Book Title: $JES 904 Compendium of Jainism (Jain Academic Bowl Manual 3rd Edition)
Author(s): JAINA Education Committee
Publisher: JAINA Education Committee
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Page #1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism Jain Academic Bowl Manual of 2015 JAINA Education Series - JES904 3rd Edition January, 2015 Compiled by JAINA Education Committee Federation of Jain Associations in North America Page #2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism Compendium of Jainism Compendium of Jainism Compendium of Jainism Jain Academic Bowl Manual of 2015 JAINA Education Series - JES904 3rd Edition - January, 2015 ISBN (10 digit): 1-59406-066-5 ISBN (13 digit): 978-1-59406-066-3 This book has no copyright for Personal and Private Use Please use the religious material respectfully We are interested in your comments. Use following address for communication. Compiled by: JAINA Education Committee Federation of Jain Associations in North America Pravin K. Shah, Chairperson 509 Carriage Woods Circle Raleigh, NC 27607-3969 USA Email - Telephone and Fax-919-859-4994 Website - Published and Distributed by: 821E, Artesia Blvd Carson, CA 90746-1203 USA Email - Telephone and Fax-919-859-4994 Website - www.jaine Page 2 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism DEDICATED TO Young Jains of America (YJA) ( Young Jain Professionals (YJP) and ( Jain Päthshälä Teachers of North America () Compendium of Jainism For their continued efforts and commitment in promoting religious awareness, nonviolence, reverence for all life forms, protection of the environment, and a spirit of compassionate interdependence with nature and all living beings. As importantly, for their commitment to the practice of Jainism, consistent with our principles, including vegetarianism and an alcohol/drug free lifestyle. We especially appreciate the efforts of all the Päthashälä Teachers in instilling the basic values of Jainism, and promoting principles of non-violence and compassion to all youth and adults. Special thanks to all Jain Vegan and alcohol/drug free youths and adults for inspiring us to see the true connection between our beliefs and our choices. A vegan and alcohol/drug free lifestyle stems from a desire to minimize harm to all animals as well as to our own body, mind, and soul. As a result, one avoids the use of all animal products such as milk, cheese, butter, ghee, ice cream, silk, wool, pearls, leather, meat, fish, chicken, eggs and refrains from all types of addictive substances such as alcohols and drugs. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 3 of 398 Page #4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism Compendium of Jainism Acknowledgements The project of compiling, revising and editing of this book was accomplished by the dedicated group of Young Jains, Päthashälä teachers, scholars, and individuals of North America. The devoted contribution of all these supporters is evident on every page of this book and is gratefully acknowledged. For Compiling Revising and Editing of the Compendium of Jainism Book (JAB Manual - 2015) Hema Ojha Houston TX Harsh and Bhavisha Shroff Chicago IL Anjali Doshi Chicago IL Anish Doshi Chicago IL Shweta Shah Raleigh NC Megha Doshi Ashburn VA Priyal Gandhi Ashburn VA Siddharth Shah Houston TX Chintav Shah NJ Priti Shah Dallas TX Vinit Shah Detroit MI Mukesh Doshi Chicago IL Shibani Shah Chicago IL Pradip and Darshna Shah Chicago IL Charmi Vakharia NJ Mahendra J Shah Detroit MI Monica Shah Hanover MD Niral Shah Detroit MI Parinda Shah Chicago IL Punita Shah Detroit MI Rekha Banker Raleigh NC Shanti Mohnot Pittsburg PA Shilpi Desai Houston TX Suresh Shah Detroit MI Special thanks to our youth Priyal Gandhi, Anjali Doshi, Anish Doshi, Siddharth Shah and Chintav Shah for spelling consistency of Jain words and overall coordination of religious subject matters of this book. Pravin K. Shah, Chairperson JAINA Education Committee Page 4 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism Compendium of Jainism The Arhats and Bhagavats (the worthy and venerable ones) of the past, present, and future, all say thus, speak thus, declare thus, explain thus: All breathing, existing, living, sentient creatures should not be slain, nor treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor driven away. Lord Mahävir Achäränga Sutra (book 1, lect 4, lesson 1) Translated by H. Jacobi Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 5 of 398 Page #6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism Compendium of Jainism PREFACE Jai Jinendra We are living in the age of science and technology. The growth of the scientific knowledge and technology have given new dimensions to our life and influenced each and every field of our living. Science has done a great service to mankind by providing amenities of pleasant living and saved the human race from many miseries and uncertainties of the primitive past. It has also destroyed many superstitions and religious dogmas. However, at the same time it has also uprooted the moral, religious, and cultural values of our society. Most of our traditional religious values and beliefs have been thrown away by this growth and outlook of scientific knowledge. We know much about the atom but not enough about the moral values needed for a meaningful life. Our life is full of excitements, emotional disorders, and conflicts of moral values. It seems that we live in the state of chaos. Thus, we do not only live in the age of science but also the age of anxiety and mental tensions Today what we need is mental peace; a complete integration into our personality, and the integration into the social environment. Jainism can meet this need of our times if we understand its true essence. The Jain philosophy fully advocates limitless power and energy of the human soul and its independency. It bestows full responsibility upon us, and us alone, to attain the highest goal of our lives - infinite bliss. Jainism is a unique religion of self that prescribes a code of conduct for all human beings irrespective of creed, caste, color, and religion. Non-violence (Ahimsa), non possession and non-attachment (Aparigraha), and a non-absolutistic (Anekantaväda) viewpoint are fundamental principles of Jainism. If we observe these three principles, peace and harmony can certainly be attained within us as well as in the world. Non-violence is the backbone of Jain philosophy. It is the focal point of Jainism. The rational thinking and the rational conduct are auxiliary colors spread on the vast canvas of non-violence. Thus, the Jains have presented a deep and vivid study of non-violence. In order to make Jain principles known to the world at large, Jain literature must be widely made available in English. In countries like the USA, Canada, UK, and Africa, where many Jains are settled permanently, children do not have access to Jain literature in English. It is also necessary to publish it in varieties of mediums (Books, Videos, Cassettes, CD, DVD, Web deployment) for the English-speaking people harboring interest in the Jain religion and its scriptures. The current JAINA Education Committee is pleased to present the JAINA Education Series books in English for all ages of students. A great deal of effort has been taken for the preparation of this. Much care has also been taken to present Jainism in a non-sectarian way. This book Compendium of Jainism is compiled using all Jain Pathashala text books and reference books of Jaina Education Series. This book will be used in the Jain Academic Bowl competition during JAINA and YJA conventions. The committee members who prepared this material are Jain Päthashälä (Sunday school teachers and not the Jain scholars. Hence, you may find some errors and also certain items may be applicable to one Jain sect and not applicable to other sects of Jainism. Please use the material objectively and provide positive suggestions so that we can easily incorporate them in the future revisions. The pdf file od all Päthashälä books are available from Jain eLibrary website .org. Many minds, and many blessings, directly and indirectly, have touched this noble project. We sincerely appreciate and thank every person who made this project successful. In compiling this book, we have utilized many sources and we are grateful to their authors and publishers for using their work liberally. We sincerely appreciate and thank every person and every organization that made this project successful. Page 6 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism All material published by the JAINA Education Committee is not a copy righted material for personal and private use. Please use it respectfully and distribute it on a cost basis. As always, if you have any suggestions for improvement, please feel free to contact us. In addition, if we have mentioned anything against the teachings of the Tirthankars, we ask for forgiveness. Michchhämi Dukkadam. Thank You and Jai Jinendra! Pravin K. Shah, Chairperson JAINA Education Committee January, 2015 Book Number List of JAINA Education Series books: Level Age Name JES-101 Level-1 JES-102 Level-1 JES-103 Level-1 JES-104 Level-1 JES-202 Level-2 JES-202G Level-2 JES-203 Level-2 JES-203Q Level-2 JES-302 Level-3 JES-401 Level-4 JES-902 JES-904 JES-911 JES-921 Reference All JES-922 Reference All JES-931 Reference All JES-933 Reference All JES-941 JES-981 5-9 5-9 5-9 5-9 10-12 10-12 10-12 10-12 13-15 16 up Reference All Reference All Reference All Reference Reference All All Jain Activity Book Jainism I - Basics of Jainism Jain Alphabet Jain Moral Skits Jain Story Book (English) Jain Story Book (Gujarati) First Step to Jainism First Step in Jainism Work Book Jain Philosophy and Practice I Jain Philosophy and Practice II Jainism - Reverence for Life Compendium of Jainism for JAB Essence of World Religions Compendium of Jainism The Book of Compassion (English) The Book of Compassion (Gujarati) English Pratikraman Jain Puja Book - Ashta Prakari Puja, Dreams, and Shanti Kalash Pratikraman Sutra Book Ashtapad Maha-Tirth Book of New York Jain Center Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 7 of 398 Page #8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism Table of Contents Table of Contents Compendium of Jainism .......... Compendium of Jainism........ Table of Contents... INTRODUCTION......... A01 - Jain Prayers.. 01 Namaskar Mahämangal Sutra ......... 02 Divine Refuge Prayer ........ 03 Religious Stutis..... 04 Universal Forgiveness Stotra - Khamemi Savva Jive Sutra .............. 05 Reflection on Universal Peace - Upsargah Kshayam Yanti Sutra ... 06 Reflection on Universal Friendship - Shivmastu SarvaJagatah Sutra. 07 Reflection on Spirituality and Pure Consciousness .... 08 Reflection on True Teacher (Sadguru).... 09 Divine Gratitude Prayer A02 - Dharma: Religion........... ................................................ 01 Introduction. 02 What is Religion? ........ 03 Meaning of Jainism ...... 04 Why Do We Pray?...... A03 - Basics of Jainism ................................................................... 01 What is Jainism?... 02 Main Principles/Tenets of Jainism .......... 03 Jain Temple.... 04 Idol (Murti).... ...... .. ........ S ............... ....................................... PHILOSOPHY...... B01 - Fundamental Beliefs of Jainism....................... B02 - Jain Path of Liberation - Ratna Trayi.... 01 Samyag Darshan (Right Perception or Faith)................................ 02 Samyag Jnän (Right Knowledge)..... 03 Samyag-Charitra and Spiritual Stages (Gunasthänak).............. B03 - Basics of Jainism ....... 01 Soul (Atmä).. 02 Classification of living beings (Jiva) .......... 03 Karma... B04 - Six Universal Substances I: Jiva or Living Being ............... 01 Jain Reality.... 02 Shad Dravyas (Six Universal Substances) 03 Jiva (Soul or Living being)... 04 Paryapti (Power) and Präna (Vitality)....... 05 Four Realms. 06 Conclusion........ B05 - Six Universal Substances II: Non-Living Substances .... 01 Ajiva (Non-living Substances) ..... 02 Classification of Ajiva ...... ............ Page 8 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism Table of Contents ............50 B06 - Nav Tattva Part I: Jiva, Ajiva, Punya, Päp, Asrava ............ 01 Introduction............ 02 Jiva (Living Beings) ... ................. 03 Punya and Päp (Good Deeds and Bad Deeds) ............ 04 Asrava and Bandha (Inflow of Karmas and Bondage of Karmas).... B07- Nav Tattva Part II: Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha.. ................................................................... 01 Introduction............... ................................................................................. 02 Samvar (Prevention of Karmas). 03 Nirjarä (Partial Eradication of Karmas)............... 04 Moksha (Total Liberation from Karma).................. ....................................... 05 Summary : B08 - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation ............ 01 Introduction... 02 Bandha (Characteristics and Process of the Bondage)... 03 Four Characteristics of Bondage:............ ........................ ...................................... 04 Classification of Karma. B09 - Theory of Karma: Q and A.................. ............ B10 - Punya and Pap Karma ................. 01 Introduction..... 02 Punya (Virtuous or Wholesome) Karma... 03 Päp (Non-virtuous or Unwholesome) Karma ...... 04 Four Fold Combinations of Punya and Päp ................ 05 Relationship among Ghäti, Aghäti, Punya and Pap Karma .... 06 Classification of Punya (Shubha) and Päp (Ashubha) Karma.. 07 Practical Aspects of Punya Karma and Pap Karma....... 08 Summary . B11 - Anekäntaväda / - Theory of Multiplicity ............ 01 Introduction... 02 Application of Anekäntaväda.. 03 How to know a Substance?..... 04 Summary B12 - Anekäntaväda ll - Pramana, Naya and Syädväda............. 01 Introduction........... 02 Aim and Subject matter of Jain Logic.. 03 Classification of Pramana ....... 04 Summary of Pramäna ............... 05 Naya-väda.......... 101 06 Classification of Naya................ 102 07 Summary of Naya.... 106 08 Syädväda or Sapta-Bhanga (Seven Predications) .... 106 09 Is "Self" Permanent or Transitory?. 109 10 Importance of Anekäntaväda ... .............. 11 Anekäntaväda and Ahimsa ........ 110 B13 - Anekäntaväda Ill - Five Samaväya or Causal Factors...... ............. 01 Introduction.......... 02 Samaväya ......... 111 03 Significance of Samaväya................. 04 Summary ............ B14 - Fourteen Gunasthäna: Stages of Spiritual Development......... ... 115 01 Introduction. 02 Fourteen Gunasthänas........ 03 Summary ............................ Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 9 of 398 ............... 111 111 AW ........... 116 120 Page #10 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism Table of Contents 04 Relationships among Gunasthana, Karma, Leshyä, and Dhyana... ............... 120 122 123 ................................... WWW SONNNN ............. .............. ... .................... 140 140 146 147 147 147 ..... 149 CONDUCT C01 - Pancha Paramesthi. ........... 01 Namaskar Mantra.......... 02 Arihanta .................. 03 Siddha 04 Acharya .................................... ... 05 Upadhyay ......... ................................. 06 Sädhus and Sadhvis CO2 - Jain Ascetics: Sädhus and Sadhvis .. 01 Introduction..... 02 Mahä-vratas (Major Vows)................ 03 Rules of Conduct for Specific Activities....................... 04 Summary CO3 - Jain Lay people: Shrävaks and Shrävikäs.............. 01 Introduction.... 02 Vratas For Shrävaks and Shrävikäs (Twelve Vows of Laity)...... 03 Summary .......... .......... C04 - Bhävanäs (Reflections)........... .......................... ........... 01 Introduction.............. 02 Twelve Main Bhävanäs ........ 03 Four Auxiliary Bhävanäs (Compassionate Reflections)............. 04 Summary... C05 - Leshyas (State of Mind and Karmic Stains).................. 01 Introduction... 02 Classification of Leshyäs... C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct ............. 01 Introduction..... 02 Panchächär (Five Codes of Conduct) ..... 03 Summary .... C07- Jain Ethics and the Environment................. .......... 01 Jain Ethics ....... ........... 02 Three Cardinal Principles of Conduct .......... 03 Survival of Life vs Ethical Living.. ........... .......... 04 Ethical Living and Dairy Products .......... 05 Jainism and the Environment What does Jainism teach about ecology?................................ 06 Summary and Recommendations. 07 Jain Conduct and its Relevance to Modern Times .... .......... C08 - Application of Nonviolence. ......... 01 Introduction........... ............ 02 Animal Cruelty and Ecological Impact............................ ........... 03 Ecological Impact of Non-vegetarianism. 04 Abstinence from Drinking Alcoholic Beverages ............... 05 Refraining from Consumption of Honey ....... 06 Conscious Consumer.... 07 Summary .......... ........... C09 - Jain Yoga.. ........ .......... 01 Introduction..... 02 Meaning of Yoga in Jain Tradition......... ..................... 03 Four Primary Paths to Yoga 151 153 153 153 163 164 164 164 166 166 167 170 170 172 172 173 173 174 175 175 179 180 180 180 180 Page 10 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #11 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism Table of Contents 04 Yoga Benefits ............ .................186 05 Yogic Diet ................... 186 06 Yogic Samkalpa (Oath) For Meditation.. ............ 186 07 Method of Yoga Meditation ....... ............ 187 08 Summary ..... ............... ......................... 187 C10 - Jainism in Action .... .............................. ................. 188 01 Nutrition, Health and Spirituality ..... 02 Yoga, Health and Spirituality......... C11- Living Values ................. ........................... 01 Introduction....... 02 Anger/Forgiveness (Kshama) ............. 03 Ego (Pride)/Humility (Vinay)................................. 04 Deceit/Honesty (Straightforwardness) .......... 05 Greed/Contentment (Santosh)....................... 196 06 Compassion ..... .... ............................................................................................... 197 07 Friendship. .............. 197 08 The Power of Determination .............. ............... 198 09 Self Reliance ............. ................ 199 195 ....... 202 204 RITUALS.. 201 D01 - Jain Symbols... ................. 202 01 Jai Jinendra - Greeting .................................. ..................................... 202 02 Michchhami Dukkadam - Greeting. 03 Jinälaya - Jain Temple (Deräsar or Mandir)....... 202 04 Om.... ............................................................................... 202 05 Hrim .............. 203 06 Arhum................... ..... 203 07 Swastika ............................ 203 08 Tilak 203 09 Universal Jain Symbol............. 203 10 Federation of Jaina Logo ............. .......... 204 11 Arti ............... ......... 204 12 Mangal Deevo ............. 204 13 Ashta Mangal ........... 14 Mäna Stambha.. 205 DO2-Emblems, Dreams, Puja Rituals...... ................................... 206 01 Länchhans (Emblems Or Symbols) .. DOIS) .............. .......... 02 Tirthankars ......... 03 Dreams of A Tirthankar's Mother ....... ..................... 209 04 Ashta Prakäri Puja / Ashta Dravya Pujä....... ......... 05 Special Pujas.............. 214 06 Pujan.. . ........................ ................... 214 DO3 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition). 215 01 Introduction..... 02 Recommendations 03 Shvetämbar Tradition Pujä......... ............ 216 04 Digambar Tradition Pujä........ ............................... D04 - Importance of Proper Performance of a Ritual........ .......................... 01 Kriya Yoga... ...................................... 227 02 Jnän Yoga DO5 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances)................ 228 01 Introduction........... 228 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 11 of 398 206 ........................ ........... 206 212 ............. . 215 215 223 227 Page #12 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism Table of Contents NNNNNNN ................ . 245 ............ 247 ........... 02 Six Essential Observances of Shvetämbar tradition ........ ................. 228 03 Six Essential Observances of Digambar Tradition................... ................ 235 D06 - Paryushan and Das Lakshana Parva... ............ 01 Paryushan ......................................................... ....................... 239 02 Das Lakshana Parva ............... 03 Forgiveness Day .......... DO7 - Jain Festivals (Parvas) and Celebrations............... 01 Kalyanaks - Auspicious Events 244 02 Paryushan Maha Parva.................. ..................................... 03 Das Lakshana Parva........... 246 04 Mahavir Janma Kalyänak (Mahavir Jayanti) ....... 247 05 Diwali........... 06 New Year.. 248 07 Bhäibeej (Festival for brother)............ 248 08 Jnän Panchami (Holy day for worshipping Knowledge). 09 Dev Diwäli or Kartaki Poonam .... .............. 249 10 Navpad Oli....... 249 11 Maun Agiyras ............... ................................................................. ..................................... 249 12 Posh Dashami. 250 13 Varsitap .............. 250 14 Akshaya Tritiya - Varsitap Pärnä............... ............................. 250 15 Fägun Sud Teras.. ........ 250 16 Twelve Tithis ............... 250 17 Chaumäsi Chaudas....... ...... 250 18 Mastaka Abhisheka - The Head Anointing Ceremony.... ............... 250 D08 - Jain Temples & Pilgrimage Places......... .................. 252 01 Digambar and Shvetämbar Images 02 Few Recommendations regarding Offerings at the Temple .............. 252 03 Jain Pilgrimage Places (Jain Tirths).... ............ 252 04 Summary ... ............ D09 - Yakshas and Yakshinis ........ 01 Chakreshwari Devi. ............ 259 02 Ambikä Devi. ........... 259 03 Padmavati Devi ............. ................................................................. ................................... 260 04 Saraswati Devi .......... 260 05 Lakshmi Devi............... ............ 260 06 Manibhadra Dev .......... ..................... 260 07 Ghantäkarna Vir ......... ............. 260 08 Näkodä Bhairava........... ............ 260 09 Bhomiyäji........... .......................... ............... .260 ..... ......................................... .... . ............................. ............................... 252 258 .......... ............. JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS... E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects ............. 01 Introduction..... 02 Prehistoric Period 03 Historical Period - Jain Tradition and Archeological Evidence ............ 04 Keval-inäni, Shruta-kevalishruta-kevali and Das-purvi Acharyas .............. 05 Jain Sects and their brief History: ..... 06 Survival of Jainism in Difficult Times.............. 07 Jainism in Various Regions of India... 08 Jain Contributions to Indian Culture.. ............. E02 - Jain Scriptures and Literature............................. 261 262 .262 262 263 264 ............. 266 269 270 273 .................274 Page 12 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #13 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism Table of Contents 01 Jain Scriptures or Ägam Literature............ 02 Vachana (Recensions - Critical revision of Agam)................. 03 Classification of Jain Agams. 04 Purvas .... 05 Anga-pravishtha Agams:............ 06 Anga-bähya Agams:...... 07 Digambars Anga-bähya Agams .............. 08 Digambar Recognized Literature ... 09 Non-ägam Literature ..... 10 Some Sacred Books.......................... 11 Summary .......... 12 Names of Jain Agam Literature... E03 - Jain Heroes...... 01 Great Acharyas of Digambar and Shvetämbar Traditions ............ 02 Shrimad Räjchandra............. 03 Kanji-Swami ...... ................. 274 ............. .275 276 ............. 276 ............................. 277 ........... 278 282 284 285 286 290 290 294 ............ 294 ............. 294 ............... .295 ........ 296 297 ....... F01 Story - Tirthankars ........ 01 - Bhagwan Mahävir .......... 02 - Bhagwan Pärshvanath. 03 - Bhagwan Neminäth... 04 - Bhagwan Mallinäth.......... 05 - Bhagwan Ädinäth ..... -... 303 305 ................. ................................. ... 310 312 ............ ....... ............ F02 Story - Ganadhars and Ächäryas....... 01 - Gautam-swämi..... 02 - Ganadhar Sudharma-swämi... 03 - Kevali Jambuswämi.......... 04 - Achärya Sthulibhadra........................ 05 - Acharya Kunda-kunda... 06 - Ächärya Haribhadra-Suri 07 - Ächärya Hemchandra .......... 318 .324 + 327 329 330 333 F03 Stories Preceding Bhagawan Mahävir.............. 01 - Bharat and Bahubali ........ 02 - King Megharath .............. 03 - Sage Nandisen .... 04 - King Shripäl and Mayanä-sundari. 05 - Ilächikumar...... 06 - Monk Kurgadu......... 334 335 ............ 338 ................ 341 F04 Stories during Bhagawän Mahävir's Life ............. 01 - Mahävir-swämi and the Cow Herder ...................... 343 ... 344 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 13 of 398 Page #14 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Compendium of Jainism Table of Contents .............. 346 02 - Chandkaushik..... .... 345 03 - Chandanbälä. ................. 04 - Nails in the Ears: Last Calamity for Bhagwan Mahävir.................. 05 - Meghakumär.... .......................................................................... 06 - Aimuttä Muni................... ................................................... ..................................... .352 07 - Anand Shrävak ... ................... 355 .... 08 - Puniä Shrävak............... ....... 09 - Shalibhadra.. ............ 10 - King Shrenik and Queen Chelnä............. .............. 11 - King Shrenik and Anathi Muni.............. 12 - King Shrenik's Destiny. 13 - Monk Prasannachandra.................... ...... .......... 14 - Abhaykumar and Thief Rohineya......... ................ 360 ..............368 ................... 369 F05 Story - Stories after Bhagwan Mahävir... 01 - Vajrakumär....... 02 - King Samprati..... 03 - Temples of Delwädä 04 - Udayan Mantri and His Sons - Ämbad and Bähad... 05 - Nobility of Savchand and Somchand. .............. ........... F06 Story - Contemporary Jain Legends..... .. 01 - Shrimad Räjchandra - 1867 to 1901............................... 384 ....................... 385 390 02 - Virchand R. Gandhi... ............................................................................................. A Brief Summary of His Life and Mission.................................................................. ..... Literature Published by Shri Virchand R. Gandhi or complied from his Speeches:.............. 390 391 ...... .394 F07 Story - Moral Stories ........... 01 - King Hansa...... 02 - Kamalsen. ..................... 03 - Vipul and Vijan.............. 04 - Two Frogs ............ ... .................. ................ 398 397 Page 14 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #15 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION A01 Jain Prayers A02 Dharma: Religion A03 - Basics of Jainism INTRODUCTION Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 15 of 398 Page #16 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION A01 - Jain Prayers A01 - Jain Prayers 01 Namaskar Mahämangal Sutra Namaskar Mahamangal Sutra is also known as Namaskar Mantra, Navakär Mantra or Namokkär Mantra. This is the most revered text in Jainism in which homage is paid to the five worship worthy personalities: Arihanta (enlightened human beings), Siddha (liberated souls), Acharya (head of the Jain congregation), Upadhyay (ascetic teachers), and all Sädhus including all monks and nuns (ascetics) of the universe. The ascetics practice the five great vows of Ahimsa, Truthfulness, Non-stealing, Celibacy, and Nonpossession in their conduct. They maintain multiplicity views in their thought process. All these personalities are recognized and worshiped for their virtues (Gunäs) and not for their individual identities. Hence all truly spiritually uplifted saintly people of the world are worshiped here. The Namaskar Mahamangal sutra illuminates and awakens the divine qualities of the soul like the light brightens the dark surroundings. It is not a religious ritualistic prayer, but an eternal expression of perfection. It holds the science of life within itself. It is a key to the divine treasury of knowledge. There 108 qualities or attributes of these five supreme beings are as follows: Arihanta (12), Siddha (8), Acharya (36), Upadhyay (25), and Sädhu (27), Total - 108 The Jain rosary (Mälä) has 108 beads signifying 108 attributes of the five supreme beings. The Namaskar Mahamangal has 9 sentences. The first five sentences provide obeisance to the above five worshipful personalities and the remaining four sentences explain the importance of these obeisances. नमो अरिहंताणं। Namo Arihantänam Namo Siddhanam Namo Äyariyanam Namo Uvajjhäyänam नमो सिद्धाणं। नमो आयरियाणं। नमो उवज्झायाणं। नमो लोए सव्वसाहूणं। एसो पंच नमुक्कारो। सव्वपावप्पणासणो। Namo Loe Savva Sähunam Eso Pancha Namukkaro Savva Pävapa Panäsano मंगलाणं च सव्वेसिं Mangalänam cha Savvesim पढमं हवइ मंगलं।। Padhamam Havai Mangalam Namo Arihantänam I bow to all Arihantas (Tirthankars or Jinas) who have attained enlightenment by overcoming their inner weaknesses such as anger, ego, deceit, and greed. They have achieved infinite knowledge, infinite vision, perfect conviction and conduct, and unlimited energy. This way they have eradicated all karma which subdued the original qualities of the soul (four Ghäti karma). They are perfect human beings and they have shown us the path to liberation which brings an end to the cycle of life, death and suffering. At the end of their life the remaining human body related karma will be exhausted and they will become pure soul (soul without body) known as Siddha. Page 16 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #17 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION A01 - Jain Prayers Namo Siddhanam I bow to all Siddhas (liberated souls) who have attained the state of perfection and immortality. They are pure soul and pure consciousness. They possess no karma and hence no physical body. After nirvana (death), all Arihantas become Siddhas Namo Äyariyanam I bow to all the Acharyas, who are the heads of various Jain congregations. They explain the path of liberation, which is the unity of Samyag Darshan (Right Conviction), Samyag Jnän (Right Knowledge), and Samyak Charitra (Right Conduct). They explain the importance of spiritual life over material life and preach everyone to live a compassionate and simple life. Namo Uvajjhäyänam I bow to the Upadhyäys, who are the learned scholars of the Jain scriptures and their proper interpretations. They teach the principles of Jain religion and how to apply such principles in our daily life. Namo Loe Savva Sähunam I bow to all the Sädhus and Sadhvis (ascetics) of the universe who strictly follow the five great vows of conduct; Ahimsa, truth, non-stealing, celibacy, and non-possession and thus inspire us to live a simple life. Eso Pancha Namukkaro To these five types of great souls, I offer my prayers. Savva Pävapa Panäsano May such prayer help diminish all my negative vibrations and sins. Mangalänam cha Savvesim Padhamam Havai Mangalam Offering this prayer is the foremost amongst all of the auspicious benedictions. 02 Divine Refuge Prayer चत्तारिसरणंपवज्जामि, अरिहंतेसरणंपवज्जामि, सिद्धेसरणंपवज्जामि, साहसरणंपवज्जामि, केवलीपण्णत्तंधम्मसरणंपवज्जामि।। Chattäri saranam pavajjämi, Arihante saranam pavajjämi, Siddhe saranam pavajjämi, Sähü saranam pavajjämi, Kevali pannattam dhammam saranam pavajjämi || I take refuge in the four auspicious and supreme entities of perfected souls, liberated souls, ascetics and the religion. These are expounded by self-control, non-violence and compassion. 03 Religious Stutis मंगलंभगवानवीरो, मंगलंगौतमप्रभु। मंगलंस्थूलिभद्राया, जैनधर्मोस्तुमंगलं।। Mangalam Bhagawan Viro, mangalam Gautam prabhu Mangalam Sthülibhadrädyä, Jain dharmostu mangalam Il Bhagawan Mahavir is auspicious, Ganadhar Gautam Swami is auspicious; Acharya Sthulibhadra is auspicious; Jain religion is auspicious. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 17 of 398 Page #18 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION मंगलभगवानवीरो, मंगलंगौतमोगणि मंगलंकुन्दकुन्दार्यो, जैनधर्मोस्तुमंगलं ।। Mangalam Bhagavana Viro, mangalam Gautamo gani | Mangalam Kundakundaryo, Jain dharmostu mangalam || Bhagawan Mahavir is auspicious, Ganadhar Gautam Swami is auspicious; Ächärya Kunda-kunda is auspicious; Jain religion is auspicious. अर्हन्तो भगवंतइन्द्रमहिताः सिद्धाश्चसिद्धिस्थिता । आचार्याजिनशासनोन्नतिकराः पूज्याउपाध्यायकाः । श्री सिद्धान्तसुपाठकामुनिवरा, रत्नत्रयाराधकाः । पंचैतेपरमेष्ठिनःप्रतिदिनम्, कुर्वंतुवोमंगलम् ।। Arhanto bhagavanta indramahitäh, Siddhäshcha siddhisthitä | Acharya jinashasanonnatikaräh, püjyä Upadhyayakah | Shri siddhäntasupathaka Munivarä, ratnatrayäradhakäh Panchai te Paramesthinah pratidinam, kurvantu vo mangalam || A01 Jain Prayers Tirthankar Bhagawän, who is worshipped by heavenly gods; Siddha Bhagawän, who permanently reside on Siddhashilä; Ächärya Mahäräj, who propagate the Jain religion; revered Upädhyay Mahäräj; and Sädhus and Sädhvis who are well versed in the scriptures and followers of three jewels of Jainism; may these five supreme beings bestow bliss every day. आदिमंपृथिवीनाथ- मादिमंनिष्परिग्रहम् । आदिमंतीर्थनाथंचऋषभस्वामिनंस्तुमः ।। Adimam pruthivinatha-madimam nishparigraham | Ädimam tirthanätham cha, Rushabhasväminam stumah || We pray to Bhagwan Rishabhdev who was the first king, who was the first one to renounce all his possessions and who is the first Tirthankar. वीरः सर्वसुरासुरेन्द्र महितो, वीरंबुधाः संश्रिताः वीरेणाभिहतः स्वकर्मनिचयो, वीरायनित्यंनमः । वीरात्तीर्थमिदं प्रवृत्तमतुलं वीरस्यघोरतपो वीरे श्रीधृतिकीर्ती कांतिनिचयः श्रीवीरभद्वंदिशः ।। Virah sarvasuräsurendra-mahito, Viram budhäh sanshritäh Virenäbhihatah svakarma nichayo, Viräya nityam namah Virat tirthamidam pravruttamatulam, Virasya ghoram tapo Vire shri dhyuti kirti känti nichayah, shri Vira! bhadram dishah || I always bow down to Bhagawän Mahävir, who has eradicated all His Karma and who is worshipped by all heavenly gods as well as demons. O Mahävir Swami Bhagawän, the learned take refuge in You. You have established this un-paralleled Tirtha (four-fold Jain sangh). O Bhagwan Mahävir, Your austerities were intense. You have attained the ultimate enlightenment, wealth of knowledge, patience, glory, grace, and peace. Oh! Bhagawän Mahävir, please guide me on the path to liberation. Page 18 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #19 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION A01 - Jain Prayers तुभ्यंनमस्त्रिभुवनार्तिहरायनाथ। तुभ्यंनमःक्षितितलामलभूषणाय॥ तुभ्यंनमस्त्रिजगतःपरमेश्वराय। तुभ्यंनमोजिन! भवोदधिशोषणाय॥ Tubhyam namastribhuvanartiharaya nätha/ Tubhyam namah kshititalämalabhushanaya/ Tubhyam namastrijagatah parameshvaraya, Tubhyam namo jina ! bhavodadhi shoshanaya || Bhaktamar Stotra - Acharya Mänatungasuri O Lord! My namaskaar to you, because you destroy the miseries of the three worlds. O Lord! My namaskaar to you, as you are the jewel on the surface of the earth. My namaskaar to you, as you are the Lord paramount of the three worlds. My namaskaar to you as make the ocean of mundane existence completely dry (free us from the cycle of transmigration) 04 Universal Forgiveness Stotra - Khämemi Savva Jive Sutra By means of this sutra, we ask for forgiveness from all living beings of the universe and we also grant forgiveness to all living beings of the universe. In this way a relationship of mutual forgiveness and friendship is developed among all living beings. This is the true essence of the Jain religion. खामेमिसव्वजीवेसूत्र: खामेमिसव्वजीवे, सव्वेजीवाखमंतमे। मित्तीमेसव्वभूएस, वेरम्मज्झनकेणइ।।. .1. Khämemi savva jive sutra: khamemi savve jiva, savve jiva khamantu me, mitti me savva bhuyesu, veram majha na kenai.. ..1 I forgive all living beings, May all living beings forgive me. My friendship is with all living beings, My enmity is nonexistent. 05 Reflection on Universal Peace - Upsargah Kshayam Yanti Sutra Recitations of the following sutras help to spread peace among all living beings in the universe. उपसर्गाः क्षयं यान्ति सूत्र: उपसर्गाःक्षयंयान्ति, छिदयन्तेविघ्नवल्लयः। मनःप्रसन्नतामेति, पूज्यमानेजिनेश्वरे।।. .1. upasargäh kshayam yänti, chidyante vighna-vallayah. manah prasannatämeti, pujyamäne jineshvare. .1. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 19 of 398 Page #20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION All problems get resolved, All obstacles get removed, The heart becomes full of joy, For those who get in touch with the inner higher self. 06 Reflection on Universal Friendship - Shivmastu SarvaJagatah Sutra Recitations of the following sutras help to spread good wishes to all living beings in the universe. शिवमस्तु सर्वजगतः सूत्र: शिवमस्तुसर्वजगतः, परहितनिरताभवन्तुभूतगणाः । दोषाःप्रयांतुनाशं, सर्वत्रसुखीभवतुलोकः।।. .1. Shivmastu sarva jagatah, Parhit nirata bhavantu bhutaganah, Doshah prayantu nasham, Sarvatra sukhi bhavantu lokah.. .1. May the whole universe be blessed, May all beings engage in each other's well-being, May all weakness, sickness and faults diminish and vanish, May everyone be healthy, prosperous, blissful, and peaceful. 07 Reflection on Spirituality and Pure Consciousness By reciting the following sutras we reflect on the true qualities of our soul. दया, शांति, समता, क्षमा, सत्य, त्याग, वैराग्य होयमुमुक्षुघटविषे, एहसदायसुजाग्य Daya shanti samatä kshamä, satya, tyag, vairagya, Hoya mumukshu ghata vishe, eha sadaya sujagya. Page 20 of 398 The true seeker of eternal peace has seven cardinal virtues, which are compassion, peace, equanimity, forgiveness, truthfulness, renunciation, and non-attachment to worldly relations and objects. These qualities keep one constantly vigilant. कषायनीउपशांतता, मात्रमोक्षअभिलाष भवेखेद, प्राणीदया, त्यांआत्मार्थनिवास. Kashaya-ni upashänta-tä, mätra moksha abhiläsha, Bhave kheda präni dayä, tyä ätmärtha niväsa. A01 Jain Prayers Where there are no passions like anger, ego, deceit and greed; where there are no worldly desires; where there is compassion for all living beings; and where the only desire is to liberate the self, there is the abode of self-realization. राग, द्वेष, अज्ञानए, मुख्यकर्मनीग्रंथ थायनिवृत्तिजेहथी, तेजमोक्षनोपंथ. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #21 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION A01 - Jain Prayers Raga, dvesha, ajnäna e, mukhya karma-ni grantha, Thäya nivrutti jeha-thi, te ja mokshano pantha. Attachment, hatred, and ignorance are the three principal reasons of the bondage of karma to the soul. The path by which stoppage of karma occurs is the path of liberation. 08 Reflection on True Teacher (Sadguru) By reciting the following sutras we respect our true teacher and his/her qualities. जेस्वरूपसमज्याविना, पाम्योदुःखअनंत; समजाव्युतेपदनम्, श्रीसद्गुरूभगवंत. Je svaroop samajyä vinä, pämyo dukha anant; Samajävyu te pad namu, shri sadguru bhagavant. I bow to the feet of the Holy Teacher, who explained the true nature of the Soul; without its understanding, I suffered infinite misery. आत्मज्ञानसमदर्शिता, विचरेउदयप्रयोग; अपूर्ववाणीपरमश्रुत, सद्गुरूलक्षणयोग्य. ätma-jnän samadarshitä, vichare uday-prayog apurv väni param-shrut, sadguru lakshan yogya. The admirable qualities of the Holy Teacher are self-realization, equanimity, compassion, pious speech, and the knowledge of the highest scriptures. He lives worldly life without any attachment or aversion. देहछतांजेनीदशा, वर्तेदेहातीत; तेज्ञानीनाचरणमा, होवंदनअगणित. Deh chhatä jeni dashä, varte dehätit; Te gnäninä сharanmä, ho vandan aganit. I often bow to the feet of the Holy Teacher who lives in a human body, but his actions are beyond all attachments to the body and other worldly relations. 09 Divine Gratitude Prayer अज्ञानतिमिरान्धानं, ज्ञानाञ्जनशलाकया। नेत्रंउन्मीलितंयेन, तस्मैश्रीगुरवेनमः।। योगशास्त्र - आचार्यहेम्चंद्रसुरि Ajñanatimirandhānas, jñānāñjana shalakayal Netraṁ unmīlitas yena, tasmai shri gurave namah || Yogshästra by Hemchandrächärya The darkness of ignorance was blinding my vision. A healing paste (the medicine of true Knowledge) has been applied. Now my inner eyes are open. To the Master who helped me, who removed the layers of ignorance and enabled me to see rightly, I humbly offer my appreciation and gratitude. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 21 of 398 Page #22 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION Jain Verse · May the entire universe attain bliss, May all beings be oriented to the interest of others, • Let all faults be eliminated and • May people be happy everywhere. Hindu Verse A02 Dharma: Religion ⚫ May all persons be happy, May all be disease free, May all attain well-being and ⚫ Let no one be overtaken by miseries. • A02 Dharma: Religion 01 Introduction Every living being desires happiness, and endeavors to avoid pain and suffering. The question is how these objectives can be achieved. Generally, a person will feel happy if he gets whatever he desires and can avoid everything that he does not like. However, situations do occur, which are not in his interest or do not conform to his liking. Even in favorable situations, it is not always within his power to prolong the situation. Every situation changes and a person feels miserable when the new situation is not to his liking. Moreover, desires and likes or dislikes of all beings are not identical. What one person loves may be of utter distaste to another. It is therefore impossible that everything can happen to everyone's taste. Viewed in this light, it would seem that there couldn't possibly be a way for making everyone happy. Fortunately, however, there is a way. Two verses, one each from Jain and Hindu traditions quoted above, address that way. It should be noted that they have identical meanings. Both of them convey the same message of well-being for all, for the whole universe, and for the elimination of evil. Shraman (Jain, Buddhist) and Vedic (Hindu) traditions have flourished together; both have borrowed from and influenced ideologies of the other. It is therefore not surprising that Jain scholars have time and again insisted on the study of not only Jainism, but also the six schools of thought prevalent in India and collectively known as Shad-darshan. Broadly classified, they are known as Vedic and Shraman traditions, both having originated from the same Indo-Aryan culture. Both of them have addressed the subject of universal happiness and have discovered that the way to universal happiness is to wish and act for happiness and well-being for all. If everyone acts accordingly, the world can turn into paradise and there would not be any misery; at least man-made misery would come to an end. Indian philosophies go beyond seeking happiness in this life. Almost all of them believe in the existence of an eternal soul and in a continually changing pattern of everything else. Therefore, they seek happiness that lasts beyond the present life. Their ultimate goal is to present the path of liberation leading to the termination of the cycle of life and death. However, as long as we are not liberated, their approach is to seek continuing universal happiness. The above two verses therefore urge everyone to look earnestly for the well-being of all others, to stay meritorious in this life to be sure of reaping fruits of their merits in subsequent lives. When one talks of religion, the question may arise, 'Why do we bother about religion? Could we not be happy in this life without worrying about religion?' One may be healthy, have a loving spouse and children that they love, have plenty of money, and possess all the amenities that one needs. What more is religion going to offer? These are legitimate questions. The concept underlying these questions revolves around our body. Its health, its relations, its well-being, and comforts and luxuries it can indulge in are supposed to bring forth happiness. Accordingly, when such situations are to our liking, we consider ourselves happy. Unfortunately the body with which, we identify ourselves and also everything around it is transitory. All Page 22 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION A02 Dharma: Religion the situations are ephemeral. The happiness that we might be experiencing from such situations can disappear at any time. We do not know what is going to happen at the next moment. In fact, our socalled happiness is unstable and short-lived. Even if situations conducive to our interest were likely to continue indefinitely, peace and happiness may not always materialize. As the poet Percy Shelley put it in one of his poems, we are prone to 'look before and after and pine for what is naught.' Hardly anyone feels satisfied with what he has. We have the tendency to desire what we don't have. Our desires are endless and as long as those desires remain unsatisfied, no one can ever feel happy and experience real peace that can lead to blissful pleasure. We may strive hard for achieving that pleasure but hardly any one attains it any time during his life. 02 What is Religion? The growth of scientific knowledge and technology has given new dimensions to our lives and has influenced every aspect of our living. Science has done a great service to mankind by providing amenities for pleasant living and has saved men from many miseries and uncertainties of the primitive past. It has also destroyed many superstitions and religious dogmas. At the same time, the scientific outlook has uprooted the moral, religious, and cultural values of our society. In the light of the advance of scientific perspective some individuals have renounced our traditional religious beliefs and values. We know much about the atom but not much about the values needed for a meaningful and peaceful life. We are living in a state of disarray. Our lives are full of worries, emotional disorders, and conflict of values. Today man needs mental peace and complete integration with his own personality and with his social environment. Can religion, in general, and Jainism, in particular, meet this need of our times? Yes, it can. Religion has eternal concepts and values that can meet the needs of the time. Now, what do we mean by the term religion? Many western scholars define religion as faith. Some say that religion is belief in spiritual beings. Others define religion as faith in the conservation of values. The inner core of religion is faith, but it is the faith in our own existence and our own real nature, belief in some eternal and spiritual values that are essential for the existence and uplift of mankind. A generally accepted definition of religion is 'Dhärayati Iti Dharma'. It means that what holds (from falling) is religion. Our remaining in a deluded state constitutes a fall and religion tends to protect us. It teaches us that the physical body, with which we identify ourselves, is alive on account of the soul that abides within it. The soul is our true self. We are the consciousness pervading the body and our association with a body terminates at the end of life. The true nature of consciousness is to know whatever happens without any sense of craving or aversion. It is therefore futile to be pleased or displeased with different situations. Thus by revealing our true nature, religion helps in extricating us from the deluded state in which we have been entangled since time without beginning. Religion teaches us to know ourselves. "He, who knows one (soul), also knows all; He who knows all, knows the one." This quotation taken from Jain scripture Ächäränga Sutra states that he who knows the soul, knows everything else. This is so because the knowledge of true Self as pure, enlightened, not aging, immortal and ever blissful soul can lead to the state of having no desire. Therefore, Jain scriptures define religion as 'Vatthu Sahävo Dhammo'. It means that religion is the real nature of things. Religion is the nature or property of all substances (Dravyas) including soul and matter. We seldom try to explore who we are and what is our true nature. Nothing against our nature is going to give us lasting happiness or real satisfaction. Without knowing ourselves and without realizing our own nature, we have been trying to gain happiness. No wonder that it eludes us, because we have been trying to gain it from extraneous circumstances. In a way, we have been dwelling all the time in a state of delusion about ourselves. We can just as well say we have been pursuing a mirage. That being so, what is the real nature of the human being? The real nature of human beings is equanimity. Ächäränga sutra defines religion as mental equanimity. In Bhagavati sutra, Gautam Swami asks Bhagawan Mahavir, "What is the nature of soul?" Bhagawän replies, "The nature of soul is equanimity." Gautam asks, "What is the ultimate aim of soul?" Mahävir replies, "The ultimate aim of the soul is also equanimity." Ächärya Kund-kund, in Samaysär, has equated the essential nature (Svabhäv) of soul with equanimity. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 23 of 398 Page #24 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION A02 - Dharma: Religion This, of course, does not mean that we should not try to change an undesirable situation; nor does it endorse inaction. As long as the soul is embodied, it will stay active. There are different types of activities that a monk or a laymen should undertake. Religion, however, prescribes that everyone should undertake activities vigorously but without any degree of attachment. This would mean facing any situation dispassionately without reacting in terms of craving or aversion. The common objective is to enable one to view every situation, comfortable or uncomfortable, with equanimity and without getting agitated. That would amount to knowing oneself and abiding in one's own blissful nature. Religion is nothing but an endeavor for the realization of one's own essential nature. Dwelling in one's own essential nature means to remain secure in the state of a spectator or observer. It is the state of subjectivity or of a pure knower. In this state, the consciousness is completely free from excitement and emotions, and the mind becomes tranquil. It is the precondition for enjoying spiritual happiness, and for relieving mental tension, which is an impure state of mind. This is the practice of equanimity of mind. Nobody wants to live in a state of stress. All seek relaxation instead of tension, contentment instead of anxiety. Our real nature is mental peace or equanimity. Religion is nothing but a way of achieving this mental peace. Religion is truth. When you first discover and then begin to live by inner truth, it becomes your measurement for everything. If an action fits with this truth, then you do it. If it does not, you reject it. It is not justifying; it is acting in accordance with your inner measuring rod. Truth becomes your permanent inner companion. The path to liberation of rational knowledge, rational perception, and rational conduct is the application of equanimity in the three aspects of our conscious life, which is, knowing, feeling and willing. Evenmindedness, broader and unbiased outlook and regard for other ideologies and thoughts constitute equanimity of knowledge or rational knowledge. Detachment from the objects of worldly pleasures, balanced state of mind, and the feeling of equality constitute equanimity of feeling or rational perception. Control over one's desires, regard for other's life and property, equity and fairness in social life constitute equanimity of willing or rational conduct. The three organs of rational conduct are body, speech, and mind. According to Jain teachers, equanimity of body, speech, and mind should be the directive principle of religious life. Equanimity of mind entails non-attachment or non-possessiveness, Equanimity of body is nonviolence (Ahimsa) and Equanimity of speech is non-absolutism. Nonviolence, non-attachment, and non-absolutism are the three pillars of Jainism. By adopting these concepts, we can attain happiness and peace in our lives and create an atmosphere of tolerance and trust in society. 03 Meaning of Jainism Jainism is a religion propounded by a Jina'. Principles enunciated by a Jina' constitute Jainism and the follower of Jainism is known as a Jain'. Further, a Jina' is neither a supernatural being nor an incarnation of an all-powerful God. The word Jina' means the conqueror or the victorious, i. e., one who has conquered the worldly passions by one's own strenuous efforts. Human beings are entitled to become Jinas' and as such Jinas' are persons of this world who have attained supreme knowledge, subjugated their passions like desire, hatred, anger, greed, and pride and are free from any sort of attachment. Thus, Jainism is a religion of purely human origin. It is propagated by self-realized individuals who have attained perfect knowledge, omniscience, and self-control by personal effort and have been liberated from the bonds of worldly existence, and the cycles of all future life and death. Jinas are popularly viewed as Gods in Jainism. An infinite number of Jinas existed in the past. All human beings have the potential to become a Jina. In ancient times, Jainism was also known as Shraman Dharma, an ascetic tradition or the religion of Nirgrantha, one who is not attached to internal or external objects. The basic tenet of Jainism is "Ahimsa Parmo Dharmah". From an ethical point of view Dharma means duty - compassion is the supreme duty of an individual. From a religious point of view, Dharma means the true nature of a substance - compassion is the true nature of a human being. In addition, the Jain dictum "Parasparopagraho Jivänäm" means, "Living beings (Souls) render service to one another". Page 24 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION A02 Dharma: Religion 04 Why Do We Pray? A Jain verse says, "I bow down to the path of salvation, which is supreme, which is omniscient; I bow down to that power because I wish to become like that power." The object is not to receive anything from the entity or from that spiritual nature, but to become one like that. It's not that spiritual entity will make us become like itself by a magic power, but by following out of ideal which is before our eyes, we shall be able to change our own personality. It will be regenerated, as it were, and will be changed into a being, which will have the same character and divinity which is our idea of God. So we worship God, not as a being who is going to give us something, not because it is going to do something to please us, not because it is profitable in any way; there is not any idea of selfishness; it is like practicing virtue for the sake of virtue and without any other motive. God to us would mean to have attained the perfect and liberated state. We pay homage to the perfect for the sake to perfection, and not for any reward. One of the prayers of the Jaina is "I worship with power all consciousness which becomes the leader for us on the path of salvation; which has broken to pieces the mountain of physical forces of Karma; which has acquired omniscience. "I worship it because I wish to become that power. The Jinas are not Gods in the sense of being the creators of the universe, but rather as those who have accomplished the ultimate goal of liberation through the true understanding of self and other realities. The concept of God as a creator, protector, and destroyer of the universe does not exist in Jainism. The concept of God's descent into a human form to destroy evil is also not applicable in Jainism. The Jinas that have established the religious order and revived the Jain philosophy at various times in the history of humanity are known as Tirthankars. The ascetic sage, Rishabhdev was the first Tirthankar and Mahävir was the last Tirthankar of the spiritual lineage of the twenty-four Tirthankars in the current era. In summary, Jainism does not believe in a creator God, however this does not mean that Jainism is an atheistic religion. Jains believe in an infinite number of Jinas (Gods) who are self-realized omniscient individuals who have attained liberation from birth, death, and suffering. