because it is not through inactivity but through the performance of selfless action that one can gradually free oneself from the yoke of the ego and its petty interests. Even for one who has obtained perfect knowledge or 2- Sāṁkara-bhāsya on Brahma-sutra, 1.1.4 3 “An Introduction to Indian Philosophy", P-408 -* Sāṁkara-bhāsya on Bhagavadgitā, 4.14, 3.20 & 26 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #262 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 246 liberation, selfless activity is necessary for good of those who are still in bondage. JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" The ideal of Samkara is also advocated by some eminent modern Vedantists like Swami Vivekananda and Lokamanya Tilak. 25 The critics of Advaita Vedanta have often urged that if Brahman is the only realty and all distinction false, the distinction between right and wrong also would be false. Such a philosophy is, therefore, fruitful of dangerous consequences for society. According to Advaita Vedāntins, this objection is due to the confusion of the lower and higher standpoints. From the empirical stand point, the distinction between right and wrong, like other distinctions is between right and wrong, like other distinctions quite valid. For one who has not yet attained liberation, any action that directly or indirectly leads him towards realization of his unity with Brahman, is good and that hampers such realization directly or indirectly, is bad. Truthfulness, charity, benevolence, self-control and the like would be found to fall under the first category. Even according to this criterion, falsehood, selfishness and injury to others would come under the second. One who has attained perfect knowledge and liberation would look back upon these moral distinctions as being relative to the lower standpoint and, therefore, not absolutely valid. The motive of every bad action is based on the ignorant identification of the self with the body, the senses and the like, in a word, on the lack of sense of unity between the self and Brahman. 26 According to Yogindudeva," a Jaina thinker (ācārya), the atman is really Paramātman or God (Iśvara). It is true from the ordinary or practical point of view that the atman, because of karmic association, undergoes various conditions; but from real point of 25 26 Gitārahasya in Marathi by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, sec.12 Paramātma-prakāśa of Shri Yogindudeva, by Dr. A.N. Upadhye, P-29 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #263 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF KARMA COMPARED WITH...... view, upheld by great Jinas, Tirthankara, the ātman simply sees and knows. Atman does not bring about bondage and liberation, which are caused by karman for it. Ātman is Omniscience; and every other predication about him is true from the practical point of view. Really speaking atman himself constitutes right faith, knowledge and conduct, which are generally stated as means of liberation. When the atman27 realizes itself by itself it becomes Samyagdrsti, i.e. possessed of Right faith or spiritualistic attitude, and get rid of karmas; but if it pursue the modification its views are perverted, and it incurs the bondage of many karmas and wanders long in samsara. When the atman develops perverted attitude, it grasps the realty in a perverted manners, and the conditions created by Karman, it begins to identify with itself. The Jīva begins to say; I am this and that, I am fair, white, black; I am slender, fat, ugly; I am Brahmin, a Vaiśya, a Kṣatriya or the rest; I am a man, a neuter, a woman; etc., this is all a magical network of unreality, and a fool claims all this as his. A being of perverted attitudes does nothing else than enjoying the objects of pleasure which are the cause of misery. VII.2. (iii) Jaina View of Karma Compared with the Buddhist Philosophy 247 The Buddhist and Jaina philosophers belong to Śramanic current of thoughts, which gives emphasis on karma. Both philosophers regard that the variety and inequality among living beings is due to karma. Due to the infatuation and effect of emotion, the Jīva (soul) acts through the body, speech and mind; and produces likes, attachments and hatred, which in turn produces karma.28 27 The doctrine of four noble truths is the central point of Buddhist teaching. The substance of that teaching is that life is Paramātma-prakāśa, P-12 28 Devendra Muni Shastri, "A Source Book In Jaina Philosophy", 1983, P-424, Milindapraśna, 3.2 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #264 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 248 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” suffering, the thirst for life and its pleasure is cause of suffering, the extinction of that thirst is the cessation of suffering and that such extinction can be brought about by a holy life.“ Gautama said, “Birth is suffering, decay is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering. Presence of objects we hate is suffering, not to obtain (objects) we desire is suffering." Buddha says, “A man regards the soul either as identical with or as posing or as containing or as residing in the material properties or sensations or in the other three Skandha (aggregates). By regarding soul in one of these ways he gets the idea “I am". Then there are the five organs of senses, and mind, and qualities and ignorance. From sensation produced by contact and ignorance the sensual, unlearned man derives the notions ‘I am’, “this I exist', 'I shall be', 'I shall not be etc. But now, mendicant, the learned disciple of the converted, having the same five organs of sense, has got rid of ignorance and acquired wisdom, and therefore the ideas ‘I am' etc. do not occur to him."" According to V.R. Ghandhi, Gautama's religion was a perfect agnosticism, which did not and could not look beyond Nirvāņa; because as per Gautama's theory there is nothing permanent in man, that every particle mental, spiritual or physical, perishes every moment and new aggregates comes into existence by reason of the influence left by karma or action of the former aggregates. Everything is momentary, and if a man leads a perfectly holy life he would not collect new karma, which will lead him into new birth; and therefore the aggregates of which he is composed come to an end, without new aggregates coming into existence. So although Gautama might not have said that the future state after V. R. Gandhi (VRG), “The Systems of Indian Philosophy", P-107 30 lbid, P-107 31 Ibid, 110 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #265 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF KARMA COMPARED WITH ...... 249 Nirvāṇa is a state of annihilation still the natural conclusion is that the state must be that of total annihilation." But Buddhist literature indicates karma as formless (arūpī) and inexpressible while Jaina views are contrary to it. Buddhist considered karma as subtle (sūkṣma). Buddhist has described karma as vāsanā (desire) impression. They say that the material cause of all activities whether it is of prakrti (Pradhāna), of īśvara (God), it is due to vāsanā. Even if we consider Iśvara (God) to be the judge dispensing karma, therefore it is needed for postulating vāsanā for explaining variety in the universe. The Buddhist maintains that the disposition born out of mental crises are vāsanā. The lobha (greed), dveșa (hatred) and moha (infatuation) produce karma. Jīva (soul) get engaged in activities in bodily, mental and speech due to these emotional disturbances so also these disturbances and activities produce the lobha, dveșa and moha in turn. This is the wheel of life, which is beginning less. 33 The Jainas have made a special contribution to the study of karma theory. The Jaina analysis of karma is scientific and they have developed the science of karma. There is enormous literature in the study of Jaina theory of karma. 94 VII.2. (iv) Jaina View of Karma compared with the Sāṁkhya Philosophy Kapila says from knowledge comes the liberation i.e. discrimination between soul and non-soul. Bondage is also one of 3- The Systems of Indian Philosophy, P-115 ** Anguttaranikāya, Tikanipātasutta, 33. 1, P-134, Samyuktanikāya, 15.5.6 Part 2, P181-182, Milinda-praśna 3.15, P-75, Visuddhimagga, 17.110 34Dr. Ramjee Singh, “Jain Concept of Omniscience”, 1974,P-106 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #266 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 250 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" the aims of the transmigration but it arises on account of misconception. Kapila altogether discards the theory of the efficacy of works as a means of salvation. To him only knowledge is the sole means of liberation. Even meditation is not the direct cause of liberation, though it is useful as secondary cause, for it removes desire, which really hinders knowledge. So it is worth practicing which can be done by stopping all modifications of mind." Through meditation knowledge is acquired. But if misconception interferes, bondage will be the result. What is misconception? It is five-fold- ignorance, egoism, attachment, aversion and fear of dissolution. Why should this misconception play its part at all? Simply because of the power evolves satisfaction, pleasure and accomplishment. Success is impeded and hence arises the disability, which causes misconception. It should be noted however that according to Kaplia's theory the soul is not really fettered by matter, it only has a wrong impression that it is fettered. Really it is quite free. Only it does not realize this fact so long as it is in mundane existence. The gross body usually, though not always arises from father and mother, while the subtle body is a creation out of the principle. Pleasure and pain belongs to the subtle body not to gross body. The Jaina conception, about the doctrine of karma is basically resembles or is the same as that of school of Sāṁkhya, according to which there is effective relation through which Praksti is influenced by the presence of Purușa. More or less in the same way, in Jainism Jīva (soul) attracts Pudgala. There cannot be evolution unless the two become somehow related to each other. In Jainism the doctrine of Karma is regarding the union of soul and matter is basically the same as that of Sāṁkhya. A soul acquires the body that it inwardly craves for the karma or the sum of past life of a soul generates in it certain blind cravings and passions. These Sāṁkhya-sūtra, 3.23-3.31 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #267 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF KARMA COMPARED WITH ...... cravings in the soul attract to it particular sort of matter particles and organize them into the body unconsciously desired.36 Liberation, or mukti, is for soul (Jiva) only when its all karmas are exhausted. Dr. N. N. Bhattacharya opined that the Jaina conception of Mokṣa and the Buddhist conception of Nirvana appear to have derived their main impulses from the Samkhya idea of liberation is refuted here, on account of Jainism mainly based on theory of ātmā, karma and liberation and hence the concept of ātmā is percolated in Vedic philosophy." 37 251 According to the Samkhya the cause of suffering is attributed to ignorance, and hence freedom from suffering is to be attained through right knowledge of reality, a main attribute of ātmā according to Jaina. Knowledge provides distinction between the self and not self or according to Jaina jīva (soul) and non-jīva (pudgala). Samkhya thinkers advocate all pleasures and pains belong to the mind-body complex, which acts or causes to act. The soul is quite different from this complex, a passive spectator, a transcendent subject whose very nature is pure consciousness, freedom, eternity and immorality. The attainment of liberation means the clear recognition of the self as a realty, which is beyond time and space, mind and body, and hence essentially free, eternal and immortal. 38 According to Samkhya-Yoga, the variety and complexity and resulting in equality are due to five klesas, like asmitā, avidyā, rāga, dveṣa and abhiniveśa, which are responsible in creating saṁskāra. Samskara has also been referred to as asaya, vāsanā, karma and apūrva. And hence klesa and samskara are the rest cause of the wheel of life." 39 Sufferings in the world and to be free from it are the philosophy of Samkhya but the Jainas is independent of it. However 36Dr. N. N. Bhattacharya, "Jain Philosophy, Historical Outline", P-208 37 Ibid, P-210 38 Samkhya-sutra, 111.23.4, Samkhya-kārikā and Sämkhya-sutra and vṛtti, V.74.83 39 Yogadarśana-bhāṣaya, 1.5, P- 428 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #268 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 252 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" these two ideas, liberation and to get rid of all sufferings, Sāṁkhya might have contributed to the development of the Buddhist idea and not of the Jainas. VII.2. (v) Jaina View of Karma, Compared with the Yoga Philosophy In Jaina tradition, Lord Mahāvīra is said to have devoted himself for long twelve years, mainly to the yogic practices. Jaina gives great importance to the Yogāngas i.e. the components of Yoga. The Jaina doctrine of karma has something common with its Yoga conception. Karma in Yoga is divided into four classes: 1) 2) Sukla or white (punya, those that produce, happiness) Krşņa or black (pāpa, those that produces sorrow) Sukla-krsņna (ordinary actions, partly virtuous and partly vicious) Asukla-krşņa (those inner acts of self-abnegation and meditation which devoid of any fruits as pleasures and pains). 4) The thinking principle is Antahkaraṇa which is divided into four parts-which are- i) manas or mind, the principle which cognizes, ii) citta or individualizing, iii) ahankāra or egoism and iv) buddhi or reason, the light that determines one way or another. In the clear mirror of the Sattva (purity) is reflected the bright and blissful image of the ever-present Purusa who is beyond change, and supreme bliss. This state is called Sattavapati or Moksa or Kaivalya. For every Purușa who has thus realized itself Praksti has ceased to exist, in other words, has ceased to cause disturbance and misery. The course of nature never ceases but one who receives knowledge remains happy throughout by understanding the truth. All external actions involve some sins, for it is difficult to work in the world and avoid taking the lives of insects. All karmas proceed from the fivefold affliction (klesas), namely avidyā, asmitā, rāga, dveșa and abhiniveśa. The karmas performed in the present life For Personal & Private Use Only Page #269 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF KARMA COMPARED WITH 253 generally accumulated and make it possible for individual to suffer and enjoy the fruits thereof. Karma of present life determines the particular kind of future birth, the period of life and the painful and joyful experiences destined for that life. According to Dr. Bhattacharya,40 the influence of some form of Yoga system is Jacobi has suggested the disciplinary codes of Jainas. He has shown that a few sūtras of Umāsvāti, Jaina philosopher-monk and writer of Jainas sacred literature, author of Tattvārtha-sūtra, is directly inspired from similar verses occur in Patañjali's Yogasūtra. In connection with samvara or stoppage Jaina insistence on the gutti (Skt. Gupti), control of the mind, speech and body. Also the tenfold monastic morality (dharma) and the twelve pessimistic reflections, conceived by Umāsvāti have a close bearing on Yoga percepts.' Jaina yogic practices, as referred by Schubring, help or trains the aspirant to withdraw himself from his surrounding, reach the state of indifference towards all that the five senses offer, suppress the four passions, avoid displeasuring and promote pleasing activities of the inner sense, speech and body. VII.2. (vi) Jaina View of Karma Compared with Nyāya & Vaiseșika Philosophy The three-fold activity of jīva (soul) body, mind and speech, according to Nyāya School of thought, are affected by passions, attachment and hatred etc. and it consequently give rise to dharma and adharma which are also called Saṁskāra.“ As per Vaišeșikas, saṁskāra is included in adrsta. Rāga and dveșa (attachment and hatred) give rise to saṁskāra and saṁskāra give rise to birth (janma), which is again responsible for rāga and dveșa. In this way, the root-cause of saṁskāra is beginning less. *"Dr. Bhattacharyya, “Jain Philosophy, Historical Outline”.P-213 4 Tattvārthādhigamasutra, IX, 6-7 42 Nyāyabhāsya, 1.1.2 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #270 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 254 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” VII.2. (vii) Jaina View of Karma compared with Mimāṁsā Philosophy According to Mīmāṁsā the law of karma guides formation of objects. The soul survives death to be able to reap the consequences of its karma. Repeated birth is caused by karma. It is only disinterested performance of duties and by knowledge of self that the karma accumulated in the past is gradually worn out. Being free from all karma-ties liberation is achieved. Conceptually these ideas about liberation are not basically different from those of the Jainas. The Mimāṁsākas says that the various activities of men like the performance of Yajña gives rise to apūrva (unknown) and apūrva give rise and gives fruits of all activities, like the performance of Yajña. Apūrva is the potency born of the performance of duties mentioned in the injunction of the Vedas. The other forms of activities are not considered to be Apūrva."" On transcendental perception, Mīmāṁsā differs significantly from Jainism and other philosophical systems that defend their philosophies on the strength of experience resulting from yogic practices. But the Mīmāṁsakas deny such claim for yogi experiences or transcendental perception and hold that the so-called unique experience yielded by Yoga is nothing but a subjective fancy and as such quite useless in determining the validity of any philosophical view. Jaina logicians have criticized the Mīmāṁsakas on their sole insistence upon pure empirical perception and flat denial of transcendental perception. Thus we see that the law or doctrine of karma means that all deeds (actions) good or bad, physical or mental produce their proper consequences in the life of the individual who acts. The belief in law of karma, in general, is common character of Indian system of philosophy and religion. With its help, metempsychosis of * Sābarabhāsya, 2.1.5, (b) Tantravārtika, 2.1.5 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #271 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF KARMA COMPARED WITH ...... 255 transmigration of souls becomes a proven fact, and through it their continuity and immortality is established beyond doubt. Moreover, it provides a scientific and rational explanation for the diverse phenomena.