Book Title: $JES 103 Jain Alphabet Book Level 1 Book
Author(s): JAINA Education Committee
Publisher: JAINA Education Committee
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Page #1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jain Alphabet Book Level 1) (JAINA Education Series 103 Compiled by JAINA Education Committee Pravin K. Shah, Chairperson Federation of Jain Associations in North America JAIN ALPHABET BOOK - 1 Page #2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jain Alphabet Book (JAINA Education Series 103 - Level 1) Third Edition (revised): April 2003 ISBN: 1-59406-002-9 2 This book has no copyright Please use the religious material respectfully Published and Distributed by: JAINA Education Committee Pravin K. Shah, Chairperson Federation of Jain Associations in North America 509 Carriage Woods Circle Raleigh, NC 27607-3969 USA Telephone and Fax - 919-859-4994 Email - Websites - Please provide us your comments and suggestions. Support JAINA Education activities. Your contribution is tax deductible in USA. Use the above address for communication. Printed in Korea by Oriental Art Press JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Dedicated Young Jains of America (YJA) ( Young Jain Professionals (YJP) and ( Jain Pathashala Teachers of North America ( for their continued effort and commitment in promoting religious awareness, nonviolence, reverence for all life forms, protection of the environment, and a spirit of compassionate interdependence with nature and all living beings. As importantly, for their commitment to the practice of Jainism, consistent with our principles, including vegetarianism and an alcohol/drug free lifestyle. Our great appreciation to all the Pathashala Teachers for their effort in instilling the basic values of Jainism and promoting the principles of nonviolence and compassion to all youth and adults. Special thanks to all Jain Vegan and alcohol/drug-free youth and adults for inspiring us to see the true connection between our beliefs and our choices. A vegan and alcohol/drug-free lifestyle stems from a desire to minimize harm to all animals as well as to our own bodies, minds, and souls. As a result, one avoids the use of all animal products such as milk, cheese, butter, ghee, ice cream, silk, wool, pearls, leather, meat, fish, chicken, eggs and n all types of addictive substances such as alcohol and drugs. JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Acknowledgements The project of compiling, revising, and editing of the existing JAINA Education series books was accomplished by a dedicated group of Pathashala teachers, educators, and individuals of North America, India and other parts of the world. The devoted contribution of all these supporters is evident on every page of this series, and is gratefully acknowledged. We would like to extend special thanks to the following people who contributed in the revision and publication of JAINA Education series Books. For Revising and Editing the Contents: Pradip & Darshana Shah Mukesh Doshi Parul Shah Harendra Shah Sudhir & Anita Shah Jadavji Kenia Neha & Rakesh Jain Alap Shah Shanti Mohnot Samuel Wallace Shweta Shah For Guidance: Muni Shri Nandighosh-Vijayji M.S. Muni Shri Ajayasagarji M.S. For Cover Design: Narendra Velani For Layout: Michelle Rudolph Hemant Parikh Chicago IL Raleigh NC Ahmedabad India For Graphics, Software, Website, Articles, and Other Support: Indrajit Shah Ashish Modi Chicago IL Raleigh NC Lalit Shah Ahmedabad India Rajesh Khajuria Vadodara India Kusumben Shah Ahmedabad India Chicago IL Chicago IL Raleigh NC Freemont CA Woodbridge CT Dallas TX Columbus OH Chicago IL Pittsburgh PA Raleigh NC Austin TX For Publishing, Printing, Layout, and Distribution Support: Rajendra Mehta Orlando FL Kusumben Shah Virendra Shah 4 Ahmedabad India Los Angeles CA JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Supporters of JAINA Education Activity: The estimated cost of printing all of the education books will be approximately $50,000 to $60,000. We have received enthusiastic support in terms of advance payment from various Jain organizations and contributions from various individuals as follows The Support Organizations: Jain Center of Chicago IL Jain Center of Northern California CA Jain Center of New York NY Jain Society of Houston TX Jain Center So. California - Los Angeles Jain Society Detroit Jain Center of Toronto Jain Society of Metro Washington DC Jain Society of Dallas TX Jain Center of Boston Jain Society of Pittsburgh PA Jain Society of Greater Cleveland OH Jain Study Center NC - Raleigh Jain Center of Minnesota Jain Center of Connecticut Jain Center of Louisiana Tulsa Jain Sangh - Tulsa OK Jain Society of San Diego - CA Jain Society of South Louisiana Jain Society of Las Vegas $5,000.00 $5,000.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00 $1,500.00 $1,000.00 $1,000.00 $1,000.00 $1,000.00 $1,000.00 $ 500.00 $ 500.00 $ 500.00 $ 500.00 $ 500.00 $ 500.00 $ 400.00 $ 200.00 The Benefactors: Riddhi Desai - Houston TX Mahendra & Saroj Shah - Detroit MI Suketu and Hetal Khandhar - Los Angeles CA Hemant and Bela Gandhi - Olathe KS Santosh and Bhakti Shah - Gretna LA Andrea Argenton - Italy Several anonymous individuals JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Book Number JES-101 One 5-9 *Note 6 JAINA Education Series Books (3RD Edition Revised) - Level Age JES-102 One 5-9 Merged JES-103 One 5-9 08-31-03 JES-104 One 5-9 09-15-03 JES-201 Two 10-12 09-30-03 JES-202 Two 10-12 09-30-03 JES-203 Two 10-12 09-30-03 JES-204 Two 10-12 09-30-03 JES-301 Three 13-15 12-31-03 JES-302 Three 13-15 03-15-03 JES-401 Four 16 up 09-30-03 JES-CD All All 08-01-02 JES-900 Series Publication Title Date 08-15-03 Jain Activity Book (Old Coloring book and Dot to Dot Book combined) Jain Dot to Dot Book merged in JES-101 Jain Alphabets Jain Moral Skits Jain Sutras and Stavans Jain Story Book First Steps to Jainism I First Steps to Jainism II First Steps to Jainism III Jain Philosophy and Practice I Jain Philosophy and Practice II JAINA Education CD Reference Books JES-201 and JES-301 books are new editions JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jai Jinendra PREFACE Non-violence (Ahimsa) is the backbone and focal point of Jain philosophy. Non-violence, non-absolutistic viewpoint (Anekantavad), and non-possessiveness/ non-attachment (Aparigraha) are fundamental principles of Jainism. Non-violence strengthens the proper conduct of every individual, non-absolutistic viewpoints strengthen the right thinking of every individual, and non-possessiveness strengthens the interdependence of all existence and provides harmony in society. If we observe these three principles in their true spirit, peace and harmony can certainly be attained within us as well as in the world. Although not fully introduced to the western world, Jainism is India's oldest living religion. The basic principles of Jainism are scientific and the 'truths' presented in our scriptures are universal; however, their interpretations and applications have to be done in the context of time and space in which we find ourselves. In English-speaking countries where many Jains have settled permanently such as the USA, Canada, the UK, and Africa, children do not have access to Jain educational material. In an attempt to make Jain principles known globally, the educational material must be made widely available in English. It is also necessary to publish Jain literature and educational material in a variety of media (i.e. books, videos, cassettes, CDs, DVDs, and web deployment) for English-speaking people interested in Jain philosophy, religion, and scriptures. The JAINA Education Committee is pleased to present a set of JAINA Education books (revised 3rd edition) for students of all ages interested in learning Jainism. These books are grouped into four age levels: Level 1 for elementary, Level 2 for middle school, Level 3 for high school, and Level 4 for college students. The entire list of JAINA Education Series Books is listed in this section. In 1995 and 1997, the first two editions of these books were published by the committee under the leadership of Dr. Premchand Gada of Lubbock, Texas. It took several years of dedicated hard work to compile and publish these series of books. The Jain community of North America has