Book Title: Jainism and Animal Issues 1997
Author(s): Federation of JAINA
Publisher: USA Federation of JAINA
Catalog link:

Page #1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAINISM AND ANIMAL ISSUES Handbook for Compassionate Living CEREAL 2010_03 OAT MEAL LIMA BEANS TooR DAAL PASTA MUNG ROTLI RICE KHICHDI Jiv Daya & Vegetarianism Committee - Federation of JAINA 1997 JAINA Convention at Toronto, Canada CREAM OF WHEAT Page #2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ FEDERATION OF JAIN ASSOCIATIONS IN NORTH AMERICA FOUNDED 1981 A Non-Profit Tax Exempt Religious Organization. IRS Code Section 501(c)(3) EI #54-1280028 Jiv Daya & Vegetarianism Committee (Speaking for those who can't) | Non-Violence परस्परोपग्रहोजीवानाम् Life is Bound Together by Mutual Support and Interdependence An Appeal to Jain Brothers and Sisters on this JAINA Convention Occasion hairman Narendra Sheth San Diego, CA (619) 693-8272 ommittee Saurabh Dalal This is our own publication, "JAINISM AND ANIMAL ISSUES," Handbook for Compassionate Lanham, MD Living. This book is an outcome of hard work and dedicated efforts of many of our own Jain youths (301) 577-5215 Neela Gada and adult Shravak/Shravikas in USA and Canada. We are really proud of their enthusiasm and love Houston, TX for Ahimsa. Please read it, and try to put these principles in your daily life. After all, that is the only (713) 662-2857 Sanjay Gala reason why we produced it! You can E-mail your comments/suggestions at Jiv, or call Sunnyvale, CA at (619) 693-8272, or write at the address below. (415) 964-6253 Yashica Ghelani We want to continue these kinds of efforts, and bring to you on a regular basis more of these New Brunswick, NJ kinds of publications dealing with JIV DAYA and Jainism issues. For us to continue doing this, and (908) 843-5838 Sidney Jain keep Jain youths (our sons and daughters) interested and involved in such projects, we need your Chicago, IL FINANCIAL SUPPORT. Without such support, we will not be able to continue and all this work, (312) 355-7339 Vishal Jain and the momentum that our youths have, will come to a STOP. Honestly, we cannot afford to do Cleveland Heights, OH that. Your financial support is crucial and is needed now. Please send your generous contribution (216) 397-8772 Shaili Khandheria Please note that your generous contribution is fully TAX DEDUCTIBLE. Please do it TODAY. Send Houston, TX your check to: (713) 668-4498 Chandubbai Morbia Windsor, ONT (519) 254-3504 "Jiv Daya Committee, Federation of JAINA" Jayshree Ranka Monroeville, PA C/o. Narendra B. Sheth . (412) 373-6189 9133 Mesa Woods Avenue Samir Sanghani Sugar Land, TX San Diego, CA 92126 (713) 242-0446 Dimple Shah Nashville, TN We appreciate the hard work put in by the following individuals and groups: (615) 421-1063 Jill Shah Chandubhai Morbia - for inspiring and taking full responsibility for the first section, "Fundamental Broken Arrow, OK Principles." (918) 258-4400 Kalpana Shah Surabhi Shah - for taking full responsibility for preparing the section on "Vegetarianism." Hacienda Height, CA Samir Sanghani - for taking the leadership for the list of "Retail Health Food Stores." He was well (310) 693-5965 Monal Shah supported by Shilpa Shah, Nikhil Shah, Monali Shah, Shaina Varia, Narendra Sheth, Santa Clara, CA Bhairavi Talsania, and Monal Shah. (408) 247-5890 Mopali Shah Sanjay Gala - for preparing the list of "Manufacturers of Cruelty-Free Items." Crown Point, IN (219) 661-0076 Monal Shah - for preparing the artwork of "Food Pyramid" on cover page. Nikhil Shah Many others - for contributing (as listed throughout the handbook.) Ithaca, NY (607) 256-1622 Many other committee members - for carrying out the other committee work while we were busy Raju Shah New Haven, CT preparing this handbook. (301) 725-1177 Monali Shah and Jayn Meinhardt - for the final editing and proofreading. Shilpa Shah Decatur, GA Virendra & Bharati Kothari and Rajiv Makkar (Kwik Copy Printing, Houston, TX) - for printing. (404) 321-4637 Shripal Shah Northboro, MA (508) 393-9361 Surabhi Shah Ex-officio Fund Raising Advisory Board Raleigh, NC Manibbai Mehta Ramesh Jain Jay Dinshah (919) 833-2548 (416) 626-8078 American Vegan Society (609) 694-2887 JAINA President Maneka Gandhi People for Animals, India (01191-11) 684-0402 Tej Sheth Sulekh Jain (513) 777-1554 (714) 898-3156 Brian Graff North American Vegetarian Society (518) 568-7970 Toronto, ONT Girish Shah (909) 595-8995 Dhiraj Shah Alex Hershaft Farm Animals Reform Movement (301) 530-1737 (905) 847-8320 JAINA 1st V.P. Niranjan Shah (847) 635-7780 Dr. Michael Klaper Institute for Nutrition Exlucation (310) 374-3733 Shaina Varia (716) 773-1314 Anop Vora (716) 473-9290 Rae Sikora & Zoe Weil "Jivan Sanskar"/ Compassionate Living (207) 374-8808 Richardson, TX Joanne Stepaniak Author, Vegan Cookbooks (412) 731-1494 (972) 644-0294 Debra Wasserman Vegetarian Resource Group (410) 366-8343 2010_03 Page #3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Handbook for Compassionate Living Forward, Introduction and Overview Fundamental Principles - Some Most Commonly Asked Questions: Views on Philosophy - Vegetarianism - What We Wear Education and Medicine - Entertainment Focus on Vegetarianism Meat-Centered Diets are a Fad! - Some Winner Arguments Vegetarian Resources - World Wide Veg- "New" Ingredients Shopping for Vegetarian Foods - Cochineal Extract Silver Foils are NOT Vegetarian - Substitutions in Cooking & Baking Eating Out Vegetarian - Vegan Dining Out - Recipes Cruel Realities Lead One Jain to Change Her Lifestyle The Jain Food Pyramid Silk is Not for Jains "Tools" of Research Animals in Laboratories Cruelties Involved in Animal Testing Results of Animal Experimentations are Questionable Cruelty-Free Research and Testing Personal Transition to Ahimsak Products - Some Simple Natural Products Congressional Friends of Animals - Life Cycle of the Silk Worm Alcohol and Jainism CONTENTS Alcohol is NOT Vegetarian - Alcohol for Better Health? Alcohol and Diseases - "Just One Can't Hurt" It Affects Your Brains ... And Your Behavior Some Health Issues Animals are Not for "OUR" Well Being The Jain Lifestyles for Staying Healthy The Educational Institutions Jains as Ecologists Environmentalism for Jiv Daya - No "Wasteful" Events Trees and Jiv Daya - Forest Preservation Shopping Guide 2010_03 Manufacturers of Cruelty-Free Products Retail Health Food Stores - Mail Order Businesses - A Specialty Business Dictionary of Ingredients and Materials: Animal, Insect, Vegetable, or Mineral? i 1 9 22 20 28 29 33 36 38 40 42 47 Page #4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ FORWARD Jiv Daya and Vegetarianism Committee has put out an excellent booklet on "Jainism and Animal Issues." Mr. Narendra Sheth and his committee is to be congratulated for putting forth long hours and research in planning and getting out issues to every Jain in his daily life. We have received excellent reviews for this booklet and because of general demand JAINA has reprinted it. The booklet deals with environmental issues, vegetarianism, healthy diet, and why as a Jain we should treat all life as equal. It summarizes basic principle of Jainism-Ahimsa at all level. I request all of you to donate generously so that we can continue to bring to you more books like this so as to propagate Jainism. INTRODUCTION Animal issues, Ahimsa, and Jainism are interwoven. They constitute the way we live. There are many issues that we should be aware of, let us learn them. Even though this handbook is not complete, and it does not address all issues, it is a good start. Let us take this opportunity to learn more about these issues. Manibhai Mehta President, JAINA Food Honey, Silver Foils, Milk, Ice Cream, Pasta, Pizza, Sauce, Pies, Macaroni, Cakes, Ketchup etc. Beauty Makeup Leather Purses Investment and Business, Stocks Dress and Clothing Silk Leather Downs Jewelry - Pearls Pooja Silver Foils Luxury Cars - Leather Seats Home Furnishings - Leather Sofas, Stuffed Animals, Animal Skins Medicines Vitamins, Antibiotics, Animal Organ Transplants, Anti-Flu Shots Lawn and Garden Chemicals and Fertilizers Environmental Issues Education - Vivisection 2010_03 Sulekh Jain - Cincinnati, OH OVERVIEW Our civilized life takes certain sacrifices from the animals around us. In this little handbook, we have tried to cover many issues related to how a compassionate Jain could live his/her life, so as to cause the least (or preferably no) harm to these innocent creatures. First of all, many times we face some simple questions about Jainism, Ahimsa, and Vegetarianism, that we find difficult to answer properly. So we have selected several such questions, and tried to answer them, in the first chapter of "Fundamental Principles." These revolve around our philosophy, vegetarianism, what we wear, our education and medicine, and our entertainment. Obviously these are individual perspectives. Let us know how our answers sound to you, and let us know your views. Next, we focus on vegetarianism. Sooner or later, meat eating is going to disappear. There are many facts and figures to support this. To support those who are new to vegetarianism, we list some vegetarian resources, and other support available on the Internet. Even for normal vegetarians, what are the new ingredients worthy of knowing? How do you shop for vegetarian foods? And how do you eat out at restaurants? After discussing these crucial issues, we suggest some 40 new recipes for those new to this way of eating. Finally, there is an inspiring life story, and the food pyramid explanation with serving sizes. Next, we discuss the "silk" issue. Can we wear silk? Why not? If we decide not to buy silk anymore, how can we make sure that what we are buying is not silk? And, finally again, what are the alternatives to this fine fabric? Next, we look at the use of animals as "tools" of research in laboratories. What is the 'normal' explanation given by scientists, what cruelties are involved in those experimentations, if their results are valid, and what non-animal alternatives are available? And then next we discuss the "alcohol" issue. Jainism is dead-set against use of alcohol, because alcohol affects our senses, especially meditation. But, many Jains tend to ignore this, and become influenced by their permissive peers. It is good to hear from Americans why they also are against alcohol. They also tell us this: that alcohol includes many non-veg ingredients, such as fish glue, pepsin, gelatin, eggs, isinglass, enzymes, etc. "Saving a human life is a noble work" - "Humanity is in serving sick" - these are good notions, with which we have grown up. We encourage our children to go to medical college also. However, medical science sacrifices animal lives. Is this justifiable? Necessary? Even beneficial? What colleges do not use animal labs? We discuss these health issues next. Jainism has always professed simplicity in life. So our forefathers in India used to be very careful in using resources. But in America, we seem now to take pride in consumerism. This consumerism is taking a toll on animal lives, and trees. We discuss the ecological and environmental issues next. And, finally we have compiled a good shopping guide - who manufactures cruelty-free products - where we can buy them - and what animal ingredients we should be avoiding. This book should make an impact on how you live your life. Narendra Sheth Page #5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Fundamental Principles Some of the Most Commonly Asked Questions First try to answer them, then compare yours with ours... Views on Philosophy: What is the Jain definition of the term "Ahimsa?" Why does Jainism strongly promote the principle of Ahimsa? What does Jainism teach about the proper treatment of animals? Which Jain laws involve compassion for animals? What are examples of kindness to animals shown by great Jain heroes? What are some stories from the Jain traditions related to showing compassion to animals? What is the Jain view regarding animal rights groups? Vegetarianism: How does Jainism view the use of animals for food? Does vegetarianism place greater priority on animal rights than on human welfare? Can one work to improve conditions for animals without being a vegetarian? Should the Jains use by-products of slaughterhouses? What is the equivalent of "Kosher" food standard in Jainism? Since animals kill each other in nature, why should the Jains be concerned about the abuse of animals; such as killing them to eat? What We Wear. What do the Jain principles teach about the wearing of silk, pearls, ivory, and other clothing and fashion items that involve animal products? Education and Medicine: What about vivisection? Do the Jains accept this for improved human health? What is the Jain perspective? Does Jainism condone the use of animals for educational and laboratory experimental purposes? How do the Jains keep their priorities straight? Are they more concerned about animals than all these critical problems related to people? What is the Jain view of using animal organs for transplants for humans? Entertainment What are the Jain views on circuses, zoos, etc. entertainments? What is the Jain view on hunting and fishing? Views on Philosophy What is the Jain definition of the term "Ahimsa?" Of course, 'Ahimsa' means non-harming to all living beings. But for Jainism, Ahimsa is as wide as the whole universe. All living beings are protected under the broad definition of Ahimsa. May it be a drop of water, grass blade, insects, birds, all of sea life, animals, human beings, or any beings in between, they all are protected under the Jain principle of 'Ahimsa'. The wide definition goes far beyond. 'Ahimsa' does not stop at physical actions, it extends to thought and speech, to complete the whole 'AHIMSA'. Chandubhai Morbia The word 'Ahimsa' means a harmless way of living, with emphasis on minimizing any possible harm. Take an example from 2010_03 the Jain scriptures. Suppose you are hungry, and you see a tree full of oranges. Hopefully, you would not consider cutting the whole tree for just a few oranges. That would be a gross himsa. But what if you cut only a branch from which you are going to eat the fruits? Naturally, this is better. However, wouldn't it be preferable to pluck only the oranges, and leave the branch alone? But, it's still better to look on the ground, and pick the oranges which had already ripened, and fallen there. That is the way of living that Jainism teaches us. That is 'Ahimsa', harmlessness. Narendra Sheth Just like a human, all living beings whether animals, fish, birds, bugs or plants, etc., have vitality power in variable degrees. This (1) Page #6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues vitality is called Pran in Jain Philosophy. There are altogether ten Prans. Oncsensed living beings have four vitalities while five-sensed living beings like humans, animals, birds, and fish have all ten vitalities. These vitalities are: 1) Sparsh-Indriya Pran: The ability to feel the sensation of touch 2) Ras-Indriya Pran: The ability to taste 3) Ghran-Indriya Pran: The ability to smell 4) Chakshu-Indriya Pran: The ability to see 5) Shravan-Indriya Pran: The ability to hear 6) Mano-bal Pran: The ability to think 7) Vachan-bal Pran: The ability to speak 8) Kaya-bal Pran: The ability to move the body 9) Shwasoshwas Pran: The ability to inhale and exhale 10) Ayushya Pran: The ability to live If, at anytime, and for any reason, we hurt any of these vitality either in physical, verbal or mental manner, it is called Pranatipat or Himsa. Opposite of himsa is Ahimsa. Therefore Ahimsa means not to hurt any vitality even in the slightest form of any living creature no matter how trivial that living beings may scem. Jainism goes one step further in defining Ahimsa because it not only includes restraining from hurting anyone by our direct actions, but it also includes that we shall not ask or encourage anyone else (directly or indirectly) to carry out any injurious activity. Therefore, to observe Ahimsa, our individual responsibilities are much more higher and the scope is much more broad than others. The first and foremost vow in Jainism is the vow of Ahimsa - non-hurting or nonviolence. Prem Gada When we deprive any living being of its livelihood, or its vital capabilities, it will come and hound us sometimes. The story of Lord Rushabhdev is very well-known for this. During his last life, while he was a king one day he advised his fellow farmer citizens to cover the mouths of the oxen so that they would not eat the grains they were working around. But, he forgot to tell them that they should remove the mouth cover as soon as the work was over. Thosc ignorant people kept on that mouth cover, and after some time they started wondering when to feed them. So they went back and asked King Rushabh about when they were suppose to feed them. The King realized his mistake and explained to those workers that they should have taken off the mouth cover as soon their work was over and feed them. But because oxen suffered hunger due to King Rushabh's oversight, he accumulated Antaraya Karma. When this karma matured, it caused him to go without any food (starvation) for a little over eleven months when he became a monk in a later part of the same life. So can you imagine if we starve or deprive someone of their vitality, through cruel means, what would happen to us? The same way, when we cause suffering to others, we accumulate Ashata Vedniya karma and when that matures, it would bring us sufferings and unhappiness. Look at the slaughterhouses, laboratories, cosmetic manufacturing, or any use of animals, and you will see nothing but tortures, and even death. Why any sensible person of their right mind, and particularly a Jain, would do, or encourage, such activities even though he or she would have to suffer later on? Therefore, Jains would not participate in any activity which would cause any harm to others and would not also ask, or encourage, anyone else to do it either. Now, you should understand that suffering in this world is generated from own selves. It is never late to turn back the clock to the right path by paying respect to other living beings as a whole rather than just to humans only. Similarly, when we take away someone's life, we must realize, what would be coming to us. We would accumulate such an Ayushya karma, that it would make our life short, or end it prematurely. Why would we put ourselves in such a situation? What happens if that life happens to be a human life, then we would miss an opportunity for spiritual pursuit. Therefore, we need to protect other lives, so that our lives are protected and we can be happy and without obstacles. So in short by observing Ahimsa, not only we are protecting the vitality of other living beings, but in reality we are helping ourselves the most. That is why Jains say "Ahimsa Parmo Dharma," because by observing Ahimsa, everyone is able to stop his/her own decline and put him/herself forward to the higher spiritual pursuit. Prem Gada Why does Jainism strongly promote the principle of Ahimsa? Jains believe in the existence of soul; and that cach living being has a soul. Jains also show logically that the nature of the soul is that of non-harming. It is due to the soul being bound by Karmic partides that keep us humans in these material bodies that need to cat. As a person lives a life that reduces the influence of the Karmic particles, the person's non-harming character naturally will become stronger, and manifest itself in such activities as trying to watch out very carefully, and avoid doing even the slightest possible harm to any living being. In other words, Jains maintain that if we want to experience the full potential of the nature of our soul, that is nonharmingness, we should try to duplicate it in all our actions. Balabhadraji In Jainism, Ahimsa means non-hurting as described above. Therefore, whenever our actions cause himsa (hurting), not only does our soul accumulate karmas but even the souls on the other side accumulate karma if they have minds (e.g., souls of animals, birds, fish, etc.). Those karmas could be any of eight karmas, but we would discuss three of them over here which are Antaraya, Vedniya, and Ayushya Karmas. What does Jainism teach about the proper treatment of animals? Jainism accepts animals as having souls and treats them with as much respect as human souls. With a soul, all animals, regardless of forms, have the potential to achieve NIRVANA. Our daily PRATIKRAMAN sutra also reminds us to avoid confining the animals, harming them with weapons, cutting down or piercing Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues their body parts, overworking them, or depriving them of food and water. The meaning is clear. Bringing the animals into this world through artificial insemination, raising them in confined spaces and under artificial environment, forcing them to eat food that is full of hormones, antibiotics, and other chemicals, depriving them of social life, inflicting upon them the pain of cruel experiments and killing them at early age - all of these are considered sinful acts and must be avoided as preached by Jainism. It goes further. Performing or consenting to these acts is also considered equally sinful. The sale of animal flesh, leather, ivory, or anything that harms animals directly or indirectly is also undesirable according to this same sutra. Jain holy books, monks, nuns, and scholars say, 'If you cannot help animals, do not harm them. They love their lives as much as we do ours. Let them live their life as mother nature intended for them. Chandubhai Morbia is my own duty to protect and for that no one else should suffer or bear pain but it should be me and that is why he cut his own flash and offered it to the hawk. He set an example that if we want to be benevolent ourselves then we should bear the pain or give up our own life rather than taking someone else's life or cause suffering to others. Another story illustrates that humans are not the only ones who feel compassion. Animals also feel compassion and earn Karmic rewards. Once there was a big fire in a jungle. There was a small flat dry arca, where all the animals - clephants, deer, rabbits, squirrels, all rushed. The whole area filled up very fast. An old rabbit came late and saw that all the space was filled. But just then an elephant raised one of his legs to scratch his body. Quickly the rabbit jumped into the space created. But soon the elephant finished scratching. When he was about to put his leg back, he realized that there was a rabbit there, shivering from fear of being crushed under the elephant's weight. The elephant felt compassion for the poor little creature, and kept his leg up. It was a long time before the fire was extinguished and the animals returned to their homes. But the elephant carefully kept his leg up the whole time, with thoughts of compassion for the rabbit. Because of this noble, kind heroic deed, in his next life, the elephant returned to earth as a human in a royal family. Narendra Sheth Which Jain laws involve compassion for animals? First Anuvrat and Mahavrat (limited and extended vows of Ahimsa) are all about compassionate protection for all lives, induding the animals. They ask us to be kind to animals and avoid various ways that are cruel to them. Again, in the seventh Anuvrat, fifteen kinds of sinful trades are forbidden. Pranatipar (taking a life) is number one on the list of eighteen Papasthanaks (sinful acts). Karuna Bhav (state of compassion) is stated as essential for liberation from the cycle of births and deaths. These are only a few examples to show how Jain literature inspires us to be compassionate. They also list many dire consequences of living a cruel life. Those who cause pain to others carn harsh Karmic sentences such as spending a long time in hell, or being born into poor circumstances in next life. Chandubhai Morbia What are examples of kindness to animals shown by great Jain heroes? The Jain storybooks are full of such examples, but I will quote here only two. Sixteenth Tirthankar, Shri. Shantinath Bhagwan, set an excellent example that humans do not necessarily have to compromise helpless creatures to meet one's need. Once, in one of his past lives as King Meghraj, he was caught in middle of a dilemma. A pigeon came rushing to him for shelter, trying to save her life from a hawk. The hawk came right after the pigeon, to feed herself and her hungry family. What did King Meghraj do? If he would not give up the pigeon, the hawk would starve. If he gave away the pigeon, then the hawk would kill her. Many of those who do not care for animals would say big deal!!! Give away the pigeon. Those who care for the immediate suffering of pigeons, but do not have foresight, would say to get the meat from a slaughterhouse and give it to the hawk. But neither of that happened. King Meghraj said it What are some stories from the Jain traditions related to showing compassion to animals? Again, the Jain scriptures have too many stories to list them all here. But here are two of the most popular ones. They have been dramatized at Jain Sunday schools, year after year. The first one is about Abhaykumar. In the times of 24th Tirthankar Mahavir Bhagwan, Shrenik was the king of Magadh. He was very wise and religious. Abhaykumar was his minister and he followed the concept of nonviolence, as preached by Mahavir. However, not all of his courtiers believed in this concept. One day, while they were discussing some economic matters, a messenger brought news about a famine in some nearby states. Everyone talked about the possible consequences. One courtier said that now the cows and sheep will migrate from there to here, cating up our precious grains and fodder, and drinking our water reservoirs. Another courtier guessed that they could be sold cheaply here. And, another one suggested that we should open up new slaughterhouses and take advantage of the situation. One said that the treasury should collect additional taxes from such income. Another one thought that now the meat will be cheap, and everyone should eat more meat and worry less about vegetables. Hearing all this, the wise minister, Abhaykumar was sad. But instead of arguing, he thought of teaching them all a lesson. That night, he went to the house of the first courtier. After showing proper respect, the courtier asked the reason for the visit. Abhaykumar answered, 'All of a sudden, King Shrenik got a disease. The doctor has prescribed two ounces of human heart flesh. I know how dearly you love the King, so I came to your house.' The courtier got scared. After removing two ounces from his heart, how (3) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues could he survive? So he went inside, and brought back a bag full of cash, saying 'I cannot do that. Take this money, and please do not tell the King that you came to my house. Please go to someone else's house.' Then Abhaykumar went to the second courtier's house. The same thing happened there. Abhaykumar went to many houses that night, collecting money, jewelry, land, animals, etc. in the same way. Many gave bribes to hide their identity, but no one gave two ounces from their own heart flesh. The next day, everyone came to court. King Shrenik looked healthy, so they felt that they were safe. For the sake of courtesy, each one asked Shrenik, 'How are you now? Was the night very painful?' Shrenik did not understand this. He looked at Abhaykumar for an explanation. Abhaykumar rose. He said, 'Your Highness! Yesterday all these courtiers were busy discussing how the meat will become cheap because of the famine. Last night I went to their houses to get some flesh from their own bodies. They all gave me a lot of wealth, but no one gave me the flesh. So, what is cheap? The cash, or the flesh?' All the courtiers looked down with shame. Nobody could utter a word. Then Abhaykumar continued, 'Fear not, I do not want to scare anyone. I just wanted to open your eyes. We get greatly scared if we have to give any flesh from our bodies, because we love our bodies very dearly. In the same way, the animals also love their bodies very dearly. We try to save our body with cash, but what can those poor animals do? We can think and talk. What can they do? Can they tell us their plight? Giving them the pain of death is a big sin. We should remember that no one likes to die; everyone loves his/her life. That is why the protection of all animals is the highest principle of our religion.' The King was very pleased with the speech of Abhaykumar. All the courtiers also realized the importance of animal protection and right there took vows to never eat meat again. King Shrenik opened many shelters for animals coming from famine-struck states and declared the slaughtering of any animals to be illegal. And Abhaykumar became even more popular for teaching the lessons of compassion without hurting anyone. The other popular story is about 23rd Tirthankar Neminath. He also was a prince. At an appropriate time, he was going to get married to a beautiful princess. However, on his way, he saw many How does Jainism view the use of animals for food? 2010_03 Dairy cows suffer a life of agony: the pain of constant pregnancy, milking machines on their teats, over working their milk producing gland system, and finally the slaughtering when unable to produce enough milk. animals captured for killing for a feast in the honor of their marriage. He was shocked. He did not want to be a part of any animal killing, directly or indirectly. So immediately, not only did he release all of the animals, he also decided to renounce the kingdom, marriage, and worldly life. Right from there he walked away to a mountain top for meditation. (4) What is the Jain view regarding animal rights groups? Jains and animal right groups share a common goal of freeing animals from human inflicted cruelties. Because animals cannot speak for themselves, compassionate humans can provide a voice for them. Narendra Sheth There are many animal rights groups with whom Jain views match well. Some of them are: People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), American Vegan Society, North American Vegetarian Society, Vegetarian Resource Group, Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Center for Compassionate Living, EarthSave, Farm Animals Reform Movement, etc. Vegetarianism Some groups work for humane treatment of animals, while they condone the use of animals for food, entertainment, or research. These groups like to see that laws are established to provide proper care of an animal's needs while living. However, they may not consider killing an animal to be wrong. Jainism believes that ending a life is not a decision to be made by a human. Jains have a heritage of compassion for animals and all living beings. In his time, Tirthankar Mahavir Bhagwan inspired to wipe out religious animal sacrifices. In addition to the cruelties involved in actual killing animals for industry. food, the lives of animals while living are also miserable. Now it is time for us to work for protection of animals in America. We should do that in association with all such animal right groups, that share our fundamental principle of Ahimsa. As individuals, we should become members, and get familiar with their activities. Whenever appropriate, we should support their actions, such as celebrating World Vegetarian Day on October 1, The Great American Meatout Day on March 20, etc. Separating the cow and her calf in less than 48 hours after birth is another agony. Chaining these calves for life in a small crate and slaughtering them at tender age of four months is routine in the Chandubhai Morbia Animals raised for food are mostly brought to this world by artificial insemination. Debeaking, branding, castration, dehorning, and much more pain are the facts of life for these animals. The process of raising animals for food denies the right of animals as living beings, treats them as slaves and inflicts cruelty upon them. By doing so, humans reject all the values, and become Page #9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues very insensitive. As one result, this breeds and invites crime and violence within the society. Looking at Jain values of Ahimsa, the scriptures list various sinful trades, sinful acts, and various ways to limit our consumption. Chandubhai Morbia for me occurred when I was 15 years old. A friend and I had just caten hot dogs for lunch, and walked next door to a leather shop. I whispered to her that she shouldn't buy anything in there because it is all dead animals. The clerk behind the counter heard my comment to my friend and asked me if I ate meat. I was shocked. I had never made the connection before that moment. I never realized that the meat on my plate was anything but 'food'. As ! realized, while standing in that store, that meat is dead animal, I replied, "No, I don't eat meat" to the clerk. My friend thought I had just lied to the clerk. I explained to her that from this moment on I would not eat meat. That was 26 years ago. My personal evolution continued when I saw the pain of a dairy cow being separated from her calf and realized that the male calves on this farm were being shipped to veal facilities. I then quit using dairy products. I am now a strong advocate of strict vegetarianism for our own health and the well-being of animals and the environment. Rae Sikora ("Jivan Sanskar") Does vegetarianism place greater priority on animal rights than on human welfare? Not really. Vegetarianism is also a human welfare movement. By climinating an animal-based diet and eating plant based healthy foods, humans reap many benefits. The following are a few examples. The incidence of heart disease, strokes, and cancer may be reduced by removing meat and dairy from the diet. A plantbased diet requires less resources and produces less waste which leads to a cleaner environment. Instead of raising animals for food and feeding large amounts of grain to them, that grain can be used to feed many starving humans. World hunger problems may be alleviated when we stop cycling grain through animals. So, what do the humans have to lose for animal rights? Look at this Jain teaching: 'Live and Let Live' LIVE is human welfare, and LET LIVE is animal rights. They are complimentary. There is an attitude of caring and sharing. This is what vegetarianism includes: sharing this planet with animals and not harming them for human selfishness. Chandubhai Morbia Should the Jains use by-products of slaughterhouses? A slaughterhouse is a product of human greed and hi-tech combined for the mass killing of animals. What are the products from these slaughterhouses? They are flesh, skin, bones, blood, fat, hair, feathers, etc. Sale of each such by-product contributes to the profits of the business. We can, and should, live without any of these. None of them are necessary for a happy and healthy life. If we consume them, we directly or indirectly pay for them, encouraging further slaughter. On the other hand, when we stop buying them, we send a message to the killing plant: "kill less animals, because we still have some unsold products." As our number increases, it will result in a tremendous force to close some of the slaughterhouses. Chandubhai Morbia Can one work to improve conditions for animals without being a vegetarian? Yes, one can. Many men and women, who were not vegetarian, started working towards improving the conditions of animals. They were born in non-vegetarian families and they were raised with animal flesh and dairy products as their main food. A stage came in their life when they realized what truly fair treatment toward animals would mean. They joined their hands with those who were saving and protecting animals. In the process, not only did they become kind to animals, but also to themselves. This way, many animal rights workers have become vegetarian at some time in their lives. If not, they are kind at heart, but still a slave to old habits of meat eating, Those who are born and raised vegetarian are lucky. Their minds, speech, and actions are nourished for kindness to animals and all other nonhuman life. Most individuals who are raised with those values will not harm animals, nor will they support any harm to animals. Chandubhai Morbia Here is a true life example - My Transition to Vegetarian ... What is the equivalent of "Kosher" food standard in Jainism? "Kosher" is a set of Jewish procedures of handling animal products. Since Jains follow a strictly vegetarian diet, they do not need "Kosher" standards. However, to observe a compassionate diet to the maximum possible level, Jainism offers some guidelines to observe, as described below. First of all, meat, alcohol, eggs, honey, fish, etc. are not allowed in the Jain diet. Many Jains consume milk even though it is an animal product, because it is not a direct animal product as meat would be. Traditionally, in the Indian society, cows were part of the family. They were treated humanely, taken care of until natural death in sanctuaries, and the baby calf was allowed to suckle all the milk until his/her needs were satisfied. Only the surplus milk was used for human consumption, so the principle of nonviolence was upheld. Calf was not deprived of its need nor did the cow have to undergo any tortuous life. But in the modern world cows are kept in factory farms and the milk has become a product of violence. Upon learning this, more and more Jains are now turning vegan. I was born into a Russian American family and raised as a typical American meat eater. My evolution into the animal and environmental rights movement has been gradual. A turning point (5) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #10 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues We support and promote veganism. The first Jain criteria, therefore, would be to avoid any food which involves violence. The main base of Jain diets is grain like wheat, rice, and barley. In America, we have also adopted corn and oats. We also have adopted a variety of foods like pasta, bread, pizza, pita, tostadas, etc. into Jain households. As with many other Asian countries, the traditional Indian diet was healthy, but affluence and modernization has led to high fat diets and unhealthy lifestyles. However, our traditions revolve around control of the senses. For example, many people voluntarily give up sweets, or other items for a certain time period. Jain traditions observe certain restrictions for fruits and vegetables. Although all Jains do not practice this, but many avoid taking roots, such as potatoes, onions, garlic, carrots, etc. If you wonder why, here is the answer: to minimize violence. Because even if you pluck hundreds of oranges from a tree, you are not destroying the whole tree. However, when you pluck one single carrot, you uproot the whole plant. When so many vegetables are available without destroying a whole plant, why destroy some? Then there is one more reason. All roots have countless (Anantkay) souls under one body (skin). Our need that can be satisfied with one cupful of underground roots (which would have countless souls) could also easily be satisfied with just a few peas or beans. So why kill so many more souls? Therefore, the second Jain criteria is not to eat root vegetables. You may observe that some fruits and vegetables have only one or a few seeds, while some have many seeds. We believe that each seed represents a potential life. True, we have to eat something in order to survive, but we want to minimize violence by taking as few as possible of those multi-seeded fruits and vegetables. So that is the third Jain criteria of food choices. Dried beans are considered acceptable for Jains; they are a good source of proteins, vitamins, and other nutrients. Although there are no restrictions on eating beans, the process of sprouting can be an issue. Sprouting is a process in which life is activated in a seed that had otherwise become inactive. This is viewed as violence by some Jains. So they accept as the fourth Jain food criteria: no sprouted beans. What do the Jain principles teach about the wearing of silk, pearls, ivory, and other clothing and fashion items that involve animal products? All these items are produced by killing an animal. When we learn the processes used to obtain these products, it becomes obvious that they do not fit into the Jain lifestyle. 