** To Jainas in fact, the science of karma is the real science of spirituality, in so far as it tries to unfold the real nature of spirit or self. Unlike the Brahmanical, Vedic philosophy, notion that karma is subservient to God and hence what is more important is not karma but compassion of God. For Jainas freedom from karma is uncompromising condition for salvation. What is most significance thing to note here is the reason behind the Jainas putting greater emphasis on doctrine of karma and working out a science of karma in greater details than what has been done by other systems of Indian philosophy? The chief reason is rejection of belief in God's grace as well as God regarded as dispenser of fruits of action.45 Jainism does not preach that there is any special power ruling over the destinies of men from behind or above. On the contrary, it teaches that every individual works out his own destiny by his own mental or physical exertions that bring to him agreeable or disagreeable experiences. Thus the entire emphasis is to thwart and annihilate the force of the karma “and this way to effect a gradual spiritual evolution leading to the ultimate goal, the very Godhood, whence there is no return to the saṁsāra." However Šramanic school of Jainism and Buddhism as well as Vedic school of Nyāya-Vaišeșikas and Sāmkhya-Yoga stick to the ideal of Mokșa. They recognize karma to be the cause of bondage and advocate freedom from karma as means to salvation. The Jainas combine the atomism of Nyāya-Vaišeșikas with the real **Dr. Hemant Shah, “Jain Theism”, 1997, P-17, Chatterjee and Datta, P-15 and Dr. J.P. Jain, “Religion and culture of Jains", P- 40 Dr. Hemant Shah, "Jain Theism", 1997, P-17, Chatterjee and Datta, P-15 and Dr. J.P. Jain, “Religion and culture of Jains", P-18 40Dr. Hiralal Jain, Article, “What is Jainism”, P12-13 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #272 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 256 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” modification of self. Karma is material or non-material as it is the modification of matter or consciousness. The thought activity is Bhāva-karma; the actual matter flowing into the soul and binding it is Dravya-karma. Dr. Ramjee Singh' writes, “The reasons behind the Jainas putting greater emphasis on the doctrine of karma and working out a science of karma in greater details than what has been done by other systems are as follows: Firstly: they had to substantiate the sovereignty and independence of the soul over matter. This was a reply to the Cārvākas who had reduced the soul to an epiphenomenon of matter and also rejected rebirth and salvation. Secondly: the Jainas could not reconcile with the radical Vedāntins like Saṁkara who would accord karma a place only in the realm of māyā, which is unreal as metaphysical entity. From the level of Paramārtha, karma is irrelevant because the domain of paramārtha is the supreme truth, which is non-dual.48 Thirdly: The Jainas also wanted to refute the one-sided fluxism of Buddhism, which could not adequately explain the fact of fruition of karma without the identity of a permanent soul. Lastly: the Jainas also wanted to correct the wrong Brahmanical notion that karma is subservient to God and hence what is more important is not karma but the compassion of God”. If the God is regarded as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe as also the dispenser of fruits of actions as well as inner-controller and guide, then God's grace is only rescue and support. Therefore, apart from theoretical difficulties of introducing *'Dr. Ramjee Singh, Jain Concept of Omniscience, P-106 48Madras Seminar on “Karma & Rebirth”, Dr. R.V. Desmet, Dr. N. Veezhinathan See, Brahma-sutra, śāṁkara Bhāsya , 1.1.1 "Rgveda, X 19.3, Tait.Up., 111 and Manusmrti, 1,5.9 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #273 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF KARMA COMPARED WITH ...... 257 God in the realm of nature and his occasional intervention etc. this leads to fatalism and pessimism. The doctrine of grace is indeed a disgrace to the idea of man as maker of his destiny. This loss of ethical autonomy takes away the very basis of our moral life and perhaps is generated by a false belief that the potency of karma is also destroyed with the destruction of the human body. The Jaina theory of karma might be accused of placing the destiny of man in the hands of ruthless law and not in those of a merciful God, who might be pursued easily to improve it. Mrs. Sinclair Stevenson makes a similar projection when she says that” the belief in karma and transmigration kills all sympathy and human kindness for suffers, since any pain a man endures is only the wages he has earned in a previous birth. “But in view of tremendous inequalities pervading the world, commented Dr. Ramjee Singh'I hope, Mrs. Stevenson, if she cares to be a little impartial, will agree that if everything is attributed to Him, then a God all-merciful (being also Omnipotent) has to be a God unjust. In fact, the science of karma is the real science of spirituality; in so far it tries to unfold the real nature of spirit or self. Unless we have a thorough knowledge of karma, we cannot know about the true nature of spirit or self, the knowledge of identity between the body and the self and so on. The entire doctrine of karma is based on the belief that the universe is a system subject to laws inherent in its own constitution. It also involves the idea of immortality of soul and metempsychosis because if the work of fruition has not been fully worked out in one life, future life is a logical necessity. Hence the belief in the transmigration and immortality also follows. This is nothing other than science of spirituality. *** SoSinclair Stevenson, "The heart of Jainism”, 1995, P-163 Dr. Ramjee Singh, “Jain Concept of Omniscience", P-109 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #274 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER -VII.3 VII. 3(i) Jaina view of God compared with Vedānta and other philosophies (a) Vedic Philosophy The philosophical development of Vedānta through the Vedas and Upanişads starts with the advent of Aryan in India. The Rgveda mostly consist of praises of the different deities, devas or gods, such as Agni, Mitra, Varuņa, Indra and so on. Aryans use to pray to the Gods for their help and favours by offering of animals etc. The Vedas are often said to be polytheistic because of its belief in many gods; however, few philosopher doubts this Vedic thought. Since, each of many gods when praised is extolled by hymns as the Supreme God, the creator of the universe and lord of all gods. Max Muller thinks such a belief was ‘henotheism'. Many writers of philosophy, about this philosophical speculation of Veda, believe that the idea of God gradually developed from polytheism through henotheism, ultimately to monotheism i.e. belief in one and only God. Prof. Chatterjee and Prof. Datta observe "Indian monotheism retains belief that though God is one, He has various manifestations, in many gods any one of which may be worshipped as form of the Supreme Deity. Even today we have in India divergent cults like- Saivism, Vaişnavism, etc. based on a philosophy of one Supreme God. Indian monotheism in its living forms, from the Vedic age till now, has believed rather in the unity of the gods in God, than the denial of gods for God. Hence Indian monotheism has a peculiarity, which distinguishes it from the Christian or Mohammedans. Dr. Datta & Chatterjee, “An Introduction to Indian Philosophy”, P-351 ?Ibid, P-352 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #275 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH ...... 259 Vedic seers visualized universe as one organic whole, created by Supreme reality which is both immanent and transcendent. God pervades the world, yet he is not exhausted thereby; He remains also beyond it. Western theological translates this conception as pantheism (pan-all, en-in, theos-God) and not pantheism (all that exist is God). That is all is not equal to God, but all is in God, who is greater than all." (b) Views of Vedānta Vedānta, also known as Uttara-mīmāṁsā etymologically means “the end of the Vedas’. This meaning connotes that the later part of Vedas considered philosophically important is Vedanta. The thought of Vedānta developed out of Upanişads, including Vedic speculations. The Upanişads were regarded as the inner or secret meaning of the Vedas or mystery of Vedas. There were many Upanişad in number, which were systemized in Bādarāyaṇa's Brahma-sūtra. This Sūtra in brief, with various commentaries written upon elaborates Vedānta doctrine. The authors of each of these commentaries became the founder of a particular school of Vedānta. We have schools of Saskara, Rāmānuja, Madhva, Vallabha, Nimbārka and Caitanya, etc. The most common question on which the schools of the Vedānta are divided as: what is the nature of the relation between the self (Jiva) and God (Brahma)? Some being dualist (Dvaitavādī) hold that the self and God are two totally different entities. Some others hold that the two are absolutely identical, which is monism (advaita). Some other schools hold that the two are related like part and whole, which is called, qualified monism (Viśistādvaita)." (c) Vedānta School of Samkara Vedānta philosophy has its two chief exponents- Saṁkara and Rāmānuja; their doctrines are based on the Upanişads. According to Šamkara's opinion the Upanișads teach as follows: Dr. Datta & Chatterjee, “An Introduction to Indian Philosophy'', P-347 * Ibid, P-349 SIbid, P-349 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #276 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 260 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Whatever exists, is in reality one; there truly exists only one universal being called Brahman or Paramatman (the highest self). This being is of an absolutely homogeneous nature; it is pure being, pure intelligence or thought (Caitanya or Jñāna). Intelligence or thought is not to be predicted of Brahma as its attribute but constitutes its substance." Brahma is absolutely destitute of qualities; whatever qualities or attributes are conceivable can only be denied of it. Nothing exists but one absolutely simple being Brahma. He is associated with certain power called māyā (unreal) or avidyā, (Ignorance, nescience). This power cannot be called "being" for "being" is only Brahma; nor it can be called non-being in the strict sense, for it at any rate produces the appearance of this world. It is in fact a principle of illusion, the indefinable cause owing to which there seems exist a material world comprehending distinct individual existences. Being associated with this principle of illusion Brahma is enabled to project the appearance of the world through māyā, in the same way as a magician is enabled by his incomprehensible magical power to produce illusory appearances of animate and inanimate beings. Māyā (unreality) thus constitute the Upādāna (the material cause) of the world, or if we wish to call attention to the circumstances that Māyā belongs to Brahma as śakti (power) we may say that the material cause of the world is Brahma in so far as it is associated with Māyā (unreality). This latter quality of Brahma is more properly called Iśvara (The Lord)." 7 Māyā under the guidance of the Lord (Iśvara) modifies itself by a progressive evolution into all individual existences and in all those existence the one indivisible Brahma is present, but owing to Māyā it appears to be broken up in to multiplicity of intellectual or sentient principle, the so called jīva, individual or personal souls. What is real in each is only universal Brahma itself. In our ordinary V.R. Gandhi, "The systems of Indian philosophy", 1970, P-74 Ibid, P-74 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #277 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH ..... 261 experience, we see separate soul and distinguish one soul from other, are the offspring of Māyā and as such unreal. In the Uñānakānda (knowledge portion) of Veda, Brahma related to the world, characterized by various attributes, is called īśvara or Lower Brahma; and the Brahma whose nature transcends all qualities and fundamental identity of individual soul within itself, is highest Brahma. Devout meditation on īśvara or lower Brahma does not directly lead to final emancipation. However, the soul enlightened by the study of Veda which teaches ‘Tattvamasi “that art thou” that there is no difference between the true self and the highest self (Brahma), obtains at the moment of death immediate final release, i.e. he withdraws altogether from the influence of Māyā and asserts himself in his true nature which is nothing else but the absolute highest Brahma, as per teaching of Šamkara. According to Upanişads the word Brahma is that from which the origin, subsistence and dissolution of this world proceed." Best known among the Vedānta School are those of Šamkara and Rāmānuja. Samkarācārya says, 'which is always Samarūpa (uniform) is 'satya’. The objects of the universe in this phenomenal world are not always uniform. They undergo constant change and modifications. Therefore, it is an appearance and unreal. The ultimate reality is the Brahman. It is one, uniform and constant. Therefore, it is real; satya or the constantly real for all the time. And that is transcendental reality (Paramārthikasatya). God is only reality, infinite, and universe a finite, unreal, an appearance, as Māyā. From the phenomenal (vyāvahārika) point of view, the phenomenal world is real. But from the transcendental (pāramārthika) point of view, the reality of the phenomenal world is unreal. The appearance of the phenomenal world appears to be real due to ignorance (avidyā). * V.R. Gandhi, “The systems of Indian philosophy P-75 'Ibid, P-77 "saskara Bhāsya on Vedānta-sutra, 1.2 "Devendra Muni Shastri, “A source book in Jaina philosophy”, P-530 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #278 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 262 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" The fundamental principle of Vedānta philosophy is that in reality there exists and their can exist nothing than Brahma, who is material as well as the efficient cause of the universe, of course contradictory in ordinary experience. In India as anywhere else, man imagines at first that he in his individual bodily and spiritual character is something that exists and that all objects of the outer world also exist as objects. Idealistic philosophy swept away this distinction with the Vedantist. Whatever we may seem to be or imagine ourselves to be for a time, we are, according to Vedantist, in truth the eternal Brahma, the eternal self. With this conviction in the background, the Vedantist retains his belief in what he calls the Lord, God, the creator and ruler of the world, but only as phenomenal or as adapted to the human understanding. Samkara says, “Just as a man believes in his personal self so he is sure to believe in a personal God, and such personal God may even be worshipped. But we must remember that what is worshipped is only a person, or as Brahmins (priest class) call it a Pratīka, an aspect of the true eternal essence as conceived by us in our inevitably human and limited knowledge. His (Saṁkara's) belief in the Veda would suffice to prevent the Vedantist from a denial of the gods or from what we call atheism.' The spirit of Śamkara's philosophy as per Swami Prabhavananda", is Brahma- the absolute existence, knowledge, and bliss (saccidānanda), the universe is not real. Brahma and ātman are real. Vedānta philosophy occupies a central position between realism and idealism. Western realism and idealism are both based on a distinction between mind and matter, Indian philosophy puts mind and matter in the same category-both are objects of knowledge. The world according to Šamkara, '4 "is and is not”. Its fundamental unreality can be understood only in relation to the 12 VRG, “The systems of Indian philosophy", P-87-88 Swami Prabhavananda, "Spiritual Heritage of India", 2000, P-283 14 Ibid, P-283 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #279 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH ..... 263 ultimate mystical experience, the experience of an illuminated soul. When the illuminated soul passes into transcendental consciousness, he realizes the self (the ātman) as pure bliss and pure intelligence, the one without a second. In this state of consciousness, all perception of multiplicity ceases, there is no longer any sense of ‘mine' and 'thine'. The world as we ordinarily know it has vanished. The self shines forth as one, the Truth, the Brahman and the basis of the apparent world. The apparent world, as it is experienced in the waking state, may be likened, say Samkara, to an imagined. In Rgveda," wherever the word Māyā occurs it is used only to signify the might or the power. Indra takes many shapes quickly by his Māyā. The Svetāśvatara Upanişad conceives Māyā as the power of the almighty God. The Māyin (God) create all this- the sacred verses, the offerings, the sacrifices, the penance, the past, the future and all that Vedas declare. This God spreads His trap and lords it over the world by means of His divine powers. The world is one great Māyā. This is the conception of Māyā in the Upanişads. How the emanation of the world from Brahma is conceived in Vedānta philosophy is of small interest. It is almost purely mythological and indicates a very low knowledge of physical science. Brahma is not indeed represented any longer as a maker or a creator, as an architect or a potter. Upanişads proposed several similes to explain creation or emanation of the world. One of similes is production of the world from Brahma is that of spider drawing forth and back, threads of the world. Another simile is the change of milk into curds, and curd being nothing but milk only under a different form. This simile violated the postulate that the one being must be unchangeable. So Šamkara offered a new theory. The theory teaches that the Supreme Being remains always unchanged and that our belief that anything else can exist beside it arises from (Avidyā) nescience. Something likes ignorance of a man who mistakes a rope for a snake. In such a Dr. Nathmal Tatia, "Studies in Jaina Philosophy”, PV, 1951, P-115 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #280 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 264 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" case the rope remains all the time what it is, it is only our ignorance, which frightens us and determines our actions? In the same way Brahma always remains the same, it is our ignorance only, which makes us, see a phenomenal world and a phenomenal God. Vedāntists go on to explain that when they hold that the world is Brahma, they do not mean that Brahma is actually transformed into the world, for Brahma cannot change and cannot be transformed. They mean that Brahma present itself as the world or appears to be the world. The world's reality is not its own but Brahma's, yet Brahma is not the material cause of the world, as the spider is of the web or the milk of the curd or the clay of the jar (which is made by potter), but only the substratum, the illusory material cause. There would be no snake without the rope, there would be no world without Brahma, and yet the rope does not become a snake or does Brahma became the world. With the Vedantist the phenomenal and the noumenal are essentially the same. 16 Avidya or ignorance as opined by Dr. Nathmal Tatia' is perversity of vision and attachment to the world. Māyā is the cosmic force that brings forth the world of plurality. If the Māyā conditions the universe, avidyā keeps one attached to it. There is Māyā because there is avidya. With the cessation of avidya, māyā ceases. The existence of a magician and his art depends upon the existence of their dupes. It there is no dupe there is no art of magic. Snake, which proves, after one closer inspection, to be nothing, but a coil of rope. When the truth is known, we are no longer deluded by the appearance, the snake appearance vanishes into reality of the rope, and the world vanishes into Brahman. 