greatly benefited from this effort. JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 7 Page #8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Under a new JAINA Education committee, this 3rd edition series has gone through major revisions incorporating suggestions received from various Pathashala teachers, educators, and students from different centers. The new committee members are Jain Pathashala teachers of various centers and they have spent countless hours in the preparation of this material. Great care has been taken to present the material in a non-sectarian way and incorporate the uniqueness of every Jain sect. Most of the books have been rewritten with the addition of many new topics. Significant effort has been made to maintain consistency in the spellings of Jain words. Many youth have helped us in improving the English grammar in these books. The names of people who helped us in the preparation of this series are also listed in this section. Jain scriptures are written using Devanagari characters. To pronounce these characters in English correctly, it is necessary to put various diacritical marks on some English vowels and consonants. However, most internet browsers and word processors do not display and print all these transliterated characters. The main objective of these books is to teach the principles of Jainism to Jain youth and lay people who do not have the knowledge of this transliteration convention. As a result, a simplified diacritical mark scheme has been adopted for this series. The transliteration used here is neither authentic nor totally consistent. While it will serve the purpose of learning Jain principles, this book should not be used for learning correct pronunciations. The estimated cost of preparation and reprinting this education series will be $65,000. We have received great enthusiastic support in terms of advance payment from various Jain organizations and contributions from various individuals. Please support JAINA education activity generously. We distribute the religious books on a cost basis. The names of financial supporters are listed in this section. The Jain Alphabet Book (JES 103 - Level 1) for young children was recompiled using the 2nd edition book. Both the contents and the grammar were improved by adults and youth volunteers. Also, the members may have used other sources, and we are grateful to the authors and publishers for being able to use their work liberally. Please note that the JAINA Education committee members are Jain Pathashala teachers and are not Jain scholars. Hence, you may find some errors in the 8 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ presentation. Certain items may be applicable to one Jain sect and not applicable to other Jain sects. Please pardon us for any mistakes, oversights, understatements, or overstatements in the material. We request you to use and review the material objectively and provide suggestions to enable us to incorporate them easily in future revisions. In line with Jain Philosophy, the JAINA education series is not copyrighted. However, if you need to copy and distribute any of the material, please do it respectfully and on a cost basis. Please note that most of these books and other material are available on JAINA Education CD and from the JAINA website - A lot of minds and blessings, both directly and indirectly, have touched this noble proiect. We sincerely appreciate and thank every person and every organization that made this project successful. As always, if you have any comments and suggestions for improvement, please feel free to contact us. If we have mentioned anything against the teachings of the Tirthankars, we ask for forgiveness. Michchhami Dukkadam. Pravin K. Shah, Chairperson JAINA Education Committee education August 3, 2003 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #10 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Pronunciation Guide and a Disclaimer note on Transliteration Jain scriptures are written using Devanagari characters. To correctly pronounce these characters in English, it is necessary to put various diacritical marks on some English vowels and consonants. Scholars usually follow a standard transliteration scheme adopted by the International Congress of Orientalists at Athens, Greece in 1912. However, most Internet browsers and word processors may not display and print all transliterated characters. The main objective of these Jain education series has been to teach Jainism concepts to Jain youth and lay people who do not have the knowledge of this transliteration convention. As a result, a following simplified scheme has been adopted for this series. Only one diacritical mark, two dots over the letter "a" (aa) or "A" (AA) is used to indicate a long vowel sound of letter "a" associated with certain words. The transliteration used here is neither authentic nor totally consistent. Therefore, while it will serve the purpose of learning Jain concepts, this book should not be used for learning correct pronunciations. The pronunciation guide is as listed below. The bold letter in each Sanskrit word should be pronounced similarly to the bold letter in each English word. Please do not pronounce a (aa) if the letter "a" but not "a" appears at the end of word such as Karma or Jina. far English vowel English word Sanskrit or Prakrit word ago Karma Atma Deva police Jina go ogho rule guru red CO-m D:D Note - The Jain Sutra book (JES 201) will have all diacritical marks in the transliteration portion of the original Sutras. 10 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #11 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREFACE....................... Mangalacharan Contents A is for Ahimsa. B is for Bowing (Vandan). C is for Charity D is for Discipline ........ E is for Evening Prayer and Pratikraman F is for Forgiveness ------- G is for Guru (Sadhu and Sadhvi) His for Help. I is for Indrabhuti Gautam J is for Jai-Jinendra K is for Karma L is for Leshya M is for Mahavir N is for Namokar Mantra O is for Om P is for Pathashala Q is for Queen Trishala. R is for Rosary S is for Soul (Atma) T is for Temple U is for Upashray V is for Vow W is for Worship X is for Xylography Y is for Yoga Z is for Zalar Color Science of Navakar Mantra.. JAIN ALPHABET BOOK ------- 7 12 .17 19 .21 .23 .25 .27 29 33 .35 .39 .41 .43 47 .51 .55 .57 .59 61 63 ....65 67 .69 .71 .73 75 ...77 ------.... 78 11 Page #12 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Mangalacharan navakara mantra namo arihantanarm | namo siddhanam | namo ayariyanam | namo uvajjhayanam | namo loe savvasAhUNaM / eso paMca namukkAroM / savvapAvappaNAsaNo / namo loe savvasahunam | eso pancha namukkaro | savvapavappanasano | maMgalANaM ca savvesiM mangalanam cha savvesim padhamam havai mangalam II paDhamaM havaI maMgalaM || I bow to Arihantas (Tirthankars), the perfected souls, who have reached enlightenment by overcoming their inner weaknesses, who have attained infinite knowledge, perception, bliss, and power and have shown the path, which brings an end to the cycle of birth, life, death and suffering. I bow to Siddhas, the liberated souls, who have attained the state of perfection and immortality by eradicating all karma. navakAramaMtra namo arihaMtANaM / namo siddhANaM / namo AyariyANaM / namo uvajjhAyANaM / I bow to Acharyas, who are the head of Jain congregation, and who preach the principles of religion and show the path of liberation, which is the unity of Right Faith, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct. I bow to Upadhyays who are the ascetic teachers. They explain Jain scriptures and show us the importance of a spiritual life over a material life. I bow to all Sadhus and Sadhvis who strictly follow the five great vows of conduct and inspire us to live a simple life. To these five types of great souls I offer my praise. Such praise will help diminish my negative vibrations and sins. Offering this praise is most auspicious of all benedictions. 