2010_03 Producing silk requires boiling silk worms alive. Producing fur coats requires the killing of fur bearing animals. Do not mistake There are many more minute criteria which are contained in the scriptures. However, very few Jains follow them. But, very few Jains would ever resort to eating meat. (6) Another criteria about food is that one must strive to eat before sunset. That gives plenty of time for the digestive system to do it its work. We are the creatures of day, so our systems want to shut down their functions after dark. Besides, many visible and invisible lives thrive at night. By eating after sunset, we are at danger of consuming them; therefore Jains try to eat early in the day. But this does not go very well with the modern industrialization. In northern hemisphere, away from equator, the days during winter are very short, and the sun sets very early. Even under these circumstances, many Jains would attempt to eat as early as possible, after sunset. What We Wear Since animals kill each other in nature, why should the Jains be concerned about the abuse of animals; such as killing them to eat? Narendra Sheth In nature, a big fish eats a little fish because its mind is not developed as much as that of a human who can discriminate and restrain him or herself a great deal. Humans can also rationalize what is right and wrong and so why should they support the abuse or killing of innocent animals? Plus, there is a big difference between natural birth and human breeding; and even bigger difference between animals killing each other and mass killing by humans. The process of raising animals for food involves bringing them into this world by artificial insemination; separating mothers from their young ones; raising them in cages and confined spaces; feeding them unnatural food contaminated with chemicals, hormones, and antibiotics; and finally killing them at a young age. All these actions result in a desensitized attitude and the suppression of compassion at the conscience. As Jains, we do have to protect all kinds of living beings. There are different laws in the jungle than in human society. In the law of the jungle, the strong ones eat the weak ones, but in the law of the society, the strong one protects the weak one. Chandubhai Morbia leather as a useless by-product of meat production either. Leather coat, shoes, belts, and purses are made from animals bred specifically for smooth skins. Ivory is obtained by killing elephants. Wool production causes animal suffering in various ways. Many people believe that some pearls are manufactured in factories, and they are called "artificial" pearls. Actually, a pearl is a product of pain. When a foreign particle gets into the body, if the oyster or fish cannot get rid of it, then the creature in pain coats it with a special secretion. When solidified, that secretion becomes a Page #11 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues pearl. In nature, very few creatures would have to develop such pearls. Therefore the businessmen introduce foreign particles into their body, and force them to develop pearls inside. When ready, they kill them, extract the pearls, and sell them as "artificial" pearls. The larger the foreign particle, the more pain, and larger secretion, and larger pearl, and bigget profit... By using such materials, we become participants in Pranatipat (killing). Adattadan (stealing), and Parigrah (attachment for accumulation). As Jains, we believe in avoiding all Dravya Himsa (actual violence), as well as Bhav Himsa (psychic violence). So all the righteous Jains would reject wearing silk, pearls, leather, ivory, and similar clothing and fashion items. Just as we would not want anyone to take our life or that of our beloved ones, we shall not take or encourage anyone else to take the lives of others too. As Jains, we should live simple lives, without any showing off. We should not wear any fashion item that involves taking life. If we cannot give life, we should not take it either. Chandubhai Morbia Education and Medicine What about vivisection? Do the Jains accept this for improved human health? What is the Jain perspective? Does Jainism condone the use of animals for educational and laboratory experimental purposes? As all these actions involve cold blooded preplanned killing, they are not condoned by Jainism. Human health can be improved by many ways: a healthy vegetarian dict, exercise, sanitation, yoga and prayers. These are only a few to mention. It is a lot easier to prevent cancer, heart disease, etc. in the first place, then to find cures for them later. Narendra Sheth and shelter to the old, sick, and homeless humans and animals; and arranged for animal releases from slaughterhouses. A Jain's priority would be to uplift his/her soul and while doing so he/she will avoid hurting animals and lower creatures to the maximum possible way. Jains would also bring awareness in others that we should not make innocent, helpless animals suffer for our selfish needs. Jains would not neglect animal suffering until all the human suffering is over. Humans tend to solve one problem, while creating two new! (For example, by cating mcat etc. humans have caused cancer and heart ailments. Should we sacrifice animals for experimentation for different drugs for such diseases?) It can take forever, leaving poor helpless animals to suffer. It would be unfair. The animals cannot speak for themselves, so we must speak up for them. Chandubhai Morbia What is the Jain view of using animal organs for transplants for humans? How do the Jains keep their priorities straight? Are they more concerned about animals than all these critical problems related to people? Balancing the priorities between suffering animals and suffering human beings is not difficult. Especially with the Jain philosophy. According to Jainism, all living beings have souls, having equal potential to achieve ultimately the highest state of "Moksha." Besides, the animals in question here are Panchendriya (having all five senses), capable of feeling all the pains like we humans. Therefore, the Jains have always lived their lives with equal compassion for animals as well as for humans. As vegetarians, they have enjoyed health equal or better than that of the nonvegetarians. They have avoided involvement in businesses that are harmful to animals, and yet prospered much above the average. They have built hospitals for humans, as well as for animals; provided food It is a big "NO." Because in that, an animal is forced to give away an organ, without its consent. And after that the animal is destroyed. That is killing. The essential principle of nonviolence, "Live and let live" is broken. If we do not hesitate from taking away body parts from an animal now, our greed would take us further to the next step, and someday we would start taking parts from poor human beings also. An organ transplant should be performed only when it is done by free choice from both the parties involved. Because animals do not speak a human language to express their desires, they should not be forced to give away their lives. The Jain view is clear. Destroying one life to save another is not justified. It carries Karmic consequences. Chandubhai Morbia Jain Education Intemational 2010_03 Page #12 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Entertainment What are the Jain views on circuses, zoos, etc. entertainments? The animals we see and cherish at zoos, circuses, amusement parks, rodeos, etc. are always caged. They have been forcefully removed from their natural residences and separated from their friends and relatives forever. In many cases, mothers are shot to death in order to catch the young ones. Many of these animals die during transportation. For example, out of every ten monkeys caught in the jungles of Indonesia, only one reaches North America; the other nine die en route. After that, these animals go through a harsh training to learn unnatural tricks, only to humor us. During training they are beaten, starved, blinded, even electrocuted. From the Jain viewpoint, such entertainment is merely a sensual pleasure. A cruel entertainment is not a necessity for daily Living. While pleasing our senses, it binds our soul with demeritous Karma, which is an obstacle to spiritual progress. Chandubhai Morbia insulting these majestic animals on stage, they are squeezed in small rail cars and cages - to spend most of the life there. And then there are zoos. Who could argue with the children favorite? Though the casual visitor sees no violence there, hou much pain must the animals go through to be kidnaped from the home - the wild - then thrown into jail - for life. Every natural instinct that the animal may have had - such as the urge to roam reproduce, migrate, group in herds, and interact - all have beca suddenly denied. Instead, the animals are kept in small boring caga or fenced plots of land. Sometimes, they are placed with one or two others so they don't go insane from absolute boredom. It must be a miserable life ... imagine yourself, taken by force from your home and family, then shoved into a small apartment with all the doors and windows locked. At first you try to escape, but soon you realize there is no way out. Sure, three times a day, someonc places food in your room ... but it is the same food every day, and it is just enough to keep you alive enough to suffer through the dull life for years. If you can imagine what pain you will go through living a useless life in that small room, then you can start to imagine why all the animals at the zoo are sitting around, doing nothing. And why is a zoo needed? Is it for education? I, for one, have learned more from a one hour National Geographic special than I have from ALL my visits to the zoo in my whole life. Usage of animals in entertainment lacks respect for living beings. Do not take part in such traditions. Look from their point of view, "What if it was me?" Samir Sanghani Onc basic Jain tenet is that all life should be respected in the same manner as humans respect each other. So there is nothing inherently wrong with being entertained by our animal cousins, as we are entertained by actors, comedians, and clowns. Unfortunately the common practices by industries such as the zoo, circus, and race tracks, do NOT treat animal entertainers like human ones. The at animal entertainers like human ones. The businesses exploit the animals, hurt them, and then usually kill them off when they are no longer useful. Race tracks especially breed horses in order to win races. If the horse never becomes fast enough, or when he or she gets hurt (as do the over 60% of horses that end their career lame ) - the animal is usually killed off - sometimes made into dog food. Unless the horse becomes a big star by winning many important races, most owners consider it a useless liability once its career is over. The circus is even crueler. They use many means of pain (as eler. They use many means of pain (as shown by the whip most trainers carry around on stage) to force the animals into performing unnatural acts. Then after degrading and What is the Jain view on hunting and fishing? Very simple. Both are killing, so both are a 'no no. Even though the industry likes to promote them as 'sport', there is no competitive sportiness in either one. It is merely torture, and technology showoff. Humans are always at an advantage with their tools. Jains would never hunt or fish. Narendra Sheth Credos ANIMALS are not ours to eat, wear, or experiment on MEAT STINKS ... for animals... for the environment .. for your health. CIRCUSES are no fun for animals. PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) Be Kind to Animals - Don't Eat Them. Vegetarians are Sprouting up All Over. Vegetarian Resource Group To respect animal rights basically means allowing animals the right to ... Swim if they have fins ... run if they have legs... and fly if they have wings. The Ark Trust ("Genesis” Awards) Live and Let Live. अहिंसा परमो धर्मः परस्परोपग्रहो जीवानाम् All Life Is Bound Together by Mutual Support and Interdependence. JAINISM (8) Jain Education Intermational 2010_03 Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #13 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Focus on Vegetarianism When we focus on vegetarianism, the first question that comes to our mind is: will, if ever, this meat cating stop? But don't despair. As the Sheth brothers explain, very soon the normal vegetarian way of lifestyle will resume. You may think it is merely optimism, but it is not so. It is a fact of life. All the indicators of recent times point to vegetarianism. Just look for yourself! Next, in support of our vegetarian beliefs and lifestyles, Surabhi Shah presents a series of articles - Some Winner Arguments - Vegetarian Resources - World Wide Web of Vegetarians. Then, she presents over 40 recipes, along with tips on "new" ingredients, shopping for vegetarian foods, and substitutions in cooking and baking. How about eating out? What can we eat? You'll also get these answers in this section. And finally read an inspiring life story - from Monali Shah. MEAT-CENTERED DIETS ARE A FAD! The Human Diet in Evolutionary Perspective According to the Jain scriptures, there is no beginning or ending of time. Man always existed, and he was a vegetarian. Adinath Rooshabhdev taught the art of agriculture before becoming the first Tirthankar of this time. However, modern scientists believe in Darwin's Theory of Evolution. Here in this article, we will show how the man was always a vegetarian, even according to that theory. Meat-centered diets are only a fad of recent times, and they will soon disappear. For our community, vegetarianism is a core practice that goes later. These more recent forbearers to modern humans were back thousands of years. In North American society, however, a different in important ways from their ancestors. From a dietary vegetarian diet is regarded as a trendy, new age phenomenon. The perspective, they had molars and pre-molars that were reduced in core of this society regards meat as an essential and central part of size, suggesting a decrease in the amount of chewing required in the their diet, with plant-centered diets as nothing more than a diet of Homo erectus. Stone tools found among their fossil remains health-oriented fad. Has it always been so? Have westerners, or may explain this change, as these implements suggest that Homo most human societies for that matter, always eaten mcat-centered erectus were able to further process their food, removing portions diets? If we were to believe prevailing notions we might think so, that were difficult to chew. Plant foods constituted the vast majority but a critical study of human evolution suggests otherwise. By of food consumed, and if any animal food was eaten, it was derived understanding the dietary patterns of from scavenged carcasses, from the human species since its which the remaining flesh might inception, we may come to A meat-centered diet is a relatively recent, and have been removed. appreciate the true historical role of highly aberrant change from evolutionary norms. After a long period of plant and animal foods in the human diet. As the following evolution as an almost exclusively plant-eating species, Homo discussion illustrates, a meat-centered diet is a relatively recent, and erectus, and then Homo sapiens, which emerged 300,000 years ago highly aberrant change from evolutionary norms. began to hunt for food. However, the relative contribution of food According to evolutionary theory, the hominid line, from derived from hunting activities was small and incidental. Plant which homo sapiens evolved, came into being around five million foods remained an easy and relatively safe source of nutrients, while years ago. The first hominids lived in small clan-based gathering hunting was a risky, potentially low-return activity. In cold climates societies in the savannas of Africa where seeds, fruits, and roots were where plant food was seasonal, an ability to hunt helped people to in abundant supply. These hominids used their ability to walk survive. However, except for these extreme circumstances, the upright, invention of tools, and manual dexterity to obtain and consumption of animal products did not provide any survival prepare these locally available foods. The fossil record from this advantage to early humans and they did not take up the practice in time shows that these earliest of humans had large molar teeth that any significant way. would have been best suited to the diet of tough plant-based The anatomic and physiologic features of the human body, material that was naturally available to them. It is almost certain throughout evolution, have been herbivorous. The human dental that their diet was entirely dependent on the seeds, fruits, and roots they found in their environment. structure, hands, tongues, and most importantly, digestive tract are suited to a plant-based dict, not a meat-based one. Indeed, studies A major change in this pattern of existence occurred when have documented that the human digestive tract, despite 5-6 million Homo erectus emerged as a unique species a full 3.5 million years years of evolution, has changed little from that of chimpanzees, who 2010_03 Page #14 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues consume 94-98% of their diet from plant food. Thus, though capable of hunting, humans have not evolved to be meat-eaters. There is little doubt that humankind came into being sustained on a diet that was almost wholly based on the gathering of locally available plant foods. And since evolution is a very slow process on the human time scale, our biological constitution has changed little over the 40,000 years that the most recent species of modern humans has been around. Around 12,000 to 10,000 years ago, humans all around the world gradually stopped the gathering of food and began to grow it instead. Thus, was born the agricultural revolution. From a predominantly gathering lifestyle, consuming a large variety of wild plants, this dramatic transformation changes the human diet into one based on staple crops. Humans farmed different crops based on their geographic location. In South and South-East Asia it was rice, in Central America and Mexico it was maize (corn), and in Europe it was cercals. The diets of people throughout the world were based on these carbohydrate-rich plant foods, with a scasonal supply locally available fruits and vegetables. The agricultural revolution also involved the domestication of animals. Animals were kept mostly for the mechanical assistance they provided, and humans began to drink their milk for the first time. However, the peasant agriculturalists, who depended on their bullocks for labor, could scarcely afford to slaughter them. Meat and the other animal products were thus eaten very rarely. In agricultural sociсtics, it was only the very wealthy who could afford substantial quantities of milk, butter, meat, and other foods from domesticated animals. As a result, the diet of humans during this period changed little in actual nutrient content from that of the preceding gatherer one. Despite the dramatic changes that accompanied the agricultural phase of our existence, the vast majority of humans continued to consume an essentially vegetarian diet. After it began, the diet and livelihood of the peasant agriculturalist remained the way of life for almost all of humanity for thousands of years, until just 200 years ago with the dawn of the industrial revolution in Europe. This second drastic change in human society, occurring within only the past seven or eight generations, profoundly altered not only the sources of human food, but the nutrient profile of the human diet as well. The industrial revolution made possible the first application of modern technology to agriculture, and methods such as crop rotation and fertilizers were developed. Mechanization brought cutting machines, threshers, winnowers and the like to the farming sector, displacing the previously essential role of animal labor in the raising of crops. With these advances in the science and practice of agriculture, food production increased dramatically year after year. Because of the large quantities of surplus grains and the dispensableness of domesticated animals, it was possible for formerly agriculturalist peoples in western societies to feed their crops to animals and then to slaughter and eat the animals, instead of consuming the plant food themselves. Soon animal products, such as meat, milk and butter, became much more widely available. Fueled by the association of animal products with wealth and prestige that was developed during agriculturalist times, increasingly affluent people in the West steadily increased the number of animals they raised for meat consumption. The new-found agricultural productivity and growing mcat supply that followed the industrial revolution had dramatic consequences. The human diet, which had been essentially vegetarian for the entire span of our evolutionary history, suddenly, in industrial countries, became heavily dependent on animal foods. Intake of animal protein, cholesterol and saturated fat increased astronomically. Statistics for the United Kingdom show that per capita fat intake in grams per day increased from 25g in 1770 to 145g in 1970, a 580% increase in just 200 years. More recently, as industrialization has spread to other regions of the world, including India, China and Latin American countries, meat consumption has increased dramatically there also. Not surprisingly, over the past 50 years, livestock industries have grown tremendously in size to meet the surging demand for animal products around the world. In this time, the global number of cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats has nearly doubled, to four billion and the number of chickens has more than tripled to 11 billion. There are now three domesticated animals for every man, woman and child on the planet. Now occupying a total of one-quarter of the carth's land mass, cattle and other ruminants now eat more grain than all the people in the developing world put together! In 1990, meat consumption around the globe was four times higher than in 1950. As a group, Americans ate 112 kg of meat per capita per year, the highest level in the world. In fact in an average life span, a North American will cat 21 cows, 12 hogs, 14 sheep or goats, 900 chickens, and 11,275 eggs. One only has to put these recent developments in evolutionary perspective to see how distorted human food habits have become. From our evolution over millions of years as gathering plant-eaters, to our time as crop-eating agriculturalists, modern industrial man has for the first time adopted a diet based largely on animal foods. If hominid evolution is represented as a 24-hour day, the heavily mcat-centered diet of modern industrial societies have only been consumed for the last four minutes of the last hour! This very recent and enormous change in the diet of much of the earth's population has also been accompanied by an enormous cost to human health, to the environment, and has created tremendous suffering for the billions of animals raised in factory-farm environments to meet the huge demand for meat. The meat-centered diet prevalent in modern North American society does not, therefore, have a longstanding history. Contrary to current notions of a vegetarian diet as a new-age phenomenon, the adoption of a plant-centered dict only returns meat-caters to the type of food humans have consumed since our emergence as a species. If the current promising trend towards vegetarianism continues, it may be that one day, a much wiser North American society will look back at meat-eating in its true historical context, that is, as a destructive and highly deviant fad. Tarang Sheth and Tej Sheth, Toronto, Canada (Tej and Tarang Sheth are authors of "Why be a Vegetarian" (1995), published by the Jain Publishing Company, Fremont CA. They are both medical students at the University of Toronto.) (10) Jain Education Intemational 2010_03 Page #15 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues SOME WINNER ARGUMENTS If you're vegetarian, chances are, people interested in being vegetarian will ask you for information about it. That is why it is important to know these facts and figures. THE HUNGER - Number of people worldwide who will die as a result of malnutrition this year: 20 million - Number of people who could be adequately fed using land freed if Americans reduced their intake of meat by 10%: 60 million - Percentage of corn grown in the U.S. eaten by people: 20 - Percentage of corn grown in the U.S. eaten by livestock: 80 - Percentage of protein wasted by cycling grain through livestock: 90 - How frequently a child dies as a result of malnutrition: every 2.3 seconds - Percentage of U.S. farmland devoted to beef production: 56 - Pounds of grain and soybeans needed to produce a pound of edible flesh from feedlot beef: 16 THE ENVIRONMENTAL -Primary cause of global warming due to greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels - Fossil fuels needed to produce meat-centered diet vs. a meat-free diet: 3 times more - Principle historic cause of demise of great civilizations: Topsoil depletion -Percentage of U.S. topsoil lost to date: 75 -Percentage of U.S. topsoil loss directly related to livestock raising: 85 - Number of acres of U.S. forest cleared for cropland to produce meat-centered diet: 260 million - Area of tropical rainforest consumed in every quarter-pound of rainforest beef: 55 square feet - Current rate of species extinction due to destruction of tropical rainforests for meat grazing and other uses: 1,000 per year -Production of excrement by total U.S. human population: 12,000 pounds per second - Production of excrement by U.S. livestock population: 250,000 pounds per second -Sewage systems in U.S. cities: Common -Sewage systems in U.S. feedlots: Nil THE HUMAN HEALTH - Most common cause of death in the U.S.: heart attack - How frequently a heart attack kills in the U.S.: every 25 seconds - Average U.S. man's risk of death from heart attack: 50 percent - Risk of average U.S. man who eats no meat: 15 percent - Risk of average U.S. man who eats no meat, dairy or eggs: 4 percent -Nutrition training received by average U.S. physician during four years in medical school: 2.5 hours -Leading sources of saturated fat and cholesterol in American diets: Meat, dairy products and eggs - Increased risk of breast cancer for women who eat meat daily compared to less than once a week: 3.8 times 2010_03 -Increased risk of fatal prostate cancer for men who consume meat, cheese, eggs and milk daily vs. sparingly or not at all: 3.6 times. THE NATURAL RESOURCES - User of more than half of all water used for all purposes in the U.S.: livestock production - Amount of water used in production of the average cow: sufficient to float a U.S. Naval destroyer - Gallons of water needed to produce a pound of wheat: 25 - Gallons of water needed to produce a pound of meat: 2,500 -Years the world's known oil reserves would last if every human ate a meat-centered diet: 13 -Years they would last if human beings no longer ate meat: 260 - Percentage of all raw materials (base products of farming, forestry and mining, including fossil fuels) consumed by U.S. that is devoted to the production of livestock: 33 - Percentage of all raw materials consumed by the U.S. needed to produce a complete vegetarian diet: 2 THE ANTIBIOTIC - Percentage of U.S. antibiotics fed to livestock: 55 - Percentage of staphylococci infections resistant to penicillin in 1960: 13 (11) - Percentage resistant in 1988: 91 -Response of European Economic Community to routine feeding of antibiotics to livestock: ban Response of U.S. meat and pharmaceutical industries to routine feeding of antibiotics to livestock: full and complete support THE PESTICIDE - Common belief: U.S. Department of Agriculture protects our health through meat inspection -Reality: fewer than 1 out of every 250,000 slaughtered animals is tested for toxic chemical residues -Leading source of pesticide residues in the U.S. diet: Meat - 55% - Second leading source of pesticide residues in U.S. diet: Dairy Products -23% - Total pesticide residues in U.S. diet supplied by: Vegetables - 6%, Fruits - 4%, Grains - 1% - Percentage of U.S. mother's milk containing significant levels of DDT: 99 -Percentage of U.S. vegetarian mother's milk containing significant levels of DDT: 8 - Contamination of breast milk, due to chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in animal products, found in meat-eating mothers vs. nonmeat eating mothers: 35 times higher THE ETHICS - Number of animals killed for meat per hour in the U.S.: 500,000 Page #16 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Number of 700-plus pound pigs confined to space the of a twin THE SURVIVAL bed in typical factory farm: 3 Reason today's veal is so tender: Calves never allowed to move a single step, so as to not develop muscle Occupation with highest turnover rate in U.S.: slaughterhouse worker Original actor to play Ronald McDonald: Jeff Juliano Diet now followed by Jeff Juliano: Vegetarian For more facts about how a plant-based diet benefits human health and the health of the planet, read Diet for A New America, by John Robbins, or contact EarthSave. (Printed with permission.) VEGETARIAN RESOURCES For information on vegetarian food and nutrition (and more recipes, of course!) look for the resources listed below. Look for these books and videos in libraries and bookstores and choose one or two basic cookbooks that you'd like to own: get at least one with nutritional charts which foods contain which nutrients), grain and bean charts, and good basic recipes, as a reference. For special occasions (veggie BBQ, reggie Thanksgiving) subscribe to a vegetarian magazine ($20-25 for the entire year) or get your library to subscribe! Also explore the on-line sources for recipes, outlined in "World Wide Veg," our listing of websites related to vegetarianism. Magazines Vegetarian Times, P.O. Box 446, Mount Morris, IL, 61054-8081: ;reat articles and recipes The Compassionate Cook by Ingrid Newkirk and PETA Laurel's Kitchen by Laurel Robertson, Carol Flinders, and Brian Ruppenthal Vegetarian Journal's Guide to Natural Foods Restaurants in the U.S. and Canada (2nd ed.), Vegetarian Resource Group. Very useful Vegetarian Journal, P.O. Box 1463, Baltimore MD 21203: excellent book for traveling. Get your campus library or Jain Center to buy product reviews and recipes one for all to share! Names restaurants and vacation spots. Cookbooks Simply Vegan: Quick Vegetarian Meals (2nd ed.) by Debra Wasserman - Athlete to win Ironman Triathlon more than twice: Dave Scott (6 time winner) Food choice of Dave Scott: Vegetarian - Largest meat eater that ever lived: Tyrannosaurus Rex - Last sighting of T. Rex: 100,000,000 B.C. Fresh from a Vegetarian Kitchen by Meredith McCarty Great Vegetarian Cooking Under Pressure by Loma J. Sass Sam Okomato's Incredible Vegetables Tofu Cookery by Louise Hagler Other Books Becoming Vegetarian, Melina, Davis and Harrison, 1994, MacMillan, Toronto, Canada. Great book, even if you've been a vegetarian all your life. Very current nutritional information, clearly explained. Also, advice on handling social situations ("vegetarian diplomacy"). 2010_03 Diet for A New America by John Robbins. An excellent reference on the ecological, human health as well as ethical implications of a meatless diet. Statistics and facts are presented with references throughout. Food for Life by Neal Barnard, M.D. Vegan Nutrition by Michael Klaper, M.D. Videos Diet for All Reasons (Michael Klaper, MD) available from the American Vegan Society, (609) 694-2887 Food Without Fear (Vegetarian Society of the U.K.) available from Vegetarian Education Network (VE*Net), P.O. Box 3347, West Chester, PA 19381, (717) 529-8638 Diet for A New America (John Robbins) available from EarthSave, 706 Frederick Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95062, (408) 423-4069/ (800) 362-3648 WORLD WIDE VEG Wanna find veggie restaurants for your next road trip? An egg-free brownie recipe? The World Wide Web is full of great sites with all sorts of information on vegetarianism. Just search on "vegetarian" or "vegan" and explore! Here's a guide to our favorite sites: Veggies Unite!: Best known for their Recipe Directory. Arguably the ultimate online searchable vegetarian cookbook: every lacto-ovo, lacto, and vegan recipe imaginable, from A-Z! (12) Page #17 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Vegetarian Resource Group: The best organization around for helpful tips and vegetarian nutritional information. They are pros at introducing vegetarian foods to cafeterias; they even have a great quantity vegetarian recipe packet you can hand to your cafeteria staff! Also, articles and recipes from their excellent magazine, Vegetarian Journal. World Food Guide to Vegetarianism: Planning a trip? Don't go on vacation without checking out this website! Moving to a new city? This site can help you find veg-friendly restaurants, food stores, and organizations (including on-campus vegetarian clubs). Covers North America, Europe, and other countries. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA): Before you hit the malls, check out PETA's Online Shopping Guide for Caring Consumers." Companies marked with a "*" sell products which contain no animal ingredients and use no animal testing (i.c., "vegan" products. They also list some great recipes from their cookbook, The Compassionate Cook. The Vegetarian Pages: the complete guide to on-line resources on vegetarianism. Vegan Action: read how students convinced a cafeteria to serve vegetarian food at every meal! The Jiv Daya & Vegetarianism Committee of JAINA: Information on vegetarianism, animal issues and the environment for the Jain community and the community-at-large. Soon to be added: this Handbook for Compassionate Living! Daya/ Lowfat Vegetarian Archive: Low-fat, vegetarian recipes. Yahoo: The most popular scarch engine for Www - look for various keywords, such as vegetarian, vegan, compassion, etc. to locate related sites. "NEW" INGREDIENTS Most of our recipes use ingredients which you can find at any grocery store. But some also use less familiar - but very handy - ingredients you'll want to try (if you haven't already). It's a great time for people who love to eat ordinary grocery stores are carrying interesting, new foods. If you don't find these items in your store grocery store, ask about them or try a natural foods store. Here are some of these "new" ingredients: "Black Strap" Molasses A sweetener made from sugar cane, but not you find the brand you like (try Vanilla Wessoy, Rice Dream, and as refined as white sugar (Barbados or Fancy molasses are in Almond Mylk). Also, try soy milk powder for convenience. between). Very high in calcium and iron. Use for seasoning black, Tahini Sesame butter. Used in Humus, Baba Ghanoush and other kidney, pinto or other beans. In Indian food (dal, subji) use in Middle Eastern foods. place of gur. Tamari A Japanese soy sauce with a richer, sweeter flavor than the Cornstarch, Arrowroot, Agar-Agar Serve as thickeners: add to sauce and heat, stirring constantly. Agar-agar also replaces gelatin (an more common Chinese soy sauce. Tamari can be found at some animal product) ... expensive but you need so little. grocery stores, and most natural food stores. Couscous, Brown Rice, Quinoa, Bulgar The "other" grains: they Tofu A Chinese and Japanese staple, tofu (soy bean curd) is now readily available in most grocery stores. Tofu takes on the flavor of offer a change in flavor and texture from white rice. Couscous and whatever it's cooked with and has no flavor of its own - it's just an quinoa ("keen-wa") cook quickly, others take a little longer. Cook up a batch as all will keep in the fridge for five days, in a sealed ingredient, not something you'd eat by itself. Tofu adds texture: it comes in soft, firm, silken, baked. The key is finding the right container. texture for a recipe. Firm tofu is good for sandwich fillings, stir Eggless Mayonnaise: A great sandwich condiment, flavoring, or fries and entrees; soft tofu, for baking to replace eggs; silken tofu, base for dressings and dips. Egg-free brands include Nayonaise, for sauces, puddings, since it is very smooth; baked tofu is harder to Soyanaise and Veganaisa find, but it has a chewy texture and is great for stir fries. Tofu can Ener-G Egg Replacer A brand of egg-free egg replacer for baking. also make a meal more filling and add food value: a good source of One box will last you forever and keeps well in a cool dry place. protein and calcium. If you're still scared, see our Tofu Scramble Can be purchased at natural foods stores or through the mail: Ener's easy and tasty! G Foods, Inc. 5960 First Ave, P.O. Box 84487, Seattle, WA 98124 Once the package is opened, leftover tofu should be placed in water 5787. and refrigerated. The water should be changed every day or two, but Soy Milk, Rice Milk, Almond Milk Non-dairy milk substitutes, it's better just to use up the tofu instead! An excellent book with good on cereal, in cooking and baking. Drink by themselves - once great recipes using tofu (especially desserts) is Louise Hagler's Tofu Cookery. (13) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #18 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues SHOPPING FOR VEGETARIAN FOODS Where to Shop and don't be shy about asking store keepers how to prepare new or unfamiliar foods. Reading Labels Most vegetarian foods are available at regular grocery stores. In fact, with the increasing interest in vegetarian food, some stores have started to carry frozen vegetarian dinners and boxes with instant or quick vegetarian mcals. Some stores keep them in a special "gourmet," "health foods," or "international" section. Other stores mix these products into general sections. If you don't see a product, ask the store staff for help. If they don't have it, ask if they can carry it or at least order it on a trial basis (you may be turning them onto a popular new product!) Also, look in the yellow pages or ask around to find the health food or natural foods store in your area. Can't find the natural foods store? Call the Vegetarian Resource Group (VRG) at 410-366-VEGE: they can probably help. A trip to a natural foods stores - even once every month or two - can pay off because they typically have the biggest selection of vegetarian convenience foods. You can stock up on the canned, boxed and frozen items. Fantastic Foods, Casbah and Nile have entire lines of boxed instant and quick mcals including vegetarian chili, soups, falafel, hummus, and veggie burger mix. Cascadian Farms, Taj. Tamarind Tree, Amy's, Ken & Roberts, Cedar Lane, Ruthie's, Celentano's, Tumaro's, Rosarita's are only a few of those offering vegetarian frozen dinners. Also, check out local ethnic food stores: Chinese stores may carry soy milk and tofu, and Indian or Chinese stores can have a variety of seasonings and fresh vegetables. Explore new ingredients The food industry uses the most unthinkable ingredients sometimes, so it pays to read labels at first to find out which brands are truly vegetarian. Once you know your brands, you can relax a Little. (You'll marvel at how quickly your eyes recognize ingredients you're scanning for, once you are in the habit.) "Vegetable" soup often has chicken or beef broth; a few brands of veggie burgers use eggs and dairy; margarine sometime contains animal products and many egg-replacers contain eggs (who'd have thought?). Also, watch out for lard in beans (very common!) and breads which contain lard, tallow, animal shortening, eggs, or have egg wash glazing the top. Gelatin (an animal product) is found in Jell-o, marshmallows, and sometimes even in yogurt. Salad dressings can contain mayonnaise (made from eggs). Certain Snapple flavors, some fruit punches and candies, and some Indian pickles (achaar) contain Red Dye No. 40 ("Red 40", also called "cochineal extract" or "carminc"): this dye is made from insects! On the positive side, more products are beginning to be labeled for vegetarians. The term, "ovo-lacto vegetarian" suggests that it contains eggs and/or dairy products; "lacto vegetarian" shows that it contains dairy products, but no eggs; "vegan" shows a product with no eggs or dairy products, and usually, no honey. Products labeled as vegan are "safe" for all vegetarians. Cochineal Extract I called up Snapple. Snapple produces three flavors with Cochincal Extract. It comes from boiling or chemically treating the shells of beetles (an insect). It is a brilliant red dye. The three flavors are Mango Madness, and the two new Island Splashes. Call up Snapple and ask them to use a fruit extract instead of an insect extract - 1-800-SNAPPLE. According to Tropicana customer service, anytime natural flavors or colors are stated in their ingredients, it is a combination of the items listed above in the ingredients, and if cochincal extract is added, then they list it separately. Dole also uses cochincal in "100% Natural Pine-Passion-Banana Juice," advertised as Paradise Fruits. We live in a very complex world, where corporate logic can go in very weird directions. Snapple could have used some other synthetic colors, but they want to advertise a label of "natural." So they raise these beetles in a special farm! Call them to say that we need colors neither from laboratories, nor from insects. I also called up Snapple, asking for natural fruit colors. The customer service representative at first argued with me, that the plants also have life. I countered him with questions, if the plants have eyes, ears, nose, tongue, etc. Finally he personally agreed, that the insects have no place in a bottle advertised as fruit juice. We ourselves have to be extremely diligent. Let us not take anything that we don't know exactly what it is, and where it came from. Let us live simply, so that others may simply live. Narendra Sheth (14) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #19 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues SILVER FOILS ARE NOT VEGETARIAN They are dirty too.... At the end of a meal, do you like to cat a pan, sweet, or perfumed sopari? And then if we decorate these things with silver foils, what more can we want? They decorate many sweets also with silver foils. The silver foils are not very expensive. They are sold by weight. manufacturers sell them to temples. Ordinarily, you can buy a packet of 160 foils for a price between 3 to 6 U.S. dollars. That is, approximately three pennies per foil. Not only the sweets, now a days it is also applied on fruits. Some Ayurvedic medicines are also wrapped in silver foils. How do you think silver foils are made? Hold your breath. They are made by hammering thin sheets of silver in the middle of booklets made of a bull's intestines. In other words, after slaughtering a bull, they quickly remove his intestines, and sell them to the manufacturers of foils. The skins made of old intestines are of no use. Even one day old intestine cannot be used, because within a few hours they stiffen. The foil manufacturer removes blood and stools from the intestines, and cuts them into pieces. Then he puts one piece over another, making a booklet out of it. At his home, or in the factory, he puts one silver (or gold) sheet between each page. Then he hammers it hard until those metal sheets turn into thin wafers. Egg-free Egg Replacers Many egg replacers in stores actually contain eggs! Replace one egg with one of the following: Try one mashed ripe banana (great for cakes, pancakes), or 1/3 C purred prunes, or apple sauce. SUBSTITUTIONS IN COOKING & BAKING Conversion of many recipes, with the appropriate substitutions, can lead to great vegetarian recipes. Substitution skills are especially important for those who wish to avoid certain food products. For example, recipes from some vegetarian cookbooks may still contain milk products or even eggs. Also, many vegetarian recipes do season with onions and garlic. Use 1/4 C tofu, blended smooth (mix with other liquids before adding to the dry ingredients). For binding properties only, use 2 T cornstarch or arrowroot starch. For extra leavening (in muffins, cakes) add a pinch of baking powder to react with the baking soda in the recipe (or add lemon juice or vinegar) in addition to the above. 2010_03 The intestines of bulls are so strong, that even repeated hammering does not destroy them, nor do they let the foils move around inside. Because of the hammering, some tissues of the intestine mix with the foils. After that the foil manufacturer sells the bundle of foils to the sweets' manufacturers. Some small foil This foil is not only dirty, it also is non-veg. Even the meateaters do not eat intestines. Use of these foils turn even sweets into non-veg food. A few years ago the Indian Air Lines learned about this, and since then stopped using them on the sweets served in their planes. By now, a pan-lover vegetarian person may have eaten the equivalent of many miles of oxen's intestines! For them, here is more bad news - the Chuna that they apply on pan, also is not vegetarian! It is made from the shells of living insects. These insects are taken from the ocean, killed, and removed from their shells. Then the shells are softened in water, dried, and ground into white powder. When you put this Chuna in your mouth, you are participating in the killing of many insects. This is no different from taking life of a goat or a pig. Everyone wants to live; no one likes the pain of death. Mrs. Maneka Gandhi ("Illustrated Weekly of India"). (15) For binding and leavening, use Ener-G Egg Replacer (prepare according to instructions on package). Ener-G brand Egg Replacer can be found in health food stores. Dairy Substitutes in Cooking and Baking Many Jains avoid all dairy products due to the cruelties involved in producing cow's milk. To replace these products try the following: use soy milk, rice milk, almond milk in place of cow's milk in baking or to drink Also try soy milk powder (even more convenient with longer storage) Use soy or canola margarine for butter (be aware: some margarines contain animal products) Substitute soy yogurt for dairy yogurt (available in plain and great fruit flavors) Page #20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Many grocery stores now stock these products, so ask for them (may be in a separate section). All are available at health food stores. Try different non-dairy milk brands to find which you like best! Try homemade nut milk or rice milk (blend nuts or rice with water, strain, add sweetener). Meat Substitutes in Sauces or Stir Fries Jainism and Animal Issues For buttermilk in baking, mix in 1 T lemon juice or guests. Add crumbled veggie burgers or finely chopped "not-dogs" vinegar to curdle one cup of soy milk to spaghetti sauce or stir fry, for a heartier meal. (Try different brands to find which you like best. Also, be aware that a few of these products do contain eggs, etc.). Or, add crumbled tofu to do the same. For variety, try TVP (textured vegetable protein), sliced tempeh or seitan. Substitutes for Onions and Garlic Jain cuisine often compensates for the absence of these with extra amounts of other seasonings. In Italian, Mexican and Indian dishes, fried cumin seeds and a little asafetida (hing), can add flavor and interest. Also, refer to Hare Krishna cookbooks since they avoid onions and garlic. While meat substitutes are a turn off for some vegetarians, they provide a convenient way to get quick, nourishing meals for non-veg For cheese: be aware that many soy cheeses have casein (a dairy product). Experiment with the recipes and ideas in The Uncheese Cookbook by Joanne Stepaniak. EATING OUT VEGETARIAN With growing health and ethical concerns, it is becoming easier to find vegetarian food in restaurants everywhere. Still, some situations pose a challenge: in a new city, with people you don't know, for example, you may feel that your choices are limited. By suggesting ethnic restaurants, such as those listed below, you'll usually ensure plenty of vegetarian options, and a memorable culinary adventure for everyone. (Best bets marked "*"). Caribbean Indian Ethiopian Italian Japanese rice, beans (check for animal fat), plantain chips, veggie "Jamaican patty" (check if meatless), roti and seasoned vegetables. injera, a large variety of flavorful greens, vegetables, bean, lentil dishes. many breads, vegetable and bean dishes, rice, vegetable samosa, pakora. pasta (check for eggs, check if cooked in chicken broth) and marinara sauce, pasta primavera, pasta with pesto, vegetarian lasagna, salads, soups (check for chicken, beef broths), eggplant parmigana (check for eggs in batter). tofu dishes, miso soups, rice noodles, vegetarian sushi, vegetable stir-fries. vegetable tempura (check if tempura batter has eggs). Lebanese/Egyptian falafel, humus and pita, baba ganoush, Mexican 2010_03 mujaddara, tabouleh, stuffed grape leaves (check if meatless), rice-stuffed peppers, eggplant moussaka (check if meatless), spinach pie (check for eggs). Thai/Chinese/Indonesian vegetable stir fries with nuts, tofu, tempeh, seitan (check if they use vegetable oil or animal fat, check for animal broth, oyster sauce, fish oil), rice (steamed rice is safer than fried), noodles (check for eggs), steamed spring rolls (can often be made without eggs or meat). At unfamiliar restaurants: when you get your menu, tell the waiter or server that you're vegetarian and ask what he or she recommends. Be clear about what you do and don't eat. He, or she, may need to confer with the kitchen, to answer your questions. This approach gives the establishment some time to accommodate your needs - which is what they're in business to do! You'll likely be served an enviable delight...if all else fails, a chef's special, made just for you. beans (check for use of lard) and rice (check if cooked in chicken or other animal broth), if meatless: burritos, tacos, enchiladas, fajitas, tostadas. When ordering, ask for confirmation that your meal is vegetarian ("Spring roll, please. That doesn't have any meat or eggs, right?"). Since they do not list all ingredients on the menu, it's better to ask questions up front to avoid unpleasant surprises such as ham bits in a seemingly innocent salad. If they do accommodate you, tip well, and let them know that you'll mention it at local vegetarian events. Calling ahead can also help. And before you travel, look up veg-friendly restaurants in guide books and on the World Wide Web (see our listings of books and websites). (16) Try this for a perfect communication. Make a small card, that you can send to chef, that specifies clearly everything like this: "JAIN VEGAN DIET; NO MEAT (no beef, pork, chicken, fish, or eggs); NO DAIRY (no yogurt, cheese, or sour cream); NO HONEY; NO ROOTS (no onions, garlic, potatoes, carrots, beet, mushrooms, reddish, ginger, yam, or chives). This card leaves no room for a mistake or misunderstanding, by you, the waitor, or the chef. Page #21 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues VEGAN DINING OUT Frequently we tend to think that eating out vegetarian is difficult, and vegan would be even more difficult. Nevertheless, it is not necessarily true. Here we have a list of what we can eat out. The information is good not only for vegans, but naturally, it is also useful for all vegetarians. All information below is subject to change, as restaurants frequently change food ingredients for a variety of reasons, and what was once vegan or vegetarian may no longer be. So always ask at the particular restaurant to make sure what you are ordering is still the same. As noted often, they fry vegetarian products in the same vat as meat items, so pay special attention and ask about it. Although Jainism prohibits eating roots (carrots, onions, garlic, etc.), honey, and mushrooms, there are many Jains in this country who do. We believe that the violence caused to all these one-sensed (Ekendriya) lives is much less intense than the violence caused to the cows who have all five-senses plus the mind (Sangni Panchendriya). Therefore we provide information here for all, considering the principle of minimization of harm. However, we urge you avoid eating roots and mushrooms, and also dairy products, eggs, honey, etc. Narendra Sheth What is Edible? AU BON PAIN: Au Bon Pain has a variety of vegan choices and even has suggestions for healthy, low-fat meals. At each location nutritional information is available. There are two vegan salads: the large garden and the small garden, both of which they make with two types of lettuce, red cabbage, carrots, tomatoes, cucumber, and red or green pepper. All four bagels are vegan. AUNTIE ANNE'S: They offer a variety of hand-rolled pretzels. Although they flavor most of their pretzels with butter, upon request they will make one without butter. BURGER KING: Burger King uses only vegetable oil for frying. Their national headquarters stated that it is standard procedure for fries and hash browns, both of which may be vegan, to be fried in oil separate from the 'food' products, meaning the chicken and fish. This differs from what they stated in a letter we received from an employee at Burger King. She wrote to us that the French fries are the only fried foods cooked in a separate vat. To be sure, ask at the restaurant you are visiting. The side salad is vegan, listing lettuce, tomatoes, cucumber, celery, and radishes as ingredients. Burger King uses Paul Newman's dressings, which avoid using preservatives and artificial ingredients. The French, Reduced Calorie Italian, and Oil & Vinegar dressings are all vegan. CARL'S JR.: French fries are vegan and fried in vegetable oil. Bread products which contain no animal shortening, eggs, or dairy derivatives include the bread sticks, hot dog bun, plain bun, flour tortilla, English muffin, and Kaiser bun. They have an all-you-caneat salad bar. They also offer a Lite Potato. ARBY'S: Arby's is now using vegetable oil for frying. Vegan oil as meat products. options include a small side salad and a baked potato. BASKIN ROBBINS: Ices and Sorbet products are vegan. CHI-CHI'S: Chi-Chi's restaurants use soybean oil to prepare their refried beans and other deep-fried items. They list the following items as being vegan: Chips and Salsa and Vegetable Chajita. Although they use vegetable oil for all their fried foods, they fry meat products in the same oil as vegetarian products. 2010_03 DAIRY QUEEN: Dairy Queen/Brazier stores use only vegetable shortening to prepare their foods, and the only food they fry is French fries. Ingredients in buns and onion rings depend upon the local supplier. They offer a side salad which is apparently vegan. DEL TACO: Bean burritos, quesadillas, and tostadas are all vegan if they omit the cheese. Refried beans are prepared with 100% soybean oil. All sauces are meat-free. DENNY'S: They offer a garden salad with eggs as a garnish, but they can omit them. Vegan side dishes include French fries and onion rings, both of which may be vegan. All fried foods are prepared in vegetable oil, but they cook vegetarian items in the same DOMINO'S: There are four different ingredient groupings for Domino's pizza crust, and any one of these might be used at your local units, so ask. Only one recipe is apparently vegan. The rest contain whey, and may contain egg, butter, buttermilk, cheese, and other dairy derivatives. Their sauce may be vegan. EL POLLO LOCO: There is a vegetarian burrito available, which is a bean burrito, prepared with beans that they cook in olive oil. They make the vegetarian burrito, like other items, to order; so it can be ordered without cheese for a vegan burrito. The tortillas, both corn and flour, are vegan. HARDEE'S: Hardee's uses vegetable oil to cook all fried products. They offer a pre-made side salad which is vegan. They fry their French fries separately from their fried meat products. Their mashed potatoes are instant and may be vegans except the natural flavoring, which is questionable. JACK IN THE BOX: As a rule they fry French fries separately from the meats, but they do not enforce this. Bread products which may be vegan include their English muffins, hamburger bun, sesame bread sticks, tortilla bowl (wheat), pita bread, and gyro bread. Hashbrowns, French fries, and guacamole may be vegan. Jack in the Box offers a side salad which is vegan, and the low-calorie Italian dressing may be vegan except for the "natural ingredients." For dessert the apple turnover is vegan. (17) LITTLE CAESARS: Their dough and tomato sauce are vegan. You can order pizza without cheese. Items that are vegan are the Crazy Sauce, Crazy Bread without Parmesan cheese, Tossed Salad, and Greek Salad without feta cheese. Page #22 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues MCDONALD'S: Fries and hash browns are both cooked in 100% vegetable oil in U.S.A., and are supposed to be prepared in vats separate from those used for meat. However, beware in Canada, where the fries are not veggie since they are pre-fried in beef tallow. McDonald's offers a side salad which is vegan. The only dressing that may be vegan is the Lite Vinaigrette. McDonaldland cookies may be vegan; the lecithin used is soy derived. Many McDonald's also prepare the Big Mac sandwich without meat if requested. The buns are vegan; however, the special sauce contains egg yolk. NATHAN'S: They cook their thick French fries in corn oil. Corn on the cob is often available. PIZZA HUT: Basically nothing at Pizza Hut, besides a salad with no cheese or eggs, is vegan. Pizza Hut Thin 'n Crispy and Hand Tossed crusts are vegan. But the pizza sauce for Stuffed Crust Pizza contains chicken fat. All other pizza sauces contain cheese flavor, which they make with animal enzymes. Beef base is used for the bread stick and pasta sauces. The cheese used on the pizzas could be made with either bovine (cow) or synthetic rennct. PONDEROSA: Ponderosa has a large food bar which typically contains plain vegetables and also a salad bar, fruit, and fried foods. Ingredient listings were not available, but coming up with a decent vegan meal seems possible. RAX: Rax is now using only Crisco, an all-vegetable shortening, for their fried foods. However, their beans are first cooked in lard. The Rax salad bar has the usual salad bar offerings, and occasionally a three-bean salad which may be vegan. ROUND TABLE PIZZA: They have a variety of vegetable toppings including black olives, garlic, mushrooms, pineapple tidbits, tomatoes, green peppers, onions, and jalapeno peppers. Their dough and tomato sauce are vegan. They use vegetable shortening. SHAKEY'S: They have a salad bar. SHONEYS: Shoney's has a breakfast bar with fruit. Shoney's also has various prepared salads, a salad bar, and soups. SKIPPER'S: Skipper's uses soybean oil for frying all their menu items. They offer a garden salad which includes mixed greens, cucumbers, tomatoes, and carrots. They make their onion rings with a beer-based batter! Crackers are vegan. SUBWAY: Subway offers a veggic sub, which is any combination of vegetables including lettuce, tomatoes, green peppers, hot peppers, black olives, onions, and/or pickles. Specify to place them only on a white vegan sub roll (wheat roll contains honey), and they can be accompanied by oil, and/or vinegar. A salad with the same choice of vegetables is also available. A few locations are now offering Gardenburger subs and White Wave soy turkey subs. The Gardenburger sub is vegetarian. The "turkey" sub is vegan, but the soy cheese used on it contains casein. These sandwiches are approved for "local sandwich status," meaning that individual Subway owners can choose to sell the product if they think there is a big enough demand. Speak to your local Subway manager if you'd like to try to have either of these subs sold at the shop you frequent. TACO BELL: Taco Bell has added a new line of low-fat dishes, and there are some differences from the regular menu. On the original menu both the corn tortillas (hard tacos) and wheat tortillas (soft tacos) are vegan. The heat pressed flour tortillas used for burritos do contain nonfat dry milk. On the low-fat menu the corn and wheat tortillas are vegan, and also the light heat pressed tortillas used for the low-fat burritos. Corn or soy oil is used in all frying processes. Both the regular and low-fat refried beans are vegan. For dessert the Cinnamon Twists and Border Ice products are vegan. TACO JOHN'S INTERNATIONAL: Vegan items available include bean burritos made with refried beans cooked in canola oil. No lard is used in any products or food preparation. The tortillas contain no animal shortening, but may contain dairy products. The guacamole is vegan. Request no cheese or sour cream. Nevertheless, they use same oil for all frying! TACOTIME: Taco Time uses vegetable oil for their deep fryers, and wanted to make it clear that they have never used lard in 33 years of business. They make their Refritos with vegetable shortening. Tortillas are vegan. Vegetarian dishes available at Taco Time include soft bean burrito, crisp bean burrito, refritos (beans, sauce, and cheese), tostado, nachos, and Mexi-fries. They could not tell us for sure if vegetarian fried items, like the Maxi-fries, are cooked in separate oil from the meat products. T.G.I. FRIDAY's: They have a Vegetable Medley, which is steamed vegetables served with rice and a dinner salad. Still, beware that the brown rice pilaf served with it contains chicken base. Order a baked potato as a substitute, and you'll have a filling, vegan meal. WENDY'S: Wendy's has made some changes that are definitely pro-vegetarian. Wendy's Super Bar is one of the best fastde food salad bars, and they are constantly striving to make it better. They have removed the "natural beef flavor" from the spaghetti sauce, making it vegan; this can be placed over the rotini, which is also vegan. At the Mexican Fiesta, the refried beans no longer contain lard. The only questionable ingredient in the Spanish rice is the natural flavoring, which may be animal derived. Their taco chips, taco sauce, and taco shells are vegan. The Garden Spot salad bar offers all the makings for a salad including alfalfa sprouts, broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, cucumbers, chives, green peppers, lettuce, mushrooms, onions, tomatoes, and chow mein noodles which may be vegan. Vegan dressings include French, Sweet Red French, Golden Italian, and Reduced Calorie Italian, which contain no questionable ingredients, since they have informed us that the natural flavor found in these dressings is not animal derived. Fruit is also found at the bar. The Garden Spot salad bar is found at all Wendy's, but unfortunately the Super Bar is found only at some locations. Hot vegetarian items at all Wendy's include a baked potato with choice of toppings and French fries. They cook the French fries in separate oil from the meat products; however, there is the possibility that oil used to cook the chicken nuggets could be rotated into a French fry vat! MRS. WINNER'S: They fry their potatoes only in vegetable oil. Debra Wasserman ("Vegetarian Resource Group") (18) Jain Education Intermational 2010_03 Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Recipes All these recipes call for Soya or Rice Milk, for the obvious ethical, health, and environmental reasons discussed earlier. We have already tried these non-dairy milks, and they have worked perfectly. We believe that cow's milk not only involves Himsa, it is also unhealthy, because it is high in cholesterol and fat. Nature made cow's milk perfect-- however, only for calves, not for humans -- neither for adults, nor for children. The vegetarian recipes in this section come from various sources: some are from our favorite cookbooks (as noted), chefs at popular local restaurants provided others, and others yet are family recipes. For more vegetarian recipes, try the books and magazines listed in "Vegetarian Resources" and check out the World Wide Web sites listed in "World Wide Veg" section. Jainism and Animal Issues We compiled these recipes with busy people in mind. We've included tips and short cuts throughout. Also, we encourage you to think of the written recipe as just a starting point. Feel free to adjust amounts and types of seasonings to your taste. If you haven't cooked much before, stick to the recipe fairly closely the first time, and experiment a little the second time. After a while, you'll develop some intuition about what you can get away with. For baking, use measuring cups and measuring spoons, and measure fairly accurately until you are very comfortable with the recipe. For cooking, on the other hand, if you don't have an ingredient on hand: improvise...that's how some of the best "recipes" come about! Abbreviations: t teaspoon T tablespoon C cup lb pound oz ounce And finally, if you need a little help with one of these recipes or encouragement with your cooking experiences, E-mail us at: (Now how many cookbooks can say that?) Breakfast of Champions With a little prior preparation, you can whip up most of these breakfasts in a flash...Pancake batter keeps in the fridge for a day or two. Or, you can combine the dry ingredients ahead of time, creating your own homemade "pancake mix" (just add the liquids, stir and cook). Baked items, such as muffins, can be made ahead of time, and will keep for a week in the fridge or months in the freezer as long as they are stored in airtight containers. Remember that these breakfast ideas are good for a meal or snack any time of the day! Also, be sure to have fresh fruits, dried fruits and nuts on hand for when you've "gotta run." Pancakes 1 1/4 C Whole wheat pastry flour OR Unbleached white flour 1 T Ener-G Egg Replacer OR cornstarch baking powder baking soda sugar 1 t 1/2 t 1 T pinch salt 1 t 2 T 1 C 1 T cinnamon oil soy milk vinegar Mix dry ingredients. If you like, add blended fruit, nuts, dried fruit, or chocolate chips. Then stir in liquid ingredients. Make sure all the ingredients are mixed thoroughly with hand-mixer until batter is spongy, not runny. Preheat lightly oiled (or non-stick) 2010_03 frying pan over medium heat. Pour about 1/4 C of batter into pan, cook until golden brown. Flip over to cook other side. Top with maple syrup, apple butter, or jam. Makes six pancakes. Easy Apple-Cinnamon Muffins 2 C 1 C 1 C 1 T 1/2 t 1/2 C 1 C 1 t I C 2 T 1/2 C unbleached white flour wheat bran brown sugar, packed baking powder baking soda raisins grated apple cinnamon soy milk lemon juice oil Mix all dry ingredients in a bowl. Blend fruit, lemon juice and soy milk; add oil to form a liquid mixture in a separate bowl. Combine dry and wet mixtures. The trick to muffins is mixing as little as possible (unlike cakes): the batter should be lumpy, not smooth. Oil the cups and top of a muffin pan, to bake a dozen muffins. Pour batter into cach cup. Bake at 350°F, in a preheated oven, for 35-40 minutes. When the muffins are done, an inserted knife, will come out clean. (19) Any flavor Muffins: Instead of raisins, apple and cinnamon, try: walnuts, blended banana, and nutmeg; blueberries or strawberries; chocolate chips, and shredded coconut...go crazy! Page #24 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Fruit Smoothee When bananas go ripe all at once, and you can't eat them all in time, just stick them in the freezer until you're ready to use them in this Fruit Smoothee or Banana Muffins. This smoothee is tasty and very filling when you add Almond Milk (recipe follows). 1/2 C 2 2 T 1 C water 2 T orange juice or apple juice ripe bananas, frozen maple syrup Almond Milk (optional) Blend ingredients until smooth. For variety, add a handful of fresh or frozen berries. Garnish with some new slivers of fresh fruit. Almond Milk Make lots of almond milk and store in the fridge (keeps longer than milk!). It's rich, filling, makes delicious smoothees (see above) and is great over cereal. And remember: almonds are the Indian "brain food!" (...Just ask your parents what they ate during exams.) 1/2 C raw almonds 1 1 1 1 lb. 2 T Jainism and Animal Issues sweetener OR 2 dates Pour 1 C boiling water over almonds. Let cool and peel off skins. Blend almonds and water, gradually adding another 1 C water. Strain through a cheesecloth, and stir in sweetener. If you like dates, start the night before: soak almonds and dates in water overnight in 1 C water, proceed as above but skip the sweetener. Tofu Scramble If you're afraid of tofu, don't be! This is the easiest possible meal: great for a quick breakfast, lunch, or dinner! Remember tofu, sealed in a package, keeps fresh until the date marked. After you open it, refrigerate leftover tofu, soaking in water. You're supposed to rinse it and change the water every day or two, but if you use it up, you won't have to worry about it! tomato two celery sticks green or red sweet pepper soft or firm tofu oil 1⁄2 t each: turmeric, black pepper 3 T tamari OR eggless mayonnaise pinch cayenne pepper (optional) Finely chop veggies. Drain water out of tofu, mash with a fork. Heat oil in a pan on medium heat. (If available, use non-stick pan.) Add veggies and spices; let cook until softened. Add mashed tofu, and cook for five minutes, mixing occasionally. Mix tamari or soy mayo thoroughly into tofu. Cook for another five minutes, mixing at intervals. Add extra seasonings to taste. Serve in a sandwich, fill a tortilla, or cat by itself. If you have a sandwich maker, use this mixture as a stuffing! Serves two. For those in a hurry, keep a few boxes of Fantastic Foods Tofu Scramble Mix on hand (available in health food section, or at the health food store). 2010_03 Call it Lunch or Dinner When it tastes this good and it's this easy to make, you probably won't care what it's called: these appetizer and entree recipes can be lunch or dinner. They don't require a lot of kitchen equipment and won't take long to master, even for the "cooking-impaired." Many can be half-prepared ahead of time. Make enough for a few days, and freeze single servings for "homemade frozen food." Black Bean Chili We can also make this chili with kidney or pinto beans, if you prefer. Remember, cayenne pepper (mirchi) is "pure heat," and can be added cautiously to give this mild chili a more fiery flavor. Chili powder, unlike cayenne, is a spice mixture which can vary in "heat" depending on the mix. oil 1 T 1 green pepper, diced chili powder cumin powder chopped tomato OR 2 T tomato paste fresh corn or other veggies cooked black beans (or canned) salt oregano Saute green pepper, chili powder and cumin for a few minutes. Add tomatoes and corn (or other vegetables). Add 2 C beans. Mash the other 2 C beans and add mashed beans, salt and oregano to the vegetable mixture. If the mixture seems too dry, add 1/4 C water. Simmer for 30 minutes. Serve with Cornbread or over rice. Cornbread from The Compassionate Cook 1 t 1 t 1 C 1 C 4 C 11⁄2 t 1 t (20) 1 C 1 C 1 t 21⁄2 t 1 C 1/2 C 2 T Preheat oven to 400. Lightly oil pan 9x9 or muffin pan. Stir dry ingredients in a mixing bowl. Combine soy milk and potatoes and add to the dry ingredients. Add the margarine and stir until completely blended. Pour the batter into the pan. For muffins fill up to 2/3. Bake for 20 minutes or until an inserted fork comes out clean. Makes 10-12 muffins. Great with chili. Easy Enchiladas cornmeal flour salt baking powder soy milk prepared mashed potato (flakes) margarine, melted 16 oz. refried beans (1 can) 1 pack 6 oz 1 3/4 C water 1 C Old El Paso enchilada sauce mix tomato paste (1 can) chopped celery 1 pack tortillas Mix tomato paste, water, and enchilada mix over low heat. Then add celery. Spread sauce on inside of tortilla. Fill with beans and Page #25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues some sauce. Roll and place in tray. After filling all of the tortillas, pour leftover sauce over top, covering all tortillas. Bake at 350° for 20 minutes. Serve with salsa. 