17 Samkara constantly draws on the analogy of the magician (māyāvī) as suggested in the Svetasvatara. The magician is a juggler only to those who are deceived by his tricks and who fancy (imagine) that they perceive the objects conjured (as if by magic) up. 16Dr. Nathmal Tatia, "Studies in Jaina Philosophy", P-115 17Dr. Chatterjee & Dr. Datta, "An Introduction to Indian Philosophy", 1984, P-389 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #281 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH ..... 265 But to the discerning few who see through the trick and have no illusion, the jugglers fail to be a juggler. Similarly, those who believe in the world-show think of God through this show and call him its creator, etc. But for those wise few who know that the world is a mere show, there is neither any real world nor any real Creator. God is not really touched by imperfections of the world just as any illusory characters of the snake do not affect the rope, or even as the actor is not affected by the loss and gain of kingdom on the stage. A God who transforms himself into the visible universe is himself subject to transformation and change he cannot be regarded as the absolute reality. A God who creates a world limits himself by the very act of creation, and thus ceases to be infinite. The question "why should God create at all, remains un-answered. This difficulty is overcome, however, if we consider the world as māyā, and this explanation of our universe is, moreover, in perfect accord with the finding of modern science. The Upanişads, it is true, appear to consider Brahman the first cause of the universe, both material and efficient. They declare that the universe emanates from, subsist in, and finally merges in the absolute Brahman. Samkara never directly contradicts the Upanișads, although sometime he appears to interpret them to suit his own view. The universe, he says, is a superimposition upon Brahman. Brahman remains eternally infinite and unchanged. He is not transformed into the universe. He simply appears as this universe to us, in our ignorance (avidyā) we superimpose the apparent world upon Brahman, just as we sometimes superimpose a snake upon a coil of rope. Śaṁkara’s conception of God can be conceived from two different viewpoints. From ordinary practical standpoint (Vyāvahārikadrsti) world is believed (have religious faith) to be real, Dr. Chatterjee & Dr. Datta, “An Introduction to Indian Philosophy”, P-388 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #282 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 266 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" God may be regarded as the cause, the creator, the sustainer, the destroyer and, therefore, also as an Omnipotent and Omniscient being (Sarvajña, sarva= everything jña-knowing) one who knows everything. He (God) then appears as possessed of all these qualities (saguna). In Śamkara's philosophy God is called Saguna Brahman or Isvara and He is the object of worship. The purport of the Vedanta philosophy is: all being is Brahma, nothing can be except Brahma, while all that exist is an illusory, not a real, modification of Brahma and is caused by name and form. When the true knowledge arises everything becomes known as Brahma only. When asked-whence the names and forms and whence the phantasmagoria of unreality, the Vedantist has but one answer, it is simply due to (Avidya) nescience. And, again, the question remain whence this nescience. The Vedantist is satisfied with the conviction that for a time we are as a matter of fact nescient and what he cares for chiefly is to find out, not how that nescience arose but how it can be removed. 19 Svami Bharati Tirtha, a famous Vedāntist says about removing ignorance: "Neglecting the unreal creation consisting of mere name and form, one should meditate on Brahma and should ever practice internal as well as external concentration, fixing one's mind on the thought "I am Brahma" which is described in Vedas as self-existent, eternal, all consciousness and pleasure, self-illumined and unique in itself." 20 (d) Jaina View of God in Comparison with the View of Vedanta According to the Jainas the universe is constituted of two fundamental principles of Jīva (living substances) and ajīva (the non-living substances). In the Vedanta philosophy the universe or the phenomenal world is only an appearance (asatya) while Brahman, the ultimate reality is the only (satya) real. 19VRG, "The systems of Indian philosophy", P-91 20Ibid, P-91 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #283 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH ...... 267 The name given to this Reality is sometimes Brahman (God), sometimes ātman (self), sometimes simply sat (Being). “At first there was the ātman alone,” say Aitareya' and Brhadāranyaka Upanişad?. “All this is ātman,” says Chāndogya.23 “Ātman being known everything is known,” says Brhadāranyaka4. Similarly, “There was only Being (Sat) at the beginning, it was without a second,” says Chāndogya”. Again, “All this is Brahman” say Mundaka.""Brahman and ātman are used synonymously in these different texts. At some places it is referred as “This self is the Brahman”:27 and “I am Brahman.” 28 So the Upanişads moved away from the philosophical concept of Vedic gods to the self of man. The body, the senses, the manas (mind), the intellect (citta) and the pleasures and pains arising out of them are all changing modes, not the permanent essence of self. The real Self (Jiva) is pure consciousness, and is infinite; was concluded in Upanişad. The Real Self is called ātman, as infinite, conscious reality satyam (truth); jñānam (knowledge), anantam (infinite). The self of man is identical with the Self of all beings (sarva-bhūtātmā) and therefore with God or Brahman. Further in Kathopanişad says that, “This Self is concealed in all things, and does not therefore, appear to be there. But it is perceived by the keen sighted with the help of sharp, penetrating intellect."29 Yogindudeva in his discourse said “The ātman, i.e. the Soul, realization of the self as an embodiment of knowledge and as free of Karman after quitting everything external: that is Paramātman. 21 Aitareya Upanişad, 1.1 Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, 1.4.1 2 Chāndogya,7.25.2 2* Brhadāranyaka Upanişad, 4.5.6 Chàndogya Upanişad,6.2.1 2 Mundakopanişad, 2.2.11 2. Brhadāranyaka Upanişad, 2.5.19 28 Ibid, 1.4.10 2 Kathopanisad, 3.12 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #284 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 268 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Thus it is the internal by leaving everything external that becomes the Supreme. 30 Paramātma-prakāśa says, “One that dwells in the temple of body is doubtlessly the same as Paramātman or God or īśvara, the eternal and infinite divinity with his constitution brilliant with omniscience. Though he dwells in the body, there is no mutual identity or connection between him and the body. It is Paramātman that is revealed, giving supreme bliss, to saints who are established in equanimity (samabhāva).31 Like a star in the infinite sky the whole universe is reflected in the omniscience of Paramātman (God) on whom, as an object of meditation, the saint always concentrate their attention in order to obtain liberation. The very Paramātman, when in the grips of various Karmas, that assumes various forms of existence and comes to be endowed with three sexes. The universe is there in the Paramātman, reflected in his omniscience, and he is in the Universe, but he is not (convertible into the form of) the universe. The Paramātman dwells in the body but even today He is not realized by Hari and Hara (Śiva or Brahman) because they are devoid of the highest meditation and austerities.”Paramātman is eternal, untainted by passions and consequent Karman. He is peace, happiness and bliss. He does not leave his nature and get changed into something else. He is Nirañjana, i.e.; untainted, having no colour, no smell, no taste, no sound, no touch, no birth and death. He is not subject to anger, delusion, deceit and pride; nor is there anything like a specific place of object of meditation for him who is all by himself. He is not amenabie to merit and demerit, or to joy or grief. He is an eternal divinity in whose case there is no devotional control of breath, no object of meditation, no mystical diagram, no miraculous spell and 3° Paramātma-prakāśa of Sri Yogindudeva, by Dr. A.N. Upadhye, 1960, P-10 Ibid, ,P-10 32 lbid, P-11 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #285 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH ...... no charmed circle. That eternal Paramātman (God of Jaina) who is subject of pure meditation or contemplation is beyond the comprehension of Vedas, Šāstras, and senses. He is the highest state, dwelling as he is at summit of three worlds, representing unique or absolute vision, knowledge, happiness and power. 33 269 So far as modifications are considered Paramātman is said to be coupled with origination and destruction; but in fact from the realistic point of view He is above them. Really speaking there is no bondage or transmigration for Paramātman; so the ordinary viewpoint (Vyavahāra) should be given up. The supreme characteristic of Paramatman is that his knowledge, like a creeper, stretches as far as the objects of knowledge are there. With reference to him, the karmas fulfill its functions, but the Paramatman neither loses nor gains anything. Though bound by Karmas, he is never transformed into karmas. The highest bliss, which is attained by visualizing Paramātman (Śiva) in course of meditation, is nowhere attained in the world of samsara. Even Indra, who sports in the company of crores of nymphs, does not get that happiness which the saints attains when meditating on their self. The soul, which is free from attachment, when realizing the self-termed as Śiva (Paramātman) and Śānta, attains that infinite happiness realized by great Jinas by visualizing the self. As no figure is reflected in a mirror with soiled surface, so indeed the God, the Paramātman, is never visualized in the mind (hṛdaya) unclean with attitudes of attachment, etc. there can be no place for Brahman, when mind occupied by a fawn-eyed one. The eternal divinity dwells in the clear mind of a Jñanin like a swan on the surface of lake. God is not there in the temple, in the statue, neither in the plaster nor in the painting; but he dwells in equanimities mind as an eternal and stainless embodiment of knowledge. When the mind and Parameśvara (God) has become identical, nay one, where is the question of worship? To concentrate the mind that is running towards pleasure and passions on the Paramātman (Śiva) God free from the 33 Paramātma-prakāśa, P-10, (16-25) For Personal & Private Use Only Page #286 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 270 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” stains of Karman; that is the means of liberation, but not any mystic syllable nor mystic practices. So, Śamkarapostulates Māyā to explain origination of cosmic illusion while Avidyā (nescience) the individual. However freedom is the goal. But this freedom is only through knowledge (Jñānāt-eva-tu-kaivalyam)," without knowledge there is no emancipation (Řte-Jñānānnamuktih). The purpose of man (is effected) through the mere knowledge of Brahman thus Bādarāyaṇa opines. He, who knows the self, overcomes grief. He, who knows that highest Brahman, becomes even Brahman. He, who knows Brahman, attains the highest state. Mokșa is the absence of the false knowledge says Padmapāda. The Jaina term for Avidyā is Mithyātva. Mithyātva (perversity) and Mithyā-darśana (perverted view) lie at the root of all evil, and whatever misery there is in the life of a soul is ultimately due to it. It is the darkest period of a soul's life when there is unhindered working of this Mithyātva. The soul (ātman) gropes in the darkness formulates wrong views about the truth and treads upon many paths, none leading to the region of light. Mithyātva has no beginning in time and it is there from all eternity. The existence of self or ātman is an ultimate fact and existence of delusion coeval with it equally an ultimate fact to which no question of origination can be relevant. The Jaina philosophers have accepted mithyātva as beginning lesson basis of uncontradicted experience and also because no beginning can be postulated without self-contradiction. In course of time, the soul attains purification, and samyak-darśana (right attitude) dawns upon it, which is a kind of purified state of consciousness that enables the soul to realize and comprehend the things as they are. Samyak-jñāna (right knowledge) presupposes 34 Paramātma-prakāśa of Sri Yogindudeva, by Dr. A.N. Upadhye, 1960, P-14, (109-123) 3Dr. Ramjee Singh, “Jaina Perspective in philosophy and Religion”, 1993, P-89 & 90, Malkani G.R., Vedantic Epistemology, P.3 and Rgveda also, Brahmasūtra Šāṁkara Bhāsya, III, IV.1, Chāndogya Upanişad, III.1 and Mundaka Upanişad, III.2.9 "Dr. Ramjee Singh, Ibid, Malkani, G.R., Vedantic Epistemology, P-3 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #287 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH ...... 271 samyak-darśana (right attitude) and similarly, samyak-cāritra (right conduct) presupposes samyak-darśana (right attitude) and Samyak-jñāna (right knowledge). And these three viz. right attitude, right knowledge and right conduct constitute the pathway to emancipation, to Paramātmā hood or attainment of true real nature of soul that is Paramātmā, God or īśvara.” Dr. Ramjee Singh opines, here we find almost no distinction between Jainism and Vedānta. (e) The Brahman of Upanişad and Jaina's Paramātmā Brahman is conceived as a pure being absolute, infinite, immutable and eternal from whom everything else derives its reality. Thus Brahman in turn is ātman, infinite, ageless and eternal.** The word Brahman in the Upanişads is conceived as the absolute, one without a second. Jaina Ācārya Yogindudeva freely borrows that word and repeatedly uses it in his work. Even Samantabhadra, a strong propagandist of Jainism, uses the word Brahman in its generalized sense, viz., the highest principle, when says: “ahiṁsābhūtānāmjagatividitam brahma paramam." In Upanișads the word Paramātman does not occursas much frequently as the word Brahman, though both are taken as synonyms in text like Nșsimhottaratapani.40 In Indian philosophical text identity of words may not necessarily imply the identity of their sense-content. Brahman and Paramātman are used as synonyms, because they represent the concept of an ultimate reality. According to Jainism, Paramātman is a super-spirit representing the ultimate point of spiritual evolution of ātman by gradual destruction of karman through penance, etc. Each ātman * Dr. Ramjee Singh, “Jaina Perspective in philosophy and Religion",P-91 * Paramātma-prakāśa of Sri Yogindudeva, Ed. by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, 1960, P-33 Brhat-svayṁbhū-stotra, 119 40G.A. Jacob, Upanişad-vākyakośa under paramātman. For Personal & Private Use Only Page #288 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 272 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” becomes a Paramātman and retains his individuality. The Upanișadic Brahman is a cosmic principle, which idea is not associated with the Jaina conception of Paramātman. Brahman is one and only one according to Upanişads. Yogindudeva however, speaks of many Brahmans, i.e.; Paramātmans, which represent a particular type and therefore should not be distinguished from each other." According to Jainas Paramātman has nothing to do with the world beyond that he knows and see it, because it is his nature to see and to know; while Brahman according to the Uapnişads is very source and support everything else. Though many attributes are common between Upanișadic Brahman and Jaina Paramātman yet their implications often differ. 42 The word Svayambhū, for instance, means self-created and self-existent, in the case of Brahman, but in the case of Paramātman it means self-become i.e.; ātman has become Paramātman. In Jainism ātman is Paramātman, and Paramātman was called ātman because of karmic limitations. It is by realizing this essential likeness of all the ātmans that Jainism has faithfully stood as a champion of ahiṁsā, harmlessness, and universal compassion in thought, word and deed. This super-ātman enjoys ideal isolation, and he has nothing to do with creation, protection and destruction of world and He is God or Paramātmā of Jainas. On the other hand Brahman-theory starts with Brahman as a great presence out of which everything comes into which everything is drawn back like threads in the spider's constitution. The individual souls are merely infinite chips of the infinite block of the great Brahman. To summaries comparison according to Yogindudeva, in Jainism both spirit and matter are equally real; the numbers of souls 4. Paramātma-prakasa, P-34 42 Ibid For Personal & Private Use Only Page #289 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH are infinite; and each soul retains its individuality even in immortality. In Upanisad there is nothing real besides ātman, which is conceived as an impersonal pervasion identical with Brahman, the cosmic substratum. The atman in Jainism is not miniature of any universal soul as in Upanisads. In the Upanisad and Bhagavadgītā karma stands for good and bad act, while in Jainism it is subtle type matter which inflows into the soul and determines its career in the round-of-births. According to Jainism soul and God are identical or every soul is God. World is eternal without being created by anybody. But in Vedanta the soul, the world and the God are all in one, the Brahman. 