121 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #13 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ chattari mangalam cattAri maMgalaM cattAri maMgalaM, arihaMtA maMgalaM, siddhA maMgalaM, sAhU maMgalaM, kevalipaNNatto dhammo maMgalaM / chattari mangalam, arihanta mangalam, siddha mangalam, sahu mangalam, kevalipannatto dhammo mangalam | cattAri loguttamA, arihaMtA loguttamA, siddhA loguttamA, sAhU loguttamA, kevalipaNNatto dhammo loguttamo / chattari loguttama, arihanta loguttama, siddha loguttama, sahu loguttama, kevalipannatto dhammo loguttamol cattAri zaraNaM pavajjAmi, arihaMte zaraNaM pavajjAmi, siddhe zaraNaM pavajjAmi, sAhU zaraNaM pavajjAmi, kevali paNNattaM dhammaM zaraNaM pavajjAmi / / / chattari sharanam pavajjami, arihante sharanam pavajjami, siddhe sharanam pavajjami, sahu sharanam pavajjami, kevalipannattam dhammam Sharanam pavajjami || There are four auspicious entities in the universe. The Arihantas are auspicious. The Siddhas are auspicious. The Sadhus are auspicious. The religion explained by the omniscient is auspicious. There are four supreme entities in the universe. The Arihantas are supreme. The Siddhas are supreme. The Sadhus are supreme. The religion explained by the omniscient is supreme. I take refuge in the four entities of the universe. I take refuge in the Arihantas. I take refuge in the Siddhas. I take refuge in the Sadhus. I take refuge in the religion explained by the omniscient. JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 13 Page #14 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 14 darzanaM devadevasya, darzanaM pApanAzanam / darzana svargasopAnaM darzanaM mokSasAdhanam // darshanam devadevasya darshanam papanashanam darshanam svargasopanam darshanam mokshasadhanam || The sight of the idol of the Lord, the God of all heavenly gods, is the destroyer of all sins. It is a step towards the heavens, and is a means to the liberation of the soul. maMgalaM bhagavAna vIro, maMgalaM gautama prabhu | maMgalaM sthUlabhadrAdyA, jaina dharmostu maMgalaM // mangalam bhagavana viro, mangalam gautama prabhu | mangalam sthulibhadradya, jaina dharmostu mangalam || Bhagawan Mahavir is auspicious, Ganadhar Gautam Swami is auspicious; Acharya Sthulibhadra is auspicious; Jain religion is auspicious. maMgalaM bhagavAna vIro, maMgalaM gautamo gaNi / maMgalaM kundakundAryo, jaina dharmostu maMgalaM // mangalam bhagavana viro, mangalam gautamo gani | mangalam kundakundaryo, jaina dharmostu mangalam || Bhagawan Mahavir is auspicious, Ganadhar Gautam Swami is auspicious; Acharya Kunda-kunda is auspicious; Jain religion is auspicious. arhanto bhagavaMta indramahitAH, siddhASca siddhisthitA / AcAryA jinazAsanonnatikarAH pUjyA upAdhyAyakAH / zrI siddhAntasupAThakA munivarA, ratnatrayArAdhakAH / paMca te parameSThinaH pratidinam kurvaMtu vo maMgalam // arhanto bhagavanta indramahitah, siddhashcha siddhisthita acharya jinashasanonnatikarah, pujya upadhyayakah shri siddhantasupathaka munivara, ratnatrayaradhakah| panchai te paramesthinah pratidinam kurvantu vo mangalam || The Omniscients who have been worshipped by heavenly gods; the liberated souls, who are Siddhas; the heads of the religious order, who reinforce the fourfold order established by the Jinas; the revered Upadhyays; well versed in the scriptures and the Saints who are also the followers of the true path of liberation (three jewels); may all these five auspicious entities bestow blessings on you everyday. AdimaM pRthivInAtha- mAdimaM niSparigraham / AdimaM tIrthanAthaM ca RSamasvAminaM stumaH // adimam prthivinatha-madimam nisparigraham | adimam tirthanatham cha rsabhasvaminam stumah || We adore Lord Rushabhadev who was the first king, who was the first to renounce all his possessions (everything) and who was the first Tirthankar. JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #15 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ tubhyaM namastribhuvanArtiharAya nAtha, tubhyaM namaH kSItitalAmalabhUSaNAya | tubhyaM namastrijagataH paramezvarAya, tubhyaM namo jina bhavodadhizoSaNAya || tubhyam namastribhuvanartiharaya natha | tubhyam namah ksititalamalabhusanaya| tubhyam namastrijagatah parameshvaraya tubhyam namojina bhavodadhishosanaya || Lord, bow to you, the eradicator of misery of the three worlds; bow to you the adorable ornament on the face of the earth; bow to you, the Lord of the three worlds; omniscient Lord; bow to you, the destroyer of the sea of the life cycle. vIraH sarvasurAsurendra-mahito, vIraM budhAH saMzritAH vIreNAbhihataH svakarma nicayo, vIrAya nityaM namaH / vIrAt tIrthamidaM pravRttamatulaM, vIrasya ghoraM tapo vIre zrI dhati kIrti kAMti nicayaH zrI vIra bhadraM diza || virah sarvasurasurendra-mahito, viram budhah samshritah virenabhihatah svakarma nichayo, viraya nityam namah virat tirthamidam pravrttamatulam, virasya ghoram tapo vire shri dhrti kirti kanti nichayah shri vira ! bhadram disha || Lord Mahavir is worshipped by all heavenly gods as well as demons; the learned take refuge in Lord Mahavir; who has destroyed all his karma; I always bow to Lord Mahavir; this unparalleled Tirtha has been set up by Lord Mahavir; Lord Mahavir's austerities were intense; collections of enlightenment (Shri means wealth, here wealth of knowledge), patience, glory, and grace rest in Vir; Oh Lord Mahavir, show me the path to attain bliss. upasargAH kSayaM yAnti, chidyante vighnavallayaH / manaH prasannatAmeti, pUjyamAne jinezvare || upasargah ksayam yanti, chhidyante vighnavallayah manah prasannatameti, pujyamane jineshvare || All the troubles disintegrate, the shackles of obstacles break, the mind achieves a blissful state wherever and whenever the Lord Jineshvars are worshipped. zivamastu sarvajagataH, parahitaniratA bhavantu bhUtagaNAH / doSAH prayAMtu nAzaM, sarvatra sukhIbhavatu lokaH // shivamastu sarvajagatah, parahitanirata bhavantu bhutaganah| dosah prayantu nasham, sarvatra sukhibhavatu lokah || May the entire universe attain bliss; may all beings be oriented to the interest of others; let all faults be eliminated; and may people be happy everywhere. khAmemi savvajIve, savve jIvA khamaMtu me | mittI me savva bhaesa, verama majjhaM na keNai || khamemi savvajive, savve jiva khamantu me|| mitti me savva bhuesu, veram majjham na kenai || I forgive all souls; let all souls forgive me. I am on friendly terms with all. I have no animosity towards anybody. JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 15 Page #16 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ A IS FOR AHIMSA 16 A ahiMsA Ahimsa JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #17 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ A IS FOR AHIMSA A is for Ahimsa Ahimsa means Non-Violence More than 2500 years ago, Lord Mahavir made a simple yet powerful statement about Ahimsa; "All life is just like me. I want to live. So do all living beings. Every living being wants to live and fears death. Each of us wants to be free from pain. So we should carry out all our activities with great care not to harm any living being." "Ahimsa Parmo Dharma" means 'Non-Violence is the highest religion'. The philosophy of Non-Violence is a way of life. We must respect all life forms in order to practice total Non-Violence. A vegetarian diet is one simple way to practice Ahimsa. We should not eat. drink. or wear any product made by hurting, torturing or killing animals. In the picture the raised hand tells us to stop and think before we start any activity, speak to other people, or even think about others. We can hurt someone or commit violence by any of these three actions - words, thoughts or actions. We should stop and think before doing nything. This way, we will be able to observe the principles of Ahimsa in its true sense. The wheel in the hand reminds us that if we do not watch all our actions, our soul* cannot be freed from the cycle of birth, life and death. Ahimsa (non-violence), Anekantavad (non-one sidedness) and Aparigraha (non-possessiveness) are the three 'A's of Jainism. All Jains should apply these principles in their daily life. * Soul is our true inner self; the part of us that never dies. See S Note : A is also for Arihanta and Amity (friendship) JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 17 Page #18 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ B IS FOR BOWING Down (VANDAN) Bowing Down 18 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #19 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ We bow to Tirthankars (Arihantas) and Siddha* Bhagawans. We also bow down to Acharyas**, Upadhyays**, and all Sadhus and Sadhvis***. By bowing, we show our respect to them and admire their effort and spiritual