1/3 C chopped parsley (optional) Mix all ingredients. Blend until mixture is smooth, adding a little more water if necessary. Serve on whole wheat bread or in pita bread with chopped lettuce or sprouts and tomato, or as a dip with raw vegetables and crackers. Makes six sandwiches. Tofu Rancheros Serving Humus & Baba Ganoush: 1 pack tortillas 16 oz black beans (1 can) or see recipe for black beans salsa cumin powder 16 oz firm tofu (1 package) oil Both Humus and Baba Ganoush are great as spreads in a sandwich or sub, and as a filing in a pitawich or burrito. When prepared a little thinner, they both make great dips to serve with chips or toasted pita triangles. Tip: to make pita bread taste even better, smooth a wet hand over both sides of the pita before you toast it...the extra moisture makes it taste fresh: like it's just been baked! Slice tofu into small cubes. (The thinner you slice the tofu, the more firm it will be.) Add black beans. Sprinkle in cumin powder. Cook until tofu is brown. Lightly spread one side of tortilla with margarine or oil (or use a non-stick pan). Spoon black beans and tofu into other side of tortilla. Fold in half. Cook in skillet until tortilla is slightly brown. Top with salsa and serve. Black Bean Filled Tortillas Baba Ganoush 1 pack tortillas 2-3 C salsa 16 oz dry black beans (1 package) Chili Powder Cumin Powder Soak beans over night. Empty water and wash beans with fresh water. Place beans in large pot, covered with water. Heat water to boil and cook beans. When beans begin to get softer (20 minutes), add salsa and spices. Let the beans simmer for 15 minutes, stirring occasionally. After the beans are made, you are ready to fill the tortilla. If desired, lightly spread margarine on the outside of the tortilla (not necessary). Spread the beans on half the tortilla, fold in half, and place in medium heat pan. Flip the tortilla after slightly brown. Serve with salsa or guacamole. Save the leftover beans for another day. For best results, heat up beans before filling tortillas. Can also use as bean dip with tortillas or in tofu rancheros. large eggplant tahini 30 lemon juice vt salt Preheat the oven to 350°. Wash the eggplant and prick it in several places with a fork. Place on a baking sheet and bake until soft and beginning to collapse, about 45 minutes. Remove the eggplant from the oven and allow the cool. After eggplant has cooled enough to handle, remove the skin and the seeds. In a blender or food processor, combine the cggplant pulp with the remaining ingredients and blend until smooth. Refrigerate up to one day before serving, if desired, but it is also good at room temperature. Serve with pita bread or pita chips. Make two cups. Lentil Burgers 10 Lentils 3C water stalk of celery, chopped Simmer all ingredients for 30 minutes. Stir in the following: Salsa (this unique salsa has no onions!) 16 oz whole peeled tomatoes (1 can) 4 medium jalapeno peppers 1/8 C cilantro 12t salt 1t cumin 1t lemon juice In food processor or blender, blend jalapenos into small pieces. Add remaining ingredients and blend until desired consistency. Serves ten. 12C bulgur 2t ketchup 1t mustard 1t chili powder 12C bread crumbs 2t tapioca & water (or Ener-G Egg Replacer...binding agent). Make patties out of mixture. Bake at 350 for 15-30 minutes or until brown. Serve with bread and garnish with lettuce and tomatoes. Makes 4-6 patties. Salad-as-a-Meal Humus 1/4 C water 19 oz chickpeas or garbanzo beans, drained (1 can) 12C lemon juice or juice from 1 fresh lemon 1/4t pepper 1/8 t cayenne pepper When it is too hot to cook, try this for a quick lunch or dinner. Your body will thank you! It's also a good way to use up that last bit of tofu. 1/3 head red, leaf, or romaine lettuce (21) Jain Education Intermational 2010_03 Jain Education Interational 2010_03 For Page #26 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Zucchini Couscous Bake IC tomato OR sweet red pepper 10 chopped broccoli, other chopped vegetables or sprouts canned beans (kidncy or garbanzo) OR 1/2 C firm tofu cut into small cubes 1/4C salad dressing sprouts, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, raisins, avocado (optional) Wash, dry and tear lettuce. Heat beans and tofu cubes for 2-5 minutes in microwave or in frying pan with a trace or water) and marinate with salad dressing for 10 - 15 minutes. Chop all other vegetables into bite-size pieces and toss into a bowl. Add in the marinated mixture. Top with sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, raisins, or sliced avocado - and enjoy. Serves one very hungry person as a mcal, or serves two as an appetizer. Spinach Salad 1 pack couscous 1 yellow zucchini or squash green zucchini 2 tomatoes 1 can tomato sauce oregano basil crushed red pepper fennel seed Prepare couscous as directions specify. Slice zucchini and tomatocs. In a bread pan, spread some tomato sauce on the bottom of the pan. Next spread half the couscous in the pan. Layer with zucchini, spices, and tomato sauce. Spread the leftover couscous followed by the zucchini and tomato. Pour the rest of the tomato sauce over the top. Sprinkle with oregano, basil, crushed red pepper, and fennel seed. Bake at 350° for 15 minutes. Serves 2-3. 1/2 bunch fresh spinach 1 can mandarin oranges toasted almonds After washing spinach leaves, tear into pieces. Sprinkle with oranges and almonds. If you prefer, save orange juice from can and mix with a little bit of oil and vinegar to top salad. Serves 2-3. Pasta Salad 112 C rigatoni or macaroni 1/2 C chopped celery 12C chopped tomatoes 3/4 C kidney beans 12C black olives optional: broccoli, or other veggies Good Shepherd's Pie - from Laurel's Kitchen Topping: V2t salt pinch paprika Filling: 1t oil 1 Іь broccoli green pepper, diced V2t basil bay leaf 3/4 C chopped fresh tomatoes OR 1/4 C tomato paste and water 1 bunch spinach or Swiss chard It salt Cut broccoli into florets and stems. Peel and slice the stems in 1/4" rounds. Wash spinach thoroughly and cut into bite-size pieces. Preheat oven to 350°. Add broccoli and green pepper, then the basil and bay leaf. Stir well and add tomatoes. Bring to a boil, cover, turn heat to low, and simmer for 15 minutes or until vegetables are just tender. Stir in spinach. Add salt. Put vegetables into a 9" x 13" baking dish. Bake for 10 to 15 minutes. Remove the bay leaf before cooling. Serves four to six. dressing: 12 C oil 1/4C red wine vinegar 2T oregano 1T basil it marjoram lt tarragon 1/4 t pepper Cook the pasta according to the directions, and drain well. In a large bowl, combine the pasta and veggies. Mix ingredients for dressing and pour over pasta. (Pasta absorbs the seasonings more readily while it's warm.) Cover and chill. Spinach Tomato Rice Soup Spinach Tofu Lasagna - Compassionate Cook 1 pack spinach 1 can tomato soup OR 1 C thick & chunky pasta sauce 10 rice lt oregano It basil 42t crushed red pepper If using soup, cook spinach in tomato soup. Add cooked rice and spices. If using spaghetti sauce, cook spinach in three cups water. Add spaghetti sauce, spices, and rice. Simmer for 5-10 minutes. 1/2 lb 20 oz 1 lb 1 lb 1/4 C 2T 3T 3T 2t 4C 32 oz lasagna noodles frozen spinach, thawed (2 10 oz packages) soft tofu firm tofu soy milk lemon juice minced fresh basil (or dried basil) oregano salt homemade tomato sauce OR commercial sauce (Prego garden style chunky) (22) Jain Education Intemational 2010_03 Page #27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Spinach Tomato Sauce 1t 16 oz stewed tomatoes (1 can) 16 oz spinach (1 package) oregano basil 1/2 crushed red pepper Add entire can of stewed tomatoes to saucepan. Cook spinach in tomatoes until spinach is soft. Add spices to taste. If the tomatocs are very sour, add a little sweetener to cut the sourness. Top on angel hair pasta or your favorite pasta. Zucchini Topper Prepare lasagna noodles according to package directions. Preheat oven to 350 F. Squeeze the spinach dry and set aside. Blend or mix the tofu, soy milk, lemon juice, basil, oregano and salt. Cover the bottom of a 9 x 13 inch baking pan with a thin layer of sauce then a layer of noodles. Follow that layer with a layer of tofu filling and spinach. Continue in the same order, using the rest of the ingredients. End with a layer of noodles covered with sauce. Sprinkle with oregano, basil, and crushed red pepper. Bake for 25-30 minutes or until sauce bubbles. Serves six to eight. chhole (Curried Chick Peas) 4C canned chick peas (3 cans) 3C chopped fresh tomatoes OR 1 can chopped tomato (drained) 41 ground coriander powder red chili powder 4t salt 4 t turmeric To begin the saute for the curry: lt vegetable oil 1t cumin seeds 2 bay leaves For a tart taste, add 1 tsp. of amchur or lemon juice; or add when serving. Add 1/4 t asafetida (hing) with other spices. Heat oil over medium heat in a large pot. When oil is hot, add cumin seeds. When the seeds turn golden brown, add bay leaves and saute at medium heat, constantly stirring. Add tomatoes and continue to saute, constantly stirring for five minutes. Add remaining seasonings and cook until the oil separates from the mixture. The spices are now ready. Wash the chick peas, then add to the curry and continue to cook for 10 to 15 minutes so that the curry properly soaks into the chick peas. Garnish with some little fresh coriander leaves. Serve with fresh tomatoes. Serves four. Apple Butter Chutney 1-2 zucchini/summer squash (green & yellow) oregano basil 12t crushed red pepper margarine optional: tomato Slice zucchini and chop tomato. Steam zucchini or saute zucchini and tomato in a few spoons water. Add spices to taste. Top on angel hair pasta or your favorite pasta. Spread a little bit of margarine if needed. Pasta Primavera chopped tomatoes chopped green pepper 1c chopped broccoli 1 zucchini or squash It oregano 1t basil 12t crushed red pepper Chop tomato, green pepper, zucchini, and broccoli. Saute broccoli first in water. Add green pepper. Next add tomato chunks. Add spices to taste. Top on angel hair pasta or your favorite pasta. Sweet & Sour Stir Fry - Compassionate Cook This chutney is great on Chhole (Curried Chick Peas). It has a sweet and sour taste, but if made hotter, can allow guests to spice up milder dishes to their taste. Remove seeds from one half lemon. Take a 14 oz. jar of apple butter and add the juice of the lemon half. Add 1 teaspoon salt and 1/2 teaspoon cach: coriander powder, cumin powder, cinnamon, black pepper, and cayenne pepper. Adjust seasonings to taste. 1 т 21 "On Top of Spaghetti..." Mix the following ingredients for a sauce and set aside: 3T white vinegar sugar 2T ketchup soy sauce or tamari IT cornstarch 3/4 C pineapple juice (drained from canned pineapples) 1/4t cayenne pepper (optional) Stir fry: 34T oil 1 lb firm or extra-firm tofu (wash with water, drain, cut into strips) green or red pepper, chopped broccoli, chopped 10 celery, chopped 1C snow peas Actually these "toppers" are good on more than just spaghetti they're great over any pasta, noodle or grain. Try angel hair (capellini) for a quicker-cooking pasta. Alternate between brown rice for a more filling meal, and white basmati rice when you're in a rush. For variety, serve these recipes over couscous (cooks very fast) or quinoa (pronounced "keen-wah"), a tasty nourishing, grain with loads of protein and calcium. Even if the recipe suggests pasta, don't let a recipe tell you what to do! Experiment and try the terrific new tastes, waiting to be discovered. 1C (23) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues 1 lb. pasta, cooked and drained Mix all ingredients (except cooked pasta). Pour sauce over cooked pasta, toss, and serve. Serves five. Ratatouille - from Laurel's Kitchen 5T 8 02 baby corn (1 can) 10 bean sprouts 10 pineapple (save pineapple juice for sauce) optional: bamboo shoots, water chestnut, bok choy, cauliflower Heat the oil in a wok or large frying pan. Place the tofu in the pan and cook until slightly brown, turning every few minutes. Add broccoli, celery, and other veggies. Stir the sauce into the veggies then add the pineapple. If you add more veggies, you may need to add more sauce. Serve over rice or noodles. Serves 3-4. Thai Peanut Sauce with Noodles - from The Compassionate Cook sauce: 12C peanut butter 3T soy sauce or tamari 40 distilled white vinegar lt sugar 1T crushed red pepper (or add to taste) 12C water 1 lb spaghetti IC snow peas cucumber, sliced Blend all sauce ingredients with food processor or mix together in saucepan on medium heat. Steam snow peas. Top pasta with sauce and snow peas. Sprinkle on cucumbers. Serves four. Spicy African (Senegalese) Rice & Peanut Soup large eggplant medium zucchini green pepper tablespoons olive oil fresh, ripe tomatoes, chopped OR tomato paste and 3 T water 1t salt 1/8 t pepper 12t basil 2t oregano Dice eggplant into 1" cubes and slice zucchini in V" rounds. Chop green pepper into squares. Use a heavy-bottomed saucepan with a lid. Saute the green pepper until they are soft; stir in eggplant and zucchini and saute a few minutes more. Add tomato and seasonings. Cover and simmer gently for about 30 minutes or until all the vegetables are well cooked. Uncover and turn the heat up to evaporate some liquid, stirring as necessary. Serve over pasta, rice or couscous. Serves 6-8. Desserts for Sweet Teeth 90 vegetable broth (can use vegetable flakes, vegetable bullion) 2 t dried thyme leaves 2 t ground cumin IC brown rice (or another grain: couscous, quinoa) optional: crushed red pepper to taste IT vegetable oil 30 thick & chunky salsa 32 oz garbanzo beans (chick peas), i.e., 2 cans 3 zucchinis 3/4 C peanut butter optional: broccoli, other veggies In a large pot, heat vegetable broth, thyme, cumin, crushed red pepper (if wanted), and rice. Bring to boil, reduce heat and simmer. Cover until the rice is cooked, about 20 minutes. While the rice cooks, heat vegetable oil on medium-high heat. Stir occasionally. Add salsa, beans, zucchini, and any other desired vegetables and cook until vegetables are tender. Add peanut butter and stir until completely combined. Serve over rice, pasta, couscous or as soup. Serves 8-10. These dessert recipes include several which need no baking (Summer Ambrosia, Chocolatey Peanut Butter Krispies, Chocolate Pudding) and others which do - but don't be intimidated if you've never baked! When baking, unless otherwise noted, mix up wet ingredients and dry ingredients separately, mixing cach mixture well; then combine wet and dry. Remember that while muffin batter should be stirred quickly and as little as possible, cake batter should be mixed thoroughly until very smooth. To check for doneness of a cake or muffin, check if a toothpick or sharp knife tip, inserted, comes out clean. Be careful not to overbake cakes and cookies: they become dry and hard. In fact, set your timer for a time short of the baking time shown in the recipe; then, check the color and doneness and bake for longer if necessary. Summer Ambrosia 20 cubed pear or apple 1C fresh berries 10 sliced mango, peach, or nectarine orange banana 4T maple syrup 2T fruit juice concentrate Remove orange seeds and cut into chunks. Cut banana in half lengthwise, and cut into half-inch sections. If strawberries are used, remove the fruit closest to the stem area and slice in half, lengthwise. Mix all fruit together. Mix maple syrup and juice concentrate Pasta with Spicy Tahini Sauce 1T 12C 2T 1 1/2t toasted sesame oil tahini (sesame butter) lemon juice dice hot cherry peppers (24) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues together, and sprinkle this glaze across the top. Mix again, chill and serve. Apple Pie 1 graham cracker crust 1 can apple pie filling 12C flour 1/4 C sugar 1 1/2t cinnamon 1/4 C margarine (do not melt) 3/4 C walnuts or pecans Mix flour, sugar, and cinnamon to make a crumb topping. Fold in margarine with a fork. Place apple filling in crust. Pour crumble mix and walnut or pecans over top. Bake at 350° for 30 minutes or until topping has browned. Chocolate Pudding Chocolate Chip Oatmeal Cookies 1 2 C flour 10 sugar 1 1/4 Coats baking soda 1/2 t salt 1/2t cinnamon 12C chopped walnuts 1C margarine 1 t vanilla 20 semisweet chocolate chips (1 package) ripe banana (preferably a little mushy) Mix the dry ingredients together first. Add margarine and vanilla. Stir in chocolate chips and nuts. Spoon balls of dough onto cookie sheet. Bake at 375 F for 10 minutes. Makes two dozen. Cinnamon Raisin Bars 1% soy milk 3T cornstarch 1/4 teaspoon vanilla 1/4C maple syrup 1/4 C cocoa powder 2 bananas, sliced (optional) Whisk all the ingredients (except the bananas) together in a pot. Cook over medium heat, stirring constantly until pudding thickens. Remove pot from stove. Stir in sliced bananas if desired. Chill for at least 15 minutes before serving. Serves three. Strawberry Pudding - from Tofu Cookery 1C confectioners' sugar 1/4 t cinnamon 1T soy milk 1/4 C granulated sugar 1T cornstarch 10 water 20 raisins 12C margarine (1 stick) 10 packed dark brown sugar 1 1/4 C unbleached flour t baking soda 1 1/2 C rolled oats Mix confectioners' sugar, cinnamon, and soy milk in a large mixing bowl, and set aside. Combine granulated sugar and cornstarch in a heavy saucepan. Stir in 1 cup water and raisins, and cook over medium heat until it becomes thick and bubbly, about 10 minutes. Set aside and let cool. Preheat oven to 350o. Grease a 9" x 13" baking pan. Cream the margarine and brown sugar with an electric mixer. Add flour and baking soda, and mix well. Stir in oats. Mix until crumbly. Put half the oat mixture into the pan and spread the raisin filling on top. Sprinkle the rest of the oat mixture and pat smooth. Bake for 35 minutes, or until bars set. Let cool, then drizzle with cinnamon icing and cut into bars. 112C soft silken tofu 1 C strawberries with V2 C sugar (or 2 C strawberry jam) ripe banana (may be omitted) 1/4Coil IT lemon juice 1t vanilla pinch salt Blend all ingredients in a blender until smooth and creamy. Pour into baked pie shell or place in individual serving dishes and garnish. Makes 3 1/2 cups. For other variations, try other fruits or jams in place of strawberries. Chocolatey Peanut Butter Krispies Chocolate Cake - from The Compassionate Cook 20 10 sugar 1C corn syrup 10 peanut butter 6C crispy rice cereal semi-sweet chocolate chips Cook the sugar and corn syrup in a medium saucepan over medium heat until bubbly. Remove from the heat and add the peanut butter and cereal and mix well. Spread the mixture in a 9 X 13" pan. In a double boiler, melt the chocolate chips and pour over the cereal mixture. Chill until firm and cut into squares. Makes two dozen squares. 112 C unbleached flour 10 sugar 3T cocoa powder It baking soda 1t vanilla extract 11 distilled white vinegar 5T oil or melted margarine 10 cold water 12 C semisweet chocolate chips (optional) Preheat oven to 350°. Using a fork, combine the dry ingredients. Stir in the wet ingredients. Pour batter into 9" X 9" (25) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ pan, and bake for 30-35 minutes or until a knife inserted in the center of the cake comes out clean. Variations of this cake in different flavors (vanilla, lemon) can also be developed. For a layer cake, make two recipes, and bake in square or round pans. When both layers are baked and cooled, spread icing between the two layers and on top, and sides. Topping: Heat one package frozen strawberries in a saucepan. Pour over top of cake when ready to serve. Yellow Cake 3/4 C water 3 T 1 1⁄2 C 11⁄2 C 1/2 T Ener-G Egg Replacer oil applesauce vanilla or almond extract 3 3/4 C all purpose flour 3 C 1/2 t sugar salt Jainism and Animal Issues 1/2 T baking powder optional: slivered almonds Preheat oven to 300°. Mix up Egg Replacer and water, according to the instructions on the box. Add to other wet ingredients, mix. In a different bowl, mix dry ingredients. Mix wet and dry. Oil a ring-shaped springform pan, and sprinkle pan with flour. (You can also use two 9"x9" pans, two 9" round pans, or a 9"x13" pan.) Pour batter into pan and bake in preheated oven for 20 minutes; then rotate pan and bake another 20 minutes. If you like, decorate with lightly-toasted, slivered almonds or dust with powdered sugar. Like many Jains, they raised as a vegetarian and taught me to have compassion for all forms of life. As I grew older, I took ownership of those values and started applying them to situations where I was not "taught" how to react. I began to question many practices which were considered normal in our society. It became. very clear to me that this society's increasing use of resources demands practices in which there is little room for compassion. I decided I needed to live consistently with the philosophy I believed: live in a way where I inflict the least amount of suffering to the world around me, including people, animals, the earth, and any living being. My first exposure to the cruelties of dairy processing began in a college animal rights group. I saw films of how cows are exploited so that I could have a glass of milk in the morning. While living in their cramped and filthy conditions, the cows are constantly impregnated to ensure continual production of milk. Basically, the cow is a milk machine. The newborn calf is immediately separated from the mother so that the milk intended 2010_03 Gingerbread - the absolute best! 1 C maple syrup soy milk 1 C 1 1/4 C whole wheat pastry flour 1 1/4 C unbleached pastry flour baking soda nutmeg 1 t 1/4 t 1/2 t salt 1/3 C canola oil Mix dry ingredients in a bowl. Mix in maple syrup and soy milk. Add canola oil and stir well. Bake in an oiled 9" x 9" pan at 350° for 30 minutes. Chocolate "Cheesecake" (Tofu) firm tofu soft tofu sugar semi-sweet chocolate chips vanilla extract almond extract graham cracker crusts (26) 1 1⁄2 lb 1 lb 21⁄2 C 1 C 2 t Cruel Realities Lead One Jain to Change Her Life-Style Nothing is more powerful than an individual acting out of his or her conscience, thus helping to bring the collective conscience to life. -Norman Cousins for the calf can be fed to humans. The male calves face the bleak future of life in a small crate, on a liquid diet, soon to be slaughtered and served as the "delicacy" known as veal. The fate of the female calf is no less bleak as she is forced to suffer the same exploitation as her mother. After four to five years, when these cows can no longer produce profitable amount of milk, they are then slaughtered for their flesh. Otherwise, they would have lived for 1520 more years. 1 t 2 Preheat oven to 325°. Blend tofu and sugar in food processor until smooth. Melt the chocolate chips in a double boiler or in the microwave, then blend in with tofu. Add extracts and stir well. Pour batter into crusts. Bake for 40-50 minutes or until cheesecake has risen slightly on the sides and the top looks dry. Cool before cutting. Best if refrigerated for two hours prior to serving. Makes two pies. I also learned of the miseries endured by countless chickens to allow me to put an egg in my cake. At a typical hen warehouse, five to six chickens are crammed into a 16 in. by 18 in. cage. Because of their cramped condition, the birds often peck at each other causing death or spreading disease. To avoid this loss of profit, they often mechanically cut the birds' beaks off using a hot iron. The picture of a small frightened chicken with blood spots in the place of her beak is still vivid in my mind after seeing a video of the process six years ago. This society's increasing use of resources demands practices in which there is little room for compassion. Page #31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues I was disgusted and felt deceived that I had gone this far in life without knowing how my actions were contributing to this compassionless process. There was no denying that what I was seeing and hearing about was an inhumane, profit-making business and not the free-roaming cows and chickens I had envisioned. Yet still, I didn't want to believe it was like this everywhere. I tried to make myself believe that what I saw was an extreme case and this was not the norm. After all, they had to be pleasant to the animals or they wouldn't be able to get milk or eggs from them, right? Wrong. I was trying to find excuses so I wouldn't have a guilty conscience. The next time I went out with my friends and ordered a double scoop of cookies ice cream, I had lump of guilt sitting in my stomach. I decided I could no longer justify living by my desires rather than my principles and I was on my way to eliminating dairy products and eggs from my diet. After investigating the nutritional issues involved, learned that there is no mineral, vitamin, or nutrient, that could not be obtained from a pure vegetarian diet. By eliminating all animal products from my diet, I began a very low fat and cholesterol-free diet. Only animal products contain cholesterol, and they also are high in saturated fat unlike beans, grains, vegetables, and fruits. What originated as an issue of compassion, turned into an issue of common sense. Why would humans need to drink the milk of another animal? A mother produces milk to nourish her baby until the baby can eat other foods. After infancy, humans have no dietary requiremerit for milk. However, the mcat and dairy industries have done a good job of advertising to make us believe that their products are essential. They also were the ones who provided the food groups charts in grade school. Okay, so I can get all my nutritional requirements without cating any dairy products, but I'll be missing out on so much, right? I soon realized that was not so. Everything from lasagna to ice cream can be made without dairy products! We've all just become so used to putting milk, eggs, and cheese in our foods that we don't know how we would make meals without them. However, it really is not difficult. It is just a matter of modifying habits. There are many cookbooks available which use no dairy or eggs, even Indian cookbooks. Altering my perceptions of food was an essential part of becoming vegan (a person who consumes no meat, dairy, or eggs). Pizza, burritos, lasagna, can all taste excellent without cheese. I just needed to change my perception of what this food was "supposed to be." Being able to make all these wonderful foods without dairy or eggs at home is great, but what about when I go out to cat? For years many of us, as vegetarians, have been asking the waiter/server to make modifications to something on the menu. The same goes for being vegan. "Hold the cheese and sour cream on that vegetable chimichanga." "No eggs in that fried rice, please." I learned to ask for other toppings and sauces, making my dinner taste great and cruelty-free. It was a great feeling to enjoy my food with a clear conscience. I'll admit that trying to find a vegan dessert at a restaurant is usually pretty difficult since they are typically pre-made. But that just means we wait until we get home to eat my favorite flavor of Tofutti (vegan ice cream), which has chocolate-covered almonds in vanilla ice cream. Mmmmm... Cookies, cakes, name it and we can make it vegan. Believe me, vegans are not deprived. I was surprised at how quickly I lost cravings for cheese, milk, etc. I thought I would be sacrificing a lot when I decided to be vegan, but I have not felt that way in the three years I have been vegan. I think completely cutting something out of your diet makes you lose your taste for it. That was my experience. There are many books, magazines, and videos available which address the cruelties of the dairy and egg industries, the health aspects of veganism, and vegan cooking in further detail. There are also many longtime vegans around if you have any questions. Explore for yourself, the issues I discussed here. Challenge yourself to question your choices and you may realize how well the vegan lifestyle fits into the Jain philosophy of Ahimsa. The only way things change for the better in this world is when we push for it. Here's one opportunity.... Monali Shah The Jain Food Pyramid Ahimsak and Healthy Diet - What is a Serving Size? DRY BEANS - 2-3 servings/day - Dry beans are the best sources of PROTEINS. Being free from cholesterol, they are even better than meat and dairy products! 1/2 cup of cooked dry beans or 2 tablespoons of peanut butter count as one serving. FRUITS - 34 servings/day - Avoid fruits and vegetables that have many seeds, because each sced represents a potential life. Minimize violence. One serving is 1 medium apple, banana or orange, or 1/2 cup of chopped, cooked, or canned fruit, or 3/4 cup of fruit juice. VEGETABLES - 45 servings/day - Avoid roots, because they necessitate uprooting (destruction) of plants. Also, watch out for worms inside the layered vegetables. One serving is 1 cup of raw leafy vegetables, or 1/2 cup of other vegetables (cooked or chopped raw), or 3/4 cup of vegetable juice. GRAINS - 6-11 servings/day - Eat only whole grain foods for more fiber and complete nutrition. One serving is 1 slice of bread, 1 oz. of ready-to-eat cereal, '/2 cup of cooked cereal, rice, or pasta, or 1 medium rotli. Eat pesticide free -- shop ORGANIC. And.... Eat early in the day. (27) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues SILK IS NOT FOR JAINS At the JAINA Convention held in Chicago, we made the above proclamation, and hundreds of people signed it. What do you think? But, what is wrong with silk? However, not everyone knew why silk should not be worn. The truth is, there is nothing wrong with silk in and of itself. It is one of the finest fabrics, smooth and soft in texture, and beautifully rich and attractive in colors. There was no competition to it for thousands of years. So, then, why should we be so much against silk? The answer lies in the actual process of making silk. Like cotton or rayon, silk cannot be grown on trees. Like nylon and polyester, silk cannot be synthetically manufactured in factories from petroleum products. But, like wool hair that must be grown on animals such as sheep, silk threads must be grown on silkworms. The silkworm is so small, that we need thousands of them to make just one sari. Let us look at the process. The worm that is hatched from eggs, is put on a mulberry leaves dict. She fattens fast, and wants to go to sleep, called hibernation. She weaves a cocoon around itself, from a fiber secreted from her mouth. That fiber is extremely thin, so it also secrets a gum along with it, to give it strength. In order to make the cocoon tight and strong, the fiber has to be thousands of feet long. When all is done, with the other end of the fiber still in her mouth, she slowly falls asleep. After a few days, she would transform into a butterfly, break the cocoon into small pieces, and fly off. However, those small pieces have no commercial value. The businessmen want a long unbroken thread that can be woven. So, they throw the cocoon into boiling water or into a hot air oven, where the worm wakes up, opens mouth out of pain, and releases the end of the thread. Then someone picks up the thread, and reels it off to a machine. They kill the worm in the process for that soft, smooth, thread. We, the Jains, are against that killing. That's all!! Don't some say that silk is the most appropriate fabric for a temple? For the answer to this tricky question, we need to go back into history. Silk was first invented in China, about 5,000 years ago. Like some other trades, it was a monopoly of a few families. They kept the process secret for nearly 3,500 years. In order to understand its popularity in those days, we have to go back into those days. The cotton that was hand spun then, was thicker than today's khadi. Whereas silk was just as thin as today, because the worms are still the same! So, not knowing how they made silk, everybody admired it for its smoothness and softness. Very easily it became the status symbol for kings and royals. The temple priests also, hungry for donations, used to woo the kings and rich merchants. However, strictly speaking from original Jain Agams and Tatvarthsootra, there is no room for a showoff in a temple. Neither is there room for a product of death/violence in it. Why do we remove our shoes, or watchbands, outside the temple? Simply because they are made of leather! No, there is no room for silk in a Jain temple. How can we identify silk? The new synthetic fibers of modern mills are as soft, smooth, and lustrous as silk. And cheaper too. Nevertheless, in the business world there is a tendency to tell you what you want to hear, instead of the truth. The Indian government does not impose printing fabric contents on clothes, the way other countries do. So it makes it easy for the merchants to sell by color and design. Some would not mind passing nylon as silk, or silk as nylon, depending upon what you are asking for. If you do not want to support this violence, how would you guard yourself against such unscrupulous merchants? Can you test the fabrics easily? Fortunately yes, there is one simple test available, that anybody can easily execute. From one end of the fabric, cut a small piece. Burn it. Check the ash, rub it in your fingers, and smell it. If it is plant-based cotton or rayon, it will smell clean. However, if it is protein-based wool or silk, it will have a very strong fleshy smell. Human hairs also consist of similar protein, and therefore smell the same. Pick up some hair from the shower tub, burn them, and get familiar with this smell. If the fabric is petroleum-based nylon or polyester, it will leave small hard beads at the end. So, try this test, and get familiar with it! What are the alternatives to silk? The market is full of beautiful, attractive looking, rich cotton and rayon fabrics. Polyester and nylon also provide a variety of alternatives. Of course, now the market is full of blends in various proportions to provide additional choices. It's a shame that some merchants discourage buyers. Recently I went shopping for a sari. I told the merchant that I was looking only for non-silk saris. At first he told that most of the stock he carried was pure silk or a silk blend. However, as I insisted on my specification, he showed me many saris. Some were so beautiful, I wound up buying two instead of one. They were a little bit cheaper also, so I felt like getting "two for the price of one...." And yes, I tested them both before paying. The merchant, at first, did not like my not trusting his word. However, after a while he had realized my strong stand and religious feelings. He saw the wisdom in cooperating for closing the sale! Narendra Sheth (28) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues "Tools" of Research Animals in Laboratories Rene Descartes, a philosopher of the early 1600's, believed animals to be like machines. He considered the observed reactions during experimentation (such as screaming or struggling) merely as automatic reflexes, and he believed that the animals were incapable of experiencing pain or fear. This notion unfortunately persists today, and they describe animals as "tools" in contemporary medical journals. Anesthesia is usually reserved for surgery only, when the struggling of the victim makes the procedure too difficult. The Draize Eye Test, LD50, and Acute Dermal Toxicity are standard practices for most of the large cosmetic/household product companies that are constantly introducing new products. They commonly perform these tests on guinea pigs, rabbits, mice, rats, pigs and dogs. To express your opposition to product testing on laboratory animals, please write a letter to: The Cosmetic, Toiletry & Fragrance Association 1110 Vermont Avenue, NW, Suite 800 Washington, D.C. 20005 Most major cosmetic companies belong to this association. Also write to the individual companies (find addresses right on the product!) and tell them how you feel. Customer opinions do matter and can really make a difference for the thousands of laboratory animals that die every year during product testing, Narendra Sheth Cruelties Involved in Animal Testing Every year, approximately 14 million animals suffer and die in painful tests in an attempt to determine the safety of cosmetics and household products. They test most major brands of cosmetics and household products, such as toothpaste, lipstick, dishwashing liquid, and furniture polish, on animals such as rabbits and dogs. Additionally, every time a company changes its ingredients or advertises a "new" or "improved" product, they then retest the substance. Two of the most common methods of testing are the Draize Eye Irritancy Test and the Lethal Dose 50 (or LD50) test. The Draize test is used to test substances that might get into the human cyc. During this test, a certain amount of a concentrated solution is placed into the cyes of conscious albino rabbits. Their eyes are held open with clips, and many rabbits break their necks or backs as they struggle to escape. The damage to the rabbits' eyes is then recorded at intervals over a period of several. Reactions to the irritants include swelling of the eyelid, inflammation of the iris, ulceration, bleeding, and blindness. They usually receive no anesthesia or pain relieving drugs during the tests. At the end, the rabbits are killed. The LD50 test measures the amount of a substance that will, in a single dose, kill half the animals in a test group. Again, they administer no pain killers. During this test, the experimental substance (often a houschold product) is forced into the animals' throats or pumped into their stomachs by tubes, sometimes causing death by stomach rupture or from the sheer bulk of the chemical dosage. They also inject substances under the skin, into a vein, or into the lining of the abdomen. They also often apply them to the eyes, rectum, or vagina, or forcibly inhaled through a gas mask. Acute Dermal Toxicity test is done on skin of an animal. Many health professionals agree that both the Draize test and the LD50 test are crude and imprecise. Opthamologist Stephen Kaufman of New York University Medical Center argues that the rabbit eye is so different from the human eye that opthamologists have no use for Draize data. Similarly, Dallas Pratt, M.D. argues that LD50 test results can be affected by the age and sex of the animal, their housing and nutrition, temperature, time of day and year, and the exact method used. Additionally, law does not require cosmetic and product tests on animals. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) only requires that the ingredients be "adequately substantiated for safety" prior to marketing, or the product must carry a warning label saying that its safety has not been determined. The FDA does not require any particular sort of tests. Testing methods are determined by the cosmetic and household product manufacturers, and the test data are collected only to defend the companies against possible consumer lawsuits. There are many non-animal testing methods available that are more reliable and less expensive than animal tests. Companies can also make products using the many ingredients and combinations of ingredients that have already been determined to be safe over a long time. As caring and compassionate individuals, why would we use any products whose creation has caused so much pain and suffering, when there are so many alternatives available? Also, there are many products available in common department stores and supermarkets which are dearly labeled as "not tested on animals" and "contains no animal ingredients." Remember, every time you purchase or use a product that is cruelty free, you are doing your part in preventing the needless suffering of countless animals. Shilpa Shah (29) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Results of Animal Experimentations are Questionable Animal testing is a phrase which many people seem to have fixed in their minds when it comes to medicine. It is not necessary to test drugs on animals and in some instances it can be extremely dangerous. Animals for the most part have very different biological systems than humans. Different species of animals have different metabolisms among themselves. consumed quickly, but was harmful and possibly deadly if they did not metabolize it in a proper amount of time. Eraldin for treating heart disease caused serious eye problems, including blindness. The antibiotic Chloramphenicol lead to fatal blood disorders in humans. Anti-inflammatory Ibufenac for arthritis caused lever damage in humans. The list goes on. In fact, so many of the drugs previously approved are recalled.... It might be ok to just flip a coin! An LD-50 test was done to see the effects of a dioxin on various animals. The results were astonishing. According to the American Anti-Vivisection Society's findings, the amount of the dioxin it took to kill a guinea pig was 1 mcg/kg, a hamster was 5,000 mcg/kg, a female rat was 45 mcg/kg, and a male rat was 22 mcg/kg. The range of these numbers is huge, even within similar sized and shaped animals, and is called species differentiation. From these numbers can you predict, how much dioxin YOU could probably tolerate? Take a few examples, in which animal experiments failed to predict serious problems for humans. According to Lady Dowdling Foundation's findings in England, Opren for arthritis caused death in humans because they could not metabolize the drug as quickly as animals did. The medicine worked beautifully on rats, with no harmful side effects; however, when they released it into the market, almost 50% of the consumers either died or suffered severe harmful side effects. The reason being quite simple: the metabolism of the elderly is quite lower than that of a rat. The drug was not toxic if The Ames Test: This test uses bacteria to detect mutagens (chemicals that induce genetic mutations). Because mutations are often associated with the development of cancer, the Ames Test is used as a screen for carcinogenicity. This test takes only a few days to perform and costs only a few hundred dollars. Audiovisual Guides and Aids: These offer the advantage of repeated viewing, and allow the viewer to study procedures on human patients instead of animals. Cruelty-Free Research and Testing Many people wonder, what we can do, if we do not test new products on animals. They wonder, if we should make human guinea pigs. But no, we do not need to feel helpless. As listed later in this booklet, there are more than 150 companies, which manufacture products without animal testing. You may question, what are the non-animal alternatives and methods in their research and testing? Below is a partial list of the non-animal research methods available now, and more are being developed everyday. Bacteria Cultures and Protozoan Studies: Protozoa have a similar chemistry to that of humans, and are useful in many areas of research. The Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) Test: The CAM test utilizes membranes from chicken eggs to evaluate toxicity and is a prominent alternative to the Draize test. This procedure causes no pain. Computer-Assisted Drug Design: This drug development strategy utilizes three-dimensional graphics and quantum pharmacology based on the "lock-and-key" mechanism of drug action. Computer Simulations: Both time and cost-efficient in their ability to screen out potentially harmful substances in early testing stages, computer simulations provide considerable information not obtainable from experiments using live animals. Opposite to the above example is the drug penicillin. Penicillin is fatal to guinea pigs, but has wonderful effects on humans. Fortunately, in those earlier days, there was no animal testing. Otherwise, we would have immediately discarded it as a "dangerous" medicine! Another such example is 6-Azauridine used for cancer therapy, that has lethal side effects on dogs. Similarly, Digitalis for heart disease, quinine for malaria, and anesthetics were discovered through observation and clinical trials on human patients. Other such drugs are Dramamine for motion sickness, Cortisone to relieve arthritis, Chlorpromazine as tranquilizers, etc. 2010_03 All these examples prove beyond a doubt, that animal testing is not only useless, but it is also hindering progress. As Jains, let us break barriers, and use alternatives. Narendra Sheth Gas Chromatology and Mass Spectrometry: These techniques are used in identifying drugs and chemical substances through the study of chemical and drug activity at the molecular level. Genetic Engineering: This new technology is now being used to produce an improved, purer type insulin. Growth hormone and interferon can also be produced through this same method. Human Studies: Clinical-These involve the study of sick or injured patients, incorporating healthy volunteers as controls. Epidemiological These studies analyze information on large numbers of people to uncover potential relationships between the incidence of disease or injury and people's habits or environments. Post Mortem - These involve the study of cadavers donated to science. These studies are particularly useful in anatomical and transplant research. Cadavers are also sources of transplantable organs. Imaging Techniques: These methods generate visual images of body's interior, without the need for invasive procedures, and are now being used to study the human brain in action. One such technique, positron emission topography (PET), utilizes tiny amounts of radioactive chemicals to mark areas of interest in the brain. PET has recently been applied in the study of Parkinson's Disease. (30) Page #35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Mathematical Models: These methods combine existing information to describe a system under study in mathematical terms. This approach results in a mathematical model helpful in the understanding of complicated systems, especially those in which several variables influence the outcome. Organ Cultures: This is an emerging new field which uses groups of cells from a single organ for cancer research, pharmacology, radiation, toxicology, virus research, vaccine production and other areas of research. Physical and Chemical Techniques: Using physicochemical instruments that isolate, identify and measure the amount of a given substance in complex biological mixtures, these techniques analyze the physical and chemical properties of drugs, toxins, body chemicals, and other substances. Placenta: The placenta, which they usually discard after childbirth, is a complex, multipurpose organ that is highly sensitive to drugs, chemicals and pollutants. We may also utilize the placenta for practicing microsurgery. Quantum Pharmacology: This is a discipline that uses quantum mechanics to explain the behavior of drugs on the basis of their molecular composition. Tissue Cultures: These techniques are used in biomedical research, particularly in studies of the immune system. Individual cells from human or animal tissues are grown outside the body after separation from their original tissue or organ. Each generation breeds identical cells almost without limit, thus providing a continuous supply of identical test materials. Zoe Weil ("Jivan Sanskar") My Personal Transition to Ahimsak Products I had always been very curious about cosmetic products and their ingredients. I thought about using cruelty free products for my personal use since the JAINA convention at Chicago. I also wondered, if I use these products how much more would they cost? Worst case, $500 per year. Then I thought that it was worth spending $500-$1000 rather than using cosmetics which were made from animal ingredients and tested on animals. So I decided to switch to these products. I started looking for alternatives and I was surprised to see many stores offering these substitutes. I went to "Bread of Life" (a "Whole Food's Health Store"), and I spent almost two and a half hours there looking at different products they offer. I got all those products, and took my shower.... Taking my first shower with cruelty free soap and shampoo was a different experience. Not only did I clean myself externally, but also my internal thoughts were cleaned. I did not feel that I lost any sweet smell, but I felt guilty for all these days for becoming involved in Jiv Himsa by using those products. This store has a lot to offer such as toothpaste, shaving cream, lipsticks, chopsticks, body lotion, deodorant sticks, gel, cologne, after shave, air freshener, mouth wash, laundry detergent, dish washing liquid, bath room cleaner, and many other things. It also offers lots of organic vegetables, soya milk, breads, and so on... Visit a store near you, and realize the benefits that I realized. Although these items are a little bit expensive, it was not hard for me to convince my roommates (all of them vegetarians) about them. After all, what price do we put on life? Haven't we already saved enough by abstaining from the consumption of meat, tobacco and alcohol? Sanjay Gala Try These Simple Natural Products Try these cheaper, safer, and environmentally sound alternatives for household cleaning products. They are natural. They don't pollute streams and rivers and don't poison our earth ...or you. Ant Control: Rather than spraying with a commercial insecticide, wash countertops, cabinets and floors with equal parts of water and vinegar. Pour a line of cream of tartar where they enter the house - they won't cross the line! Water Softener: 1/4 cup of vinegar in final rinse. Oll Stain Remover: White chalk rubbed in before wash. Glass Cleaner: 1/4 cup vinegar or rubbing alcohol in 1 gallon of water. Wipe with a damp cloth or sponge sprinkled with dry baking soda. Rinse with water and dry with a soft towel. Copper Cleaner: Paste of lemon juice, salt, and flour; or vinegar and salt. Household Cleaner: 3 tbsp. Baking soda mixed into 1 qt. of warm water. Stainless Steel: Baking soda or mineral oil for shining; vinegar for spots. Toilet Bowl Cleaner: Vinegar. Coffee/ Wine Stain Remover: Blot with club soda. Mildew Remover: Lemon juice and salt, or white vinegar and salt. Linoleum Floor Cleaner/Wax: Mop with one cup white vinegar mixed with 2 gallons of water to remove dull, greasy film. Polish with club soda. Mothballs: Cedar chips or dried lavender sachets. Drain Opener: Flush drain weekly with boiling water, to prevent clogging. If clogged, pour 1/2 cup baking soda, then V/cup vinegar down the drain. (31) Jain Education Intermational 2010_ 03 Jain Education Interational 2010_03 F o Page #36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Air Freshener: Leave open box of baking soda in room, or add cloves and cinnamon to boiling water and simmer, or use fresh flowers or herbs. Furniture Polish: Mix three parts olive oil and one part vinegar or one part lemon juice with two parts olive oil. Use with a soft cloth. Scouring Pads: Let pots and pans soak in a baking soda solution. Chemical Fertilizer: Compost. Flea and Tick Repellent: Feed 2 tbsp. of brewer's yeast and one dove of raw garlic to companion animal daily. Sprinkle fennel, rue and rosemary on carpet and bedding areas to repel flcas. Place cucalyptus seeds and leaves and cedar chips around animal sleeping areas. Rae Sikora ("Jivan Sanskar") Congressional Friends of Animals We are NOT alone. You may not be aware, but an informal, bipartisan caucus sponsors briefing, forms coalitions and provides information on animal issues of national concern to Members of Congress. Chairman Tom Lantos (CA) Neil Abercrombie (HI) Anna Eshoo (CA) Patsy T. Mink (HI) Charles Schummer (NY) Gary Ackerman (NY) Sam Farr (CA) Susan Molinari (NY) Chris Shays (CT) Robert Andrews (NJ) Sam Gibbons (FL) Major R. Owens (NY) Norman Sisisky (VA) Michael Bilirakis (FL) William F. Goodling (PA) Frank Pallone, Jr. (NJ) Fortney Pete Stark (CA) Robert A. Borski (PA) Andrew Jacobs (IN) John Edward Porter (IL) Esteban Torres (CA) George E. Brown (CA) Jerry Lewis (CA) Charlie Rose (NC) Robert Torricelli (NJ) William (Bill) Clay (MO) John Lewis (GA) Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (FL) Edolphus Towns (NY) Ronald Dellums (CA) Carolyn B. Maloney (NY) Steven Schiff (NM) Henry Waxman (CA) Peter Deutsch (FL) Edward Markey (MA) Patricia Schroeder (CO) Charles Wilson (TX) Eliot Engel (NY) Call or write to the one in your area, and express appreciation to him or her for speaking up for the voiceless ones. Chances are, that there is a similar caucus in your state also. Try to find out about it. Let them know all that we, the Jains, also have the same feelings for the animals. We can work together with them. Eggs 1 New-born Larvae V.2 (Silkworm) Crushing Fernale Silk Moth 3% long fully grown Caterpillar HAR DET Laying Eggs Life Cycle of the Silkworms Mating Spinning Cocoon Cnccons containing Chrysalis Cocoons being | boiled killing chrysalis Silk Moth Chrysalis Emerging of Moth Ifrom unboiled cocoon by cutting it) (32) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Alcohol and Jainism ALCOHOL IS NOT VEGETARIAN Some years ago The Center for Science in the Public Interest compiled a list of well over a hundred additives permissible in various alcoholic beverages. These ingredients were not required to be declared on the label. Strictly from a vegetarian standpoint, some are obviously animal, some are suspect, and some can be made either from animal or other sources. Alcohol, beer, ale, and wines are made with: Fish glue, pepsin, peptone, lactic acid, lactose, glycerin, gelatin, egg white, albumin, isinglass lactic acid, and/or malo-lactic bacteria. These additives include fish glue, pepsin (stomach extract), peptone (product of pepsin acting on albumin), lactic acid, lactose, them? Not really. Nevertheless, there has been substantial recent publicity about studies indicating that alcoholic beverages may lower the heart-attack risk, through raising the HDL ("good cholesterol") in the bloodstream, and/or reducing the overall cholesterol level. This has led to theories that a daily drink or two might lead to better health and greater longevity. It was joyous news for some. But, what are the real facts? 2010_03 Sometimes researchers see what they want to see; and then the studies themselves come under fire. The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine has noted that "It has been suggested that people who drink alcohol use more aspirin to treat alcohol-related headaches. Aspirin helps to prevent blood clotting and therefore reduces risk of heart attack. So it is difficult to know whether the reduced heart disease risk is due to the alcohol or the aspirin. The disadvantages of drinking far outweigh the advantages especially when you consider that many healthful and effective approaches to reducing heart disease are available. For women, even very moderate drinking is linked to an increased risk of breast cancer. Alcohol is also linked to cancer of the esophagus. Alcohol is also toxic to the liver and to brain cells. And for many people, it is a highly glycerin, and gelatin for beer and/or ale. Wines fare no better, with gelatin, egg white or albumin from egg white, isinglass (sturgeon's bladder), lactic acid, and Malo-lactic bacteria. ALCOHOL FOR BETTER HEALTH? The other additives include such goodies(!) as enzymes to convert starch into sugar; clarifying, chill-proofing, foam stabilizing and anti-gushing agents; antioxidant; anti-microbial preservative; artificial colors; plus of course natural and artificial flavors. Who needs Alcohol circulates via the bloodstream to every cell of the body, not just one, or a few, organs. Thus, while the liver comes in for the lion's share of attention, it is by no means the only part of the body harmed by alcohol. While it is being drunk, it is in contact with the mouth and throat. Alcohol is held responsible for 75% of the esophageal cancers in the U.S.A. Additionally, about 75% of oral cancer is attributed to either smoking or drinking. Even without addictive substance. The best approach to reducing heart disease risk is to avoid foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol, to exercise, and to manage stress." Hard-core alcoholic patients have baby clean arteries. However, they die from cirrhosis of the liver, hemorrhagic strokes, malnutrition, cancer of esophagus, accidents and suicides. Women get breast cancer. (33) John McDougall, M.D., says that "Serious alcoholics have lower blood cholesterol levels because alcohol makes up a good part of their diet. Alcohol is low-fat and contains no cholesterol. My hard-core alcoholic patients had the cleanest arteries often baby clean entirely free of atherosclerosis. However, they died from cirrhosis of the liver, hemorrhagic strokes, malnutrition, accidents and suicides; and they were often heavy smokers and as a result suffered higher rates of lung cancer and emphysema. Smoking also curbs the appetite and may result in lower cholesterol levels, by eating less cholesterol-laden foods." ALCOHOL AND DISEASES In the view of Dean Ornish, M.D., "Since cholesterol is made in the liver, disease of the liver will decrease cholesterol production (eg, cancer of the liver or hepatic cirrhosis). Alcohol dependence, besides causing liver disease, often leads to chronic malnutrition and low cholesterol levels." swallowing, there may be significant risk: in one study, longtime users of mouthwashes with high alcohol contents (25% or more), showed a risk of oral cancer 90% higher in women and 60% higher in men. The link is said to be not yet conclusive, but "cause for concern." Page #38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Agatha Thrash, M.D., writes that "Alcohol injures every cell it touches. It is classed as a poison by physicians and pharmacologists and is known to interfere with the enzyme system of the cells. [Check it out in a nice large dictionary: "inebriated" means being drunk from in-toxi-cation; and "in-toxic-ate" quite literally means "to poison."] ... Alcohol directly damages all cells, but the loss of brain cells is especially of considerable concern. Learning, in those who drink, is more difficult. Injured brain cells are unable to form the protein material needed for the complex 'memory' structures. Memory is further decreased because alcohol interferes with dream time. It is during Jainism and Animal Issues "JUST ONE It is commonly argued that it is only alcohol "abuse" that is harmful; that drinking "in moderation" somehow makes real sense, and many sincere people are ensnared with this seemingly reasonable rationale. Still, Dr. Thrash continues: "There is a great increase in liver malfunction, even if one drinks 'only socially'. Not only is there an increase in cirrhosis, the classic end-stage of liver damage from alcohol, but many of the ordinary functions of the liver are altered such as blood clotting, production of antibodies, and the preparation of raw products for the formation of a variety of essential hormones and chemicals for the body. If it were only a matter of losing those 10,000 brain cells with each binge out of billions, one might argue that we have plenty left anyway. It has been said that we only use about 10% of all our brain cells, after all! Alcohol injures every cell it touches. The loss of brain cells is especially of considerable concern. Learning, in those who drink, is more difficult. Injured brain cells are unable to form the protein material needed for the complex 'memory' structures. CAN'T HURT" definite signs of heart muscle injury by a single ounce of 90-proof whiskey. The myth that light social drinking is innocuous has been laid to rest. Many tissues are singled out for injury by alcohol. Not only is the heart muscle damaged, but so are skeletal muscles. Muscular strength gradually decreases among those who drink alcohol. Even bone weight is reduced by habitual drinking. By X-ray, an alcoholic may appear to be a decade or two older than others his age, because of loss of bone density. "The heart is specifically injured by alcohol. 'Beer drinker's heart' is a common term among physicians. Sophisticated tests can show 2010_03 There is a great increase in liver malfunction, even if one drinks 'only socially'. Vernon W. Foster, M.D., says, "As an intern, I was impressed with what we found during autopsies of severe alcoholics. Some brains were only half the size of normal brains, and the cortical convolutions, so essential to brain function, were almost skin-smooth." This would be after many years; however, he notes that "Even a small amount of alcohol destroys brain cells." dreaming that material is stored away in the memory. Alcohol injures the nerves, making them less able to respond to stimuli. Every pathologist knows that when he opens the cranium of a chronic alcoholic, he must be prepared to step aside so as not to be splashed by the large quantity of fluid that has replaced the substance of the brain lost by alcohol damage. Some health authorities estimate that each time an alcoholic becomes drunk he loses about 10 thousand brain cells. Using alcohol causes an increase in all kinds of diseases of the digestive tract, ranging from esophagitis, gastritis, and peptic ulcer, to colon disease and cancer of the rectum." IT AFFECTS YOUR BRAINS Still, note that Dr. Thrash stated that "Alcohol injures every cell it touches... directly damages all cells..." And Dr. Foster stressed not just the quantity wiped out but the poor quality of what remained, even as Dr. Thrash noted the learning and memory difficulties in drinkers, from not only actual cell loss but cellular injury. This has a very important significance. "The pancreas is also specifically damaged, making diabetes, reactive hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, and other diseases of the pancreas more common among drinkers. Pancreatitis rarely occurs except in those who drink." In several years of running computers, I became painfully aware that it does not take a loss of any great percentage of memory bits or electronic pathways to seriously hamper effective functioning, to corrupt or lose data, and to render the entire system unreliable. A very few little glitches can bring the whole computer operation to a screeching halt or "crash." Similarly for humans, the brain cells "With every drink, you lose only 10,000 brain cells, but the brain has billions of them!" But on the other hand after several years of running computers, I became painfully aware that a very few little glitches can bring the whole computer operation to a screeching halt or "crash". (34) experience great difficulty in functioning as a rational, intelligent and ethical being. If you can act normally in that condition, you have my respect; for my part, I need all the brain-power I can get. One drink may be half as harmful as two, but at no level of consumption can alcohol be regarded as completely harmless, let alone being necessary to human well-being. Dr. Foster again: "Even the most naive recognize that alcohol alters consciousness. In so doing it robs a person of judgment and self-control. Small doses of alcohol alter the reaction time of your nerves. Moderate drinkers can become unsafe divers, possibly more Page #39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues so than the drunk driver. The drunk driver often slows down and creeps along. The moderate drinker believes his perception is sharpened and his reaction time is intact. He feels self-confident. This illusion may cause him to drive faster and be less cautious. This comes from John A. Scharffenberg, M.D., M.P.H., who has given excellent dietary/health info at many vegetarian conventions in the past: AND YOUR BEHAVIOR "Alcohol is a major factor in going back to smoking. Alcohol affects first the frontal lobes, the judgment center of the brain. Will power and discernment are affected, and lighting up a cigarette is more apt to occur." "There is truth in wine," so the old saying goes: "one tells the truth when drunk." But which truth? We live at various levels of existence and consciousness; and there are some parts of our inner, more primitive and impulsive side that are held in check by the surface veneer of civilization and the exercise of conscience. In some extreme cases, (as in drink-till-you-drop college-frat initiations) death has occurred from a drinking bout. But Nature usually guards best the functions most vitally needed for immediate survival, such as blood circulation and breathing. "The first one to come is the last one to go": traits most recently acquired (the art and culture; the conscious reasoning; a sense of duty, altruism and compassion; in short, so much of what we like to think makes us so superior to various simpler forms of life) all may go long before one loses all mobility and consciousness, let alone heartbeat and respiration. We are especially concerned to see almost universally (in expert views on alcohol), that even small amounts affect the extremely valuable (and vulnerable) parts of the brain involved in judgment, morality, and reason. Anger, hatred, lust, greed, or any emotion reasonably controlled under normal circumstances may find free rein when one is "under the influence." The most brutal forms of violence (formerly restrained) may surface. Don't take my word for it: you can read all about it in your daily paper, or see it on the evening TV news. 2010_03 One or two drinks are all it takes to make the difference between safe driving and an accident, perhaps the difference between life and death." That alcohol is a behavior-modifying drug, that inebriated people will do what they would not otherwise do if in full control, can be seen in so many clichés such as "going on a drunken binge/orgy/spree," "spending money like a drunken sailor," etc. Or conversely, strict temperance, if one must be relied on for wise and fair decisions, hence: "sober as a judge." We will readily recognize the underlying truth in this passage (from the translation of a German novel, allowing for some exaggeration for humor's sake): "Inspector Kirsten of the Gilgenrode constabulary... had long recognized that an alarming increase in criminal activities and acts of violence in particular, occurred during the hours of darkness preceding every Sabbath. Though not exactly low on other days, Gilgenrode's consumption of alcohol rose by more than 100% on Saturdays, which inevitably led to arguments, insults and, ultimately, clashes of a physical nature. Injuries, even severe ones, were not uncommon, but fatalities seldom occurred." Anger, hatred, lust, greed, or any emotion reasonably controlled under normal circumstances may find free rein when one is "under the influence". How can you tell what a man will do when he's drunk? It is widely and readily understood that alcohol can fuel (but not excuse) violence. We may cite a telling example from an old movie, where a man is shot dead by a woman claiming self-defense from rape. A friend wonders, "Was he the type of man who could do such a thing?" The reply says worlds: "How can you tell what a man will do when he's drunk?" Whether examined in the light of clear harm to health, or assault on conscience and reasoning faculties with the green light given to violence, on every count alcohol indulgence fails to measure up as anything desirable or worthwhile, to say the least. A serious devotee of ethical behavior, especially a Jain, should easily see the practice as inimical to the higher aspirations of Ahimsa, or doing the least harm and the most good. That is to say, acting as mature and responsible, ethical and moral human beings. Alcohol is just not for the Jains. Jay Dinshah ("American Vegan Society") (35) Page #40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Some Health Issues Animals are not for "OUR” Well Being It is a matter of common knowledge, that animals are used in are preventible. In the last 50 years, we have caten far more medical world for testing, and also for ingredients. A very large unhealthy food than ever in the human history. Now the results are population of Jains has chosen and continues to choose medical showing up in statistics. carcers. With it putting anybody down, we would like to discuss Our Jain religion is very scientific. Our penances, such as what we can do. fasting, cating less, living a simple peaceful life, controlling anger, In recent years, we have witnessed several spectacular medical all these have beneficial effects not only on the soul and the advancements. Many of them are said to have been made possible Karmas, but also on health. More and more scientists are finding only because of use of animals. And some other questions that are this out the hard way. Shaili Khandheria will focus on some of commonly put forth are, "Would you rather let your child die of these, as this news appeared in the leading national newspapers, such cancer?", "Would you want to be a guinea pig?", or, "Isn't the as The New York Times, etc. Even prayer has profound results. We human life the most valuable one, even from the Jain viewpoint?" sing about Navkar Mantra, dal 19 . It is true. It is not just So, we will try to throw light on some of these issues here. a superstition. There are many scientifically recorded proofs to that, First of all, as far as we know, as more and more industrialized that she will talk about. nations installed underground sewers, at the turn of this century, And supposing, that both these penance and prayers failed. So sanitation and hygiene improved in those countries, and the what? Maybe we are destined to suffer or to die. Don't the drugs common deadly diseases such as malaria and plague of those days and surgeries ever fail? Here is an another example. When you have reduced. During the same time, our nutrition knowledge also your car repaired, the mechanic gives a one year, or 30 days, or some improved. Therefore, by 1940, the overall health of humans had kind of warranty. How much warranty does a doctor give to you drastically improved. So by the time when they invented after an operation? In other words, he leaves it all up to luck. Or vaccinations, in the 40's, plague, tuberculosis, malaria, etc. were Karmas', in Jain terminology. Now, if that is the ultimate case, why already eradicated from the go through all this fuss? After all, western world! There was very by accepting a treatment that was little room left for impact from By the time when vaccinations were invented in the prepared at the expense of vaccinations. Still we seem to give 40's, plague, tuberculosis, malaria, etc. were already animals, you are consenting to most of the credits for today's eradicated from the western world! There was very more violence. More bad Karmas. improved health to the vaccines! little room left for impact from vaccinations. More suffering in the future. But let us look at this living What a vicious circle! Instead, proof. Even today, in countries why not to take it peacefully? such as India and Africa, where sanitation is poor and nutrition Now at this point you may wonder, if I am myself willing to die, value of food is not very good, plagues take big toll of lives. rather than take a treatment based on animal cruelty. Yes, seven Vaccinations remain helpless. years ago I signed a Durable Power of Attorney. In that one I wrote, The other question is: if it were right to kill a few frogs, if it "Trcating me with natural cures is my first choice. Then, time-tested helped save a million men from cancer. Numerically, it sounds vegetarian medicines are my second choice. However, under no reasonable. But the problem is, they do not put the numbers circumstances, should any medicine that has been produced or a correctly. Not a few, but many millions of animals are killed in procedure used that has been developed at the expense of animals laboratories. Approximately 70 million rats, rabbits, monkeys, and or insects, be used to treat me. If the physician is not sure about the other animals' lives are sacrificed in America alone. Every year. medication, or the procedure, he or she should not use it." After signing this statement, we looked all around for alternate resources. A fact is, that until after the World War II, animal And we were glad, because we found plenty. I also took great care experimentation almost did not exist. But, by then, we had already of my body, by very carefully controlling my diet, increasing come a long way. The famous and much touted recent transplants exercise, yoga, prayers, etc. have saved relatively only a few human lives, but taken far many more animal lives. The numbers are not justifiable. Besides, However, this is my philosophy, and my way of life. I cannot, especially in Jainism, this logic is not allowed. and no one else can, guarantee, that it will work on everyone. And, at least for the time being, the government views - legislative, Medical history reveals another startling point. By 1940, when supreme court, etc. - are all pro-medicine, rather than pro-spirit and malaria and plagues had gone down, some other diseases started to pro-conviction. But it will never hurt to start with improving your go up. Which diseases started going up? They are all related to diet, with regular exercise and yoga, and above all, self-study. hcart, cancers, gallbladders, kidney, etc. What caused them, and what are the cures for them? Let me give a hint. All these diseases Narendra Sheth (36) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues The Jain Lifestyles for Staying Healthy Jainism has always said that Unodari, control of anger, and prayer help in preventing and/or curing diseases. Just recently, papers all across the country have been printing results of scientific experiments that support this theory. If practiced, this Jain lifestyle can prolong life for many years. The first step is Unodari, which means eating less. According to the New York Times, some studies indicate that eating less can add up to forty years of life. It can also delay age-related declines in immune responses, and diminish the risk of developing diseases associated with aging such as heart ailments, cancer, kidney disorders, and arthritis. The subjects that were on the restricted diet did not die of illness, but rather of old age. Another experiment showed that merely reducing the protein content of the diet without lowering calories may be an effective technique to delay aging. Also Dr. Masoro, a renowned scientist, proved that cutting protein intake in half significantly lengthened lives, though not as much as when calorie intake was reduced to sixty percent of normal. Richard Weindruch, a gerontologist at the National Institute on Aging, stated, "The outcome of caloric restriction is spectacular. Gerontologists have tried many things to extend life span, but this is the only one that consistently works." The next two steps of the Jain lifestyle very much go hand-inhand. They both relate to a shifting of lifestyle. First, a study showed that controlling one's anger along with a vegetarian diet, It is certainly against the law for a medical school to make you do something that is against your beliefs. It is definitely possible to attain an MD at our medical schools, without sacrificing education. For instance, last semester, there was a dog lab that we were doing for Physiology. About one third of the class chose not to participate because of ethical stands. Those people were allowed to do a computer simulation and did not miss out on any educational experience. They learned everything that they needed to learn about physiology. However, they obviously did not get the experience of performing surgical procedures such as catheterization. Most people who chose not to do it would choose not to do it again. In fact, most of the people who did it told me that they would not do it again if given the option because they feel like they didn't learn enough to make it worth sacrificing a life. In fact, at the University of Pennsylvania, they do not have that lab at all. More and more medical schools are becoming sensitive to the issue. In fact, I really doubt that any school can force a student to perform surgery on an animal. 