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 25 of 398 Page #26 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION 01 What is Jainism? Jains A03 - Basics of Jainism Jains are the followers of Jinas Jina means victors Jinas are the victors over their inner passions (Kashäyas) which are Anger (Krodha), Ego (Mäna), Deceit (Mäyä), and Greed (Lobha) Jinas are also called Tirthankars or Arihantas, and they are Gods in the human forms. Tirthankar Tirthankars establish the four-fold order of Jain congregation, which are Sädhus, Sädhvis, Shrävaks, and Shrävikäs. There are 24 Tirthankars in every ascending and descending time cycle. Jains follow the teachings of Tirthankars Tirthankars are • Self-Enlightened and Enlighteners • Super Most Illuminators • Conqueror of Inner Enemies Revealers of True Path ⚫ Liberated and Liberators • Constitutors of Religious Order Shri Mahavir Swami is 24th Tirthankar in this time A03 Basics of Jainism Concept of God in Jainism Every soul in its purest form is called Siddha and is a God. Arihantas are God in the human form. Every soul is equal and is capable of becoming God. The way to become a God is to get rid of all Karma by removing anger, ego, deceit and greed from our self. Every soul creates its own destiny. Jains do not believe in God as a creator, destroyer or preserver of the universe. Jain God • God is not a Creator, Preserver or Destroyer of the Universe ⚫ God is a pure consciousness or perfected soul without any karma attached to it . ⚫ Human being after attaining absolute knowledge is known as Arihanta • Arihanta who establishes four-fold order is known as Tirthankar Page 26 of 398 Liberated Souls are Jain Gods, who are only knower and Observer but not Doer • At liberation the soul remains finite, lives in Moksha forever, and never loses its identity • Every Soul is Eternal, Individual, and has a potential to become Liberated or God Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION A03 Basics of Jainism Religion "Any activity of thought, speech or action that helps us get rid of our vices/inner enemies such as anger, ego, deceit and greed is a Jain religious activity". 02 Main Principles/Tenets of Jainism Ahimsa (Non-Violence) Ahimsä, or non-violence, is a very broad subject. Jains believe that all life forms have a soul, and all souls are basically equal and should be treated with respect. This teaches us universal love and compassion towards all living beings. Violence can be committed in three ways thoughts, words and actions. Violent actions are obviously harmful to both, the doer and the receiver. Violent words leave permanent scars in the heart and the mind of the other As thoughts are the root cause of words and actions, violent thoughts that may or may not result in violent actions are considered bad because they do the most damage to your soul. Vegetarianism is just an expression of this belief of compassion for all living beings Anekäntaväda (Non-Absolutism) Understanding truth from various standpoints is Anekäntaväda. Considering our limited scope of arriving at complete truth, Jainism presents the theory that truth is relative to the viewpoint from which it is known. All knowledge is multi-sided and true only from a limited perspective. Once we acquire this attitude, we will always be tolerant of others' viewpoints and willing to learn from it. Accepting partial truth in each one-sided view we can lead a life of partnership and participation, a life of friendliness and harmony. Aparigraha (Non-attachment/Non-possessiveness) Possession of material things is external possession. Attachment to material things as well as attachment to people is internal possession. Both can lead to anger, ego, deceit and greed. Hence, attachment is the cause of all our problems. The practice of non-attachment leads to equanimity in our lives, which is necessary for the liberation of our soul. Karma Theory (Law of Cause & Effect) The soul is like a magnet. Karma is like iron particles. Our Kashaya (anger, greed, deceit and ego) attract these karma particles to the soul which get bound to the soul. Due to this continuous accumulation of Karma, the soul has to pass through the cycles of birth and death. Our goal is to get rid of all previously attracted particles and stop attracting new particles like demagnetization. We do this through knowledge, equanimity, tolerance, penance, self-control, forgiveness, repentance, reverence, compassion, service, meditation and renunciation. Texts/Scriptures The Jain scriptures called "Ägams" are based on the teachings of Mahävir-swämi. They are composed in Ardha-Mägadhi Präkrit language, the common language during the time of Mahävirswämi. There are many other works by noted Ächäryas, Upädhyäys, Sädhus, Sädhvis, and scholars throughout history, which go into the details of every aspect of life. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 27 of 398 Page #28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION A03 - Basics of Jainism 03 Jain Temple A Jain temple is a beautiful, quiet and peaceful place to reflect upon our nature and soul Jain temple is a place of worship designed for worshipper to experience immense peace and serenity. The idols of Tirthankars and the temple's environment promote introspection, and bring home the feeling that God resides within one's own soul. Therefore, each person can follow a path of purification of the inner self, devoid of anger, ego, deceit, and greed. Many Jains visit a temple regularly while others visit an Upäshraya or Sthänak for meditation. Upäshraya is also a residence of Sädhus and Sadhvis. We should go to a temple in clean, simple clothes. We should not wear pearls, silk, fur and leather as they are obtained by killing oysters, worms and animals. Before entering the temple, we must take off our shoes. When we enter the temple we say Nissihi, meaning to leave behind'. This means that by mind, speech and action we are leaving all our worldly relations outside the temple, which in turn results in leaving our vices or 'Kashayas' which are anger, ego, deceit and greed. We must not eat, drink or chew anything in the temple, nor should we run-around, shout, talk to others, or socialize in the temple. A donation box in a temple promotes anonymous giving. 04 Idol (Murti) The idol (murt) represents the qualities of a Tirthankar but not the physical body. Hence, the idols of all Tirthankars are similar. Each Tirthankar has a unique emblem or symbol (Länchhan) that distinguishes the idol from the idols of other Tirthankars. This symbol is found on the base of each idol. An idol of a Jina either sitting in lotus posture or standing straight, illustrates a form of deepest meditation. The face and eyes shower us with compassion and inspire calmness within us. If one looks at an idol, the länchhan (emblem or symbol) is very clearly visible at the base of the idol identifying the respective Tirthankar, for example, an emblem of bull indicates that it is the idol of Adinath or Rishabhdev, the first Tirthankar. Usually an idol is carved from marble or cast from metal. In Shvetämbar sect, the idols of Tirthankars are beautifully decorated with the eyes. In Digambar sect, the idols of Tirthankars are in their natural undecorated form with their eyes semiclosed in meditation. Page 28 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY PHILOSOPHY B01 Fundamental Beliefs of Jainism B02 - Jain Path of Liberation - Ratna Trayi B03 Basics of Jainism B04 - Six Universal Substances I: Jiva or Living Being B05 - Six Universal Substances II: Non Living Substances B06 - Nav Tattva Part I: Jiva, Ajiva, Punya, Päp, Äsrava B07- Nav Tattva Part II: Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha B08 - Theory of Karma, Reincarnation and Karma Philosophy I B09 The Theory of Karma: Q and A B10 - Karma Philosophy II: Punya and Päp Karma B11 - Anekäntaväda I - Theory of Multiplicity B12 - Anekäntaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda B13 - Anekäntaväda III - Five Samaväya or Causal Factors B14 Fourteen Gunasthäna: Stages of Spiritual Development Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 29 of 398 Page #30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B01 - Fundamental Beliefs of Jainism B01 - Fundamental Beliefs of Jainism The following list summarizes the major beliefs of Jainism: The universe is without a beginning or an end, and is everlasting and eternal. No one has created it and no one can destroy it. Six fundamental substances or entities known as Dravya constitute the universe. They are Soul (Jiva), Matter (Pudgal), Principle of Motion (Dharma), Principle of Rest (Adharma), Space (Akäsha), and Time (Käl). All six entities are eternal. Although they undergo countless changes continuously, they do not transform from one substance to another and retain their inherent qualities. The soul is the only living substance, which is consciousness. Every living being is a soul. An infinite number of souls exist in the universe and they are all unique individuals. The remaining 5 substances are non-living beings (Ajiva). From eternity, every soul is ignorant and in delusion of its true nature and is also bounded by karma. The ignorant and deluded soul, while remaining in bondage, continues to attract and bind new karma. It is due to karma that the soul migrates from one life cycle to another, and passes through many pleasure and painful situations and suffers. A soul in its pure form has no Kashaya such as; anger, ego, deceit, and greed. Thus it has no karma attached to it and possesses infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite energy and power, unobstructed bliss, and no physical body. A soul in its impure form (a soul having Kashaya meaning karma particles are attached to it), possesses limited knowledge, limited perception, limited energy, physical body and its limitations, and experiences pleasure and pain. The ultimate goal for the soul is to achieve liberation from suffering through understanding and realization of its pure nature. Jainism believes that the proper Knowledge of reality, when combined with total Conviction of the knowledge of Reality and proper Conduct leads the worldly soul to break the continual binding process of karma to the soul and attain liberation from karma. Jains believe that each living being is a master of his/her own destiny. They rely a great deal on selfeffort and self-initiative for both their worldly requirements and their salvation or liberation. The complete true reality cannot be observed from a single viewpoint. To understand the true nature of reality, it is essential to acknowledge and accept the positive nature of the multiple perspectives of each situation or idea. This concept is called Anekantaväda (non-absolutism). Jains do not believe that there is a supernatural power that does favors for us if we please him or creates hurdles for us if it is displeased. Page 30 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B02 - Jain Path of Liberation - Ratna Trayi B02 - Jain Path of Liberation - Ratna Trayi The Jain philosophy is based on the premise that the ultimate goal of human life is liberation; to realize the free and blissful state of our true being. True philosophy should result in removing all bondage karma in the process of purifying the soul. Jainism addresses the true nature of soul and the reality. Lord Mahävir explained that all souls are equal in their potential for infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite energy or power, and unobstructed bliss. However, Jainism states that from eternity the soul is ignorant of its true nature (in Mithyätva) and is in bondage with karma (Karmic particles of matter). It is due to karma that the soul migrates from one life cycle to another and faces various circumstances of happiness and unhappiness. It is due to the ignorance of its true nature that the soul seeks pleasure in materialistic belongings and possessions and continue to feed its passions such as anger, ego, deceit, greed, lust, hatred, and self-centered violent thoughts. This action continuously accumulates new karma and suffering. The conduct of the present life should be aimed to attain liberation (Moksha), the state of eternal bliss from which there is no return to the cycle of life and death. Every soul can attain liberation, a supreme spiritual state by realizing its intrinsic purity and perfection. Jainism lays down a definitive course of practical moral discipline, contemplation of the highest truth, and reorientation of life for attaining ultimate reality or truth. Lord Mahävir and the other Tirthankars have shown the effectiveness of spiritual progress by putting it into the practice in their own lives. The prominent Monk, Umäsväti, around the 1st or 2nd century A.D., reminded us of it again in the very first verse of his Tattvärtha Sutra. It reads: "Samyag-darshan-jnän-chanträni Mokshamärgah". This prescribes a path to liberation -Moksha, which consists of the following trinity Ratna-Trayi: Samyag Darshan Samyag Jnän Samyag Chäritra Right perception Right knowledge Right conduct Right perception creates an awareness of reality or truth, right knowledge impels the person to proper action, and proper conduct leads him to the attainment of total freedom. They must coexist in a person if one is to make any progress on the path of liberation. 01 Samyag Darshan (Right Perception or Faith) According to Jain doctrine, all knowledge, except omniscience, is only partial truth from a particular viewpoint. Each individual has his or her unique perception of the world, which is a mixture of truth and ignorance. All perceptions are valid, but incomplete, views of reality. The limited knowledge of the worldly souls is distorted by ignorance unless it is uncovered by the right perception or faith. The first step in the process of self-realization is to discard wrong beliefs and to adopt a rational attitude in life. It is ascertaining true nature of the substances as they are. In other words, one should understand the true nature of the self and non-self, their interaction, and the result thereof without being guided by one's bias, prejudice or likes and dislikes. Thus, Right Faith consists of seeing the true nature of every substance in the universe. Jainism advocates that one should first try to know, comprehend, and understand the nature of reality. One should analyze, examine, test, verify, and then, if satisfied, be convinced of its truth and efficacy. Samyag Darshan is the foundation of truth and moral and spiritual discipline. It determines the right path of action and guides the consciousness toward the goal. Right faith is not blind faith but the faith resulting from the discretionary power of thought accompanied with the universal law of cause and effect. This faith enables one to discriminate what is beneficial from what is harmful. Right faith arouses the pure desire to acquire knowledge and it also turns whatever limited knowledge one has, into right knowledge. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 31 of 398 Page #32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY From a practical point of view, Samyag Darshan means to have a total faith in the Tirthankars, the Gurus, and the scriptures containing their preaching. Qualities of Samyag Darshan There are five internal qualities or "Lakshana" of Samyag Darshan, which we can introspect and see whether these qualities are present in our self. Ästikya True Faith in Religion Anukampa Nirved Samveg Upasham B02 Jain Path of Liberation - Ratna Trayi Empathy towards all living beings Realize that World is full of sorrow It is important to note that these qualities are internal. The person himself can introspect and know whether these are present or not. Others will not be able to decide. Only desire left is to achieve Moksha Feeling of detachment towards worldly objects and relationships Right Conviction and Right Knowledge together provide a proper understanding towards valid discrimination between what is worthy of rejection and what is worthy of acceptance, which is called Vivek or Bhed Jnän. This stage of spirituality is called realization of truth or self-realization known as Samyaktva (4th spiritual stage Gunasthänak). 02 Samyag Jnän (Right Knowledge) Right perception or faith makes us realize the reality of life, and the seriousness of our purpose in life. Right knowledge is the true and relevant knowledge of the reality. The knowledge about the existence of the soul, its good or bad action and its effect on the soul, and the possibility of entirely terminating the cycle of life and death by realizing the true nature of the soul is right knowledge. Nine Tattvas are: From the practical point of view, right knowledge means the proper knowledge of the six universal substances and nine principles or Nine Tattvas, which defines the relationship between Soul and Nonliving substance (Matter) and doctrine of Soul and Karma. Six Universal Substances are: ⚫ Soul, Matter, Medium of Motion, Medium of Rest, Space, and Time Page 32 of 398 Soul, Non-living elements, Äsrava, Bandha, Punya, Päp, Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha It is not absolutely necessary for a person to have detailed knowledge of above said universal substances or nine Tattvas to have right faith. If one has faith in the existence and energies of the soul and believes that by following the path of non-violence and non-attachment one can advance on the path of perfection, one has the Right Knowledge. A firm belief that the soul, though residing in the body is different from the body and possesses special qualities not found in the body, and by proper spiritual discipline can be free from the cycle of births and deaths is right Knowledge. Right perception or faith is essential in recognizing right knowledge from wrong knowledge (Mithyä Jnän). Right knowledge is free from three main defects: doubt, delusion, and indefiniteness. 03 Samyag-Chäritra and Spiritual Stages (Gunasthänak) Both right faith and right knowledge lead to right conduct. The realization of truth or Samyaktva leads a person to practice Right Conduct. Right conduct places a great emphasis on non-violence (Ahimsa), compassion, truthfulness, non-stealing, pluralism of views (Anekäntaväda or Syädväda), non-possession (Aparigraha) or limitation of possessions and non-possessiveness, self-purification, self-control, austerity, asceticism, penance, yoga and meditation, as the means of attaining liberation. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B02 - Jain Path of Liberation - Ratna Trayi Right faith and right knowledge are required for right conduct, and all are interdependent. Jains dedicate themselves to proper conduct through vows and sub vows. Vows are at the heart of Jain morality and are undertaken with a full knowledge of their nature and a determination to carry them through. Understanding of Samyag Darshan, Samyag Jnän, and Samyag Chäritra itself is not good enough to take us anywhere but we would have to apply them in real practice to their fullest to get the actual results. It should also be remembered that we would have to follow all three simultaneously. This threefold discipline helps us realize our own intrinsic purity. The trinity must be cultivated collectively to ensure liberation. Individually, they are incomplete and insufficient because they are mutually dependent. Collectively, the three jewels produce harmony, contentment, and bliss with the progressive march of the soul to higher planes. Various spiritual stages exist in practicing the Right Conduct. Householders follow initial stages and ascetics follow advanced stages and ultimately attain liberation. In the beginning, every living being is at the spiritual stage known as Mithyätva (1st stage of Gunasthänak). On the path of spiritual progress a person after acquiring proper knowledge of soul, matter and karma, destroys Faith Deluding (Darshan Mohaniya) karma first and attains Right Conviction or Faith. At that moment, his acquired knowledge is known as Right Knowledge because he has developed the unshakeable trust in his knowledge. This does not mean that he acquires all knowledge. This stage is known as the attainment of Samyaktva (4th stage of Gunasthänak). The person then gradually destroys Conduct Deluding karma (Chäritra Mohaniya karma) through the progressive manifestations of the soul's innate faculties of Right Conduct. First, one adopts the twelve vows of conduct of laypeople for self-control (5th stage of Gunasthänak) and then, gradually progresses towards the renunciation of worldly life and becomes an ascetic (6th and 7th stage). As an ascetic, one follows the five great vows and is slowly able to remove passions such as anger, ego, deceit, and greed from his nature. At the perfection of Right Conduct, he destroys all Conduct Deluding karma (Chäritra Mohaniya karma) and becomes completely free from passions. This is known as an attainment of Vitaräga state or state of no passions (12th stage of Gunasthänak). Once all Mohaniya karma (faith and conduct deluding karma) are exhausted, the remaining three Ghäti karmas - Jnänävaraniya Karma, Darshanävaraniya Karma, and Antaräya Karma are destroyed naturally and automatically within 48 minutes and without any further effort. This is known as attainment of a Keval-Jnän state (13th stage of Gunasthänak known as Sayogi-kevali). This is how a person destroys all four Ghäti karma and attains: Quality Revealed Karma Destroyed Mohaniya Karma Anant-sukha or infinite happiness/joy Jnänävaraniya Karma Darshanavaraniya Karmal Antaraya Karma Keval-jnän (Omniscience) or infinite knowledge Keval-darshan (Omni perception) or infinite perception Anant-virya or infinite power and energy After the destruction of all Ghäti Karma, a Kevali or Arihant continues to live a human life as an ascetic and delivers sermons at various places. This way his activities of body, speech, and mind are used to spread the message of non-violence, compassion, non-possessiveness, and pluralism view. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 33 of 398 Page #34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B02 - Jain Path of Liberation - Ratna Trayi At the end when he realizes that his life's span is near the end, he freezes his activities of body, speech, and mind. This is the 14th and last stage of Gunasthänak known as Ayogi-kevali. He lives at this stage for few seconds. Shortly after that, a person destroys all his four Aghäti Karmas, which happens at the time of death or Nirävna and attains total liberation. Karma Destroyed Quality Revealed Vedaniya Karma Avyäbädha-sukha meaning Infinite and uninterrupted bliss Gotra Karma Aguru-Laghutva meaning all Siddhas or liberated souls are equal Nam Karma Arupitva meaning Formlessness or no physical body Äyushya Karma Akshaya-Sthiti meaning Immortality or liberated soul will not return to birth, life, and death cycle The purified soul travels to the top of Lokäkäsh and remains in a permanent blissful state forever. Page 34 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B03 - Basics of Jainism B03 Basics of Jainism 01 Soul (Atmä) What is Soul? Where is it? What color is it? What shape is it? Does it really exist? If it does exist why do we not see the Soul? Undoubtedly, we believe in the existence of matter. We can see it and detect it around us. We usually tend to believe only what we see, hear, feel, touch or smell. The presence of certain objects or phenomenon is, in many cases, beyond the scope of our senses. For example, we cannot see the air and electricity but we realize their existence by their operations. Similarly, the existence of soul or Ätmä is realized by its operations. Jains believe that the difference between a living being and a nonliving object is that the living being has a soul and a nonliving object does not. The eternal question of "WHO AM I?" automatically establishes the existence of a soul. The distinguishing quality of the soul is consciousness (Chetanä) i.e. awareness of existence, feelings and thoughts. The Inherent Qualities of the Soul Infinite Perception (Anant Darshan) Infinite Knowledge (Anant Jnän) Infinite Happiness (Anant Sukh) Infinite Energy (Anant Virya) The natural state of a Soul is bliss. The Soul is an ocean of intelligence. The Soul is an ocean of knowledge. Just as the Soul knows everything, it sees, feels, and observes everything. The pure Soul is never angry, mad, or sad. When the Soul becomes non-attached, it reveals its infinite power. All souls are capable of attaining liberation (Moksha). 02 Classification of living beings (Jiva) All objects that we are surrounded by are either living beings or non-living things. All animals and plants are living beings. A cat playing with a ball is obviously living while the ball is non-living. A pigeon flying from tree to tree is a living being and so are the trees. Sometimes it is not so easy to decide because plants are living things but they do not play with balls or fly Non-living things (Ajiva) A doll, a chair or a glass are all non-living things. Most non-living things are parts of or are derived from those who were once living things. Coal is a good example. It was formed when trees died and sank into the soft ground. This happened many millions of years ago when the earth was covered with forests. Paper is non-living but it is made from trees. Peanut butter and Jelly are also non-living but they were made from the fruit of a plant. Living Beings (Jiva) In the universe, there are different forms of life such as human beings, animals, insects, plants, bacteria, and even smaller lives that cannot be seen through the most powerful microscopes of today. Jainism has classified all the living beings into two broad categories • Non-mobile or Sthävar Jiva - are those that are stationary and cannot move on their own. • Mobile or Trasa Jiva - are those that can move on their own. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 35 of 398 Page #36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY All living beings are classified according to the number of senses (Indriya) they possess. There are total five senses: touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing. B03 Basics of Jainism All Non-Mobile (Sthävar) Jivas are single-sensed beings. [These Jivas have only the sense of touch and are called Ekendriya. Classification of Mobile (Trasa) Jivas and Immobile (Sthavar) Jivas is described in details in "Shad Dravyas (Six Universal Substances). It is well known that plants grow, reproduce, etc., and they are accepted as living beings. Trees, plants, branches, flowers, leaves, and seeds are some examples of plant life. The Sanskrit term for plant is Vanaspati and therefore such Jiva is called Vanaspati-käya Jiva. Jains also believe that earth, water, fire, and air have life. Why is this knowledge important? Life cannot exist without food to eat and we cannot have food without some sort of violence. However, as Jains, we believe in minimizing violence. It is more harmful if we kill a life of a higher consciousness (more than one sense). According to Jainism, the degree of Himsä is dependent on the development of the senses of the soul that is killed. Thus, killing one soul having more senses is more violent and harmful than killing many souls with one sense who possess lower consciousness. Based on this belief, eating many vegetables is a less violent act than killing one animal for food. All foods, except vegetables, fruits and grains, are obtained by killing or harming a living being with two or more senses. Therefore, Jainism promotes consumption of only vegetarian foods (non-animal products). 03 Karma Karma is the key to a Soul's destiny and is based on the Natural Law of cause and effect. There are consequences for all our thoughts, words and actions. Our Kashaya - anger, ego, deceit and greed - bind karma to our soul. The famous saying, "everything that goes around comes around", perfectly describes the Theory of karma. This is the theory which gives us an explanation as to how certain characteristics or factors of our individuality, which we have at present, are direct results of forces generated in the past. Simply put it is the law of nature: "what you sow, so shall you reap". This reaping does not necessarily occur in the same lifetime. In addition, sowing is not restricted to verbal and physical acts alone. Thoughts even though they may not be put into action do affect your karma. Karmas are broadly classified into two groups: Destructive (Ghäti) Karma Non-destructive (Aghäti) Karma Ghäti means destruction. Those Karma that destroy the true nature of the Soul are called destructive or Ghäti Karma. They are: Knowledge Obscuring (Jnänävaraniya) Karma Perception Obscuring (Darshanävaraniya) Karma Deluding (Mohaniya) Karma Obstacle creating (Antaräya) Karma Page 36 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B03 - Basics of Jainism The Karma that do not destroy the true nature of the soul but are responsible for physical body, life span and social standing, are called non-destructive or Aghäti Karma: Feeling Pertaining (Vedaniya) Karma Body Determining (Näm) Karma Status Determining (Gotra) Karma Life-span Determining (Äyushya) Karma Understanding karma theory gives us hope and strength that through our own efforts we can liberate ourselves from the bondage of karma. Karma is the mechanism through which we can shape our own destiny. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 37 of 398 Page #38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B04 Six Universal Substances I: Jiva or Living Being B04 Six Universal Substances I: Jiva or Living Being 01 Jain Reality Jainism states that the universe is without a beginning or an end, and is everlasting and eternal. Six fundamental substances or entities known as Dravya constitute the universe. Although all six entities are eternal, they continuously undergo countless changes known as Paryäya. During these transformations nothing is created or destroyed and fundamental properties or qualities of the base substance remain unchanged which are known as Gunas (qualities). Lord Mahavir explained this phenomenon in his Three Pronouncements known as Tripadi: उप्पन्नेइ वा, विगमेइ वा, धुवेइ वा ।। Uppannei vä, Vigamei vä, Dhuvei vä II He proclaimed that Existence or Reality (also known as Sat) is a combination of appearance (Utpäd or Uppannei vä), disappearance (Vyaya or Vigamei vä), and persistence (Dhrauvya or Dhuvei vä). 02 Shad Dravyas (Six Universal Substances) Jain Philosophy does not give credence to the theory that the God is the creator, survivor, or destroyer of the universe. On the contrary, it asserts that the universe has always existed and will always exist in exact adherence to the laws of the cosmos. There is nothing but infinity both in the past and in the future. The universe consists of two classes of objects: Living beings Conscious, Soul, Chetan, or Jiva Non-living objects Unconscious, Achetan, or Ajiva Non-living objects are further classified into five categories: Pudgal Äkäsha Matter Space Medium of motion Medium of rest Time Käl or Samay These six entities, five non-livings and one living being, are described as aspects of reality in Jainism. They are also known as the six universal entities, substances, or realities. Dharmästikäya Adharmästikäya These six entities of the universe are eternal. There is no beginning and no end of any one of these entities. However, they continuously undergo countless changes. During the changes, nothing is lost or destroyed. Everything transform into another form. Page 38 of 398 As explained above Jainism believes that the universe is made from the combination of the six universal substances. All of the six substances are indestructible, imperishable, immortal, eternal and continuously go through countless changes. 03 Jiva (Soul or Living being) The Soul or Self is variously known as Jiva, Ätmä, Paramätmä, Chaitanya, and consciousness. The basic characteristic of soul as defined in the Jain scripture is "Upayoga Lakshano Jivah". It means that the soul is capable to know, think, and meditate. Soul is also known as awareness. This attribute is inseparable from consciousness. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B04 - Six Universal Substances l: Jiva or Living Being The soul is the only living substance. Soul is invisible and has no form or shape. It cannot be experienced by the senses. It is intangible, invisible, colorless, odorless, tasteless, formless, and shapeless. An infinite number of souls exist in the universe. In its pure form a soul without karma particles possesses infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite energy, and infinite bliss. The pure or perfect soul is also defined as Sat, Chit and Anand Sachchidananda meaning eternal, conscious, and bliss respectively. Some sages have described soul as "Neti, Neti" (Not this, not that) meaning it cannot be described. It can however be experienced by dwelling deep within oneself. In its impure form a soul with karma particles attached, each soul possesses limited knowledge, limited perception, limited energy, and experiences pleasure and pain. From time to time, worldly soul resides in different life forms through which it manifests itself. This type of transmigration and new embodiment, birth after birth, has been going on since the beginning of time The main qualities of worldly soul are; it grows, decays, fluctuates, varies, eats, sleeps, awakes, acts, fears, rests, has limited knowledge and perception, attempts to self-defend, and reproduces. It pervades the entire body it occupies. Classification of Jiva All living beings are classified into two major categories: Liberated or Siddha Jiva Non-liberated or Samsäri Jiva 1. Siddha Jiva (Liberated Soul) Liberated souls are known as Siddhas. They have no Karma and therefore, they no longer go through the cycles of birth and death. They are formless and devoid of body. They reside at the uppermost part of the universe just above Siddha-shilä. They have infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite energy, and infinite bliss. All Siddhas are an individual soul and they all are equal in their qualities, status, and nature. There are an infinite number of liberated souls. 2. Samsäri Jiva (Worldly Soul) There are an infinite number of worldly souls. Worldly soul is the one, which is not yet liberated due to bondage of karma particles. They have to go through the cycles of birth and death until they are liberated. They have limited knowledge, perception, energy, and bliss. They possess a definite shape, form, and body. Worldly souls enjoy or suffer as a result of Karma bondage. However, all worldly souls have a potential to be liberated and become Siddha. Worldly or the embodied soul is generally called Jiva. Worldly soul's qualities are as follows: Limited knowledge • Limited Vision Limited Power Limited Bliss Possesses a body plants, hellish, animal, human, or angel Wanders in the cycle of life and death Suffers from birth, death, pain, and pleasure Doer of all kinds of Karma actions • Enjoyer of the fruits of the Karma Infinite number of worldly souls • Capable of becoming free from worldly life Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 39 of 398 Page #40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY Entire universe is packed with Jiva., Jain scriptures state that there are 8.4 million types of birth places of Jiva. . They are broadly classified into two categories; mobile and immobile. Mobile Jiva have a capacity to move on their own while immobile Jiva lack this capacity. B04 Six Universal Substances I: Jiva or Living Being They are also classified based upon the number of senses they possess. All immobile (Sthävar) Jivas are one-sensed, which are further classified into five categories based upon the kind of body they possess. Mobile (Trasa) Jivas may possess anywhere from two to five senses. 3. Sthävar Jiva (Immobile) As explained above immobile Jivas have only one sense, the sense of touch. They are known as Ekendriya Jivas. They are divided into the following five categories: Prithvikaya (Earth Bodied Jiva): Seemingly inanimate forms of earth like, clay, sand, metal, coral, etc. are one sensed living beings,. Their body is made of earth and hence these living beings are known as Prithvikäya. Prithvi means earth and Käya means body. Apkäya (Water Bodied Jiva): Different forms of water are living beings. Examples are dew, fog, iceberg, rain, etc. Their body is made of water and hence these living beings are known as Apkäya. Sanskrit term for water is Ap. Teukaya (Fire Bodied Jiva): Different forms of fire are living beings. Examples are flames, blaze, lightning, forest fire, hot ash, etc. Their body is made of fire and therefore they are known as Teukäya. Sanskrit term for fire is Tejas. Väyukäya (Air Bodied Jiva): Air is also a living being. Examples are wind, whirlwinds, cyclones, etc. Their body is made of air and therefore they are known as Väyukäya. Sanskrit term for air is Väyu. Vanaspati-käya (Plant Bodied Jiva): All forms of vegetation and plants are one sensed living beings. Trees, plants, branches, flowers, leaves, roots and seeds are some examples of plant life. Vanaspati means vegetation.. Plant bodied living beings are further classified into following two subcategories: Pratyeka Vanaspati-kaya Jiva Sädhäran Vanaspati-käya Jiva Pratyeka Vanaspati-käya Jiva: Pratyeka means individual, each, or everyone. In this kind of plants, each cell contains one soul. However, since each leaf, fruit or a part of a plant contains innumerable cells and therefore each such plant, fruit or a piece of vegetable that grows on such plant contains innumerable (not infinite) number of souls. Trees, plants, bushes, stem, branches, leaves, and seeds, etc., which grow above the ground are all examples of Pratyeka Vanaspati-käya Jiva. Sädhäran Vanaspati-käya Jiva: Sädhäran means common. In Sädhäran Vanaspati-käya plants, infinite number of souls occupy a single cell as against Pratyeka Vanaspati-käya wherein each cell contains only one soul. However each seed, leaf, vegetable, and roots of the plant contain innumerable cells and hence, such plant possess infinite souls in a very small segment of the plant. Such plants therefore are also known as Anant-käya. Root vegetables, which grow under the ground such as potatoes, carrots, onions, garlic, beats, etc., belong to this category. In summary, a very small segment of Pratyeka Vanaspati-käya plant contain innumerable souls and the Sädhäran Vanaspati-käya plant contains infinite number of souls. Page 40 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B04 - Six Universal Substances I: Jiva or Living Being 4. Trasa Jiva (Mobile) All Mobile living beings have more than one sense organ. They are further classified depending upon the number of sense organs they possess. Beindriya (Two Sensed Living Beings): Two sensed beings have the sense of touch and taste. Examples - shells, worms, insects, termites, and microbes in stale food. Treindriya (Three Sensed Living Beings): Three sensed beings have the sense of touch, taste, and smell. Examples - white ants, moths, insects in wheat, grains, and centipedes. Chaurindriya (Four Sensed Living Beings): Four sensed beings have the sense of touch, taste, smell, and sight. Examples - Scorpions, crickets, spiders, beetles, locusts, and flies. Panchendriya (Five Sensed Living Beings): Five sensed beings have all the five senses of touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing. Examples - human beings, COWS, lions, fish, birds, etc. Five sensed living beings are further classified into following four categories: Näraki (Infernal) Living beings in the hell Tiryancha (Animals) Elephants, lions, birds, fish, etc. Dev (Celestial) Heavenly living beings Manushya Human being The five sensed beings, which possess a capacity of rational thinking are called Sanjni Panchendriya and those without it are called Asanjni Panchendriya. 04 Paryäpti (Power) and Präna (Vitality) All living beings have special attributes related to body such as Paryäpti (power) and Präna (vitality) Paryäpti (Bio-potential Power) Paryäpti means an ability through which living beings can convert matter Pudgals like food into different kinds of energy. There are six kinds of Paryäptis: Food • Body Senses Respiration Speech Mind When any living being dies, the soul along with its Tejas (fiery body) and Kärman (karmic) bodies transmigrates into a new body and the first thing it does is to consume food. Then the Jiva gradually acquires a physical body and the power of senses. The activities of consuming food, developing a body, and forming and strengthening sense organs go on continuously. The body is formed in duration called the Antar-muhurta within 48 minutes. Next, the Jiva acquires the power of respiration and eventually the powers of speech and mind. The Ekendriya, one sensed jivas, have four Paryäptis, 1) Food 2) Body 3) Sense, and 4) Respiration The Beindriya, the Treindriya, the Chaurindriya and the Asanjni Panchendriya jivas possess 5) Speech Paryapti in addition to the above four. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 41 of 398 Page #42 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY The Sanjni Panchendriya jivas possess 6) Man Paryäpti (capacity of rational thinking) in addition to the above five. Depending upon the development of the Paryäptis, the living beings are also classified as: Paryäpta Jiva Aparyäpta Jiva Paryäpta Jivas means they have developed Paryäptis to its full capacity while Aparyäpta Jivas have not developed Paryäptis to its full capacity. Präna (Vitality) Depending upon the development of living beings, they have up to ten kinds of präns or vitality. They are: B04 Six Universal Substances I: Jiva or Living Being • Sparsha-Indriya (Touch): Ability to feel the sensation of touch Ras-Indriya (Taste): Ability to taste • Ghrän-Indriya (Smell): Ability to smell ⚫ Chakshu-Indriya Vision): Ability to see • . . • • Shravan-Indriya (Hearing): Ability to hear Mano-bal (Mind): Ability to think Vachan-bal (Speech): Ability to speak Käyä-bal (Body): Ability to move the body Shväso-chchhväs (Respiration): Ability to inhale and exhale Ayushya (Longevity): Ability to live The Ekendriya Jivas possess only four Präns: They possess touch, body, respiration, and longevity. The Beindriya Jivas possess six präns. They possess the taste and speech vitality in addition, to the above four präns. The Treindriya Jivas possess seven präns. They possess the smell vitality, in addition, to the above six präns. The Chaurindriya Jivas possess eight präns. They possess the vision vitality in addition to the above seven präns. The Panchendriya Jivas are divided into two groups: ⚫ The Asanjni (non-sentient) Jivas, whose minds are not fully developed. ⚫ The Sanjni (sentient) Jivas, whose minds are fully developed. The Asanjni Panchendriya Jivas possess nine präns. They possess hearing vitality in addition to the above eight präns. The Sanjni Panchendriya Jivas possess ten Pränas. They possess mind vitality in addition to the above nine präns. Thorough understanding of vitalities is very important for leading a life of non-violence. Any injury, no matter how little, to any of these vitalities of a living being, is considered violence. The degree of violence committed is greater and graver when committed to living beings that possess more vitalities. Also, more injury caused to a given vitality, more is the violence committed. When we do Himsä, our soul accumulates bad Karma or Päp (sin). Therefore, to prevent the accumulation of karma, observe Ahimsa- nonviolence related to all of these ten präns for all the categories of Jivas.. Now you may understand why we say "Ahimsa Parmo Dharma" (Nonviolence is the supreme religion), because by observing Ahimsa we are protecting the vitality of the soul. Page 42 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #43 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY Paryäptis and Präns Table 1 Type of Jivas Abilities Ekendriya Dvindriyas Treindriya Chaurindriya Asanini Panchendriya Sanjni Panchendriya Food Body Präna Paryäptis and Präns Table 2 Type Category Living beings with one sense Living beings with having two senses Living beings with having three senses Living beings with having four senses Living beings with five senses but without a fully developed mind Paryäpti Respiration Speech Mind Touch Ability to move Respiration Lifespan Taste Speech Smell Living beings with five senses with a mind Sight Hearing Ability of rational thinking One sense Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No B04 Six Universal Substances I: Jiva or Living Being Two sense Yes Yes Yes - Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Three sense Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Paryäptis or Power Präns or Vitality 04 06 07 4 5 5 5 5 6 Four sense Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No 08 09 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 10 Asanjni Five sense Yes Yes Yes Yes No Sanjni Five sense Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 05 Four Realms These are various forms of living beings in this universe. At the same time every second, someone dies and someone is born. Nothing is permanent. This makes us wonder what happens to those who die, and who decides what one will be born as. Jainism explains this in a very simple and sound logical way based on karma theory. Due to the Karma associated with their souls, living beings have been going through the cycle of life and death in various life forms since time immemorial. The journey of soul through the cycles of birth and death ends when the soul becomes completely free of karma and attains liberation. According to all Eastern religions including Jainism, there are four realms of life where one may be reborn after death. These are known as Gatis in Jain terminology. These realms of life are: Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 43 of 398 Page #44 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B04 - Six Universal Substances I: Jiva or Living Being • Manushya (Human) beings • Dev (Heavenly) beings • Tiryancha (Animal, birds, insects, vegetations) beings • Näraki Hell (Infernal) beings It is the kind of Karma bound to the soul, which determines the realm in which a given soul will be born after death. Thus, it is only our deeds and Karma, past or present, which will determine our destiny after death. Human Beings One who leads simple, straightforward, and compassionate life is generally reborn as human. To be reborn as human it is imperative to observe vows and restraints, have deep faith in true Guru, strive to gain true knowledge as preached by the Tirthankar Bhagawan, lead a life free of strong attachment to worldly things, and exercise a strong control over anger, ego, deceit, and greed. As human beings, we have been endowed with the ability to think and differentiate right from wrong. We can decide what is good for us, and what is not. We also have capacity to control our mind and activities. We can learn principles of Jainism and practice them by adopting appropriate vows and restraints. We can also renounce worldly life (Samsär) and become Sädhu, which can help us lead to liberation. Heavenly Beings Those who lead simple and disciplined life, observe vows of Shrävak or ascetic, observe penance, and follow a good moral life are generally reborn as heavenly beings. Heavenly beings have superior physical capabilities, numerous supernatural powers, and access to all luxuries. But heavenly life is also transient. They are also not free of death. Heavenly beings cannot adopt restraints or become Sädhu. Therefore, heavenly being cannot attain liberation from their heavenly life. They will have to be reborn as human beings in order to attain liberation. We may be born as a heavenly being due to more good Karma (Punya). But at the same time we must remember that the soul will never attain liberation from a heavenly life. Tiryancha Beings Those who are selfish, deceptive, cause troubles, or wish evil for others are likely to be reborn as Tiryancha. Lion, elephant, bird, plant, bug, etc. are examples of Tiryancha beings. Some animals, birds, sea creatures, and reptiles do have a mind but their thinking capacity is limited. So, they cannot follow any vows nor progress spiritually. Infernal Beings Those who engage in violence, lying, stealing, and excessive sensual pleasure or are too possessive, angry, egoistic, greedy, deceptive, or intensely attached to the worldly life are likely to be reborn as infernal beings in hell. As an infernal being, one has to continuously suffer. Infernal beings spend most of their life fighting among themselves, and thus causing more suffering to each other. Therefore, such a life is absolutely unsuitable for spiritual pursuit 06 Conclusion Among all living beings, the most happiness is found in celestial beings, while the most suffering is found in infernal beings. Neither celestial nor infernal beings can take any vows. They cannot attain salvation during that life. Animals possess only limited restraint and, therefore, they cannot attain salvation. Only human beings can use logic to the fullest extent, can perform austerities, can live with restraint and can do meditation. Thus, a soul can attain Moksha only through human life. In conclusion, we, the humans are the masters of our own destiny. We must not blame anyone or anything else for our destiny. Let us aspire to lead a spiritual life without delay so that we may be reborn as human beings again and continue to progress on the path of liberation. Page 44 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #45 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B05 - Six Universal Substances II: Non-Living Substances B05 - Six Universal Substances II: Non-Living Substances 01 Ajiva (Non-living Substances) Anything that does not have life or consciousness is Ajiva. Ajiva literally means without a soul and therefore, Ajiva cannot accumulate any karma. It does not have birth, death, pleasure, or pain; as it is Achetan or inert). Examples of Ajivas - a box, car, fan, television, photo frame, iron, watch, etc. 02 Classification of Ajiva Ajiva is classified in following five categories: Dharmästikäya Medium of Motion Adharmästikäya Medium of Rest Äkäshästikäya Space Pudgalästikäya Matter Käl Time 1. Dharmästikäya (Medium of Motion) Dharmästikäya is made up of two words: Dharma and Astikäya. In this connotation, the term Dharma does not refer to religion, but it means the medium of motion. Astikäya means collection of spaces. It denotes the medium of motion for things in the universe. Jiva and other matters would be unable to move In the absence of this medium. This medium prevails in loka cosmic space, but is absent in Aloka (tran-scosmic space) Its primary function is to help in the movement of soul and matter just the way water provides a medium for fish to move. It exists in the entire cosmic universe (Lokäkäsh). 2. Adharmästikäya (Medium of Rest) This word is also made up of two words: Adharma and Astikäya. Here again, Adharma does not refer to a lack of religion, but rather it means the medium of rest. In the absence of this medium, jivas and other things would continuously move. This medium also prevails in cosmic space, but is absent in tran-scosmic space. It is the auxiliary cause of rest to soul and matter just as the shade of a tree the auxiliary cause of rest for the travelers. It exists in the entire cosmic universe (Lokäkäsh). 