achievements. We also bow to our parents, grandparents, and our teachers because we want to show our respect for them and thank them for what they have done for us. In this picture, a man is bowing. When we bow we become more humble. So remember, respect others by bowing down. * Note: B is also for Bhakti, Bliss, and Bhagawan Look for ** B IS FOR BOWING DOWN (VANDAN) B is for Bowing (Vandan) *** Bowing is a method of Paying Respect Siddha under *N and S, Acharyas and Upadhyays under N, Sadhus and Sadhvis -under G JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 19 Page #20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ C IS FOR CHARITY DONATION BOX Charity 20 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #21 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ C IS FOR CHARITY C is for Charity Charity means to Share What We Have with Others Charity is when we give something to others without expecting anything in return. Everyone, however big or small can give something to others. Charity is not just giving money, a person can share whatever they have as charity. We should give food, clothing, medicine, and other articles of our own possession to needy people, give our time and skills to our community, and give respect and understanding to all living beings. The food offered should be vegetarian and offered with compassion. Jains should always give anonymously (without the knowledge of others), free from pomp and ego. When we give in this manner, we get great satisfaction and happiness from within. The sole purpose of a donation box (Bhandar) in a temple is to encourage anonymous giving within each individual's capacity. Also in the picture, a girl is giving clothes to a needy person. If we would have used our additional wealth for our comfort and pleasure we would have acquired more sins. Therefore, charity saves us from sins. Note : C is also for Conduct JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 21 Page #22 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ D IS FOR DISCIPLINE 22 JAI JINENDRA D Discipline JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ D IS FOR DISCIPLINE D is for Discipline Discipline means A State Of Order Discipline is living our life in harmony with certain principles or guidelines. Just as the banks of the river help the water reach its destination by giving it guidance and direction, discipline brings order and structure to our lives and our activities, and helps us reach our goals. Some examples of Discipline are: 1. Waking up and going to sleep at a certain time everyday. 2. Praying every morning, night, and before meals. 3. Bowing before our elders in respect for their age, experience, and wisdom. 4. Controlling our anger even when provoked. 5. Finishing our work on time, every time. 6. Listening to our parents since they know what is best for us and our family. Note : D is also for Dharma, Devotion, Darshan, and Deva, which is synonymous with Bhagawan (Arihanta and Siddha) JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 23 Page #24 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ E IS FOR EVENING PRAYER AND PRATIKRAMAN 999 @@@ Evening Prayer 24 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ E IS FOR EVENING PRAYER AND PRATIKRAMAN E is for Evening Prayer and Pratikraman Evening Prayer and Pratikraman Should Remind Us To Think About What We Did Today And What We Should Try To Do Better Tomorrow Prayer can be said at any time. The most important prayer in Jainism is the Navakar Mantra*. We should say the Navakar Mantra at least seven times in the morning when we get up and seven times in the evening before going to bed. In the picture, a boy and a girl are saying their evening prayers. Another practice all Jains, should follow is called Pratikraman. Here we introspect - look within ourselves, and take a survey of our day. We take full responsibility for our actions and truly forgive those who have hurt us in any way. We repent and apologize for all our misdeeds of the day and promise ourselves to be more careful and not to repeat the same in the future. Prayers and Pratikraman help uplift our soul; and we should always do these in the morning and in the evening. Note: E is also for Enlightenment, Equanimity Look for Navakar Mantra under N* JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 25 Page #26 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F IS FOR FORGIVENESS Forgiveness 26 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F is for Forgiveness Forgiveness means Pardoning Someone Who May Have Caused Us Some Harm Forgiveness helps us remove our anger, hostility and resentment towards others. It energizes us and makes our world more beautiful than ever. Jainism teaches us that Ahimsa* (non-violence to other living beings) and forgiveness should be the main actions of our daily life. In life we always come across people who have hurt us, intentionally or unintentionally. But no matter how badly they hurt us, we should always forgive them unconditionally. We should always think that our present suffering is due to our past karma. Hence we should stay calm, not get angry, and should not try to get even. In the picture, Lord Mahavir** is forgiving Chandkaushik, the snake, even though he bit Mahavir. Bhagawan Mahavir showed the way of forgiveness. We, as his followers, should also forgive those who hurt us. Forgiving helps our soul while anger hurts our soul. We first forgive others and then seek their forgiveness for our faults. Just as Ahimsa is a part of our daily life, forgiveness should also be a part of our daily action. Note: F is also for Faith Look for *Ahimsa under A, **Mahavir under M F IS FOR FORGIVENESS JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 27 Page #28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ G IS FOR GURU (SADHU AND SADHVI) 28 G Guru JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ G IS FOR GURU (SADHU AND SADHVI) G is for Guru (Sadhu and Sadhvi) Gurus are our Religious Leaders and Teachers Jain monks (Sadhus) and nuns (Sadhvis) are our gurus. These gurus are people like us who have voluntarily given up their worldly attachments and have accepted the five great vows* as a code of conduct to purify their souls from karma. Our Gurus observe total Ahimsa (non-violence). They tell the truth. They do not take anything not properly given to them. They observe celibacy and do not enjoy material happiness. They do not keep any possessions, which are not useful in their religious activity. They have also given up relationships and attachment to their family and friends. The Gurus study scriptures, perform meditation, and live a pious life. They voluntarily suffer many hardships to get rid of their karma. The Sadhus do not touch or sit close to Sadhvis, ladies, or girls and Sadhvis do not touch or sit close to Sadhus, men, or boys. Both Sadhus and Sadhvis stay in a separate Upashray. Except for the rainy season, they do not stay in one place for more than a few days at a time. Shvetambar Sadhus and Sadhvis wear white clothes. They keep a es, a few bowls to collect food. a Raioharan (soft broom to clean), and a Muhapatti (mouth cover to protect the small living organisms in the air). Digambar Sadhus do not wear any clothes, while the Sadhvis wear white clothes. Digambar Sadhus keep a Morpichhi (a broom made from naturally shredded peacock feathers) and a Kamandal (water utensil to wash). Note : G is also for God and Goodness Look for *Vows under V JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 29 Page #30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ G IS FOR GURU (SADHU AND SADHVI) Gurus from both traditions walk barefoot so that they do not hurt bugs or insects. They do not keep money, jewelry, or own anything, such as a house or a car. They do not cook for themselves and do not eat any food that is cooked especially for them. They eat only vegetarian food. The Jain Sangha (congregation) is made up of Sadhus, Sadhvis, Shravaks (laymen) and Shravikas (laywomen). Many Jain Sanghas exist in various Jain sects. An Acharya is the head of a Jain Sangha. They teach laypeople about religion. We respect gurus for their discipline and teachings. We take spiritual refuge in our gurus. 