2010_03 Yashica Ghelani P.C.R.M., The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, advises that following universities/colleges are now offering the medical curricula that do not require any animal labs. For more information, contact PCRM at (202) 686-2210. moderate exercise, and an hour of yoga and meditation could produce a reversal in the condition of atherosclerosis, a blockage of the arteries that can lead to a heart attack. Anger causes disruptive changes in the body and can lead to many harmful diseases. Repression of this emotion is a preventive action all in itself. Finally, praying can cause a change for the better in a person's health. This sounds a little far-fetched, but experiments have been done to prove this. One of these studies was done when 393 cardiaccare patients were split into two groups. One was prayed for by home prayer groups and the other one was not. The results were astounding. The prayed-for patients turned out five times less likely than the control group to need antibiotics and three times less likely to develop pulmonary edema. The prayers obviously played some role in these results. The Educational Institutions In conclusion, the three factors of a healthy Jain lifestyle are cating less, controlling anger, and praying. Shaili Khandheria (Beware though, that the government views - legislative, supreme court, etc. are all pro-medicine, rather than pro-spirit and proconviction. Therefore, be cautious. Implement them only on yourself, do not enforce them on others without their consent! Legal consequences of that can be unpleasant....) (37) University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ Stanford University, Stanford, CA Yale University, New Haven, CT George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Mercer University, Macon, GA University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA Northwestern University, Chicago, IL Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL University of Chicago - Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL Harvard University, Cambridge, MA University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD Michigan State University, on five of 6 campuses in MI University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Wayne State University, Detroit, MI Mayo Medical School, Rochester, MN Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH New York University, New York, NY University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK Hahnemann University, Philadelphia, PA Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC Texas A & M University, College Station, TX Baylor University, Houston, TX Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA University of Washington, Seattle, WA West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV Page #42 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Jains as Ecologists Environmentalism for Jiv Daya When I attended the Mahavir Jayanti celebrations this past April, Alternatives to Disposables I was impressed by how our members came together to produce an excellent program. However, I was saddened by the amount of As for the problem of disposable plates, bowls, cups, cutlery and waste produced during the meal at the end of the day. After giving napkins, here are a few options: the matter much thought, and discussing it with several members, 1. Bringing our own plates, bowls, cups, cutlery, and napkins young and old, I am writing this letter to explore what we as a from home. Many associations do this quite successfully. My Society can do about this issue. family and I have done this at Jain Society functions. We find that The environment is an area of growing concern to everyone: once it becomes a habit to put the dishes in the car, it is no trouble governments, schools, and businesses are all starting to take this at all. concern seriously. As Jains, we know how every action which hurts 2. Purchasing our own dishes for the Society, and also an the environment, hurts not only ourselves, but also ruins the earth industrial size dishwasher. If not for the four main functions, we for the voiceless animals who don't have a say in our choices. can buy enough dishes for the monthly Samayik meetings. We can For example, the food we throw away doesn't "disappear" into a have a rotating schedule of volunteers responsible for cleanups at garbage bag. We all know that the wasted food and unwashed plates different functions. Just as we take pride in "sponsoring" a Puja for continue to decay, and result in "Jiv uttapan" (bacterial growth) for an occasion, we can take pride in "sponsoring" Jiv Daya, by wecks afterward. The waste eventually goes into landfills (garbage volunteering for cleanups and recycling for a Jain event. "dumps") which pollute the water, causing sickness in us and in the 3. Renting out plates for Jain events. I did this in the month of other animals, who all need water to survive. As Jains then, we May, when my family hosted the Samayik, and it worked well. Our should be leaders in reducing waste. friends helped to rinse the dishes, and we all socialized as we Reducing our Waste worked. 4. Simplifying our meals. (Or no cooked meals at all, for some We can begin by taking only as much food as we can probably events? e.g. fruits only at certain events) cat we can always get a second helping later. Let us not forget the wonderful Jain tradition of India, where finishing all the food on 5. Your ideas please! one's plate is considered mandatory and food waste is strictly avoided. This tradition is as important in Canada and America, as We Can Set an Example in India. In addition, when serving ourselves, we can assist our children I encourage our Jain Society, especially our youth, to come up with their plates. We can all use the same plates, bowls and cups with some ideas to reduce waste at our Jain events, and to carry out when we go up for seconds. When buying food and drink items for solutions. It's our Society. Let's be the first Jain Society to reduce Jain events, we can buy items with minimum packaging, or buy our waste! Inspired by us, I am confident that other Jain Societies will follow our lead. items in recydable containers, rather than disposable ones. Also, we can have a rotating schedule of volunteers responsible for recycling Swati K. Shah at Jain events. No "Wasteful" Events 1. Handouts - When possible, the handouts should be printed 4. Wasted Eating Utensils, Plates and Cups - When possible, with soy based inks on re-used, recycled or tree-free paper. reusable items should be used. If the event is held at a facility that 2. Waste in Food Production - Eating lower on the food chain you own, you can bring your own lightweight plastic dishware, you own, you can bring your own light is less wasteful in terms of environmental destruction, harm to other utensils and cloth napkin in a lightweight washable mesh bag, species and harm to our own health. Meals and snacks made with whenever food is served. A special place could be provided to hang no animal products (vegan) are the least wasteful and most everyone's clean dishware bag. Each bag should have the owner's compassionate. name written in permanent ink. If there are too many people to clean everyone's dishware, then the dishes can be well scraped for 3. Leftover Food Waste - Unused leftover food should be taking home. Extra bags with dishware could be provided at the distributed to participants, organizers, or local food shelves. The facility for visitors. leftovers from plates can be collected and composted if there are no animal products in them. Rac Sikora ("Jivan Sanskar") (38) Jain Education Intemational 2010_03 Page #43 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Trees and Jiv Daya The trees harbor many lives. Monkeys live in the trees. Birds make nests in the trees. Insects also make homes in the trees. When a tree falls, where do they all go? Every time a tree is dead or cut, all the insects living in it also lose their lives. If a large area of trees die or are destroyed, all the monkeys and birds lose their homes, their shelters, their habitats. They also die. Above all, the trees breathe carbon dioxide in, and release oxygen back to atmosphere. Without this oxygen, no life can survive, anywhere. Thus when all the trees on the planet earth die The world we live in today is not the same that our grandparents lived in and it will not be the same that our grandchildren will grow up in. As each generation goes through this world, we leave behind less and less of the present environment for the future generations. One would think that with all of the modern technology and advances the opposite is true. In fact it is this which is harming the environment. When one thinks of Ahimsa, they think of not harming any living beings. This is often just considered for humans or animals. The earth belongs to all living beings, not just for humans or animals. We often forget that plants and trees are also forms of life. Little is spoken about Ahimsa toward the trees, but there is much to be said. We must respect the right of the trees also to inhabitate the planet. The planet is here for us to share and live with in harmony and peace. It is not here for us to dominate and destroy. Forest Preservation We often are just familiar with the destruction of the rain forests and the destruction due to clear-cut logging. These are just two forms of destruction of trees but there are many more that we are often unaware of. There are many causes for trees becoming sick and dying in different regions. Some of the causes include acid rain, air pollution, killer smog, excessive ultraviolet light filtering through the earth's damaged ozone shield, pesticides and toxic chemicals released from burning of the coal and oil. These all are caused by modern industrialization. The list doesn't end there, it includes global warming effects (which causes temperatures and sea levels to rise), destructive forestry practices (such as clear-cut logging and fire suppression) which thins out the forests, and the increasing demand for wood by a very wasteful society. Acid rain occurs when coal and oil are burned, releasing sulphur which combines with rain (or fog or snow) to make acid precipitation. After World War II, United States has seen a massive rise in use of coal and oil. This acid rain affects trees, soil, and entire ecosystem. Trees become weak, and fall prey to extreme cold, or to insects, or pathogens that a healthy tree can withstand. 2010_03 Presently over 80% of all industrial wood usage in the United States is for building materials and paper. The remaining 20% of wood usage is for fuel wood, wood chips, and raw logs for export. There is currently an effort underway to reduce the consumption of or are destroyed, all life on the earth also will come to an end. Nothing will survive. Therefore the principles of Jiv Daya dictate that we care for preserving each and every tree. We need to learn which of our human actions, directly or indirectly, contribute toward harming or destruction of trees. wood by eliminating use of wood from buildings and from paper. Modern materials exist which can be used to substitute the use of wood in buildings and for the manufacturing of paper. Presently there exist 300 mills throughout the world manufacturing paper without wood. We can make paper from rice and barley straws, sugar cane waste (bagasse), and kenaf plant. We must focus on efforts such as these. Each of us must do our share to minimize waste if we are to help save trees, forests, and planet. Narendra Sheth What can we do is the major question we should all be asking. There are the two main actions we can take, as individuals. One is to better understand the causes of why the trees are dying. We need to learn how to control, eliminate, and fix the problems that we have created. To fix a problem, we first must understand it. The public needs to be aware and educated of the severity. The second action we can take is to eliminate waste. We live in a very wasteful society. We think there is a never ending supply of everything, not realizing that the stock is slowly diminishing. With all of our major advances, we often think of our society as a paperless society. Yet in reality, with all of modern technologies we are actually wasting more paper. With the widespread use of e-mail, people are now sending a lot of information electronically. But since everything is always urgent, we often also fax a copy of the document. Finally we also send a hard copy of the document through the regular mail. On the receiving end, the recipient often reads the e-mail and then makes a hard paper copy of the document. What information was once one sheet of paper is now on three sheets, minimally. Jainism teaches to minimize the usage and waste of any product and that includes paper. Charles Little, in his book, "The Dying of the Trees," describes how trees are sick and dying everywhere in the world. We need to learn living within natural limits, and right of nonhuman species to inhabit the plant. We should cut waste, not trees. If we don't, soon, some trees will survive but probably we will not. We cannot leave these decisions in the hand of profit-seeking corporations any longer. We must start now if we want future generations to survive. This plea to save me and my family was brought to you by a Joshua Tree. Jayshree Ranka (39) Page #44 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ MANUFACTURERS OF CRUELTY-FREE PRODUCTS Following companies have a standard policy of using neither animal ingredients, nor testing their products on animals. This list is adapted from a list that was originally prepared by People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Let us patronize these companies. Most of them are still small, and they have not penetrated the main superstores yet, so you will have to go to a specialty store. A comprehensive list of many specialty stores follows. This list is divided into various product categories, such as air fresheners, bleaches, shampoos, etc. By no means, this is a complete list of all the household products, but it is a good starter. AIR FRESHENERS Aromalamp Inc. Aura Cacia, Inc. Auroma International Ayurherbal Corporation Ayus Bare Escentuals Cya Products Inc. We could not list all the brand names or the products manufactured by these companies, because it would be too extensive for the scope of this handbook. However, looking for names of these companies on the packages would not be very difficult. Earthly Matters Harvey Universal The Herb Garden Lotus Light Mia Rose Products, Inc. Orange-Mate Oxyfresh U.S.A., Inc. PlantEssence Natural Body Care Quan Yin Essentials BABY PRODUCTS Ahimsa Natural Care Ltd. Ayurveda Holistic Center Baby Massage Brocato International Dr. Bronner's "All-One" Products Co. Green Mountain Healthy Times LaCrista Inc. Lotus Light Mother's Little Miracle, Inc. SunFeather Herbal Soap Company SHOPPING GUIDE BLEACH Bio Pac Country Save Corporation Frank T. Ross & Sons Home Service Products Company One Earth Products Winter White CARPET/RUG CLEANING AFM Enterprises, Inc. Harvey Universal Pets 'n People, Inc. Jainism and Animal Issues 2010_03 COMPANION ANIMAL Ayurveda Holistic Center Dr. Bronner's "All-One" Products Co. IV Trail Products The Herb Garden Naturally Free, The Herbal Alternative Naturally Yours Alex Natural Products Corporation Nature's Country Pet New Age Creations Nutri-Cell, Inc. Oxyfresh U.S.A. Inc. Pet Lovers Catalog Pets 'n People, Inc. Simplers Botanical Company SunFeather Herbal Soap Company COSMETICS Arbonne International Inc. Aveda Bare Escentuals Beauty Without Cruelty Cosmetics Body Shop Cinema Secrets, Inc. Goodbodies U.S.A. KSA Jojoba Lotus Light Nature Cosmetics Neways, Inc. Paul Mazzotta Inc. Paul Pendres Company, Inc. Royal Labs Natural Cosmetics Ultra Glow Cosmetics Warm Earth Cosmetics DANDRUFF SHAMPOO Ahimsa Natural Care Ltd. L'anza Research International, Inc. Lotus Light Paul Mazzotta Inc. DENTAL HYGIENE Ahimsa Natuaral Care Ltd. American Merfluan, Inc. Auroma International Ayurherbal Corporation Louise Bianco Skin Care, Inc. Newways, Inc. Oxyfresh U.S.A. Inc. Simplers Botanical Company FRAGRANCES FOR MEN Alexia Alexander Aromalamp Inc. Aura Cacia, Inc. Auroma International Auromere Ayurvedic Imports Ayurherbal Corporation Ayurveda Holistic Center Ayus Bare Escentuals Bath and Body Body Shop Cotswold Perfumry Ltd. Davidoff Fragrance Dr. Bronner's "All-One" Products Co. Essential Aromatics Essential Products of America, Inc. Goodbodies U.S.A. Jil Sander Fragrance L'Arome International Lotus Light PlantEssence Natural Body Care Simplers Botanical Company FRAGRANCES FOR WOMEN Alexia Alexander Ananda Country Products Aromalamp Inc. Aura Cacia, Inc. Auroma International Auromere Ayurvedic Imports Ayurveda Holistic Center Bare Escentuals Bath and Body Body Shop Cotswold Perfumry Ltd. Essential Aromatics Essential Products of America, Inc. Goodbodies U.S.A. H. Albert & Company The Herb Garden KSA Jojoba (40) L'Aromere International Ltd. Lotus Light Mere Cie, Inc. Pacific Scents Inc. PlantEssence Natural Body Care Pure Touch Therapeutic Body Care Simplers Botanical Company Tom's of Maine United Colors of Benetton Tribu FURNITURE POLISH 4 The Planet, Inc. HAIR CARE ABBA Products Inc. Ahimsa Natural Care Ltd. Alexia Alexander Amitee Cosmetics Ayus Bare Escentuals Basic Elements Hair Care System, Inc. Beauty Without Cruelty Cosmetics Freeman Cosmetics Golden Lotus Green Mountain John Paul Mitchell Systems L'anza Research L'Arome International Ltd. Lotus Light Martin Von Myering Metrin Laboratories Native American Naturals Nature Cosmetics Neways, Inc. Nirvana, Inc. One Earth Products OxyFresh U.S.A., Inc. Paul Mazzotta Inc. Paul Penders Company, Inc. Pure Touch Therapeutic Body Care Saabune Products Inc. The Santa Fe Soap Company Sumeru SunFeather Herbal Soap Company Tropical Botanicals The Ultimate Life Page #45 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ HAIR COLORING Avigal Henna Lotus Light Martin Von Myering Paul Ma Mazzotta Inc. Paul Penders Company, Inc. HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS AFM Enterprises Allens Naturally America's Finest Products Corporation Aura Cacia, Inc. Auroma Internatioal Bare Escentuals Bi-O-Kleen Industries Bio Pac Clear Vue Products, Inc. Country Save Earth Friendly Products Earthly Matters Earth Wise, Inc. Espial Corporation Forever New 4 The Planet, Inc. Frank T. Ross & Sons Green Mountain Greenway Products The Herb Garden h.c.r.c. Inc. Home Service Products Company Life Tree Products New Age Products Neway s, Inc. Oasis Biocompatible One Earth Products OxyFresh U.S.A., Inc. Planet Products, Inc. SerVass Laboratories Shahin Soap Co. SunFeather Herbal Soap Company Whip-It Products Winter White HYPO-ALLERGENIC SKIN CARE The Bailey Group Bare Escentuals Beauty Without Cruelty Cosmetics Botanicus Retail, Inc. Desert Naturels, Inc. LaCrista, Inc. Lotus Light Louise Bianco Skin Care, Inc. Metrin Laboratories Nature Cosmetics Neways, Inc. Nutri-Cell, Inc. Paul Mazzotta Inc. Royal Labs Natural Cosmetics SunFeather Herbal Soap Company NAIL CARE The Bailey Group Beauty Without Cruelty Cosmetics KSA Jojoba Neways, Inc. OFFICE SUPPLIES International Rotex, Inc. PERMANENTS 2010_03 Brocato International L'anza Research Martin Von Myering Paul Mazzotta Inc. RAZORS American Safety Razor SHAVING PRODUCTS Bare Escentuals Lotus Light Jainism and Animal Issues Neways, Inc. Paul Penders Company The Total Shaving Solutions SKIN CARE Ahimsa Natural Care Ltd. Alexia Alexander Aloe Gold Arbonne International, Inc. Aura Cacia, Inc. Auromere Ayurvedic Imports Ayurveda Holistic Center The Bailey Group Bare Escentuals Basic Elements Hair Care Systems, Inc. Bath and Body Beauty Without Cruelty Cosmetics Body Shop Botanics of California Desert Naturels, Inc. Earth Solutions, Inc. Espial Corporation Essential Aromatics Freeman Cosmetics Goodbodies U.S.A. Green Mountain The Herb Garden KSA Jojoba LaCrista, Inc. L'anza Research L'Arome International Ltd. Lotus Light Martin Von Myering Metrin Laboratories Micro Balanced Products Neways. Inc. Nutri-Cell, Inc. OxyFresh U.S.A., Inc. Paul Mazzotta Inc. Paul Penders Company, Inc. Royal Labs Natural Cosmetics Simplers Botanical Company SunFeather Herbal Soap Company Tisserand Aromatherapy, USA Truly Moist Vegelatum SKIN CARE FOR MEN Ahimsa Natural Care Ltd. Alexia Alexander Aura Cacia, Inc. Auromere Ayurvedic Imports Ayurveda Holistic Center The Bailey Group Bare Escentuals Basic Elements Hair Care Systems, Inc. Bath and Body Beauty Without Cruelty Cosmetics Biogime Body Shop Dessert Naturels, Inc. Earth Solutions, Inc. Espial Corporation Essential Aromatics Goodbodies U.S.A. KSA Jojoba LaCrista, Inc. L'anza Research L'Arome International Ltd. Lotus Light Louise Bianco Skin Care, Inc. Metrin Laboratories Nature Cosmetics Neways, Inc. Nutri-Cell, Inc. OxyFresh U.S.A., Inc. Paul Mazzotta Inc. Royal Labs Natural Cosmetics San Francisco Soap Co. Simplers Botanical Company SunFeather Herbal Soap Company Truly Moist SUN CARE Aztec Secret Bare Escentuals Biogime Goodbodies U.S.A. Green Mountain L'anza Research Lotus Light Louise Bianco Skin Care, Inc. Nature Cosmetics Neways, Inc. Nutri-Cell, Inc. OxyFresh U.S.A., Inc. Paul Mazzotta Inc. Royal Labs Natural Cosmetics Tropical Botanicals, Inc. Tropix Suncare Products Ultra Glow Cosmetics THERATRICAL MAKE UP Cinema Secrets, Inc. Ultra Glow Cosmetics TOILETRIES (BATHING SUPPLIES, DEODRANTS, LOTIONS) Abracadabra Inc. Ahimsa Natural Care Ltd. Alexia Alexander (41) Aura Cacia, Inc. Auroma Internatioal Auromere Ayurvedic Imports Ayurherbal Corporation Ayurveda Holistic Center Ayus Baby Touch Bare Escentuals Bath and Body Body Shop Brookside Soap Cotswold Perfumery Deodorant Stones of America Dr. Bronner's "All-One" Products Co. Espial Corporation Essential Aromatics 4 The Planet, Inc. Frank T. Ross & Sons Free Spirit Enterprises, Inc. Frontier Cooperative Herbs Goodbodies U.S.A. Greenway Products H. Albert & Company Hargen Distributors Inc. KSA Jojoba LaCrista, Inc. L'Arome International Ltd. Life Tree Products Lotus Light Louise Bianco Skin Care, Inc. Martin Von Myering Masada H & B Corporation Metrin Laboratories Mia Rose Products Inc. Micro Balanced Products Natural Therapeutics Center Nature de France Neways, Inc. One Earth Products Oxyfresh U.S.A., Inc. Pacific Scents Inc. Paul Mazzotta Inc. Paul Penders Company, Inc. PlantEssence Natural Body Care Pulse Products Pure Touch Therapeutic Body Care Quan Yin Essentials Royal Labs Natural Cosmetics Saabune Products Inc. San Francisco Soap Company The Santa Fe Soap Shahin Soap Co. Sierra Dawn Products The Spanish Bath Sumeru We would like to update this list when we reprint it. New manufacturers will be added, as they join this competitive market, and some less competitive ones will drop out. We need help from all of you, the Jain families using this list, in keeping this list updated. As you find any change warranted, please inform us. We appreciate your cooperation. SunFeather Herbal Soap Tropical Botanicals, Inc The Ultimate Life United Colors of Benetton Tribu U.S. Sales Service TOOTHBRUSHES Goodbodies U.S.A. Lotus Light Oxyfresh U.S.A., Inc. Page #46 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues RETAIL HEALTH FOOD STORES THAT CARRY AT LEAST SOME CRUELTY-FREE PRODUCTS Find the one in your neighborhood! These stores have been verified during January through May, 1996. A directory such as this one is always obsolete as soon as it is printed. The most appropriate way of keeping this directory updated would be clectronically, on Www. See our home page at " sivDaya/" for most current information. And do feed all information to us! MASSACHUSETTES 01129 413-783.9424 Better Life Market - 1915 Wilbraham Rd - Springfield 01453 508-537-3920 The Natural Shop - 614 N Main St-Leominster 01742 508-369-1535 Concord Spice & Grain - 93 Thoreau St - Concord 02115 617-262-3420 Nature Food Center - 342 Newbury St - Boston 02134 617-787-1416 Harvest Coop - 449 Cambridge St - Allston 02138 617-492-4452 Cambridge Natural Foods - 1670 Mass Av-Cambridge 02139 617-661-1580 Harvest Coop - 581 Massachusetts Av. Cambridge 02139 617-492-0070 Bread & Circus - 115 Prospect St. Cambridge 02142 617-661-9600 Lee Nutrition - 290 Main St - Cambridge 02146 617-738-8187 Bread & Circus - 15 Washington St - Brighton 02178 617484 4077 Belmont Nutrition Center - 442 Common St - Belmont 02181 617-235-7262 Bread & Circus - 278 Washington - Wellesley 02760 508-643-0321 The Body Shop - 999 S Washington - N. Attleborough RHODE ISLANDS 02895 401-765-1500 Consumer Value Stores - One CVS Dr. Woonsocket NEW HAMPSHIRE 03103 603-668-2650 A-Market - 125 Loring St - Manchester 03103 603-669-7669 The Body Shop - 1500 S Willow St - Manchester 03301 603-224-9341 Granite State Natural Food - 164 N State St-Concord CONNECTICUT 06010 203-582-1663 The Super Natural - 77 Farmington Av & 6 P1 - Bristol 06105 203-236-0621 Cheese 'N Stuff - 550 Farmington Av - Hartford 06405 203488-2573 Orchard Hill Market - 875 West Main St-Brandford 06830 203-869-9658 Greenwich Health Mart - 30 Greenwich Av. Greenwich 06840 203-966-5400 Healthfare - 2 Morse Court. New Canaan 06880 203-259-9378 Fountain of Youth - 1789 Post Rd E-Westport 06880 203-227-9007 Organic Market - 285 Post Rd E-Westport 06880 203-255-4333 Sweetwater Natural Foods - 1591 Post Rd. Fairfield 06897 203-762-9711 Wilton Organic - 33 Danbury Rd, Rt 7. Wilton NEW JERSEY 07016 908-276-4270 Back to Nature Health Food - 13 Walnut Av. Cranford 07022 201-945-7200 The Natural Selection - 357 Fairview Av. Fairview 07036 908-486-9446 Clear Light Natural Foods - 306 Wood Av N. Linden 07042 201-744-7122 Clairmont Health - 515 Bloomfield Av. Montclair 07054 201-263-8348 The Health Shoppe - 1123 Rte 46 E Parsippany 07073 201-935-4045 The Third Day - 220 Park Av. E. Rutherford 07093 201-868-6596 Natural Food - 6302 Bergen Line Av.West New York 07432 201-447-4532 A & A Natural Food - 99 Godwin Av. Midland Park 07442 201-835-4948 Pompton Lakes - 128 Wanaque Av. Pompton Laks 07446 201-327-1230 Good 'N Natural - Rt 17 N 1300 - Ramsey Square 07456 201-962-6355 Food for Thought. Ringwood Plaza Ctr - Ringwood 07601 201-342-1932 Aylwards Natural Food - 342 Main St-Hackensack 07631 201-567-1489 Aylwards Natural Food . 14 N Van Brunt - Englewood 07645 201-391-6173 Chestnut Ridge - 22A Chestnut Ridge - Montvale 07652 201-967-0780 The Body Shop - 700 Paramus Park Mall - Paramus 07666 201-836-7820 Beauty Without Cruelty - 451 Queen Anne - Teaneck 07834 201-627-2738 Diamond Spring GNC - 41 Diamond Spring - Denville 07834 201-627-5440 Mrs. Erb's Good Food -20 1st Av. Denville 07866 201-328-3935 The Body Shop - Rt 80 & Mount Hope Av. Rockaway 07869 201-366-4455 Vita Mart Health - K-Mart Plaza, Rt 10 - Randolph 08012 609-227-6677 Bernie's Nutrition - 17 Whitman Square - Turnersville 08232 609-645-2130 New Life Coop - 18 Washington Av W - Picasantville 08360 609-691-0774 Haars Health - 1437 S. Delsca Dr. Vincland 08809 908-735-4155 Good Food Grocer - 38 Old Highway 22 - Clinton 08817 908-548-1336 Edison Health Food - Oak Tree Rd & Wood - Edison 08820 908-548-5116 Health House - 1199 Amboy Av. Edison NEW YORK 10001 212-268-7424 The Body Shop - 6th Av & 33rd St - New York 10003 212-979-2944 The Body Shop - 747 Broadway & 8th St - New York 10003 212-260-1218 Ayurveda - 129 First Av. New York 10011 212-243-2642 Integral Yoga Natural Food - 229 W 13th St - New York 10011 212-620-3074 Health is Wealth. 184 7th Av. New York 10011 212-924-2711 Down to Earth - 33 7th Av. New York 10012 212-982-1000 Whole Foods in Soho - 117 Prince St - New York 10012 212-254-4373 Sunrise Natural Foods. 142 W Houston St - New York 10013 212-267-4300 Bell Bates - 107 W Broadway - New York 10017 212-490-2979 The Health Nuts - 835 2nd Av - New York 10017 212-661-2310 Vitamin Quota Inc. # 419 - 293 Madison - New York 10021 212-472-9055 The Good Earth - 1334 1st Av at 71st St - New York 10021 212-755-7851 The Body Shop - 773 Lexington Av at 61st - New York 10022 212-753-4000 Saks Fifth Avenue - Saks Fifth Av at Soth St - New York 10022 212-832-0812 The Body Shop - 485 Madison Av at 52nd - New York 10023 212-496-1616 The Good Earth - 167 Amsterdam Av. New York 10023 212-724-1972 The Health Nuts - 2141 Broadway at 76th - New York 10023 212-721-2947 The Body Shop - 2159 Broadway at 76th St. New York 10025 212-678-0054 The Health Nuts - 2611 Broadway - New York City 10028 212-744-3292 Kubies Health Foods - 1227 Lexington Av. New York 10036 212-586-0324 Nice N' Natural - 673 Ninth Av. New York 10512 914-225-7300 Amber Waves of Grain - 69 Aleneida Av. Carmel 10512 914-737-1422 Nature Food Center - Rt 6, Main St - Carmel 10514 914-238-8040 Chappaqua Health Foods - 95 King St-Chappaqua 10536 914-232-7574 The Katonah Market - 202 Katonah. Katonah 10538 914-834-6667 Nature's Warehouse - 2460 Boston Post - Larchmont 10541 914-628-0533 Natural Selection - Lake Plaza Shopping Ctr. Mahopac 10543 914-381-4506 Nature's Cove . 350 Mamaroneck. Mamaroneck 10566 914-737-1422 Nature Food Centers - Beach Shopping Ctr. Peckskill 10570 914-769.4332 Way of Life Coop - 503-A Bedford Rd. Pleasantville 10580 914-967-8978 Mother Nature's Nutrition - 80 Purchase St-Rye 10601 914-946-1200 GNC - 124 Mamaroneck Av. White Plains 10706 914-478-3600 Food For Thought - 7 Spring St-Hastings On-Hudson 10954 914-623-3535 Nature Food Center - Nanuet Mall - Nanuet 10956 914-634-3511 Back to Earth Nutrition Ct - 306 S. Main. New City 10977 914-356-3010 Earth's Bounty - 306 N. Main - Spring Valley 11050516-883-1157 Renaissance Natural - 77 Main St. Port Washington 11105 718-726-4477 Giorgio's - 29-17 Ditmars Bl. Astoria 11106 718-728-3532 Walters Health Food - 33-10 Broadway - Astoria 11209 718-745-5776 Appletree Natural Foods - 7911 Third Av. Brooklyn 11215 718-768-5654 Back to the Land - 144 Seventh Av - Brooklyn 11235 718 743-6749 Brighton Health - 508 Brighton Bch Av. Brooklyn (42) 2010_03 • Page #47 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues 11361 718-225-7776 Bayside Health Foods. 42-38 Bell BI - Bayside 11365 718 762-3572 Quantum Leap Natural Grocers-65-60 Fresh Meadows Ln. Fresh Meadows 11365 718-358-6500 Queens Health Emporium - 159-01 Horace Harding Exp. Fresh Meadows 11372 718-429-9511 Jackson Heights Health - 8306 37th - Jackson Heights 11530 516-747-5811 Food for Thought - 154 7th St - Garden City 11542 516-676-7895 Rising Tide - 42 Forest Av - Glen Cove 11548 516-621-5740 Food for Thought - 45 Northern BI - Greenvale 11590 516-683-9177 The Health Nuts - 92 Old Country Rd - Westbury 11702 516-661-5552 Sherry's Health Food Store . 89 Dear Park Av. Babylon 11778 516-821-1412 Dollys Country Store - 55 Route 25A - Rocky Point 12210 518-462-1020 Miles Natural Foods & Prod. 28 Central Av. Albany 13204 315-422-1811 Empire Supplements - 405 N Lowell Av - Syracuse 13210 315-446-0832 Drumlins Health Shoppe - 120 Julian PI - Syracuse 13210 315-443-3594 Good Food - Watson Theater, Waverly Av. Syracuse 13212 315-458-2717 Mother Earth Health - 733 South Bay Rd N. Syracuse 13224 315-446-0909 Nature's Pantry - Piron. 3002 Erie BI E-Syracuse 13346 315-824-2930 Hamilton Foods - 28 Broad St-Hamilton 14075 716-649-6694 Feel Rite - 5000 South Park Av - Hamburg 14216 716-837-7661 Feel Rite - 1451 Hertel Av - Buffalo 14224 716-675-6620 Feel Rite - 4018 Seneca St - W. Seneca 14607 716-271-1020 The Natural Approach - 6220 Park Av. Rochester 14623 716-424-2323 Loris Natural Food - 900 Jefferson Rd - Rochester 14692 716-464-4760 Wegmans - 1500 Brooks Av, Box 844 - Rochester 14850 607-272-9102 Summer Meadow Herb Shop - 319 Eddy St-Ithaca 14853 607-273-8213 Oasis Natural Foods - De Witt Mall - Ithaca PENNSYLVANIA 412-242-3598 East End Food Co-Op-7516 Meade St - Pittsburgh 412-843-4781 DeWalt's Health Food - 631 3rd Av - New Brighton 412-561-1311 DeWalt's Health Food - 1414 Potomac Av. Dormont 412-287-3377 DeWalt's Health Food - 205 S. Main St-Butler 412-266-5660 DeWalt's Health Food - 813 Merchant St-Ambridge 412-828-4244 Today's Market - 612 Allegheny River BI - Oakmont 412422-7455 Goldenscal - 2731 Murray Av. Pittsburgh 412-683-703 Shadyside Natural Foods - 5401 Baum Bi - Pittsburgh 412-772-2251 Nature's Goodness - 20800 Route 19N - Cranberry 17512 717-684-3774 Panacea - Box 294 - Columbia 17557 717-656-4256 Lancaster Health Associates - Rt 23 - New Holland 17603 717-392-0333 Rhubarb's market - 1342 Columbia Av. Lancaster 18102 610-433-8891 Garden Gate Natural - 17 South 9th St - Allentown 18901 215-345-1633 Kind Earth - 7 North Main St-Doylestown 18912 215-794-5311 Earth Foods - Buckingham Grn, Rt 202 - Buckingham 18940 215-860-8878 Grapevinc - 5 N State St-Newtown 18966 215-364-3660 Everything Natural - 1942 County Line Rd - Huntingdon Valley - Southampton 19006 215-947-4585 Valley Health - 2571 Huntingdon Pk - Huntingdon 19047 215-752-5755 Nature Food Center - 2300 Lincoln Hwy - Langhorne 19056 215-750-7356 The Vitamin Shoppe - 1-95 Marketplace . Levittown 19067 215-736-0553 House of Nutrition - 833 W Trenton Av. Morrisville 19103 215-567-2542 Thai Royal Barge Vegetaria - 123 S 23rd - Philadelphia 19114 215-637-1767 Betty A. Costello - P.O. Box 16042 - Philadelphia 19118 215-247-3215 Gene's Health - 8617 Germantown Av - Philadelphia 19143 215-440-0991 Basic Four Vegetarian - 12th at Arch. Philadelphia DELAWARE 19711 302-368-5894 Newark Coop - 280 Main St, Suite E-Newark 19805 302-429-8687 The Peacable Kingdom. 1902 West 6th - Wilmington DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 20001 202-332-7247 Hetep Foods - 2849 Georgia Av NW Washington 20007 202-298-7353 The Body Shop - 3207 M St at Wisconsin - Washington 20011 202-723-5566 Senbeb Coop-5924 Georgia Av NW- Washington 20032 202-562-0041 Secret Nature - 3923 S Capitol St SW - Washington MARYLAND 20740 301-345-6655 Beautiful Day Trading - 5010 Berwyn Rd - College Park 20817 301-469-9073 The Body Shop - 7101 Democracy BI. Bethesda 20818 301-320-2530 Bethesda Coop - 6500 Seven Locks Rd - Cabin John 20852 301-816-4944 My Organic Market - 11711 B Parklawn Ln - Rockville 20910 301-588-6093 Takoma / Silver Spring Coop. 623 Sligo Av. 5 Spring 20912 301-439-0700 Potomac Adventist - 8400 Carroll Av. Takoma Park 21701 301-663-3416 Common Market - 5813 Buckeyestown Pike - Frederick 21716 301-834-7923 Basically Natural - 109 East G St-Brunswick VIRGINIA 22003 703-354-7782 Healthway - 4113 John Marr Dr. Annandale 22030 703-591-1121 Healthway - 10360 Lee Highway . Fairfax City 22041 703-998-5077 Super Nutrition - 5809 Leesburg Pk - Bailey's X-Roads 22075 703-771-7146 For Goodness Sake - 205 Harrison St. Leesburg 22103 703-734-3828 The Body Shop - 1961 Chambridge Rd - Mclean 22110 703-361-1883 Healthway - 10778 Sudley Manor Dr. Manassas 22150 703-569-3533 Healthway - 6402-4 Springfield Pl - Springfield 22180 703-938-4485 Naturally Yours - 330 Maple P1 W - Vienna 22202 703-415-2166 The Body Shop - 1100 South Hayes St. Arlington 22204 703-920 6855 Uncommon Market - 1041 S Edgewood St - Arlington 22209 703-528-4319 Healthway - 1700 N Moore St-Rosslyn 22901 804-293-4111 Integral Yoga Natural - 923 Preston Av. Charlottesville 23451 804 428-0100 The Heritage Store - 314 Laskin Rd. Virginia Beach 23462 804 499-0002 Health Food -4584-10 Virginia Beach - Virginia Beach 23464 804-523-8961 Health Food - 5312 Kemps River #105. Virginia Bch 23502 804-461-2883 Health Food Center - 700 N Military Hwy - Norfolk 23505 804 489-4242 Health Food Center - 7639 Granby St - Norfolk 23517 804-625-6656 Health Food Center - 1705 Colley Ay - Norfolk 24201 540-669-2000 Hair Concept 2000 - 1061 Old Abington Hwy. Bristol 24201 540-669-0131 Unique Hair Design - 0109 Newton St - Bristol 24210 540-628-3170 Whole Earth Center - 609 E Main St. Abingdon NORTH CAROLINA 27106 910-725-6781 Friends of Earth. 