273 Samkhya and Jainism pre-eminently stand for atman-theory, while the Vedic religion stands for Brahman-theory. Upanisads bring these two together and achieve the unity of atman and Brahman, a triumph of monism in the history of Indian religious thought. Yogindudeva's comment that Upanisadic Brahman has a monistic and pantheistic grandeur which we miss in Jaina conception of Paramātman, is not exactly so. The Jaina's scripture declare that Tirthankara, who are free from eighteen shortcomings, have attained liberation in their bodies, are God with body, and when body is discarded, he attains position of a Siddha (perfect one), at liberation to be God or Isvara or Paramātmā. VII.3. (ii) Jaina View of God Compared with the Buddhism Gautama belonged to the Sakya tribe and therefore is called Śākyamuni; and when he had proclaimed and preached a reformed religion he was called Buddha or awakened or enlightened. Gautama explained to his disciples his new tenets: "The man who has given up the world ought not to follow- the habitual practice, on the one hand, of those things whose attraction depends upon the passion, especially of sensuality, a low and pagan way, unworthy, unprofitable and fit only for the worldly-minded; on the other hand, of asceticism which is painful, unworthy, and For Personal & Private Use Only Page #290 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 274 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” unprofitable. There is a middle path, avoiding these two extremes, discovered by the Tathāgata Buddha, a path which opens eyes and bestows understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirvāņa (Mokşa), liberation. ** The first noble truth of Buddhism is that clinging to existence is misery. The second noble truth is the cause of misery. In Gautama's words “Thirst leads to rebirth accompanied by pleasure and lust, thirst for pleasure, thirst for existence, and thirst for prosperity.” And the third noble truth is the cessation of thirst - a cessation that consists in the absence of every passion- with the complete destruction of desire. The fourth noble truth is of the path, which leads to the cessation of sufferings. The holy eightfold path is right belief, right aspiration, right speech, right conduct, right means of livelihood, right exertion, right mindfulness, and right meditation. The substance of the teaching is that without entering into any discussions into the origin and destiny of men, one should lead a holy moral life and that will lead him to summon bonum. It was generally believed that Nirvāṇa meant final extinction and death, and Prof. Max Muller was the first to point out, what most scholars now accepted that Nirvāṇa does not mean death but only the extinction of the sinful condition of mind, that thirst for life and its pleasure, which brings on new births. Nirvāṇa was not applied to any state after death, it was a term applied to a certain state of life here. What Gautama meant by Nirvāṇa is something attainable in this life, it is the sinless calm state of mind, the freedom from desires and passions, the perfect peace, goodness and wisdom which continuous self-culture can procure for man Rhys Davids opinioned “The Buddhist heaven is not death but it is on virtuous life here and now that the Pitakas lavish those 4SV.R. Gandhi, “The systems of Indian Philosophy", P-98 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #291 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH ...... 275 terms of ecstatic description which they apply to Arhat-ship as the goal of the excellent way and to Nirvāṇa as one aspect of it.”** Buddhism in its original form does not concern itself with the problem of God. The Buddha's anti-theistic arguments are summarized by Aśvaghoșa.“ If the world has been made by Isvara, there should be no change or destruction no such thing as sorrow and calamity, right or wrong; if he is the maker, the world should obey him; if he acts with a purpose; he should not be called perfect; and if he acts without a purpose, he should be called either a lunatic or a baby. 46 According to the later Vaibhāșikas, God is unreal. If things were his creation they would come into being at once. But in reality the effect comes into being following an evolutionary process. From the seed grows the sprout. From the sprout the leaves, after leaves grows the stem and branches, then appears the flower and then fruits. Again, God cannot be described as creator since the effect is conditioned by space and time. In Mahāyāna, Nāgārjuna denies the possibility of the world being created by God. Šāntideva in his Bodhicaryāvatāra" refuses to admit any omniscient and omnipotent God as creator and his polemics are directed against the theism of the later Nyāya-Vaiseșikas. Mr. G.R. Meads tried to save Buddhism from charged of propounding a theory of annihilation and quotes a passage by Col. Olcott sanctioned by the High Priest of Ceylon, that although soul according to Buddhism is impermanent and changeable, still there is in man the permanent part called spirit. He says “Buddhism does not deny imperishable nature of an ultimate spiritual reality in man, of a true transcendental subject, of an immoral changeless self. 8” Mr. V. R. Gandhi commented on this that self or transcendental subject has been known in all Indian philosophy by the name ātmā or Brahma. 44 VRG, “The systems of Indian Philosophy", P-114 - Buddhacarita, XVI.18 and Jain philosophy, Historical out line, P-119 40 Jain philosophy, Historical out line, P-119 47 Ibid 48 Ibid, P-115 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #292 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 276 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" With reference to Brahma, Gautama has distinctly said in Tevijjāsutta that the talk of the Brahmins about that Brahma is a foolish talk and that there existed no such state as Brahma". 49 With the reference to ātman, Gautama said that it is heresy to say that there is any such thing as ātman. Soul and spirit, ātman and Brahman, are all identical in Indian philosophies and attempt to put into the mouth of Gautama views which he never maintained is a fruitless attempt. But the theory of transmigration was not the only theory, which Gautama accepted from the ancient religion and adopted in modified form into his own religion. The whole of the Hindu pantheon of the day was accepted with modification to suit his cardinal idea. The innumerable gods of Rgveda were recognized but they were not supreme. Brahma the supreme deity of the Upanisads was recognized but was not supreme. Holy life alone was supreme, and in preaching that doctrine Buddha did an immense good; he raised goodness attainable by man above the gods and nature-powers of Brahmins. The Buddhist believe in a God similar to that of the Jains but they believe in his incarnation in the world. The followers of Buddhism believe in God who is the preacher of their four eternal truths viz., existence of sorrow or misery, cause of suffering, cessation of sorrow and the path that lead to that cessation, and who incarnates himself in the world whenever his teaching is neglected. Buddhist considers Buddha to be their God. VII. 3. (iii) Jaina View of God Compared with the Sāṁkhya Philosophy Samkhya admits two ultimate realities namely, Purușa and Prakṛti which are independent of each other in respect of their existence. 49 Jain philosophy, Historical out line, P-117 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #293 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH 50 Kapila's theory is strictly a theory of evolution. He says: A thing is not made out of nothing." It is not possible that out of nothing, i.e. out of a non-entity a thing should be made, i.e. an entity should arise. If an entity were to arise out of a non-entity, then since the character of a cause is visible in its product, the world also will be unreal. When the Vedantist- the monist or the idealist- tells 51 Kapila, let the world to be unreal, what harm is that to us? Kapila replies: the world is not unreal because there is no fact contradictory to its reality and because it is not the false result of depraved cause (leading to a belief in what ought not to be believed).32 52 277 Again he says (Kapila): the production of that which does not already exist potentially is impossible like the horn of a man." 53 Samkhya philosophy, in short according to its doctrine, Prakṛti and Purușa are enough in themselves to account for the whole of the phenomenon of the universe; and the idea of creation or is looked upon by the Samkhya as a mere redundant phantom of philosophy.4 54 Purușa, the soul, itself is neither the producer nor the produced. Whence is the human body created according to his philosophy? Kapila says that out of the remaining twenty-three principles a pair of bodies, gross body and subtle body originates." In fact twenty three principles act as the seed out of which the body is produced and the fact that the soul becomes conditioned by the 23 principles is the cause of its going from one body to another- in fact the cause of all mundane existence, and this mundane existence continues for the each soul so long as it does not discriminate the difference between soul and Prakṛti. 50 Samkhya-sutra, 1.78 51 Aniruddha's Commentary on Samkhya-sutra, 1.78 52 Samkhya-sutra, 1.79 53 Samkhya-sutra, 1.114; Samkhya-kārikā, 9 54 Samkhya-sutra, 1.92 55 Vijñānabhikṣu's Commentary on Samkhya-Sūtra, 3.2 For Personal & Private Use Only 55 Page #294 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 278 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" In the beginning of the creation there was but one subtle body, which consisted of the collection of seventeen elements. But through the diversity of actions later on the one subtle body became differentiated into many. The subtle body does not exist independently. It has its tabernacle- the gross body for residing therein. As a shadow or a picture does not stand without a support, so the subtle body at death leaves one gross body and passed into another. It cannot in fact exist independently because its essence is pure light and all Luminas is either is seen only as associated with earthy substance. The gross body is a composition of the five gross elements? 56 According to Sāmkhya, the soul on liberation does not merge into the Universal Spirit or into the Absolute, for in Sāṁkhya system there is no such thing as the Supreme Spirit or the Absolute. Sāmkhya does not propound such a theory as the final object but on the contrary he refutes it. It (Sāṁkhya) thinks by merging into primordial original essence, the Prakrti, the soul will have to rise again, and pass through different mundane existences. It is only when the right discrimination of soul and non-soul takes place that there will be the final emancipation of the soul. According to Sāṁkhya, similar to Jaina theism, God as an eternal and immutable self cannot be the cause of the world. God cannot guide or control Praksti. To create the world or control Prakrti cannot be the end of Gods own, because perfect being cannot have any unfulfilled desires and unattained ends. The belief in God is inconsistent with the distinctive reality and immortality of individual selves. Perception and inference do not prove God. The Prakrti, the primordial matter from which the universe is evolved in a regular course, is moved by the laws of motion inherent within. It transforms itself into the world. Hence, it is redundant to admit the existence of God. The 56 Samkhya-Sūtra, 3.17 Ibid, 5.2-12, Sankhyakārikā,57 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #295 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH ...... 279 assumption of God is thus ontologically irrelevant and logically repulsive because it is unproved." According to Dr. S. Radhakrishnan”Sāṁkhya is silent about the existence of God, though certain about its theoretical indemonstrability. Vaiseșika and Yoga philosophies of Indian orthodox system, while they admit a supreme being, do not consider him to be the creator of the universe, and Jaimini refers to God only to deny his providence and moral government of the world. With regards to the problem of God, we find that the main tendency of the Sāṁkhya is to do away with the theistic belief. According to it, the existence of God cannot be proved in any way. We need not admit God to explain the world, for Prakrti is the adequate cause of the world as a whole. God as external and unchanging spirit cannot be the creator of the world; for to produce an effect the cause must change and transform itself into effect. Some Sāṁkhya commentators and writers, however, try to show that the system admits the existence of God as supreme person who is the witness but not the creator of the world. The Sāṁkhya philosophy in a large measure supports the theory of the nature working under the fixed laws without any interference on the part of an extra-cosmic being. The Universal salvation theory of Sāṁkhya is that it does not restrict the liberation only to the few followers of his philosophy but to others also. VII. 3 (iv) Jaina View of God Compared with the Yoga System The Yoga system is one of six orthodox, theistic systems of Indian philosophy. It is closely allied to the Sāṁkhya. It mostly accepts the epistemology and metaphysics of the Sāṁkhya with its twenty-five principles. Dr. N.N. Bhattacharya, “Jain philosophy, Historical outline”, P-211 Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, “Indian Philosophy", Vol.- I, 1997, P-27 Chatterjee & Datta, An Introduction to Indian Philosophy”, P-42 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #296 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 280 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" The Yoga philosophy subscribes to Sāmkhya theory in Toto. It however appears to hold that Purușa or soul by himself cannot easily acquire that sāttvika development which leads to knowledge and bliss. A particular kind of Īśvara or Supreme God is therefore added for the purpose of contemplation etc. to the twenty-five categories of the Sāṁkhya. This circumstance has obtained for Yoga the name of Seśvara Sāṁkhya or theistic Sāṁkhya as the Sāṁkhya proper is called Nirīśvara Sāṁkhya or atheistic Sāṁkhya. Sāṁkhya proposes highly practical rules acquiring Samādhi leading to Kaivalya. Yoga and Samādhi are convertible terms, meaning Cittavịtti-nirodha or suspension of the transformations of the thinking principle. The Sāmkhya affirms that existence of an eternal God cannot be established by proof. The eternal existence of the Puruşa is inconsistent with the infinity and creatorship of God. Praksti evolves into the world by coming into relation with puruṣa, but the Sāṁkhya does not clearly and categorically explain how this relationship is brought about. The Yoga school says that this brought about by the agency of God. The concept of God is thus an extraneous graft on the Yoga system. The Yoga, although, included in the six systems of Indian philosophy, an orthodox classification is has nothing to do with the philosophical speculation.o2 The Yoga is essentially consisting of ancient practices and not any specific philosophy. The practices, which are considered belongs to primitive times in the ecstatic rites and magical practices of the prehistoric people for acquiring supernatural powers through the most strenuous methods, and this primitive heritance was molded in religious doctrines and philosophical conceptions. The Yoga system is called the theistic (seśvara) Sāṁkhya as distinguished from Kapila Sāṁkhya, which is generally regarded as atheistic (nirīśvara). It holds that God is the perfect being who is 61 Yogsūtra, 1.1 62Dr. N.N. Bhattacharya, “Jain philosophy, Historical outline”, P-211 & 212 63 Ibid, P-212 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #297 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH ...... 281 eternal, all pervading, omniscient and completely free from all defects. The Yoga argues for existence of God on following grounds:04 1. Whatever has degree must a maximum. 2. There are degrees of knowledge; therefore, there must be such a thing as perfect knowledge or omniscience. 3. He who has omniscience is God. Yoga means spiritual action and Sāṁkhya means knowledge. Sāṁkhya is theory; Yoga is practice. For all practical purposes Sāṁkhya and Yoga may be treated as theoretical and practical sides of the same system. The mind being as it were annihilated Puruşa; the soul- alone shine in native bliss. This is called Kaivalya (final emancipation). This is the summum bonum, the end and aim of philosophy. Between this end and the first stage of mental suppression there are several stages. The author of Yoga aphorisms mentioned eight stages; 1) Yama or restraints, 2) Niyama or culture, 3) Āsana or posture, 4) Prāņāyāma or breath control, 5) Pratyāhāra or withdrawal of the senses, 6) Dharaṇā or attention, 7) Dhyāna or meditation and 8) and Samādhi or concentration. This leads us to the practical part of Yoga.“ VII. 3 (v) Jaina View of God Compared with the Nyāya Vaisesika System a) The Nyāya System The Nyāya system is the work of the great sage Gautama. It is a realistic philosophy based on logical ground. • Existence of God is proved by Naiyāyikas by several arguments. 