30 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Parshwanath Temple Khajuraho Temples, Madhya Pradesh 9th Century JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 31 Page #32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ H IS FOR HELP 32 H AN Help JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ H is for Help Help means to Provide Service to the Needy We should be helpful to everyone who needs our help and support. We should not forget anyone. Jainism says that we should help all people regardless of their caste, race, sex, and religion and whether they are good or bad people. We should help not only human beings, but also animals and other small living beings. We can help in many different ways such as giving money, clothes, food, medicine, shelter, and education. We can also help by making a person feel better if they are sad. If someone requests something from us and we have only a little, we should share what we have. In the picture, the boys are helping a blind man to cross the road. We must make it a habit to help others. Note: H is also for Honesty H IS FOR HELP JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 33 Page #34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ I IS FOR INDRABHUTI GAUTAM (ALSO KNOWN AS GAUTAM SWAMI) Indrabhuti Gautam 34 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ TIS FOR INDRABHUTI GAUTAM (ALSO KNOWN AS GAUTAM SWAMI) Tis for Indrabhuti Gautam Indrabhuti Gautam (also known as Gautam Swami) was Bhagawan Mahavir's* First Disciple Indrabhuti Gautam was the most well-known and educated Hindu Brahmin during the time of Lord Mahavir. He was a very knowledgeable person, and therefore became very arrogant. One day during a religious ceremony, he saw some celestial beings flying towards his town. He told everyone, "See, how great I am! Even heavenly angels have decided to join my religious ceremony." But the celestial beings did not stop to join him. Indrabhuti Gautam was surprised and inquired where the angels were going. The people said that the angels were going to pay their respect to Bhagawan Mahavir, who had come to the nearby Mahasen forest. After attaining kevaljnan, Bhagawan Mahavir was to deliver his first sermon. Immediately Indrabhuti visited Bhagawan Mahavir and saw his bright but humble personality. He experienced true happiness when he saw Bhagawan Mahavir. Bhagawan Mahavir explained to him the true meaning of the nature of the soul and its qualities. Indrabhuti was amazed and realized that Mahavir possessed kevaljnan (total knowledge) and had attained eternal happiness. His ego dissolved immediately and Indrabhuti bowed down to Bhagawan Mahavir and became his first disciple or Ganadhar. Later, he came to be known as Gautam Swami. For the next 30 years, Gautam Swami asked many questions related to Jain philosophy and conduct to Bhagawan Mahavir. The answers to these questions are recorded in our Jain scriptures known as Agam Sutras. Gautam Swami attained kevaljnan on the day after Bhagawan Mahavir attained nirvana. Bhagawan Mahavir's nirvana day was the last day (Deepavali day) of the Jain and Hindu calendar year and Gautam swami's kevaljnan day was the first day (New Year day) of the Jain JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 35 Page #36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ I IS FOR INDRABHUTI GAUTAM (ALSO KNOWN AS GAUTAM SWAMI) and Hindu calendar year. Hence, we begin our new year with a special prayer to Gautam Swami and conclude the year with a special prayer to Bhagawan Mahavir. We should give up our ego like Gautam Swami. Note: I is also for Image and Integrity Look for *Mahavir under M 36 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Ajitnath Temple Taranga Hills, Gujarat 11th Century JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 20 37 Page #38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ J IS FOR JAI-JINENDRA JAI JINENDRA a Jai Jinendra 38 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ J is for Jai-Jinendra Jai-Jinendra means "Praise To The Jina." "Jai Jinendra" helps us honor the virtues of our Tirthankar* or Jina. Jai Jinendra means, "May the religion established by the Jina prevail in our hearts". As we greet others we say, "Jai Jinendra" because we see the image of a Jina, conqueror of all inner enemies, in them. Recognizing this, we bow with respect to their Soul as every Soul is capable of becoming a Jina. When we see others in this light, we are more respectful and our behavior towards them changes. Our anger and ego dissolves immediately and we refrain from deceitful behavior. Every morning when we awake and every night before we go to bed, we should respectfully say, "Jai Jinendra" to our parents, sisters, brothers, and grandparents. We should say, "Jai Jinendra" to any guests who visit our home. We should also say, "Jai Jinendra" to our teachers, other students at Jain Pathashala**, and other Jains whom we may see at the Jain Center, Temple, Upashray or any other place. We should greet our friends with "Jai Jinendra" when we talk on the telephone. In the picture, the boy is respectfully saying "Jai Jinendra" to his parents. Remember; always greet others by saying "Jai Jinendra". * Those who have established the Jain Religion order Note: J is also for Justice and Jina Look for **Pathshala under P J IS FOR JAI-JINENDRA JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 39 Page #40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ K IS FOR KARMA Karma 40 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ - K is for Karma Every moment of our life, we are doing something either by words, thoughts or actions. We should remember that all activities words, thoughts and actions collect karma. There are two kinds of karmas: good and bad. When we do good things, like helping or sharing with others, we collect good karmas. However, when we do something bad, like getting angry, screaming, or cheating, we collect bad karma. Karma is the End Result of Our Action. K IS FOR KARMA Both good and bad karma produce results. If we get bad karma, then we will have to suffer in the future. Our life will be sad and miserable. However, if we get good karma, our life will be comfortable and happy. Whether one is rich or poor, strong or handicapped, a human or an animal, all are the result of our karma acquired in the past. Hence we should do good things that will make us happy in the future. There are a total of eight types of karma that determine all aspects of our life and personality. Arihantas are born with eight types of karmas they destroy four types of karmas when they attain omniscience and the other four when they attain nirvana and become a Siddha. Siddha Bhagawans are pure soul, having no karma. In the top picture, the man is shooting a bird and thus he will get bad karma. In the bottom picture, the girl is donating clothes to a needy person and thus she will get good karma. We should be careful of what we do and how we do it, because every moment we collect Karma. Note K is also for Knowledge JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 41 Page #42 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L IS FOR LESHYA Leshya 42 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #43 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ In Jainism, there is a great deal of importance given to Leshya. Leshya refers to the state of mind. Our activities reflect our state of mind. The following illustration shows us how our activities vary with the state of our mind. * Once a group of six friends were traveling together. On the way, they got lost in the forest. They were hungry and thirsty, but they could not find anything to eat or drink. Then one of them noticed a fruit tree. They ran to it. Each one had their own idea on how to obtain the fruits from the tree: * The first friend wanted to chop down the whole tree. The second friend thought that they should just chop off the big branches. * L is for Leshya Leshya is the Thought Process Behind Any Action The third friend said that they only needed to chop off a few small branches, which held the fruits. * L IS FOR LESHYA * The fourth one thought it unnecessary to chop any branches. They should just pick all the fruits from the tree. The fifth friend felt that they should pick enough fruits to satisfy their hunger. They should not waste any fruits. The sixth one said that