114 Reynolda Villg. Winston Salem 27106 910-725-4941 Aquarious 2000 - 139 S Stratford Rd - Winston-Salem 27127 910-724-2883 Abundant Life - 2101 Peters Creek - Winston-Salem 919-968-1983 Wellspring Grocery - 81 S Elliott Rd - Chapel Hill 919-403-9992 Herbal Harvest - 4711 Hope Valley Rd - Durham 919-286-2290 Wellspring Grocery - 621 Broad St - Durham 919-490-0929 Durham Food Coop - 1101 W Chapel Hill - Durham 919-832-3237 Harmony Farms - 2710 Hillsborough St - Raleigh 919-782-0064 Harmony Farms - 5653 Creedmoor Rd - Raleigh 919-834-5056 Noah's Food Store Coop - 745 W Johnson St - Raleigh 919-828-5805 Wellspring Grocery - 3540 Wade Av - Raleigh 28203 704-334-6528 Berrybrook Farm Natural Fo. 1257 East BI - Charlotte 28204 704-333-9200 Central Sun Storehouse - 1825 East 7th St - Charlotte 28209704-333-4266 Selwyn Natural Foods - 2917 Selwyn Av. Charlotte 28711 704-669-2255 Brandon's - 107 W State St - Black Mtn 28801 704-253-7656 Earth Fair - 66 West Gate Pkwy - Asheville SOUTH CAROLINA 29206 803-782-8896 Corma's - Trenholm Plaza - Columbia 29464 803-881-3274 Good Neighbor - 423 Coleman Bl. Mt. Pleasant 29501 803-662-3040 Rose's - 2701 David McLeod Bl - Flore 29501 803-664-8893 General Nutrition - 2701 David Mcleod BI - Floren GEORGIA 30084 770-491-0970 Mother Nature's - 3853 E Lawrenceville Hwy Tucker 30260 770-961-0933 Naturally Good. 1370 Morrow Ind. BI - Morrow 30307 404-681-2831 Sevananda - 1111 Euclid Av - Atlanta 30324 404-814.9935 Bill's Health Market - 2581 Piedmont Rd NE. Atlanta 30329 404-633-6677 Health Unlimited - 2893 N Druid Hills, NE - Atlanta 30338 770-393-1297 Atlantis Natural - 2488 Mt Vernon Rd. Dunwoody FLORIDA 32541 904-654-1005 Fellin Good - 300 Hwy 98E - Destin 32601 904-378-5224 Mother Earth Health - 521 NW 13th St. Gainesville 32607 904-372-7482 Sunflower Health Foods - 87 SW 34th St. Gainesville (43) 2010_03 Page #48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues 32789 407-647-6661 Chamberlain Natural - 430 N Orlando - Winter Park 33133 305-448-7595 Oakfeed Health - 2911 Grand Av - Coconut Grove 33143 305-933-1040 Unicorn Village - 3595 NE 6th Av- N Miami Beach 33428 407-487-7602 Gateway to Health - 9910 SW 14th St - Boca Raton 33581 941-924-4754 Granary 1930 Stickney Pt Rd - Sarasota 33609 941-879-6625 Ansley Health Foods - 3936 W Kennedy Bl - Tampa 34236 941-366-7906 Granary- 1451 Main St-Sarasota ALABAMA 35630 205-764-5340 Valley Health Foods - 117 S Cherry - Florence TENESSEE 37620 423-968-1241 Bristol Health Food Store - 1600 Edgemont Av - Bristol MISSISSIPPI 39157 601-856-8394 Healthway - 398 Hwy 51, # 150 - Ridgeland 39204 601-373-9727 The Sesame Seed - 314 Raymond Rd - Jackson 39206 601-366-1602 Rainbow Whole Foods 4147 Northview Dr-Jackson 39211 601-957-1857 All for Health - 5731 Old Canton Rd # 103 - Jackson OHIO 43068 614-868-0166 Health Foods Plus - 1359 Brice Rd - Reynoldsburg 43206 614-443-5990 Health Food Center - 897 S Third St - Columbus 43209 614-252-3951 Bexley Natural Foods - 508 N Cassady - Columbus 43212 614-488-0607 Northwest Natural 1636 Northwest BI - Columbus 43214 614-262-0192 Beechwold Natural - 4185 N High St - Columbus 43229 614-262-5856 HSU & Company - 2007 Morse Rd - Columbus 43232 614-861-8108 HSU & Company 6101 McNaughten Rd - Columbus 43235 614-889-4782 HSU & Company - 6604 Sawmill Rd - Columbus 43235 614-889-8300 Raisin Rack - 7608 New Market Cwy - Columbus 44022 216-247-6700 Good for You - 35 S Main - Chagrin Falls 44070 Hobart Health - 4627 Great Northern Bl - N Olmstead 44107 216-221-2633 Hobart 15001 Madison - Lakewood 44112 216-481-9544 Weber's 18400 Euclid Av - Cleveland 44129 216-888-5656 Hobart Health Foods - 5629 Pearl - Parma 44130 216-888-7727 American Harvest 13379 Smith Rd - Middleburg Htd. 44134 216-447-0444 Hobart Health Foods - 7474 Broadview - Parma 44136 216-238-0860 Nature's Best - 14822 Pearl Rd - Strongsville 45419 513-293-8978 World of Natural Foods - 2314 Far Hills Av - Dayton 45420 513-294-0279 Nutra Foods South - 1219 Wilmington Av - Dayton 45459 513-433-5100 Health Foods - 2108 Miamisburg Centerville Dayton INDIANA 46613 219-287-5310 House of Something Better - 1602 S Michigan - S Bend 46723 219-693-6382 Wilma's Health Care - 203 S Main - Churubusco 46804 219-432-2104 Golden Sun Health - 5960 W Jefferson Bl - Ft. Wayne 46805 219-483-5211 Health Food Shoppe - 3515 N Anthony BI - Ft. Wayne 46807 219-744-1413 A & B Natural Foods - 2445 Broadway - Ft. Wayne 47129 812-282-2978 Nature's Pantry - 590 Missouri Av # 203 - Jeffersonville 47345 317-886-5354 Mineral Springs 1420 Mineral Springs - Greens Fork 47401 812-333-5766 Kroger - 1175 College Mall Rd - Bloomington 47408 812-339-2931 Clear Moment - 1809 E 10th St - Bloomington MICHIGAN 48009 810-644-2323 Betty's Grocery Store - 877 S Hunter BI - Birmingham 48063 810-852-0336 Health Foods - 29525 S Rochester Rd - Rochester Hills 48067 810-545-1790 Upstairs Salon - 321 South Washington - Royal Oak 48150 810-427-3144 Zerbo's - 34164 Plymouth Rd - Livonia 48197 810-477-7440 Good Food Co. - 33521 W Eight Mile - Livonia 48322 810-851-4740 GNC-6738 Orchard Lake Rd - West Bloomfield 48917 517-323-9186 Randall Roods - 6235 W Saginaw Lansing - Saginaw 49006 616-342-9459 Natural Health Foods - 4610 W Main - Kalamazoo 49007 616-342-5686 People's Co-Op 436 S Burdick - Kalamazoo 49684 616-947-0191 Oryana Co-op - 601 Randolph - Traverse City 49855 906-228-9393 Shopko - 1150 W Washington - Marquette IOWA 50701 319-235-0246 T & K Natural Health 1429 W Third St - Waterloo WISCONSIN 53045 414-782-1282 American Natural - 2849 N Brookfield Rd - Brookfield 2010_03 53110 414-744-7270 Mother Nature's - 4664 South Packard Av - Cudahy 53202 414-278-7878 Beans & Barley - 1901 E North Av - Milwaukee 53212 414-961-2597 Outpost Natural Food - 100 E Capitol Dr - Milwaukee 53227 414-545-8844 Health Nut 10806 W National Av - Milwaukee 53704 608-249-1700 GNC-100 East Towne Mall - Madison 53711 608-255-7130 Madison Health Food - 1717 Monroe St - Madison 53717 608-833-1900 Natural Food - 69 West Towne Mall - Middleton 54022 715-425-5548 The Natural Touch - 114 S. Main - River Falls 54301 414-437-4750 Bay Natural Foods - 722 Bodart - Green Bay ILLINOIS 60005 847-259-3530 Arlington Natural- 15 N Wilke - Arlington Heights 60010 847-381-4210 Here's Health - 704 S Northwest Hwy - Barrington 60108 708-351-3334 Nature's Pathways - 142 S Gary Av#115 - Bloomingdale 60120 847-888-0100 Here's Health Stores - 302 S McLean - Elgin 60134 708-232-6646 Soup to Nuts - 425 Hamilton St - Geneva 60187 708-668-3311 C & I Kuhn - 806 E Roosevelt Rd - Wheaton 60301 708-848-3136 Grain Depot - 116 N Oak Park - Oak Park 60506 708-897-3490 Here's Health Stores - 902 N Lake - Aurora 60516 708-969-7614 Fruitful Yield - 2129 W 63rd - Downers Grove 60532 708-420-7357 Here's Health - 2753 Maple Av - Lisle 60563 708-355-4840 Natural Health Foods - 411 E Ogden Av - Naperville 60601 312-269-0618 It's Natural 324 N Michigan Av - Chicago 60604 312-922-0077 Kramer Health Food Store - 230 S Wabash - Chicago 60615 312-363-2175 Mr. G-1226 E 53d St - Chicago 60615 312-667-5700 Bonne Sante - 1457 E 53rd St - Chicago 60643 312-233-1856 Southtown Health Foods 2100 W 95th Pl - Chicago 60650 708-788-9103 Fruitful Yield Natural Food - 6126 W Cermak - Cicero 61571 309-682-3718 Edna's Health - 2362 Washington Rd - Washington 61604 309-685-8141 Nature's Own Shoppe - 3108 N University - Peoria 61820 217-356-9624 Dietary Food Store - 802 W John - Champaign 62208 618-624-4214 Nature's Market - 515 Lincoln Hwy - Fairview Heights MISSOURI 63011 314-227-9588 Real Life Foods - 51 Nationalway Ctr - Manchester 63376 314-928-7550 Nutrition Stop - 4101 Mexico Rd - St. Peters 63033 314-837-7290 Rivercity Nutrition - 8 Grandview Plaza - Florissant 63033 314-837-1141 Special Food Center - 151 Flower Valley Ctr - Florissant 63104 314-838-4114 A New You - Store 7, Paddock Hills Plaza - St. Louis 63108 314-367-0405 Golden Grocer - 335 N Euclid Av - St. Louis 63118 314-772-9110 New Dawn - 3821 Granois - St. Louis 63119 314-961-3541 The Natural Way - 8110 Big Bend Bl-Webster Groves 63122 314-822-1406 Rivercity Nutrition 100 S Kirkwood Rd - Kirkwood 63126 314-842-5325 Ellen's House of Vitamins 11414 Gravois - St. Louis 63128 314-849-1050 The Healthy Shopper - 139 Concord Plaza - St. Louis 63129 314-487-8310 New World Natural Health - 4053 Union - St. Louis 63141 314-997-0540 Tong's Special 10571 Old Olive St Rd - St. Louis 63141 314-567-7888 K's Nutrition Specialists - 11066 Olive BI - St. Louis 63303 314-928-7550 Nutrition Stop-4101 Mexico Rd - St. Charles 64133 816-358-1700 Pumpkin Seed Health - 9055 E 350 Hwy - Raytown KANSAS 66112 913-788-5409 Health Nut - 8127 State Av - Kansas City 66203 913-631-3338 Lytle's Nutrition Center - 11208 Johnson Dr - Shawnee LOUISIANA 70006 504-885-5000 Nutrition Fair - 4409 Veterans Memorial BI - Metarie 70112 504-529-3429 End of the Rainbow - 215 Dauphine - New Orleans 70115 504-891-2651 All Natural Foods - 5517 Magazine - New Orleans 70119 504-486-1519 Pure and Simple Health - 5055 Canal - New Orleans 71108 318-635-4753 Good Life Health - 6132 Hearne Av - Shreeveport ARKANSAS 7270 501-521-7558 Ozark Natural Foods - 205 W Dickson - Fayettville OKLAHOMA 73106 405-232-8404 Nutritional 1022 Classen BI - Oklahoma City 73109 405-634-6111 To Your Health - 1133 SW 59th - Oklahoma City 73112 405-721-2121 Healthway Natural - 6207 N Meridian - Oklahoma (44) Page #49 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues 73118 405-840-0502 Earth Natural - 1101 NW 49th St - Oklahoma City TEXAS - 75205 214-363-2661 Plaza Health Foods - 6924 Snider Pl - Dallas 75218 214-341-8804 Northlake Health Foods - 210 Northlake - Dallas 75230 214-987-0213 Ray's Nutrition Center - 130 Preston Royal - Dallas 75243 214-231-6083 H&M Natural Foods Grocer-9191 Forest Lane - Dallas 76054 817-656-1830 Vitamin Junction - 632 Grapevine Hwy - Hurst 76205 817-387-5386 Cupboard Nature Food - 932 W University St - Denton 77042 713-785-4130 American Health Foods - 10944 Westheimer - Houston 77055 713-461-0857 Ye Seekers Horzon-9336 Westview - Houston 77074 713-981-7707 Southwest Health - 8328 Southwest Frwy - Houston 77098 713-520-1937 Whole Foods Market - 2900 S Shepherd - Houston 78703 512-476-1206 Whole Foods Market - 914 N Lamar BI - Austin 78704 512-444-3079 Sun Harvest Farms - 4006 S Lamar - Austin 78704 512-448-1484 Whole Foods-Brodie Oaks St-4006 S Lamar - Austin 78705 512-478-2667 Wheatsville Food Co-op - 3101 Guadalupe - Austin COLORADO 80003 303-423-0990 Vitamin Cottages - 7745 Wadsworth Bl - Arvada 80012 303-752-4473 Great Health Nutrition 1284 S Abilene - Aurora 80112 303-790-0488 Vitamin Cottage-9615 E Arapaho Rd - Englewood 80121 303-798-9699 Alfalfa's - 5910 S University Bl - Littleton 80211 303-320-1664 Wild Oats - 2260 E Colfax Av - Denver 80212 303-455-4194 Lily of Colorado - P.O. Box 12471 - Denver 80215 303-232-6266 Vitamin Cottage - 9030 Colfax - Lakewood 80219 303-399-0164 Vitamin Cottage - 3801 E 2nd Av - Denver 80220 303-399-6748 Good Life Nutrition - 4332 E 8th Av - Denver 80220 303-388-7889 Naturally 1506 Locust St - Denver 80227 303-989-4866 Vitamin Cottage-3333 S Wadsworth - Lakewood 80301 303-442-4030 Rocky Mountain Humane - 2323 N 55th St - Boulder 80302 303-444-5000 Leffler's Nutrition - 2525 Arapahoe Rd, E-32 - Boulder 80302 303-440-9599 Crystal Market - 1825 Pearl St - Boulder 80302 800-748-5675 Everybody Ltd. 1738 Pearl St - Boulder 80302 303-442-0082 Alfalfa's 1651 Broadway - Boulder 80302 303-449-3620 Colorado Health Food - 3003 Walnut St - Boulder 80521 970-221-4943 King Sooper's - 1015 S Taft Hill Rd - Fort Collins 80521 970-482-8855 King Sooper's - 2325 S College - Fort Collins 80524 970-484-7862 EsScentuals 142 S College - Fort Collins 80524 970-484-7448 Food Coop - 250 E Mountain - Fort Collins 80525 970-482-2115 Country Health - 1700 S College - Fort Collins 80525 970-482-3200 Wild Oats 1611 S College - Fort Collins 80631 970-353-2939 Cottonwod Health Cottage - 2412 17th St - Greeley 80631 303-353-2939 Cottonwood Cottage - 2412 17th St - Greeley 80903 970-632-5769 Specialty Food Shop - 19 E Bijou - Colorado Springs 81005 719-564-0940 Shrock's Natural Foods - 1515 Moore Av - Pueblo 81101 719-589-9628 Country Kitchen Health - 1421 Main St - Alamosa 81501 303-243-1175 Sundrop Grocery - 321 Rood Av - Grand Junction 81611 303-925-3273 Carl's Pharmacy - 306 E Main St - Aspen IDAHO 83843 208-882-0402 Pilgrim's Nutrition - 2008 W Pullman Rd - Moscow 83843 208-882-8537 Moscow Food Co-op - 310 W 3rd St - Moscow ARIZONA 85015 602-265-7474 Arizona Health Foods - 4424 N. 19th Ave. - Phoenix 85018 602-954-0584 Reay's Ranch Market - Camelback & 40th St - Phoenix 85032 602-978-3852 Hi-Health - 43rd Av & Thunderbird - Phoenix 85032 602-482-0347 Arizona Health Foods - 13802 N 32nd St - Phoenix 85201 602-732-0555 Hi-Health - Mervyn's Plaza, Alma School - Chandler 85202 602-835-7258 Hi-Health - Fiesta Mall - Mesa 85205 602-832-5110 Hi-Health Main St & Gr- Mesa 85251 602-941-0581 Hi-Health-4390 N Miller - Scottsdale 85252 602-994-5534 Mary Amburn Cosmetics - P.O. Box 792 - Scottsdale 85253 602-996-8031 Hi-Health - Cactus & Tatum - Scottsdale 85257 602-994-4371 Hi-Health Papago Plaza, Scottsdale Rd - Scottsdale 85281 602-968-4831 Gentle Strength Coop- 234 W University Dr - Tempe 2010_03 85282 602-968-9089 Hi-Health Southern & Mill - Tempe 85308 602-938-3088 Arizona Health Foods - 4330 W Bell Rd - Glendale 85358 520-684-5371 Ginny's Zone - 703 W Wickenburg Way - Wickenburg 85372 602-977-8337 Hi-Health - LaRonde Center - Sun City 85705 602-624-4821 Food Conspiracy - 412 N 4th Av - Tucson 85711 602-747-0209 New Life - 5612 E Broadway - Tucson 85716 602-326-9935 Hi-Health - 3601 E Broadway - Tucson NEW MEXICO (45) 87106 505-255-8878 Herb Store - 102 Carlisle St SE - Albuquerque 87107 505-898-9763 Moses Most-7115 4th NW - Albuquerque 87110 505-265-4830 GMC Health Haven - 9 San Mateo NE - Albuquerque 87501 505-983-5557 Nature Apathy-513 Camino deLos Marquez - Santa Fe CALIFORNIA 90027 213-663-8307 Quinn's Natural - 1864 N Vermont Av - Los Angeles 90048 213-655-5441 Erewhon Natural Foods - 8001 Beverly Bl - Los Angeles 90069 213-651-5930 Quinn's Natural Food - 8468 Melrose Av - Los Angeles 90277 310-376-6931 Mrs Gooches - 405 N Pacific Coast - Redondo Beach 90712 310-531-1155 Naturway - 4037 Hardwick Lakewood 91206 818-240-9350 Mrs. Gooches - 826 N Glendale Av - Glendale 91303 818-348-0291 Follow Your Heart - 21825 Sherman Wy - Canoga Park 91324 818-701-5122 Mrs. Gooches - 9350 Reseda Bl - Northridge 91423 818-762-5548 Mrs. Gooches - 12905 Riverside Dr-Sherman Oaks 92010 619-427-7673 Pleasant House - 555 Broadway - Chula Vista 92021 619-579-8251 Boney's Market Place - 152 N Second St - El Cajon 92041 619-465-5225 Grossmont Nutrition - 5500 Grossmont Ctr - La Mesa 92103 619-298-8206 Hillcrest Health Foods - 405 E Washington - San Diego 92107 619-224-1387 Ocean Beach People's Coop - 4765 Voltaire - San Diego 92109 619-270-8200 Boney's Market Place 1260 Garnet Av - San Diego 92111 619-560-1975 GreenTree Grocers - 3560 Mt Acacia Dr - San Diego 92115 619-582-4343 Boney's Market Place - 6091 University Av - San Diego 92627 714-631-4741 Mother's Market & Kitchen-225 E 17th - Costa Mesa 92648 714-963-6667 Mother's Market - 19770 Beach BI - Huntington Beach 93101 805-962-3766 Santa Barbara Nutri. - 15 E Figueroa - Santa Barbara 93103 805-966-2251 Follow Your Heart - 19 S Milpas - Santa Barbara 93105 805-687-9497 Skin Deep-3405 State St-Santa Barbara 93105 805-682-3747 Kayser's Nutrition - La Cumbre Plaza - Santa Barbara 93105 805-964-1822 Great Earth Vitamins 3967 State St - Santa Barbara 93108 805-969-1411 Montecito Natural - 1014 B Coast Village - Montecito 93534 805-945-0773 Whole Wheatery 44264 North 10th St W-Lancaster 93923 408-625-1454 Cornucopia Natural - 26135 Carmel Rancho Carmel 94010 415-344-6279 Whole Life Foods - 1314 Burlingame Av - Burlingame 94025 415-325-6828 Whole Life Foods - 656 Santa Cruz Av - Menlo Park 94061 415-364-4946 Whole Life Foods - 344 Woodside Pl. Redwood City 94063 415-368-3124 Health Foods 1011 El Camino Real - Redwood City 94070 415-593-7927 Whole Life Foods - 744 Laurel St - San Carlos 94086 408-738-4792 Whole Foods - 299 E Washington Av - Sunnyvale 94086 408-749-0232 Nature's Cupboard - 1257 S Mary Av - Sunnyvale 94103 415-863-9200 Rainbow General - 1899 Mission St - San Francisco 94108 415-392-8477 S.F. Health Food Store - 333 Sutter St - San Francisco 94109 415-673-7420 Real Food Company - 2140 Polk St - San Francisco 94109 415-474-3053 Better Life Whole Foods - 1058 Hyde St - San Francisco 94111 415-788-1380 Sunshine Health - 1 Embarcadero Ctr - San Francisco 94111 415-788-1380 Sunshine Health Food - 98 Battery St - San Francisco 94114 415-282-9500 Real Food Company - 3939 24th St - San Francisco 94116 415-681-5544 Total Life Health Foods - 1757 Tarabal - San Francisco 94117 415-564-2800 Real Food Company - 1023 Stanyan St - San Francisco 94121 415-387-6367 Thom's Natural Foods - 5843 Geary Bl - San Francisco 94123 415-921-1400 High Health Shoppe - 2172 Chestnut - San Francisco 94301 415-326-8686 Whole Foods Market - 774 Emerson St - Palo Alto 94306 415-324-9190 Country Sun Natural - 440 California Av - Palo Alto 94523 510-932-1292 Natural Life - 2638 Pleasant Hill Rd - Pleasant Hill 94530 510-524-2494 Rose Brand Health - 230 El Cerrito Pl - El Cerrito 94546 510-581-0220 Health Unlimited - 3446 Village Dr - Castro Valley Page #50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues 94580 510-483-3640 Health Unlimited - Bay Fair Shopping - San Leandro 94580 510-483-3630 Health Unlimited - 182 Pelton Ctr. San Leandro 94596 510-939-5444 Good Nature - 1359 N Main St. Walnut Creek 94610 510-653-3710 Rockridge Center Health 5116 Broadway - Oakland 94610 510-452-1079 Lake Shore Natural - 3331 Lakeshore Av - Oakland 94705 510-649-1333 Whole Foods Market - 3000 Telegraph Av. Berkeley 94901 415-459-8966 Real Foods - 770 Francisco BI W. San Rafael 94901 415-457-0132 San Rafael Health Foods - 1132 4th St - San Rafael 94941415-381-1200 Whole Foods Market - 414 Miller Av. Mill Valley 94965 415-332-9640 Real Foods - 200 Caledonia - Sausalito 95008 408-371-5000 Whole Foods Market - 1690 S Bascom Av. Campbell 95014 408-257-7000 Whole Foods Market - 10983 N Wolfe Rd. Cupertino 95014 408-253-1277 Cupertino Natural - 10255 S DeAnza BI- Cupertino 95030 408-358.4434 Whole Foods Market - 15980 Los Gatos Bl - Los Gatos 95051 408-246-9757 Keddy's Natural - 2640 Homestead Rd - Santa Clara 95070 408-378-9498 Saratoga Health Foods - 18820 Cox Av - Saratoga 95117 408 247-7814 Good Life Discount. 437 S Kiely Bl - San Jose 95123 408-225-3531 The Beehive Country - 5807 Winfield BI - San Jose 95123 408-227-5453 Cahalan Health Foods - 6067 Cahalan Av - San Jose 95124 408-377-1431 Country Village Natural - 2031 Camden Ay - San Jose 95616 916-758-2667 Davis Food Cooperative - 620 G St - Davis 95621 916-726-3033 Elliott's Natural - 8063 Greenback Ln - Citrus Heights 95821 916-481-3173 Elliott's Natural - 3337 El Camino Av - Sacramento HAWAN 96768 808-572-1488 Down to Earth - 1169 Makawao Av - Makawao 96793 808-242-6821 Down to Earth - 1910 Vineyard St - Wailuku 96817 808-524-7960 Huckleberry Farms - 1613 Nuuanu Av. Honolulu 96826 808-947-7678 Down to Earth - 2525 S King St-Honolulu OREGON 97005 503-646-3824 Natures - 4000 SW 117th St - Beaverton 97035 503-636-7686 Healthway Food - 16066B SW Boonsferry. Lake Grove 97201 503-244-3110 Natures -6344 SW Capitol Hwy - Portland 97201 503-244-3934 Natures - 5909 SW Corbett - Portland 97202 503-233-7374 Natures - 3016 SE Division St - Portland 97204 503-226-2941 Healthway Food Centers - 524 SW 5th - Portland 97212 503-288-3414 Natures - 3479 SE 24th Av - Portland 97232 503-281-5522 Healthway Food - 1137 Lloyd Center - Portland 97266 503-774-0117 Healthway Food Centers - 4048 SE 82nd - Portland 97301 503-585-6938 Salem Health Foods - 401 Center St NE, # 160 - Salem 97301 503-362-5487 Heliotrope - 2060 Market St NE - Salem 97401 503-342-8666 Kiva - 125 West 11th - Eugene 97402 503-342-7503 Red Barn - 357-A Van Buren - Eugene 97405 503-343-9142 Sundance - 748 East 24th - Eugene 97501 503-772-3231 Health Food Mart - 259 D Barnett Rd - Medford 97520 503-482-2237 Ashland Community Food - 237 N 1st St. Ashland 97535 503-535-1322 Farmer's Market - 4880 S Pacific Hwy - Medford WASHINGTON 98004 206-454-0170 Nature's Pantry - 10200 NE 10th - Bellevue 98004 206-957-0090 Nature's Pantry - 15600 Cross Rd. NE 8th. Bellevue 98040 206-232-7900 Nature's Pantry - 7611 SE 27th - Mercer Island 98103 206-632-7040 Healthway Natural Foods - 1900 N 45th - Seattle 98105 206-525-5900 University Village - University Village Mall - Scattle 98105 206-634-3430 Pilgrims Nutrition - 4217 University Way, NE - Scattle 98108 206-467-7190 Nutra Source - P.O. Box 81106 - Seattle 98112 206-329-8440 Rainbow Grocery - 409 15th East - Seattle 98115 206-523-2600 The Herbalist - 6500 21st NE - Seattle 98166 206-2436111 Burien Special Foods - 148 SW 152nd St - Seattle 98168 206-244-5015 The Grainery - 13629 1st Av S - Seattle 98409 206-475-3282 Groff's Nutrition - 612 Tacoma Mall - Tacoma 98664 360-695-8878 Natures - 8024 E Miloplain Bl - Vancouver 99114 509-684-4232 Richard's Nutrition - 111 N Main St-Colville 99114 509-684-6566 Pittman's Sales - 560 E 4th St - Colville 99201 509-747-5622 Pilgrim's - N 210 Howard - Spokane ALASKA 99503 907-277-3226 Roy's Health - 501 E Northern Lights Bl - Anchorage 99508 907-276-4345 GNC - 3101 Penland Pkwy. Anchorage 99515 907-349-4411 GNC - 800 E Dimond - Anchorage CANADA - ONTARIO - TORONTO 416-762-5590 Foods for Life - 2184 Bloor St W 416-598-2638 Nutrition House - Toronto Eaton Ct S Subway le 416-535-9562 Health Service Center - 971 Bloor St W 416-489-9626 Swiss Health & Beauty Aids - 1975 Younge St 416-441-3202 The Body Shop - 33 Kern Rd Dawn Mills - M3B 159 416-466-2129 The Big Carrot - 348 Danforth Av-M4K IN8 Mail Order Businesses If you don't live nearby any of the above retailers, you still can shop Ahimsak houschold goods and supplies. Below is a short list of some well established catalogue order businesses. Call some and get their catalogues! 03456 800-327-2324 Baudelaire, Inc. - Forest Road - Marlow, NH 07700 201-696-7766 Ecco Bella Botanical- 1133 Rt 23 - Wayne, NJ 10014 212-242-7014 Sunrise Lane - 780 Greenwich St - New York, NY 10024 212-787-9415 Bath Island - 469 Amsterdam Av. New York, NY 11753 718-359-3983 Compassionate Consumer - P.O. Box 27. Jericho, NY 11777 516-473-6370 Common Scents - 134 Main St-Port Jefferson, NY 14702 716-664-2207 Compassion Matters - P.O. Box 3614 - Jamestown, NY 19805 302-429-8687 Peaceable Kingdom. 1902 W 6th St. Wilmington, DE 21716 301-834-7923 Basically Natural - 109 East G St-Brunswick, MD 23510 757-622-7382 PETA - 501 Front St - Norfolks, VA 53170 800-446-4903 International Distri. - P.O. Box 1008 - Silver Lake, WI 80302 303-440-0188 Everybody Ltd - 1175 Walnut St - Boulder, CO 92648 714-842-0454 Caring Catalog - 7678 Sagewood Dr. Hunt. Beach CA 93401 805-545-9344 Body Suite - 712 Hijuera St - San Louis Obispo, CA 93428 800-926-1017 Marcelle/Stepping Stone - P.O. Box 6. Cambria, CA 96040 916-335-7097 EM Enterprises - 41964 Wilcox Rd - Hat Creek, CA Vishal Jain updated the above list, from the Shopping Guide for Caring Consumers, published by People for Ethical Treatment of Animals, 1994. A Noteworthy “Leatherless" Store Aesop, Inc. specializes in the leather alternatives, with a motto of "Let Live - Be Free," so that we don't have to wear animal skins. They carry many shoes, belts, brief cases, wallets, purses, etc. Write to P.O. Box 315, North Cambridge, MA 02140-0003, or call (617) 628-8030 for a free catalogue. (46) Jain Education Intemational 2010_03 2010_03 Page #51 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues DICTIONARY OF INGREDIENTS AND MATERIALS: Animal, Insect, Vegetable, or Mineral? American Vegan Society - 56 Dinshah Drive - P.O. Box H - Malaga, NJ 08328 (609) 694-2887 Some of The Difficulties spotlighted not only the ethical shortcomings of milk and eggs, but animal source clothing, etc. Vegans and many vegetarians want to avoid even tiny amounts of objectionable animal-material, not wishing to be a party to promoting animal suffering and slaughter (among other reasons). So a completely definitive list of such items would seem helpful in this regard. Unfortunately, many additives and ingredients can be produced from either an animal or vegetable source; this is true of the bewildering variety of chemical fractions obtained from fats and oils, for instance. Furthermore, many products or ingredients can be synthesized from petrochemicals or a variety of other raw materials. They often disguise animal source products with ingenious euphemisms; what entrepreneur would be so candid as to promote "glandular secretion spit up by an insect" if they can market it as "royal jelly?" The food, supplement, and cosmetic industries have been as creative in selling the most repulsive commodities under mystifyingly innocent and attractive sounding names. Food Ingredients and Additives Food additives are substances used in the processing of food, to retain or "enhance" certain characteristics, such as flavor, color, texture, or shelf-life. They are often employed to make something appear to be what it is not, such as fresh, flavorful, colorful. Additives can make otherwise unpalatable foods attractive for sale. Thus, in many cases at least, they represent a ploy to trick the consumer into accepting an inferior item in place of a naturally wholesome one. In the U.S.A. most foods sold in interstate commerce (thus subject to federal regulations) have to list their ingredients on the label, but the wording is often permitted to be vague, such as "natural flavorings" or "certified color" (the ultimate source of which may be a carrot, a bug, or a coal mine). While AVS doesn't recommend most food additives, there are various degrees of harmfulness or relative "safety" in terms of human health. For the most part, the listings in this article do not address this issue, but are concerned with the basic source (such as animal, vegetable, or mineral) of each item. Many of the terms used for common ingredients (let alone "additives") in packaged foods tell little of their ultimate origin. We have thus included in the list many common food items (notably those of animal origin) which are of particular concern. Cosmetics, and Other NonFood Items The nonvegans often assume veganism is only total vegetarianism, confined to the field of diet alone. However, almost from the very beginning in the 1940's, the vegan movement 2010_03 This may seem a formidable list but it only goes to show to what great extent we have grown to rely on animal-based substances and the wholesale exploitation of every poor creature from whom man can extract a profit. However, for all the above there are humane alternatives. Even very fine artist-brushes are now being available of synthetic materials. It is therefore proper that we include ingredients of soaps and household cleansers, cosmetics and grooming aids, references to common clothing materials, and at least some animal materials of jewelry and adornment in widespread use. This list is published for educational purposes only, regarding the source of each respective item. We must emphasize that merely listing a specific item does not necessarily imply approval (or disapproval, for that matter) of its use. For emphasis and convenience in reference, sources are usually indicated by the following codes: A- Animal origin (flesh, muscle, glands, hooves, hair, etc.) I = Insect origin (bees, bugs, etc.) L = Lacto: dairy/milk origin O Ovo: egg origin = M = Mineral, or Manufactured (synthetic) origin V = Vegan, plant origin With the first four categories, none of the products would be acceptable for vegans, though certain items would be used by some vegetarians, depending on their degree of awareness and ethical progress. No effort has been made to differentiate among animal parts and substances (A) where the animal is killed before, during, or (a minute, a week, a year?) after the taking of the specific product. Exceptions are in milk (L) and egg (O) items, listed separately as a courtesy to those vegetarian readers who still wish to partake of them. Insect products (1) are those taken from exploited and in many cases killed little ones, whether it is a part of their bodies, a secretion, or something else that they simply collect and we steal from them. (47) The last two categories are the only ones ethically acceptable for vegan use. M means a simple mineral, or "Manufactured" (synthesized). In the latter case, the basic materials are nonanimal, insofar as we are able to ascertain. Obviously, the more complex a manufacturing process is, the more chance that there might be some fractional ingredient, additive, lubricant, etc. of objectionable matter involved somewhere in the process, none of which will ever appear on the label of the finished product. Page #52 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ The V symbol is for strictly vegan plant products. We still have to ignore the kinds of fertilizers used to grow the plants, the wax preservative polished onto them, the stearic acid in the tires of the truck bringing them to market, etc. Go through this list, it makes fascinating reading. Nevertheless, do not let it dismay or overwhelm you; it can really empower you. Nor does it make shopping so terribly complicated: in time you will Jainism and Animal Issues Adapted from #36-04 Ahimsa (Oct./Dec. 1995). Much of the food-additive information was originally compiled by Dr. Alan Long and included (periodically updated somewhat) in The Vegetarian Handbook, published by The Vegetarian Society U.K. Ltd. An early version was printed in our 25th Anniversary issue (#26-02) a decade ago. An excellent little pocket guide, the AnimalFree Shopper, (3rd ed., 1995), published by The Vegan Society in England, yielded much new food-for-thought with its Glossary Of Animal Substances. We are also indebted to Amberwood for their research in preparing the booklet, Animal Ingredients And Their Alternatives. Information has been gleaned from the pages of Webster's New World Dictionary, and the Encyclopedia Britannica and Oxford English Dictionary have also proven helpful. ACETIC ACID Acidulant (q.v. = also see) and preservative (q.v.). Used in pickles, sauces, preserves. Can be made by synthetic processes or derived from vinegar. M or V. ACIDULANT -- Added to give tartness (acidity) to foods, to increase flavor intensity. In soft drinks, jellies, jams, preserves, pickles, etc. Includes acetic, ascorbic, citric, fumaric, lactic, malic, phosphoric, succinic, and tartaric acids. Mainly derived from industrial fermentation. M, V. References were comparison-checked as possible, some verified in the remarkable volume E For Additives. But despite our best efforts, we regret that in this ever-changing world absolute accuracy cannot be guaranteed. - American Vegan Society. -- ADRENALIN - From the adrenals of hogs, cattle and sheep (A). Used medicinally. Synthetics available. ALBUMIN Used as a food binder. A protein in various animal and vegetable substances/cells. Commercially made from egg white (O). - realize how much simpler life can be and should be, than how most of us live it anyway. ALGINATE -- Thickener (q.v.) derived from seaweed. Includes alginic acid, algin (sodium alginate). Replaces gelatin (q.v.). Used in cheeses, salad dressings, frozen desserts, cake mixes, puddings. M, V. ALIPHATIC ALCOHOL-- Aliphatic means "of, or obtained from fat; fatty." See vitamin A. ALLANTOIN --A uric acid from cows, other mammals (A). Also in many plants (especially comfrey) (V). Used in cosmetics, especially creams and lotions; and in the treatment of wounds and skin ulcers. AMBERGRIS Waxy substance from sperm whale intestines (A). Used in perfumes, and a flavoring in foods and beverages. Synthetic or vegetable fixatives available. AMINO ACIDS "Building blocks" of proteins. In cosmetics, vitamins, supplements, shampoos, food flavorings, etc. A or V, depending on source. AMNIOTIC FLUID -- Fluid surrounding the fetus within the placenta. (A) Used in cosmetics. AMYLASE - An enzyme that helps turn starch into sugar. Prepared from the pancreas of hogs (A). Used in cosmetics and medicines. Before long, you will not have to carry such a list with you when you go shopping. You will know which brands or individual items of food are really food and which are concoctions of chemicals. It has been said, "If you don't really know what it is, don't buy it." Also: "If you can't spell it, you're probably better off without it." -- 2010_03 ANCHOVY -- A small fish of the herring family. Often an ingredient of Worcestershire sauce and pizza toppings, as a flavor enhancer. (A) ANGORA -- Fibre obtained from rabbits or goats (A). Use: clothing. ANIMAL OILS AND FATS In foods, cosmetics (considered allergenic), etc. (A) Plant derivatives are generally superior; vegan alternatives include olive oil, safflower oil, canola oil, soya oil, wheat germ oil, coconut oil, almond oil, etc. ANTICAKING AGENT -- (or desiccant). Used to dry out foods to prevent lumping. Used in some powdered foods, e.g. (such as) salt, some sugars, milk powder, onion and garlic salts. This group includes calcium phosphate, magnesium carbonate, calcium or magnesium silicate, silica gel, talc, starch. M, V. However, calcium stearate may be animal (A). ANTI-FOAMING AGENT Used to prevent foaming, such as during the boiling of soups and jellies, and the fermentation of wines. Also used in cooking oils. Dimethyl polysiloxane is a typical example. M. ANTIOXIDANT Such as ascorbic acid, lecithin, butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), gallic acid derivatives, tocopherols. Usually M or V. Used to prevent rancidity or browning in foods, thereby increasing shelf life. Added to fruit/fruit products (mainly as ascorbic acid), oils, fats, potato chips, biscuits, breakfast cereals, soup mixes, wine and beer. ARACHIDONIC ACID -- A liquid unsaturated fatty acid occurring in the liver, brain, glands and fat of animals. Generally isolated from the liver (A). In skin creams and lotions to soothe eczema and rashes. ASCORBIC ACID--Acidulant, antioxidant, and improving agent. Vitamin C. Extracted from plants or synthesized from glucose. V or M. (48) Page #53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues ASPARTIC ACID -- DL and L Forms. Amino succinate CALCIUM PHOSPHATE -- Anticaking agent; adds Acid. Can be from animal or plant (such as molasses) calcium in bread. Usually from crushed rocks. M. source. In creams and ointments. Sometimes CAPRYLIC ACID - Can come from cow and goat milk (L). synthesized for commercial use. A, M, or V. Also from palm and coconut oil, other plant oils (V). In ASPIC -Savory jelly derived from meat and fish (A). Used perfumes, soaps. as a glazing agent. CARAMEL -- Food coloring. Formerly plain burnt sugar; ASTRAKHAN -- Skin of still-born or very young lambs now may also contain dairy cream, skim milk (L). Also from a breed originating in Astrakhan, Russia. Used for see sugar, and charcoal. clothing (A). CARMINE/CARMINIC ACID -- Red pigment obtained AZO. DYES -- Artificial colorings synthesized from from the crushed female cochineal insect (I). Reportedly petroleum. M. 70,000 beetles may be killed to produce a single pound of BAKING POWDER -- A leavening agent (q.v.). this dye. In cosmetics, shampoos, red apple sauce and BEE PRODUCTS (I) -- Made by bees for the use of bees. other foods. May cause allergic reactions. Alternatives Bees are selectively bred; culls are killed. A cheap sugar include beet juice or alkanet root; no known toxicity in is substituted for their stolen honey, and if insufficient either. amount is given they starve over the winter. Smoke is CAROB GUM -- Stabilizer. Gum from the locust bean. often used to intoxicate the bees, making them more Used in ice cream, salad dressing, pie fillings, bakery docile for handling. See bee pollen, beeswax, honey, products, soft cheeses, infant foods. Carob itself is a propolis, royal jelly (all I). more healthful chocolate substitute. V. BEE POLLEN -- Collected from the legs of bees. CASEIN -- The main protein of cow milk. Casein and According to Amberwood, "their legs are often torn off by caseinates are used in many manufactured foods, such as pollen- collecting trap doors." In food supplements, "non-dairy" creamers -- So-called because they are not shampoos. Too concentrated for human use, and causes primarily dairy-based. It does not mean they are free of allergic reactions in some people. (I) all dairy-derived ingredients. L. BEESWAX - Secreted by bees to produce combs (I). CASHMERE - Fine wool from the domestic or wild goats Used in lipsticks and many other cosmetics, in making of Kashmir or Tibet. Sweaters or other clothing made candles, crayons, furniture and floor polishes from this wool. A. Alternatives include paraffin (petroleum wax), various CASTOREUM (castor) -- An aroma fixative obtained from vegetable oils, fats, waxes (carnauba, candelilla wax, etc.) the anal sex gland of the beaver (A). Used in perfumes from plant sources (V); synthetic beeswax (M). and incense. Alternatives: synthetics, plant sources. BENZOIC ACID - A Preservative used in tea and coffee Not to be confused with CASTOR OIL, which is from extracts, pickles, juices, soft drinks, etc. M. the castor bean (V) and is in many