3. Äkäshästikäya (Space) Äkäshästikäya is made up of two words: Äkäsha and Astikäya. Whole space in the universe is called Äkäsha. Äkäsha is divided into two parts: Lokäkäsh Loka or cosmic space and Alokäkäsh Aloka or tran-scosmic space. Jiva, Pudgal, Dharmästikäya, and Adharmästikäya exist only in Lokäkäsh. The characteristics are as follows: Provides room to soul, matter, medium of motion, and medium of rest Pervades everywhere infinite Supports everything and is self-supported Has no form, color, taste, smell, or touch Does not perform any active action inactive Provides accommodation to soul and matter of their actions Is one and whole Alokäkäsh is an empty space surrounding cosmic space and it does not contain anything. The entire space is divided into two parts: Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 45 of 398 Page #46 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B05 - Six Universal Substances II: Non-Living Substances • Lokäkäsh (Universe) • Alokäkäsh (empty space) Lokäkäsh: The part of the space which is being occupied by the rest of the five substances is called Loka or Lokäkäsh (Universe). It is finite and limited in scope. The Lokäkäsh is divided into four sub-parts. Moksha - the region located at the top of Lokäkäsh is the permanent abode for liberated beings. Upper world - the region where Vaimanik devas (celestial beings) live. They have limited life and after that they are born as a human or other living beings. Middle world - the region where Jyotiska devas, human beings, animals, and Vyantar devas live. This is the only part of the universe from which a human being can achieve enlightenment and liberation. Lower world - the region where Bhavanpati devas and infernal beings live. This region consists of seven hells where infernal beings are tormented by Bhavanpati devas and by each other. After their death they are born as animals or humans. Alokäkäsh: The remaining limitless space surrounding Lokäkäsh is called Alokäkäsh, which is infinitely larger than Lokäkäsh and is empty or void. 4. Pudgalästikäya (Matter) The word Pudgal is made up of two words: Pud means to combine and Gal means to do dissociate. In other words, that which undergoes modifications by combinations and dissociations is called the Pudgal or the matter. All the matters in the universe are called Pudgals. Matter is a nonliving substance. It is the only substance, which possesses a physical body consisting of mass and volume. The smallest particles of matter is Paramänu (atom). It occupies only one unit of space called Pradesha. The clusters of matter and atoms have following qualities: Possess a physical body Have qualities of touch, taste, smell, and color Do not have consciousness Do not have any knowledge Are of infinite number There are four categories of matter: Skandha (whole matter) Any object, which has a mass of matter, is called Skandha. e.g. stick, stone, knife, a particle of sand Skandha Desha (portion of matter) Skandha Pradesha (smallest particle of matter) Paramänu or Anu (atom) Desha means a part, portion, or division. An undetached portion of Skandha is called Skandha Desha. When a part (Skandha Desha) of the Skandha is separated from the whole, it also becomes another Skandha e.g. The hand of a statue is known as a Skandha Desha but when it is separated from the statue, it is known as Skandha. The smallest undetached portion of Skandha, which cannot be further divided, is called Skandha Pradesha. When the smallest portion of the matter is separated from its Skandha, it is called Paramänu or Anu. Paramänu matter cannot be further subdivided, cut, or pierced. Page 46 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #47 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B05 - Six Universal Substances II: Non-Living Substances All visible substances are matter but certain types of matter, which are too subtle to experience through our senses, are not visible. Also, the other five non-matter substances - soul, medium of motion and rest, space, and time are not visible at all. Many types of matter exist in the universe. Everything we see, touch, and feel is also matter and hence Jainism states that sound, light, darkness, color, and smell are all various types of matter. However, the soul interacts with only eight types of such matter known as Varganä. The entire universe is filled with these eight types of Varganä along with other matter, which does not interact with soul. A soul interacts with these Varganä as follows: Name of Vargana Function Audärika Varganä makes a physical body Vaikriya Varganä makes a special body to heavenly and infernal beings Ähäraka Varganä makes a special separate body to spiritually advanced monks which can be sent a long distance Tejas Varganä responsible for heat and digestion power Bhäshä Varganä responsible for speech Mana Varganä responsible for physical mind Shväso-chchhväs responsible for breathing Vargana Kärman Varganä makes Karmic body or Karma Audärika and Vaikriya Varganäs can have a visible state while other Varganäs are not visible. When these Varganäs interacts with the soul, they manifest their characteristics of touch, taste, smell, sight, and color. Extremely minute particles (smallest size of all 8 Varganäs) constitute karma. These particles are not visible though they are considered a form of matter. Karma or Karmic Matter Karma (Pudgal) Karma is one of the categories of matter. It is known as Karmic matter karma (Pudgal). Karma particles are of very fine matter and are not perceptible to the senses. The entire universe is filled with such karmic matter. From eternity, Karmic matter covers the soul of every living being. It is the karmic matter that keeps the soul from realization of its true nature. It is due to karma that one feels pleasure and pain, reincarnates into different forms of life, acquires a certain type of physical body, and the duration of life. 5. Käl (Time) Käl means time, which measures changes in living beings and non-living substances. It is not the cause of such changes. A child becomes a young person, a young person becomes an old person, and the old person dies. In other words, something, which is new, becomes old, worn, and torn over a period of time. So, the soul and matter continuously change their form of existence which is known as Paryaya. These changes in the soul and matter are measured as time. All of these changes do not occur because of time. Käl is merely the measure of time, over, which those changes occur. The past, present, and future are different modes of time and are measured in terms of years, months, days, hours, minutes or seconds. Commonly, for practical purposes, a second is the smallest measurement of time. Jainism however, recognizes a very tiny measurement of time known as Samay, the smallest indivisible portion of time. Infinite numbers of Samaya make one second. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 47 of 398 Page #48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B05 - Six Universal Substances II: Non-Living Substances Two views exist in Jainism with regards to time: 1) Time is an imaginary thing; it has no real existence. 2) Time has a real existence consisting of innumerable time atoms. The smallest indivisible portion of time is called Samaya. Combination of Samaya are called moment, second, minute, hour, day, month, year and so on. The smallest change in a substance, which can be measured by the knowledge of Arihanta (Kevali) is called Samaya, which is the basic unit of time. Jainism regards historical time as cyclical. The universe moves through lengthy eras of time. Time is infinite, without any beginning or end. Time is divided into infinite equal time cycles (Kälchakras). Every time cycle is further subdivided in two equal halves. The first half is the progressive or ascending cycle and is called Utsarpini. The other half is the regressive or the descending cycle called Avasarpini. Every Utsarpini and Avasarpini (half cycle) is divided into six unequal periods called Äräs. During the Utsarpini half cycle, progress, development, happiness, strength, age, body, religious trends, etc., go from the worst conditions to the best. During the Avasarpini half cycle, progress, development, happiness, strength, age, body, religious trends, etc. go from the best conditions to the worst. Presently, we are in the fifth Ärä of the Avasarpini phase. When the Avasarpini phase ends, the Utsarpini phase begins. The Kälchakra repeats and continues forever. Usually this is described by Jains as the series of downward and upward movements of a point on the rim of a turning wheel. The downward movement is called Avasarpini (half cycle) and the upward movement is called Utsarpini (other half cycle). Each full turn of the wheel is called a kalpa. The total duration of the entire time cycle is Twenty Koda Kodi Sägaropam unit = 20 x 10E7 x 10E7 Sägaropam. In short it is called 20KK (20E14) Sägar time. The name and the order of the six Äräs of the regressive half cycle are defined below. All Tirthankars are born in the 3rd and 4th Äräs in our region. At present, we are in the 5th Ärä of the regressive half cycle known as Unhappy Ärä (2500 years have passed of its total duration of 21, 000 years). The progressive half cycle time has the reverse order. Innumerable Samays One Ävali (time required to blink an eye) 16,777,216 Ävalis 30 Muhurts 15 days 2 fortnights 12 months 5 Years 8,400,000 x 8,400,000 years Innumerable years 10 x 10,000,000 x 10,000,000 Palyopams 10 x 10,000,000 x 10,000,000 Sägaropams 20 x 10,000,000 x 10,000,000 Sägaropams Page 48 of 398 One Muhurt (48 minutes) One day One fortnight One month One year One Yuga One Purva (70,560,000,000,000 Years) One Palyopams* One Sägaropam Avasarpini or Utsarpini (Half Cycle) One Time Cycle The names and duration of each part of Six Aras are as follows: Happy Happy (happiness all the time) Happy (happiness) Sukham Sukham Käl Sukham Käl Compendium of Jainism - 2015 4 x 1014 Sägaropams 3 x 1014 Sägaropams Page #49 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B05 - Six Universal Substances II: Non-Living Substances Sukham Dukham Käl Happy Unhappy (happiness with some 2 x 1014 Sägaropams unhappiness) Dukham Sukham Käl Unhappy Happy (unhappiness with some 1 x 1014 Sägaropams - happiness) 42000 years Dukham Käl Unhappy (unhappiness) 21000 years Dukham Dukham Käl Unhappy Unhappy (unhappiness all the 21000 years time) 1. Sukham Sukham Käl: This is a time of all happiness. All the needs and desires of the people are fulfilled by ten different kinds of Kalpa-vriksha (wish granting trees). These trees provide places to live, clothes, pots and pans, good food, fruits, sweets, harmonious music, jewelry, beautiful flowers, radiant lamps, and a bright light at night. There is no killing, crime, or vices. During this phase people are very tall and live for a very long period of time. There is no need of religion and no Tirthankars exist during this time period. 2. Sukham Käl: This is also a time of most happiness, but it is less than in the first phase. The wish granting trees still continue to provide for the people's needs. People are not as tall and do not live as long. There is no need of religion and no Tirthankars exist during this time period. 3. Sukham Dukham Käl: This is a phase consisting of more happiness than misery. During this period, the Kalpa-vrikshas do not consistently provide what is desired. The first Tirthankar of that half time cycle is born towards the end of this Ärä. In the current time cycle first Tirthankar Bhagawan Rishabhdev was born. He realized that things were going to get worse. So, he taught the people useful arts of daily living including, pottery, farming, and cooking to enable them to depend upon themselves. He introduced a political system and became the first king. This Arä came to an end three years and eight months after the nirvana of Rishabhdev. The first Chakravarti (king of kings) Bharat, his brother Bähubali, well known for his strength, Brähmi, his sister, who devised eighteen different alphabets and, Sundari, also his sister, who devised math, were Rishabhdev's children. 4. Dukham Sukham Käl: This is a phase of more misery, sorrow, and suffering than happiness. The other twenty-three Tirthankars and eleven Chakravartis are born during this Arä, which came to an end three years and eight months after the Nirvana of last Tirthankar Bhagawan Mahävir-swami. 5. Dukham Käl: This is the currently prevailing Ärä. It is an Ärä of unhappiness, which began a little over 2, 500 years ago and will last for a total of 21,000 years. No one born during this period will gain liberation in his or her present life, because no one will be capable to follow the true religion to the fullest extent. It is said, that by the end of this Ärä, the Jain religion will be extinct only temporarily, to be revived in the next half cycle by future Tirthankars. 6. Dukham Dukham Käl: This is a time of great misery and unhappiness. During this time, people will experience nothing but suffering. There will be no trace of religious activity. The life span of people will be very short, exceeding no more than twenty years. Most people will be non-vegetarian and the social structure will be destroyed. The weather will become extreme, the days will be very hot, and the nights will be very cold. At the end of this Ärä, a period of Utsarpini will start and the time wheel will take an upward swing. Miseries will gradually diminish and happiness will gradually increase until every phase is once again reached. First 23 Tirthankars will be born during the 3rd Ärä and 24th Tirthankar will be born in the early phase of the 4th Ärä of the next half cycle. The time cycle will keep on rolling until eternity. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 49 of 398 Page #50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B06 - Nav Tattva Part I: Jiva, Ajiva, Punya, Päp, Äsrava B06 - Nav Tattva Part I: Jiva, Ajiva, Punya, Päp, Äsrava 01 Introduction Nav-tattva or nine fundamentals are the essence of Jain philosophy. They deal with the theory of karma, which provides the basis for the path of liberation. The karma that binds with our soul are not only due to the actions of our body, mind, and speech, but more importantly, due to the intentions behind our actions. It explains that the principle governing the successions of life is karma. Hence it provides a rational explanation to the apparently inexplicable phenomena of birth and death, happiness and misery, inequalities in mental and physical attainments, and the existence of different species of living beings. Without proper knowledge of these fundamentals (Tattvas), a person cannot progress spiritually. The philosophy of Nav Tattva is very practical. Tirthankars have explained to us the existence of the living beings, and their relationship with Karma through these nine aspects. One stops the influx of Karma (Samvar), and eradicates the past Karma (Nirjara); and by these two processes, Samvar and Nirjarä, one liberates himself from the karmic bondage, and attains the ultimate goal, the liberation - Moksha. We should therefore pursue the path of Samvar and Nirjarä to be successful in discovering the truth about our own self. The philosophy of Nav Tattva is very practical. The Tirthankars have explained the nature of the substances and their interactions through nine or from some perspective seven principles. The nine tattvas or principles are the single most important subjects of Jain philosophy. They deal with the theory of karma, which provides the basis for the path of liberation. Without proper knowledge of these tattvas, a person cannot progress spiritually. Name Meaning Soul or living being (Consciousness) Ajiva Non-living substances 3 Asrava Influx of karma Bandha Bondage of karma Punya* Virtue Päp* Sin Samvar Stoppage of the influx of karma Nirjarä Partial exhaustion of the accumulated karma 9 Moksha Total liberation from karma Jiva 2 *Some scriptures do not consider Punya (good deeds) and Päp (bad deeds) as separate Tattvas. They include them in Äsrava and Bandha. In reality, Punya and Päp are the result of Asrava and Bandha. Hence, truly there are only seven tattvas. Jain philosophy views nine fundamentals or Nav Tattva in three categories: Jneya meaning those to be known Jiva and Ajiva Heya meaning those to be avoided Asrava and Bandha** Upädeya meaning those to be adopted Samvar, Nirjara and Moksha **Päp is Heya and Punya is Upädeya for the beginners and Heya when associated with ego for spiritually advanced persons. Page 50 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #51 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B06Nav Tattva Part I: Jiva, Ajiva, Punya, Päp, Äsrava A meritorious deed done with attachment and with an expectation of reward brings in Punya Karma. However if the same deed is done without any expectation and the feeling of attachment, it is considered the true nature of a person Shuddha Bhäva and it does not bind the soul with new Punya karma. Hence, for a layman, in the beginning stages of spiritual development, Punya activity is considered especially necessary even if it is done with attachment or ownership. On the other hand, for spiritually advanced individuals good deeds do not bind them with any new Punya karma because their acts are carried out as if it were their own nature. Such aspirants do not have the feeling of attachment to even meritorious deeds. No karma can bind with the soul if an action is done without any attachment or feeling of accomplishment. Some description of Jiva has been given earlier while dealing with Shad-dravya. It should however be clear from the discussion thus far that the knowledge of these fundamentals are meant for knowing the Self. The Self is variously known as Jiva, Ätmä, Paramätmä, Chaitanya, Brahma, consciousness, etc., Thus, soul being the focal point and ultimate objective of all knowledge, it would be useful to discuss it here at some length. 02 Jiva (Living Beings) 'What is this soul after all?' No one has ever seen it. Therefore, atheists people who do not believe in God, who refuse to believe in anything that cannot be perceived or grasped by senses, deny the existence of the soul. Most scientists contribute to this view. They think that the body is a biochemical composition and is made from a peculiar combination of genes from the parents. As long as the composition is active, it is said to be a living organism; and when the activity comes to an end, it is considered to be dead. But science does not clarify what exactly makes it active and why does the activity come to an end. It is a fact that when a person dies, his heart, kidneys and other limbs may still be active but the body is unable to use them and therefore they cease to function. If however, they are removed from that body in time, they can be transplanted in another body and function effectively in the new body. Does it not mean that there was some sort of invisible energy activating different limbs of the body while it was alive? When that energy disappears, it is death. The presence or absence of that energy is the difference between life and death. Spiritual science calls that energy soul. There exist an infinite number of souls and every living body has a soul. Sädhäran Vanaspati-käya has infinite number of souls in the one body. The soul is invisible and has no form or shape. It cannot therefore be experienced by the senses. It is an element of its own and cannot be created by any sort of combination or composition and can never be decomposed. It is eternal and lasts forever. From time to time, worldly soul resides in different organisms through, which it manifests itself. This type of transmigration and new embodiment birth after birth has been going on since the time without beginning. Even though a particular body happens to be its temporary residence, soul tends to take it as its permanent abode and gets happy or unhappy depending upon the type of that body and its environment. Forgetful of its true nature, it aspires to get maximum happiness within the framework of its given embodiment and surrounding situations. This attachment results from the delusion of the soul about its true nature. Attachment gives rise to the disposition of craving for the desirable and of aversion for the undesirable. These craving and aversion are the causes of the bondage of Karmas. Every living being wants to be happy. The deluded sense of being one with the body however causes the soul to feel happy or unhappy depending upon the prevailing situation, as a consequence of its previous Karmas. Our ancient seers have dwelt deeply in search of true happiness. They tried to explore the Self by raising the question, 'Koham', which means 'Who am I'. The appropriate answer that they obtained was 'Soham', which means that I am that soul. They also perceived that the 'I' or the true Self is the source of true happiness and the abode of perfect bliss. They realized that lifeless matter does not have the property to make any one happy or unhappy and that happiness is the inherent property of the soul. We however do not experience lasting happiness, because we do not realize the true properties of the soul. After thoroughly exploring the nature of the soul, the seers have concluded that the principal property of the soul that distinguishes it from lifeless matter is the capability to know or capability of being aware. None of the five lifeless substances possesses that property. The scriptures have described this as Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 51 of 398 Page #52 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B06Nav Tattva Part I: Jiva, Ajiva, Punya, Päp, Äsrava 'Upayoga Lakshano Jiva' It means the capability to know is the characteristic of the soul. This attribute is inseparable from consciousness and therefore it is its basic characteristic. As such, the soul should simply stay aware of any given situation without in any way reacting to it because none of the situations really belong to it. This would result in a sense of detachment to any extraneous influence, which will ultimately enable the soul to exist forever in ultimate bliss. It is not surprising that the seers have called this bliss as indescribable. To sum up, the soul is pure consciousness. Infinite awareness and eternal bliss are its principal characteristics. Sanskrit words for eternity, consciousness and bliss are respectively Sat, Chit and Änand. Therefore a perfect soul is variously known as Sachchidananda, Chidänand or Sahajänand. It is intangible, invisible, colorless, odorless, tasteless, formless, and shapeless. It is therefore described by Neti, Neti (Not this, not that). It can however be experienced by dwelling deep within oneself. The description of Ajiva and its five categories has been discussed earlier. Jiva and the five categories of Ajivas are not in any way dependent on one another. Each of these six substances has potential to undergo changes in its own states. Other substances play the role of being instrumental in effecting the changes. For instance, Dharmästikäya, Adharmästikäya, Äkäsha and Käl play the role of being instrumental in the change of location and time. Worldly soul does not try to identify itself with these four substances. The role of Pudgal on Jiva and of Jiva on Pudgal has been the source of a lot of confusion. Worldly soul does not realize that its embodiment and all its surroundings have resulted from its past Karmas. It tends to identify with all those situations ignoring the fact that they are momentary. This has been the root cause of continued bondage of Karma to the soul and resulting transmigration. The discussion of Nav Tattvas will analyze the state of worldly soul and the factors that prevent or help in attaining liberation. Therefore, Pudgal and particularly Karma Pudgal, will be discussed in detail. 03 Punya and Päp (Good Deeds and Bad Deeds) Punya is acquired by meritorious or virtuous deeds and Päp is acquired by evil or vicious acts. As long as the soul is embodied with karma, it indulges in one or the other activity. This activity may be physical or mental or both. It is possible that a person may refrain from physical activity for some time. His mental apparatus however never rests. It functions even when he rests or sleeps. Every activity involves Karma and one has to bear the consequences sooner or later. If one undertakes meritorious activity with the feeling of attachment, he earns Punya or Shubha (virtuous) Karmas; if he indulges in evil activity, he acquires Päp or Ashubha (non-virtuous) Karmas. Depending upon the intensity and accumulation of virtuous Karmas, one may be blessed with happy and comfortable situations like, handsome and strong or beautiful and graceful body, good health etc. Unwholesome (non-virtous) Karmas on the other hand result in unhappy and miserable situations like ugliness, illness, poverty etc. It is therefore, generally accepted that everyone should try to undertake meritorious activities and refrain from evil ones. Many physical activities may be called either good or bad. Organized societies endeavor to encourage beneficial or virtuous activities and to discourage the wicked or vicious ones. There may also be legal provisions to forbid some of the manifestly wicked activities so as to maintain peace and order within society. Some of the activities however cannot be clearly labeled as good or bad. In the spiritual sense, the intention behind performing them, and the disposition in which an activity is performed, play an important role in deciding whether it would attract virtuous or non-virtuous Karmas. Let us examine this aspect with the help of examples. 1) Doctor and Burglar A burglar, for instance, comes across a person who he wants to rob. He fatally stabs the person. On the other hand, a patient with tumor in stomach is advised to undergo surgery. He goes to a surgeon who opens his belly with the surgical knife. Unfortunately, for the patient, the tumor is in a very advanced stage or there are other complications. Consequently, the patient dies during surgery. In both these cases a person hurts other person with a knife and the other person dies. Does it mean that the burglar Page 52 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B06Nav Tattva Part I: Jiva, Ajiva, Punya, Päp, Äsrava and the surgeon would attract the same type of Karma? This is not true. The burglar's activity is evidently sinful, while that of the surgeon is meritorious. 2) The story of Two Monks The two monks named Suresh muni and Raman muni, who have taken a vow of celibacy including not to touch opposite sex person, were traveling from one place to another. On the way they come across a river that is flooded. On the bank of the river, there was a beautiful young girl intending to go across but she was scared of so much water. Realizing her anxiety, Suresh muni offers his hand and leads her into water. Watching this, Raman muni objected the action of Suresh muni, but Suresh muni ignored his objection and went ahead. The flow of the river got swifter causing the girl to drift. Suresh muni therefore holds her waist and leads her ahead. For Raman muni, this act of Suresh muni was beyond imagination and he severely reproached Suresh muni for his audacity. Suresh muni again ignored his objection. Water gets deeper ahead. The girl did not know how to swim. Suresh muni therefore carried her on his back and swims across the river. This is too much for Raman muni who cursed Suresh muni for gross violation of the vow. Suresh muni did not respond in any way. He leaved the girl on the other bank and quietly proceeded with Raman muni. On the way, Raman muni rebuked him again and again for what he had done and warned him of the dire consequences when they confront Guru Mahäräj. Suresh muni maintained his silence while reproaches of his friend continue unabated. After listening for one hour, Suresh muni pointed out that he left the girl one hour back while Raman muni was still holding her in his head. It is evident that in this example that Suresh muni had no intention other than helping a girl cross the river. While holding her hand or while carrying her on his back, he had no other thoughts. Therefore, he left her as soon as he reached the other bank. He even did not look at her beauty. For him, she was simply a person who was in need of help. He rendered it without any passionate thoughts throughout. Raman muni's attitude on the other hand was completely different. Though he did not even touch the girl, he was thrilled by the imaginary sensation of close contact of a beautiful girl. In his heart, he longed to have the feel of her touch. He did not actually do so simply because it was forbidden. In the spiritual sense he therefore, committed the sin of indulging in undesirable activity while Suresh muni earned the Punya of helping a person in need. Thus, Päp and Punya are to be viewed in relative terms and they depend upon one's mental attitude in a given situation. Four Fold Combinations of Punya and Päp This is briefly described here, for more details refer to Punya and Pap Chapter in Karma Philosophy. Päp and Punya are to be viewed in relative terms, and they depend upon one's mental attitude in a given situation. Jainism says that every one of us continually enjoys the fruits of Punya or suffers from Päp Karma. During our enjoyment or suffering due to manifestation of Punya and Päp, we reflect either positively or negatively based on our understanding of reality. This results in the following Four Fold Combinations of Punya & Päp Punyanubandhi Punya: This earning of new Punya Karma while enjoying the fruits of earlier ones is known in Jain terminology as Punyänubandhi Punya. In summary, while enjoying the fruits of virtuous Karmas one acquires further virtuous Karmas. Päpänubandhi Punya: While enjoying the fruits of Punya or virtuous Karmas, one may acquire Päp Karmas is called Päpänubandhi Punya. Very few people endeavor to earn Punyänubandhi Punya, because most of the people are infatuated by happiness and comforts. By virtue of infatuation they indulge in nonvirtuous activities. This type of action is known as Päpänubandhi Punya or virtuous Karmas leading to non-virtuous activities. Misery is thus destined for them in the end. Punyänubandhi Päp While suffering the consequences of Päp or non-virtuous Karmas, one may acquire Punya Karmas is called Punyänubandhi Päp. As a consequence of Päp Karmas, a person does undergo varying degrees of miseries. If however that person realizes that his miseries are the consequence of his Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 53 of 398 Page #54 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B06 - Nav Tattva Part I: Jiva, Ajiva, Punya, Päp, Äsrava previous Karmas, he will bear the miseries calmly and with a sense of detachment and objectivity. He will tolerate pain and misery with equanimity. This attitude will earn him Punyas. This action is known as Punyänubandhi Päp. In Summary, while suffering for non-virtuous Karmas one acquires virtuous Karmas. Päpänubandhi Päp: While suffering the consequences of Päp or non-virtuous Karmas, one may acquire Päp Karmas is called Päpänubandhi Päp. Most of the people who suffer miseries blame someone else or some extraneous factors for causing miseries. They indulge in anger, jealousy, animosity etc., and react violently or wrongly to the pain and miseries. Thus, they acquire new non-virtuous Karmas or Päp. This type of action of such people are therefore known as Päpänubandhi Päp or non-virtuous Karmas leading to further accumulation of non-virtuous Karmas. 04 Asrava and Bandha (Inflow of Karmas and Bondage of Karmas) The next two fundamentals, which are Äsrava and Bandha, are closely related. In a way, these two fundamentals are two aspects of the same phenomenon pertaining to bondage of Karma. The term Asrava is made up of two words, 'Aa, meaning from all sides and 'Sray' meaning dripping in. Therefore, Asrava means inflow and attachment of Karma. Bandha is the bondage of incoming Karma with the soul. As explained earlier, every activity involves Karma. Whether one indulges in activity by mind, words or physical action, he does acquire Karma. Since worldly soul is continually involved in one or another activity, the resulting Karmas continue to flow towards it. Its involvement with activities, serve as Asrava or doors through which Karmas enter. Thus, Asrava of Karma continues to occur more or less incessantly. If the soul gets involved in virtuous activities, Asrava happens to be of virtuous Karmas. If it is involved in non-virtuous activities, Asrava happens to be of non-virtuous Karmas. This involvement mainly occurs because of defilements or Kashäyas that exist in soul. None of such situations really belongs to the pure soul. They are not and in no case can become part and parcel of the pure soul. If one understands it correctly, one can remain unaffected by any given situation and stay in equanimity. The term correctly is very pertinent in this context, because the true nature of the soul happens to be pure, enlightened and full of blessed consciousness. In its pure state, it is devoid of any defilement or Kashäyas. As such, the soul is supposed to simply observe whatever happens as a result of operative Karmas and stay aware of any given situation without reacting to it in any way. Since time without beginning, worldly soul has stayed deluded about its true nature and has been conditioned to react to any situation with a sense of craving or aversion. If it does not react that way and views all possible situations with equanimity, it does not attract new Karmas and can avoid Asrava or incoming of Karmas and the resulting Bandha. Thus, Äsrava and Bandha are the result of ignorance of the soul about its true nature. One may, however, question how any conscious person can be ignorant about one's self. Äsrava The ignorance of the soul regarding its true nature is on account of its delusion. Its perception remains deluded, just as a drunken person stays deluded about himself. This wrong perception is known as Mithyätva. It is because of this delusion and ignorance, the soul views any given situation as the cause of its own happiness or unhappiness. If the situation is pleasing to the senses, the soul identifies itself with that feeling and craves for continuance of such situations. If it is unpleasing, soul identifies with the resulting unhappiness and tries to avoid it. Thus, the soul continues to react to different situations with the sense of craving or aversion. These cravings and aversions are the defilements of the soul because they defile its true nature of staying in equanimity. These defilements are expressed in the form of Krodha (Anger, enmity etc.), Mäna (Ego and arrogance), Mäyä (Deception) and Lobha (attachment and greed). These are known as the four Kashäyas or four passions, which drag the soul downwards. In addition to these, there are Nokashäyas or semi defilements like joy, gloom, affection, disaffection, fear, disgust and certain sensual impulses. On account of these Kashayas and Nokashayas, the soul indulges in arrogance, greed, joy, affection, love etc. when it views any given situation as favorable. If it views the situation as unfavorable, it indulges in anger, deception, gloom, disaffection, fear, disgust etc. Page 54 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #55 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY Let us sum up the causes of Äsrava. • B06Nav Tattva Part I: Jiva, Ajiva, Punya, Päp, Äsrava Mithyätva is ignorance. It is believing in the wrong faith, wrong knowledge, and the wrong conduct and believing that it is right to have passions or commit sins. Avirati is a lack of self-restraint and not taking any vow to abstain from sinful activities Pramäda* is negligence or laziness. Five causes of Pramäda are: arrogance, sensual craving, passions, sleep, and gossiping Kashaya is passions like anger, ego, deceit, and greed Yoga: activities of mind, speech, and body *Some Jain literature mentions only four causes of Äsrava. They include Pramäda in the category of Kashaya. If we correctly understand above mentioned causes of Äsrava, we can remain unaffected by any given situation and stay in equanimity. The soul does not acquire new karma when in equanimity. Bandha The detail of Bandha is described in the chapter -Theory of Karma and Reincarnation Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 55 of 398 Page #56 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B07- Nav Tattva Part II: Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha B07- Nav Tattva Part II: Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha 01 Introduction • Samvar means prevention of the incoming Karmas • Nirjarä means partial eradication of acquired Karmas Moksha means complete eradication of acquired Karmas All three tattvas are to be resorted to and are therefore considered Upädeya. We should continually strive to achieve Samvar and Nirjarä. They are meant to guide us in adopting the right conduct. After all, the purpose of studying religion is to learn the appropriate mode of behavior so as to attain salvation in the end. Samvar and Nirjarä describe the ways one can use to prevent the Karmic bondage and to get rid of Karmas in order to gain liberation. If bondage of Karma is considered a disease that afflicts the soul and Asrava the door through which the disease enters, Samvar is the prevention of the disease and Nirjarä is the cure. Since prevention is better than cure, let us first examine how to prevent the influx of Karmas. 02 Samvar (Prevention of Karmas) It has been stated earlier that a living being happens to be in various situations due to its Karmas. One has to accept the given situation with a sense of equanimity. If he views it dispassionately without in any way reacting to it, operative Karmas are exhausted in due course and he does not acquire new karma. Worldly soul is however conditioned to react to any given situation favorably or unfavorably. If the situation is to his liking, he feels happy over it and craves for its continuation. He usually tends to think that the happy situation is a result of his efforts and takes pride for it. He may also think that people who are unhappy, have to blame themselves for their miseries; because in his opinion they lack or do not put enough effort into improving their condition. As such, his success may lead him to such a level of pride and grandiosity that it would be hard for him to cultivate a sense of compassion for the miseries and unhappiness of others. His arrogance may also make him prone to develop a sense of disgust and contempt for the miserable. If the situation is not to one's like, the person feels unhappy and strives to make it better. There is nothing wrong in striving to improve a given situation. Unfortunately, people do not mind resorting to foul means for this purpose. An ordinary person usually tends to think that some extraneous factors or some people have contrived to create the unhappy conditions or they are otherwise instrumental in bringing unhappiness and misery to him. As such, he harbors ill feeling for them and cultivates a sense of jealousy or hostility towards those whom he suspects of being responsible for his misery or unhappiness. Thus, an ordinary person is conditioned to interact to any given situation with a sense of craving or aversion. Wrong perception, absence of restraint, indolence and passions are the main causes of the influx of Karmas. Craving and aversion lead people to indulge in such defilements from time to time. Of all these, the four Kashayas of Krodha, Mäna, Maya and Lobha are the principal defiling factors. If the soul avoids them, it can stay in equanimity in all conceivable situations. It can prevent the influx of new karmas while facing the consequences of the current operative Karmas. This is similar to closing all openings of our house when dirt and trash happen to be flung inside due to a tornado. Staying in equanimity may not be as easy as closing the doors. It should not however be too difficult, and it does not mean that one should not make an effort to change a given situation. Making effort is also Karma and if that Karma happens to give instant results, the situation may change. One should avoid the sense of pride and arrogance in favorable circumstances and stop blaming anything or anybody else for unfavorable circumstances. In short, one should have the right perception so as to avoid indulging in Kashayas in all circumstances. Staying free of Kashayas is Samvar and it helps prevent the inflow of new Karmas. Page 56 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #57 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B07- Nav Tattva Part II: Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha The method that stops fresh karma from attaching into the soul is called Samvar. This process is a reverse process of Asrava. It can be accomplished by constant practice of: Samyaktva Right conviction and Right Knowledge of Reality Vratas Observance of Vows Apramäda Awareness or Spiritual-alertness Akashaya Being Passionless Ayoga Peacefulness of Mental, Verbal and Physical activities Fifty Seven Ways of Samvar Jain literature defines 57 practical ways, by which one can stop the attachment/influx of karma. These ways are described mainly for monks and nuns but it is strongly recommended to be practiced by Shrävaks and Shrävikäs as far as possible. Type of Samvar Meaning Total Samitis Carefulness in our activities Guptis Preservation/Restraints in our activities Yati Dharma Religious Virtues Bhävanä Reflections or Contemplations, some literature adds 4 compassionate Bhavnas Parishaha-Jaya Tolerance or Endurance to Suffering with equanimity Charitra Conduct Total Five Samitis (Carefulness): Samiti means carefulness or continuous awareness of all our activities with special attention towards nonviolence. Samitis purify the actions. Irya Samiti Proper care in walking Bhäshä Samiti Proper care in speaking Eshana Samiti Proper care in begging Ädäna Nikshepa Samiti Proper care in taking and keeping (Gochari)/any items Utsarga Samiti Proper care in disposing waste Three Guptis (Restraints): Control or stillness towards non-virtuous activities of mind, speech and body is called Gupti, which is an important aspect of Samvar. Guptis prohibits sinful activities Mano Gupti Proper control over Mind Vachan Gupti Proper control over Speech Käya Gupti Proper control over Body Ten Yati Dharma (Religious Virtues): These ten virtues are pure passionless modes of the conduct. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 57 of 398 Page #58 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B07- Nav Tattva Part II: Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha Kshamä Märdava Ärjava Shaucha Satya Samyam Тара Tyag Akinchanya Brahmacharya Forbearance, Forgiveness Modesty, Humility Straightforwardness, Candor Contentment Truthfulness Self-restraint, Control of Senses Austerity, Penance Renunciation Non-attachment Celibacy, Chastity Twelve Reflections (Thoughts, Bhävanä, or Anuprekshä): To make room for pure thoughts and to drive out the evil ones, Jainism recommends reflecting on the twelve thoughts known as the Twelve Bhävanä (Anuprekshä) or Reflections with deep concern and feelings. These twelve Bhävanäs cover a wide field of Jainism. Anitya Bhävanä Impermanence of everything in the world Asharan Bhävanä No one provides protection Samsara Bhävanä No permanent relationships in the universe Ekatva Bhävanä Solitude of the soul Anyatva Bhävanä Separateness of the soul Asuci Bhävanä Impurity of the body Äsrava Bhävanä Influx of karma Samvar Bhävanä Stoppage of influx of karma Nirjarä Bhävanä Shedding of karma Loka Bhavana Transitoriness of the universe Bodhi-durlabha Bhävanä Unattainability of the right faith, knowledge, and conduct Dharma Bhävanä Unattainability of true preceptor, scriptures, and religion Reflections on Universal Friendship (Compassionate Reflections): Along with the above 12 Bhävanäs, some literature recommends to practice four positive compassionate Bhävanäs known as auxiliary Bhävanäs. They help one to develop purity of thought and sincerity in the practice of religion. Adopting these Bhävanäs in one's daily life can make a person very virtuous. Maitri Amity or Friendship Pramod Appreciation of virtues Karuna Compassion and helping others whenever Mädhyastha Equanimity in various circumstances Twenty-two Parishaha (Hardships): A person should remain in the state of equanimity when hardship occurs in the life. There are 22 types of hardships defined in the scripture. Following are some examples: Page 58 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #59 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B07- Nav Tattva Part II: Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha Hunger, Thirst, Cold, Heat, Insect bites, Hearing of evil words, Diseases, etc Five Charitra (Conduct): To remain steady in a state of spiritual purity is called conduct or Charitra. Charitra has been divided into the five classes depending upon the spirituality of an individual Sämäyika Charitra To remain in equanimity during our life Chhedo-pasthäpana Charitra To live a life of an ascetic - This is the level where all monks and nuns practice Parihära-vishuddhi Charitra To follow special types of penance as an ascetic - This conduct can be practiced in a lonely place away from Jain community Sukshma-Samparaya Charitra To live a life without any Kashäya (No anger, greed, ego, deceit) as an ascetic except with some very little) desire to attain Moksha. Jainism considers any desire is a form of greed. Yathäkhyäta or Vitaraga Charitra Living life of a Kevali i.e. natural living or living without any passions. This is the natural living of all keval-jnani monks and nuns. 03 Nirjarä (Partial Eradication of Karmas) Eradication of previously acquired Karma is Nirjarä. This is similar to cleaning the inside of the house after closing the doors to prevent incoming dust, trash etc. Previously acquired Karmas that become operative get exhausted as they mature. When Karmas get exhausted on their own after giving the end results and no active effort was made to eradicate them, it is known as Akäm Nirjarä. This type of Nirjarä is automatic. Accumulated Karmas, which are not currently operative, continue to stay with the soul in a dormant state due to bondage. Efforts such as penance, austerity etc. can eradicate them before they become operative. It is voluntarily enduring hardships with equanimity. This process of eradication by deliberate effort is Sakäm Nirjarä. Jain scriptures lay a considerable emphasis on austerities, i.e. Tapa. In Tattvärtha Sutra, Acharya Umäsväti states: Tapasä Nirjarä Cha' It means that Nirjarä can be achieved by Tapa or austerities. Jains are therefore encouraged to perform Tapa. Tapa is usually taken as and equated to fasting. Jains therefore fast longer to achieve Nirjarä. It is generally overlooked that our scriptures have described 6 types of internal and 6 types of external Tapa. Fasting is only one of them. Three stanzas from the Panchächär Sutra, which are very pertinent in this respect, state as follows: Internal and external Tapa laid down by the Seers is of 12 types. When they are observed, while staying unperturbed and without any other consideration, it is known as Tapächär or code of austerity. Bähya Tapa (External Austerities) Anashan Not eating for a set period of time Unodari Eating less than needed Vritti-sankshep Eating within the limits of predetermined restrictions Rasa-tyag Relinquishing tasty food - example; Äyambil Käya-klesha Penance, tolerating physical pain voluntarily Sanlinata Staying in forlorn place and occupying minimum space Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 59 of 398 Page #60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY 1. Anashan (Fasting): Complete abstinence from eating any food and/or drinking liquid. Sometimes one can drink only achit (previously boiled) water for a predetermined period of time, such as for a day or more. This spares our digestive energy to focus on spiritual uplift. This is known as Upaväs. 2. Alpähära or Unodari (Eat less than Hunger): Eating at least 10% less than one's appetite at a given time 3. Ichhänirodha or Vritti-sankshepa (Limit on Foods and Possessions): Limiting the number of food items while eating and limiting the possession of material things. 4. Rasatyäg (Elimination of Tasty Food): Complete abstinence from eating or drinking juicy and tasty foods such as butter, milk, tea, sweets, fried food, snacks, spicy food, and juices. Alsoone should eliminate junk food which has little or no nutrition value. In other words, there is no attachment to the taste of the food. We need to eat a minimum quantity of food to live a healthy life but we do not need to eat food for taste and enjoyment. 5. Kaya-klesha (Voluntarily enduring sufferings): One willfully subjects himself to the sufferings of a body even when one does not have to and remaining undisturbed while experiencing sufferings. This is the general term for all types of penances (Tapa). Activities include traveling bare foot in severe heat or cold weather and removal of hair by hand as practiced by Jain monks and nuns. B07- Nav Tattva Part II: Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha 6. Sanlinatä (Giving up Pleasures of Five Senses): One sits in a lonely place (in various postures) with all the senses and mind withdrawn inwardly and gives up the pleasures of the five senses and the mind. 7. Some External Austerities (Bähya Tapasyäs) - Based on above six Bähya Tapas, below are the combination of tapas that are performed. External austerities are practiced in various ways depending upon individual capacity. Following is the list of some Tapasyäs: Navkärasi Porsi Sädh-Porsi Purimuddha Avadhdh Biyäsan Ekäsan Äyambil Upavas Tivihär Upaväs Chauvihär Upaväs Page 60 of 398 One must take food or water forty-eight minutes after sunrise. Even brushing teeth and rinsing the mouth should be done after sunrise. Taking food or water three hours after sunrise Taking food or water four hours and thirty minutes after sunrise Taking food or water six hours after sunrise Taking food or water nine hours after sunrise Taking food twice a day while sitting in one place Taking food only once while sitting in one place Taking food only once in one sitting. The food should not have any taste or spices and should be boiled or cooked. Also, one should not use milk, curds, ghee, oil, sweets, sugar or jaggery and green or raw vegetables One must not take any food for twenty-four hours starting from sunrise to sunrise the next day. One may drink only boiled water during Upaväs. One does not even drink water during Upaväs. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #61 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY Tivihär Chauvihär Chhath Attham Atthai Mäsakshaman Navpad Oli Varsitap Vardhman Tapa Oli Vish-Sthanak Tapa B07- Nav Tattva Part II: Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha After sunset no food or juice shall be taken, but one may take water once before going to bed. After sunset no food or water is taken until sunrise the next day. Upaväs for two consecutive days Upaväs for three consecutive days Upaväs for eight consecutive days Consecutive Upaväs for one month Every year for 9 days starting from the 6/7th day of the bright fortnight until the full moon day in Ashwin and Chaitra months, one does Äyambil. These Äyambils can also be restricted to only one kind of food grain per day. Alternate day Upaväs for one year Start with one Äyambil, then two, then three and gradually go up to 100 or more Ayambils All Tirthankars perform this austerity in 3rd last life. There are 20 different Pads and in each, one has to do a minimum of 20 Ekäsans to Attham (3 fasts in arrow) in six months along with other rituals and essentials. In Ekäsan, Biyäsan, Äyambil, or Upaväs, one can drink boiled water only and only between sunrise and sunset. It is better if one can do a Chauvihär or Tivihär on the night before starting these austerities. If any of the austerities allow food, one shall not take raw vegetables, anything, which grows under-ground, or raw grains while performing such austerities. There are many other austerities like Siddhi Tapa, Kshir-samudra Tapa, Jnänpanchmi Tapa etc. Abhyantar Tapa (Internal Austerities) Präyashchitta Vinay Veyavachcham Swädhyäy Dhyana Käyotsarga or Vyutsarga Repentance, remorse Respect for others Selfless service to monks, nuns and needy Study of religious scriptures, study of self Meditation Renunciation of body 1. Prayashchitta (Repentance): For the spiritual purification, one truly repents for bad deeds and the breach of vows that occurred in the past and truly commits not to repeat them in future. 2. Vinay (Humility): Humility and proper behavior towards all living beings such as Sädhus, Sädhvis, teachers, elders, co-workers, and poor. 3. Vaiyävruttya (Service to Ascetics): One renders selfless service to Sädhus and Sädhvis, elderly, needy people, and to those who are suffering. 4. Swadhyay (Religious Study): One studies the religious literature and listens to religious discourses and scriptures on the nature and quality of soul, karma, their relationship, and other elements of universe. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 61 of 398 Page #62 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B07- Nav Tattva Part II: Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha 5. Dhyana (Meditation): After acquiring the above four virtues, one contemplates and meditates on the nature of the soul. 6. Käyotsarga or Vyutsarga (Renunciation of Body): Käyotsarga is the ultimate internal austerity, where the activities of the body, speech, and mind are withdrawn. This process involves making the body and mind as steady or still as possible to contemplate that the soul is separate from our human body. This austerity in its highest state destroys all four Ghäti Karma. When we talk of Tapa as a means for Nirjarä, we mean internal Tapa. External Tapa is important as long as it is helpful and is conducive to internal Tapa. In practice, we hardly think of internal Tapa and usually feel content by observing fasts or Anashan, the first of the six external austerities. Ashan means eating and Anashan means not eating or fasting. Eating is a physical phenomenon. As long as the body survives, it is going to need food. The body can survive for some time without food. One however tends to get conditioned to eating at regular intervals. In order to inhibit this conditioning, it is useful to fast from time to time. Thus fasting is also very important. The term 'Upaväs' that we generally use for fasting is not synonymous with Anashan. 'Upa' means closer and 'Väs' means abode. Thus, Upaväs really means abiding in proximity with or in tune with the soul. If a person sincerely tries to stay in accordance with the real nature of soul, he cannot indulge in any sense of craving or aversion. As such, he would stay away from all defilements and achieve a very high level of Nirjarä. Thus, Upaväs in the true sense of the term amounts to right activity and is one of the important way to eradicate Karmas. We however hardly observe that kind of Upaväs. It is wrong to believe that Upaväs can be observed simply by abstaining from food. When someone observes the penance of Upaväs, he should spend his day in meditation, prayers, and other spiritual activities. 04 Moksha (Total Liberation from Karma) Moksha or liberation is the last of the 9 fundamentals. It is also known as Mukti, salvation or emancipation. Moksha is the liberation of the soul after complete exhaustion or elimination of all karmas. A liberated soul regains totally its original attributes of perfect knowledge, perfect vision, perfect power, and total bliss. It climbs to the top of universe (Lokäkäsh) and remains their forever in its blissful and unconditional existence. It never returns again into the cycles of birth, life, and death. This state of the soul is the liberated or perfect state, and this is called "Nirvana." 