there were enough fruits that had already fallen from the tree. They should not climb the tree, cut branches or pick fruits, when there were many good fruits on the ground. * JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 43 Page #44 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ L IS FOR LESHYA See how differently the six friends thought? The first one wanted to destroy the whole tree while the sixth one did not want to hurt the tree at all. You can see how differently people can think. The way the sixth man thought was the best way and the way the first man thought was the worst way. There are six Leshyas, which describe the way people think in this story. First Leshya is called the Black (Krishna) Leshya (worst Leshya) Second Leshya is called the Blue (Neel) Leshya Third Leshya is called the Gray (Kapot) Leshya Fourth Leshya is called the Red (Tejo) Leshya Fifth Leshya is called the Yellow (Padma) Leshya Sixth Leshya is called the White (Shukla) Leshya (best Leshya) Our thoughts change all the time and so will our Leshya. We should always strive to think like the sixth man did. This will happen when we lessen our needs and wants, and when we think of others first instead of just ourselves. * * Note: L is also for Liberation and Love 44 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #45 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Kirti Sthambha Chittorgarh, Rajasthan 12th Century JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 45 Page #46 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ M IS FOR MAHAVIR 46 S Mahavir JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #47 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ M is for Mahavir Mahavir is the 24th Tirthankar* Lord Mahavir was born in 599 BC in Kshatriya-kund (also known as Kundalpur). His father was King Siddhartha and his mother was Queen Trishala**. Soon after it became known that queen Trishala was pregnant, the people in King Siddhartha's kingdom began noticing that business and farming were improving. King Siddhartha believed that this was because Queen Trishala was going give a birth to a very virtuous son. When the baby was born, they named him "Vardhaman" which means ever growing or increasing. As he grew older, Prince Vardhaman showed himself to be a brave person. Once, while playing with his friends a snake came near them. Everyone was scared except Prince Vardhaman. He remained calm. He gently caught the snake, and put it in a safe place. Another time, they were playing hide-and-seek. Whoever was caught would have to give a piggyback ride to the winner. A new boy joined the game. Soon, Prince Vardhaman caught him, and the boy gave the Prince a piggyback ride. Suddenly the new boy started to grow taller and scarier. The other boys became scared and ran away. Some of them climbed into a tree, and some ran to tell their parents. While all this was going on, Prince Vardhaman was enjoying the ride. When he realized that the boy was not a real boy but he was a big monster, he gave the demon one blow between the shoulders with his fist. The monster could not take the pain and gave up his giant body. He told Prince Vardhaman that he is not a monster but an angel from heaven. He wanted to test his fearlessness and strength. JAIN ALPHABET BOOK M IS FOR MAHAVIR 47 Page #48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ M IS FOR MAHAVIR He asked the Prince for forgiveness*** for his action and the Prince forgave him. The angel named Prince Vardhaman 'Mahavir', meaning "the strong one". We should try to be brave and fearless like Lord Mahavir. Note: M is also for Moksha * A Tirthankar is one who re-establishes the religious order of monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen. This four-fold order is known as Jain Sangha Look under **Queen Trishala under Q, ***Forgiveness under F 48 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #49 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Indra Sabha (Courtyard) Ellora Caves, Maharashtra 8th-10th Century JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 49 Page #50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ N IS FOR NAVAKAR MANTRA N Namo arihaMtANaM, Namo siddhANaM, Namo AyariyANaM, Namo uvajjhAyANaM, Namo loe savva sAhUNaM / esI paMca NamokkAro, savva pAva-ppaNAsaNI maMgalANaM ca savvesiM, paDhamaM havai maMgalaM Namokar Mantra 50 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 0000 Page #51 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ N is for Namokar Mantra The Namokar Mantra is the Most Important Prayer in Jainism N IS FOR NAVAKAR MANTRA The sacred Jain prayer is the Namokar, Namaskar or Navakar Mantra in which homage is paid to the five worshipful personalities: Arihantas, Siddhas, Acharyas, Upadhyays, and all Sadhus and Sadhvis. Namo Arihantanam I bow to the Arihantas (Tirthankars) who have reached enlightenment by overcoming their inner weaknesses, who have attained infinite knowledge, vision, bliss, and power and have shown the path which brings an end to the cycle of life, death and suffering. Namo Siddhanam I bow to the Siddhas or liberated souls who have attained the state of perfection and immortality by liberating themselves from all karmas. Namo Ayariyanam I bow to the Acharyas, who are the head of Jain congregations, and who preach the principles of religion and show the path of liberation, which is the unity of Right Faith, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct. Namo Uvajjhayanam I bow to the Upadhyays who are the ascetic teachers. They explain Jain scriptures and show us the importance of the spiritual life over the material life. Namo Loe Savva Sahunam I bow to all the ascetics who strictly follow the five great vows of conduct and inspire us to live a simple life. JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 51 Page #52 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ N IS FOR NAVAKAR MANTRA Eso Pancha Namukkaro To these five types of great souls I offer my praise. Savva Pava Ppanasano Such praise will help diminish my negative vibrations and sins. Mangalanam cha Savvesim Padhamam Havai Mangalam Offering this praise is the most auspicious of all benedictions. We should always recite the Namokar Mantra to pay respect to these great souls. This leads us to pure thoughts, which in turn leads to pure activities. We should recite it when we awake in the morning, going to bed at night or when we get free time. Note : N is also for Non-attachment 52 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ N IS FOR NAVAKAR MANTRA Color Science of Navakar Mantra Center of Perception NAMO SIDDHANAM Center of Knowledge NAMO ARIHANTANAM Center of Purity NAMO AYARIYAMAN Center of Bliss NAMO UVAJJHAYANAM Center of Power NAMO LOE SAVVA SAHUNAM Each line of the Navakar Mantra is associated with specific colors and they have close connection with various Energy centers of the body (please see the explanation at the end of this book). JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 53 Page #54 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ O IS FOR OM NamoarihaMtANa pAmo siddhA NamoAyariyA Namo avajJA INSIP DOR Om 54 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #55 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ O is for Om Om is for meditation Om is a holy word used in the beginning of many prayers. Om is also used to set a tune for meditation. Om is another religious chant like the Namokar Mantra**. 