cosmetics. BIPHENYL (DIPHENYL) -- Preservative used to control CATGUT -- Tough cord or thread made from the mold growth on citrus fruit. Applied to wrappers or to intestines of sheep, cattle or horses (A). Used for the inside of shipping containers. M. stringing musical instruments and tennis rackets, BLEACHING AGENT -- Used to process flour and surgical stitching. Substitutes include nylon and other produce a uniform color. Includes nitrogen oxides, modern synthetic fibers (M). chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ammonium persulphate. Used CAVIAR -- Roe of the sturgeon and other fish (A: the in bread manufacture. M. mother fish are cut open to obtain it). BONE ASH -- (bone earth) -- Ash of burned bones, used CELLULOSE - Used as an emulsifier and thickener, in ice as a fertilizer, in making ceramics, and in cleaning or cream, pie fillings, and in slimming foods. Obtained from polishing compounds. A. plants. V. BONE MEAL -- Animal bones (A). In some fertilizers, CETYL ALCOHOL, cetyl lactate, cetyl myristate, cetyl vitamins and supplements as a source of calcium; and palmitate, ceteth-1, -2, etc. -- Wax found in spermaceti toothpastes. Alternatives: plant mulch, vegetable (see) from sperm whales or dolphins (A). Used in compost, dolomite, clay, vegetarian vitamins. lipsticks, mascaras, nail polish removers, hand lotions, BONITO FLAKES -- A fish derivative -- "bonito" is a type cream rouges, many other cosmetics, shampoos, hair of mackerel -- used in some macrobiotic foods. A. lacquers and other hair products, deodorants, BULKING AGENTS -- Such as polydextrose. (M). Used antiperspirants. (Federal regulations currently prohibit to increase volume, as in slimming products. the use in the U.S.A. of ingredients derived from marine BRAWN -- Boiled meat, ears and tongue of pig. A. mammals.) Alternatives: vegetable cetyl alcohol, such as BRISTLE -- Stiff animal hair (usually from pigs), used in coconut (V), or synthetic spermaceti (M). brushes (A). Replaced by nylon, other synthetics (M). CHALK (Creta preparata) -- Used in bread as a source of BUTYLATED HYDROXY ANISOLE calcium. M. (BHA) -- Antioxidant. M. CHAMOIS -- Soft leather from the skin of the chamois BUTYLATED HYDROXY TOLUENE antelope, sheep, goats, deer, etc. (A). Used mainly for (BHT) - Antioxidant. M. cleaning/polishing cloth. CALCIUM CHLORIDE - In preserved fruit/vegies for CHARCOAL -- Clarifying agent, used in making soft and crisping/firming. M, but avoid for health's sake. alcoholic drinks, and refining sugar (q.v.); also used in (49) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #54 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ some water-filters. Derived from animal or plant materials. A or V. Jainism and Animal Issues CHELATING AGENTS -- See sequestering agents. CHITIN Organic base of the hard parts of insects and crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, etc.). Used in skin care products, thickener and moisturizer in shampoos. I or A. CHOLESTERIN, Cholesterol. A steroid alcohol, in all animal fats and oils, nerve tissue, egg yolk, and blood (A). Can also be derived from lanolin (q.v.) A. In cosmetics, eye creams, shampoos, etc. Alternatives: synthetics; also concentrated from trace amounts in certain plants. CHOLE-CALCIFEROL -- See vitamin D3. CITRIC ACID -- An Acidulant. M or V. CIVET- Substance scraped from glands in the anal pouch of a civet cat, kept in a cage for this purpose (A). Used as a fixative in perfumes. CLARIFYING AGENT -- Used to remove turbidity from wine, beer, vinegar, fruit juices and soft drinks. Wide variety used, such as tannin (V), gelatin (A), cellulose (V), albumin (usually O, from factory farm eggs), pectinases (V), isinglass (A), and fungal proteases (V). COCHINEAL--Dye-stuff consisting of the dried bodies of scale insects. Used for making carmine, a red coloring for food and drink. I. COD LIVER OIL-- Oil extracted from the liver of cod and related fish. Used as a food supplement or medicine. A. COLLAGEN -- A fibrous protein, usually derived from animal tissue (A). Used in cosmetics, though no beneficial effect proven for the skin's own collagen. Alternatives (V): soy protein, almond oil, etc. COLORING In many foods such as soft drinks, confectionery, jellies, baked goods, cake mixes, packed fruits, cheese, butter, margarine. Colorings are synthetic -- coal tar or petroleum dyes -- (M) or natural. Most natural colors are plant derivatives (V): chlorophylls, carotenoids, turmeric, annatto. Some are non-vegan, such as cochineal (I). -- CORAL Hard calcareous substance consisting of the continuous skeleton secreted by certain polyps for their support and habitation. Used for ornaments. A. CORTISONE (cortico steroid) -- Hormone from cattle liver (A), widely used in medicine. Synthetic alternatives widely available. CYSTEINE L-Form, CYSTINE -- Two amino acids which can come from animals (A). Used in hair products and creams, bakery products, and some medicaments. Alternatives (V): plant protein sources. DEXTROSE (glucose) -- Sweetener, manufactured from starch. V. DOWN-- Insulating feathers, usually from geese or ducks (A). Used in pillows, quilts, parkas, sleeping bags. Poor for cold, wet weather as it packs down. There are many superior alternatives in synthetic fibers; milkweed seedpod fibers. DUODENUM SUBSTANCES -- Material from the digestive tracts of cattle and swine (A). In some vitamins and medicines. Alternatives: vegetarian vitamins, synthetics. EGG ALBUMIN (albumen) In eggs, milk, muscles, blood, and various vegetable tissues and fluids. For 2010_03 cosmetics, albumin generally is from egg whites (O); it may cause allergic reactions. Used in cakes, cookies, candies, other foods. Egg whites are sometimes employed in "clearing" wines. EGG PROTEIN (O) -- In shampoos, skin care products, etc. Alternatives (V) are plant proteins. EIDER DOWN -- Small, soft feathers from the breast of the eider duck (A). Used for filling quilts. Alternatives: as for "down" (q.v.). ELASTIN -- Protein uniting muscle fibers in meat (A). Used as a moisturizer in cosmetics. EMULSIFIERS -- Permit oil to be dispersed in water. They produce a smooth and even texture, and allow the desired body and consistency to be obtained in many food products. These include margarine, nut butters, shortenings, salad creams, baked goods, sweets, and desserts. Emulsifiers can be obtained from a variety of sources: vegetable gums such as alginate, carrageenan, locust bean (carob) gum, pectines, algal celluloses (all V). Also lecithin from soya beans (V) or egg white (O); fatty acid derivatives from fats (usually A). There are also synthetic emulsifiers (M). ENZYMES Biological molecules which break down foods, help to modify or synthesize them. These include rennet (A) and pepsin (A) used to make cheese. Increasingly likely to be genetically engineered. ESTROGEN -- Female sex hormone, from cow ovaries or pregnant mares' urine (A). Uses: cosmetics, body building supplements, hormone creams, hormone therapy. Plant- derived synthetic (M/V) available. EXCIPIENTS -- Additive powders used as carriers of other additives, e.g., magnesium silicate (M). FATTY ACIDS Organic compounds: saturated, polyunsaturated, and unsaturated. Processed from animal fats (A) or vegetable oils (V). Used in soaps, cosmetics, detergents, shampoos, foods. Vegan sources are vegetable derived acids, soya lecithin, safflower oil, sunflower oil, etc. FEATHERS (plumage) -- Epidermal appendages of a bird (A). Uses: fashion accessory/decoration, feather dusters, in pillows. Sometimes ground up and put in shampoos, etc. FELT -- Cloth made of wool, or of wool and fur or hair (A). Used in hats and other clothing, some furniture, weatherstripping, and in the works of pianos. Modern substitutes are synthetic (M). FIRMING AGENTS - Used to impart firmness or improved texture to processed foods. Calcium and magnesium salts (M) are used in canned tomatoes, potatoes, apples and peas. FISH LIVER OIL (cod-liver oil, fish livers) -- (A). Used in lubricating creams and lotions, vitamins and supplements. In milk fortified with vitamin D3 (see vitamin D). Alternatives: vegetable oils, yeast extract, ergosterol, sunshine. FISH SCALES (A) Used to make certain makeup preparations shimmer. Alternatives: mica (M), rayon (M/V). FLAVORINGS -- The largest group of food additives; hundreds are available, generally M or V, though a rare (50) Page #55 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues exception (A) possible. Many flavors used are natural (spices, essential oils, clove extract, ginger extract, vanilla extract -- though the medium may be alcohol in extracts). Others are synthetic, imitation flavors. In a variety of foods, soft drinks, candies, baked goods, etc. FLAVOR ENHANCERS -- Used to emphasize or add to a food's flavor. Generally, the less the better, for health reasons. Salt, spices, sugar and vinegar are traditional enhancers. Another common one today is monosodium glutamate MSG (M/V) produced by hydrolysis of vegetable materials (cereals, sugar beet or soya beans). FREEZANT -- Can be applied directly to foods to chill and then freeze them. An example is nitrogen (M), which comprises nearly 4/5 of the atmosphere. FUR The hair and skin (pelt) of an animal usually trapped or farmed for the purpose (A). Nowadays more a status symbol than a necessity; humane alternatives include various natural and synthetic materials. Contrary to popular belief, even petrochemical fake-furs (M) use far less fossil fuel to produce, and need no energy-greedy refrigerated storage in the summer. GELATIN (gelatine) - Thickener obtained by boiling animal skins, ligaments, tendons, etc. Used in confectionery, marshmallows, photo film emulsion, yogurt, ice cream and other dairy products, jelled desserts, vitamin/medicine capsules. Also used in "clearing" some wines. A. Vegan alternatives include algae and seaweed: agar-agar, carrageen (Irish moss), kelp, algin, fruit pectin, locust bean gum. GELLING AGENT -- Ingredient added to thicken foods or form a gel. Examples: gelatin (A); agar-agar or alginic acid (V). GLAZING AGENT - Creates a surface shine or protective coating. Used on dried fruits, sweets and desserts. Examples are beeswax (I), carnauba wax (V), shellac (I), mineral hydrocarbons (M), and refined crystalline wax (M). GLUTAMIC ACID -- An amino acid in plant or animal tissue. Used as food seasoning and as a cosmetic antioxidant. V or A, depending on the source. GLYCERIDES -- (monoglycerides, diglycerides). Usually from tallow animal fat (A). In margarines, cake mixes, confectioneries, cosmetics, etc. See glycerin below. Alternatives are from vegetable oils, or are synthetics. GLYCERIN (glycerol, polyglycerol) -- This is used as a humectant, texture improver, and as a solvent for other food additives. Derivatives are used as emulsifiers. Also used in automatic transmission fluid -- ATF and brake fluid. Glycerin is also used as a humectant in cigarettes. It can be manufactured from petroleum (M), by fermentation of sugars (V), or as a by-product in the making of soaps, (usually made from tallow -A). GUANINE-- (pearl essence) -- Constituent of RNA and DNA (q.v.), found in both animal and plant tissues. Commercially obtained from fish scales (A). Used in nail polish and other cosmetics, shampoos, etc. Plant-source alternatives and synthetics are known. GUAR GUM -- Used as an emulsifier in salad dressings, soups, ice cream. It is extruded from the seeds of a legume. V. 2010_03 HIDE -- Animal skin (tanned or raw); see leather. Hide glue (A) is sometimes used in furniture making; alternatives in common use are synthetic adhesives (M). HONEY-- Sweet material converted from flower nectar that has been gathered by bees and processed in the "honey crop" (first stomach chamber). It is then regurgitated for storing and eating by other bees (I). It can cause allergic reactions; and it has induced lethal botulism in infants. Basically, it is a concentrated sugar. Used in foods, cosmetics. Alternatives: See "sweeteners." HORSEHAIR, other animal hair -- (A). In some upholstery, blankets, mattresses, brushes, etc. Synthetic and plant fibers are common alternatives. HUMECTANTS -- Used to absorb or retain moisture. They include glycerin (often A), propylene glycol (M), and sorbitol (M) (all q.v.). Used in confectionery, dried fruit, etc. HYDROLYZED PROTEINS -- Added to soups, processed cheese, packaged foods, flavoring extracts, and soya sauce, to enhance flavor and increase the nutritional value. Also in some shampoos, hair care preparations. The additive itself is A, L, or V, depending on the source of the protein. IMPROVING AGENTS -- Used to improve dough-making characteristics of bread. They include ascorbic acid, calcium phosphate, ammonium or potassium bromate. M. INCIDENTAL ADDITIVES -- Those whose presence in food is unintentional. They include migrant additives from materials used in packaging (e.g. printing ink, waxes, PVC), residues of materials used transiently in processing (such as solvents used during extraction) and residues of agricultural chemicals (antibiotics, pesticides). These materials are not regarded as additives and so are not listed on the label. Mainly M. INSULIN--From the pancreas of hogs, sheep, or oxen (A). A managing treatment for diabetes (with its own side effects), not a "cure." Synthetic now available, though not necessarily fully unobjectionable. As with many major maladies, some genetic predisposition may play a part in diabetes; but the precipitating cause is commonly found in the typical western diet heavy with animal fats and proteins (in meat and dairy products), and refined foods. Under competent nutritional guidance and medical monitoring, radical dietary adjustments can greatly reduce the dosage in most cases, often to the vanishing point. ISINGLASS-- A gelatin obtained from the air bladders of some fresh-water fish, especially the sturgeon (A). Used in clarifying alcoholic drinks, and in some jelled desserts. KAPOK (Java cotton, or "silk-cotton") -- A soft fiber from around the seeds of certain tropical trees. First imported into Europe in 1851, it has a long history of successful use as the stuffing of pillows, mattresses, upholstery, and life- preservers. V. KERATIN -- A protein found in hair, horns, hooves and feathers. Used in shampoos and conditioners, and in fertilizer. A. There are vegetable (V) substitutes. LACTIC ACID -- Acidulant used extensively in pickles and preserves, processed foodstuffs, desserts, beer, confectionery, soft drinks, dairy products. Occurs (51) Page #56 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues Four naturally in sour milk and various plant-source foods. may interfere with absorption of fat-soluble vitamins Ordinary or racemic lactic acid can be prepared from during digestion. M. sour milk (L), or by fermentation of plant materials such MINK OIL -- From minks (A). It is used in various as corn starch, potatoes, molasses (V), or synthesis (M). cosmetics. Vegetable oils (V) make good substitutes. LACTOSE (milk sugar) -- A by-product of the cheese MODIFIED STARCH -- Chemically treated starch. A industry. It is used as a sweetener, a filler in tablets, and stabilizer. M/V. in prepared dairy items. L. MOHAIR -- Cloth or yarn made of hair of the Angora goat. LANOLIN (and various "lanol" or "lanate" derivatives) -- Used in clothing, some upholstery. A. Fat extracted from sheep's wool (see under "wool") (A). MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE or MSG -- A flavor Uses: cleaning products, an emollient and emulsifier used enhancer (q.v.), used extensively in Chinese-style in cosmetics, especially lipsticks, skin or hair-care cooking. Not recommended, for health reasons. V. products. Greasy and waterproofing, lanolin frequently causes allergic skin rashes. Vegetable oil products (V) deer (A). Used mainly in perfumes. Plant and synthetic are claimed to be better moisturizers, allowing the skin substitutes available. to "breathe "NATURAL SOURCE." -- Vegan buyer beware! This can LARD-Fat surrounding the stomach and kidneys of the mean animal, vegetable, or mineral source. In the health pig, sheep and cattle (A). Used in cosmetics, baked food industry, and in cosmetics, it often means an animal goods, shaving creams. Vegetable fats and oils (V) are source, as with various extracts from animal tissues, acceptable alternatives. protein, fat, oil, etc. (A) Read ingredients carefully (or L'OYSTEINE HYDROCHLORIDE -- Manufactured from contact manufacturer) to determine the actual source. animal hair or chicken feathers (A), or synthetically from NUOLEIC ACID -- From the nucleus of any living cell. coal tar (M). Uses include in shampoo, and as "improving Used in shampoos, Cosmetics, supplements, etc. Source agent" for white flour. can be animal (A) or plant (V) kingdom. LEATHER -- Tanned hide, mostly from cattle but also NUTRIENTS -- Added to some foods to boost the sheep, pigs, goats, etc. (A). Used in clothing and nutritive value of a processed food (often to restore some footwear, clothing accessories, upholstery. A wealth of of the nutrients lost during processing). Iron, calcium alternatives, including various natural and synthetic and B vitamins are added to white flour. Vitamins A and fibers, rubber, and plastic products. D are added to margarine. Some additives have a LEAVENING AGENTS - Used to make unfermented nutrient function: ascorbic acid, used as an Acidulant, is dough light and porous. They consist of a source of also a vitamin. Most vitamins are synthesized nowadays carbon dioxide gas and an acid or acid-producing (M); but D, is (V), D, is (A). Vitamin B, (q.v.): synthetic substance (to release the gas). They include calcium as such is (V); "natural" B, is (A). phosphate, sodium bicarbonate, cream of tartar. Mor V. OCTYL DODECANOL -- Mixture of solid waxy alcohols, LECITHIN -- Antioxidant and emulsifier. Mainly obtained mainly from stearyl alcohol (q.v.). commercially from soybean, peanut and corn (V). Also OLEIC ACID -- Fatty acid occurring in animal and obtained from eggs (O). Used extensively in the food vegetable fats. Used in soaps, cosmetics, ointments. A industry and especially in margarine and chocolate; also or V, depending on source. in various cosmetics. OLEOIC OIL - Liquid obtained from pressed tallow (A). LINOLEIC ACID - An essential fatty acid (q.v.). In Used in some margarines. cosmetics, vitamins. A or V, depending on source. OLEOSTEARIN -- Solid obtained from pressed tallow (A). LIPASE -- Enzyme from stomachs, etc., of various Uses: soap and candle-making. slaughtered young farm animals (A). May be in some PALMITIC ACID, palmitate - Fatty acid from fats, oils, vitamins. Vegetable enzymes are available. mixed with stearic acid (q.v.). Used in shaving soaps, LIPODS/LIPIDS -- Fat and fat-like substances found in creams, shampoos. Can be from animal (A) or vegetable animals (A) and plants (V). fats/oils (V). (See fatty acids.) LUNA SPONGE (sea sponge) -- A plant like sea animal PARCHMENT -- Skin of the sheep or goat, dressed and (A). (See also: sponge.) prepared for writing, etc. (A). LUTEIN -- Substance of deep yellow color found in egg PANTHENOL, dexpanthenol, vitamin B complex factor, yolk (O). Obtained commercially from marigold (V). provitamin B-Found in foods, shampoos, supplements. Used as a food coloring. Can be animal, synthetic, or plant source. A, M, or V. MALTOL -- A flavor enhancer used to give a "freshly PEARL- The pain-dulling nacre formed in layers around baked" odor to bread and cakes. Also used in drinks, a foreign particle within the shell of the oyster or other jams and confectionery. M. bivalve mollusk (A). MILK PROTEIN -- Hydrolyzed milk protein. From cow PEARL, CULTURED -- "Cultured" pearl (A) means that milk (L). In cosmetics, shampoos, skin preparations. the foreign material has been artificially inserted into the Plant proteins (such as soy, V) can be used instead. oyster, to irritate it and cause it to make a pearl around MINERAL OIL or Petrolatum -- Used for the preservation it. "Mother-of-pearl" is a pearly inner layer of the shell of of dried fruit, as a coating on cheese, and in bakeries for the mollusk (A); used in jewelry/decoration. The term is greasing tins and trays. From petroleum. Mineral oil also used for a plastic imitation, such as in toilet seats. (52) 2010_03 Page #57 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues PECTIN -- Used as a setting agent or emulsifier; extracted from calves' stomachs. For economic reasons, rennet (A) from apple pulp and orange pith. V. Used in jams, is usually mixed with other enzymes such as pepsin (A) confectionery, ice cream. from pigs. Plant rennets, from micro-organisms, are PEPSIN - A clotting agent from pig stomachs, used with available and used with dairy milk to make some rennet (A) in cheese manufacture. A. "vegetarian" cheeses, (L) due to the milk that is the main PHYTIC ACID - (V) A sequestering agent, found naturally ingredient. in bread and cereal grain; it binds calcium and iron, RNA/DNA, ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, making them relatively unavailable during digestion. Its polypeptides -- In all animal or plant cells, commercially binding effect is reduced during the leavening process. taken from slaughterhouse wastes (A). In many The body can adapt to phytic acid in the diet by cosmetics, shampoos. Vegan alternative (if any producing an enzyme which destroys it. necessary) could be from plant cells. PLACENTA, afterbirth -- Organ by which the fetus is ROE -- Eggs from abdomen of slain female fish (O/A). See attached to the umbilical cord (A). Taken from the caviar. uterus of a slaughtered animal. Widely used in ROYAL JELLY -- Secretion of the throat glands of shampoos, cosmetics and skin creams, etc., sometimes honeybee workers; the food on which bee larvae are fed, in the forlorn hope that it "smooths wrinkles." Vegetable causing them to develop into queen bees (I). Used as a oils, and kelp are said to be alternatives. food supplement. No proven value in cosmetic POLYPEPTIDES -- From slaughterhouse wastes (A). preparations; alternatives here include aloe vera, (See RNA/ DNA.) Alternatives: proteins and enzymes comfrey, other plant derivatives. from plant sources. SABLE -- Fur from the sable marten, a small carnivorous PRESERVATIVES -- Used to prevent or delay the food mammal (A). Uses: clothing, artists' brushes, cosmetic spoilage caused by micro-organisms. Smoking, pickling, brushes. Synthetic fibers (M) are good substitutes, and salting are examples of traditional preservation widely available. processes. Sulphur dioxide (M) is one of the most widely SEQUESTERING AGENTS -- Used to counteract the used, added to beer, wine, fruit juices, jams, canned and effects of metal ions by binding them and thus making dried vegetables. Others are benzoic acid (M), them inactive. Metal ions can adversely affect color, propionates (M), benzoates (M), and sorbates (M). clarity, flavor, and stability. Citric acid, phytic acid, Spoilage can also be delayed by physical methods, such tartaric acid and orthophosphate are examples of these as freezing, drying, or pasteurization. There is no additives. They are used in margarine, salad dressings, substitute fully equal to actual freshness. soft drinks, tinned fruit and vegetables. M, V. PROGESTERONE -- Asteroid sex hormone (A). Used in SHELLAC -- Insect secretion (I). Used in hair spray, lip hormone creams, and medical therapy. Can have sealer, polishes, as a glazing agent, and in painting. adverse systemic effects. Synthetics are available. SILK - Cloth made from the fibre produced by the larvae PROPELLANTS -- Gases used to expel foods from ("silk worms") of certain moths (I). Harvesting involves aerosols. Not listed on food labels. Generally M. the destruction of the insect, either by roasting or boiling PROPIONIC ACID, PROPIONATES (calcium - alive. Used in clothing and some cosmetics. Insect silk potassium -, sodium propionate) -- Preservatives in is easily replaced by fine rayon (M/V=from plant bread, cheese, frozen pizza. Occurs naturally in various cellulose), nylon (M=petrochemical), or other synthetics. plant products and in animal substances; produced SODIUM CARBOXY-METHYL CELLULOSE -- A commercially from various fuels (M). Linked to migraine cellulose derivative used as a filler in slimming foods. V, headaches. Skin rashes noted in bakery workers M. handling the material in pure form. SODIUM CHLORIDE -- Or table salt. Used as a flavor PROPOLIS --Bee glue (I). A resinous substance collected enhancer and a preservative. M. from various plants by bees and used by them to stop up SODIUM 5'-INOSINATE - Occurs naturally in muscle. crevices and fix combs to the hive. Used in toiletries and Prepared from fish waste (A). Used as a flavor enhancer. cosmetics, supplements. SOLVENT -- Used to dissolve and help carry other PROPYLENE GLYCOL -- Humectant. M. additives, such as dichloromethane (M), ethylacetate PROTEASES -- Enzymes that aid protein breakdown. (M), glycerol salts (A). Used in manufacture of soya sauce, tamari and miso; also SORBIC ACID -- A preservative used in margarines, in clarifying fruit juices. Most proteases are extracted cheese, sauces, fruit juices and confectionery. M. from plants or micro-organisms (V or L). One protease, SORBITOL -- Used as a humectant and a sweetener. rennet (A), used in cheese manufacture, is extracted Used in foods for diabetics. M. from the stomach of young calves. SPERM OIL -- Oil found in the head of various species of QUATERNIUM 27. From tallow (q.v.). A. Added to whales. Used in candle-making. A. various toiletries. SPERMACETI WAX - Fatty substance found mainly in RELEASING AGENTS -- Used to prevent food sticking to the head of the sperm whale, other whales and dolphins. packaging, mounds, tins and machinery. One is Uses: medicines, candle-making, cosmetics. A. magnesium stearate (probably A). SPONGE -- Aquatic animal or colony of animals of a "low RENNET -- A protease (q.v.) used in making hard and order," with a tough elastic skeleton of interlaced fibers cream cheeses. A slaughterhouse product, obtained (A). Used as a bath aid, and in cleaning. They have been (53) Jain Education Intemational 2010_03 Page #58 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism and Animal Issues largely replaced by cellulose or nylon substitutes (M). used to keep it from bubbling. Rarely, some small Vegetable "loofa" sponges are also available (V). operator may instead use butter (L) or other animal fat SQUALENE/SQUALANE -Found in the liver of the shark (A). (See also sugar.) (A). Used in toiletries and cosmetics, and as a lubricant. SYNERGISTS -- Used to enhance the effect of another Vegetable oils are alternatives. substance, e.g. tartaric acid (V), citric acid (V). STABILIZERS -- Used to impart a smooth texture to TALLOW -- Hard animal fat, especially obtained from certain foods and to prevent separation of oil/water about the kidneys of ruminant animals (A). Used in soap emulsions. They can be obtained from a variety of and candle-making, margarines, lubricants, rubber, sources, such as guar gum (V), carragheen (V), pectin crayons, waxed paper, cosmetics, toiletries. Alternatives (V), Xanthan gum (V), agar (V), celluloses (V and M), include vegetable fats, petroleum paraffin. gelatin (A). They are used in frozen or jelled desserts, TESTOSTERONE -- Male hormone (A). Used in bodywhipped products, dairy items, soft drinks, cake mixes, build supplements. jam. TEXTURE AGENTS -- Include emulsifiers, stabilizers, STARCH -- Starch, modified starches: used as stabilizers. thickeners (all q.v.). They are used widely in ice cream Vand M. and frozen desserts, milk products, soft drinks, STEARATES -- Fats used as emulsifiers. The parent margarine, bread and pastry, confectionery. compound (stearic acid) is often a by-product of making THICKENERS -- Added to foods to give a smooth, soap from animal fat, tallow (A). Stearates can be made uniform texture, or more viscosity. Similar to emulsifiers from many vegetable oils or fats (M/V) such as the (q.v.) and stabilizers (q.v.). coconut; and some soaps are made from vegetable fats UREA, uric acid -- Waste nitrogen formed in the liver and (V). But economic factors being as they are, any listing excreted by the kidneys (A). Also produced synthetically of stearic acid or stearates is strongly suspect. Stearic (M). Used in toiletries and cosmetics, and in making acid is also used in rubber tires (for cars, trucks, buses, some types of plastics and adhesives. airliners, tractors, bikes, tricycles, etc.) VELLUM -- Fine parchment, made from the skins of STEROID, sterol -- Steroids include sterols, alcohols from calves, lambs or kids (A). Used for writing material. animals or plants (such as cholesterol). Used in hormone VELVET -- A soft fabric formerly made of silk (I), now preparations, lotions, hair conditioners, some body generally rayon or nylon, (M/V). Velveteen is a similar building supplements, etc. Could be A, M, or V, fabric made of cotton. All are used in clothing, fine depending on the source. drapery, upholstery. SUEDE -- Kid, pig, or calf skin, tanned; noted for its soft, VITAMIN A. retinol, acetate, palmitate (see palmitic acid) velour-like appearance and texture (A). Used in -- Can be from fish-liver oil, egg yolks, butter, carrot footwear and clothing. Alternatives available, as for carotene, etc. Mostly synthesized now, for economic leather (q.v.). reasons. In cosmetics, vitamins, supplements, etc. A, O, SUET -- Prepared from the fat around the kidneys and L, M, or V. loins of cattle and sheep (A). Used in cooking or making VITAMIN B.. -- "Natural" B. is made by micro-organisms tallow. and is stored in the body; thus present in meat, and to SUGAR -- Sweetener (q.v.) refined and concentrated from some extent other animal source foods; commonly cane juice or processed from sugar beets. In the U.S.A., processed from liver (A). "Synthetic" B, as such is V, most cane sugar is clarified with a bone charcoal filter although sometimes put in a mix or capsule of animal (A) and is avoided for this reason by many vegetarians origin. and vegans; beet sugar is not processed thus. Molasses VITAMIN D -- Readily made in the human upon fairly brief (V) is removed well before this final clarification process. exposure to sunlight. D. (ergocalciferol) is made by In Australia, a newer ionization process is largely used; irradiating ergosterol, a provitamin from plants or yeast most U.S.A. refineries are old; newer ones are rare, due to (V). D, (chole-calciferol) is derived from fish oil (A), gradual replacement of cane sugar by corn syrup (V/M), sometimes lanolin (wool fat) (A). Used as a vitamin in etc. processed foods and food supplements. SULPHUR DIOXIDE -- A widely used group of WHEY -- A by-product of cheese making: residue from preservatives. M. Avoided for health reasons, especially milk (L) after the removal of the casein and most of the by asthmatics and others sensitive to sulphites, and fat. Uses: margarines, baked goods, cleaning products, those with impaired kidneys or liver. Used in dried fruit, etc. A substitute can be made from soy. making beer, wine, vinegar; etc. WOOL -- The fleece of domesticated sheep or other SWEETENERS -- Include natural (often highly processed) animals selectively bred for an abnormally heavy coat of plant products such as sucrose, fructose, corn syrup, hair. It is periodically painfully shorn leaving no barley-malt, date sugar, maple sugar*. Mainly protection for the animals, many of whom die of concentrated "empty calories"; should be used sparingly exposure to cold. Final shearing is often the first step in if at all. Cannot recommend artificial sweeteners either the slaughter process (A). Used in clothing, carpets, felt, (saccharin, aspartame, in "diet" foods and drinks). etc. Alternatives include cotton, cotton flannel or Sweeteners are in desserts, soft drinks, confectionery, quilted cotton; also linen, various synthetic fibers. canned fruit and vegetables. V & M. Honey (q.v.) is an insect product (I), not used by vegans. *In boiling maple Jay Dinshah - American Vegan Society - 609-694-2887 sugar, a microscopic film of vegetable oil is commonly (54) Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #59 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DRAMME FOLLOWING DONATIONS HAVE HELPED US COME THIS FAR Donors of $1,000 or more Shantilal & Vimlaben Gala, Amdavad, India Jain Center of Southern California, Buena Park Jain Society of Metropolitan Chicago, IL Donors of $500 or more Indira Mansukhlal Doshi Trust, Highland Park, IL Bhupatray & Kusumben Sheth, Rajkot, India Anop & Renuka Vora, Rochester, NY Jain Society of Pittsburgh, PA Donors of $200 or more Sunil & Sharmila Dharod, Richardson, TX Girish & Pravina Shah, Diamond Bar, CA Dipak & Harshida Doshi, Diamond Bar, CA Nilesh & Ahilia Shah, Laguna Hills, CA Laxmichand Gogri, Bellevue, WA Niranjan & Lata Shah, Des Plaines, IL Sulekh & Ravi Jain, Cincinnati, OH Ramesh & Jaya Shah, Mayfield Village, OH Virendra & Bharati Kothari, Houston, TX Hare & Sheth, Atlanta, GA Narendra & Charu Maniar, Atlanta, GA Narendra & Sonal Sheth, San Diego, CA Manibhai & Savitaben Mehta, Cypress, CA Jyotsana Thakkar, Irvine, CA Chandulal & Ranjan Morbia, Windsor, ONT Jain Study Center of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC Pradip J. Morbia, Port Arthur, TX Donors of $100 or more Harakh & Jayawanti Dedhia, New Orleans, LA Howard Johnson, Westbank, Gretna, LA Ramesh & Chandrika Khandhar, Walnut, CA Rajendra & Kaumudini Mehta, Longwood, FL Surendra Mehta, Madras, India Hemendra & Hansa Momaya, Elgin, IL Kamal & Alka Patel, Hacienda Heights, CA Anish A. Sanghvi, Columbus, OH Arvind & Bharati Shah, La Palma, CA Bhavana Shah, Los Angeles, CA Dhiren & Sushma Shah, Dallas, TX Dinesh & Jyoti Shah, Atlanta, GA Jagdish A. Shah, Bonham, TX Jagdish & Preeti Shah, Fullerton, CA Kamlesh & Arti Shah, Germantown, MD N.R. & B.N. Shah, Cerritos, CA Nilesh & Krina Shah, Glendale, CA Prakash & Kalpana Shah, Hacienda Height, CA Raju & Neeta Shah, Glendale, CA Santosh & Sarala Shah, Atlanta, GA Sujata Shah, Laguna Niguel, CA Prof. Jagdish N. Sheth, Atlanta, GA Mayur & Shashi Sheth, Seattle, WA Sunil & Devyani Sheth, Arlington, TX Pradhyuman & Laxmi Zaveri, Plano, TX Jain Society of Rochester, NY We need continued support. Please send a tax-deductible contribution: "Jiv Daya Committee, Federation of JAINA" C/o. Narendra B. Sheth 9133 Mesa Woods Avenue San Diego, CA 92126 Jain Education Interational 2010_03 Page #60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Harmlessness is the Supreme Religion Guru Nanak Knowledge combined with application is a path to salvation. ज्ञान क्रियाभ्याम् मोक्षः Jain Scriptures The truth is great. The conduct is much greater. The human kind does not lack in knowledge of religious principles, it lacks in their application. Gandhiji The ultimate aim of knowledge is action. Dale Carnegie These four insightful statements have a common thread. It is the application of knowledge. Religion has a very limited value unless it becomes a code of conduct and is applied in daily life. Thus it is essential for us to question our practice of engaging in empty talks and discussions but with very little to show for in the conduct. We can discuss many issues; however, until we put actions behind these words, the full meaning will not be realized. The harmony between thought and action will be put to a severe test as we ponder over the issues raised in this book. As we assimilate into Western culture, and as Eastern culture loses its impact on our children, these issues will indeed become very critical. They will require us to make a conscious decision on what we eat, what we wear, how we entertain ourselves, and more importantly, how we raise our children. If we really believe in nonviolence and compassion towards all beings, we must practice those "Beliefs" in our daily lives to make them meaningful. This book makes a humble attempt to move us in this direction. "Live and Let Live" Anop R. Vora (Rochester, NY) PERUROW YKTINYA अहिंसा परमो धर्म Harmlessness Is the Supreme Religion यदि प्राणदान तुम दे न सको, तो प्राण किसीके मत हरना यदि अपना जीवन प्यारा है, तो औरोंको जीने देना .... प्रकतीने हमको समझाया, तुम सबके उपर दया करो जीवन सबको वरदान मीला, तुम नहीं किसीके प्राण हरो अनमोल सभीका जीवन है, वो जीवन लेकर क्या करना .... If you cannot give life, you should not take life either If you love your own life dearly, let others also live their lives freely. The nature has taught us, that we should be kind to all Life is a blessing to each one, and we should not take anyone's life Life is so precious to each one, why should we take it at all? We got a tongue, so that we can sing praises of the Lord Then why should we succumb to its desires, and drink blood of creatures? Why should we make our stomach graveyard? Don't make it a crematory. These innocent animals and birds, without them the life would be so boring Why then are we so cruel to them, why are we killing and eating them? Let's stop this right now, let's walk on the path of Truth & Harmlessness. रसना हमको इस लिये मीली, इससे प्रभुका गुनगान करें फिर क्यों इससे लोलुपतावस, हम पशुरक्तका पान करें ये पेंट बने क्यों कब्र भला, इसको समशान नहीं करना .... ये पशुपक्षी भालेभोले, सुना संसार सजाते हैं। क्यों फिर हम हींसा करते हैं, क्यों मार इन्हें हम खाते हैं जागो मानव अब भी जागो, तुम सत्य अहिंसा पर चलना .... www.jainelibreorg 2010_03