64 Jain philosophy, Historical out line, P-212 Yoga-sūtra, 2.29 "Dr. Chatterjee & Datta, “An Introduction to Indian Philosophy”, P-35,36 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #298 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 282 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" God is the ultimate cause of the creation, maintenance and destruction of the world. He did not create world out of nothing, but out of eternal atoms, space, time, ether mind, and souls. This world has been created in order that individual's souls (Jiva) might enjoy pleasure or suffer pain according to the merit or demerit of their actions in other worlds. • The most popular argument for God's existence is "All things of the world like mountain and sea, the sun and the moon, are effects, because they are made up of parts. Therefore they must have a maker (Kartā). The creator of the world must be an intelligent spirit with unlimited power and wisdom, and capable of maintaining the moral order of the universe. • God created the world not for any end of His own, but for the good of all living beings. This however, does not mean that there must be only happiness and no misery in the world. But under loving care and wise guidance of the Divine being, all individuals can sooner or later attain right knowledge about themselves and the world, and thereby final release from all sufferings (mukti). b) The Vaiseṣika System. The Vaiseṣika system was founded by sage Kaṇāda also named as Ulūka. It is allied to the Nyaya system and has same end view, namely the liberation of individual self. The supreme soul or God is inferred as the creator of the world of effects. God creates the world out of eternal atoms. The composition and decomposition of atoms explain the origin and destruction of the composite objects of the world. But the atoms cannot move and act by themselves. The ultimate source of their actions is to be found in the will of God, who directs their operations according to the law of Karma. The atoms are made to compose a For Personal & Private Use Only Page #299 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH world that befits the unseen moral deserts (adṛṣṭa) of individual souls and serves the purpose of moral dispensation. This is the atomic theory of the Vaiseṣikas. It is rather teleological than mechanistic and materialistic like other atomic theories.67 With regard to God and liberation of the individual soul, the Vaiseṣika theory is substantially the same as that of the Nyāya. VII. 3. (vi) Jaina View of God Compared with the Mimāṁsā System 283 The Mimāmsā (Pūrva-mīmāṁsā) school is founded by Jaimini. Its primary object is to defend and justify Vedic ritualism. In course of this attempt it had to find a philosophy supporting the world-view on which ritualism depends. The authority of Vedas is the basis of ritualism, and the Mīmāmsā formulates the theory that the Vedas are not the works of any person and are, therefore, free from errors the human authors commit. 68 The aim of the Mīmāmsā philosophers was to revive, the undifferentiated pre-class collective life and efficacy of primitive magical beliefs and rituals, and hence their philosophy was developed to justify beliefs on which ritual depended. This is the reason Mīmāṁsā insisted on truthfulness and reliability of Veda's knowledge. Few scholars think that the original purpose of the Mīmāṁsā as well as Jainism and Buddhism was to revive the primitive ways of the life in the society at that time. Jainism and Buddhism, however, condemned the corrupt practices of the advanced and sophisticated sacrificial cults and rituals, but the Mīmāṁsakas attempted to revive their original form taught in Vedas. According to Dr. N. N. Bhattacharya" unfortunately most of the modern scholars like Max Muller, Keith and Radhakrishnan have missed this point, as a result of which they have been baffled with the inherent puzzles of the 67Dr. Chatterjee & Datta, "An Introduction to Indian Philosophy", P-37 68 Ibid, P-45 69 "Dr. Bhattacharya, "Jain philosophy, Historical outline", P-214 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #300 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 284 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” Mīmāṁsā doctrine. Mīmāṁsakas felt no necessity for admitting the existence of God. Some Mīmāṁsakas believe like the Vaišeșikas in the atomic theory. But the difference is that according to the Mīmāṁsā atom do not require, for their arrangement in the world, an efficient cause like God. The autonomous law of karma independently regulates the atoms. There is neither creation nor total destruction. The world is eternally there. The Mīmāṁsā view is unique in Indian philosophy. The early Mīmāṁsakas are silent about God and later ones reject the proofs of God. According to the Mīmāṁsakas, perception inference and scriptures do not prove God. God cannot act as the supervisor of dharma and dharma since He cannot have any knowledge of them. The universe having neither any beginning nor end and does not require any creator. Of course, Brāhmanic scholars and thinkers puzzled from the stand taken by Mimāṁsakas on the problem of God; and even modern day scholars labeled Mīmāṁsakas as atheist. They held the understanding that spirituality and divinity is the God, and God does not need to create the world. Jainism and Buddhism believe in God who needs not to create anything. So, the Mīmāṁsakas, belonging to orthodox or theistic group of philosophy, answered to the question of God that they are concerned only with the rituals of Vedas to be performed according to proper rules which contain eternal truth and not with any other motive or speculation concerning God. In the primitive magical basis of the Vedic ritual, there is no room for a supreme being, an omniscient and omnipotent God. It rests on the notion that by creating an illusion of the reality you can control the reality. By performing rituals, mainly in the form of the act of miming, nature can be so influenced as it could serve your purpose. No supernatural intervention is needed. Šābara who wrote major commentary on Jaimini-sūtra of Mīmāṁsā argues for rejection of God is simply that there is no evidence of His existence. Sense perception does not reveal God. For Personal & Private Use Only Page #301 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH ...... 285 Both Kumārila and Prabhākara, commentators, argue that the conception of God is ontologically irrelevant and logically repulsive. Kumārila made a delightful fun of theistic position of all philosophical speculations of all school's position. A disembodied soul cannot create anything. So God needs to have a body, which will be supplied by another God whose body will again supplied by another, so on ad infinitum. What can be the purpose of an omnipotent and all merciful God creating such a world full of pain and misery? The target of Mīmāṁsaka attack, like that of the Jains, was the speculative conception of the Nyāya-Vaišeșikas. Kumārila also attacked Vedānta against their conception of creation that if the world is produced from Brahman who is free from all defects, then the world should also be defect less, but it is not so. Likewise māyā or avidyā cannot be at the root of creation because there was no entity other than Brahman on the eve of creation. This cannot be said that Brahman, the only reality, has induced the unreal dream like māyā to create.70 Dr. N.N. Bhattacharya attached atheism to Mīmāṁsakas and also to Jainism. However, Max Muller''raised doubts on atheism of Mīmāṁsakas. Bearing in mind that all schools of Mīmāṁsaka claim to follow Vedas most faithfully, and hence he finds it difficult to believe that it could reject the Vedic belief in God. The argument adduced by the Mīmāṁsakas against conception of a creator of the universe mean, according to Max Muller, that if God were supposed to be creator, He would be liable to the charge of cruelty, partiality etc. but the rejection of a creator-God, he contents, is not necessarily the rejection of God. Even some forms of pantheism like those of the Advaita Vedānta and Spinoza, Max Muller contends, do not accept the reality of creation, and it is unfair to call them atheistic, just because they do not confirm to the customary conception of God. Similarly it is refuted here in connoting atheism to Jainism, most consistently, by scholars and philosophers, when Jaina believes "Dr. Bhattacharya, “Jain philosophy, Historical outline", P-215 "Chatterjee & Datta, "An Introduction to Indian Philosophy”, P-341 & 342 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #302 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 286 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" in God but do not bestow on Him creatorship, a speculative attribute. Muni Nyāyavijayaji, a Jaina Ācārya, reasoned Jainism is not only a theistic but also a monistic philosophy." The distinctions in philosophies can be ultimately traced to distinctions in methods of speculations, adopted by the different schools. Solutions of philosophical problems, like: What is the ultimate cause of the world? Does God exist? What is the nature of God? It cannot be obtained by observation. The early Mīmāṁsakas are silent about God and later ones reject the proof of God. According to them perception, inference and scriptures do not prove God, and universe having neither beginning nor end does not require any creator. Sāṁkhya do not believe in God as the creator of the world, but they believe in the authoritativeness of the Vedas. According to them, the assumption of God is ontologically irrelevant and logically repulsive. The Yoga system, one of orthodox Indian philosophy, is essentially consisting of ancient rites and magical practices and is not any specific philosophy. The concept of God is an extraneous graft on it. God had originally no place in the Nyāyasūtra and in the Vaiseșika-sūtra of Kaņāda. The Nyāya and Vaiseșika believe in God who is one, omnipresent, eternal and everlasting abode of wisdom, omniscient, the dispenser of the fruits of the good and bad actions of beings and who consigns them to hell and heaven. Though Sāṁkhya, Yoga, Nyāya and Vaišeșika based their theories on ordinary human experience and reasoning, they did Muni Shri Nyāyavijayaji, “Jaina philosophy and religion", 1998, P-32 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #303 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF GOD COMPARED WITH ...... 287 not challenge the authority of Vedas, but tried to show that testimony of the Vedas was quite in harmony with their rationally established theories. It is only in the Yoga and Vedānta, besides the NyāyaVaišeșika the God is formally acknowledged as creator of the universe, etc. The ancient Sāṁkhya scripture does not believe in God. The trace of God can be inferred from the work of the post Sāṁkhyayist Vijñānbhikṣu. Buddhist believe in God, similar to Jaina, and consider Buddha to be their God; and also believe in his incarnation in the world. In the Vedas, God is said to be omnipresent by his body. “His eyes all over the universe, His faces everywhere, His arms are outstretched all over the world, He is the beginning of the whole world,” This quotation from the Vedas shows that God pervades the universe in his material body. Jainas believe that God, Arhat or Tīrthankara lived in material body are Omnipresent and Omniscient by reason of their knowledge. Philosophies having belief in creatorship of God and also who maintain and destroy the universe are constructed or named by philosophers and scholars as theism. Atheism means (a=not) not believing in God. In colloquial languages it means Nāstika, such as Cārvāka philosophy, which has nothing to do with God, soul or karma. Sāṁkhya, Buddhism and Jainism believe in God and not necessarily affix creatorship attributes to Him, are not atheistic philosophies. And, hence scholars and philosophers connoting atheism against the names of the Jainism and Buddhism and Sāmkhya, are strongly refuted. On the basis of the above discussions elaborated here, it can be concluded that Jainism is not atheism, but theism. *** For Personal & Private Use Only Page #304 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CHAPTER - VII-4 JAINA VIEW OF MOKŞA (LIBERATION) COMPARED WITH VEDANTA AND OTHER PHILOSOPHIES The concept of Mokșa (liberation) is perhaps the biggest idea in man's quest for happiness. The science of Moksa is an experimental science of mental power.' The history of human existence is a history of endless effort to eliminate sorrow and attains happiness. Death alone is the full stop to our sufferings. But if this idea of death is accepted, it would mean a tragic blow to the sense of human adventure, freedom and effort and persuasion of immorality accompanied by joy. And this state of eternal joy bereft of all suffering is regarded as Mokṣa or liberation.” The philosophical speculation of both modern and old, are rooted in curiosity and curiosity results in misery, birth, old age, disease and death have to be overcome for the sake of realization. (This is possible through the arousal of metaphysical curiosity). The Indian philosophy does not merely aims at the achievement of the knowledge of the reality, but it has a dual purpose of knowledge and virtue. The main purpose of philosophy in India is to free oneself from the misery of this life. Western thought or philosophy's aim is purely academic while Indian philosophy aims at self-realization and realization of truth in life.” Mukti or Mokṣa of soul, in Indian thought, is due to recognition of self; whereas Western philosophy is quite unaware of a philosophy of the self, which is the requisite of any philosophical adventure." It is the spiritual basis of ethical life. The genesis of the idea of Moksa is traced in “The endeavor of man to find out ways Dr. Ramjee Singh, “Jaina perspective in philosophy and religion”, 1993, P131, Dārśanika Triamāsika July 1955, article on Mokşa-Darsana, P-63 ?Ibid, P-131 Devendra Muni Shastri, “A source book in Jaina philosophy”, 1983, P-220 *Udyotakara, Nyāya-vārttika, P-366 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #305 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF MOKSA COMPARED WITH..... 289 and means by which he could become happy or at least be free from miseryos, as in the state of ‘sound sleep." Some schools of philosophies make a distinction between ātman and Paramātmā, some consider them to be identical and some consider distinction and identity to be equally real. Furthermore, some philosophies have considered the ātman to be all pervading and some have made ātman to be atomic, some have accepted plurality of ātman and while others consider it to be one. However, almost all the philosophies except Cārvāka, have accepted to primacy of the concept of the ātman in one form or other and have developed its own concept of Mokșa. All schools of Indian philosophy unanimously accept concept of self and therefore belief in Mokșa as the highest goal of life' but differ with regard to the nature of Mokșa and the mean for its realization. Mokșa is the highest ideal of Indian philosophy, and dharma is the means of achieving the supreme end. In Indian philosophy the concept of Moksa may be considered from four different points of view; viz., Vedic, Jaina, Buddhist and Cārvāka. Each of Indian school of philosophies is having different presentation of the nature of self, so are their differences regarding their speculation on the nature of Mokșa. Upanişads and Brahma-sūtra also differ regarding the nature of Mokșa. The Pūrva-mimāṁsā, one of the six philosophical systems of India, does not speak of Mokṣa or release, but rather teaches the work and sacrifices as a means of reaching heaven and realizing the enjoyments thereof. Though this philosophy does not directly Ramchandran N, “Concept of Mukti in Indian philosophy”, proceedings of Indian Philosophical Congress, 1944, P-243 "Shamashastri R. (Dr.) “The concept of Mukti in Indian philosophy”, Jha commemoration volume, P-357 MundakaUpanisad, 1.1.6; Vaiseşika-sūtra 7.1.22 Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, 5.6.1, Chandogya-upanisad. 5.18.1 'Haribhadra: Yogadrsti-sammuccaya, P- 129-130 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #306 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 290 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” specify Moksa as the goal of its striving, indirectly it does. If, however, we take Pūrva and Uttara-Mīmāṁsā as forming on system of thought, then we may declare that without exception, Indian philosophers set forth Moksa as ultimate goal and affirm that it may be attained in this life. Mīmāṁsakas, like the Nyāya-Vaiseșikas, regard the soul as eternal, consciousness as its adventitious attribute dependent upon its relation to the body. Since Mimāṁsakas School belongs to the ritualistic period of the Vedic culture, the final destination of an individual soul is regarded as the attainment of heaven (svarga). But later on, the idea of heaven is replaced by the idea liberation, because the concept of heaven was indeed a state of unalloyed bliss (at least temporary), whereas, the state of liberation is free from pleasure and pain. 10 Nyāya-vaiseșika considers ātman to be ultimate and eternal substance and not one; that they believe in plurality of ātmans. In the highest state of Mokșa, self-ātman does not have any experience or consciousness; it is pure sattā (reality)." It does not experience pure consciousness or pure bliss because the accidental quality of consciousness of soul is absent. So Nyāva-Vaisesika says that the highest state of Moksa is absolute freedom from misery and there is no possibility of the recurrence of misery in any form. In the state of Mokşa, the nine attributes of soul, like intellect, happiness, misery, desire, hatred, will, punya (merit) and pāpa (demerit) do not exist. That is in the state of Moksa the Nyāyavaiseșika lays emphasis on the absolute cessation of misery and its causes and cessation of happiness also." In Nyāya, school, consciousness has not been regarded as an essential inseparable attribute of the soul. Consciousness arises, when it is related to the mind, which in turn is related to the senses, and the senses related to the external objects. So in the disembodied 1° Mānameyodaya, V.20 “Brhadāranyaka Up., 5.6.1; Chāndogya Up. 5.18.1 - Vaišesika-sūtra, 5.2.18 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #307 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF MOKŞA COMPARED WITH..... 291 condition, self will be devoid of consciousness, and freedom from pain." So long as the soul is related to the body, pain is inevitable. Thus the state of freedom is like the state of deep dreamless sleep devoid of consciousness, 4 pleasure and pain together so absolute cessation of suffering mean cessation of pleasure too. To escape from this dilemma, faced by Nyāya thinkers, opposite thesis was evolved by other Naiyāyikas that freedom is bliss" instead of a state of painless, passionless, unconscious existence. Like Nyāya, according to Vaišeșikas self-cognizes things when it is connected with the body; so when the soul is free from body, the liberation (Mokşa) is possible. According to Sāṁkhya-yoga school, consciousness is the essence of Purușa. The Bandha (bondage) and Mokșa (the selfrealization) are due to state of Praksti. Purusa in its real nature is unaffected by the evolutes of Prakrti. But due to nescience (avidyā) Purușa falsely identifies itself with the evolutes of Prakrti. Just as bird flying in the air is reflected in the water of the pond below, so also the state of Bandha and Mokșa are reflected in the Puruşa. But with the awakening of real knowledge and realization that Purusa is different from Praksti, ignorance is destroyed and self becomes free from the bondage (Bandha) and reaches the Moksa state. The Sāṁkhya-yoga concept of the nature of Purușa is similar to the Vedāntic conception of the ātman, the Jaina conception of jīva and the monad of Leibnitz. Kapila does not elaborately discuss nature of Mokșa. Like Buddha, he also says that this world is full of misery and the main object is to free from misery. However, later Sāmkhya philosophers have given description of the nature of Mokșa and it is also described as kaivalya. 