05 Summary Jainism does not believe in a Creator. All liberated souls are God according to Jainism. However, since Tirthankars show us and lead us to the path of liberation, they are considered God before their total liberation from karmas to whom we pray and revere. Tirthankars have said that nothing can be created out of nothing and the original substances or matter, as science would call it, is indestructible. Every such substance exists of its own, with its own properties and continues to exist in one form or another. Whatever products we come across are merely transformations, not creations. They are produced out of something that existed before. Jainism believes in six original substances of which soul is the only conscious substance. Jainism is concerned with the soul's well-being and happiness. All living beings are embodied souls. Every soul is an independent entity and has been undergoing cycles of birth and death as a result of the bondage of Karma. For liberation of the soul, Jainism does not look for whim or favor of an Almighty. Its concept of liberation is totally different. Material or situational happiness is not everlasting. True happiness lies within the soul. Whatever happiness we experience in life is due to the existence of the soul within the body. No dead body has ever experienced happiness or any other feeling. It is not the property of the physical body to experience anything. Happiness is the inherent property of the soul. This inherent happiness does not manifest itself on account of physical and mental limitations resulting from the bondage of Karma. Everlasting happiness can manifest itself when soul shakes off all its bondage. For this purpose we study the nature of soul, the bondage of Karmas that obscure and obstruct the manifestation of its inherent properties, and how to shake off the bondage. We saw that the soul is a Page 62 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B07- Nav Tattva Part II: Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha substance on its own. It is eternal. It acquires bondage on account of Asrava of Karmas that can be prevented by Samvar and eradicated by Nirjarä. This eradication process has two stages. The State of omniscience or Keval-inän is attained when one totally overcomes delusion and all Ghäti or defiling Karmas are destroyed.. After attaining Keval-jnän, one may continue to live if he still has to destroy Ayu, Näm, Gotra and Vedaniya Karmas. These four are Aghäti Karmas that are destroyed only upon death. For instance, Lord Mahavir lived for 30 years after attaining Keval-jnän. With the destruction of Aghäti Karmas, the soul attains ultimate liberation. This is the final state which is known as the state of Siddha. Since there is no more Karmic bondage, the soul is forever freed from the cycle of birth and death. It is now a pure a consciousness whose nature of infinite enlightenment and infinite happiness manifests by itself, because there are no longer any factors that obstruct or inhibit its full manifestation. Even a casual reflection of our routine experience would indicate that desire is the cause of all miseries, problems and unhappiness. In the liberated state, where there is no body, there are no requirements, and hence there is an eternal happiness. That state of no desire is the blissful state of liberation. Until the soul gets rid of all Karma, it has to continually go through the cycle of birth and rebirth. Arihantas are destined to be liberated and Siddhas have achieved salvation. We therefore worship them. In common parlance, they are Jain Gods. They do not bestow liberation or any other favor on worshippers. Liberation is to be gained by one's own efforts. Listening to the teachings of Arihantas, provide directions for attaining liberation. Devotion to them and to Siddhas simply provides incentive for the aspirants to strive for the attainment of ultimate happiness. They serve as ideals for devotees. It is natural to question - "What is the form and shape of the liberated soul?' 'Where does it stay, move, rest or sleep?' "What does it do?' Answers are simple. Not being a physical entity, it has no form; it does not move and does not need rest or sleep. Being intangible, its shape is invisible, but the seers have stated that its size and shape would be equal to 2/3rd the size and shape of the one in the last life immediately prior to liberation. Now being free of all bondage, it rises up in space and stops at the top of Lokäkäsh. That part of the space is known in Jain terminology as Siddha-shilä, the abode of liberated souls. Beyond that, it is Alokäkäsh where there is no Dharmästikäya. So there is no movement beyond that point. Liberated souls continually stay engrossed in their true nature of infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite energy, and infinite bliss. That state is permanent. Now, let us use a simple analogy to illustrate these Tattvas. There lived a family in a farmhouse. They were enjoying a fresh cool breeze coming through the open doors and windows. The weather suddenly changed, and a terrible dust storm set in. Realizing it was a bad storm, they got up to close the doors and windows. Before they could close all the doors and windows, lots of dust came into the house. After closing all the doors and windows, they started cleaning away the dust that had come into the house. We can interpret this simple illustration in terms of Nine Tattvas as follows: Jivas are represented by the people. • Ajiva is represented by the house. Punya is represented by worldly enjoyment resulting from the nice cool breeze. Päp is represented by worldly discomfort resulting from the sandstorm which brought dust into the house. Asrava is represented by the influx of dust through the doors and windows of the house, which is similar to the influx of Karma particles to the soul. Bandha is represented by the accumulation of dust in the house, which is similar to bondage of Karma particles to the soul. Samvar is represented by the closing of the doors and windows to stop the dust from coming into the house, which is similar to the stoppage of influx of Karma particles to the soul. Nirjarä is represented by the cleaning up of accumulated dust from the house, which is similar to shedding off accumulated karmic particles from the soul. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 63 of 398 Page #64 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B07- Nav Tattva Part II: Samvar, Nirjarä, and Moksha • Moksha is represented by the clean house, which is similar to the shedding of all karmic particles from the soul. Understanding Nav-Tattvas • The ultimate goal of a human life: Liberation • The prescribed path: Ratna-trayi • The first step towards the goal • To know and to understand the nature of reality • To analyze and to verify the nature of reality • If convinced, to accept it with faith • Alternate practical route to gain right perception Having total faith in Tirthankars' teachings Tirthankars' teachings are: • Co-existence of spiritual and physical reality is beginning and interdependent • Law of cause and effect is unfailing • Interaction between the soul and the matter makes nine Tattvas Failure to understand the relation between the two creates: • Distorted self-identity Social disorder Economic imbalance Environmental problems To put the understanding into practice is a rational approach in life. Page 64 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #65 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B08 - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation B08 - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation 01 Introduction We have seen that our comfortable or uncomfortable situations lie in the activities undertaken by us during this life or earlier lives. Thus, this assumes a theory of rebirth. It is the law of nature that we reap what we sow. However, this reaping does not necessarily occur in the same life. The law, moreover, is not restricted to physical activities. It applies to our persisting tendencies and instincts as well, even though they may not be translated into action. Whatever thoughts we may relish, whether in the midst of mountains or within a remote cave, they will have their consequences. No one can escape these consequences. It is not possible to deceive nature. The consequences have to be borne sooner or later, and no one is immune. This law of Karma as a spiritual science is not different from the law of cause and effect, or that of action and reaction, as from physical sciences. In the spiritual field, the scope of this Karma law is extended to the realm of emotions and feelings as well. This law of Karma and theory of rebirth should not be brushed aside as a fancy of spiritual thinkers. In fact, recent psychological research bears testimony to their validity. Modern psychologists have been increasingly moving to accept it. Dr. Alexander Cannon, during his experiments of age regression observed that the causes of his patients' phobias lay in earlier lives. The reasons for such ailments in many cases could be traced back, to the Roman period. After surveying the results of 1382 reincarnation sittings, as he calls them, he compiled a book entitled 'The Power Within'. The following is a quote from the book. "For years the theory of reincarnation was a nightmare to me and I did my best to disprove it but I have to admit that there is such a thing as reincarnation. It is therefore only right and proper that I should include this study as a branch of psychology, as my text bears witness to the great benefit many have received psychologically from discovering hidden complexes and fears, which undoubtedly have been brought over from past lives. This study explains the scales of justice in a very broad way showing how a person appears to suffer in this life as a result of something he has done in a past life through this law of action and reaction known in the East as Karma. A person cannot see why he suffers one disaster after another in this life, yet reincarnation may reveal atrocities committed by him in lives gone by. We can consider ourselves fortunate that we can obtain, as part of our heritage, what science has only now been revealing. Most of us have in the background of our minds the consequences of what we are now doing. That helps us in restraining our emotions and tolerating adversity. We should not react violently even when hurt physically or otherwise. It is worthwhile to examine the impact of this theory of Karma for the broad spectrum of society. If everyone knew that one day, he is surely going to bear the consequences of whatever he does or thinks, no one would dare to indulge in any activity that would hurt others. All conflicts and wars, disputes and violence, enmity and vengeance, parochialism and selfishness, would come to an end. If one ponders rightly, he can realize that hatred and jealousy may or may not hurt the person against whom they are aimed at, but they surely will hurt him; since his sense of discretion and equanimity would be obscured by such defilements. In that case, no one would harbor any evil and everyone would abide by the code of conduct that is beneficial to society. Even if someone gets hurt by others, he would be inclined to consider it as a consequence of his own past evil Karma and nothing else. Instead of adversely reacting, he would therefore bear it with a sense of equanimity and tranquility. The world would turn into a paradise. Unfortunately, not everybody is going to realize this, and living beings have to bear the brunt of evils generated from passions and different types of evil instincts. The seers have brought out the truth that every being is governed by the inviolable law of Karma. Realizing that meritorious deeds would be ultimately helpful in pursuit of happiness, one can try to ensure one's own future well-being by making use of his ability and resources for the benefit of all. Nature has left to us whether to abide by that law and stay happy by extending happiness to others or to learn the lesson the hard way by undergoing the miseries and pains arising from evil Karmas. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 65 of 398 Page #66 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B08 - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation The doctrine of karma is the single most important subject of Jain philosophy. It provides a rational explanation to the apparently inexplicable phenomena of cycles of birth and death, happiness and misery, inequalities in mental and physical attainments and the existence of different species of living beings. Jainism believes that from eternity, every soul is ignorant and delusional of its true nature, but nonetheless is bound by karma. The ignorant and deluded soul, while remaining in bondage, continues to attract and bind new karma. It is due to karma that the soul migrates from one life cycle to another, and passes through many pleasures and painful situations. The karma that bind our soul are due not only to the actions of our body, mind, and speech but more importantly, to the intentions behind our actions. Jainism strives for the realization of the highest perfection of the soul, which in its original purity is free from all pain, suffering, desire, and bondage of the cycle of birth and death. This way it provides the basis for the path of liberation. Karma philosophy deals with many aspects of our life such as our past karma, our current life, and our future state. These aspects are easily explained in the group of Nav (nine) Tattvas or fundamentals. The proper knowledge of these Tattvas is essential for spiritual progress and ultimate liberation. Refer to chapter on Nav Tattva for detail list of Nav tattvas. *Some literatures define Punya (merit) and Päp (sin) as separate Tattvas while others include them in Asrava. In reality, Punya and Päp are the result of Asrava. Hence, truly there are only seven Tattvas. The first two Tattvas - Jiva and Ajiva, comprise the physical reality of the universe. Jiva Tattva refers to the soul and Ajiva tattva refers to the other five substances - Matter, Dharma, Adharma, Space, and Time. However, in reference to the Theory of Karma, Ajiva Tattva refers to karma or karmic matter only. The remaining seven or five tattvas explain the relationships between the soul and karma. 02 Bandha (Characteristics and Process of the Bondage) Bandha is the attachment of karmic matter karma (Pudgal) to the soul. The process of bandha explains the quality and characteristics of this bondage. Jainism believes that the soul has had this karmic matter bondage from eternity. Also from eternity, the soul is ignorant about its true nature. This karmic matter is known as the Kärman body or causal body or karma. Every moment some of the Karmas particles continually exert their effects creating pleasure or pains to the soul. After producing the effects, Karmas separate from the soul. Also at every moment, the soul continually attracts new karmic matter because of its ignorance, lack of self-restraint, passions, unmindfulness, and activities of body, mind, and speech. Hence, the soul, which was covered by karmic matter from eternity, continually acquires new karma from the universe and exhausting old karma into the universe through the above mentioned process at every moment. Because of this continual process of acquiring and exhausting karma particles, the soul has to go through the cycles of births and deaths, and experience the resultant effects of Karma leading to either pleasure or pain. So under normal circumstances the soul cannot attain freedom from karma, and hence liberation. Our activities are: Physical, • Verbal or Mental We further do these activities in three different ways, • We do the activities ourselves, • We ask someone else to do for us, or • We encourage someone else to carry out these activities. Page 66 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #67 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B08 - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation Thus, in different combinations, we do our activities in nine (3x3) different ways that cause bondage of the karmas to the soul. At the time of the bondage of karmas to the soul, the four characteristics of bondage play an important role. 03 Four Characteristics of Bondage: Prakriti Bandha What kind (Nature) of Karmas will these be? (Type or Category of Karma bondage) Pradesha Bandha How many Kärman particles (Quantity) will attach to the soul? Sthiti Bandha How long (Duration) will these karmas stay with the soul? Rasa Bandha How strong (Intensity) will the bondage of these karmas be? The nature and the quantity of the bondage of the karmas depend on the nature of activities, while the duration and the intensity of the bondage of the karmas depend on the intensity of the passion with which the activities are carried out by the soul. 1. Prakriti Bandha (Type of Karma Bondage) It is well known that some students do very well in class even though they don't study, while others have to struggle to get good grades in spite of studying very hard. In the same way, some people make a lot of money without much effort, while others cannot even find a job. You might have also heard that some people are sick all the time, while others never get sick and some people live to be over a hundred years old, while others die as young children. Everybody is searching for an answer to these strange disparities. Some may say it is the God's will, others may say it is his luck, and so on. Jainism says everything happens due to the result of our past Karmas. You reap what you sow and no God or anyone else can make this happen or change. We and only we are the cause of our suffering or happiness. This can be explained by the theory of Karma. Therefore, it is very important that we understand this process very clearly. It also explains what karmas are, why and what role karmas play in our life with the soul, and how we accumulate different kinds of karmas as well as how we get rid of them. If you sit back and think, you will realize that you are doing something all the time. Sometimes you might be talking, listening or thinking if not doing something physically. In other words you are always doing something. This is only natural. These activities may be harmful or helpful to others. It is important to realize that everything we do brings karmas to our souls. When these karmas mature, that is when they are ready to produce results they bring happiness or suffering to our lives. This is how the karmas are responsible for our happiness or suffering. Karmas are made up of Kärman particles. The Kärman particles are made up of non-living matter (Pudgals). They are scattered and floating all over the universe (Loka). They are invisible even with the help of any kind of microscope. A cluster of such innumerable Kärman particles is called a Kärman Varganä. Kärman Varganä have the subtlest particles. When the soul acts with a passion like aversion or attachment; or anger, greed, ego, or deceitfulness, it attracts these Kärman Varganäs to itself. When these Kärman Varganäs get attached to the soul, they are called karmas. Karmas are classified into eight categories depending upon their nature. The karmas can be good (Punya) or bad (Päp). The good karmas are the result of good or pious activities while the bad karmas are the result of bad or sinful activities. When karmic matter attaches to the soul, it obscures the soul's essential nature of infinite knowledge, infinite perception, bliss, perfect power, eternal existence, formlessness, and equanimity. The different types of karma obscure different qualities or attributes of the soul. The Jain literature has classified it into eight categories according to the particular attribute of the soul that it obscures. This is known as Prakriti bandha. The eight categories of Karma is defined in detail later in this chapter. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 67 of 398 Page #68 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B08 - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation 2. Sthiti Bandha (Duration of Attachment of Karma) When karmic matter attaches to the soul, it remains attached for a certain duration till it produces the complete result. The duration of the attachment is determined according to the intensity or dullness of the soul's passions when the karma was originally attached to the soul. If our desire for the activity is mild, then the duration of the bondage will be for a short time. On the other hand if the passions are stronger, the duration of the bondage will be for a long time. The minimum time could be a fraction of a second and the maximum time could be thousands or even millions of years. After producing the result, the karma will separate or detach from the soul. 3. Anubhäga Bandha or Rasa Bandha (Intensity of Attachment of Karma) When karma produce the result, the intensity of the result is determined by the severity of the Leshyas (any one of six Leshyä) along with passions of the soul when the karma were originally attached to it. This phenomenon is called Anubhäga or Rasa bandha. The intensity of karmas depends upon how intense our passions are at the time of our activities. The lesser the intensity of our passions, the less strong is the resulting effect of the karma; the greater the intensity the stronger the resulting effect is. 4. Pradesha Bandha (Quantity of Karma) The quantity of karma particles that are attached to the soul by our activity of body, mind, and speech (known as Yoga) is called Pradesha Bandha. If the physical vigor of our activities is weak, then we accumulate a smaller number of Kärman particles, but if the physical vigor is stronger, then we accumulate a larger number of Kärman particles on our soul. The higher the number of Kärman particles bonded, the stronger is the resultant effect. Summary Primarily, the pattern of vibrations created in soul is classified by its various actions: Soul's illusion (Mithyätva) and passions (Kashaya) are responsible for the duration (Sthiti) and the intensity (Anubhäga or Rasa) of Karma bondage. Soul's activities of body, speech, and mind (Yoga) without passion are responsible for the Prakriti and Pradesh of Karma bondage Note - Here it is considered that passion includes Mithyatva (Illusion), Avirati (Lack of self-restraint), Pramäda (Spiritual laziness), and Kashaya (passions - anger, ego, deceit, and greed) In summary, the soul's passions are responsible for the duration and intensity of the karma and the soul's activities of body, speech, and mind are responsible for the types and the quantity of the karma. It is due to the intensity and the duration of the karma bondage that the soul passes through many pleasure and painful situations and suffers. Hence one needs to get rid of Mithyätva, Avirati, Pramäda, and Kashaya (Collectively known as Mohaniya karma) to progress spiritually and attain liberation. 04 Classification of Karma Different Classifications of Karma Dravya Karma and Bhäva Karma Ghäti Karma (Destructive to soul's virtue) and Aghäti Karma (Non Destructive to Soul's virtue) • Punya and Pap Karma (further explanation in chapter B10) The bondage of karma is classified into eight categories according to the particular attribute of the soul that it obscures. These eight categories of karma are divided into two major groups known as Ghäti karma, which subdue the qualities of the soul, and Aghäti karma, which relate to the physical body, mind, and physical environment of the living being. Page 68 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #69 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B08 - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation Ghäti Karmas (Destructive Karmas) Ghäti karma subdue the quality of soul namely; infinite knowledge, infinite perception or vision, infinite happiness, and infinite power or energy Destructive to Soul's Virtues or Qualities: • Mohaniya Karma (Deluding Karma) Jnänävaraniya Karma (Knowledge Obscuring Karma) • Darshanävaraniya Karma (Perception Obscuring Karma) • Antaraya Karma (Obstructing Karma) 1. Jnänävaraniya (Knowledge Obscuring) Karma: As the name implies, knowledge obscuring karma obscures the full potential of knowledge of the soul. Those who have less knowledge obscuring karma are more intelligent and learn more easily, while those who have more knowledge obscuring karma have problems retaining knowledge and learning. After the attainment of Vitaraga state a person destroys all his Jnänävaraniya karma within 48 minutes and attains Keval-jnän, a state of infinite knowledge. Five Subtypes of Knowledge Obscuring Karma: • Empirical-cognition knowledge obscuring (Mati-jnänävaraniya) Karma • Articulate knowledge - Scripture knowledge obscuring (Shrut-jnanävarniya) Karma • Clairvoyance knowledge obscuring (Avadhi-jnänävaraniya) Karma • Telepathy knowledge obscuring (Manah-Paryäva-Jnänävarniya) Karma • Omniscience knowledge obscuring (Keval-jnänävaraniya) Karma 2. Darshanävaraniya (Perception Obscuring) Karma: This karma covers the soul's faculty of perception or vision. There is not much difference between knowledge and vision. The initial cognition that grasps the object concerned in a generic form is given the name 'vision' (Darshan). It is like a cognition that a man has of an object when he sees it from a distance. And the cognition which, arising soon after the vision, grasps the very object in a specific form is given the name knowledge. Perception means to perceive the right meaning and cognition. Perception obscuring karma diminishes the powers of our correct perception through the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the extent that we may not be able to see well, hear well, smell well, etc. Perception obscuring karma therefore reduces the real meaning of the things we see, hear, smell, feel, taste and read and how we correlate them with each other. After the attainment of Vitaraga state a person destroys all his Darshanävaraniya karma within 48 minutes and attains Keval-darshan, a state of infinite perception. Nine Subtypes of Perception Obscuring Karma: • Vision perception obscuring (Chakshu-Darshanävaraniya) Karma Non-vision perception obscuring (Achakshu-Darshanävaraniya) Karma Clairvoyance perception obscuring (Avadhi-Darshanävaraniya) Karma • Omniscience perception obscuring (Kevali-Darshanävaraniya) Karma Light sleep producing (Nidrä) Karma Deep sleep producing (Nidrä Nidrä) Karma Sound sleep producing (Prachalä) Karma • Exceedingly intense sleep producing (Prachalä-prachalä) Karma • Somnambulistic sleep producing (Styänarddhi Nidrä) Karma Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 69 of 398 Page #70 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B08 - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation 3. Antaraya (Obstructing) Karma: This karma obstructs the natural quality and energy of the soul such as charity and willpower. It also prevents one from doing good. This karma puts obstacles in soul's efforts to achieve various objectives. In spite of wealth and opportunity to donate, one may not be able to do so. Though one intelligently makes various attempts, one cannot succeed in the business or other endeavor on account of this karma. Even though one has worldly pleasure at his disposal, is not able to enjoy them because of ill health. Although one possesses healthy body and a desire to carry out religious activities may get some obstacles and cannot do so. After the attainment of Vitaräga state, a person destroys all his Antaräya karma within 48 minutes and attains Anant-virya, a state of infinite power and energy. In reality a person destroys the above three karma together within 48 minutes after the attainment of Vitaräga state. Once all four Ghäti karma are destroyed, a person is known as Kevali, Arihant, Tirthankar, or Jina (13th Gunasthänak Spiritual Stage). Consequently Obstructing Karma is responsible for all the obstacles we face in our lives. Five Subtypes of Obscuring Karma: ⚫ Charity obstructing (Dänäntaräya) Karma Gain obstructing (Läbhäntaräya) Karma • Enjoyment Obstructing (Bhogäntaräya) Karma Re-enjoyment obstructing (Upabhogänträya) Karma Will power obstructing (Viryänträya) Karma 4. Mohaniya (Deluding) Karma: Deluding karma generates delusions in the soul with regards to its own true nature. The soul identifies itself with external substances and relationships. This karma generates attachment, aversion and the resulting passions like anger, ego, deceit and greed. As a result, the deluded soul loses its sense of discrimination and is not able to differentiate the good from the evil. It also creates doubts about religion and spiritual teachers and destroys faith in the Jina. As this karma obscures right belief and right conduct of the soul, it is divided into two groups. Two Subtypes of Deluding Karma: ⚫ Faith Deluding (Darshan Mohaniya) Karma Conduct Deluding (Chäritra Mohaniya) Karma Darshan Mohaniya (Faith Deluding) Karma This karma obstructs soul's natural inclination towards what is real and good. This karma generates delusion (Mithyätva) in the soul's innate nature of Right Conviction and Right Knowledge. It is the most dangerous karma. Because of this karma, a person does not have the Right Knowledge of the self (true nature of the soul) and of the Reality. The person believes in the opposite or false knowledge of reality and of the soul, for example: the belief that the body and soul are one etc. Proper knowledge implies to having a proper understanding of the true nature of the soul, karma, the bondage of soul with karma, and the way to liberate the soul from karma. To have total conviction in the above knowledge is called Right Conviction or Faith. This state of spirituality is called Samyaktva or self-realization, 4th Gunasthänak spiritual stage. Because of Samyaktva, a person's knowledge (Jnän) and conduct (Chäritra) is called Right Knowledge and Right Conduct. A person's spiritual progress begins from the Samyaktva state. This karma is again divided into three sub-categories with regard to the degree of faith. The operation of this karma may result either Page 70 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #71 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B08 - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation In a complete lack of true faith or in a positive adherence to a false faith, Swinging between the two and, Not allowing highest degree of Inclination towards true faith this Karma is so powerful that it brings in its train all other causes of Bondage of soul, like undisciplined life, negligence, and passion. As such it completely overpowers and misleads the soul and not only does it defile Right faith but also obstructs acquisition of Right knowledge and Right conduct. Chäritra Mohaniya (Conduct Deluding) Karma Conduct Deluding Karma are those, which obstruct good and wholesome conduct. This karma partially covers or obscures the soul's original nature of Right Conduct Due to this karma a person possesses many weaknesses such as lack of self-restraint, spiritual laziness, and various vices (known as Kashäya) such as anger, ego, deceit, and greed. Hence, one experiences pleasure and pain. After the attainment of Samyaktva, a person puts an effort to gradually diminish his weaknesses and moves towards spiritual progress and ultimately by removing all Chäritra Mohaniya karma he/she attains passionless or Vitaräga state also known as perfect happiness or perfect conduct (12th Gunasthänak spiritual stage). They are further subdivided into twenty five categories, sixteen of Passion Deluding (Kashaya Mohaniya) and nine of Pseudo passion (Deluding Nokashaya Mohaniya) Karma. Of all the karmas, Deluding Karma is the most dangerous and the most difficult to overcome. Once this karma is destroyed, salvation or liberation is assured. Aghäti Karmas (Non-destructive Karmas) Aghäti karmas are non-destructive to the qualities of the soul but are responsible for the creation of physical body, life span, physical mind, and social environment. It only affects the body in which the soul resides. Non-destructive to Soul's Virtues or Qualities: • Vedaniya Karma (Feeling Pertaining Karma) • Näm Karma (Body and Physique Determining Karma) • Gotra Karma (Status Determining Karma) Äyushya Karma (Life Span Determining Karma) 1. Vedaniya (Feeling Pertaining) Karma: It obscures the blissful nature of the soul, and as a result, we have ever-changing experiences of happiness and unhappiness through our sense organs and mind. Thus, Vedaniya karma is responsible for the creation of a favorable or unfavorable environment or situation mainly at a physical level such as sickness, terminal illness, hunger, fatigue, accident or a good sound health and positive physical (body and sensual) capability. This way it creates the environmental feeling of pain (Ashätä) or pleasure (Shätä). This feeling is channeled through the physical level only. Two Subtypes of Feeling Pertaining Karma: • Pain producing (Ashätä Vedaniya) Karma Pleasure producing (Shätä Vedaniya) Karma This physical level feeling activates the Mohaniya Karma to produce happiness (Sukha) and agony (Dukha) at the mental level (Soul's Paryaya). The happiness and agony are experienced by the soul because the soul is at Mithyätva and Kashäya stage. Hence, its interpretation of the situation (knowledge and experience wise) is biased and illusive. This way the Vedaniya Karma indirectly (Nimitta) obscures the blissful nature of the soul via Mohaniya karma. A Kevali possesses Vedaniya karma but not Mohaniya karma. He also possesses infinite knowledge (Keval-jnän). Therefore, he remains a silent observer and aware of the favorable or unfavorable Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 71 of 398 Page #72 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B08 - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation (Shätä or Ashätä) circumstances or experiences that exist through the channel of a physical body, but he does not interpret it as joy or sorrow because he does not have Mohaniya Karma. He remains in a blissful state all the time under all circumstances. In summary, Vedaniya karma being Aghäti karma can only produce favorable or unfavorable circumstances at the physical level, create environmental feelings of pain and pleasure through physical channels and indirectly make the soul feel joyous and sorrowful or in agony via Mohaniya karma. This way this karma covers the undisturbed blissful nature of the soul. However, without the existence of Mohaniya Karma one cannot feel happiness/joy or unhappiness/sorrow. Hence, Vedaniya karma has no real impact on the soul which is at Vitaraga state (12th Gunasthänak spiritual stage). 2. Näm Karma (Body Determining) Karma: This Karma bondage determines the physique or the body that the soul will occupy. It has two main categories and up to one hundred and three subcategories. This karma decides one of the four main species for the soul, number of senses, bodily structure, bone structure, stature, complexion, voice, gait, skin type, popularity and so on. One becoming Tirthankar is also decided by this karma. Two Subtypes of Body Determining Karma: • Happy Physique (Shubha Näm) Karma • Unhappy Physique (Ashubha Näm) Karma There are many sub-categories existing in Näm karma. In summary, Näm karma determines the quality and nature of a physical body a soul may possess such as: Destiny (Gati) - heavenly beings, human, hellish beings and tiryancha (animals and vegetation) Birth species (Jäti) - Physique or characteristics of the body (Sharira) 3. Gotra (Status Determining) Karma: Status determining karma determines whether one gets respected, cultured and religiously oriented family or a family with low moral and social standing. This karma is not simply with mundane aspects of birth environment, but rather with whether that environment is more or less conducive to the pursuit of the spiritual life. Two Subtypes of Status Determining Karma: High Status Determining (Uccha Gotra) Karma High status determining (Uccha Gotra) Karma involves a high and respectful status in respect of a) family, b) community, c) learning, d) power, e) profit, f) penance, g) looks and h) luxury. Low Status Determining (Nichcha Gotra) Karma Low status determining (Nichcha Gotra) Karma results in the opposite equipment and attainments like low and disrespectable family. 4. Ayushya (Life Span Determining) Karma: This karma determines our life span. Other than Äyushya karma, we constantly accumulate rest of the seven karma. Next life span is decided only once in each lifetime. The lifespan for the next life is determined when two thirds of our current life has passed and precisely at that moment what kind of activities we are doing with our speech, body and particularly with our mind. If we are involved in good deeds at that point in time, we will have a better next life. Since nobody knows exactly when this moment arrives in our life, we should be constantly involved in doing good deeds. If our next lifespan is not decided at the first two thirds of the current life then it is decided at two thirds of remaining life. If it is still not decided yet then again at the two thirds of remaining life and so on and so forth, or at the time of death. The life span may get shortened by natural calamities or accidents but it can never be prolonged. Age determining karma will not be acquired if the soul is going to be liberated in the current life. Page 72 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #73 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY Four Subtypes of Age Determining Karma: • • B08 - Theory of Karma and Reincarnation Infernal Age Determining (Narak Äyushya) Karma Sub-Human Age Determing (Tiryancha Äyushya) Karma Human Age (Manushya Äyushya) Karma Celestial Age Determing (Dev Äyushya) Karma On the path of a spiritual progress, a person first destroys Darshan Mohaniya Karma and attains Samyaktva (4th stage of Gunasthänak). Then he destroys Chäritra Mohaniya Karma and attains the stage of Vitaräga (12th stage). Then within 48 minutes, he destroys Jnänävaraniya, Darshanävaraniya, and Antaraya karma and attains Keval-jnän (infinite knowledge), Keval-darshana (infinite perception), and Anant-virya (infinite power and energy). This stage is called Kevali or Arihant (13th stage). A Kevali, few seconds before his death, ceases his activities of body, speech, and mind and attains Ayogi Kevali status (14th stage) An Ayogi Kevali attains liberation few seconds later when his Life span karma is destroyedat the time of death. After nirvana, all Kevali souls are known as Siddhas. The Siddha state is a state of pure consciousness. It does not possess a physical body. The soul remains in this total blissful state forever Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 73 of 398 Page #74 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B09 - Theory of Karma: Q and A B09 - Theory of Karma: Q and A In this chapter, we shall discuss answers to some questions that usually come up regarding the theory of Karma. Q.1: Do you mean to say that whatever situation we may be in, it is the result of our previous Karmas and that we can't do anything about it and we can't change it anyway? A.1: In any present situation or circumstances, we may feel happy or unhappy. This feeling is partially due to our past Karma. The happiness may be due to past Punya Karma and unhappy feeling may be a result of past Pap Karma. However, it is more important to note that our present reaction to events in our lives constitutes new karma and that too can and will have an effect on our future. Suppose, your family is struggling financially. As a result, you may take start a new business venture or find a better paying job. In doing so, you are creating a desire to succeed; this desire will inevitably create new Karma (predominantly Mohineya Karma). The desire to help others with your business venture may also result in you acquiring Punya Karma. In trying to make the business succeed, you will have to face the fruits of that Moheniya Karma. If the new venture turns out to be useful in improving your financial situation, you will be facing the fruits of that Punya Karma in the form of monetary wealth, or Shata Vedniya Karma. No being without Kevalgnan has full knowledge of which Karma exerts its effects and at what time. Some Karmas give an instant effect and some after a long time or even after many births. Nevertheless, a solid understanding of the eight types of Karmas can allow you to understand the events and occurrences in your life within the context of the Karma Theory in Jainism and enable you to see Jain principles influencing your life directly. Q.2: Can you shed some light on destiny (Prärabdha) vs. effort (Purushärtha) in light of the theory of Karma? A2: Karmas can be divided into three categories. Sanchit or Accumulated Karmas: These Karmas are not currently operative. They are like certificates of deposit (bonds). However, we know when certificates (bonds) will mature but we do not know when Sanchit Karmas are going to mature. Vartamän or Present Karmas: We are currently acquiring these Karmas. They can give effects immediately or later on. Uday or Operative Karmas: The consequences of these Karmas are currently destined for us. They therefore constitute our destiny (Prärabdha). Operative (Uday) Karmas thus constitute destiny (Prärabdha) and present Karmas constitute effort (Purushärtha). Through our human effort (Purushärtha) we are in a position to change our destiny, if our present Karmas are going to be instantly fruitful. In essence we choose how we react to events in life; we choose the decisions we make and the subsequent path we take. We can however never be sure of the instant fruitfulness of our choices and actions. That is why our every endeavor does not necessarily succeed. Thus, destiny and efforts are not at odds with each other. Rather, they are two sides of the same coin. Q.3: The soul is conscious and Karmas are lifeless. How can lifeless matter modify the property of the soul, which is supposed to be pure, enlightened, and full of bliss? A.3: There is no rule that a lifeless matter cannot influence conscious soul. We experience different types of sensations because we are alive. A dead body does not feel any sensation. Page 74 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #75 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B09 Theory of Karma: Q and A That means that sensations are experienced on account of the existence of soul or consciousness. The sensations are however not felt while a patient is under the influence of anesthetic drugs. If lifeless drugs can thus affect the sensations of a live being, there is no reason to think that lifeless Karma cannot affect the property of the soul. As the bodily sensations revive when they are no longer under the influence of drugs, the soul also can attain self-realization when it is no longer subjected to the bondage of Karmas. Q.4: Karmas are lifeless and hence unconscious. How can they be conscious enough to bear specific fruits appropriate to that type of Karma? A.4: Karmas do not have to be conscious in order to bear fruits and have effects. The propert of some Karmas is that they will automatically work. If a person consumes poison, the result would be death. For this purpose, poison is not conscious of killing him. It is the inherent property of poison that works. Similarly different types of Karmas have their own respective properties that come into effect in their own ways. Q.5: If purity, enlightenment, bliss etc. are the properties of the soul, when did it initially get polluted with Karma? A.5: Worldly souls have been smeared with Karma since time without beginning. They have never been devoid of Karma. Therefore, the question of the soul's initial bondage with Karma does not arise. Q.6: If the soul has been associated with Karma since the time without beginning, there can never be an end to it. As such the soul can never be devoid of Karma. Then why worry about it? A.6: Though the bondage of Karma is without beginning, it is not the same bondage throughout time. Every Karma has a time limit during which its consequences have to be borne and that Karma sheds off at the end of that time. Meanwhile the soul indulges in new Karma and thereby gets new bondage. If the soul does not indulge in new Karma, it can be devoid of Karma when the consequences of previous Karmas are fully borne and the soul becomes disassociated from them. In religious terminology this disassociation is called Nirjarä. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 75 of 398 Page #76 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Pap Karma B10 - Punya and Päp Karma 01 Introduction There are three types of inner states of being (Bhäva) - pure (Shuddha), virtuous (Shubha) and nonvirtuous (Ashubha). The most desirable Bhäva is the pure one, which is devoid of any attachments or desire of accomplishment. This Shuddha Bhäva can exist only when one is totally absorbed in one's own self. It is very difficult for an aspirant to be always absorbed in one own self. Then the aspirant may get involved in some activities (physical, verbal or mental), which almost always come with some attachments, desires or worries. When such activities are meritorious, it attracts virtuous karma, which are called Punya. When such activities are sinful, it attracts non-virtuous karma, called Päp. Hence, Punya Karma is acquired by meritorious or virtuous deeds and Pap Karma is acquired by evil or vicious acts. It should be noted that Shuddha Bhäva does not attract any karma but stops the influx of new karma and/or eradicates the existing karma. The manifestation of Punya brings material happiness and comforts such as wealth, fame and good health. The manifestation of Päp brings unhappiness, discomforts, poverty and an unhealthy body. However, both keep the soul in the material world (cycle of birth and death). The concepts of Punya and Päp are more or less identical with most religions; however, they are more subtly treated by Indian philosophies. They take into consideration not only the actual act but also the intention behind it. They are unanimous in praising meritorious intentions and activities and in condemning sinful ones. One may obtain material happiness and comforts as a result of virtuous Karma. However, material happiness does come to an eventual end and comfortable situations do not last forever. Then one has to undergo miseries unless one has in the meantime earned other Punya Karma while enjoying the fruits of past Punya Karma. Many physical activities may be called either good or bad. Organized societies endeavor to encourage beneficial or virtuous activities and to discourage the wicked or vicious ones. There may also be legal provisions to forbid some of the manifestly wicked activities to maintain peace and order within society. Some activities however cannot be clearly labeled as good or bad. In the spiritual sense, the intention behind performing them and the disposition in which an activity is performed, play an important role in deciding whether it would attract virtuous or non-virtuous Karma. Thus, Päp and Punya are to be viewed in relative terms and they depend upon one's mental attitude in a given situation. Keeping equanimity in the mind with all-meritorious activities of life and with self-restraint one can practice to be in a mental state of pure reflection or Shuddha Bhäva. 02 Punya (Virtuous or Wholesome) Karma Why are some people in more desirable situations than the others? Why are some rich while others struggle? Why do some suffer more sickness than others? The answer to such a disparity lies in the understanding of the Punya and the Päp. What are Punya and Päp? Punya and Päp are categories of Karma. Punya karma is earned when our activities are good and comforting to others while Päp karma is earned when our activities are bad and cause suffering to others. When the Punya karmas mature or come into fruition, they bring happiness and comfort, and when the Päp karmas mature or come into fruition, they bring nothing but suffering and miseries. Now, it is obvious that what we experience is nothing other than the result of our past actions. Knowing this reminds us that our activities should be virtuous if we want happiness and comfort in life, otherwise we should be ready to suffer unhappiness and discomfort. When talking about activities, people mostly think of physical activities, but we should not forget that verbal expressions and mental thoughts are also considered activities. For this reason, not only do our physical activities have to be pious or virtuous, but our speech and thoughts should also be pure. We should remember that we also accumulate Punya and Päp karmas by asking someone else to do something good or bad or by encouraging someone else to do good or bad. Lord Mahävir's message is "Live and let live". Everybody desires to live and enjoy the comforts of life. We should not come in the way of anyone else seeking the same. If we properly understand the implications of this message, it will go a long way in molding our attitude towards other living beings. Page 76 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #77 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Pap Karma Around us we see and hear that many people hunt or fish, and that they eat meat, chicken, fish, eggs, etc. Some meat eaters argue that they do not actually kill animals or they say these creatures were created for our food. Therefore, eating meat or other animal foods would not affect them. They do not realize that by eating meat or other animal foods they are directly or indirectly partaking in killing animals, birds, fish, etc., The more they eat, the more killing there will be. They do not realize that their direct as well as indirect actions bring Päp or Punya. Unfortunately, because most Päps do not show their results immediately, the people do not care about the consequences. We also hear about riots in, which people plunder, hit, and kill others and set fire to shops, homes, and buildings. By doing so, they put a lot of people through suffering. These people while doing such heinous activities may think that they are getting even; however, they fail to realize that by causing suffering to others they themselves will have to suffer the consequences of their evil acts at some point, in this life, or future lives. Consequently, our actions should not disturb the livelihood of other living beings, hurt or kill them in any way, directly or indirectly. By providing comfort and security to others, we gain Punya. Punya brings happiness during this life or following lives. On the other hand, if we cause suffering or unhappiness to others, we acquire Päp. Päp brings unhappiness in this life or in future lives. Let us understand from the following story how we accumulate the Punya and the Päp. Punya is a meritorious deed done with a feeling of self-satisfaction and accomplishment (in other words with ego). However, the same deed done without the feeling of accomplishment and attachment (without ego) is not Punya, such action or deed is considered the true nature of a person (Shuddha Bhäva). Hence, Punya activity is considered Upädeya (desirable) in the beginning stages of spiritual development to progress towards liberation (for laymen). For those who are advanced aspirants of liberation it is considered Heya (non-desirable), because such aspirants should not have feelings of accomplishment and attachment to even meritorious deeds. A spiritually advanced person's activities or deeds are always meritorious without feelings of attachment to the activities. No karma can attach to a person if his/her action is done without any attachments or feeling of accomplishments. Some Jain scholars preach that Good Karma hinders the purity and freedom of soul. Punya Karma is like handcuffs made of gold, causing the soul to wander in the cycle of birth and death. The fruits of good Karma have to be borne, indicating that one should even give up meritorious deeds. The fact is that a human being cannot remain without action unless he has reached the 14th stage of Gunasthänak (Ayogi Kevali). Even the Tirthankar who is at the 13th stage of Gunasthäna does not remain without action (Yoga exists). In addition, the actions of any person are viewed as either good or bad. However, the Karma philosophy teaches us that duringmeritorious action one should remain detached from the results of the action such as accomplishment, reward, fame, etc., or in other words, perform these actions with equanimity. The detachment will not cause any new Punya Karma. For example, doing charity work and becoming detached to the praise that comes with it is the way to avoid accumulating additional Punya Karma. Hence, the true message of Jain Karma philosophy is that during our entire lives, we should not miss any opportunities to do commendable deeds but we should try to remain detached from the result, or any desired expectations. Ways of Acquiring Punya There are nine ways mentioned in Stänänga Sutra (a Jain Agam) that result in Punya. Anna Punya Offering of innocent, non-sentient, pure and vegetarian foods Pän Punya Offering of non-sentient and pure water Layan Punya Offering shelter Shayan Punya Offering bed Vastra Punya Offering clothes Mana Punya Creating good thoughts and ideas Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 77 of 398 Page #78 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Pap Karma Vachan Punya Käya Punya Namaskar Punya Offering and speaking kind or meritorious words Virtuous, noble, and helpful activities Paying respect to the Pancha Paramesthi The term adopted by some Achäryas is offerings to "deserving people" (Supätra). "Deserving people" include Jain ascetics as well as householders who are practicing self-restraints, pursuing the path of liberation, and are in need of help. There is no restriction against helping other living beings for the purpose of compassion (Jivadaya, Karunä and Anukampa) because our Tirthankars have preached about showing compassion to all living beings. Before initiation (Diksha), Tirthankars donate to all living beings for one year without any such discrimination. Story of Shälibhadra A long time ago, a poor widow had a young son. She had to work hard to provide for herself and her son. Once, there was a day of a great festival and neighboring families prepared a tasteful pudding of milk and rice called Kheer. The neighborhood kids were enjoying the Kheer, and seeing this the poor boy went to his mother and asked her to make Kheer for him too. He did not realize that his mother did not have enough money to buy the milk, rice, and sugar needed for making Kheer. The mother tried to explain the situation, but the boy started crying for Kheer. The mother could not tolerate his crying, so she said, "Don't cry, my son, I will make Kheer for you." She went to the neighbors and borrowed milk, sugar and rice and made Kheer. She served the Kheer in an earthen plate, and told him to wait until it had cooled down a little. Then she left to get the water from the well. While the boy waited for Kheer to cool, a monk came to the boy's home for alms to get food. The boy was very happy to have this opportunity to offer alms to the monk and invited him come in. While he was serving the Kheer, he decided to serve all the Kheer to the monk with joy. After the monk left, he ate whatever Kheer was stuck to the plate and the pot. He did not regret for his action but instead felt very happy that he could offer the food to the monk. Since he had offered the Kheer to the monk willingly, he earned a lot of Punya. As a result of this Punya, in his next life he was born into a very wealthy family with all luxuries. His name was Shalibhadra. Shalibhadra later in life realized what life is all about. He renounced the luxuries of life, and uplifted his soul by becoming a monk of Lord Mahävir. Story of a Butcher (Kälsaurik Kasaya) and King Shrenik There lived a butcher in Magadha City. He enjoyed his job. One day, King Shrenik requested that there would be no more killing in the city. All slaughterhouses and the killing of animals in the city stopped at the request of king but the butcher continued killing the animals. When he was asked why he did not follow King Shrenik's request, he said he loved his job of killing and could not stop. King Shrenik decided to put him in a dry well so that there would be nothing for him to kill. To everyone's surprise, the killing did not stop there either. The butcher made animals from wet clay and then pretended to kill them. Since, he enjoyed killing so much, he accumulated Päp (bad karmas) that gave rise to a situation where he had to suffer again in his next life. From these two stories, we learn that if we want happiness and comfort, we should offer comfort to others. As the saying goes "You reap what you sow". For a detailed story of Shalibhadra as well as King Shrenik and the butcher, please refer to the Story Section. Here is a list of some of the activities that can cause discomfort to others and can ultimately cause discomfort to us. Being cruel or violent to others including animals, birds, bugs, vegetation, etc. • Showing disrespect to parents, teachers or others Speaking harsh words or planning violence Not following religious principles in your daily life Page 78 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #79 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Pap Karma . • Being angry or greedy . Being arrogant • Being deceptive Someone has rightly said that: Sow a good thought and reap a good action Sow a good action and reap a good habit • Sow a good habit and reap a good character Sow a good character and reap a good destiny Our life is nothing but full of habits and we are free to cultivate our own good habits. It all starts with expanding your mind to intake positive principles. In doing so, we can begin to incorporate these principles in our lives as actions. Once we see that these actions are leading to better results, the actions become habit. Through good habits one can become a wholesome and virtuous being. And inadvertently, in doing so one can alter his or her life down a more rewarding path - reaping a better destiny. 