'Om' is a Sanskrut word and it sounds like 'Aum'. It is made up of five letters: - a, a, a (aa), u, and m. The five letters, spoken together, make the sound Om. The first letter "a" represents Arihanta (a human being who has realized the true nature of reality and has conquered their worldly passions) * The second "a" represents Ashariri (Ashariri means to be without a physical body, such as a liberated soul, a perfected being, or a Siddha) O IS FOR OM * The third letter "a" represents Acharya (an Ascetic who is the head of a Jain congregation) * The fourth letter "u" represents Upadhyay (an Ascetic teacher) The fifth letter "m" represents Muni (Sadhus and Sadhvis who practice Jain principles). Hence, the Om represents the salutation to the five revered personalities in Jainism. Om is a short form of the Navakar or Namokar Mantra. Note: O is also for Omniscience ** Look for Navkar Mantra under N JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 55 Page #56 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ P IS FOR PATHASHALA JIV AJIV Pathashala 56 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #57 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ P IS FOR PATHASHALA Pis for Pathashala Pathashala is a Place Where We Learn About Jainism A Pathashala is a place where we can learn about our religion. Almost all Jain centers in North America have a Pathashala. Many of the centers have Pathashala classes on each Sunday. Children should go to the Pathashala so they can learn more about our religion. Parents should make sure that their children get a chance to go there. So, remember to go to your Pathashala to learn more about Jain Religion. Note : P is also for Penance, Puja, Pratikraman, and Prayer JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 57 Page #58 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Q IS FOR QUEEN TRISHALA 58 Q Queen Trishala JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #59 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Q IS FOR QUEEN TRISHALA Q is for Queen Trishala Queen Trishala Had Fourteen (Sixteen) Dreams After Lord Mahavir's* Soul Entered Her Womb Queen Trishala had fourteen dreams when she became pregnant. (According to Digambar tradition, Queen Trishala had sixteen dreams adding a pair of fish and a lofty throne.) All the dreams symbolized the good qualities of her child. Queen Trishala was very happy to be having such a wonderful child. That child was Lord Mahavir*. He showed us the path to freedom from the cycle of birth and death. The fourteen (Shvetambar tradition) / sixteen (Digambar tradition) dreams were: 01 Lion 02 Elephant 03 Bull 04 Goddess Lakshmi 05 Pair of Garlands 06 Full Moon 07 Sun 08 Flag 09 Golden Vase 10 Lotus Lake 11. Milky Ocean 12 Celestial Plane 13 Heap of Jewels 14 Smokeless Fire 15 Pair of Fish** 16 Throne** Rushabhadev's mother dreamt of Bull, Elephant and Lion; while the mothers of Tirthankars number two to twenty-three dreamt of Elephant, Bull and Lion. The rest of the dreams were always in the same order. Note : Q is also for Quest and Quality Look for *Mahavir under M ** Additional dreams indicated in Digambar tradition JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 59 Page #60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ R IS FOR ROSARY 60 R Rosary JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #61 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ R IS FOR ROSARY R is for Rosary Rosary is Used for Meditation* Usually, we say the Namokar Mantra** in the morning and in the evening. Some people say it three to seven times, and some people say it 108 times. It would be hard to count 108 and meditate at the same time. To help us we use a rosary. A rosary has 108 beads and these beads represent the sum total of the 108 attributes of the five worshipful personalities (Pancha Parmeshtis): Arihantas - 12 Siddhas - 08 Acharyas - 36 Upadhyays - 25 Sadhus - 27 This reminds us to aim for these 108 attributes ourselves. To meditate on the Namokar Mantra we should sit in a quiet place, preferably facing east, everyday. We should forget everything else and concentrate on the 5 great souls in the Namokar Mantra. This will destroy our bad karma*** and bring good thoughts into our minds. It will give us peace. Note : R is also for Respect, Reverence, and Reincarnation * Meditation means to pray with spiritual thoughts Look for ** Namokar Mantra under N. *** Karma under K JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 61 Page #62 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ S IS FOR SOUL (ATMA) - SOUL IS IMMORTAL 2 62 S Soul (Atma) JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ S IS FOR SOUL (ATMA) - SOUL IS IMMORTAL S is for Soul (Atma) Soul is immortal Siddha Bhagawan is a pure soul, which is blissful and omniscient All souls are immortal. All life forms have a soul and a body. Our body and our abilities are determined partly by the results of our karma*. When karma binds to our soul, the soul gets contaminated. Contaminated souls occupy four types of body forms: human, heavenly, hellish, or animals and plants (tiryancha) as depicted on the Swastika. Even though the body and the soul are different, the body is the instrument through which we collect or remove Karma from our soul. Upon our death the soul and Karma migrate to a new body. The new body for the soul is determined by the Karma produced in our current lifetime. When all the attached karma are destroyed, the pure soul is permanently liberated from the body and attains liberation. This is also known as Nirvana. The pure soul reaches the top of the universe, called Moksha, and resides there forever. These souls are called Siddhas. In the state of pure soul, as a Siddha, the soul does not go through the cycle of birth and death. In that state of being, the immortal soul is free, remains blissful for ever. As Jains, Purification of our soul is our goal. Note: S is also for Swastika, Samayika, Sadhu, and Sadhvi Siddha** souls are venerable and we seek refuge in those. Look for *Karma under K JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 63 Page #64 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ T IS FOR TEMPLE 12 Temple 64 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #65 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ T IS FOR TEMPLE Tis for Temple Temple Is A Place For Prayer And Worship A temple is a place of worship where a person experiences immense peace and serenity. The images of Tirthankars and the temple's environment promote introspection and bring home the feeling that God resides within one's own heart. Therefore, each person can follow a path of purification of the inner self devoid of anger, greed, ego, deceit, and attachment from their lives. The idols of Tirthankar Bhagawan are placed in Jain temples and we go there to worship them. When we enter the temple, we say Nissihi, meaning 'to refrain from', reminding us to leave behind our worldly thoughts and think only of our soul. The purpose of worship is to pay respect to Tirthankars for their compassion and for showing us the true path for our liberation. This also reminds us that we should put all our efforts to become like them. Just praying and not taking any action to free our soul does not work. We must take action to discipline ourselves so that we can control our desires and passions and be compassionate towards others. We should regularly visit the Temple. Some sects of Jainism do not worship idols in temple but they meditate in the Upashray. Note: T is also for Truth JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 65 Page #66 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ U IS FOR UPASHRAY 66 U Upashray JAIN ALPHABET BOOK P Page #67 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ U IS FOR UPASHRAY U is for Upashray Upashray is a Place Where Sadhus* or Sadhvis* Stay The place where Sadhus and Sadhvis stay is called an Upashray. An Upashray is a very simple place with a big hall and a few small rooms that are kept cool by many windows. An Upashray does not have any furniture except for a few wooden beds on which the Sadhus or Sadhvis sit and sleep. The Sadhus and the Sadhvis deliver their religious sermons in the Upashray. Sadhus or Sadhvis do not stay more than a few days at one Upashray except during the rainy season. Sadhus and Sadhvis do not stay together in the same Upashray at the same time. An Upashray is also a place where laypeople study religion, perform Samayika and Pratikraman, and celebrate religious ceremonies. It is a quiet place that one can spend time for introspection. Note : U is also for Upadhyay and Upayoga Look for *Sadhu and Sadhvi under G JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 67 Page #68 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ V IS FOR Vow Vow 68 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #69 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ V IS FOR Vow Vis for Vow Vow means a Promise A vow is an earnest promise or pledge that binds one to a specified act or mode of behavior. To take a vow means we make a promise to ourselves to do certain things in certain ways or not