13 Nyāya-bhāşya, 111.2.67 14 Nyāya-sūtra, IV.1.163 Nyāya-bhāsya, 1.1.22 Nyāya-kandali, P-57 "Sāṁkhyakārikā, 62 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #308 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 292 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" According to Sāmkhya consciousness is not a mere quality but the soul's very essence. The soul being pure, eternal and immutable is not blissful consciousness (ānanda-svarūpa) or stream of consciousness (caitanya-pravāha) or material consciousness. Sāṁkhya's self (Purusa), remains untouched by joy or sorrow, migration bondage and liberation." Bondage and liberation are phenomenal. The latter requires the formal and final cessation of all the three kinds' sufferings without a possibility of return. This neutral and colourless state of kaivalya is again an unattractive picture with no appeal to the aspirant. Similarly, in Yoga, freedom is absolute isolation of matter from self.20 The Vedāntic philosophers, like Śamkara, Rāmānuja and Vallabha, maintain that in highest state of perfection, there is the pure light of consciousness and bliss, although there is variation in their thoughts regarding the state of mokṣa in relation to the self and the Brahman. The Sāṁkhya-yoga conception of the nature of the mokșa comes nearer to Upanișadic view, which presents the self as in the state of pure consciousness and bliss and of the ultimate reality of the Brahma. Madhva philosophy posits the souls as atomic in nature and is different from Parabrahman. So according to this school of thought, the liberated soul lives in sānnidhya (near) of Lord Vişnu. Similarly Viśistādvaitins accept the plurality of souls. But in its real nature, the soul is not different from Parabrahman. When the soul is liberated it reaches the Brahmaloka and gets merged in the Brahman. Vallabhācārya maintains that souls are atomic in nature, and in liberation, some soul reach the state of Brahma in the their state of merger with the Brahma, and other souls due to devotional preponderance enter saṁsāra in the state of liberation for sake of expression of devotion. 18 Sāṁkhya-kārikā of Isvarakrsna, 62 Sāṁkhya-tattva-koumudi, 64-68; Sāṁkhya-pravacana-bhāsya, 3.65-84 Dr. Ramjee Singh, “Jaina Perspective in philosophy and religion", P-135 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #309 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF MOKȘA COMPARED WITH..... 293 Unlike Sāṁkhya-Yoga, the self in Vedānta of Samkara is not only conscious but also possesses blissful consciousness. Also unlike Pūrva-Mīmāṁsā moksa in Advaita Vedānta is not only destruction of individual's relation with the world but dissolution of the world itself (Prapañca-vilaya). According to Bhagavadgītā, status of soul is that of different fragments or sparks of God; hence mokṣa must be the unity with Purusottma (God) - indeed a blissful state. In Upanisads, as in the Advaita Vedānta, the realization of oneness with God is the ideal of man, which is a state of ecstasy and rapture, a joyous expansion of soul. The Buddhist refers to the conception of mokșa as nirvāṇa, an absolute cessation from misery. There is nothing real. Everything is momentary. There is no ātman as permanent principle and nirvāņa is a state of freedom from misery, in fact freedom from everything. Nirvāṇa is the most important conception in the Buddhist philosophy. Prof. T.R.V. Murthy says that the history of Buddhist philosophy is the history of the conception of nirvāņa.“ Several philosophers like Rhys Davids, Thomas, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan and others maintain that the state of nirvāṇa does not represent the denial of the self or personality. It is the highest state of moral perfection and it is full of bliss. The Buddha said that nirvāņa is freedom from misery and it is different from adjunct of empirical personality. The Buddha does not deny that the highest state of perfection expresses bliss. He was only silent about it. Nāgasena has given the interpretation of nirvāṇa as positive in content during the discussion with king Milindaregarding the question whether nirvāṇa is absolute cessation or destruction of ātman. In this sense, the Buddhist conception of nirvāna is different from Nyāya-Vaiseșika conception of mokṣa as a state in which there is no consciousness. "Dr. Ramjee Singh, “Jaina Perspective in philosophy and religion", p-135 - History of philosophy, Eastern and Western, vol.1, P-212 2 Samyuttanikāya, Kematheri- sutta, For Personal & Private Use Only Page #310 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 294 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” The Tathāgata Buddha said that nirvāṇa is ‘avyākṣta' indescribable in words and inexpressible in thought. It is beyond comprehension in thought and description in words.-4 Buddha did not discuss the nature of nirvāṇa and metaphysical problems, because he was averse to metaphysical discussions. The result was his disciples followed different paths of interpretation. Some adduced negative interpretation of nirvāṇa as absolute cessation of existence as sūnyatā; and others gave a positive content to nirvāṇa as a state with the bliss as its category.“ Buddhists maintain that nothing is permanent. Everything is transitory and in flux. In the state of rebirth, there is no permanent self that emerges from earlier birth to the next birth. It is only the psychic continuity of Vijñāna that projects itself into the next Moksa literally means “release', release of soul from eternal fetters of karma. Nirvāṇa (Buddhist) is derived from the Pāli root “nibuttu', which means blowing out. However, instead of taking it in a metaphorical sense of 'blowing out of passions etc., it is taken in the literal sense of extinction. There is ample evidence to believe that Buddha himself looks upon nirvāṇa as a positive state of consciousness. Jaina concept of Mokşa; Vedic and Buddhist traditions have varied interpretations regarding mokṣa. Earlier Vedic seers did not discuss the nature of mokṣa and later on the philosophers of Vedic tradition gave their own interpretation of the nature of mokşa, when the concept was introduced in its tradition. The varied interpretation regarding the nature of nirvāṇa in the Vedic and Buddhist philosophy, as explained in here, is not so with the development of Jaina thought. The Tīrthankara Mahāvīra was an omniscient, a kevalin; and the words of the kevalin had absolute authority. Therefore, there did not appear to have differences regarding the metaphysical problems like the nature of mokṣa. 2*N.K. Bhagat, Patna University Lectures, 1924-25, P.165 2Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, “Indian philosophy", vol. I, P-416-17 20 Milindapraśna, 4.8.62-64 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #311 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF MOKṢA COMPARED WITH..... The Jaina concept of permanent substance and its changing modes as equally real has influenced the Jaina concept of mokṣa. Jainas principle of permanence, however, is not like the eternal principle of Puruşa and Prakṛti in the Samkhya philosophy. The Jaina conception of the atman is a synthesis of the principles of permanence and changing modes. From the nominal point of view, the soul is permanent as a substance but from the phenomenal point of view, there are modes. And considered from the point of view of modes, the self is changing. The Jainas have accepted the principle of the co-reality of substance and its modification. That is from noumenal point of view the soul is eternal as substance, and non-eternal from the point of view of modification. For this reason, the Jainas contend that at the time of attainment of mokṣa the pervasion of soul becomes less by one-third of the body of the soul just previously occupied by it at the time of mokṣa. 27 The Jaina concept of mokṣa is different from other conception in Indian thought, which is a special contribution of Jainas. They are: 295 (1) The Jaina conception implies pervasive quality according to the body, while according to some philosophies the soul (atman) is described as atomic. (2) The eternity of soul is not the static eternity as in some system of Indian philosophy, but it expresses the inherent nature of infinite energy. These two conceptions of the nature of soul in mokṣa, is a special contribution of the Jaina to Indian philosophy. Therefore, to the Jainas, the liberated soul, in the state of mokṣa, has infinite knowledge and bliss because of the inherent nature of consciousness and bliss. 27 According to Jains, mokṣa is the last of moral categories. It is the gist of karma-phenomenology and its relation to the science of soul. It is also total deliverance of soul from karmic bondage. Uttaradhyayana, 36-65, For Personal & Private Use Only Page #312 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 296 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” Umāsvāti says mokṣa is the total and final freedom from all karmic matter°; or exhaustive dissolution of all karmic particles, which is the condition of omniscience.29 State of Moksa (Mukti-Sthāna) There is different interpretation on different philosophical predilection regarding the questions on the state of the soul at the time of mokșa and its state when it is liberated. The Nyāya-Vaiseșikas and Sāmkhya-Yoga maintain that the soul is pervading and there are many souls. Souls do not possess different states from those that they possessed in saṁsāra. Souls, in the state of liberation, become free from the gross bodies and also from the subtle bodies, which is due to a gross body. The Jīvātman or a Puruşa becomes different from the differentiated states and become all pervading. The Kevalādvaitins maintain that the ātman, i.e. the Brahma has vyāpakatva, but there is no plurality. Liberated soul becomes free from the subtle bodies, which is antaḥkaraṇa, and becomes free from all empirical adjuncts. It realizes the state of Brahma. Soul in sūkşma-śarīra, liberated, does not mean that it is different from empirical soul, because it is the Brahmasvarūpa in its pure form. Regarding Jaina view of the mokṣa-sthāna, Jaina says that Jīva (soul) has the characteristic of Urdhavagati (tendency to go upwards)." When karmic particles are removed and when soul is free from karmas, it moves upwards to the end of the Lokākāśa and remains in its pure form in the Siddhaloka, at the end of Lokākāśa. It does not move further because there is the absence of dharmāstikāya in Alokākāśa. The state of perfection at the end of the Lokākāśa is called Siddhasilā. The Jaina literature presents the extension of Siddhasilā and such a description of the extension of the place where liberated souls reside is not stated in any other school of Indian 28 Tattvārtha-sūtra, X-2, 29 Ibid.X-1 Uttarādhyayana, 19.82, Praśamarati-prakarana, 294 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #313 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINA VIEW OF MOKSA COMPARED WITH..... 297 thought. Jaina philosophy says from karmabhūmi of human beings, men can attains perfection through self-efforts; in this sense, that state of mokṣa is the highest state of perfection to be attained. It is the state of freedom from misery and self-realization. Vedic conception regards ātman as all pervasive. The Buddhist does not accept any such thing as ātman; hence they do not posit a Locus of mokṣa, mokșa-sthāna (place)). Mokșa in Jainism is a rediscovery of man himself through self-realization. “Look within” is what Jainism says. “Self-realization is the ideal of systems such as Nyāya-Vaišeșikas and Sāṁkhya too.” Advaita Vedānta philosophy is also philosophy of self-realization par-excellence." Jivana-mukti and Videha-mukti The Jainas, like the Upanișadic thinkers, 32 Buddhists, 33 Nyāya-Vaišeșikas, 14 Sāṁkhyas, Yogas, 49 etc. recognize the existence of Jīvana-mukti together with Videha-mukti. The duality of mukti in Jainism is perhaps a legacy of the Upanișadic influence. Since Jainas, like Advaita Vedānta believe in release through the dawn of wisdom and annulment of nescience, Jivana-mukti is one and only legitimate concept. Mukti refers to the soul, not to the body and dissolution of the body is neither an inevitable precondition nor an integral feature of mukti. 36 *** T.M.P. Mahadevan, Indian philosophical congress proceedings, (Nagpur), P-7 Kathopanişad, 11.3, 14-15; Mundaka Up., 111.2.6; Brhadāranyaka Up., IV.4.6-7 » Visuddhi-Magga, 16.73 ** Nyāya-bhāsya, IV.23 Samkhya-kārikā, 67, Yoga-sūtra, IV.30 Suryanarayana Shastri's paper on Jivana-mukti”, “The Philosophical quarterly", Jan.1939, vol.-XIV, No. IV For Personal & Private Use Only Page #314 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONCLUSION In 'Bhagavadgītā, Śrī Kṛṣṇa classifies nature into two classes i.e. material and super nature. He says that super nature is incomprehensible to people who are not in tune with the subtlety of infinity. This is what Jaina philosophy maintains that the soul of person, which can attain Paramātmahood or Godhood is incomprehensible to human because of his desire, greed, rāga, and dveṣa (attachment and heartedness). People think they choose to live, but the fact is they have no independent will to be born. We only know how to defend or save this corporal frame. Human think that they are special, but biology places human alongside of all other species in this world. Beyond food, sex and territory animals are not aware of any other reality. They also do not have any aspiration towards immortality. Since there is no fear or idea of death in their lives, they have no concept of God or codified system of philosophy as man has developed. Animals live by instinct and die without seeking to prolong their lives. Humans, however, have woven a complicated web of ideas in order to understand the implication of our ordinary and extraordinary state of consciousness whereas the lives of animals are governed by an unquestioning acceptance of the inevitable. Indian philosophy has grand purposeful design and an invincible quest or effort made to define the phenomena of germination and termination of life. It embraces every aspect of being and nothingness. Indian metaphysical doctrines echoes both theism and atheism; it includes purely spiritual, purely material as well as material-spiritual school of thoughts. Indian philosophy has a very interstice definition of theism unlike in other philosophies of the world, where in theism means God and he must create world or universe, or creation is invariable For Personal & Private Use Only Page #315 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONCLUSION 299 attached with the word God. Vedic philosopher of Indian philosophy construed that as orthodox system, or āstika is all about theism or belief in God, and on the other hand heterodox system, as nāstika, disbelief in God a huge misconception. In Indian philosophy Pūrva and Uuttara-mīmāṁsā, Sāṁkhya and Yoga, Nyāya and Vaiseșika are regarded as ‘orthodox' and others such as Jaina, Bauddha and Cārvāka as heterodox, has little or nothing to do with a belief in God. The real point of departure is whether or not a particular system of thought accepts the Vedas as ultimate source of philosophical authority. The so called orthodox schools do accept authority of Vedas even though it has been convincingly argued that this acceptance is more notional than real while the other three so called heterodox do not. Significantly the original meaning of the terms āstika and nāstika too hinges on this vital difference. The āstikas believe in the veracity and infallibility of Vedas. Among the āstikas, the oldest school Sāmkhya and Pūrva Mīmāṁsā strongly refute the theory of God. Thus the source book of Sāṁkhya-darśana, īśvarakrsna's Sāṁkhya-kārikā is full of subtle argument, which rejects the possibility of their being an all-powerful creator and controller of the world. Vijñānabhikṣu's Sāṁkhya-pravacana-bhāsya makes a case for why a belief in the divine principle is unwarranted. Even Kapila's classic treatise 'Sāṁkhya-sūtra’, on the subject, which is far less emphatic in its rejection of God finds unnecessary to accept any theistic assumption. Similarly, Pūrva-mīmāṁsā has a strong element of disbelief at its core. Jaimini's Mimāṁsā-sūtra, the founding text, is mostly preoccupied with proving the efficiency and power of yajña or Sacrificial fire but shies away from attributing it any divinity. Jaimini takes delight in rejecting the hypothesis of God. For Personal & Private Use Only Page #316 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 300 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” In Yoga beginning with Patañjali's Yoga-sūtra which widely regarded as theistic in nature, the acceptance of God is, in part, purely verbal. In large areas of practical reasoning, God is happily over looked, if not consciously ignored. In Nyāya, the quintessential Indian tradition of formal logic, there is an attempt to prove, as in Jayanta Bhatta's Nyāya-mañjarī, the existence of God, but such argument is far from being universally accepted. The only "God fearing candidate among orthodox, “āstika” school is perhaps Uttara-mīmāṁsā, of which Šamkara's Advaita and Rāmānuja's Viśistādvaita is the best known example. But contrary to received wisdom, Saṁkara was never accepted either by his contemporaries or latter day thinkers, as the be all and end all of Indian thought. It was only in the 19th century, thanks to the need of the native intellectuals to create the image of an 'essentially' spiritual India as opposed to an equally materialist West, when Saṁkara's Advaita was regarded as pinnacle of Indian philosophical achievement." Atheism in Indian tradition is not necessarily premised on prior acceptance of materialism either in the philosophical or everyday sense. All the schools of Indian philosophy mentioned herein, even some of them reject God; accept the existence of permanent soul (ātman), which is quite distinct from corporeal or physical reality. Hence Indian atheism, except Cārvāka, is antimaterialistic. Jainism practices strong belief and devotion of God, differs from other schools of thought, Jainas are much better God devotee, holding lots of rituals. It is much more spiritualistic when one studies mysticism in it. Kailash Vajapeyi, “Speaking Tree", Times of India, June,4, 2004 2Mahesh Daga, “Speaking Tree", Times of India, May, 2004 PIbid, May, 2004 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #317 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONCLUSION Since Jains did not accept the authority of Vedas and its speculative concept of God; the hostile orthodox Brāhmaṇa philosopher called it a nastika philosophy, unbelievers in God. Jainism, a religion, indigenous of the Indian soil, unlike Aryans who brought with them Vedic philosophy in India, was generally believed by scholars that Jainism like Buddhism was born out of discontent against Brahmanism. The fact, however, remains that the orthodox Brāhmaṇas in general were not as hostile to Jainism as they had been towards Buddhism throughout the centuries. Mahāvīra the 24th Tirthankara, protested against caste privileges no doubt provoked the opposition of Brāhmaṇas who in turn criticized the Jaina religion and philosophy by classifying it as unorthodox, atheistic religion, but not so militantly and bitterly as they did to Buddhism. Moreover, Mahāvīra did not criticize the authority of the Vedas so strongly as did the Buddha, but he supported Karma based castism in a way and recognized the status of the trivarṇa, i.e. the Brāhmaṇna, the Kṣatriya and the Vaisya, eliminated the fourth one the Śūdra. 