03 Päp (Non-virtuous or Unwholesome) Karma We are always busy doing something good that may be helping others or being bad and causing trouble to others. When we help someone, not only it brings comfort to that person, but it also brings us comfort by accumulation of Punya Karma. But when we cause trouble for others, it causes us to suffer too due to Päp (sins) Karma. The kinds of activities that cause others to suffer are called sinful activities and they range in various levels from simply telling a tale to actual killing. Jain scriptures describe eighteen kinds of such activities, which are considered the sources of the sins that lead to bad deeds or Päp. These can cause many problems leading to pain or dissatisfaction in our current lives as well as future lives. Therefore, we should be careful not to carry out any of the following 18 sinful activities, which are interconnected with one another. Eighteen Sinful Activities Pränätipät Violence Mrushäväda Untruthfulness Adattadana Theft Maithuna Unchastity Parigraha Possessiveness Krodha Anger Mäna Arrogance Mäyä Deceit Lobha Greed Räga Attachment Dvesha Hatred Kalah Quarreling Abhyäkhyana Accusation Paishunya Gossip or false complaint Rati-Arati Liking and disliking 16 Par-parivada Criticism Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 79 of 398 Page #80 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY Mäyä-Mrushäväda Mithyatva-Shalya 17 18 01. Pränätipät (Violence or Himsa): Pränätipät means to injure one or more of the ten Pränas (vitalities) of a living being. This word is formed by two words. Präna means vitalities of a living being, and Atipäta means to kill or to hurt. Therefore, Pränätipät means to cause suffering or to kill any of the vitalities of living beings. Everybody agrees and understands that physical violence is wrong. Meat, chicken, seafood, and even eggs; all these things are obtained by killing other living beings. So it is all considered violence. Hunting and fishing games is also violence. Our harsh words and even our thoughts may cause violence. Name-calling and offensive, hateful, bitter or harsh language cause verbal violence. Malice Wrong beliefs B10 - Punya and Päp Karma Great Ächärya Umäsväti defines - "Pramatta Yogät Präna Vyaparopanam Himsä." To injure or to kill a living being because of non-vigilance or ignorance (Pramäda) is Himsä. One cannot find peace by pursuing a course of violence. Injury with carelessness and passion is Himsä. Every living being wants to live and no one wants to die. Hurting or killing any living beings by physical means, words, or in thoughts is called Himsä. According to Bhagawän Mahävir, "one should behave the way he likes others to behave towards him", and "that as we like to live comfortably, all other beings also would like to live a comfortable life". The message is 'Live and help others live'. Ahimsa holds the key position in the whole scheme of ethical discipline. Giving protection to living beings is the true religion. The true religion is based on compassion - compassion is the root of the tree of religion. For householders, abstaining from intentionally injuring mobile living beings through mind, words, or body in any of the two ways, oneself or through others is called Sthul Pränätipät Viraman-Vrata or Ahimsa-Anu-vrata. Himsä is of two forms: ⚫ Inherent in one's occupation ⚫ Unrelated to one's occupation ⚫ Sukshma (minute) Himsä is the act of harming any one sense living being. Sthul (gross) Himsä is the act of harming living beings with two senses or more, known as Trasa (mobile) Jivas. Himsä can also be divided as: The Himsä related to one's profession is further divided into three categories: (1) Udyami, (2) Gruhärambhi and (3) Virodhi. Udyami: The householder, in order to support himself and his family, has to get involved in an occupation and his occupation may involve Himsä. Therefore, householders should undertake occupations that involve less forms of Himsä. Gruhärambhi: Some kind of Himsä is involved while carrying out the manifold domestic duties and other obligations. Preparation of food, use of water in bathing and washing clothes, keeping animals for farming, maintenance of gardens, cutting fruits and flowers are some of such instances; and whatever Himsä involved in such household obligations is permissible with the thought of minimizing as much as possible. Virodhi: It is committed generally in self-defense or in the protection of people or property of members of the family, relatives or friends. In the ordinary course of life, one has to defend himself from thieves, robbers or enemies in battle. If one is a soldier, defense of his country is an obligatory duty; but he is not expected to indulge in unnecessary Himsä as a matter of hostility or revenge. Page 80 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #81 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Pap Karma Himsä can also be defined as Bhäva Himsä and Dravya Himsä: • Bhäva-himsä denotes the intention to cause injury or attempt to commit is a form of Himsä whether it is actually carried out or not. Dravya-himsä denotes causing actual injury. Example of mental or verbal violence: Ramesh is a tall and heavy guy and Anil is a skinny guy. Anil wanted to beat Ramesh for some reason but he cannot beat him physically. So, Anil thinks that he will become a friend of some bully and ask him for help. He also thinks about various other ways to beat Ramesh. During all these thought process, even though he does not undertake any physical action, his feelings were to hurt Ramesh so he gets sins (Päp) as if he was hurting Ramesh. Thus mental thoughts affect us the same way as physical or verbal expressions. Thinking is tremendously faster, easier, and has no inhibition factors like actual physical or verbal activity and hence it increases the potential for accumulation of Päp or even Punya due to good thoughts much faster and easier. Some other forms of violence are piercing, crushing, binding, torturing, and overloading animals; starving or not feeding them at proper times, and exploiting laborers. Some cosmetics, ivory, wool, silk clothes, down fine feathers or leather articles involve direct or indirect injury to animals and are reasons for accumulation of sins. One should be careful even while walking, running, or sitting that one does not step on small insects like ants and tiny bugs. We should be careful not to walk on plants or grass because they have life. Taking such care is called "Jatana" or "Upayoga" in Jainism. When we become careful we can live a peaceful and compassionate life. 02. Mrushäväda: It is formed of two words. 1) Mrushä means lie, and 2) Väda means to speak. So Mrushäväda means to tell a lie. Telling things otherwise is telling a lie. To tell a lie is Päp. Besides accumulating Päp, by lying we lose our friends. Therefore, we should not tell lies. Common reasons to speak a lie are ignorance, fear, anger, greed, and deception. Some examples of lies are spreading rumors, revealing secrets, writing false documents, or not returning things that were given for safekeeping. A truth that hurts others or causes violence is also lie. Therefore, all lying is forbidden unless the truth is likely to result in greater Himsä. Spreading unkind rumors, character assassination, deliberately misguiding, forgery, causing thoughtless defamation, using harsh language, giving wrong testimony, etc., has to be avoided. The honesty and reliability of Jain businesspersons is well known in the history. At one time more than 50% of money transactions passed through their hands. The main reason of their success was their truthfulness. Use of words that inflict injury to living being is falsehood. However, the truth may have to be avoided at times, if it likely to cause loss of any life. Any statement made through Pramäda (careless activity of body, mind or speech) is falsehood. The falsehood is of four kinds: 1. Denying the existence of a thing with reference to its position, time and nature, when it actually exists. 2. Asserting the existence of a thing with reference to its position, time and place, when it does not exist at all. 3. Representation of an existing thing as something different from what it really is. 4. Utterance of condemnable, sinful or disagreeable words. Backbiting, harsh, unbecoming, non-sensible or unethical speech is condemnable. That kind of speech which incites another to engage in piercing, cutting, beating etc., or which is likely to lead to destruction of life is sinful. Speech causing uneasiness, pain, hostility, misery or anguish etc., is sinful and forbidden. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 81 of 398 Page #82 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Pap Karma 03. Adattädäna: Adattädäna means stealing. It is formed of two words. 1) Adatta means without permission and 2) Adäna means to take. To take something without permission of the owner or to steal is known as Adattädäna. To acquire something which does not belong to us by adopting wrong means is considered stealing. Even if we do not steal directly, but ask or encourage someone else to do so is also as bad as stealing. To receive or buy stolen property, evade taxes, adulterate, keep false weights and measures to deceive people, indulge in smuggling activities are all some example of stealing. To take someone's writings or idea without their permission is also stealing. Once, we start doing such things, there will be no limit as to how far we would go. Moreover, this habit will bring calamity to other family members as well. Therefore, we should not steal. The sense of stealing arises from greed (Lobha) and it causes Himsä. Non-stealing includes the maintenance of quality, not buying stolen goods, not cheating on taxes, divulging confidences (Vishväsha-ghät), etc. It also includes not revealing someone's secrets. The person who steals causes pain to one whom he deprives of the objects and such deprivation may bring inconvenience, trouble and even death. Seizing the property of another is like depriving him of his vitalities, for all objects belonging to one are his external vitalities. Hence, theft is Himsä. Taking with intent to steal objects, even of such things of trivial importance, which are in the possession of others is stealing. If we think deeply, accumulation of material objects beyond our necessities such as food, clothes and shelter also amounts to Adattädäna. If one accumulates more than his needs, he deprives others from getting their necessities. 04. Maithuna: Maithuna means being unchaste or engaging in sensuous enjoyment. In Jainism, there is no place for pre or extra marital sexual relationship because excessive sensual desire brings bad karmas. Forbidden for householders are sensual relationships with other men and women, going to a prostitute, gossiping about sensuous pleasure, wearing indecent dress and decorations; and taking intoxicating drugs. Even within the bounds of marriage, it is advised to observe restraint. Unnatural gratification, indulging in profuse speech or excessive passion even for one's own spouse are considered unchaste. A person who suffers from high desire for lust and sensual pleasures cannot resist temptations and thus indulges in immoral deeds. If there is a control over the urge for material indulgence, sensual desire can be restrained. 05. Parigraha: Parigraha means possessiveness or over collection of worldly objects or attachment to worldly possessions is known as 'Parigraha'. Unlimited possessions and hoarding things beyond a person's basic needs is considered a sin. This occurs when we try to accumulate more than our needs. We should learn to live happily with what our needs are rather than accumulating more just because we like those things. This is easy to say, but rather hard to follow. We should remember that unnecessary accumulation is the root cause of all unrest and keeps our craving alive for more possessions. Therefore, we should be content and should learn to control our desires. Greed is the root-cause of accumulation. For the householder absolute renunciation of Parigraha is not possible; he should set limits to its acquisition, possession and protection. Bhagawan Mahävir has explained two types of Parigrahas: external possessions and internal possessions. Bhagawan Mahävir said, "Muchchhä Pariggaho Vutto." Attachment is the possession (Parigraha). Attachments make the soul heavier with Karma. 06. Krodha: It means anger. We get angry for many reasons. Whenever we do not get what we want, we get upset and mad, and depending upon the situation either we throw things, use harsh words or have negative thoughts. When a person is angry, he cannot distinguish between right and wrong or good and bad. Angry person makes other person also angry and it creates a chain reaction. It destroys friendship and dissolves the fabric of family life. Besides accumulating bad karma, anger adversely affects health - causes adverse effects on the brain, heart, etc. To overcome anger, we should develop tolerance by cultivating the idea that forgiveness is my nature and a quality of a brave Page 82 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #83 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Päp Karma person. This way, we can stay calm even if things do not look quite right. If we can achieve that, there will be no place for quarrels around us and we will be able to live peacefully. Anger is the first of four passions (Kashäya). Spiritually, anger hurts all living beings. Anger can become a reason for one's destruction. 07. Mäna: It means the ego. Egoism, pride, arrogance, self-admiration, and conceit are all synonymous. The ego means thinking too much of the self. Due to the ego, we tend to look down upon others. Jain scriptures describe eight types of pride; intelligence, race, family, physical strength, accomplishments, appearance, penance and affluence. This is the second of the four passions (Kashäya). It is difficult for one to overcome his ego. Because of the ego, our history is full of bloodshed. Today's political problems and violence are because of egotism. Egotism is one of the higher Päps. Ego should distinguish from self-respect, which one should always cultivate. Ego can be overcome by cultivating a sense of humbleness. Humility is the first step for acquiring right knowledge, right faith and right conduct. In addition to thinking too highly of the self, egoism is the act of making assumptions about what you believe. Delusion is the greatest flaw that most human beings face and delusion is built out of an arrogance in one's beliefs and ideas. A cure to one's ego is Anekantvad. The ability to always accept that one's beliefs and opinions may not be 100% correct is a great quality that can suppress one's ego. Refer to the Gunasthanaks section (Gunasthanaks 7 to 11) for an even more detailed guide on how to suppress the ego and overcome delusion. Often this is the most difficult journey for many of the Tirthankars. 08. Mäyä: It means to deceive, cheat, or mislead. A cunning person hides his malice thoughts behind sweet words. When we cheat and succeed in doing so, it leads to ego because we feel proud of what we have done even though it was wrong. When we are caught cheating, then we get into big trouble. A deceitful person is always fearful, restless and lakes peace of mind. Straightforwardness brings success in all areas like social, academic, professional and spiritual. The opposite of Mäyä is straightforwardness (Saralatä). One, who has unity of his thinking, speaking and deeds (he does what he says and he says what he thinks), is a straightforward person. This kind of person is well respected by all and lives in day-to-day happiness. Because of his straightforwardness, his soul becomes lighter as he acquires less of Karma. 09. Lobha: It means greed. Even if we have enough to meet our needs, we want more for the sake of having it, it is called greed. Desire is the root cause of greed. Moreover, there is no end to our desires. The more we get, the more we want. We should not forget that when we do not get what we want, we get angry. We become jealous of someone who may have what we want. To get what we want, we may use all wrongful means to get it. Most of the wars between nations are the result of greed of one to take over the other. Greed is not limited to the lust of wealth only; it can be for power, fame or even pleasure of five senses. Many more vices generate from greed. Greed is the root of all sins (and the other three passions). Four passions: anger, greed, ego, and deceit are the main culprits for the cycle of birth and death. They are difficult to control. If one conquers these four, then he can attain Moksha. One acquires a lot of Karma because of his greed. Under the influence of greed, one forgets his duties, laws, ethics, morals, etc. A subtle level of greed exists, even in the tenth Gunasthäna. That is why it is said, "Loho Savva Vinäsano"- greed destroys all merits. Greed can lead to all other passions. Therefore, instead of being greedy let us be content and share with others what we have. If everybody does that, then there will be peace and harmony among us. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 83 of 398 Page #84 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Päp Karma 10. Räga: Räga means attachment. Suppose you went shopping at a clothing store and saw a T-shirt that was cool. You liked it very much and you wanted to buy it. You checked its price tag and it was high. You thought, "Well, I will wait until it goes on sale." You kept on checking every two to three days to see if it was on sale. You are going back to the store was due to your attachment to the T-shirt. Sometimes this attachment can blind us to get what we want and to do so, we may even use wrongful methods. Therefore, we should avoid developing attachments for things. After all that is not the only thing in the whole world. Attachment for our belief or opinion also causes problem and can bind us with Karma. It is very hard to control attachment, and it is even harder to identify it. In other words, we should learn to live a life where it is all right whether we get what we like or not. One of the most popular words used in Jainism is "Vitaräga"- one who has conquered Räga. However, there is no word like "Vitadvesha"- one who has conquered aversion. The reason is that one, who conquers Räga, automatically conquers Dvesha (aversion) since Räga is the root cause of Dvesha. It is difficult to conquer "attachment" (Räga). It is even more difficult to identify Räga. Cultivating the sense of detachment can control Räga. Räga can be for worldly pleasures, family and one's own beliefs. 11. Dvesha: Dvesha means hatred or aversion. It includes hatred, enmity, jealousy etc. Attachment and hatred are two sides of a coin. Where there is Räga, there is Dvesha. One cannot tolerate the prosperity of his neighbors or his friends. Because of jealousy, one does not necessarily bring bad things to others, but he certainly spoils his own life. One's hatred does more harm to himself. Attachment or hatred occurs to us almost every moment. If somebody does something good to us, we like him and if somebody does not do what we like, we tend to hate him. Every now and then, we may come across a situation where we do not like something. Most of the time we can ignore that, but sometimes it develops into hatred towards someone. If the hatred is due to the loss of something, then it can turn into anger and may cause harm to others and to us. Sometimes hatred is geared towards others' fame, prosperity or even their virtues. Hatred brings enmity. Instead, we should develop love and friendship for everybody. Even if someone is cruel to us, we should show compassion. We can overcome these two by cultivating the sense of equanimity in all situations, and we must if we want to attain liberation. We should have love and amity for all. Even if someone happens to be wicked, we should show compassion instead of hatred. 12. Kalah: It means dispute or quarrel. Quarrel is more connected with the word. When we do not restrain what we say, we add fuel to the fire - we give momentum to quarreling. Most of the time, when someone does not agree with us, the first thing we do is argue. Many people quarrel over even a trivial matter. Sometimes, it may seem that we win by fighting, but we lose in the long run. Frustration and anger are a few of the causes for fighting. Fighting breaks up even a good friendship. Because of quarreling, we have wars. Because of quarreling, we invite medical problems such as blood pressure, ulcers, etc. Not only do we hurt ourselves, we also hurt our dear ones. Many people quarrel over trivial matters. Sometimes it may seem that we win by fighting, but we lose in the end. Therefore, we should learn to let go and develop friendliness and one should therefore develop amity and friendliness. It is always important to be cautious of what one is quarreling about; if it is truly negligible then there is no need to be unnecessarily creating negativity between you and others. 13. Abhyäkhyäna: Making false accusations on somebody is called Abhyäkhyäna. Some people cannot accept their downfall and out of jealousy blame others even if they are not at fault. When the others find out the truth, they are going to lose trust in these people. Therefore, before accusing anyone, we should ask ourselves, "What is the truth and why am I blaming others without proper evidence?" Accusation may put even innocent people in trouble. No wise person will do this. Therefore, accept the truth and live Page 84 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #85 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Pap Karma by that even though sometimes it may not be in our favor and one should therefore try to avoid making accusations and try to understand the truth of the matter. 14. Paishunya: Talking behind someone's back or spreading rumors are all known as Paishunya. Many people try to look smart by spreading rumors about others. To slander someone in his absence is Paishunya. It is a bad habit to talk behind some one's back or to spread rumors. Such habits lead to unnecessary friction and quarrels. This is a wrong habit that leads to unnecessary friction and quarrels. This takes time away from constructive activities. Instead of indulging in gossip, we should form the habit of appreciating others. 15. Rati-arati: Rati means liking, while Arati means disliking. It also means taking pleasure in sinful activities and displeasure in religious activities and not to pursue permanent happiness through self-restraint and to pursue temporary happiness. Happiness in favorable situations and unhappiness in unfavorable situations are liking and disliking. We are continuously engaged in this feeling of liking or disliking as a natural response but we should be aware that they bring feelings of attachment or hatred in our minds. Even though our response may look innocent, we should be careful about them and try to balance them. 16. Par-pariväda: It is formed of two words. 1) Par means the other person and 2) Parivada means to criticize. Many people do nothing but criticize others. Instead of admiring others, they always find fault instead. If criticism is done with the good intention of improvement, then it is considered positive or constructive criticism, and is welcome. But if the criticism is done to put others down, then it is considered negative criticism and it should be avoided. It creates unnecessary friction, cultivates anger in people, and can lead to unfortunate events. 17. Mäyä-mrushäväda: Telling a malicious lie with the intent of cheating is called Mäyä Mrushäväda. Any lie said out of ignorance, anger or fear is bad, but when it is done with malice, it is worse. Malicious behavior causes nothing but quarrels and friction. This binds double non-virtuous Karma - one for lying and one for deceit. This type of activity will result in deluding (Mohaniya) Karma. People do not like to maintain a friendship with such people. Nobody will trust them. Not only should we avoid such habits, but we should stay away from those who have such habits. Instead of being vicious, we should be kind, truthful and straightforward towards others. 18. Mithyätva-shalya: Mithyätva Shalya or Mithya-darshan-shalya means false faith or to trust a false god, false guru, or false religion. This word is combination of three words. 1) Mithya means false, 2) Darshan means faith, and 3) Shalya means a thorn. This means to believe in false faith is a thorn. As thorn always hurts, false faith always hurts. It will lead us to nothing but sufferings. Even though this Päp Sthanaka is listed last, it is the most dangerous non-virtuous activity and the root cause, because in its presence all seventeen sources of sin do not budge. False beliefs can start from believing in false God, false Guru, and false religion. A false God would be the one who is tinted with attachment and hatred. When one has any attachment or hatred, one is bias and cannot give proper advice. But Jinas have conquered both. Therefore, they do not expect anything from what they advise. There is no reason for them to give us any advice that will hurt us. They have reached the highest state by following the same path they have shown to us. They have taught us that we are our own saviors, and only we can save ourselves. False Gurus are those who do not believe in the five major vows as prescribed by the Jinas. They promote violence, lying, stealing, immoral sensual activities, and possessiveness. These activities will bring our downfall. In the same way, false religion will promote teaching opposite of what the Jinas have taught. False faith does not allow one to realize all other seventeen non-virtuous activities as a source of Päp karma. As a result, one does not feel remorse for that action nor does one turn away from it. This false faith is the root cause, which makes one wandering through the life cycle of birth and death. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 85 of 398 Page #86 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Pap Karma Thus, we should have faith in the right God, the right Guru, and the right religion if we want to progress in our spiritual journey. From the discussion we realize that any of these 18 types of sinful activities are harmful. As long as we are living, we are bound to undertake some of these activities, but we should be careful and replace the sinful activities with good activities to minimize harm to our soul. If we have to get involved in sinful activity due to unavoidable circumstances, we should do it with regret and repent for doing such acts and never enjoy doing them. How one can be free from Päp Gautam Swami asked Mahävir Swami, "Bhante! How can one be free from Päp?" Mahävir Swami replied, "Gautam! There are three ways to get free from Päp: • Knowledge of previous lives • Knowledge of the mystery behind the cycle of birth and death • Knowledge of what is conscious mind (Chitta) and how to purify it." Knowledge of Previous Lives: If one can recollect one's previous lives, including all the pain and pleasures one will automatically take the path of Punya and avoid the path of Päp. The person with the knowledge of previous life understands the mystery behind attaining the human life, including the spiritual efforts required to attain human life. Knowledge of previous lives is called "Jäti-smaran Jnän". Knowledge of the Mystery behind the Cycle of Birth and Death: Knowledge of causes of the cycle of birth and death, and fact that one is reborn in a good or a bad state because of his own good or bad karmas. He realizes that, "My Karma is the reason why I am trapped in the cycle of birth and death." In other words, he understands that one's actions lead to peaks and valleys of happiness and dissatisfaction in one's future. This realization makes one think to stop undesirable activities and makes him conscious of the importance of human life. Knowing the Causes that Impure the Conscious Mind (Chitta): Knowledge of why conscious mind has become impure and how one can purify it, then one will automatically begin to free oneself from sinful activities. Unnecessary and sinful activities stain the Chitta, while adherence to the true religion purifies it. 04 Four Fold Combinations of Punya and Päp Päp and Punya are to be viewed in relative terms, and they depend upon one's mental attitude in a given situation. Both Punya and Päp karma are manifested in the future in ways that the soul perceives as pleasure/ reward and pain/ punishment respectively. Jain literature defines the four fold combination of our reflection or tendency known as Anubandh while we go through the fruits of Punya and Päp. If our tendency is towards liberation and virtues, then it creates pious reflection (Punya-Anubandh). If our tendency is towards the worldly pleasures and non-virtues then it generates sinful reflection (PapaAnubandh) Punyänubandhi Punya All auspicious karma gives man means of happiness upon their fruition. He acquires wealth and other comforts because of the fruition of auspicious karma. However, in spite of that, some auspicious karma produces fruit that will not wean one away from cherishing right inclination or faith and performing good actions. He takes an active effort in performing righteous activities. He does not indulge in sensory pleasures. He spends his wealth on religious and philanthropic activities. He is humble and does not hurt the feelings of others. He lives a virtuous life. Thus, these auspicious karma are related to auspicious, virtuous, and good activities, which again leads to influx and the bondage of the auspicious karma. In this way, the auspicious karma of this type make our futures happy, righteous, and auspicious. The term 'Punyänubandhi Punya' means that auspicious karma which is related to religious practice and good activities, leading to good and auspicious Karma in the Page 86 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #87 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Pap Karma next life. The earning of new Punya Karma while enjoying the fruits of earlier ones is known in Jain terminology as Punyänubandhi Punya. In summary, while enjoying the fruits of virtuous Karma, one acquires further virtuous Karma. Very few people endeavor to earn Punyänubandhi Punya because most of the people are driven by hedonistic intentions. By virtue of infatuation, they indulge in non-virtuous activities. Päpänubandhi Punya As we have already stated, all auspicious karma give man means of happiness upon their fruition. They are such that it would lead man astray. While experiencing happiness and comfort, he spends his wealth in luxuries and vices while creating attachments. He indulges in sensory pleasures. He does not like religious and pure activities. Auspicious karma of this type are called 'Päpänubandhi Punya' because on their rise they give man happiness or pleasure and at the same time, they degrade his life; they are related to vices that causes one's next birth to occur in a lower form. As auspicious karma of this type are related to inauspicious activities, they cause through them the bondage of inauspicious karma. Thus, auspicious karma of this type are dishonorable. This type of Punya is known as Päpänubandhi Punya. Misery is destined for them in the near future. How can one avoid this situation? If the objective is to attain liberation, one has to avoid all sorts of Karma. In summary, while enjoying the fruits of past Punya Karma, one acquires non-virtuous Karmas as one uses wealth, health and power for one's own enjoyment and indulges in non-virtuous activities. Punyänubandhi Päp All inauspicious karma put man in miserable conditions upon their fruition. Because of their fruition, he becomes or remains poor; he cannot acquire means of material happiness. However, some inauspicious karma is such that its repercussions would not shake man's faith in religion. He takes a positive attitude and performs righteous activities. That person realizes that his miseries are the consequence of his previous non-virtuous Karma; he may like to stay unaffected and bear the miseries with a sense of detachment and objectivity. He may therefore undergo the pain of misery with equanimity and meanwhile try to undertake the best possible reflection and activities. This attitude would earn him Punyas that is known as Punyänubandhi Päp. Though Karma cause miseries to men, they do not degrade his life. They do not obstruct virtuous activities that lead to good future birth. Often times, Pap may actually be Punya but only disguised as Pap. It is wrong for us to instantly assume that adverse events in our lives serve no good purpose. It may be that the adverse event is necessary for something even better to come in the future. Facing negative events in equanimity and peacefulness means avoiding those instant assumptions - this is true detachment that the Tirthankars (Vitaragi) were able to cultivate within themselves. In summary, while suffering for non-virtuous Karmas one acquires virtuous Karmas. Päpänubandhi Päp While suffering the consequences of Päp or non-virtuous Karmas, one may acquire Päp Karmas is called Päpänubandhi Päp. Most of the people who suffer miseries blame someone else or some extraneous factors for causing miseries. They indulge in anger, jealousy, animosity etc., and react violently or wrongly to the pain and miseries. Thus, they acquire new non-virtuous Karmas or Päp. This type of action of such people are therefore known as Päpänubandhi Päp or non-virtuous Karmas leading to further accumulation of non-virtuous Karmas. The virtuous as well as non-virtuous Karmas cause bondage to which the soul gets chained. If nonvirtuous Karmas are shackles of iron, virtuous ones are those of gold. Both of them gets in the way of the soul's liberation and eventually even the virtuous Karmas must be avoided to attain liberation. However, virtuous karmas are needed to proceed on to the path of liberation. One should understand that the virtuous karma (Punya) is a meritorious deed done with a feeling of selfsatisfaction and accomplishment. However, if the same deed done without the feeling of accomplishment and attachment, then it is not a Punya but the action or deed is considered the true nature of a person. No karma can attach to a person if his/her action is done without any attachments or feeling of Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 87 of 398 Page #88 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Päp Karma accomplishments. This can be done by cultivating a sense of detachment in all situations, favorable as well as unfavorable. No situation lasts forever and every conceivable situation come to an end sooner or later. Why get infatuated or feel miserable in a situation, which is inherently ephemeral? If a person stays tuned to such a detached attitude and maintains equanimity, he does not attract new Karmas. His earlier Karmas would steadily drop off as he bears their consequences. In due course, he will shake off all Karmas and proceed on the path of liberation. Unfortunately, however, it is not possible for a worldly soul to stay continuously tuned to its true nature for very long. The seers have stated that no one can continuously concentrate on any object more than two Ghadis or 48 minutes. Beyond that time, the attention of the aspirant gets diverted. Thus after staying tuned to true nature through a practice such as a Samayik, one's attention will inevitably revert to other aspects. During periods of such reversals, it is better to be involved in virtuous activities rather than indulging in non-virtuous ones. Therein lies the preference of Punya Karmas over Päp Karmas. 05 Relationship among Ghäti, Aghäti, Punya and Päp Karma All Ghäti karmas subdue the qualities of the soul and hence all four Ghäti karmas are classified as Päp or sinful karma. Only Aghäti karmas which are responsible for the physical environment of a living being are classified as either the result of Punya karma or Päp karma. Aghäti karmas which produce an unhealthy body, a shorter life span, low social status, poverty, birth in hell, animal life, or similar categories are considered the result of Päp or sinful karma. Aghäti karma which produce a human birth, healthy body, high social status, and a longer life span are considered the result of Punya or virtuous karma. Discussion Under normal circumstances, the environment created by Päp or sinful karma are not conducive but sometimes counter-productive to the spiritual progress of a soul because the person has an unhealthy body, a shorter life span, low social status, poverty, and so on. Punya karma are conducive to attain a higher spiritual state because it produces human birth, healthy body, good education, a longer life span and so on. Also without human life and healthy body one cannot attain Vitaräga state (a spiritual state beyond attachment and aversion) and hence Keval jnän (infinite knowledge) and Liberation. So under normal circumstances, Punya karma is very essential in the attainment of liberation. Jain philosophy states that at every moment, a person acquires all seven types of karma (except Life span karma) and once in a life he acquires all 8 types of karma. In other words, at every moment a person acquires both Punya and Päp karma. Hence at every moment, we should be very alert and try our best to acquire maximum Punya karma and minimum Päp karma. This can be accomplished by continuously reflecting and doing virtuous activities. A Word of Caution with regards to Punya Karma While doing virtuous activities, many times due to ignorance of reality (Mithyätva) and ego (Kashaya), a person reflects that because of his good effort or action many people are being helped or he is a big donor to build a temple or hospital. He receives a high social status and he takes great pride in this status. Such a person acquires some Punya or virtuous karma because of his good deeds but at the same time he acquires maximum Pap karma because he has done the good work under the influence of Mohaniya karma, desiring power and fame. Hence Jainism warns that any virtuous activities done under the Mithyätva and Kashaya state ultimately results in a sinful activity to that person even though other people, animals, and environment are being helped. Page 88 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #89 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Pap Karma The Mohaniya karma is the single most dangerous karma because only due to this karma can one not attain Vitaräga state and hence Keval-jnän and liberation. Hence one needs to do good work without any expectation of fame and social status. Conclusion Hence one can conclude that in order to attain liberation, Jain philosophy teaches us that we continuously need to do virtuous activities like helping others, be compassionate to all beings, and protect our environment. However while doing virtuous activities, one should remain very alert and should not get trapped by fame, power, high social status or frustration of not accomplishing the result. Never think that Jainism teaches that Punya is a karma and all karma hinder the soul to attain liberation. Only Ghäti karma and in particular Mohaniya karma hinders the soul to acquire Vitaräga State. Once one attains a state of Vitaraga, the other three Ghäti karma are automatically destroyed within 48 minutes and a person attains Keval-jnän and then at the end of the life he attains liberation. From an individual spirituality point of view, if one truly removes Mithyatva and Kashaya (collectively known as Mohaniya Karma) one attains liberation. This can easily be achieved with the help of Punya karma. Practically, Jain philosophy clearly states that to attain liberation one should continuously do virtuous activities without any expectation of the fruits of his work. Only Mohaniya karma hinders a person to attain liberation. 06 Classification of Punya (Shubha) and Päp (Ashubha) Karma Out of the approximately hundred varieties of nature Bondage or Prakriti Bandha, some are considered as virtuous or Shubha Prakritis and some are termed as non-virtuous or Ashubha Prakritis. However, there are some minor differences in the exact classification. The following examples will illustrate the two categories: Ghäti Karma Kinds of Karma Virtuous or Shubha nature Non-virtuous or Ashubha nature Knowledge obscuring None All five subtypes (Jnänävaraniya) Perception obscuring None All the nine subtypes (Darshanävaraniya) Deluding (Mohaniya) Faith deluding (Samyaktva) Laughter (Häsya) Attraction (Rati) Masculine (Purusha-ved) None All other twenty four subtypes (Note - All 28 subtypes are considered non-virtuous by some scholars) Obstructing (Antaräya) All five types Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 89 of 398 Page #90 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Pap Karma Aghäti Karma Kinds or Karma Virtuous or Shubha nature Non-virtuous or Ashubha nature Feeling pertaining Pleasure producing (Shätä Vedaniya) Displeasure producing (Ashätä (Vedaniya) Vedaniya) Physique As stated earlier virtuous Physique Karma The others are non-virtuous or Determining (Näm) includes those categories out of 93 Ashubha categories. subcategories of this Karma which makes for "Example - Animal and inferior happiness and satisfaction of the being states fall into non-virtuous group Example of virtuous Näm-karma - Celestial of Näm-karma categories. and human states of existence Status (Gotra) High status (Uchcha) Low status (Neech) Life Span (Äyu) Heavenly life span Hell life span Human life span Animal life span It may be added that when Karma Bondage occurs it is not compartmentalized in purely happy or purely unhappy types of Bondage. It is combined accruals of Karma into the soul but the categorizations in happy (Shubha or Punya) or unhappy (Ashubha or Päp) types of Bondage are determined by the predominant nature of the Karma bondage. It further depends on the degree of actions (Yoga) and passions (Kashaya) in the soul at that time. If the action is Shubha or good and the Kashaya is also subdued, the Bondage occurring will be of a happy or Shubha category of Karma, while in the opposite conditions it will be unhappy or Ashubha Bondage. This distinction and discussion is important, as misunderstanding of this subject has resulted in confusion, controversies and even schism in the Jain philosophy. The happy or Shubha Karma or Punya, though a bondage of the soul, cannot be shunned, but is generally preferable to the unhappy or Ashubha Karma or Päp in the conduct of the beings. These Shubha Karmas can be avoided only after reaching a certain stage when they become a burden. They can be compared to a ladder, which has to use for going up, though once the top is reached the ladder is not needed and may be discarded, but only after the higher platform is reached. It may be concluded that the saints and nuns who follow the five major vows and who are at an advanced stage of spiritual conduct need not care much for Shubha or happy Karma. However, the laymen and laywomen should not abjure (renounce) the Shubha Karma. This can be seen in daily life when Jain laymen are seen engaged in acts of pity and charity ranging from building hospitals and shelters (for men and animals alike) to feeding them in times of need. It is hoped the above clarification will, to some extent, neutralize or invalidate the charge against Jainism that it teaches selfishness and makes a man self-centered, caring for one's own salvation without any social commitment. 07 Practical Aspects of Punya Karma and Pap Karma From the practical point of view, people prefer Punya over Päp and therefore they engage themselves in such acts and thoughts that bring in Punya for the following reasons: Good activities bring Punya, and bad activities Päp. Happy and comfortable situations like having a handsome and strong or beautiful and graceful body, good health, a loving spouse, children to be proud of, wealth, amenities, being born in a higher family, and a longer lifespan are due to Punya. Non-virtuous Karma on the other hand result in unhappy and miserable situations like ugliness, illness, a quarrelsome spouse, not having children, vicious children, poverty, being born in a lower family, having a shorter lifespan, etc. The fruit of Punya is pleasure and the fruit of Päp is pain. Page 90 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #91 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Päp Karma From a realistic point of view, both Punya and Päp lead the soul further into the Samsär because: Both are caused by physical, verbal and mental activities Both are karmic material in nature Fruition of both is harmful to the real happiness of soul Both lead towards the path of influx and bondage of karma As long as the soul is embodied, it does indulge in some or other activity. This activity may be physical, verbal, mental or combination of these. It is possible that a person may refrain from physical activity for some time. His mental apparatus however never rests. It functions even in sleep. Every activity involves Karma and he has to bear consequences eventually. Because of the ever presence of the Karma (Kärman body), subtle vibration of the soul creates an Adhyavasäya (primal drive - subconscious mind) that affects the thought process associated with colors (Leshyä). These psychic colors depending upon their good or bad nature generate passionate thoughts that may translate into good or bad activities. These activities are responsible for influx and bondage of good or bad Karma. Good as well bad bondage of Karma hinders the purity and freedom of soul. Punya bondage is like handcuffs made of gold and the Päp bondage are like iron handcuffs causing the soul to wander in the cycle of birth and death, because fruits of good or bad Karma have to be faced. Therefore, a true believer should treat Punya and Päp as an obstruction to attaining Moksha, the path of liberation and the true nature of the soul. Thus, he should always be absorbed in the "self" (endeavor for the activities that stop and eradicate Karma). However, when Jiva is in the lower spiritual stages (Gunasthäna), and long continued self-absorption is not possible, he should resort to Punya good deeds, such as, devotion to Pancha Paramesthi, services to Jain ascetics, and study of scriptures in order to keep away Pramäda. However, he should continue his efforts to attain the status of self-absorption. Thus, activities such as compassion, Jivadaya, charity, offering food, water, shelter, protection of environment, honesty, purifying thoughts, physical and mental state of true happiness, result in producing Punya or meritorious karma. Activities such as violence, dishonesty, stealing, unchastity, attachment to worldly objects, anger, conceit, deceit, lust, and impure thoughts result in producing Päp or non-virtuous Karma. 08 Summary In short, those auspicious karma, accumulated through past births, which causes the bondage of new auspicious karma at the time when the soul is enjoying their sweet fruits, are called Punyänubandhi Punya. Those inauspicious karma accumulated through past birth, which cause bondage of auspicious karma through equanimity, peace, atonement and good activities at the time when the soul is experiencing their bitter fruits are called Punyänubandhi Päp. Those auspicious karma, accumulated through past births, which cause the bondage of inauspicious karma at the time when the soul is enjoying, with indulgence and infatuation, their sweet fruits, are called Päpänubandhi Punya. In addition, those inauspicious karma, accumulated through past births, which cause the bondage of new inauspicious karma at the time when the soul is experiencing their bitter fruits, are called Päpänubandhi Päp. Virtuous as well as non-virtuous Karma cause bondage in which the soul becomes enchained by these Karma. Both of them obstruct the soul's liberation and are to be avoided. This can be done by cultivating a sense of detachment in all possible situations, favorable as well as unfavorable. No situation lasts forever and every conceivable situation come to an end eventually. Why then get infatuated or feel miserable in a situation, which is ephemeral? If a person stays attuned to such a detached attitude and maintains equanimity, he does not attract new Karma. His earlier Karma will steadily shade off as he bears their consequences, or he/she eradicates them by austerities. In due course, he/she will shed all Karma and proceed on the path of liberation. In the initial stage of spiritual progress, one should eliminate sinful activities as much as possible and put maximum effort in virtuous activities such as charity, helping others, improving the environment, and one's own spirituality. In general, get involved in the social and spiritual upliftment of the society and self. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 91 of 398 Page #92 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B10 - Punya and Pap Karma The Punya karma acquired by these virtuous activities will provide positive or favorable circumstances such as healthy human life, good social status, long life, and spiritual teachers to enhance spiritual growth further. Using one's Punya one should continue to do virtuous activities without any expectation of reward, power, and fame. This awareness will reduce or eliminate ego (Kartä Bhäva) and other vices like attachments and aversions. Once all vices are eliminated, a person does not acquire any new karma but eliminates old karma through Nirjarä and ultimately attains Keval-jnän and hence liberation. Since virtuous activities acquire punya karma and if we believe that all karma provide hindrance to attain liberation, then one can easily conclude that Jainism negates virtuous activities. It seems that this belief and associated logic are not the correct interpretation of Jain Karma philosophy. The proper way to interpret Karma philosophy is as follows: Jain philosophy states that • Only Mohaniya karma is responsible to acquire new Karma. • Also in our spiritual progress, only Mohaniya karma is completely removed first before any other karma is completely removed. Once Mohaniya karma is removed, all other remaining karma become powerless and they cannot stop a person to attain liberation. To destroy Mohaniya karma one needs human life, healthy body, compassionate nature, and spiritual surroundings. Only virtuous Karma can provide such an environment to the individual Hence one should conclude that Jainism encourages everyone to continue to do virtuous activities without any ego and expectation of reward throughout our life. With the elimination of all ego, one does not have any desire for the result of his virtuous activities and accepts the outcome as it is. This is a true nature of a spiritually advanced person. In summary, on the path of spiritual progress, one eliminates sinful activities and adopts virtuous activities in the initial stage. Later one continues doing virtuous activities but eliminates ego, expectations, and other vices. Without the presence of ego or desire, a person cannot acquire new Mohaniya karma but continues to eliminate old karma and ultimately attains liberation. Page 92 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #93 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B11 - Anekäntavädal - Theory of Multiplicity B11 - Anekäntavädal - Theory of Multiplicity 01 Introduction Modern day logic is defined as the study of principles and method of argumentation. An argument in the system of logic is a set of statements. Jain logic is ancient. Its roots can be traced to the Holy Scriptures in which it states, "Non-absolutism is the principal dogma of Jainism". Furthermore, "every statement is to be accepted as relative truth". Let us take an example. My name is Kirit. My father's name is Prabhudas and my son's name is Amit. Now I am father and son at the same time. How can this be? From Prabhudas's perspective, I am a son and from Amit's perspective, I am a father. Thus, both statements are true from their own perspectives. Soul is eternal as well as changing. How can these two conflicting statements be true? According to Jain logic, they are true statements in their own perspective. Soul is eternal from a substantial point of view (Dravya). The soul is ever changing from a modal point of view (Paryaya). Philosophical and religious arguments about the nature and origin of reality are as old as human history. In India, sages and philosophers held many metaphysical views and were in constant dialogue and argument with one another. The Jains were active participants in the debates, and among their central tenets was the position referred to as Anekäntaväda. Translated literally, it means the multiplicity and relativity of views. Anekäntaväda means that in many cases the arguments adopted by the various participants in a debate all hold some validity. Because the Jain position is able to overcome the apparent inconsistencies between the other views, it comes closer to fully grasping the one underlying truth. Anekantaväda maintains that the truth has many facets. Each viewpoint may be true from one perspective while not so from the other. Furthermore, only the omniscients know the whole truth. Worldly beings without omniscience are limited in their capacity to know and comprehend the whole truth. This is elegantly demonstrated in following story. An Elephant and The Blind Men Once upon a time, there lived six blind men in a village. One day the villagers told them, "Hey, there is an elephant in the village today." They had no idea what an elephant looks like since they were blind. They decided, however, to go and feel the elephant anyway. Each of them touched the elephant. "Hey, the elephant is like a pillar," said the first man who touched his leg. "Oh, no! It is like a rope," said the second man who touched the tail. "Oh, no! it is like a thick branch of a tree," said the third man who touched the trunk of the elephant. "It is like a big hand fan" said the fourth man who touched the ear of the elephant. "It is like a huge wall," said the fifth man who touched the belly of the elephant. "It is like a solid pipe," said the sixth man who touched the tusk of the elephant. They began to argue about the elephant and every one of them insisted that he was right. They were getting agitated. A wise man, who was passing by saw this. He stopped and asked them, "What is the matter?" "We cannot agree on what the elephant is like." They said. Everyone told what he thought the elephant was like. The wise man calmly explained to them, "All of you are right. The reason every one of you is perceiving elephant differently is because each one of you touched a different part of the elephant. "Oh!" they said. There was no more fighting. They felt happy and content that they were all right. This story clearly demonstrates the fact that one cannot make an affirmative statement regarding the truth without knowing the whole truth. Truth has many facets and can be expressed in many different ways. Any statement regarding the truth may be true in its own limited way. So, rather than arguing like the blind men, we should say, "Maybe you have your reasons." One should know the complete truth, and Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 93 of 398 Page #94 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B11 - Anekäntavädal - Theory of Multiplicity then analyze the truth from all different angles. In this ever-changing universe, an infinite number of viewpoints exist. These viewpoints depend on the time, place, circumstances, and nature of individuals. According to Jain metaphysics, innumerable material and spiritual substances, each of, which is the locus of innumerable qualities, constitute reality. Not only are there innumerable substances, each with innumerable quality, but each quality is susceptible to an infinite number of modifications. Nonomniscients cannot comprehend this complex reality, for ordinary knowledge is limited not only by the limited power of the senses and reason, but also by the perspectives adopted by the knower as well as by the conditions of space, time, light, and so on. Six blind men touched an elephant and came out with their own opinion that the elephant is like a pillar, python, drum, pipe, long rope, and huge fan depending on the parts of the body that they touched. They could be right from their own perspective, but an elephant is an elephant, and the person who can see knows an elephant as total. He also knows that the elephant could be like a pillar, python, drum, pipe, long rope and a huge fan from the perspective of the legs, trunk, abdomen, tusk, tail, and ears. Therefore, if you do not have complete knowledge, do not believe in other possibilities and think that the partial point of view is the only truth and others are wrong, then the partial point of view is not right. Thus, understanding of Jain logic helps a lot for tolerance. Nothing may be absolutely wrong and nothing may be absolutely right. All the statements are true in their own perspective. Because of our inability to know substance as a whole, we cannot have complete knowledge of a substance. Only the omniscient Bhagawan has perfect knowledge, and therefore the complete knowledge. The spoken and written language has many limitations. So one has to understand the broader meaning of Jain logic and then try to understand reality in that perspective. We should know all the angles of the substance and then present the partial point of view, and then we are right. Presenting the partial point of view, and then considering it as a complete knowledge is wrong according to Jain logic. We should also keep in mind, that when a sentence is spoken, we should know from what angle it is spoken. If we understand it correctly, then our knowledge base increases. Literature is also written either in a substantial point of view (Dravyarthika Naya), or modal point of view (Paryäyärthika Naya). Thus to have complete knowledge or organ of knowledge (Pramana Jnän), we should also know partial points of view (Naya). The partial point of view becomes a pillar on which the building of the organ of knowledge rests. Of course, the true and complete knowledge of a substance is only possible with omniscience. 02 Application of Anekäntaväda • Develop a strong urge to seek truth • Believe in many possibilities • Do not insist only on your own approach Accept partial truth as expressed by others Accept the truth even if it is expressed by adversaries Accept that the truth can consist of seemingly opposing views • Exercise equanimity towards all • Anekäntaväda and Its Relevance to Modern Times The principle of Anekantaväda along with other Jain principles of Ahimsa and Aparigraha, if faithfully adhered to in its right perspective, has great relevance for modern times. These principles can bring contentment, inner happiness and joy in the present life through spiritual development based on freedom from passions and kindness towards all beings. Nonviolence (Ahimsa) which strengthens the autonomy of life everywhere, non-absolutism (Anekantaväda) which strengthens autonomy of thoughts & speech, and non-possessiveness (Aparigraha) which strengthens autonomy of interdependence are the three realistic principles, which strengthen our belief that every living being has a right to self-existence. Page 94 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #95 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B11 - Anekantaväda I - Theory of Multiplicity These principles translate into three practices: • One should not kill • One should not trample other's thoughts • One should not trample the natural world If we truly adopt these three ideas then there will be: • No acts of war • No economic exploitation • No environmental and ecological destruction In conclusion, we can say that following these principles can: • Establish universal friendship and peace through nonviolence Establish true social equity based on non-acquisitiveness and non-possession Reconcile differences between diverse religious faiths, political parties, and communal and racial factions through the philosophies of pluralism non-absolutism and relativism. • Promote ecological conservation through the values of self-restraint, an austere lifestyle, non possessiveness. 03 How to know a Substance? To know a substance, there are 4 different categories, which are described in the scriptures. • Characteristics (Lakshana) of a substance • True Knowledge (Pramana) • Partial point of view (Naya) • Analysis of truth (Nikshepa) 1. Lakshana (Characteristics of a Substance) One should know the characteristics of a substance. The characteristic (Lakshana) should be such that it is present only in the substance and not in any other substance. For example, when wesay that the soul is formless, this is not its absolute characteristic because there are other substances like medium of motion, medium of rest, space, and time, which are also formless substances. Nevertheless, if we say that the soul's characteristic is to know then it becomes a true characteristic. Every soul starting with the lowest form (Nigod) to the highest form (Siddha) has characteristics of knowledge. Touch, taste, smell and color are all characteristics of matter because none of the other five substances have these characteristics. Thus, a peculiar characteristic present in only one substance and not in any other substance is known as its true characteristic. 2. Pramana (True Knowledge) Pramana is a valid knowledge of the self and non-self without limitations. It views an object in its entirety and accepts agreeable things while discarding the disagreeable. To know a substance from all angles is called the organ of knowledge, or true knowledge. On the rise of true knowledge doubt, illusion, and ignorance are removed and a nature of a thing is understood rightly to a considerable extent. The knowledge that allows one to differentiate and to make decisions about the self and others (Sva and Para) is called the organ of knowledge or true knowledge. The organ of knowledge consists of several different and apparently opposite points of views. Thus with the organ of knowledge, one gets equanimity, and becomes tolerant of different points of views. The perception, which grasps the nature of a thing in a proper and fuller form, is called the organ of knowledge. Pramäna knowledge is gained by direct (Pratyaksha) or indirect (Paroksha) means. Indirect Pramana is gained by sensory organs and by reading and listening to discourses. Thus Mati Jnän Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 95 of 398 Page #96 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B11 - Anekantaväda I - Theory of Multiplicity and Shruta Jnän are examples of indirect Pramana and Avadhi Jnän, Manaha Paryava Jnän and Keval Jnän are examples of direct Pramana. 3. Naya (Partial Point of View) Any knowledge, which is true only for a given situation or from a given point of view is called Naya (a partial point of view). The thought activity, which grasps only one aspect of an object with the aid of scriptures, is called a partial point of view. Thus any statement made from one point of view can never be true from all aspects. The language to express this obvious paradox is known as Syädväda in Jain scriptures. Thus Syädväda is a theory of conditional predication and relativity of propositions and judgments. Emphasizing the limits of ordinary knowledge, Jainism developed the theory that truth is relative to the perspective Naya from, which it is known. Furthermore, because reality is many sided and particular knowledge is true only from a limited perspective, all knowledge claims are only tentative (Syät) just as in, "X may be Y," rather than "X is Y." This is known as the Syädväda (theory of relativity) or Anekantaväda (theory of multiplicity of viewpoints). Thus, doctrine of Syädväda or relativity states that the expression of truth is relative to different viewpoints. What is true from one point of view is open to question from another. Absolute truth cannot be grasped from any one particular viewpoint. Absolute truth is the total sum of individual partial truths from many different viewpoints, even if they seem to contradict each other. Like the blind men, each person perceives things from their own perspective. These perspectives are determined by many factors, including socio-cultural conditioning, particular place, time, circumstances, hopes, fears and, of course, subject to the limitation of our sensory perception, and reasoning power. When it is understood that knowledge is limited by the particular perspective from which it is achieved, it becomes easy to see that claims of knowledge are conditioned by the limitation of the perspective that it assumes and should always be expressed as only tentatively true. Just as the blind men should have been more circumspect, saying for example, "Standing here, feeling the object with my hands, it feels like a winnowing fan. This elephant may be looking like a winnowing fan." We must understand that any claims of knowledge should be asserted only conditionally. A deeper understanding of Anekäntaväda and Syädväda provides great insight into the problems of human interactions that cause conflict, grief, envy, and hatred. It teaches us to be tolerant towards other viewpoints. This allows us to live in harmony with people of different thinking. Similarly, it is highly applicable in understanding social problems and national strife. More importantly, these doctrines also provide ways of resolving global differences and conflicts. Total knowledge or organ of knowledge (Pramana Jnän) is the sum total of all partial points of view. Thus to understand a substance in its fullest form, one must have knowledge of all partial points of view including seemingly opposite partial points of view. Just as Pramana is pure knowledge, so also Naya is pure knowledge. The former grasps the entire thing, while the latter grasps only one of its many aspects. There are several different classifications of partial points of view given in scriptures. The detail on this can be found in the next chapter. 4. Nikshepa (Analysis of Truth) Analysis of truth can be done with precision and clarity in different ways. A substance has various attributes. Keeping those attributes in mind, a substance can be divided into different ways. Language is a means of communication. All practical exchange of knowledge has language for its main modality. When it is embodied in language, intangible knowledge becomes tangible and hence conveyable. Language is made up of words. The same word is employed to yield several meanings depending on the purpose or context. Employment of a word to express different meanings is done at least in four different ways. These four ways are known as Nikshepa. Page 96 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #97 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B11 - Anekantaväda I - Theory of Multiplicity Four Nikshepa (Four Way Analysis of Truth): 1. Name (Näm): The meaning that is not derived etymologically, but is gathered on the basis of convention set up by the father, mother or some other people, is known Näm Nikshepa. It means to refer to the object merely by its name. Our daily activity becomes easier by giving name to an object. For example, a poor person's name is King. He is known as King by name, even though he is very poor. 2. Symbol (Sthäpanä): It means referring a person through his image, idol, picture, painting, etc. These things contain in themselves the symbol of an original object; e.g. looking at a marble idol at a temple, one says that this is Mahävir Swämi. In this usage, we superimpose the real thing on its representation, viz., a statue, a photograph, or a picture. 3. Potentiality (Dravya): Here one refers to an object by mentioning its past condition or future condition. The term Dravya' in the word 'Dravya Nikshepa' has the sense of potentiality. For example, we refer to a person as a king now even though he is not a king but is going to be a king in the future. 4. Actuality (Bhäva): It means the name signifying the object is meaningful in its present condition. This meaning satisfies the etymology of the concerned word. A person is called king (Räjä), when he is actually carrying the royal scepter and is shining with glory on that account; he is king in the real sense. For example, the word Tirthankar is used only after the soul attains omniscience and is now preaching and establishing a fourfold religious congregation. 04 Summary We worship Supreme Soul (God) by respectfully remembering and muttering His name, worshipping His image, worshipping Him by devotedly serving the spiritual teacher, because the real spiritual teacher can be regarded as Supreme Soul (God) in potentia. In this way, Nam Nikshepa, Sthapana Nikshepa, and Dravya Nikshepa (rather our activities performed with respect to these three meanings) lead to Bhäva Nikshepa (rather the activity with respect to the Bhäva Nikshepa, or the actual attainment of the state corresponding to the actual etymological meaning of the concerned word). Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 97 of 398 Page #98 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B12 - Anekäntaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda B12 - Anekantaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda 01 Introduction Logic broadly means the study of the structure and principles of reasoning or of sound arguments. In the west, it also includes certain other meanings all related to different meanings of a Greek word "logos". Logic is of prime importance in Indian philosophy, to both philosophy and religion. The knowledge of logic is a must for one who wants to understand a religion and its philosophy. It has been held by almost all systems of Indian Philosophy that no liberation is possible without knowledge and conduct. Thus the theory of knowledge, which includes its conception, sources and classification, becomes an independent branch of philosophy. Some scholars consider 'logic' a part of epistemology also. Whatever the case may be, its importance and history both are recognized since the ancient period. Jain logic is not only as the lump of all sciences but also helpful for practical affairs and the sustaining principles of religion (Dharma). After all, logic is not an end in itself but a means for the ideal life. The history of Jain logic and Jain epistemology goes as far back as its canonical literature. We find the doctrines and the discussions as well as reasoning on the doctrines even in the philosophical works by Umäsväti and Kunda-Kundächärya. The Nyäyävatära" by Shri Siddhasen Diwakar, as far as we know, is the earliest manual on logic composed for the benefit and training of Jain authors who till his time studied Nyäya possibly from other sources available to them. Shvetämbar Acharya Siddhasen Diwäkar has been accepted as 'the first Jain writer on pure logic'. During the period between5th and 16th century some noteworthy Jain logicians, from Siddhasen to Yashovijayaji are Mallavädi, Haribhadra, Akalank, Virsen, Vidyanandi, Devasuri, and Hemchandra-ächärya. 02 Aim and Subject matter of Jain Logic We can say that the chief aim is to understand the scriptures and the doctrine, which again is not possible without the correct knowledge of Pramänas (total view knowledge) and Nayas, (partial viewpoint knowledge). The subject matter of Jain logic includes all such topics resulting from Jain theory of knowledge and reality. Apart from the Pramänas as sources for knowledge, the 'Naya-väda' and 'Saptabhanga-väda', the 'Dravyästika' and 'Paryäyästika' views, and the enumeration and classification of Naya are some of the quite interesting topics included in Jain logic. Pramana (Valid knowledge) in Jain philosophy is divided into two modes: Pramana and Naya. Pramana is knowledge of a thing as it is, and Naya is knowledge of a thing in its relation. Naya means a standpoint of thought from which we make a statement about a thing. Siddhasen Diwäkar in Nyäyävatära writes, "Since things have many characteristics, they are the object of complete knowledge (omniscience); but a thing conceived from one particular point of view is the object of Naya (or one-sided knowledge)."It may be noted here that Naya is a part of Pramana because it gives us valid knowledge of its object. Naya being a particular standpoint determines only a part of its object. A Naya can also be defined as a particular intention or viewpoint - a viewpoint which does not rule out other different viewpoints and is thereby expressive of a partial truth about an object as entertained by a knowing agent or speaker. Nayas do not interfere with one another or enter into conflict with one another. They do not contradict one another. They uphold their own objects without rejecting others' objects. Naya becomes pseudo Naya, when it denies all standpoints, contradicts them, excludes them absolutely and puts forward its partial truth as the whole truth. According to the Jain logic, Naya becomes a form of false knowledge as it determines the knowledge not of an object but part of an object. They say that false knowledge is knowledge about something which is not a real object or in conformity to what it is, the part of an object and not non-object. The knowledge of an object determined by Naya is valid knowledge from that point of view. It does yield certain valid knowledge about part of the object. The Pramäna kind of knowledge comprises all the aspects of a substance. Pramana includes every aspect; and not as understood from any one aspect. Page 98 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #99 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY 03 Classification of Pramäna Pramäna is of two kinds ⚫ Pratyaksha (direct) • Paroksha (indirect) B12 Anekäntaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda - Pratyaksha Jnän (Direct knowledge) Direct knowledge is that which is obtained by the soul without the help of external means. The Pratyaksha Jnän is of three kinds, namely Avadhi-jnän, Manah-Paryäva Jnän and Keval-jnän. Paroksha Jnän (Indirect knowledge) Indirect knowledge is that which is obtained by the soul by means of such things as the five senses and the mind. Paroksha Jnän is classified into Mati-jnän and Shruta-jnän. Thus, there are total five kinds of Pramäna: (1) Mati-jnän (2) Shruta-jnän (3) Avadhi-jnän (4) Manahparyava jnän (5) Keval-jnän. Pratyaksha Pramana (Direct Knowledge) The soul's knowledge of substance is pure. The soul's involvement is direct in obtaining this type of knowledge. It can be of 2 types. Direct or Practical Transcendental Sämvyavahärik Pratyaksha Pramäna Päramärthika Pratyaksha Pramäna Direct Knowledge in a conventional sense (Sämvyavahärik Pratyaksha Pramana): Partial proper knowledge of a given substance acquired with the help of senses and mind is called direct knowledge in the conventional sense (Samvyavaharik pratyaksha). The knowledge obtained by the soul through sensory (Mati-jnän) knowledge and articulate (Shrutajnän) knowledge, is called indirect knowledge for two reasons: 1) There is a need for the senses' and mind's involvement and 2) The knowledge is impure because the knowledge obtained from senses and mind usually is for others and not for the soul. However, when the soul obtains right faith (Samyag Darshan), at that time, the sensory knowledge and articulate knowledge are used for the knowledge of the self. Therefore, this is called direct knowledge in a conventional sense. Here the knowledge is partially true (Ekadesha Spasta). Transcendental knowledge (Päramärthika Pratyaksha Pramäna): When the soul obtains direct knowledge without the help of any external means (like senses and mind), then it is called transcendental knowledge. It can be of two types: Partial perception (Vikal Päramärthika) Perfect perception (Sakal Päramärthika) Partial Perception Knowledge (Vikal Päramärthika): When the soul obtains direct knowledge of a formed substance without the help of senses and mind, it is called partial knowledge. It is of two types: Clairvoyance Knowledge (Avadhi Jnan) Telepathy (Manah-paryäva Jnän) Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 99 of 398 Page #100 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B12 - Anekantaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda Clairvoyance (Avadhi Jnän): Clairvoyance refers to knowledge of things that are out of the range of senses. Here the soul can perceive knowledge of a substance with a form (Rupi Padärtha), which exists at great distance or time. In celestial and infernal souls, this knowledge is present since birth. In human and animal, this knowledge can be obtained as a result of spiritual endeavors. Telepathy (Manah-paryäva Jnän): In this type of knowledge, the human soul has a capacity to comprehend others' thoughts. Great saints who have achieved a high level of spiritual progress can possess this knowledge. Perfect Perception Knowledge (Sakal Päramärthika): The Omniscient knowledge is called the Perfect Perception Knowledge. Omniscient Bhagawan having Keval-jnän (Sakal Päramärthika)knows about all substances in the universe, and all of their modes of past, present and future at a given time. When a soul in his quest for purity destroys all four destructive (Ghäti) karma at the 13th stage of the spiritual ladder, it obtains this omniscient knowledge. This is perfect knowledge and stays with the soul forever. About Keval-jnän', Dr. Radhakrishnan writes: "It is omniscience unlimited by space, time or object. To the perfect consciousness, the whole reality is obvious. This knowledge, which is independent of the senses and which can only be felt and not described, is possible only for purified souls free from bondage." Paroksha Pramana (Indirect Knowledge) The knowledge that is impure, of others, and not of the self is called indirect perception. Here we take the help of external means like the five senses and the mind. So, the partial knowledge obtained with someone else's help is called the indirect knowledge (Paroksha Pramana). Sensory knowledge (Mati Jnän): This knowledge is gained through the senses and/or mind. Reflection on what has been perceived, reasoning, questioning, searching, understanding, and judging are the varieties of sensory knowledge. It can also be classified as remembrance, recognition, induction, and deduction. Remembrance (Smaran) Recognition (Pratyabhijna) • Induction (Tarka) • Deduction (Anumäna) Scripture Knowledge (Shruta Jnän): This knowledge refers to conceptualization through language. It is obtained by studying the scriptures and listening to the discourses. Scripture knowledge (Agam Knowledge) consists of comprehension of meaning of words that are heard or derived from the senses and the mind. This knowledge is authoritative. 04 Summary of Pramana Pramäna is capable of making us accept the agreeable things and discard the disagreeable ones; it is but knowledge. The object of valid knowledge according to Jains is always a unity of a number of aspects or characteristic, such as general and the particular, the existent and the nonexistent, etc. Valid knowledge or "pure knowledge' is the total or partial destruction of ignorance. The fruit of Pramana is of two sorts: direct and indirect. Direct fruit of all Pramana is the annihilation of ignorance. As regards the indirect fruit of pure knowledge is indifference. It is also said that, the immediate effect of Pramana is the removal of ignorance; the mediate effect of absolute knowledge is bliss and equanimity, while that of ordinary practical knowledge is the facility to select or reject. Page 100 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #101 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B12 - Anekäntaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda The subject of all forms of valid knowledge is the self, as known by direct knowledge. The spirit (soul or Jiva) is the knower, doer and enjoyer, illumines self and others, undergoes changes of condition, is realized only in self-consciousness, and is different from the earth, etc. The soul, as described in Jainism, is permanent but undergoes changes of condition. With reference to theistic approaches, Jainism believes in soul and its liberation. Moreover, it accepts and agrees to the fact that no liberation is possible without the true knowledge of reality; and logic or Pramana is the aid to such knowledge. This is neither an intellectual exercise nor a game of arguments to refute, but to know and sharpen understanding for spiritual progress. On account of its knowledge, the soul is different from inert substances. As the cover over it goes on decreasing, its knowledge goes on increasing and showing itself. Like a mirror that reflects everything, the soul can know anything that can be known. If there is no cover at all, it is natural that it can know all things. It is illogical to say that we can know only up to this extent, not more than this. Therefore, a Keval-jnäni knows everything directly. For a Keval-inäni, all boundaries of the soul are dissolved allowing one to know everything from an unbiased, unattached point of view. For most laypeople, dissolving the boundaries and cultural programming that has been ingrained in one's being from birth is necessary for spiritual upliftment. Only he who possesses this kind of knowledge can expound sound doctrines and only he is the supreme spiritual well-wisher. After that, even those who act according to his commands are well-wishers. For great Ganadhars, Agams are the Pramänas - the source of true knowledge. Jainism asserts that knowledge attained is the knowledge of real objects. What is known is not all aspects of the reality of an object, but only one or some. In Jainism, knowledge depends on experience and experience is always partial, in the sense that reality in totality is never revealed. Under the circumstance, whatever is known is known in relation to a standpoint and therefore "absolution is to be surrendered." This is the root of Naya-väda and Syädväda. 05 Naya-väda The term Anekäntaväda consists of three terms: 'Aneka', 'Anta', and 'Väda', The term 'Aneka', means 'many or more than one', 'Anta' means 'aspects' or 'attributes' and 'Väda' means 'ism' or 'theory. In its simple sense, it is a philosophy or a doctrine of manifold aspects. It has been variously described and translated by modern scholars. Prof. S. N. Dasgupta expresses it as 'relative pluralism' against 'extreme absolutism.' Dr. Chandradhar Sharma translates it as "doctrine of manyness of reality". Dr. Satkari Mookerjee expresses it as a doctrine of 'non-absolutism'. This is also expressed as a theory of "conditional predication' or 'theory of relativity of propositions." Since the doctrine of 'Anekäntaväda' is opposed to absolutism or monism (Ekänta-väda), we would prefer a phrase "doctrine of non-absolutism" to convey the meaning of Anekäntaväda. The doctrine of Anekäntaväda can be subdivided in two categories: • Naya-väda relates to thoughts and analysis • Syädväda relates to speech What we know by the analytical process of Naya-väda, we express by the synthesis of Syädväda and the base of both is knowledge. According to the Jains, in order to have a complete and comprehensive judgment of reality one has to take into account the main substance that has the element of permanence and undergoes changes in various forms. In this process of change, the previous form dies away and a new form comes into existence. The birth of the new form is called Utpäd (emergence), the death of the old form is called Vyaya (disappearance) and the substance, which remains constant during this process of birth and death, is called Dhrauvya (Permanence). When one is able to comprehend all these three, one can arrive at a proper judgment about the thing in question. When the self takes the form of a human being, you can know it as a ' man' or a woman'. When it takes a form of vegetable, you can describe it as grass'. All these descriptions are true from the standpoint of the forms that the self has assumed. Therefore, when we recognize a thing from the point of view of the modification or change, it is called 'Paryäyärthika Naya'. Paryaya means modification, change. However, when we recognize that thing from the point of view of substance, it is called Dravyarthika Naya. In the former mode is predominant Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 101 of 398 Page #102 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B12 - Anekäntaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda and substance subordinate, in the latter substance predominant and mode subordinate. The former considers changing aspect of reality while the latter considers its permanent aspect. The greatest contribution that the Jains have made to the world of thought is by their theories of Nayaväda and Syädväda. The word 'Syäd in Sanskrit means 'perhaps' but in Jainism it is used to show the relativity of a judgment and the word 'Naya' means 'Standpoint'. Truth or reality is always complex and has many aspects. If one is impressed by one of the aspects of a complex reality and begins to identify the reality, only by that aspect, he is bound to make a wrong judgment about reality. Therefore, the Jain seers exhort us to look at the complexities of life and knowledge from every standpoint and from positive as well as negative aspects. They recognize that the comprehension (view) of an ordinary human being is partial and hence valid only from a particular point of view, which cannot give a correct or even a nearly correct comprehension of the whole. The complex reality has not only an infinite number of qualities but also an infinite number of relations. Again, it may be looked at differently by different people and under their different circumstances. It assumes different forms and appearances for which due allowance ought to be made. All this makes it difficult to form a correct judgment about it unless a systematic and logical method is found to identify it. This method is called Naya-väda. As Dr. S. Rädhäkrishnan observes: "The doctrine of Nayas of Standpoint is a peculiar feature of Jain logic. A Naya is a standpoint from which we make a statement about a thing. What is true from one standpoint may not be true from another. Particular aspects are never adequate to the whole reality. The relative solutions are abstractions under which reality may be regarded, but do not give us a full and sufficient account of it. Jainism has a basic and fundamental principle that truth is relative to our standpoint." Thus 'Naya' can be defined as a particular viewpoint; a viewpoint which gives only a partial idea about an object or view which cannot overrule the existence of another or even a contrary view about the same object. If an object or theory is judged only from one standpoint, the judgment is one sided and it is termed as 'Ekänta'. 'Eka' means 'one' and 'Anta' means 'end'. Thus, Ekänta means one-sidedness. The Jains therefore ask us to judge from all aspects, which is called 'Anekänta'. This is the basic principle of Jain philosophy. Every fundamental principle of Jain philosophy is based on Anekänta. Throughout its approach, Anekänta has been to accept the different aspects or even contradictory aspects of reality and to evolve a synthesis between the contradictory philosophical theories. A Jain seer would say, both are correct from the standpoint from which they look at the problem, but both make their statements, which do not conform to the principle of Anekanta and hence do not give a correct judgment of reality. Jains say that changes are as real as the original substance. A jug made of a clay substance cannot be used as anything except as a jug and since the use is real, the form of a jug which clay has assumed cannot be unreal. If the clay substance assumes some other form of an earthen vessel meant for cooking, that vessel could not be used as a jug even though the clay substance remains the same. If this is so, how can we say that the form the substance assumes at a particular time is unreal and only the substance is real? The substance of clay appears to be the only real thing to those who concentrate on substance and ignore the form. It is not correct to say that because there is a change in the form, the changing form is unreal. If it is real even for a moment, its reality must be accepted and recognized. If a comprehensive view of the whole reality is to be a comprehensive perception of a thing, it is possible only when its permanent substance (Dravya) is taken into account along with its existing mode (Paryaya). As Acharya Siddhasen states "we can understand a thing properly by perceiving its various aspects." 06 Classification of Naya Jain philosophers have given broad classifications of different aspects (Nayas) through which we can perceive a thing. Naya can be classified as the following two types: Nishchaya Naya (Absolute Point of View) Here one takes a substance and picks up one of its attributes (Guna) and analyzes one part of its attribute. This is called absolute point of view, e.g. to call a clay pot as a form of clay as it is made of clay. Here clay is a substance and one of its attributes is represented in the form of a pot. The standpoint that concentrates on the original pure nature of a thing is called Nishchaya Naya. It implies the real or the ultimate meaning or interpretation of an object. Page 102 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #103 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B12 - Anekäntaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda Vyavahär Naya (Practical Point of View) The substance and its attributes are interdependent and can never be separated. To consider them as separate is called the practical point of view. For example, to know is an attribute of the soul. In addition, to consider knowledge in a separate way from the soul is called practical point of view. In the practical point of view, one takes into account the association of a substance with another substance. Even though it is not right to know a substance this way, day-to-day activities become somewhat easier. E.g. We use clay pot to hold water, so now we call this pot a water pot. Here the pot is not made of water, but clay. However, because of water's association with the pot, we call it a water pot. The right way of telling will be that this is a pot made of clay, and we use it to store water. This absolute way of saying a sentence takes a long time and not practical. That is why we call it a water pot. It conveys the meaning. The day-to-day activities become easier thereafter. Even though the soul and body are separate, we use the word interchangeably. We do indicate the body as living because of the association of the soul and body. From Nishchaya Naya or absolute stand point, a soul is independent, self-existed and uncontaminated by matter. From Vyavahär stand point, it can be called impure as soul is bound with Karma leading to the cycle of birth and death. Such classification of Naya or standpoints enables identification or distinction of objects or theories according to particular class of Naya. Classification of Naya: Naigama Naya Generic and Specific view or teleological view Sangrah Naya Collective Vyavahär Naya Practical view Rujusutra Naya Linear view Shabda Naya Literal view Samabhirudha Naya Etymological view Evambhuta Naya Determinant view. There are hundreds of sub classifications of these seven Nayas but without going in details, we shall presently discuss the bare outlines of these seven Nayas. Before doing so, it may be noted that first three Nayas are with reference to the identification of the main substance called 'Dravya' and hence are known as 'Dravyarthika Nayas'. The remaining four refer to the standpoints, which identify the modes of the main substance and hence are known as 'Paryäyärthika Nayas'. Dravyarthika Nayas (Substantial Point of View) Dravyarthika Naya means the standpoint that concentrates on a substance (the generic and permanent aspect). Dravyarthika Naya (substantial standpoint) considers all things to be permanent or eternal. For example, it states that a pot qua substance clay is permanent or eternal. In this point of view one considers the substance as a whole and gives its modes subsidiary status. E.g. while talking about the soul, one will consider the soul as immortal, was never created, nor will it ever be destroyed. On the other hand, Paryäyärthika Naya regards all things as impermanent, because they undergo changes (transformations). Hence it declares that all things are non-eternal or momentary from the standpoint of modes or changes. The standpoint that grasps the generic aspect is Dravyarthika Naya. And the standpoint that grasps the specific aspect is Paryäyärthika Naya. This can be subdivided as follows Naigama Generic Or Specific Or Teleological Sangrah Collective Generic Vyavahär Practical Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 103 of 398 Page #104 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B12 - Anekäntaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda 1. Naigama Naya (Generic): The etymological meaning of the word Naigama is the end product or result. Tattvärtha-sära gives an illustration of a person who carries water, rice and fuel and who, when asked what he was doing, says he is cooking. This reply is given in view of the result, which he intends to achieve though at the exact time when the question is put to him he is not actually cooking. His reply is correct from the point of view of Naigama Naya, though technically it is not exactly correct because he is not actually cooking at the time when he replies. The general purpose, for which we work, controls the total series of our activities. If someone passes his judgment based on that general purpose, he asserts Naigama Naya, i.e., the teleological viewpoint. These empirical views probably proceed on the assumption that a thing possesses the most general as well as the most special qualities and hence we may lay stress on any one of these at any time and ignore the other ones. It overlooks the distinction between the remote and the immediate, noting one or the other as if it were the whole, depending upon the intention of the observer. A man has decided to perform an act of theft. The religious works regard him as defiled by the sin of theft, though he has actually not performed the act of theft. The standpoint adopted by the religious works is that the act, which is sought to be undertaken, is as good as being accomplished. This is also an instance of Sankalpi - Naigama. 2. Sangrah Naya (Collective Point of View): We get this Naya (viewpoint) when we put main emphasis on some general class characteristics of a particular thing ignoring altogether the specific characteristics of that class. Such a view is only partially correct but does not give the idea of the whole and it ignores the specific characteristics of that thing. In the collective point of view, the knowledge of an object is in its ordinary or common form. The special qualities of the object are not taken into account. For example, assume there to be 500 people in a hall. Here we are now considering only general qualities like people and not considering like how many were men, women, children, old, young, etc. One considers the general attributes of a substance like a substance has existence and eternality. Now these attributes are common to all six universal substances. Here we are considering the general attributes of a substance and ignoring the specific attributes of each substance. Concentrating on a common quality, such as consciousness that is found in all souls, one can say that all souls are equal. Its scope is more limited than Naigama Naya. 3. Vyavahär Naya (Practical): If we look at a thing from this standpoint, we try to judge it from its specific properties ignoring the generic qualities, which are mainly responsible for giving birth to the specific qualities. This amounts to the assertion of empirical at the cost of universal and gives importance to practical experience in life. This point of view sees an object in its special form rather than the common form. The special attributes of an object are taken into consideration. The practical view, concentrates on the function of a thing or being. It is analytic in approach and often uses metaphors to explain the nature of things. On the basis of the collective point of view, and after describing things in a collective form, it is necessary to find out their special characteristics. For example, when we utter the word "medicine" it includes all branches of medicine but when one says allopathic, osteopathic, naturopathic, homeopathic, etc. then we can understand its specialty. This can be further divided by its name, patent, quality, uses, etc. These divisions are examples of a distributive point of view and have a tendency towards greater exactitude. With understanding of Naigama Naya we shouldrecognize the potentiality of achieving liberation by all souls. As all souls are capable of liberation, we should appreciate that potentiality in all souls. And we show our respect and humbleness to all living beings. When we act accordingly Page 104 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #105 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY with all, this becomes Vyavahär Naya. Many times we act in accordance to Paryäya, however if we realize to Dravya we can reduce our internal and external conflicts. B12 - Anekäntaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda Paryäyärthika Nayas (Modification Point of View) Modification point of view (Paryäyärthika Naya) Paryäyärthika Naya regards all things as impermanent, because they undergo changes (transformations). Hence it declares that all things are non-eternal or momentary from the standpoint of modes or changes. In this point of view one considers modes of a substance as a primary subject. The substantial consideration becomes secondary. One considers a substance with origination and perishing of its modes, e.g. while talking about soul, one will consider ever-changing modes of soul. One will consider the four realms (Gati) of existence, birth, growth, decay, death of a living being, etc. This can be subdivided as follows Linear Point of View Literal Or Verbal Rujusutra Shabda Etymological Determinant Point Samabhirudha Evambhuta 4. Rujusutra Naya (Linear Point of View): It is still narrower than Vyavahär in its outlook, because it does not emphasize all the specific qualities but only those specific qualities, which appear in a thing at a particular moment, ignoring their existent specific qualities of the past and the future. The past and future modes of a thing are not real as they have served or will serve their purpose and do not exist at the moment. The approach of the Buddhists is of this type. To ignore the specific qualities of the past and future and to emphasize only continuing characteristics of Reality is the fallacy involved here. In this point of view, one considers ideas like reality, etc. as the direct grasp of here and now, ignoring the past and future. It considers only the present mode of a thing. Ruju means simple, sutra means knowledge. Suppose a man was a king and he is not a king now, thus his past is of no use in a linear point of view. Similarly, a person will be a king in the future, but is meaningless in a linear point of view. Only the present mode is recognized in a linear point of view making the identification easier and scope narrower. 5. Shabda Naya (Literal Point of View): The Verbalistic approach is called as Shabda Naya. This standpoint maintains that synonymous words convey the same meaning or thing, provided they are not different in tense, case ending, gender, number, etc. In other words, it states that two synonymous words can never convey the same thing if they have different tenses, case endings, genders, and numbers. So it is not appropriate to use words in different genders, number etc. to refer to the same object or event. The literal point of view uses words at their exact face value to signify the real nature of things. Each word has a very particular meaning. In the literal view, even changing the gender, numbers, words ending or tense of a word is thought to change its meaning and therefore to change the object to which it refers. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use words in different genders, numbers, etc. to refer to the same object or event. E.g. the words pot and pitcher signifies same meaning, but in the following sentence, the meaning gets changed, "why did you bring a pot? I only want a pitcher". 6. Samabhirudha Naya (Etymological Point of View): It is different from Shabda Naya because it concentrates on the etymological distinction between the synonyms. If carried to the fallacious extent this standpoint may destroy the original identity pointed to by synonyms. It discards the conventional use of a word in favor of the meaning derived from its root. The etymological view asserts that, because the roots of synonyms are different, they are not actually "synonyms" in the sense of words that mean the same as each other. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 105 of 398 Page #106 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B12 - Anekäntaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda A group of words may basically mean the same things but as individual words, they represent a special condition, e.g. hut and palace are places to live. However, poor people live in a hut and king lives in a palace, in an etymological (word historical or derivation) point of view, it represents a specific quality or grammatical property of a word. 7. Evambhuta Naya (Determinant Point of View): This Naya recognizes only that word which indicates the actual action presently attributed to the individual. In other words, among synonyms only that word should be selected which has a correlation with the action referred to. In this point of view, the word or sentence, which further determines its characteristic property in its present state, is used. It recognizes only the action implied by the root meaning of a word. To be real, the object must satisfy the activity meant by the word. A word should be used to denote the actual meaning. e. g. the word thief is to be used only when a person is caught stealing and not because a person is a known thief. It represents a strict application of a word or statement. 07 Summary of Naya Partial truth of Individual Naya As already noted, the purpose of pointing out to this detailed classification of Nayas is to show how different individuals can view the same object from different perspectives. However, these different aspects are only partially true and since they are only partially true, they are not capable of being wholly true. They, however, cannot be rejected as wholly untrue also. These different aspects can be illustrated by the reactions of some blind people who were asked to go to an elephant and give its description after touching and feeling it. One who touched its legs described it like a pillar; one who touched the tail described it like a rope and so on. Each one was right from his own standpoint because he could experience only a particular limb of the elephant and not the whole elephant. Each one of them was, however, wrong because his description did not conform to the reality, which the elephant possessed. Only one who could see the whole could comprehend this reality. Utility of Naya Theory The analysis of Naya shows that every judgment is relative to that particular aspect from which it is seen or known. This is also called Säpeksha-väda that means relativity of our particular knowledge or judgment to a particular standpoint. Since human judgments are always from particular standpoints, they are all relative and hence not absolutely true or absolutely false. Their outright acceptance as a sole truth or rejection as totally false would not be correct. This led the Jain seers to their famous doctrine of 'Syädväda', which means the doctrine of relativity. Naya-väda reveals a technique to arrive at such an understanding. It teaches us that truth is revealed to us only partially if viewed from a particular aspect. Even if one finds that a proposition is quite contrary to the conviction he had for the whole life and hence the cause of great irritation to him, once he applies the principles of Naya-väda his irritation begins to subside. The simple reason being is that he begins to realize the real cause for that contrary proposition. 08 Syädväda or Sapta-Bhanga (Seven Predications) Let us now understand what the theory of non-absolutism is as the Jain theory of reality from its metaphysical point of view. The Jain approach to ultimate reality can be expressed in two words: realistic and relativistic. The universe is full of innumerable material atoms and innumerable individual souls. They are separately and independently real. Again, each thing and each soul possesses innumerable aspects of its own. A thing has got an infinite number of characteristics of its own. Thus, according to the metaphysical presupposition of Jainism, a thing exists with infinite characteristics. The theory of Anekäntaväda is the metaphysical theory of reality. Jainism brings out another aspect of reality and that is its relativistic pluralism. While Anekantaväda explains reality metaphysically, Syädväda explains it epistemologically (dealing with knowledge). Both are two aspects of the same reality. We have already seen how human knowledge is relative and limited which ultimately makes all our judgments relatively or partially true, and not absolute. Syädväda is also called Sapta-bhangi Page 106 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #107 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY Naya (sevenfold judgment). Syädväda is known as the theory of relativity of propositions or theory of relativity of judgments. Some critics call it the theory of relativity of knowledge. We can say that Syädväda is the epistemological explanation of reality; Sapta-bhangi Naya is the method or the dialectic of the theory of sevenfold judgment. It is the logical side of the theory. The doctrine of Syädväda holds that since a thing is full of most contrary characteristics of infinite variety, the affirmation made is only from a particular standpoint or point of view and therefore it may be correct or true. However, the same assertion may be wrong or false from some other standpoint or point of view. Thus, the assertion made cannot be regarded as absolute. All affirmations in some sense are true and in some sense are false. Similarly, all assertions are indefinite and true in some sense as well as indefinite and false in some other sense. Assertions could be true, or false or indefinite. Thus, Jainism proposes to grant the non-absolute nature of reality and relativistic pluralism of the object of knowledge by using the word 'Syät' (or Syäd) before the assertion or Judgment. The word 'Syät' literally means 'may be.' It is also translated as 'perhaps', 'somehow', 'relatively' or 'in a certain sense'. The word 'Syät' or its equivalent in English used before the assertion makes the proposition true but only under certain conditions i.e. hypothetically. What is to be noted is that the word 'Syät' is not used in the sense of probability leading to uncertainty. Probability again hints at skepticism and Jainism is not skepticism. Since reality has infinite aspects, our judgments are bound to be conditional. Thus, Syädväda is the theory of relativity of knowledge. The Jains quoted quite a good number of parables, which are conventionally used by Jain writers to explain the theory. The most famous one for the grip over the core of the theory is the famous parable of six blind men who happened to come across an elephant. Each one was sure and asserting about his own description alone being correct. However, each one was correct from his point of view though contrary to each other. Thus the Jains hold that no affirmation or judgment is absolute in its nature, each is true in its own limited sense only. The affirmations will tell either about the existence, or non-existence, or about the inexpressible. Combining these three will give four more alternatives. So, we derive the seven alternatives technically known as Sapta-bhanga Naya or the sevenfold Judgments. B12 - Anekäntaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda Theory of Seven Predications (Sapta-Bhanga) To clarify the above approach of ascertaining the truth by the process of Syädväda, the Jain philosophers have evolved a formula of seven predications, which are known as Sapta-bhanga. 