to do certain things. Different vows can be for different lengths of time. A vow is a form of austerity (Tap) to help us discipline ourselves, reduce bad karma, and accumulate good karma. Some examples of external vows are as follows: Chauvihar - Not to eat and drink from sunset to sunrise Ekasanu - To eat only one meal a day Upavas - Not to eat for thirty-six hours starting from sunset the day before till sunrise the next day Some examples of internal vows are as follows: * Samayika - To sit peacefully in one place for forty eight minutes without being affected by worldly thoughts and activities brings peace and reduces stress in our life. * Mauna - Not to speak for a certain time (Speech can be a large source of violence) * Donating anonymously can be an important vow to control our ego. * Setting limits to our needs can be an important vow to control our greed. Internal vows are harder to keep but they benefit us the most. The vows we take should be observed very carefully. Note : V is also for Victory, Vision, and Virtues JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 69 Page #70 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ W IS FOR WORSHIP 70 W Worship JAIN ALPHABET BOOK DONATION BOX Page #71 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ W IS FOR WORSHIP W is for Worship Worship means to Pray The respectful love shown to an idol, deity or sacred object is called worship. Prayers and ceremonies express this love. Jains show their ardent devotion to Arihanta (Tirthankar or Jina) and Siddha Bhagawans* who have freed themselves from the cycle of birth and death. We worship them to remind ourselves that they are liberated souls and that we want to be like them. Worshiping also helps to uplift our soul and realize that it can be free from attachment and aversion. We can also be liberated through the practice of the principles of Jainism: Non-violence (Ahimsa), Truth (Satya), Non-stealing (Achaurya), Celibacy (Brahmacharya) and Non-possessiveness (Aparigraha). Worshiping is done through prayers, ceremonies and meditation. Worshiping can be done in a temple, an Upashray, at a Jain center, or even at home. We should worship with our heart and mind and not just for show. Note : W is also for Wisdom Look for *Siddha under S JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 71 Page #72 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ X IS FOR XYLOGRAPHY Xylography 72 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #73 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ X IS FOR XYLOGRAPHY X is for Xylography Xylography is the Art of Carving Wood Xylography is the art of carving wood. This art has been a specialty in the state of Gujarat and Karnataka in India. There are woodcarvings of Jina idols, deities, and auspicious symbols in the window frames, domes, and arches of Jain houses. There are some temples with exquisite woodcarvings made in the fourteenth century. The circular carvings in this picture represent the endless world. The Tirthankars remind us to move beyond this cycle of birth and death and thus be free from miseries. Xylography art is seen in many Jain temples. JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 73 Page #74 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Y IS FOR YOGA OM..... OM...... Yoga 74 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #75 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Y IS FOR YOGA Y is for Yoga Yoga means Activities In Jainism all our physical, verbal, and mental activities are known as Yoga (Yog). All these activities, good or bad, collect karma* and get attached to our soul. Therefore, we should control our activities. We can do this by paying attention to what we do, say and think. It is easy to control physical activities, but it is harder to control our speech. Mental activities are the most difficult to control. We should be careful when we want to do something, and be sure that we are not doing, saying or thinking anything that could be hurtful to others or to ourselves. According to Jain religion, yoga and meditation are two different things. Yoga means our activities and meditation means focusing the mind on specific thoughts. The similar word yoga has been accepted in English to mean light physical exercise. Many people perform physical yoga, which helps control verbal and mental activities. Look for *Karma under K JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 75 Page #76 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Z IS FOR ZALAR DONATION BOX Zalar 76 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #77 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Z IS FOR ZALAR Z is for Zalar Zalar is a Musical Instrument A Zalar is played in some of the rituals performed in the temple. It is made of brass and it looks like a thick disk. It is played with the help of a wooden hammer that is tapped on the metal disk to make varying sounds. It is generally used at religious activities in front of an idol. JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 77 Page #78 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Color Science of Navakar Mantra Namo Arihantanam - White Color: Arihanta is a perfect human being. White color represents Arihanta. White color is the mother of all colors; it is a blending of all colors. It represents pure knowledge. White light removes the diseases from the body, mind, and soul. White blood cells protect the body from disease and control its energy. White color shows purity, selflessness, and cosmic consciousness. White has protective power against psychic attack. This power should not be used for personal gain. Namo Siddhanam - Red Color: dha is a pure consciousness or a soul without any Karma attached to it. Both Arihanta and Siddha are known as Gods in Jainism. Red color represents Siddha. Red color is the great energizer. Red controls the energy center of command. This center governs the vitality of the physical body, particularly the creative, procreative, and restorative process. Namo Ayariyanam - Yellow and Orange Color: Acharya is a head of a Jain congregation. It symbolizes the selfcontrol, discipline and organizational power. Yellow or orange color represents Acharya. Both yellow and orange colors represent wisdom, power to accomplish goals, and strong will power (discipline) in life. Yellow stimulates the Solar Plexus and controls the digestive processes in the stomach. It strengthens the nervous system and awakens reasoning facilities. It controls eliminative action of the intestines and liver. Orange assists in assimilation, distribution, and circulation of body functions. It acts mentally on assimilation of new ideas, relieves repression, and combines physical energy and wisdom. Namo Uvajjhayanam - Dark Green and Blue Color: Upadhyay is a teacher, who shows how to awaken powers and maintain the balance of body, mind, and soul. Green or Blue color represents Upadhyay. 78 JAIN ALPHABET BOOK Page #79 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Green is the color of balanced strength and of progress in the mind and body. It controls the energy center of the heart. It has a soothing influence on the nervous system. It is tonic for the body, mind, and soul. Blue is the color of truth. It gives power of speech. It is relaxing, soothing, and healing. Blue rays bring calmness and peace to the mind. It is the color of religious aspiration and devotion. Blue rays can transmit thought energy. Blue effects the development of spiritual and psychic powers. Both blue and green are also the colors of vital energy (prana). While yellow is the color of wisdom (mind), and blue is the color of truth (soul), green is the combination of the two, offering a balance between the two. Namo Loe Savva Sahunam - Black Color: Both Sadhu (monk) and Sadhvi (nun) are spiritual practitioners. The practitioner must be protected from worldly attachments and must destroy negativity. Black color represents the practitioner. Black is the absence of all color. It is receptive, consumes negativity, and gives the strength to fight negativity. It controls the sensual energy center of the body. (Picture on Color Science of Navakar Mantra is on Page 53) JAIN ALPHABET BOOK 79 Page #80 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Notes 80 JAIN ALPHABET Book