301 Mahāvīra taught man to look not beyond himself for hope and aid. His teachings, proved so effective that even a section of the Brāhmaṇas are said to have recognized him as a great teacher.* Intellectual Brāhmaṇas also joined the ranks of Jainas from time to time owing to conviction as well as for honour and contributed to the maintenance of the reputation of the Jainas for learning." It is true that Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism at times clashed violently with each another, but so far as the conduct of their followers was concerned, it is now fully admitted by scholars that the systems are really not antagonistic, but complimentary to each another. The contribution of the Jaina thinkers in formulation of *Kalpasūtra (Sukhabodhikā), P-112, 118 SC.V. Vaidya, H.M.T, vol.11, P-406 "Dr. Nathmal Tatia, "Studies in Jain Philosophy', 1997,P-87-88 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #318 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 302 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" their Hinduism moral code is unique and the ten virtues they have propagated are to be found in some form or other in all the societies of the world. Jains fundamental ideal has been peace and promotion of goodwill amongst all and attainment of supreme knowledge as the highest goal of life has not remained confined to any particular part of the country but in all over the world. The Hindu faith has best of Jainas and Buddha's ethics. "New respects for life, kindness to animals, a sense of responsibility and an endeavour after higher life have been brought home to Indian mind with renewed force. But while the Buddhism disappeared from India in course of time, Jainism with all its schisms and divisions is a living force even now. The fact is that they kept open the doors of their church to lay representatives-a factor, which contributed much to the stability of Jainism. Moreover, it adopted a less active missionary career than Buddhism and the followers preferred more secluded sites as their chief centers of worship. It was the result of this seclusion that the Jains did not incur the terrible wrath of the Brahmaṇas and as such resisted more successfully the stress of the Brahmanical revival and the Mohammedan persecution under which Buddhism in India ultimately collapsed. It was this Brahmanic toleration, denied to the Buddhism that saved the Jains from perpetual persecution and harassment. As a result of this, Jainism, though confined to a small minority is yet a living religious force, an article of faith with a section of the people all over the country, and in the world. In spite of the fact that Brāhmaṇas have labeled Jainism as a "nāstika" religion which Western philosophers blindly translated it to be an atheistic philosophy, unscrupulously. Unfortunately, some Indian scholars, even Jaina scholars, have supported this mistake. It is observed and opined by the Vedic Scholars that “Jaina philosophy as it seems, have been busy in contradictions rejecting Vedic thinker's theory of God in the sense of creator, sustainers and destroyer, however have not emphasized Jaina's belief that the For Personal & Private Use Only Page #319 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONCLUSION 303 perfected soul as Paramātman is God. Swami Prabhavanand, a staunch Vedāntist, opined that Jainism holds that every soul is a potentially Paramātman; in this sense the Jaina religion, despite its denial of the personal factor in creation, is very far from being purely atheistic, for it posits definitely the divinity of the soul and the possibility of our realizing its divinity”. Furthermore he said about Buddhism “the Lamas, or holy men, are priest of theistic religion, for whose God, Buddha, temples have built and an elaborate rituals has been created.” Jainas have built temples, created elaborate rituals and devotional prayers for their God, the Tīrthankara. Jainas belief towards their God, the Tīrthankara, the Paramātmā, is the same, as Vedāntist believe in Brahma, Buddhist belief in their God, the Lord Buddha. Quotes from Western Scholars that Jainas believe man-God is refuted by Jaina as it exhibited here their approval of speculative philosophy of God. It can be said in general that Jaina mind was always open to receive the alien thoughts without any distortion and assimilate them with their own. This fact was due to more than one reason. Firstly, the Jaina logical thought had a comparatively late origin, and so the non-Jaina thinkers had already asserted their position even before the Jaina thinkers came to the arena. The Jainas had a lot to learn and assimilate. Secondly, Jaina had to argue their own case before the hostile thinkers, Vedic Brāhmaṇas with measure of efficiency and critical look before they could hope to get a patient hearing from their opponents who would naturally refuse to listen to their (Jainas) arguments unless they embodied correct appreciation and their criticism. Thirdly, many of the first rate Jaina thinkers, such as Siddhasena, Samantabhadra, Akalanka, Haribhadra and other were converts from learned Brahmins and had first-hand knowledge of the Swami Prabhavanand, "Spiritual Heritage of India", 2000,P-157 Dr. Nathmal Tatia, “Studies in Jain Philosophy”, 1951, P-29 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #320 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 304 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” non-Jaina systems of thought. This helped to correct estimate and comparative understanding. Lastly and this is the most important reason that the Jaina attitude was non-absolutistic, and its scope was wide enough to assimilate such theories as were based upon reasons and truths. Pt. Sukhlalji observes that the insistence of ahiṁsā and compassion towards one and all in the Sāṁkhya, Yoga, and Upanişad etc. system is the influence of Šramaņa influence over Brāhmanic. Vedic system, while on the other hand, the scripture, ethics, prayers and rituals of Jainism and Buddhism is Brāhmanic influence over the Šramanic system. But, he however, concludes that the Jainism and Buddhism as system of śramaņa School of philosophy, have always remained opposed to Brahmanical school of thought, main orthodox schools. Of course, Jains ideology being entirely different from the Vedic always remained opposed to it. And, quite often scholars and philosophers pointed out and claimed that Jainism disapproves the Vedic authority instead of putting it otherwise that the Vedic system unable to accept Šramanic thought and disapproved it. Haribhadra's Saddarśanasamuccya, according to Dr. N. N. Bhattacharya, is famous for its polemic against the NyāyaVaišeșika concept of God, and hence Jainism is atheism, though Mīmāṁaska has also challenged the same. Vedic thinkers did not have patience to hear Jainas argument of their conception of God as propounded by Yogindudeva and others and even as of this modern age, professed by Muni Nyāyavijayaji, who opined about the God of Jaina, and reasoned that in reality the theism of Jaina is a monist philosophy. A most famous Ācārya of Jaina community, Muni Ātmārāmji who delivered message, on Jainism, to the ‘Parliament of World Religions' held at Chicago, U.S.A, in 1893, maintains that the speculative philosophy of all religions though differs and contradicts For Personal & Private Use Only Page #321 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONCLUSION with each other; however, the God of Jaina has same essence as in others. According to Samkara God as creator of the universe is empirical reality. Transcendentally He is nirguna whereas Jaina's attitude is non-absolutism and based on reasons and truth. Again and again' we shall observe, how when traditionally accepted beliefs become inadequate, nay false, on account of changed times, and the age grows out of patience with them, the insight of new teacher, a Buddha or a Mahāvīra, a Vyāsa or a Samkara supervenes, stirring the depths of spiritual life. 10 Muni Shri Nyayavijayaji opined that Jaina thinkers do not maintain that there is only one God, for them there are many Gods. In spite of this there are reasons for our regarding them as one. As all the perfected soul possess infinite knowledge, infinite vision, infinite power and infinite bliss and hence they are absolutely alike. And their absolute alikeness is the cause of our considering them to be one as also of our applying the term one to them, as Paramatman, Brahmā, Viṣṇu or Śiva, the names of Siddha Paramesthins. Yogindudeva11 quoted that Jainas give devotional obeisance to great Jinas who are the embodiments of omniscience, omni-vision and omni-bliss and by whom all the objects of knowledge are enlightened. And pray to Him that we are tortured by the miseries of the four grades of existence, viz. celestial (god), human, sub-human (animals etc.) and hellish (nāraki) states of existence; so you instruct us about Paramātman, i.e.; the soul supreme or Paramapada, the God i.e.; who is Brahma, Viṣṇu and Śiva i.e., the lofty status of liberation that would put an end to our miseries. Ibid, P-9 305 12 That eternal Parmātman (Śiva),12 who is the subject of pure meditation or contemplation, is beyond the comprehension of Vedas, 9 Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, "Indian Philosophy", Vol.1,,P-26 10 "Muni Sri Nyāyavijayaji, "Jaina Philosophy and Religion", 1998,P-32 Il Paramātmā-prakāśa, Sri Yogindudeva, Ed. by Dr. A.N. Upadhye, 1960, P-9 12 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #322 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 306 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM” Šāstras and senses. He, the God of Jaina, is the highest state, dwelling as he is at the summit of their world, representing unique or absolute vision, knowledge, happiness and power. Modern scholars need to study and understand philosophy of different religious of the Indian soil, which have exchanged various concepts from time to time and the history of their mutual impact when comparing each other's religion. The word nāstika, from Sanskrit language which was a language of Brahman scholars now a days used by a common man in a derogatory sense as Socrates was called by Christians an atheist in Roman empire. Western philosophers interpreted the word nāstika as an atheist, which is incorrect and shows utmost ignorance on part of the scholars of both Western and Indian, and some Jaina scholars too, regarding philosophy of Jainism. Secondly, quite often scholars and philosophers have quoted in their work that Jainism and Buddhism revolted against Hinduism. In this regard Dr. Sagarmal Jain has observed “Though it is true that Sramanic tradition in general, Jainism and Buddhism in particular have some distinct features, discriminating them from the early Vedic or Brāhmanic tradition, yet they are not alien faiths. They are children of the same soil, and they have come forward with bold reformative spirit. It would be great mistake if we consider that the Jainism and Buddhism was mere a revolt against Brāhmanism or that they are faith alien to Hinduism. The Western scholars have committed a great mistake in highlighting this view. This view has laid a foundation of enmity and disintegration to this Indian culture. But I would like to say that it was not a revolt but a reformer's crusade. In fact Vedic and Sramanic traditions are not rival traditions as some of the Western and Indian scholars think but they are complementary to each other, because these two represent the two aspects of human existence physical as well as spiritual. There has been deliberate efforts to create a gulf between Jainism and Buddhism on the one hand and Hinduism on the other, by western Dr. Sagarmal Jain, “An Introduction to Jaina Sadhana", 1995,P-4&5 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #323 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONCLUSION 307 scholars, due to ignorance of Indian philosophy. Unfortunately, some Indian scholars, even Jaina scholars, supported the said points of view.” Maintaining that Jainism is an atheist religion Swami Prabhavananda,' a disciple of Ramkrishna Paramahansa quoted that Jains are altogether only about one and half million in all India, and they are a peace loving people and have no quarrel with other Hindu religions. In fact they look upon themselves as quite within Hindu fold and are so regards by main body of the orthodox Hindu. Dr. N.N. Bhattacharya supporting the above view said “In the history of Western philosophy different school came into existence successively, one being replaced by another. In India, different schools flourished together till today with their respective bands of adherents. Of surviving schools we may refer to the Jains and Vedāntists who have their own organizations, disciplinary codes, etc. There are even a few monasteries for the followers of the Sāṁkhya. *** 4Swami Prabhavanand, "Spiritual Heritage of India", 200,P-156 (note) Dr. N. N. Bhattacharya, "Jaina philosophy, Historical out line", 1999,P-227 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #324 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BIBLIOGRAPHY Ācārānga-sūtra, Part I& II Tr. by Ācārya Ātmārāmjī, Ed., by Muni Samardasi, Acharya Shri Atmaram Jaina Prakashan Samiti, Ludhiana, 1963. Ācārānga-sūtra, Eng. Tr. By Herman Jacobi, S.B.E. Motilal Banarsidass, (MLBD) Delhi, 1968. Ātmārāmji, Jaināgam mein Paramātmavāda, Acharya Atmaramji Jain Prakashan Samiti, Ludhiana, V.S. 2016. Ātmārāmjī, The Chicago-Praśnottara", Shri Ātmaramji Jain Pustak Pracharaka Mandal, Agra, 1918. Hastimal, "Jaina Dharma Kā Maulika Itihāsa", Vol. I, Jain Itihas Samiti, Jaipur, 1981. 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Lahiri : 14 Ācārya Amitagati : 111, Ācārya Kundakunda: 2, 3 Candrakīrti : 10 Dr. Herman Jacobi : 30,46 Dr. John Murphy : 14,16,18,166,172 Dr. K.C. Sogani : 174,199,201,203, Dr. N.N. Bhattacharaya : 212, 222, 223, 240 Dr. S. Radhakrishnan :11,12,43,66, 67,138, 139, 140,141,142,143,144,146,150,154, 155,189,208, 249, 287,293,304,316 Dr. Rafiq Zakaria : 13,14,16 Dr. Ramjee Singh : 18, 120, 121, 207, 208,219,225, 229, 231, 239,256,263,264,278, 279,298, 302, 303 Dr.Sagarmal Jain: 7,30,31,47,48,49, 50,51,53, 140, 175, 317 Haribhadra Suri : 3,92,93,114,117,126,158,162,175, 198,210,299,315 Hemacandrācārya : 46,210 Hemant Shah : 136, 141, 188, 190,194,196 J. L. Jaini : 16,17,62, 166 Jyoti Prasad Jain : 31, 32, 54 Kumārila Bhatta : 21, 155,156 M.A. Dhakey : 50 Mādhavācārya 11,137 Madhusūdana Sarasvati : 11 Max Muller: 142,144,145,154, 265,282,292,294,295 Muni Ātmārāmji : 175, 176, 177,178, 180,181,182,184,185, 315 Muni Shri Nyāyavijayaji : 95,96,97,98,99,111, 120,123,133, 204,205,206, 207, 295, 315, 316 Dr. N. N. Bhattacharya : 12, 13, 34, 42, 88, 222, 226, 227, 234, 235, 257, 283, 284, 287, 289, 292, 294, 315, 318 Nathmal Tatia : 92, 93,94,112,173,198,199,207,270, 272,312,314 Pāṇini : 20, 23,24 Patañjali : 18,20,22,259,311 Pūjyapāda : 3,200 Prof. S. N. Dasgupta : 98, 171,209, 211, Pt. Sukhlalji Sanghvi : 51,52 Siddhasena Divākara : 3,92,117,198,314 Stevenson :12,15,16,18,33, 34, 91, 264, Svāmīkumāra Kārtikeya : 3 Swami Vivekananda : 10, 13,217, 252 Śamkarācārya : 10, 21, 219,269 U.P. Shah : 44 ,45, 47, 48,51 Umāsvāti : 3,168, 259, 260,306 William Jones : 31 Yogindudeva: 1,3,136,213,214,217,218,219,253, 275,276,277,279, 280,281,315,316,317 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #347 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 91 Index - II (Works Quoted) A Critical Survey of Nyāyasūtra- Bhagavadgītā : 23, 24, 95, 96, bhāșya : 9, 144 114, 122, 140, 189, 244, 252, 281, A History of Indian Philosophy: 303, 309 98, 171, 173, 211 Bhāgavata Purāņa: 27, 41, 43, 163 A source book in Jaina Bhagavatī-Sūtra : 64, 123, 124, Philosophy: 92, 98, 104, 113, 126, Bhagvadgītā : 59,60 254, 269, 298 Bhaktāmara-Stotra : 203, 204 Aștādhyāyī : 20, 24 Bharatīya Darśana: 119 Aitareya Upanișad : 274 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146, Amitagati-Sāmāyikapātha : 204 150, 154, 155, 249, 304, 316 An Epitome of Jainism: 9, 10, 63, Isibhāsiyāim : 50 Jain Dharma ka Moulika Itihāsa : An Introduction to Indian 36,41,42 Philosophy: 137, 207, 214, 215, Jain Philosophy: 12,13,34,42 217, 240, 249, 251, 265, 266, 272, Jain Philosophy Historical 273, 288, 290, 292, 294 Outline: 88, 287, 289, 292, 294 An Introduction to Jaina Sādhanā : Jain Philosophy of Non30, 31,140,317 absolutism : 209 Anthology: 37, 38, 39 Jain Philosophy, Historical Out Aupapātika-Sūtra : 195 Line: 211, 222, 223, 226, 227, Arhat Pārsva and Dharaṇendra 228, 231, 234, 235, 240, 246, 247, Nexus: 48, 49, 50, 51, 53 249, 257, 259, 283, 284 Aspects of Jaina Religion: 37, 38, Jain Philosophy: An Introduction: 40 90 Anguttaranikāya: 256 Jain Theism: 97, 136, 141, 188, Atharvaveda : 114, 150, 154, 156 190, 194, 261, 262 Ācārānga Sūtra: 23, 30, 50, 60, Jain view of Life: 192 69,83, 92, 94, 95, 98, 194 Jain Yoga: 107, 109 Ātmā and Moksa : 62 Jaina Concept of Omniscience: Ātmamīmāṁsā: 113, 116, 117, 120, 121, 208, 239 118 Jaina Culturel Antiquity & History: Āvaśyaka-Tīkā: 126 37, Āvaśyaka-Sūtra : 170 Jaina Dharma aura Darsana: Bịhadāranyaka Upanișad : 94, 113,119 243, 247, 249, 274, 275 Jaina Dharma Cintana : 199 Brhat-svayṁbhū-Stotra: 279 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #348 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 332 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Jaina Philosophy and Religion: 85, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 111, 120,123, 133, 169, 204, 205, 219, 295, 316 Jaina Philosophy: An Introduction: 56, 101,120, 222, 238 Jaina Sāhitya kā Brhad Itihāsa: 113 JainaSūtra : 66 Jaina Theory of Omniscience: 18 Jaina View of Life: 166 Jainism and Prakrit in Ancient and Medieval India: 174 Jainism in a Global Perspective: 7, 167, 171 Paramātma-Prakāśa : 1,3, 136, 201,212, 213, 214, 217, 218, 219, 276, 280, 316, 317 Philosophy of Mahāvīra: A Critical Study: 9, 202, 203 Philosophy of soul: 62 Praśna : 19, 248, 254, 256, 305 Prajñāpana : 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129 Prameya-Kamala-Mārtanda: 116 Pravacanasāra-Tīkā : 123,126 Pristine Jainism: 175 Ratanakaranda-śrāvakācāra : 199 Religion and Culture of Jains: 14, 32, 33, 34, 36 Religions of the Empire: 166 Rgveda : 27,41, 118, 141, 143, 144, 145, 146, 150, 151, 154, 155, 156, 163, 249, 263, 265, 270 ,278, 284 Samana-Suttaṁ : 197 Samādhisataka: 3, 4 Samādhitantra: 70, 71 Samayasāra : 70 Samayasāra-Kalasa: 220 Sanātana Dharma: 139, 142, 150, 242, 243 Sanmati-Tarka-Prakaraṇa : 92, 117 Sāṁkhyakārikā : 102, 287, 301, 308 Sāṁkhya-Sūtra : 228, 229, 230, 256, 258, 285, 286, 310 Samyuktanikāya: 256 Sarvārthasiddhi : 102, 103, 104, 106, 108, 109, 200, 203 Satpathabrāhmaṇa : 143 Spiritual Heritage of India: 138,163, 270, 314, 318 Sthānānga : 49, 125, 126, 128, 129 Sūtrakṛtānga : 45, 51, 52, 53, 87, 88, 125 Source Book in Jaina Philosophy: 92, 98, 104, 114, 126, 254, 269, 298 Studies in Jaina Philosophy: 92, 93, 94, 112, 173, 199, 207, 272, 312,314 Sudhā Sāgara: 168, 173 Šūnyatā: 304 The Religion and Philosophy of Veda and Upanişad: 94 The Religion of Ahimsā: 19 The Religious of Hindus: 148 The Systems of Indian Philosophy: 36, 214, 216, 217, 223, 225, 226, 228, 254, 255, 267, 268, 270, The System of Vedānta: 103 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #349 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ WORD - INDEX 333 Upāsakadaśānga-Sūtra : 194 Uttarādhyayana : 49, 51, 60, 126, 127, 129, 170, 171, 195, 196, 306, 307 Buddhacarita : 160 Cāra-Tīrthankara : 51,52 Chāndogya Upanişad : 59, 212,214, 244, 247, 278 Chicago-Praśnottara: 163, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 184, 185 Collected papers on Jaina Studies: 16, 92, 93, 105, 110 Daśavaikālika-Sūtra : 57, 96, 195 Devībhāgavata : 241, 245, 246 Dictionary of Philosophy: 8, Discovery of God: 13, 14, 35 Dravyasamgraha : 171, 198 Dvātrimśikā : 111,197 Encyclopaedia Britannica: 141, 148, 188 Encyclopaedia of Religion: 6, Ends and Means: 137, Essence of Jainism: 201 Ethical Doctrine in Jainism: 174, 199, 201, 203 Gañadharavāda : 60 Gītārahasya in Marathi : 252 Glimpses of Jainism: 17 God in Indian Religion: 188 Gods of India: 148 Gommațasāra : 2, 70, 73 ,74, 106, 107, 121, 127, 128 Harivaṁsa Purāņa: 43, Hemaśabdānuśāsana : 23 Historical Facts about Jainism: 13, 16, 17 Historical Facts of Jainism: 35 History of philosophy, Eastern and Western: 304 Immortality and Salvation in Indian Religion: 98 Indian Atheism: 153 Indian Philosophy: 11,12, 67, 138, Jainendra-Siddhanta-Kośa : 201 Kabir Darshan: 11 Kalpasūtra : 312 Kalpasūtra-Sukhabodhikā : 46, 312 Kathopanişad : 154, 156, 218, 246, 248, 275, 308 Karma & Rebirth: 94, 97,115, 263 Karma- Grantha : 70, 93, 127, 128, 129 Karmarprakrti : 122 Kārtikeyanuprekṣā: 3,4,5 Kenopanişad : 148 Labdhisāra : 73 Life in Ancient India, as depicted in Jain Canons: 31 Māņdūkyopanişad : 2,3 Mahābhārata : 114, 148, 156, 244 Mahāvīra and his Teachings: 208 Majjhima-nikāya: 20 Mānameyodaya : 299 Mānameyodaya : 300 Manu-samhitā: 138 Manusmrti : 13,20,21,146,149,263 Milindapraśna: 254, 305 Milinda-praśna: 256 Mokșapāhuda : 2,3, 4,5, 201 Mundakopanişad : 275 Nandīsūtra : 194 Niyamasāra : 5 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #350 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 334 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” Nyāya-bhāșya : 308 Nyāyamañjaraí : 239 Nyāyasiddhānta Muktāvali: 114 Nyāyasūtra : 96, 115,151,152, 296 Nyāyasūtrabhāşya : 152 Nyāya-vārttika : 299 Outlines of Jainism: 62, Pañcāstikāya :50, 57, 63, 122, 130, 132, 133, 134, 200 Pāṇinīya-vyākaraṇa-Siddhāntakaumudi : 23 Svayambhū-Stotra-Tīkā : 210 Svayambhustrotra : 201 Syādvādamañjarī : 102, 158,159,197,239 Samana Suttaṁ Cayanikā: 170 Śrāvakaprajñapti : 109 Śrīmadbhāgavata : 27,41 Šābarabhāșya : 261 Śāktāyana Vyākarana : 23, Śānkara-Bhāşyaon Brahma-Sūtra: 250, 251 Šāstravārattā-Samuccaya : 93, 114, 117,162 ślokavārtika : 21. 156 Śvetāśvatara Upanişad : 93,147,270 Șaddarśanasamuccaya: 163,198 Taittirīya Upanişad: 59, Tantravārtika: 261 Tattvārtha Sūtra : 1, 2, 57,61 ,64, 65, 67,70, 83, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109,125, 127,129, Tattvārthādhigma-Sūtra : 168, 171, 260 The Anubhūti Paksa of Vidyāraṇya : 147 The Concept of Divinity: 142, 192, 201, 202 The Dhammapada : 225 The Fundamentals Hinduism: 189 The Great Religions of the World: 14, 15, 35 The Heart of Jainism: 12, 14, 15, 18, 33, 91, 264 The Jaina Concept of Omniscience: 208,239,256,263,264 The Historical Origin and Ontological Interpretation of Arhat Pārśva : 44, 45, 47, 48 The Jaina Path of Purification: 202 The Karma Philosophy: 121,122 The Origins and History of Religions: 14, 16, 18, 166, 172 Uttarapurāņa : 47,106 Vaišeșikasūtrabhāsya : 152 Vedānta-paribhāṣā: 219 Vedantic Epistemology: 278 VişnuPurāņa : 163 Višeşāvaśyaka-Bhāșya: 56, 58, 59, 78, 80 Vinayacandra Caubīšī: 128 Visuddhimagga: 256, 308 Vyākhyāprajñapti : 45, 49, 51 Yoga of Saints: 200 Yogadarśana-Bhāṣaya: 258 Yogadrsti-Sammuccaya: 299 Yogaśāstra : 197 Yogsūtra : 289 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #351 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Index- III (Sanskrit, Prakrit, Pāli and Hindi Words) Abhāva : 58 Abhiniveśa : 258, 259 Acitta : 68 Acela-Dharma : 53 Adrsta : 77, 158, 260, 291 Advaita : 10,90,167,231,233,237,239,252, 266,294,300,308,311 Aghātiyā Karma : 100 Agurulaghutva: 102 Aham-Pratyaya : 59 Ahankāra : 244 Ahiṁsā : 27, 32, 195, 208, 279, 280, 315 Ajīva : 57, 102, 122, 199, 218, 230, 245, 274 Aņus : 56 Anādikāla :14 Anantānanta : 107 Anekāntavāda : 8, 52, 162 Annamaya : 59 Antaḥprajña : 2 Antahkaraṇa : 215, 219, 259 Antarātman : 2, 3 Antarakāla : 103 Antarāya : 75 Anubhāga : 93, 108, 125 Apkāyika : 106 Apūrva : 74, 258, 261 Arhat :5, 29,33 ,34, 132, 163, 164, 167, 170, 171, 174, 175, 183, 193, 202, 209, 283, 296 Arihanta : 6, 10, 22, 165, 170, 193, 196, 200, 201, 202, 204 Arūvi-Sattā : 83 Asamjñi: 106 Asaṁyata : 124 Asātāvedanīya : 129 Āyusya : 65, 76, 95, 101, 108, 109, 110, 127, 129 Baddha : 2 Bahisprajña : 2 Bahirātmā : 2, 3, 4, 70 Bandha : 79, 93, 108, 122, 301, 302 Bhakti : 196, 208 Bhāva : 50, 79, 82, 83, 121, 123, 126, 262 Bhāva-āśrava : 79 Bhūtātman : 212 Bhūtavāda : 113 Brahma : 118,140,146, 148, 149, 151, 156, 175, 196, 210, 216, 217, 221, 230, 244,245, 250, 251, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 284, 294, 300, 303, 307, 314, 316 Brāhmaṇa : 11,24,25, 26, 28, 39, 119, 136, 139, 148, 164, 165, 211, 223, 312, 313, 314 Brahmasvarūpa : 307 Buddhi : 231, 232 Caitanya : 149, 235, 238, 266, 267, 302 Caitanya-pravāha : 302 Caturendriya-jīva : 67 Cāturyāma-samvara : 44 Cetana : 57 Citta : 225, 259, 275 Cittavrtti-nirodha : 289 Daityas : 27 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #352 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 336 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM” Daivavāda : 113, 116 Dasyus : 27 Dānavas : 27 Deva : 129, 136, 140, 142, 245, 248, 265 Devādhideva : 5 Devagati : 22, 65 Devatā : 30, 68, 142 Dharaņā : 290 104, 105, 106, 117, 118, 119, 122, 123, 124, 127, 128, 129, 141, 167, 194, 199, 201, 208, 215, 218, 223, 230, 247, 253, 254, 255, 257, 260, 266, 268, 274, 275, 290, 302, 307 Jñāna : 80, 127, 197, 208, 213, 238, 239, 241, 267 Jñānin : 277 Kaşāya : 50, 72, 75, 79, 82, 125 Kaivalya : 244, 288, 302 Kāla : 50, 92, 113, 114, 117 Kālavāda : 113 Karaña : 74, 78, 238, 239 Kāraṇa : 74, 77, 78, 238, 239 Karma : 1,5,19, 20, 21, 22, 29, 50, 52, 62, 63, 64, 67, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 107, 108, 109, 111, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 136, 138, 139, 145, 157, 158, 160, 161, 162, 164, 167, 168, 170, 171, 182, 196, 198, 202, 206, 208, 212, 213, 220, 221, 223, 225, 226, 242, 243, 242, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 275, 276, 277, 278, 280, 281, 291, 293, 297, 305, 306, 307, 312 Karmabhūmi : 307 Karmakāņda : 16, 127, 128, 129, 214 Karma-Vargaņās : 122 Karttā : 89, 157, 239,291 Kavi : 189 Kārya : 78 Kāyotsarga : 37, 38, 39 Kevala-jñāna : 9, 44, 75, 170, 174, 235 Kevalī: 75, 76, 77, 202, 305 Narakagati : 22 Nāgas : 27, 34, 36, 42, 48 Nāma-Rūpa : 88 Nāraka : 129 Nāraka-Gati : 65 Nāraki : 68 Nāstika : 1, 11, 13, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 193, 212, 296, 310, 312, 313, 317 Nigantha : 44 Nigoda : 69, 106, 107 Nikācita armas: 112 Nirīśvara : 288, 289 Nirjarā : 52, 82, 109, 122 Nirmalātman : 218 Nirvāṇa : 25, 43, 44, 80, 210, 225, 255, 257, 282, 283, 303, 304, 305 Nivịtti-Mārga : 28 Niyama : 290 Niyativāda : 113,114,116 Pandit : 35 Pañcāgni-Tapa : 46 Pañca-Mahāvrata : 49 Pañca-paramesthin : 9, 10, 201, 202 Pañcendriya-Jiva : 67 Paraloka : 20, 21, 22, 63 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #353 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ WORD - INDEX 337 Paramātmā : 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 12, 13, 18,20,22,29, 70, 71, 136, 162, 163, 165, 167, 168, 173, 174, 192, 193, 200, 201, 203, 204, 205, 207, 209, 212, 213, 214, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 253, 267, 275, 276, 277, 279, 280, 281, 299, 309, 314, 316, 317 Parameśvara : 162, 277 Pariņāmi: 89 Paryāya : 102, 121, 213, 234, 235 Pāpa : 79, 122, 131, 132, 133, 134, 199, 258, 301 Pāsattha : 53 Pātāla : 148 Pausadha : 52 Phani : 42 Piśāca : 27,42 Pitr-loka : 103,110 Saguņa : 148, 273 Sallekhanā : 50, 109 Samabhāva : 276 Samādhi : 288, 290 Samarūpa : 269 Samavāya : 218 Samparāya : 74 Samgha : 48, 54 Samjñi: 106 Samsāra : 62, 63, 64, 105, 161, 242, 253, 262, 277, 303, 307 Saṁsārī : 64, 65, 68, 123, 126 Samvara : 52, 44, 52, 82, 122 Samyama : 80,214 Samyata : 124 Samyatā-samyata : 124 Samyoga : 230 Sarva-bhūtātmā: 275 Sarvajña : 105, 157, 273 Sat : 102, 189, 224, 275 Sattva : 228 Sattavapati : 259 Satya : 149, 269, 269, 274 Satya-loka : 148 Sādhāraṇa : 68, 106 Sādhu : 197 Sāksātbhoktā : 89 Sākṣi: 167 Sāmāyika : 52 Sānnidhya : 302 Sātāvedanīya : 129 Sāttvika : 288 Seśvara : 288, 289 Siddha : 5, 8, 10, 23, 29, 50, 62, 68, 71, 86, 102, 105, 107, 163, 165, 167, 171, 174, 175, 193, 195,196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204, 205, 209, 281, 316 Siddha-Buddha : 50 Siddhasilā : 77,177,307 Skandhas : 88, 225 Smrtis : 21 Upādhis : 243 Upādhyāya : 197 Upāsaka : 48 Upāsika 48 Utsarpiņi :163 Vakra : 104 Vanaspatikāyika : 106 Varuņa :25, 118, 142, 143, 145, 146, 161, 265 Vātaraśanā : 41 Vāyu : 25,106 Vāyukāyika : 106 Vrsala : 40 Vedaniya: 75, 110 ,127, 129 Vibhu : 87, 90, 101, 102, 222, 237, 240 Vibhutva : 240 Astikāya : 52 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #354 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 338 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY "GOD IN JAINISM" Asubhakarma: 123 Avadhi :164, 235 Avasarpiņi: 163, 277 Avatāra : 36, 148 Avatāravāda : 163, 198 Avidyā : 88, 89, 148, 215, 225, 231, 250, 258, 259, 267, 269, 271, 272, 273, 274, 278, 294, 301 Avirati : 72, 73, 125 Ayogi: 76 Avyāksta : 303 Ācārya : 2, 3, 9, 69, 101, 111, 114, 117, 123, 126, 164, 197, 202, 217, 253, 279, 295, 315 Ācārya : 2, 3, 9, 69, 101, 111, 164, 197,202,210,217,253,279,295, 315 Alaya-Vijñāna : 225 Ananda-Svarūpa : 302 Aranyaka : 41 Āryā : 48 Āśrama : 26, 47, 120 Āśrava : 52, 79, 93, 122, 124, 125 Asana : 290 Āstika : 11, 13, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 52,193, 310, 311 Atman : 12, 13, 28, 50, 59, 60, 88, 94, 101, 115, 126, 148, 162, 166, 172, 211, 212, 213, 214, 220, 221, 222, 238, 240, 241, 253, 270, 274, 275, 278, 279, 280, 281, 284, 299, 300, 301, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 311 Ātmavidyā : 55, 212 Āvartana : 96 Dharma : 24, 36, 41, 42, 52, 53, 55, 113, 119, 139, 142, 150, 195, 242, 243, 260, 293, 299 Dhyāna : 290 Dravya : 50, 62, 79, 83, 102, 121, 197, 262 Dravya-āśrava : 79 Dvaitavādi: 266 Dvesa : 71, 123, 126, 255, 256, 258, 259, 260, 309 Dvīndriya-jīva : 67 Ekendriya-jīva : 66 Gañadhara : 45, 48, 49 Gandharva : 42 Gati : 49, 50, 63, 64, 65, 103, 104, 108, 109, 110 Ghātiyā : 75, 127, 128, 129 Ghātiyā karma :100 Gotra : 76, 100, 127, 129 Gunasthāna : 2, 72, 74, 125 Gutti : 260 Hrdaya : 277 Hetumulaka Vāda : 88 Icchā : 243 Indriya : 105 īśvara: 7, 20, 116, 118, 119, 146, 147, 148, 149, 160, 162, 168, 176, 216, 253, 255, 268, 273, 275, 279, 281, 283, 288, 289 Janma : 260 Jāgrata : 3 Jina : 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 54, 159, 170, 175, 210, 253, 277, 316 Jina-śāsana : 41 Jinamārga : 41 Jinavacana : 41 Jivanamukta : 75 Jivanamukti : 218 Jīvātman : 150,217, 243, 244, 307 Jīva : 7, 56, 57, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 72,75, 79, 88, 90, 95, 96, 102, 103, Kinnara : 42 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #355 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ WORD - INDEX 339 Klesa : 258, 259 Kriyā : 81, 214, 232, 243 Krodha : 96, 125 Kșetra : 50 Lānchana : 46 Lobha : 96, 125, 255, 256 Loka : 7, 49, 199 Lokākāśa : 107, 307 Lokāyata : 7, 19, 21, 137 Mandala : 150, 154, 155 Mahāpuruşa : 31 Māna : 96, 125 Manas : 244, 259, 275 Manomaya : 59 Manusya : 68, 129 Mati : 164 Mārga : 208 Māyā : 88, 96, 125, 138, 214, 216, 263, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 278, 294 Māyāvi: 272 Mithyā-Cāritra : 80 Mithyā-Darśana : 80 Mithyā-Jñāna : 80 Mithyātva : 71, 124, 125, 278, 309 Mokșa : 4, 10, 12, 63, 83, 102, 107, 171, 173, 199, 201, 208, 232, 235, 257, 259, 262, 267, 278, 282. 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 30, 308 Moksa-Sthāna : 307, 308 Mukta : 2,64, 123 Mukti : 208, 245, 249, 250, 251, 257, 291, 298, 307, 308 Munis: 29, 41, 43, 48, 49, 79, 85, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 104, 111, 113, 119, 120, 123, 124, 125, 126, 133, 169, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 199, 202, 204, 205, 206, 207, 254, 269, 295, 298, 315, 316 Phani : 42 Pisāca : 27,42 Pitr-loka : 103,110 Prthvi :25, 106 Pịthvīkāyika : 106 Pūjās : 110,196 Pradhāna : 225 Prajāpati : 25, 26, 39, 118, 119, 146, 174 Prakrti : 88, 125, 189, 213, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 255, 257, 259, 285, 286, 287, 301, 302, 305 Pralaya : 116, 158 Pramāņa : 77,115 Pramāda : 72, 74, 125 Prapañca-vilaya : 302 Pratibimba: 215 Pratyāhāra : 290 Pratyākhyāna : 52 Pratyakșa : 77, 78, 115, 234, 235 Pravrtti-Mārga : 28 Pravịtti-Vijñāna : 225 Prāņa : 65137,149 Prāṇamaya : 59 Prāņāyāma : 290 Preta : 103 Punya : 79, 122, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 201, 258, 301 Pudgala : 57,61,122,123,130,202,230,257 Purusa : 88, 149, 178, 189, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231,257, 285, 286, 288, 289, 290, 301, 302, 305 Puruşabrahma : 116 Puruşārthavāda : 113,117 Puruşavāda : 113 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #356 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 340 JAINISM: A THEISTIC PHILOSOPHY “GOD IN JAINISM" Purusottma : 302 Rsis : 29, 30, 41, 144, 150 Rju : 103 Saccidānanda : 270 Sacelaka : 53Sthiti : 93,125 Sūkşma : 74, 102, 104, 228, 238, 255, 307 Sūkşma-śarīra : 102, 307 Sūrya :25, 141 Sușupti : 3 Svabhāvavāda : 113, 114 Svādhyāya : 199, 200 Svapna : 3 Svarga : 300 Svayambhū : 174, 280 Śakti : 267 Śrāddha : 34, 110, 111 Śūnya : 220 Śrāvaka : 48 Śrāvika : 48 Śruta :164 Śrutis: 21 Sukla-dhyāna : 76 Suklasamādhi : 75 Tamas : 228 Tapa : 29, 46,140, 154, 195 Tattvamasi: 268 Tejokāyika : 106 Tīrtha : 170, 274 Tīrthankara : 9, 10, 14, 16, 27, 30, 31, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 43, 45, 52, 55, 71, 163, 164, 165, 167, 170, 171, 173, 174,175,194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 203, 207, 223, 253, 281, 296, 305, 312, 314 Tiryañca : 105, 106, 129, Tiryanca-Gati : 65 Tiryaka : 68 Trasa : 65 Turīya : 3 Tyāga : 138 Trsnā : 225 Trīndriya-Jīva : 67 Upayoga : 105 Upsarga : 46 Upādāna : 225, 267 Upādānakārana : 116 VidehaMukti : 251, 308 Vidyā : 55,148, 219 Vidyādhara : 42 Vigraha-Gati : 108 Visiştādvaita : 266, 311 Vijñāna : 305 Vijñānamaya : 59 Vītarāgī: 170 Vrātya : 32, 39, 40, 41 Vyantara : 42 Vyāpakatva : 307 Vyāpti : 58, 159 Vyavahāra : 277 Vyāvahārikadrsti : 273 Yadrchhāvāda : 113 Yajña : 29, 81, 118, 119, 211, 261, 310 Yaksa : 42 Yama : 290 Yogi : 37, 38, 148, 234, 261 Yoni : 64,94 *** For Personal & Private Use Only Page #357 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ OUR OTHER IMPORTANT PUBLICATIONS 1200.00 4000.00, $ 100.00 300.00 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Chandra Encyclopaedia of Jaina Studies Vol. I (Art & Architecture) Jaina Kumāra Sambhavam Dr. Neelam Rani Shrivastava Jaina Sāhitya Kā Bșhad Itihāsa, Vol. I-Vol. VII, Hindi Jaina Sāhitya Kā Brhad Itihāsa, Vol.I-Vol. VIII Dr. Shitikanth Mishra Jaina Pratimă Vijñāna Prof. M.N.P. Tiwari Theory of Reality in Jaina Philosophy Dr. J.C. Sikdar Concept of Matter in Jaina Philosophy (2nd Ed.) Dr. J.C. Sikdar Sthānakavāsi Jaina Paramparā Kā Itihāsa Dr. S.M. Jain & Dr. Vijaya Kumar 10. Studies in Jaina Philosophy Dr. Nathmal Tatia 11. Doctrine of Karma in Jaina Philosophy H.V. Glasenapp Jainism: The Oldest Living Religion Dr. Jyoti Prasad Jain 13. Scientific Contents in Prakrit Canons Dr. N. L. Jain 14. Pearls of Jaina Wisdom Editors: Dr. S.M. Jain & Dr. S.P. Pandey 15. Studies in Jaina Art Dr. U.P. Shah 16. Dr. C. Krause: Her Life and Literature Vol. I Editor: Dr. S.P. Pandey 17. Jainism in a Global Perspective Editors: Dr. S.M. Jain & Dr. S.P. Pandey 18. Multi-dimensional Application of Anekāntavāda Editors: Dr. S.M. Jain & Dr. S.P. Pandey Advanced Glossary of Jaina Terms Dr. N.L. Jain 20. Uttarādhyayana-sūtra: Eka Parisilana (Hindi 2nd Ed.) Dr. S.L. Jain Jains Today in the World Pierre Paul Amiel 22. Kasāyapāhuda (Chapters on Passion) Dr. N.L. Jain 23. Jaina Karmagrantha Part-I-III (Pt. Sukhlal Sanghvi) 40.00 400.00 120.00 300.00 500.00, $ 40.00 400.00, $ 19.00 500.00, $ 20.00 300.00 600.00 500.00 300.00 400.00 For Personal & Private Use Only Page #358 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Dr. Krishna A. Gosavi was born in 1936 in India and after he became a naturalized US citizen. He is a Civil Engineer and licensed to practice as a professional Civil Engineer from USA. He has worked for more than 25 years in USA. Later on he joined as a Principal and Faculty Member of MGM's college of Engineering in University of Bombay, New Bombay, India. Dr. Gosavi joined Jain Vishwa Bharti University, Ladnun (Raj.) in 1996 to pursue his research work in Jainology and Comparative Religions and was awarded Ph.D. in 2006 The present Title is based on his Doctoral Thesis and further research on the subject since 2006. He has been involved in a number of social and religious organizations of India and USA. He now resides in Mumbai with his wife Dr. Vijaya Gosavi and engaged in contemplation on Jain doctrines and its comparative status with other Indian religions. Parshwanath Vidyapeeth I.T.I. Road, Karaundi, Varanasi-5 81-86715-62-2 For Personal & Private Use Only