'Sapta' means 'seven' and 'Bhanga' means 'mode'. These seven modes of ascertaining the truth are able to be exact in exploring all possibilities and aspects. For any proposition, there are three main modes of assessment, namely, (1) A positive assertion (Asti), (2) A negative assertion (Nästi), (3) Not describable or expressible (Avaktavya). However, for greater clarity four more permutations of these three are added as under: 'Asti-nästi', 'Asti-avaktavya', 'Nästi-avaktavya' and 'Asti-nästi-avaktavya'. The word 'Syät' is prefixed to each of these seven predications to prevent the proposition from being absolute. All these seven predications are explained with reference to an ethical proposition that 'It is sin to commit violence'. With regard to this proposition, the seven predications noted above can be made as under: Asti Nästi Asti-nästi Avaktavya Astiavaktavya Nästiavaktavya It is sin to commit violence with an intention to commit the same It is not a sin to commit violence on an aggressor who harms an innocent and helpless person It is sin to commit violence in breach of moral and social laws, but it is not a sin if violence is required to be committed in performance of moral or social duties It is not possible to say whether violence is a sin or virtue without knowing the circumstances under which it is required to be committed Indeed violence is sinful under certain circumstances, but no positive statement of this type can be made for all times and under all circumstances. Violence is not indeed sinful under certain circumstances, but no positive statement of this type can be made for all times and under all circumstances Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 107 of 398 Page #108 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B12 - Anekäntaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda Asti-nästi- Violence is sinful, but there are circumstances where it is not so. In fact no statement avaktavya in affirmation or negation can be made for all times and all circumstances All these seven modes can be expressed with regard to every proposition. The Jain philosophers have applied them with reference to self, its eternality, non-eternality, identity and character. In fact, this approach of Anekänta permeates almost every doctrine, which is basic to Jain philosophy. S. Gopalan quotes Eliot in this connection as saying: "The essence of the doctrine of Syädväda) so far as one can disentangle it from scholastic terminology, seems just for it amounts to this, that as to matters of experience it is impossible to formulate the whole and the complete truth, and as to matters which transcend experience, language is inadequate." At no time in the history of mankind, this principle of Syädväda was more necessary than in the present. This is the general view of the method of the Jain dialectic. Only this type of dialectical method can represent Syädväda. The theory of sevenfold predication is treated as synonymous with Syädväda owing to the fact that the number of possible or alternative truths under the conditional method of Syädväda are seven only." Critical Evaluation of Syädväda Jains admit that a thing cannot have self-contrary attributes at the same time and at the same place. What Jainism emphasizes is the manyness and manifoldness of a thing or the complex nature of reality. Dr. Rädhäkrishnan says, "Since reality is multiform and ever-changing, nothing can be considered to exist everywhere and at all times and in all ways and places and it is impossible to pledge us to an inflexible creed." A. N. Upadhye writes that Syädväda and Naya-väda has supplied the philosopher the catholicity of thought. It also convinces one that Truth is not anybody's monopoly with tariff walls of denominational religion while furnishing the religious aspirant with the virtue of intellectual toleration. This is the part of that Ahimsa which is one of the fundamental tenets of Jainism." Lastly, in the words of Dr. Y. J. Padmarajiah, "Anekäntaväda is the heart of Jain metaphysics and Naya-väda and Syädväda (or Sapta-bhangi) are its main arteries. To use a happier metaphor: the bird of Anekäntaväda flies on its wings of Naya-väda and Syädväda." Through Anekäntaväda, and thus through Naya-väda and Syädväda, Jains bring a solution to the age-old controversy between the absolutism and nihilism or between the one and the many or the real and the unreal. Theistic Implication of Syädväda Thus, the spirit to understand the other and other's standpoint and to learn to tolerate the conflicting or contrary situation helps a lot towards the higher development of right conduct. It broadens the mind and makes a person quite objective and open in his thinking. Such a person, like Jain monks, reads extensively the treatises of other schools. It proves to be good training to identify extreme views and to apply the proper corrections. Thus, here also, we find Syädväda a great help towards right knowledge and right conduct. Syädväda, by molding a person towards better conduct and higher knowledge, proves to be of great theistic significance. One of the aims of life is to make the earth a better and worthier world. Syädväda in spite of its dry dialectic and forbidding use of logic is not without a lesson for the practical human beings of the world. Pundit Dalsukhbhai Malvania, an authority on Jainism, in one of his essays on Anekäntaväda explains that the motto of Anekantaväda is Ahimsa and that is the prime reason that Jain philosophy is based on Anekäntaväda. The very idea of not to hurt others but to be kind and sympathetic towards others' views and thus to be friendly is the logical outcome of Ahimsa. Ahimsa in its positive concept becomes love and compassion. A perfect theism, not in its narrow rigid sense, but in the sense where broad religiousness, deep spirituality and high knowledge are thought of for the soul's ultimate liberation from bondage, require Syädväda as its valid approach to have an objective vision Page 108 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #109 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B12 - Anekäntaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda of truth, to be tolerant, to be sympathetic and to have an attitude of impartiality. Without all these, no theism in its actual practice is possible. Syädväda shapes a personality into a theistic one. Moreover, subjective attitude and past recollections towards the same or similar objects play a decisive role in judgment. At the same time prejudices and predilections, social upbringing, environmental necessities and politico-social taboos also play a very decisive role in a judgment about an idea. In fact, every object and every idea has infinite characteristics and is required to be judged from a variety of standpoints. What should be our reaction towards a thing if we are convinced that everything in this universe has infinite characteristics and with limited knowledge, a human being is not capable of determining all these characteristics? Certainly, if our approach were objective and unbiased, we would not rush to take an absolute view of that thing or thought by keeping in mind the limitations of our knowledge. Our judgment based on limited data is likely to be wrong. We would, however, not have actual perception. Therefore, in our prudence, we would say that the judgment formed about actually perceived things is 'likely' to be true. While saying so, we would not rule out the possibility that it may turn out to be untrue if looked at from any other perspective. This is the approach of Syädväda, which implies that each and all knowledge is relative. What we know by the analytical process of Naya-väda, we express by the synthesis of Syädväda. As already noticed, the etymological meaning of the word 'Syäd' is 'Perhaps.' However, it is used to suggest a relative truth. The theory of Syädväda is based on the premise that every proposition is only relatively true. It all depends upon the particular aspect from which we appreciate that proposition. Since all propositions are related to many circumstances, our assertions about them depend entirely upon the particular circumstances through which we are viewing them. Since our view has a limited aperture, we cannot know everything and hence it is appropriate to avoid our absolute assertion. For instance, when we say that a particular thing weighs 5 lb., our statement about the weight is related to the gravitational force exerted on that thing by our planet, the earth. The same thing may not weigh anything if removed from this gravitational field or may weigh differently on a different planet. The same can be said about our statements relating to time and space and about every human experience. It is the matter of our daily experience that the same object, which gives pleasure to us under certain circumstances, becomes boring under different circumstances. Scientific truths are, therefore, relative in the sense that they do not give complete and exhaustive knowledge of the objects under study and contain elements that may be changed with further advance in knowledge. Nonetheless, relative truth is undoubtedly useful as it is a stepping stone to the ultimate truth. 09 Is "Self" Permanent or Transitory? In the field of metaphysics, there has been serious controversy about the real nature of 'Self'. While Vedäntists believe that, everything that is found in this universe is 'Brahma', the super self, permanent, and the material things are found to have no reality, as they are transitory in nature. The Buddhists would say that everything in this universe including the super-self is transitory and constantly changing. These are the two extreme views as they concentrate only on particular aspects to the exclusion of other aspects. The Jains say that both are relatively correct from the viewpoint through which they see the thing, but both are incorrect in as much as they fail to take the comprehensive view of all the aspects involved. The Jains would say that, from the point of view of substance (Dravya) self is permanent but from the point of view of modifications (Paryäya), it is transitory. Since substance and its modes should be taken as an integrated whole in order to comprehend it properly, both the attributes of permanence and transitoriness should be taken into account. Both to the Vedäntists as well as to the Buddhists, the Jain seer would say 'Syäd Asti", i.e., "From one aspect you are right" and applying his 'Anekänta Naya', i.e., looking at the problem from different angles would come to the above conclusion. Thus the doctrine of relativity, which is the practical application of the theory of multifold aspects (Naya-väda), is nothing but the doctrine of metaphysical synthesis. This doctrine has a great value in our day-to-day individual and social life. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 109 of 398 Page #110 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B12 - Anekantaväda II - Pramäna, Naya and Syädväda 10 Importance of Anekantavada The importance of this comprehensive synthesis of 'Syädväda' and 'Anekänta Naya' in day-to-day life is immense in as much as these doctrines supply a rational unification and synthesis of the manifold and reject the assertions of bare absolutes. Mahatma Gandhi's views (wrote in 1926) about the Jain theory of Anekanta are as follows: "It has been my experience, that I am always true (correct) from my point of view and often wrong from the point of view of my critics. I know that we are both (I and my critics) right from our respective points of view." "I very much like this doctrine of the many view points of the reality. It is this doctrine that has taught me to judge a Muslim from his standpoint and a Christian from his. From the platform of the Jains, prove the noncreative aspect of God, and from that of Rämänuja the creative aspect. As a matter of fact we are all thinking of the unthinkable describing the indescribable, seeking to know the unknown, and that is why our speech falters, is inadequate and been often contradictory." The history of all conflicts and confrontations in the world is the history of intolerance born out of ignorance. Difficulty with the human being is his/her egocentric existence. Anekänta or Syädväda tries to make the human being conscious of his/her limitation by pointing to his narrow vision and limited knowledge of the manifold aspects of things, and asks him/her not be hasty in forming absolute judgments before examining various other aspects - both positive and negative. Obviously, much of the bloodshed, and much of tribulations of mankind would have been saved if the human being had shown the wisdom of understanding the contrary viewpoints. The doctrine of Syädväda also clarifies the metaphysical doctrine of 'Self' envisaged by the Jains. The proposition 'Syäd Asti' is positive in character and points out the positive attributes of the thing in question. These are individual attributes, which belong to and are inherent in the thing in question. Therefore, when the proposition 'Syäd Asti' is applied to 'Self', it conveys that 'Self' is justified in its existence only from the point of view of its own individual attributes, modes, space and time. However, when the other proposition of the doctrine namely 'Syät Nästi' is applied to it, it means the 'Self' does not possess the attributes and modes which do not belong to it. It is just like a pot that can be identified as a 'pot' only if it carries the attributes of a 'pot' but it cannot be identified as a pot if it carries the attributes, which are foreign to it. Therefore, the negative identification of 'Syät Nästi' when applied to 'Self' would mean, that if the self tries to adopt the attributes of Pudgal (matter) which are foreign to it, it is not the 'self'. In other words, Syädväda teaches us that 'Self' can be identified positively as 'Syäd Asti' only if it is viewed from its own attributes, and negatively as 'Syäd Nästi' to show that it is not Pudgal, etc. if it is viewed from the attributes that are foreign to it. Thus, the doctrine of Syädväda gives clarity to the real character of the 'Self' and by the same process of reasoning, the real character of 'Pudgal', i.e., non-sentient things. 11 Anekantaväda and Ahimsa However, the important aspect of Anekäntaväda and Syädväda is the subtlety with which it introduces the practice of Ahimsa (nonviolence) even in the realm of thought. The moment one begins to consider the angle from which a contrary viewpoint is put forward, one begins to develop tolerance, which is the basic requirement of the practice of 'Ahimsa'. The origin of all bloody wars fought on the surface of this earth can be traced to the war of ideas, beliefs and disagreements. Anekäntaväda and Syädväda puts a healing touch at the root of the human psyche and tries to stop the war of beliefs, which lead to the war of nerves and then to the war of bloodshed. It makes all absolutes in the field of thought quite irrelevant and naive, and it imparts maturity to the thought process and supplies flexibility and originality to the human mind. If mankind will properly understand and adopt this doctrine of Anekantavada and Syädväda, it will realize that real revolution was not the French or Russian Revolutions; the real revolution was the one, which taught man to develop his/her power of understanding from all possible aspects. Page 110 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #111 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B13 - Anekantaväda III - Five Samaväya or Causal Factors B13 - Anekäntaväda III - Five Samaväya or Causal Factors 01 Introduction Who is responsible for the events that occur in the world? Hegel said it is history. Marx said it is "the system." Various views have been propounded to explain the occurrence of events. These theories put forward mutually conflicting answers to the question of who or what causes events in this universe to transpire. An event does not take place because of one reason. There is always more than one factor involved. Per Jain philosophy, a situation develops or an event happens because of five reasons operating simultaneously. Some schools of thought believe that whatever happens is God's wish. They think that: • God has created the universe • God manages the universe . God decides who gets what This type of belief contrasts with that of the Jains, who believe that the six basic substances of the universe are eternal and they are: • Soul (Jivästikäya) Material atoms (Pudgalästikäya) Medium of motion (Dharmästikäya) Medium of rest (Adharmästikäya) • Space (Äkäshästikäya) Time (Käl) They are indestructible and cannot be created. Nobody manages the universe. Everything in the universe takes place in accordance with the laws of nature. Every individual feels the appropriate repercussions of his/her actions in accordance with his/her own Karma. 02 Samaväya Samaväya is the name of the group of five causes that are associated with every situation or event. It gives the connection between action and causes. Without a cause, no action can take place. These five causes have a deep connection with everything that takes place in the universe. These all are responsible for all events (positive or negative) in the universe. The five Samaväya (group of factors functioning simultaneously) are: Käl (Time) Svabhäv (Nature of a Substance) Niyati (Fate) • Nimitta and Prärabdha (External Circumstances, and/or Karma) • Purushärtha (Self Effort or Free Will) Some people give focus only to one of these causes and ignore the others. The theory of Anekäntaväda, the Jain philosophy of multiplicity of viewpoints, rejects this way of viewing matters from a single angle. The Jain philosophy views and reveals the importance of each Samaväya from the Anekantaväda and considers these five Samaväya as the causes for any action or reaction. Without these five, nothing can take place. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 111 of 398 Page #112 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B13 - Anekäntaväda III - Five Samaväya or Causal Factors 1. Käl (Time) Time gives sequence to whatever happens in the universe. The Karma that are bound to the soul due to activities may not immediately manifest their fruits as soon as they are bound. The fruits of Karma appear at a specific time depending on the nature of the Karma itself. Karma have to depend on time to present their fruits. One cannot have fruits the very moment a tree is planted. The seed cannot neglect the temporal limitation set out by time for its transformation into a tree; even nature depends on time for its manifestation or actualization. Time is a controlling principle. Without it, temporal order cannot be accounted for. If there were no time, a spout, a stem, a stalk, a flower and a fruit - all would emerge and exist simultaneously. We cannot but acknowledge the fact that time plays an important role in the events of one's life. If man understands that time is one of the important factors that produces an effect, he will learn to be patient during the period from the inception of the work to its completion or accomplishment. Otherwise, he will wrongly expect success or accomplishment the moment the work has commenced or at least before its due time. He may then lose all hope on account of not attaining success. This will make him slack in his efforts. As a result, he may be deprived of success in the future. 2. Svabhäv (Nature of a Substance) Every substance has its own nature and they generate effects according to it. Time is not everything. Even if the right time arrives, certain seeds do not sprout. Why are thorns sharp? Why do most flowers have beautiful colors? Why are some animals cruel? Why are some animals clever and capable of rapid movement? Why does a dog bark? A single answer to all these questions is that it is their nature (Svabhäv). For example, to bark is a dog's nature. You will not be able to grow mangos on a lemon tree. In matters like these, individual nature is considered as the main cause. Nothing can generate an effect against its own inherent nature, even if all other causal conditions such as time, human effort, etc., are present there. An insentient or sentient thing produces an effect strictly in accordance with its own inherent nature. Undoubtedly, the place of inherent nature is very important in the production of an effect or in the occurrence of an event. 3. Niyati (Destiny) Niyati means destiny or fate. In this world, there are certain things that are predetermined and unalterable. In these situations, whatever has been destined will take place. Whatever has to happen keeps happening. In this process, change cannot be made despite our best laid plans. For example, even if we make all possible efforts, we cannot prevent the aging process or may not be able to save someone's life. If someone were going to hit our car from behind, he/she would do so despite our best efforts. In essence, although we are in control of most events that occur throughout our life, there are certain things that are beyond our control. Destiny can be regarded as identical to a certain type of karma, an unalterable karma. In Jain terminology, it is called 'Nikächit karma'. The Nikächit karma is that which is unalterable and which most certainly causes the experience of pleasure or pain to the concerned soul at the time of its fruition. The fruit or result of such type of karma being Niyat (fixed and unalterable), the karma is known by the name 'Niyati'. However, it must be stressed that the concept of Nikächit only applies to a select few karma and cannot be used as a justification for apathy or evil. 4. Nimitta or Prärabdha (External Circumstances and Karma) Nimitta is an apparent cause of a result of a catalytic agent (helper) of a process, result or activity. There can be one or more Nimitta in any given event. Nimitta can be either external (person, objects) or internal (Karma). Guidance of a Guru and scripture or an event can be an external cause. Happiness, misery and various conditions related to us depend on diverse karma. Sometime we notice that good deeds yield bitter fruits and evil deeds yield sweet ones. Behind this apparent anomaly, it is the force of karma that is at work. All strange things and all the sad and happy things we experience; are all due results of previously bonded Karma. Consider this example: a mother gives birth to twins. One turns out to be different from the other. This is because of one's own Page 112 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #113 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B13 - Anekantaväda III - Five Samaväya or Causal Factors Karma. The rich become poor, the poor become rich, and sometimes the rich become richer and poor become poorer. This is also because of one's own Karma. Everyone has to experience both the good and the bad consequences of their Karma. There occur inexplicable or strange events in the life of an individual or of a group, which are described as 'determined or controlled by Fate'. From such events, we get the idea of the existence of karma. 5. Purushärtha (Self-effort or Free Will) Purushärtha or individual effort has a special place. A person cannot progress if he/she depends on Time or Nature or Destiny or Karma but he/she does not put forth effort. The human race has progressed because of efforts and initiatives. It is not possible to improve anything without effort. Which one is the most important of these five? Which is the most effectual? The controversy regarding these questions is not of today; but has existed for centuries. Countless arguments and counter arguments have been made for and against one or another proposition. One who supports one view disagrees with other causes. However, Jain philosophy does not consider these five from a single point of view; nor does it consider anyone of them as the only right one. The Jain philosophy considers their collective effect as valid and right. We must understand that in the production of each and every effect, all five causal factors are not equally important. Of course, all of them are necessarily present there simultaneously to produce an effect. However, with respect to a particular effect a particular causal factor acts as the principal one and the rest act as subordinate to it. However, Jain philosophy does put more emphasis on individual effort (Purushärtha), because individual effort is the only one in our control. Individual effort can change or eradicate one's Karma. Purushärtha of the past is Karma of the present and Purushärtha of the present is Karma of the future. If we continue to put forth self-effort to shed our Karma, our destiny will improve and that can happen sooner depending upon the eradication of Karma. However, we must understand that it takes all five causes for any action to take place. We cannot help but recognize the importance of human effort. Those who regard karma as supreme should question themselves as to who generates karma. It is the activity and passions of the soul that generates karma. Karma makes the soul wander in the cycle of life and death, whereas human effort wages war against karma, destroys its entire force and leads the soul to Siddhashila. It is not the force of karma that brings about the manifestation of the state of liberation. In fact, it is the destruction of karma that is the only cause of liberation. It is only human effort that can destroy karma. When one directs one's attention to this uncommon characteristic of human effort, one finds it improper to give sole importance to karma. This is the reason why the knowledgeable and wise saints have taught us that the only means for improving and destroying karma is one's firm determination to keep one's mental, vocal and bodily operations auspicious (virtuous) or pure while performing spiritual good, auspicious, praiseworthy or compassionate acts. Those who depend solely on karma become despondent and indolent. Hence, they are deprived of success. Though human effort has to depend on time, nature, etc., it is the most efficient way to bring victory to man. In the modern age, many wonderful things have been invented and widely used. These inventions serve as brilliant instances of the efficacy of human effort. Individuals or nations that put forth great efforts make progress and attain prosperity and welfare. On the other hand, idle individuals and nations fall behind and degenerate on account of their lack of vigor and vitality; they consequently become slaves of others and subject themselves to their oppressions. If the achievements attained or inventions made by human effort are misused, it is the people who misuse them that are at fault and not the achievements or inventions. 03 Significance of Samaväya To form an opinion on any one of the five causes indicates our ignorance about Jain reality. However during our spiritual growth period, we should reflect on one cause that will reduce or minimize our vices and enhance our spirituality. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 113 of 398 Page #114 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B13 - Anekäntaväda III - Five Samaväya or Causal Factors During the action or activity period one should reflect on: One's own effort for the success (Determination, Free will, Self-effort) At the conclusion of an activity or action one should reflect on: If the result is positive - The success was due to the help from others (external Nimitta or circumstances) If the result is negative - The failure was due to my past karma (internal Nimitta), the failure was predestined or, my effort was not adequate Person needs Freewill, Determination, and Effort to progress from Illusionary/Ignorant state (1st Gunasthäna) to Monkhood state (6th Gunasthäna). Person cannot spiritually progress further without dissolving his/her ego. To the person with an ego, all events that occur in the universe seems predestined. This does not mean that events are predestined in reality (all five causes are equally present). We may continuously change two of the five causes: Purushärtha and Nimitta (Self Effort or Free Will, Karma and External situation) Hence, the probability of all events being predetermined is very low. During an ignorance state, a person is controlled by surroundings (Nimitta). Hence on the path of spiritual progress, the person should be surrounded by the proper environment. As spiritual progress occurs, the effect of external causes reduces, and the power of soul increases. Karma philosophy applies to ourselves, Compassion applies to all. 04 Summary We have now seen the importance of the five causal factors. All five are useful in their own places. All contribute to the production of an effect. We should not give exclusive importance to any one of them, rejecting all others or relegating them to an utterly insignificant place. The believers in the doctrine of time are under the sway of illusion, if they accept time while excluding the other factors without properly evaluating their contribution. This view is the right view, which accords proper placement to all the causal factors. Contrary to it, the wrong view is that, which regards anyone of them as the sole cause, neglecting the rest. Jainism puts most emphasis on Purushärtha (to rely a great deal on one's own efforts and initiatives) since it is the only one in our control and can make an impact on other Samaväya in future. No progress can be made if one depends only upon fate or Karma. Individual effort (Purushärtha) can help in shedding Karma and in purifying one's consciousness. Believing in these five causes is the beginning of the theory of multiplicity of views (multifaceted truth or Anekantaväda). Page 114 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #115 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B14 - Fourteen Gunasthäna: Stages of Spiritual Development B14 - Fourteen Gunasthäna: Stages of Spiritual Development 01 Introduction In the book "Outlines of Jainism" Shri J. L. Jaini defines that: "In Jainism fourteen stages are indicated through which the soul progresses from an impure state to the final pure state of liberation (Siddha). The psychical condition of the soul due to the fruition (Uday), partly settling down (suppression) and partly perishing of Karma matter (Kshayopasham) is called "Gunasthäna". In Jainism, the Gunasthänas describe the path, modalities and prerequisites for the bonded soul (Bahirätmä) to become a liberated soul (Paramätmä) through the path of internal progress (by becoming Antarätmä). The process begins with the soul, which is at the lowest stage from times immemorial, circulating in the cycles of births and deaths due to lack of true belief, true knowledge and true conduct. Since there is a divine spark in every soul (without which it will not be a living being), it is struggling to find its true identity and potential of becoming liberated. Thus, a constant struggle is going on between forces of darkness of wrong belief (Mithyätva) and forces of light of true belief (Samyaktva). Forces of darkness (Mithyatva) try to keep the soul tied down to the Samsär (worldly existence) while forces of light (Samyaktva) try to help the soul attain liberation. In the long run there comes a chance when by reducing its Karma load the forces of light (Samyaktva) prevail and the soul is able to break the shackles of Mithyätva (wrong belief) just like a piece of straw is able to escape out of a whirlpool. This is like cutting the Gordian knot and is also called Granthi Bhed in Jain terminology. Once this happens, the soul is set on the road of rising Gunasthänas. In other words, the pilgrim has found his path and the Pilgrim's Progress has begun which may ultimately lead to the liberation of the soul though it may take years and years. During this progress through different Gunasthänas, the soul has to encounter ups and downs and also very unusual and unprecedented experiences during the ascent. Gunasthänas denote purely spiritual exercise - the fourteen levels relate to the spirit or the soul it embodies. The progression or regression is of the soul and is on a spiritual scale and according to spiritual yardsticks. It cannot be seen, observed or measured in the physical world. Though the stages of spiritual development relate to the soul or are of the soul, they directly result from karma (matter) contaminating the soul. The worse and more intense association of Karma with the soul, the lower the stage of spiritual development of the soul. Conversely the lesser and lighter the Karma load is on the soul, the higher and better stage it can attain. Karma may appear as the immediate cause determining Gunasthänas, but since karma in turn accrue, arise or subside by Yoga (activities/vibration), Kashäya (passion), Pramäda (negligence), Avirati (indiscipline) and Mithyätva (false faith) as seen earlier, these ultimately are responsible for the soul's progress or downfall. As the Yoga and Kashaya etc. are committed by the soul itself with or without other conditions participating in the final and ultimate analysis, it is the soul itself that determines its Gunasthänak or its progression or downfall. Though only fourteen stages are identified, there are innumerable points on the path of liberation on which the soul transits up and down or at which it stays - just like numerous points or stations on a railway route are characterized by a few important or junction stations. The soul has been on this path since time immemorial and will be so till its final liberation, with its final destination being the completion of spiritual development. The Gunasthäna, on which the soul may be, varies from moment to moment depending on its Karma Uday (operation of karma) or Kshayopasham (destruction and suppression of karma), Räga and Dvesha (attachment and aversion) or Yoga and Kashaya (activity and passion). This is similar to one's blood pressure varying from one moment to the next. To identify the Gunasthäna of a being exactly at any moment is only possible by a Keval-jnäni (the Perfect Being) since it is a purely spiritual barometer. It is not possible for ordinary beings to assess one's spiritual stage since they can only form some idea by the external conditions, circumstances, and behavior of the beings. The real diagnosis is possible only by assessing the level of their thought process that no one other than Keval-jnäni can know. The movement of the beings from one Gunasthänak to another is not in strictly numerical order i.e. first to second and so on. The soul moves up and down on the spiritual path according to logical rules e.g. from Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 115 of 398 Page #116 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B14 - Fourteen Gunasthäna: Stages of Spiritual Development first Gunasthäna the soul transits straight to the fourth, but it may regress to third or second on its path to the first for reasons given later. We will know more about them as we briefly describe each of the fourteen Gunasthänas, in the subsequent paragraphs. 02 Fourteen Gunasthänas The 14 stages of spiritual development are as follows: Mithya-drashti Gunasthäna Wrong faith Säsvädana Samyag-drashti Gunasthäna Having tasted true faith Samyag Mithya-drashti Gunasthäna Mixed faith stage Avirata Samyag-drashti Gunasthäna Vow less right faith Desha-virat Shrävak Gunasthäna Partial renunciation Pramatta-samyat Gunasthäna Full renunciation with less awareness Apramatta-samyat Gunasthana Renunciation with awareness Apurva-karan or Nivritti-bädara Meditative state Gunasthäna Anivritti-bädara Gunasthäna Advance meditative state Sukshma-samparaya Gunasthäna Stage of subtle greed Upashänt-moha (Kashäya) Gunasthäna Suppressed passions state Kshina-moha (Kashäya) Gunasthäna Passionless stage Sayogi Kevali Gunasthäna Active omniscience state Ayogi Kevali Gunasthäna Inactive omniscience state 01. Mithya-drashti Gunasthäna This is the lowest or first stage wherein the soul, due to manifestation of Mohaniya (Deluding) Karma, does not believe in the Right Path to salvation. The characteristic mark of this Gunasthäna is perversity of attitude towards truth; or unbelief in the truth taught by the Jina in its entirety. The soul at this stage has a minimum degree of right vision and very indistinct enlightenment - just enough that is required for a living conscious soul. A soul may find itself in this stage from the start or it may come to it from higher stages but the reason is the same - the manifestation of Deluding (Mohaniya) Karma. From this stage, a soul rises only to the fourth stage for the very first time and not to the second or the third as will be described later. In this Gunasthäna, all 28 types of Deluding (Mohaniya) Karma are in manifestation. 02. Säsvädana Samyag-drashti Gunasthäna This is the second higher stage where the soul finds itself for a very short time on its downward journey to the first stage but with some taste or memory of the higher stage. A soul has attained the higher stage due to the arising of true belief or enlightenment for a short duration due to suppression of Deluding (Mohaniya) Karma. However, due to the re-manifestation of the same Karma of an acute type, it goes back to the first stage staying for a short period in the second stage with taste of true belief lingering which has given it the name of a Gunasthäna with a taste. From this stage, it only goes downwards to the first Gunasthäna (Mithyätva). 03. Samyag Mithya-drashti Gunasthäna This third stage is marked by indifference towards true belief, the soul being in a mixed state of belief and non-belief in the true doctrines. This condition arises on account of manifestation of mixed Deluding Karma in the soul at a higher stage (Fourth) from which the soul comes down to this stage. The stay in this third stage is also of very short duration and is transitional, the soul going down to Page 116 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #117 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B14 - Fourteen Gunasthäna: Stages of Spiritual Development the first stage of complete unbelief - Mithyätva, or making a recovery and rising up to higher stages with right faith. 04. Avirata Samyag-drashti Gunasthäna In this stage the soul, though having been blessed with Right Belief and Right Knowledge, is not able to proceed on the path of Right Conduct in as much as it is not capable of adopting the vows for the lack of will, power and energy. The path of salvation consists of all the three elements of Right Belief, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct, the last one consisting of vows. Due to the operation of Karma, the being may have Right Faith and Right Knowledge and even know and accept the vows of Right Conduct, but due to weakness it is not able to properly practice the vows. The Right Faith may be due to suppression (Upasham) or annihilation (Kshaya) of Faith Deluding Karma as a result of which the being attains this stage from stage (1) Mithyätva. The barrier on conduct is due to the rise of Conduct Deluding Karma on the other hand. As such from this stage, the door is open for the soul to rise or fall. In the case of rise, it may proceed forth to higher stages by suppressing the Karma or annihilating them. In case of a fall, it goes to stage (2) and thence to stage (1); or to stage (3) and further on as stated earlier. In any case, the souls that have once touched this Gunasthäna, must reach their destination of Nirvana though it may take time; the maximum limit of which is Ardha (half) Pudgal Parävartan or a very long time. In this Gunasthäna, three types of Faith Deluding (Darshan Mohaniya) Karma and four Anantänubandhi Kashaya (these seven Karma are called Darshan-saptak) are either suppressed, eradicated or a combination of both. 05. Desha-virat Shrävak Gunasthäna When a being gathers sufficient will and power to persevere on the path of spiritual and moral progress, it adopts the Vows (Minor vows) meant for laymen (Shrävak) thus partially refraining from sins ensuring partial self-control. Thus it achieves this stage, number five, though due to the partial manifestation of Deluding Karma it is still not able to completely renounce the world which is required for the next stage. This is the highest stage possible for a layman; hereafter all higher stages require adoption of asceticism by renouncing the world for achieving complete self-control. This stage is important because it is a starting point for the being to adopt Right Conduct and to begin discarding an undisciplined life (Avirati) though only partly. In this Gunasthäna, Darshan-saptak and four types of Apratyakhyäni kashaya are suppressed, eradicated or a combination of both. 06. Pramatta-samyat Gunasthäna In this stage of spiritual development, the soul renounces the world completely, ensuring complete self-control by adopting all the major vows prescribed for a Sädhu for purity of conduct. However, occasionally it tends towards negligence (Pramäda), hence, the name is Pramatta or negligent Samyat Gunasthäna. These manifestations are essentially the product of the Karma bondage of deluding Karma (Mohaniya). Depending upon the dispensation of Karma the being may land down in stage (v) Desha-virat or even in stage (iv) of Avirata Gunasthäna from this stage. However, if it is able to adjure negligence (Pramäda) it may progress to the next stage No. 7 (vii) Apramatta Samyat Gunasthäna. The salient feature of this stage is a completely disciplined life by adoption of all the five Major Vows (Mahä-vrata). This means complete dedication to the practice of the Three Jewels; - Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct which is prescribed as the royal road leading towards liberation. Thus, in this stage the second cause of Bondage of Karma i.e. Avirati is also discarded by the soul. In this Gunasthäna, Darshan-saptak, four types of Apratyakhyäni Kashaya and four types Pratyakhyäni Kashäya are suppressed, eradicated or a combination of both. However, negligence (Pramäda) exists. 07. Apramatta-samyat Gunasthäna Herein are Sädhus who have not only adopted all vows and self-control but also avoid negligence (Pramäda) completely. Next a soul will travel on one of the two spiritual ladders, one of suppression/subsidence of Karma and other of complete annihilation of Karma. Obviously only the latter can lead to liberation; the former may lead back to lower stages, though it may temporarily Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 117 of 398 Page #118 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B14 - Fourteen Gunasthäna: Stages of Spiritual Development allow for significant progress. They are named Upasham Sreni (suppression ladder) and Kshapak Sreni (annihilation ladder) according to their nature From this stage of spiritual development, the soul may go down to stage 6 (vi) of Negligence or may progress on the pathways called Srenis (ladder), which may be the Suppression of the Karma known as Upasham Sreni or the Annihilation of the Karma known as Kshapak Sreni. If the soul goes to stage 6 (vi), it can come back to stage 7 (vii) and this process of going back and forth can continue for a long time, until death or until one of the Srenis is attained. Very very few souls can go higher than the seventh stage (vii) during the 5th Ärä from Bharat Kshetra. In respect of Srenis also, only Kshapak Sreni (Annihilation of Karma) can ensure complete liberation (and not the Upasham Sreni). The inclination and preparation for these Srenis takes the being to the next stage, number eight, called Apurva Karan Gunasthäna. From stage 7 (vii) to stage 10 (x), the soul purifies itself by progressively reducing passions (Kashayas). Of course, Mithyätva, Avirati, and Pramäda have already been discarded. This stage is therefore the beginning of the four stages of progressive purity, which prepare the soul for the higher stages, of 11, 12 and 13. At the same time, this stage being on the border is full of chances of downfall of the soul to lower stages due to Karma manifestation and due to Pramäda (negligence), etc. In this Gunasthäna, Darshan-saptak, four types of Apratyakhyäni Kashaya and four types Pratyakhyani Kashaya of are suppressed, eradicated or a combination of both. However, no negligence (Pramäda) exists. 08. Apurva-karan or Nivritti-bädara Gunasthäna As implied by its name, this stage involves unprecedented (Apurva) attainments by the soul facilitating it for the path of liberation. These are the destruction of intensity (Rasaghäta) and duration (Sthitighät) of bound Karma. Through such processes of purification, the soul begins to ascend on one of the two Srenis (ladders), either the Upasham Sreni (Suppression ladder) or the Kshapak Sreni (annihilation ladder). Some of the other processes the soul undergoes for the sake of the rise on the Srenis are called Gunashreni i.e., reduction in the duration of Karma and Gunsankram or conversion of harsh Karma into the mild ones. All these important events in the evolution of the soul are unusual and unprecedented; therefore, the name given to this stage is Apurva (Unprecedented) Karan Gunasthäna. The fact is reiterated that all these events in the sphere of activities of the soul are due to the Karma - old and new and their manifestation, suppression or annihilation. 09. Anivritti-bädara Gunasthäna A stage of even greater purity of thought than the earlier one, this stage takes the soul to the verge of enlightenment. In this stage, the soul continues further purification based on one of the two Srenis (ladders) started in the eighth Gunasthäna; - Upasham (suppressing of Karma) or Kshapak (Annihilation of Karma), which determines its future destiny. However, in this stage there is the possibility of Deluding (Mohaniya) Karma manifesting in its crude (Bädara) form. The striking feature of this stage is a high degree of suppression or destruction of Karma with resultant purity of the soul and progress to the next stage. However, if the soul allows itself to be afflicted by Karma, it may go back to lower stages too. 10. Sukshma-samparäya Gunasthäna In this stage of a high degree of purity of the soul, there do remain some traces of Deluding Karma (Mohaniya) in the form of the smallest amount of subtle greed. If this is also overcome, the soul progresses to stage 11 or 12. If the soul suppresses (Upasham) the subtle greed, then stage 11 is reached. If the soul annihilates (Kshaya) it, then stage 12 is reached. Henceforth, the distinction between the two Srenis is that while there is no liberation from Upasham Sreni while the kshapak Sreni leads to Moksha- as will be explained later. This is the stage up to which both Yoga (activities) and Kashaya (passions) are present, though the latter is of a very minute (Sukshma) degree. It does not allow the soul to go to the higher stages, 11 Page 118 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #119 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B14 Fourteen Gunasthäna: Stages of Spiritual Development and 12, which respectively require suppression or destruction of remaining passions. If this does not happen, the soul may sink back to lower stages afflicted not only by Kashäyas but also negligence, vowlessness and wrong belief. In this Gunasthäna, all types of Deluding Karma except Sanjvalan Lobha (Subtle Greed) are suppressed or eradicated. 11. Upashänt-moha (Kashaya) Gunasthäna By suppressing completely all Kashayas including subtle greed (in the Tenth Gunasthäna), the soul attains this stage (also known as Upashänt Kashäya) for a short while. However, it is only suppression or subsidence (and not annihilation) of the Karma, like dirt settling down in water. Therefore, as soon as this suppression (Upashaman) stops, Karma manifest themselves and the soul falls back to the lower stages. Furthermore, in this stage Jnänävaraniya Karma hampers the soul and, therefore, it is still Chhadmastha (a person in the state of bondage). For obvious reasons, this Gunasthäna lasts for a very short duration and as there is no possibility of rising higher, the soul descends to lower stages even landing in the first, the lowest Gunasthäna. The depth to which the soul may sink depends upon the particular type of Karma and Kashaya (Passions) afflicting the soul. However, such a soul can stage a recovery even in the same lifetime and attain liberation passing through different stages rising via Khsapak Sreni. In this Gunasthäna, all types of Deluding Karma are suppressed. 12. Kshina-moha (Kashäya) Gunasthäna The soul that is able to destroy completely the subtle greed remnants of Mohaniya (Deluding) Karma in the tenth Gunasthäna attains this stage (also known as Kshina Kashaya) as it is on the Kshapak Sreni, bypassing the (11th) stage, which was for the Upasham Sreni. This is a stage of almost the highest purity of meditation, whereby the soul also destroys the other Karma namely Jnänävaraniya, Darshanävaraniya and Antaräya. At the end of this stage, the soul becomes omniscient - a Kevaljnäni - and enters the (13th) stage of Sayogi Kevali, which is the stage of omniscience. However, in this 12th stage the soul is still not perfect, but is only Chhadmastha, as the name of this Gunasthäna indicates. This is due to the part Bondage of Major or Ghäti Karma, which the soul sheds in the last moments of this stage for progress to the next stage of perfect knowledge etc. This is made possible by the soul as it has given up passion or Kashäya completely and resultantly the Ghäti Karma are eliminated. As such, this stage is important as a stepping stone to liberation or Moksha. In this Gunasthäna, all types of Deluding Karma are eradicated. 13. Sayogi Kevali Gunasthäna This is the stage where all the Kashayas (passions) are destroyed and, therefore, the Ghäti and Sämparäyika Karma (Karma with passion) are eliminated and the soul is blessed with Perfect Faith (Samyag Darshan), Perfect Knowledge (Samyag Jnän), Perfect Conduct (Samyag Chäritra) and Perfect Prowess (Virya). It is the stage of Godhood known as Kevali, Jina or Arihanta in Jain terminology. Only Aghäti Karma remain that keep the soul embodied and they also come and go without further binding the soul. A lot can be written about this stage, which is not possible of complete description, by words. Here only Yoga (simple activities of mind, speech and body) remains, but since they are passionless and without attachment, they do not bind to the soul. In Vedänta, this stage is known as Jivan-mukta, as such beings though embodied and in this world are not bound by Karma and are beyond the world. Such a state may last for a short or a very long time depending upon remaining Aghäti karma. Some such souls are called Tirthankar who lay the foundations of the true path and preach the true religion for the guidance of the Sangh (fourfold order). Therefore, they are given precedence over the liberated souls - the Siddhas - in the Navakär Mantra. In this Gunasthäna, all types of Ghäti Karma are eradicated. 14. Ayogi Kevali Gunasthäna This is the last and momentary stage of duration equal to time taken in uttering five short vowels. During this stage, even Yoga stops and all the remaining Aghäti karma are simultaneously exhausted by the soul and it leaves the body and attains liberation, free from further births and deaths in the world. This is achieved by the soul engaging in the highest type of meditation, known as Shukla Dhyäna, in which all types of subtle as well as gross physical, vocal and mental activities stop. The result is a state of complete motionlessness, internal and external, known as Shaileshi Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 119 of 398 Page #120 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B14 - Fourteen Gunasthäna: Stages of Spiritual Development karana, for the short duration equal to the time taken in uttering five short vowels. This is followed by liberation not only from the body, but also from worldly existence and Karma Bondage for all times to come. 03 Summary This brief description of Gunasthäna can be closed with some further remarks to throw light on their salient features from the point of view of spiritual development. The first three stages are marked by external activity of the soul, when it is involved with things other than itself and the soul is Bahirätmä (extrovert). From stage fourth to twelfth, it becomes Antarätmä (introvert) concerned with its own welfare. In the last two stages, the soul attains godhood and is called Paramätmä (the perfect soul). From the point of view of Karma Bondage, it has to be noted that the five causes (Mithyätva, Avirati, Pramäda, Kashaya and Yoga) determine (along with the Bondage) the stage (Gunasthäna), and their presence or absence result in regression or progression of the soul on these stages, respectively. When all the five causes of Bondage persist in the soul, it remains either in the first stage of Mithyatva or the third stage of Samyag Mithya-drashti. When the soul gets rid of Mithyätva (False Vision) but if the other four causes subsist, it can rise up to stages number four and five; Säsvädana, Avirata and Desha-virat. By getting rid of Avirati (Undisciplined life), the soul can reach stage number six; Pramatta Virat because Pramäda (negligence) is persisting. By getting rid of Pramäda, the soul reaches stage seven or Apramatta Virat and if capable continues to stage ten Sukshma Samparaya through further purification. Thus from stage seven (7) to stage ten (10) only two causes of Bondage remain viz., Kashaya (Passions) and Yoga. By freeing itself from passions (Kashäya), the soul can reach up to stages (11), (12) and (13) called Upasham Moha, Kshina Moha and Sayogi Kevali. At the end of stage, number (13) the soul also stops Yoga and enters stage (14) - Ayogi Kevali state for a very brief moment and relinquishes the body thus achieving liberation or Moksha. The following table provides clearer relationships between Gunasthäna and the causes of Karma Bondage, Meditation (Dhyana), Leshyä (States of Mind) and type of soul: 04 Relationships among Gunasthäna, Karma, Leshyä, and Dhyana No Gunasthän Causes of Karma Meditation Leshyä (States of Mind) Type of Soul Bondage Present (Dhyana) 1 Mithya- All five (Mithyatva, Ärta & All Six (Krishna, Neel, Kapot, Bahirätmä drashti Avirati, Pramäda, Raudra Tejo, Padma & Shukla) (Extrovert) Kashäya & Yoga) Säsvädana Avirati, Pramäda, Ärta & All Six (Krishna, Neel, Kapot, Bahirätmä Kashäya & Yoga Raudra Tejo, Padma & Shukla) (Extrovert) Samyag All five (Mithyatva, Ärta & All Six (Krishna, Neel, Kapot, Bahirätmä Mithya- Avirati, Pramäda, Raudra Tejo, Padma & Shukla) (Extrovert) drashti Kashäya & Yoga) Avirata Avirati, Pramäda, Arta, All Six (Krishna, Neel, Kapot, Antarätmä Samyag- Kashaya & Yoga Raudra & Tejo, Padma & Shukla) (Introvert) drashti Dharma Desha-virat Avirati, Pramäda, Ärta, All Six (Krishna, Neel, Kapot, Antarätmä Samyag- Kashäya & Yoga Raudra & Tejo, Padma & Shukla) (Introvert) drashti Dharma Page 120 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #121 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PHILOSOPHY B14 - Fourteen Gunasthäna: Stages of Spiritual Development Pramattasamyat Pramäda, Kashaya & Yoga Kashaya & Yoga Ärta & Dharma Dharma Apramattasamyat Apurvakaran All Six (Krishna, Neel, Kapot Tejo, Padma & Shukla) Only Auspicious ones (Tejo, Padma & Shukla) Shukla Kashäya & Yoga Kashaya & Yoga Shukla 10 Kashaya & Yoga Shukla Anivritti Bädara Sukshmasamparaya Upashammoha Kshinamoha Sayogi Dharma & Shukla Dharma & Shukla Dharma & Shukla Dharma & Shukla Dharma & Shukla Shukla Antarätmä (Introvert) Antarätmä (Introvert) Antarätmä (Introvert) Antarätmä (Introvert) Antarätmä (Introvert) Antarätmä (Introvert) Antarätmä (Introvert) Paramätmä (Perfect Soul) Paramätmä (Perfect Soul) Yoga Shukla Yoga Shukla Yoga Param Shukla Kevali 14 Ayogi Kevali None Shukla None (Aleshi – no Leshyä) Thus, it is clear from the above that the whole scheme of Gunasthäna is derived according to the principle of decreasing sinfulness and increasing purity of the soul and the lessening of Karma bondage. To progress on this scale, the being has to eliminate each of the causes leading to Karma bondage in the successive order stated above (i.e. Mithyätva, Avirati, Pramäda, Kashaya and Yoga) one by one. Thus, one can bring refinement in its own qualities (the Guna) and therefore the name - fourteen stages of progress of the soul - is the Fourteen Gunasthäna. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 121 of 398 Page #122 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT CONDUCT C01 - Pancha Paramesthi CO2 - Jain Ascetics: Sädhus and Sadhvis C03 - Jain Lay people: Shrävaks and Shrävikäs C04 - Bhävanäs (Reflections) C05 - Leshyäs (State of Mind and Karmic Stains) C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct C07- Jain Ethics and the Environment C08 - Application of Nonviolence C09 - Jain Yoga C10 - Jainism in Action C11- Living Page 122 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C01 - Pancha Paramesthi C01 Pancha Paramesthi 01 Namaskär Mantra Namo Arihantänam I bow to Arihantas who have achieved enlightenment by overcoming inner enemies and weaknesses, who have attained infinite knowledge and infinite bliss, and showed us the path that brings an end to the cycle of birth and death. Namo Siddhänam I bow to Siddhas who have attained the state of perfection and immortality by liberating themselves of all karma. Namo Ayariyanam I bow to Ächäryas who are the heads of religious orders and who practice the supreme virtues. Namo Uvajjhäyänam I bow to Upadhyays who are well versed in all Ägams and teach them to monks, nuns, and other followers. Namo Loe Savva Sähunam I bow to all the Sädhus and Sädhvis (monks and nuns) that follow the five great vows of conduct for self-purification and inspire us to live a simple life. Eso Pancha Namukkäro, Savva Pävappanäsano This fivefold obeisance eradicates all sins. Mangalänam Cha Savvesim, Padhamam Havai Mangalam. This Navakär Mantra is foremost amongst all that is auspicious. The Navakär Mantra is the most sacred mantra in Jainism and can be recited at any time. While reciting the Navakär Mantra, we bow down and offer obeisance to Arihanta (souls who have reached the state of non-attachment towards worldly matters), Siddhas (liberated souls), Ächäryas (heads of the Jain Sangh, consisting of Sädhus, Sädhvis, Shrävaks, and Shrävikäs), Upädhyäys (those who have mastered and teach scriptures and Jain principles to followers), and all Sädhus and Sädhvis (monks and nuns, who have renounced their worldly attachments). Together, they are called Pancha Paramesthi (five supreme beings). In this mantra, we worship their virtues rather than worshipping any one as an entity. When we recite Navakär Mantra, it reminds us that one must work hard to attain these virtues. This mantra is also called Namaskär or Namokär Mantra because in this Mantra we offer Namaskär (bowing down) to these five supreme beings. Recitation of the Navakär Mantra creates positive vibrations around us and repels negative ones. The ultimate goal of every embodied soul should be to become a liberated soul. To liberate from the cycle of life and death, we ultimately need to renounce worldly affairs by becoming a monk or a nun. By following the right path, we will progress to a higher spiritual state (Kevali or Arihanta), and ultimately proceed to become a Siddha after nirvana (liberation from the cycle of birth and death). The Navakär mantra shows us that path. Navakär Mantra is composed of 68 letters in nine lines. In the first and second line, obeisance is offered to the omniscient Lords. In the third, fourth, and fifth line, obeisance is offered to Guru Mahäräj. The remaining four lines explain the importance of this obeisance. Some Jain traditions do not include the last four lines in Navakär Mantra. There are 108 attributes of the Pancha Paramesthi (Arihanta, Siddha, Ächärya, Upädhyäy, and Sädhu.) The Jain rosary has 108 beads signifying the 108 attributes of the five supreme beings. These 108 attributes are as follows: Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 123 of 398 Page #124 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C01 - Pancha Paramesthi Arihanta Siddha Ächarya Upadhyay Sädhu Total 12 attributes 8 attributes 36 attributes 25 attributes 27 attributes 108 attributes 02 Arihanta The word "Arihanta" has many meanings. The word is derived from the word "Arhat". Those who are revered by heavenly beings and humans are known as Arhants or Arhats. The word Arihanta is also made up of two words: 1) Ari means enemies, and 2) Hant means destroyer. The enemies referred to here are inner desires and passions, namely anger, ego, deceit, and greed. Therefore, Arihanta means destroyer of enemies. The real nature or the qualities of our soul will not be realized or manifested until we eliminate these passions. When an individual destroys all four kinds of defiling karma attached to his soul, he attains the full manifestation of absolute knowledge, Keval-jnän. That person is now known as Kevali (Omniscient) or Jina. An Omniscient lives in realization of infinite knowledge, perception, energy, and bliss. It is essential to be totally free from passions to get rid of four kinds of defiling karma. One becomes omniscient only upon eradicating all four defiling or Ghati karmas. These four defiling Karmas are: Jnänävaraniya (Knowledge Obscuring) Karma Darshanävaraniya (Perception Obscuring) Karma Mohaniya (Deluding) Karma Antaraya (Obstructing) Karma These karma are called Ghäti (destructive) karma because they directly affect the true nature of the soul. When these Karma are destroyed, a person attains the following four infinite qualities (Anant Chatushtay): Keval-inän (Anant-jnän) - Perfect knowledge due to the destruction of all Jnänävaraniya Karma Keval-darshan (Anant-darshan) - Perfect perception due to the destruction of all Darshanävaraniya Karma • Anant-chäritra - Passionless state due to the destruction of all Mohaniya Karma • Anant-virya - Infinite energy due to the destruction of all Antaraya Karma Classification of Arihanta There are two broad classifications of Kevalis: • Sämänya (simple) Kevali • Tirthankar Kevali Upon attaining omniscience, Sämänya Kevalis simply spend the remainder of their lives in meditation until all non-destructive karmas are exhausted. Tirthankar Kevalis, upon attaining omniscience, reestablish the Jain Sangha (fourfold Jain order) consisting of Sädhus, Sädhvis, Shrävaks (male householders), and Shrävikäs (female householders). They devote their lives to preaching and guiding others toward the path leading to liberation. In each half of one time cycle, only 24 Kevalis attain the distinction of Tirthankar. The first Tirthankar of our time period was Bhagawan Rishabhadev, and the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankar was Bhagawan Mahävir. Bhagawan Mahävir lived from 599 BC to 527 B.C. Page 124 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #125 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C01 - Pancha Paramesthi According to some, all Kevalis are called Arihanta because they have destroyed their four inner enemies. However, in the Navakär Mantra, the word Arihanta refers only to Tirthankar Kevali. All those who attain omniscience attain liberation upon nirvana, and these liberated souls are now known as Siddhas. Thus, all kevalis, whether or not they are Arihanta, become a Siddha upon nirvana. The Siddha stage is the ultimate stage for the soul. It is important to understand that the Arihanta stage precedes the Siddha stage for Tirthankars, which means that Siddhas are more spiritually advanced. However, since Siddhas have attained ultimate liberation, we do not have access to them. In the Navakär Mantra, obeisance is first offered to Arihantas because Arihantas devote their remaining lives to preaching and guiding us to the path of liberation. Without their preaching and guidance, nobody can attain liberation. At the time of Nirvana (liberation from the worldly existence), Arihantas shed off the remaining four Aghäti (Non-destructive) karma: Näm (Body Determining) Karma Gotra (Status Determining) Karma Vedaniya (Feeling Pertaining) Karma Ayushya (Life-span Determining) Karma These four karmas do not affect the true nature of the soul; therefore, they are called Aghäti karma. They are related to the physical body of the soul. Tirthankars were human beings like us who went through the cycle of birth and death, accumulating Karma. One of the Karma they earned was the Tirthankar Näm-karma. One acquires this Näm-karma by having an intense desire of spreading the message of compassion towards all living beings, anekäntaväda, non possessiveness and self-control to all living beings. This Näm-karma is determined two lives prior to the life they attain Moksha. This karma matures in the third life, where they attain Keval-jnän. For example, Shäntinäth Bhagawan attained Tirthankar Näm-karma in the tenth life (Bhav) when he was born as Prince Megharath. He attained Keval-jnän in his twelfth life (Bhav) as Shäntinäth. Samavasaran Samavasaran (assembly hall) is a place from where Tirthankars preach religious sermons to the people. The Samavasaran is a three-layered circular structure with a sacred Ashok tree at its center. It is created for a Tirthankar's sermon soon after he attains Keval-jnän. The Samavasaran is either circular or square. There are three enclosures. The lowest one is made of silver, the middle one is made of gold, and the uppermost is made of precious stones like diamonds. The lower most enclosure serves as a parking ground for heavenly beings and human beings, the middle one is meant for animals, and the third and the uppermost is where heavenly beings and human beings listen to the sermon. The sermon is delivered to ascetics, lay people, heavenly gods, and animals. During the sermon, a Tirthankar always faces East, but the Devas (heavenly gods) create three replicas of him facing the other three directions, so that the assembly of heavenly beings, humans and animals can see and listen to a Tirthankar's sermon no matter where they are sitting. Tradition has it that once an Arihanta (Jina) attains Keval-jnän, he gives sermons several times a day in the local language of the people. When the 24 tirthankars of this time period gave sermons, they delivered them in the common language of the time, which was Ardha-magadhi Präkrit. Twelve Attributes of Arihantas Tirthankars have 12 unique attributes called Atishayas. The first four attributes are manifested in the Tirthankar upon attaining Keval-jnän and the later eight attributes, known as Pratihärya, are endowed by heavenly gods once the Tirthankar attains Keval-jnän. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 125 of 398 Page #126 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT Four Main Attributes: • Omniscience • All heavenly gods and humans respect and bow down to Tirthankar ⚫ Thirty five special qualities of Tirthankar's sermon • Absence of all calamities and diseases within 125 Yojan (unit of area measurement) of Tirthankar Some Jain traditions believe the four Anant Chatushtay (Infinite Knowledge, Infinite Perception, Perfect Conduct, Infinite Energy) are the four main attributes rather than aforementioned attributes. Eight Other Attributes endowed by Heavenly Gods (8 Prätihäryas): Simhasan A divine seat from where Arihanta delivers sermons Bhämandal A halo behind Arihanta's head Chämar Chhatra Ashok Vruksha Pushpa-vristi A continuous shower of fragrant flowers Angels waving fans (Chowries) to honor Arihanta's greatness A three tier divine umbrella over the head suggesting the Arihanta's superiority over the three regions - Hell, Earth, and Heaven. A tree under which Arihanta sits Deva Dundubhi Divya Dhvani Celestial music accompanying Arihanta's sermons A divine announcement declaring Arihanta's sermons C01 Pancha Paramesthi Some Jain literature expands on the 12 attributes to 34 attributes of Tirthankars also known as 34 Atishaya. Some differences exist between the Shvetämbar and Digambar traditions in defining these Atishayas. Thirty-four Atishayas of a Tirthankar - Shvetämbar Tradition Four (4) Attributes present at Birth: • Divine and healthy body, which is fragrant and without perspiration Fragrant breath ⚫ Milky white, odorless blood and odorless flesh Invisible food intake (diet) and excreta Page 126 of 398 Eleven (11) Attributes attained at Omniscience or Keval-Jnän: The first eight attributes indicate absence of disease, enmity, calamity, plague, flooding, draught, famine, and political unrest up to a distance of 125 Yojan (an ancient degree of measurement. 1 Yojan = approximately 4 miles). 9th attribute - The Tirthankar's sermon, though delivered in Ardha-Mägadhi language, is understood well by all, including animals, and is heard clearly up to 1 Yojan away. 10th attribute - Aura or Halo (Bhämandal)- A circle of light around Tirthankar's head. 11th attribute A total of 10,000,000 x 10,000,000 (= 100,000 billion) human beings, heavenly beings, and animals can be accommodated within a space of 1 Yojan Squared when a Tirthankar delivers sermons. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #127 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C01 - Pancha Paramesthi Nineteen (19) Attributes created by Heavenly Gods: • Wheel of dharma (Dharma-chakra) that moves with the Tirthankar • Chamar A throne Three layered umbrella over the head of the Tirthankar • A flag (Dharma-Dhajä) • Nine golden lotus flowers to walk upon . A gold, silver, and jewel-laden fort (Samavasaran) for delivering sermons • Visibility of Tirthankar's face from all directions while delivering sermons Ashok tree Thorns face downwards where the Arihant is walking Trees bow down to the Tirthankar Music from divine drums at the time of sermons Cool, soothing breeze Circumambulation of birds • Sprinkling of fragrant water Shower of fragrant flowers Tirthankar's hair and nails do not grow following renunciation Ten million heavenly beings always accompany the Tirthankar • The seasons are always favorable Thirty-four Attributes of a Tirthankar - Digambar Tradition Ten (10) Attributes present at Birth: Most beautiful body • Body full of fragrance • Body devoid of perspiration • Body devoid of excretion Peaceful and soothing voice Unmatched physical strength Milk-like blood 1008 desirable birthmarks and features Proportionally built body • Solid physique Ten (10) Attributes attained at Omniscience or Keval-Jnän: Prosperity exists everywhere in the presence of Arihanta Walking without touching the ground Visibility of Arihanta's face from all four directions Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 127 of 398 Page #128 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C01 - Pancha Paramesthi • Total compassion • Life devoid of obstacles No food required to sustain life Perfect knowledge • No growth of hair and nails • No blinking of eyes • No formation of a shadow of body Fourteen (14) Attributes created by Heavenly Gods: • Speaking a universal language • Enabling all beings to get along with each other Clean air everywhere Clear skies Fruits, crops, and flowers flourish year-round irrespective of season Miles and miles of neat and clean grounds Lotuses made from gold under Tirthankar's feet Sounds of reverential praises in the skies around Tirthankar A slow and fragrant breeze Fragrant rain Removal of all potential obstacles from the land Contentment everywhere Movement of the Dharma-chakra (symbolic wheel of religion) in Tirthankar's Samavasaran Presence of eight embellishments: Chhatra, Chämar, Dhajä (flag), bell, Kalash (sacred vessel), fan, swastika, and mirror around the Tirthankar 03 Siddha As explained in the section of Arihanta, when an individual destroys all four kinds of defiling karma (Ghäti Karma) attached to his soul, he attains the full manifestation of absolute knowledge, Keval-jnän. That person is now known as Kevali (Omniscient) or Jina. All omniscient ultimately become Siddha when they exhaust the remaining four destructive karmas upon attaining nirvana. Siddhas are liberated souls that are free from the cycle of birth and death. These liberated souls stay permanently in a place called Siddha-shilä, which is located at the top of the universe. They have reached the highest state, which is liberation, and have attained Moksha. They have eradicated all their Karmas and do not accumulate any new Karma, thus freeing themselves forever from the cycle of birth and death (Akshaya-sthiti). A liberated soul has infinite bliss (Anant-sukha), infinite knowledge (Anant-jnän), infinite perception (Anant-darshan), and infinite energy (Anant-virya). These souls have the ability to know everything that is happening now, that has happened in the past, and that will happen in the future. They are only knowers and observers but not doers. They have no desires and are completely detached from any sense of craving or aversion (Anant-chäritra, Vitaragatva). Despite the fact that all Siddhas retain a unique identity, they are equal (Aguru-Laghutva) and formless (Arupitva). Page 128 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #129 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT Eight Attributes of Siddha Anant-jnän Anant-darshan Anant, Avyäbädha-sukha Anant-chäritra Akshaya-sthiti Arupitva Aguru-laghutva Anant-virya Infinite knowledge Infinite perception Infinite, uninterrupted bliss Infinite perfect conduct Immortality Formlessness Equal-ness with other Siddhas Infinite energy 04 Acharya Ächärya is the spiritual head of the Jain congregation (Sangha) in the absence of Tirthankar. The teachings of Tirthankar are carried on by the Ächäryas. They are our spiritual leaders. The responsibility of spiritual (not social or economic) welfare of the entire Jain community rests on the shoulders of the Ächäryas. Before reaching this state, one has to do an in depth study and achieve mastery of the Jain scriptures (Ägams). In addition to acquiring a high level of spiritual excellence, they also lead the congregation of monks, nuns, and laypeople. They have knowledge of various languages and other philosophies and religions of the world. They have the following 36 attributes: Thirty-six Attributes of Acharya - Shvetämbar Tradition Five Attributes - Control over pleasures or pain derived from five sense organs C01 Pancha Paramesthi Touch, Taste, Smell, Sight, Hearing Ächärya Mahäräj remains in perfect equanimity whether these sensory experiences are favorable or unfavorable. Nine Attributes - Guard against sensual pleasure to observe celibacy (Brahmacharya) ⚫ They do not stay near or in a place where persons of the opposite sex, eunuchs, or animals live. ⚫ They do not stay alone in a place with a person of the opposite sex. • They do not observe a person of the opposite sex. ⚫ They do not sit at the same place where a person of the opposite sex has been sitting until a certain amount of time has elapsed. They do not listen to the conversations of couples and do not live in a place where they must share a common wall with a couple. They do not think about any sensual pleasures or experiences from their life before renunciation. They do not consume intoxicating food or liquids. ⚫ They do not indulge in tasty foods and eat simple foods in moderation. ⚫ They do not adorn the body and wear simple clothes. Four Attributes - Complete control over four passions (Kashayas) ⚫ Krodha (Anger) ⚫ Mäna (Ego) ⚫ Mäyä (Deceit) Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 129 of 398 Page #130 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C01 - Pancha Paramesthi • Lobha (Greed) Five Attributes - Observation of five great vows (Mahä-vratas) Ächärya Mahäräj observes these great vows and does not ask, encourage, or appreciate anybody who indulges in any activity which is contrary to these vows. Pränätipät Viraman Vrata (Nonviolence): Complete and total commitment to nonviolence in thoughts, words, and actions Mrushävada Viraman Vrata (Truthfulness): To speak only harmless truth Adattädäna Viraman Vrata (Non-stealing): To take only those things which are duly given Maithuna Viraman Vrata (Celibacy): To observe complete celibacy Parigraha Viraman Vrata (Non-possessiveness): To own no money, property, or ornaments. They should own no more than the bare necessity of clothing and pots to accept alms. Five Attributes - Observation of five codes of conduct (Achär) Jnänächär (Code of conduct regarding right knowledge): To study and teach scriptures, to write and encourage others to write and publish scriptures, and to take proper and due care of religious books. Darshanächär (Code of conduct regarding right faith in Jina): To understand the preaching of Jina without any doubts and to respect and honor Jina and the path to liberation. Chariträchär (Code of right conduct regarding ascetic life): To observe ascetic regulations and restrictions properly and to help other monks do the same. Tapächär (Code of right conduct regarding observation of austerities): To observe austerities and to encourage and help others observe austerities. There are 12 different ways to observe austerities to shed karma. The austerities related to voluntary endurance of hardships and restrictions of bodily pleasures are known as external austerities (Bähya Tapa). The austerities of inner discipline are known as internal austerities (Abhyantar Tapa). Viryachär (Codes of conduct regarding mental, verbal, and physical abilities): To use mental, verbal, and physical abilities properly and constantly engage in spiritual activities without a moment of laziness. Five Attributes - Observation of five kinds of carefulness (Samitis) • Irya Samiti (Carefulness in movements to avoid any Himsä). • Bhasha Samiti (Carefulness of speech so as to speak only harmless truth and to speak only what is necessary). Eshana Samiti (Carefulness in accepting alms (Gochari) to avoid the 42 faults of accepting alms). Ädäna-Bhand-Matt-Nikshepana Samiti (Carefulness in handling clothes, pots, and pans used for alms). Page 130 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #131 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C01 - Pancha Paramesthi • Pärishthä-panika Samiti (Carefulness in disposal of bodily waste) Three Attributes - Observation of restrains of thought, speech, and body (Guptis) • Mana Gupti (control over mind) • Vachan Gupti (control over speech) Käya Gupti (control over body) Summary of the 36 attributes of Acharya Mahäräj: Control over five sense organs Observance of celibacy in nine ways Freedom from four passions Commitment to five great vows Observation of five codes of conduct Carefulness in five activities Control over mind, speech, and body Thirty-six Attributes of Acharya -Digambar Tradition Six Attributes - Six Bähya Tapa (External Austerities) Anashan Not eating for a set period of time Unodari Eating less than needed Vritti-sankshep Eating within the limits of predetermined restrictions Material - Eating only a certain number of items Area - Eating only within the limits of a certain area [ Time - Eating only once at certain time Mode - Eating food obtained or made only by certain means Rasa Tyag Eating non-tasty food; eg.- Äyambil Käya-klesha Penance, tolerating physical pain voluntarily Sanlinata Staying in a forlorn place and occupying minimum space Vinay Six Attributes - Six Abhyantar Tapa (Internal Austerities) Präyashchitta Repentance or remorse Respect for others Veyavachcham Selfless service to monks, nuns, and the needy Swadhyay Study of religious scriptures Dhyana Meditation Käyotsarga Giving up physical activities and staying absorbed in the soul Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 131 of 398 Page #132 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT Ten Attributes - Ten Supreme Virtues Kshamä Forgiveness Märdava Humility Arjava Shaucha Satya Sanyam Tapa Tyäg Akinchanya Brahmacharya Tapächär Viryächär Straightforwardness Content - absence of greed Truth Restraint of all senses Austerities Renunciation Non-possessiveness Five Attributes - Five Ächärs (Codes of Conduct) Darshanächär Codes of Acquiring Right Faith Jnänächär Chäriträchär Celibacy Page 132 of 398 Codes of Acquiring Right Knowledge Codes of Acquiring Right Conduct Codes of Austerities Codes of Exercising Energy or Vigor Six Attributes - Six Ävashyaks (Essential Duties) Prayer to Tirthankars Devapujä Gurupästi Devotion and service to Gurus Swädhyay Studying of Scriptures Sanyam Self-restraints Tapa Penance Däna Imparting Knowledge and Protection of Life) Three Attributes - Three Guptis (Control) Control over mind Mano Gupti Vachan Gupti Käya Gupti Control over speech Control over body 05 Upadhyay A Sädhu, who has mastered the Jain scriptures (Ägams) and philosophical systems, is given the rank of an Upadhyay. They teach Jain scriptures to other ascetics and laypeople. Upädhyäys possess 25 attributes. These 25 attributes are the symbolic representation of the 25 Jain scriptures they study. C01 Pancha Paramesthi Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #133 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C01 - Pancha Paramesthi Vow Twenty-Five Attributes of Upadhyay • 11 canonical texts (Anga Agam) compiled by Ganadhars, who were the immediate disciples of Tirthankar • 12 canonical texts (Upanga Agam) compiled by Shruta Kevalis • 1 scripture that enumerates 70 ways to observe code of conduct • 1 scripture that enumerates 70 ways to observe and perform rituals and activities According to Digambar Tradition, Upadhyay has knowledge of 11 Anga Agam (same for all Jain sects) and 14 Digambar Anga-bähya Agams 06 Sädhus and Sadhvis When householders want to become detached from the worldly aspects of life and want spiritual uplift, they renounce the worldly life and become Sädhus (monks) or Sädhvis (nuns). Before becoming a Sädhu or a Sadhvi, a layperson must stay with Sädhus or Sädhvis to understand their lifestyles and study religion for several months. When they feel confident that they will be able to live the life of a monk or a nun, they inform the Acharya that they are ready for initiation. If the Acharya is convinced that they are capable of following the vows of Sädhus and Sadhvis, he prepares them for Dikshä. Dikshä is an initiation ceremony which a householder must perform before becoming a monk or a nun. At the time of Dikshä, Sädhus and Sadhvis commit to the five major vows for the rest of their lives. Their lives are directed towards the upliftment of their souls to the state of liberation. Sädhus and Sadhvis follow the five great vows, which are explained below: Meaning Explanation Ahimsä Mahävrata Nonviolence Not to commit any type of violence Satya Mahävrata Truth Not to indulge in any type of lie Asteya Mahävrata Non-stealing Not to take anything not given properly Brahmacharya Celibacy Not to indulge in any sensual activities Mahävrata Aparigraha Mahävrata Non-possessive Not to acquire more than what is needed to maintain day-to-day life When monks and nuns commit to these five vows, they promise to never break these vows and to never ask or encourage anybody else to break these vows - whether in thought, speech, or action. Twenty-seven Attributes of Sädhus - Shvetämbar Tradition Five great vows as explained above To protect five one-sensed beings found in water, fire, earth, air, and plants, and group of moving living beings known as Tras beings (includes as one group all two-sensed to fivesensed living beings) To control pleasures derived from any of the five senses: touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing To observe five types of carefulness To control mind, speech, and body To not eat before sunrise and after sunset To forgive others To avoid greed To endure hardship To endure suffering 5 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 133 of 398 Page #134 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C01 - Pancha Paramesthi To be introspective To keep the heart pure Some scriptures mention following 27 attributes of Sädhu and Sadhvi: Five Great Vows (Mahä-vrata) Control of 5 senses Devoid of Kashaya: Anger, Ego, Deceit, Greed Guptis - Control of mind, speech and body (1)Bhäva or Reflection (Dharma and Shukla Dhyana), (2)Karan or Activities (following prescribed activities and regulations) and (3) Yoga (body, speech and mind activities) 3 Jewels: Darshan, Jnän, and Charitra Forgiveness Samvega - Disinterest in worldly affairs and interest in liberation Conquering of Parishaha - Enduring hardships and suffering with equanimity Sanlekhana - Endurance and fearlessness towards death and associated pains, and also acceptance of voluntary death Twenty Seven Attributes of Sädhus - Digambar Tradition Attributes of the Digambar (sky-clad) monks vary somewhat, but they have one significant requirement that male monks must not wear any clothes. • Observation of five great vows: Mahä-vrata • Observation of five kinds of carefulness (Samitis) Control of five senses Observation of six essentials (Six Ävashyaks - same as in Digambar Acharyas) 6 other attributes: Kesha-lochan Plucking of own hair Asnäna No bathing Bhumi Shayan Sleeping on the floor Adanta-dhovan No brushing of teeth Uttisthan-ähär Sevan Eating food in standing posture Ekabhukti Eating only once a day Some Jains that consider twenty-eight attributes for monks add not wearing any clothes as one more attribute. When we recite Navakär Mantra, we should remember the 108 virtues of five supreme beings and strive to attain those virtues. When someone is determined to attain those virtues, he or she will naturally commit fewer sinful activities. In addition, simply engaging in prayer will help eradicate bad karmas. This is why the sixth line of Navakär Mantra explains that offering obeisance to the five supreme beings destroys sins. Eradication of sins and purification of soul are the most important steps for the spiritual upliftment of the soul towards its journey to salvation. The last line in the Page 134 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #135 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C01 - Pancha Paramesthi Navakär Mantra states that this sutra is the most blissful and auspicious sutra in the entire universe. The Navakär Mantra has stayed in its original version since the beginning of time and will stay that way forever. It contains the real essence of all 14 Purvas. One should recite Navakär Mantra upon waking up in morning, before going to bed, before meals, before starting any new activity, and preferably all the time. One who dies while reciting and/or listening to Navakär Mantra will be reborn as a heavenly being or a human. There is a lot of deeper meaning within the Navakär Mantra, so it is important to take time to understand the lines as you say them. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 135 of 398 Page #136 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT CO2 - Jain Ascetics: Sädhus and Sadhvis CO2 - Jain Ascetics: Sädhus and Sadhvis 01 Introduction The Jain Sangha is made up of Sädhus (monk), Sadhvis (nun), Shrävaks (layman), and Shrävikäs (laywoman). Shrävaks and Shrävikäs have to carry out their duties as a worldly men and women. They also have responsibilities towards their families and Sangha in general. They are required to take care of Sädhus and Sadhvis with regards to their food, health, and living places. They, therefore, have to have a certain level of worldly attachments. However, when a person renounces all their worldly attachments by taking Dikshä, he becomes a monk or a nun. The man is now known as a Sädhu and the woman is now known as a Sädhvi. Sädhus and Sadhvis are completely detached from social and worldly activities. They spend their lives spiritually uplifting their souls and spiritually leading lay people towards the path preached by Tirthankar Bhagawän. When they get initiated into the life of Sädhus and Sadhvis, they must take five major vows and live strictly in accordance with those vows. These five major vows are known as Five Mahä-Vratas. Right faith, Right knowledge, and Right conduct, known as Ratna Trayi, are the three essentials for attaining liberation. In order to acquire them, one must observe the five vows. A vrata or vow is a specific code of conduct. In Jain scriptures, the term 'Vrata' has been defined as: "A religious rule of behavior observed with determination for a particular or indefinite period. It always indicates aversion and abstinence from doing foul and shameful acts. It reveals an inclination and conduct towards doing good and virtuous acts." The complete renunciation of worldly attachments is called Mahä-vrata (major vows), practiced by the Sädhus and Sadhvis, and the partial renunciation of worldly attachments is called Anu-vrata, (minor vows) practiced by Shrävaks and Shrävikäs. 02 Mahä-vratas (Major Vows) According to the Achäränga Sutra, the following are the five Maha-vratas for Sädhus and Sadhvis: 1. Ahimsa Mahävrata (Nonviolence) Ahimsa Mahävrata is the renunciation of the hurting, destroying or causing pain of all living beings, whether the living being is mobile or immobile. It is the abstinence from killing living beings, causing others to do it, or feeling good about it. After taking this vow, one must confess, blame, repent, and exempt himself of these sins that are committed in the three modes of mind, speech, and body. 2. Satya Mahävrata (Truth) Satya Mahävrata is the renunciation of all vices of false speech arising from anger, greed, fear, or enjoyment. It is the abstinence from speaking lies, causing others to do it, or feeling good about it. After taking this vow, one must confess, blame, repent, and exempt himself of these sins that are committed in the three modes of mind, speech, and body. 3. Achaurya Mahävrata (Non-stealing) Achaurya Mahävrata is the renunciation of taking that which is not given, irrelevant of size, amount, or value of that which is taken. It is the abstinence from taking what is not given, causing others to do it, or feeling good about it. After taking this vow, one must confess, blame, repent, and exempt himself of these sins that are committed in the three modes of mind, speech, and body. Brahmacharya Mahävrata (Celibacy/Chastity) Brahmacharya Mahävrata is the renunciation of all sensuous pleasurable activities of any sort. It is the abstinence from enjoying sensuality, causing others to do it, or feeling good about it. After taking this vow, one must confess, blame, repent, and exempt himself of these sins that are committed in the three modes of mind, speech, and body. 4 Bed Page 136 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #137 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C02 Jain Ascetics: Sädhus and Sädhvis 5. Aparigraha Mahävrata (Non-attachment/Non-possessiveness) Aparigraha Mahävrata is the renunciation of all attachments, irrelevant of size, amount, or value. It is the abstinence from having such attachments, causing others to have such attachments, or feeling good about such attachments. After taking this vow, one must confess, blame, repent, and exempt himself of these sins that are committed in the three modes of mind, speech, and body. When a person renounces the worldly life and is initiated into monkhood or nunhood, the man is called a Sädhu, Shraman, or Muni, and the woman is called a Sädhvi, Shramani, or Äryä. Their renunciation is total, which means they are completely detached from social and worldly activities and they do not take any part in those activities anymore. Instead, they spend their time in spiritually uplifting their souls and guiding householders such as us on how to uplift our own souls. In summary, while taking these vows, they say, "O Lord Arihanta! I will not commit the sins of violence, express falsehood, steal, enjoy sensual pleasures, or be possessive. I will not commit these sins by speech, thought or physical deeds, nor will I assist or order anyone to commit these sins. I will not approve or endorse anyone committing such sins. Oh Lord! I hereby take a sacred and solemn vow that throughout my life, I will follow these five major vows and strictly follow the code of conduct laid out for Sädhus and Sädhvis." Therefore, Jain Sädhus and Sädhvis never intentionally cause harm or violence to any living being. They live according to the pledge that they should not harm even the tiniest creatures. They always speak the absolute truth. They do not lie on account of fear, desire, anger or deceptive intentions. Without the permission of the owner, they do not take even the smallest thing, such as a straw. They observe the vow of celibacy very strictly. They do not touch members of the opposite sex, even children. If members of the opposite sex touch them by mistake or ignorance, they must undergo a ritual of repentance (Präyashchitta) for self-purification. Jain Sädhus and Sädhvis do not keep money with them. They do not own or have control over any wealth, houses, or other properties. They limit their necessities to the lowest amount possible and do not have any attachments towards these necessities. 03 Rules of Conduct for Specific Activities In addition to the five great vows, Sädhus and Sädhvis follow many other rules of conduct. They do not eat or drink from 48 minutes before sunset until 48 minutes after sunrise. They drink only boiled water. They meditate, perform rituals, and study scriptures most of the day. They observe fasts and various penances according to their physical capacity. They keep themselves apart from worldly affairs. Gochari (Alms) Jain Sädhus and Sädhvis do not cook their food, do not ask others to prepare special food for them, and do not accept any food which is prepared specifically for them. They go to different laypeople and accept a small portion of vegetarian food from each house. This practice is known as Gochari. Just as cows graze the top part of grass by moving from place to place, Jain monks and nuns do not take all their food from one house, so that person offering them food will have enough left for his family members and will not need to cook again. The process of cooking involves subtle violence in the form of heating a fire, chopping vegetables, using water, etc. Sädhus or Sädhvis do not want to be the cause of any violence. Also, they go inside the house where the food is being cooked or kept so they can visually assess the quantity of food and accept only a small portion. This way, they can also make sure that the food ingredients and the method of cooking is within the limits of their vows. However, Digambar monks do not keep any possessions. They do not even keep any utensils required to bring alms. So, on each day, they take food (Ähär) from only one house. They eat and drink only once a day, standing in one position. They fold both hands together so that a layman can put a small amount of food in their hands until they have finished eating. Vihär (Travel) Jain monks and nuns always walk barefoot. They do not use any vehicles for traveling. Regardless of whether it is cold weather or scorching hot, whether the road is rough, unpaved, or full of thorns, whether it is the burning hot desert sand or sun-baked asphalt, they do not wear any footwear at any Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 137 of 398 Page #138 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C02 Jain Ascetics: Sädhus and Sädhvis time, to avoid crushing the living beings on the ground. When they travel from place to place, they preach religion and provide proper spiritual guidance to people. They do not stay more than a few days in any one place except during the rainy season, which is about four months in duration. The reason they do not stay anywhere permanently or for a long period of time in one place is to avoid developing an attachment for material things and the people around them. Sädhus and Sädhvis generally do not go out at night. The place where they stay is called Upäshray or Paushadha Shälä. They may stay in places other than the Upäshray if those places are offered to them by the owners, are suitable to the practice of their disciplined life, and do not disturb or impede the code of conduct. Loch (Plucking of hair) Jain Sädhus and Sädhvis pluck their hair at the time of initiation; Dikshä, and twice a year thereafter or at least once a year before Paryushan. This is called Kesha-lochan or Loch. It is also considered one kind of austerity where one bears the pain of plucking hair in complete equanimity. Clothing As mentioned earlier, Digambar monks do not wear any clothes. Shvetämbar monks wear unstitched or minimally stitched white cotton clothes. A loincloth, which reaches to just below knees, is called a Cholapattak. Another cloth covering the upper part of the body is called Pangarani Uttariya Vastra. A cloth that drapes over left shoulder and reaches above the knee is called Kämli. They also carry a bed sheet and a mat to sit on. Shvetämbar monks also have a Muhapatti, a square or rectangular piece of cloth of a prescribed measurement, either in their hand or tied on their face covering the mouth. They also have an Ogho or Rajoharan (a broom of woolen threads) to gently clear insects from where they sit or walk. Digambar monks have a Morpichhi (peacock feathers) instead of an Ogho and a Kamandal (small wooden pot) in their hands to carry water for cleansing. This practice may vary among different sects of Jains, but the essential principle remains the same: to limit needs. Conferring a Title Jain Sädhus and Sädhvis devote their lives to spiritual activities such as meditation, spiritual study, self-discipline, and preaching. When they reach a higher level of spiritual attainment, their Guru Maharaja confers upon them special titles. Title of Panyäs and Ganipad To attain the status of Ganipad, a Sädhu must have in-depth knowledge of the Ägam Bhagavati Sutra and some other Ägams. To attain the title of Panyäs-pad, a Sädhu should have attained comprehensive knowledge of all aspects of the Jain Ägams. Title of Upadhyay This title is given to a Sädhu who has mastered all Ägams, scriptures, and all other philosophical systems. They teach Jain scriptures to other Sädhus, Sädhvis, and lay people. Title of Ächärya Ächärya is the spiritual head of the Jain congregation (Sangha) in the absence of Tirthankar. This is the highest rank a Sädhu can ever achieve. The teachings of the Tirthankars are carried on by the Ächäryas. They are our spiritual leaders. Ächäryas bear the responsibility for the spiritual well-being of the entire Jain Sangha. Before reaching this state, one must do an in-depth study and gain mastery of the Jain scriptures- Ägams. In addition to acquiring a high level of spiritual excellence, they also lead the congregation of monks, nuns, and laypeople. They should also know various other languages, philosophies, ideologies, and religions. Title of Pravartini This title is given only to Sädhvis after attaining the knowledge of certain Ägam Sutras such as Uttarädhyayan Sutra, Ächäränga Sutra and Das (ten) Payannä Sutra. Page 138 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #139 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C02 Jain Ascetics: Sädhus and Sädhvis 04 Summary Jain Sädhus and Sädhvis are unique among other religious faiths in how they lead very rigorous ascetic lives. Their lives are an exceptional example of non-possessiveness. Their entire life is dedicated to the spiritual upliftment of theirs' and others' souls. They bestow their blessings on all by saying 'Dharma Läbha' (May you attain spiritual prosperity). Sometimes, they bless devotees by putting Väsakshep (scented sandalwood powder) on their heads and saying "May you cross the ocean of life and death". They bless everyone, irrespective of caste, creed, gender, age, wealth, and social status. They show the path of a righteous and disciplined life to everyone through discourses, discussions, seminars and camps. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 139 of 398 Page #140 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT CO3 - Jain Lay people: Shrävaks and Shrävikäs C03 - Jain Lay people: Shrävaks and Shrävikäs 01 Introduction Along with the path of liberation consisting of right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct, Jainism has also defined rules of conduct to be observed by its followers. The rules are designed so that everyone will be in a position to follow them. Accordingly, the rules have been divided into two categories: those prescribed for the householders and those prescribed for the ascetics. Naturally, the rules for the laity are less rigid than the rules for the ascetics. This is because the laity has not renounced the world. They have to look after their family and have social responsibilities. On the other hand, the ascetics have given up all worldly pleasures and family relationships, and have adopted the five great vows (Mahävratas). Jain ethics outlines the following twelve vows of limited nature to be carried out by lay people. Every Jain should adopt these vows according to one's individual capacity and circumstances with the intent to ultimately adopt the 5 Mahävratas (great vows). Of these twelve vows, the first five are main vows of limited nature (Anu Vratas). They are somewhat easier to follow in comparison with great vows (Mahä Vratas). The next three vows are known as merit vows (Guna Vratas), because they enhance and purify the effect of the five main vows. These vows aid in governing the external conduct of an individual. The last four are disciplinary vows (Shikshä Vratas), intended to encourage the performance of the householder's religious duties. They govern one's internal life and are expressed in a life marked by charity. They are preliminary to the discipline of an ascetic's life. The three merit vows (Gunavrata) and four disciplinary vows (Shikshä vratas) together are known as the seven vows of virtuous conduct (Shilä). During Pratikraman, lay people reflect on minor violations (Atichär) of these vows that occurred in the past. They ask for forgiveness for past minor violations which may have occurred knowingly or unknowingly. He/she would reflect on each of these violations so that in the future they would not repeat the same errors and be more aware if such circumstances arise These vows are to be followed in thought, action, and speech, and others should be encouraged to follow them as well. The layperson should be very careful while observing and following these limited vows. These vows, being limited vows, may still leave great scope for the commitment of sin and possession of property. The twelve vows are described as follows: 02 Vratas For Shrävaks and Shrävikäs (Twelve Vows of Laity) Five Main Vows of Limited Nature (Anu-Vratas): Name Scriptural Name Meaning 01 Ahimsa Anuvrata Sthul Pränätipät Viraman-vrata Limited Vow of Nonviolence 02 Satya Anuvrata Sthul Mrushäväda Viraman-vrata Limited Vow of Truthfulness 03 Achaurya Anuvrata Sthul Adattädäna Viraman-vrata Limited Vow of Non-stealing 04 Brahmacharya Svadärä-santosh Limited Vow of Celibacy Anuvrata 05 Aparigraha Anuvrata Ichchhä Parimana or Parigraha Limited Vow of Non-possessiveness Parimäna Vrata Three Merit/Supporting Vows (Guna Vratas): 06 Dig Parimäna Vrata Restraints of Geographical Limitations/Vow of Limited Area of Activity 07 Bhoga-Upabhoga Consumption Restraints/Vow of Limited Use of Consumable and NonVrata Consumable items 08 Anartha-Danda Vrata Vow of Avoidance of purposeless sins/activities Page 140 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #141 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT CO3 - Jain Lay people: Shrävaks and Shrävikäs Four Disciplinary Vows (Shikshä Vratas): 09 Sämäyika Vrata 48 Minutes of Meditation and equanimity/ Vow of Equanimity and Meditation for limited duration 10 Desävakäsika Vrata Stricter Geographical Limitations/ Vow of activity within limited space and duration 11 Paushadha Vrata Practicing the life of a Monk/Vow of ascetic's life for a limited duration 12 Atithi Samvibhag Vrata Vow of Charity Five Anuvratas (Minor Vows) 01. Ahimsa Anuvrata (Limited Vow of Nonviolence): "Ahimsa Parmo Dharma" signifies that nonviolence is the supreme religion. Among these five vows, nonviolence (Ahimsa) is the cardinal principle of Jainism. The concept of Ahimsä is based on the fact that every living being wishes to be happy and tries to avoid pain. Therefore, in order to avoid giving pain, we should refrain from hurting others.2500 years ago, Lord Mahävir extended the concept of non-violence to all living beings. He urged everyone to be peaceful with all, even one-sensed beings. Every living being has a right to exist and it is necessary to live with all other living beings in perfect harmony and peace. As long as we live, we hurt many living beings. The air that we breathe and the water that we drink contain small organisms. Even the vegetarian food that we eat is prepared from plant lives, which are one-sensed beings. It is impossible to observe complete non-violence, because indulging in some sort of violence is inevitable for survival. Acharya Umäsväti defines violence as 'Pramattayogät Präna Vyaparopanam Himsä'. It means that the deprival of life because of non-vigilance is violence. Lord Mahävir said: "One should not injure, subjugate, enslave, torture, or kill any living being including animals, insects, plants, and vegetation." In this vow, a person must not intentionally hurt any living being, whether they are plants, animals, human etc. A person should not hurt the feelings of any living being either, whether it is by thought, word, or action, by himself or herself or through others, or by approving such an act committed by somebody else. Intention in this case applies to selfish motives, sheer pleasure, and even avoidable negligence. In Jain scriptures, the nature of violence is classified in four categories: Intentional/Premeditated To injure or kill any living being knowingly Violence Common Violence To commit violence towards movable living beings while carrying out domestic activities like cooking, cleaning, building a house, etc. Vocational Violence To incur violence during the execution of one's work in society Defensive Violence To commit intentional violence in defense of one's own life Intentional/premeditated violence is totally prohibited for everyone. Although common violence may be unavoidable for survival, one should still attempt to minimize violence in all daily activities such as preparing food, cleaning, etc. This attempt to minimize violence provides the basis for the Jain householder's practice of filtering drinking water, vegetarianism, not eating meals at night, and abstinence from alcohol. One's agricultural, industrial, or occupational living activities may also involve injury to life, but the injury should be kept to a minimum, through careful measures and precautions. If possible, a householder should choose an occupation that minimizes violence to Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 141 of 398 Page #142 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C03 - Jain Lay people: Shrävaks and Shrävikäs other living beings. Sometimes, however, a householder may not have a choice but to use violence defensively and vocationally. A person may use force, if necessary, in the defense of his or her country, society, family, life, property, and religious institute. Violence committed without intention, through mere negligence, should also be avoided. At the end of the day, violence caused unintentionally is also a sin. We should always be remorseful for any violence we may have inflicted upon other living beings, whether it was avoidable or not. This is the essence of religion. It embraces the welfare of all living beings including animals, insects, vegetation, beings in the air and water, etc. The Jain faith goes one radical step further and declares unequivocally that wasting things and creating pollution are also acts of violence. Nonviolence is also based upon the positive quality of universal love and compassion. One who accepts this ideal cannot be indifferent to the suffering of others. As believers of Ahimsa, we cannot hurt others, ourselves, or show insensitivity to the pain and misery that may be caused by other factors. A true observer of Ahimsa has to develop a sympathetic attitude. He or she should get rid of the feelings of anger, arrogance, animosity, jealousy, and hostility that degrade the mind and generate violent instincts. Mental tortures by way of harsh words and evil thoughts are considered violence in Jainism. On the other side, to pursue the vow of nonviolence actively, one must help the needy, care for and share with others, and show kindness to everyone Ahimsa also has a deeper meaning in the context of one's spiritual advancement. Violence imposed upon others leads to the acquisition of new karma, which hinders the soul's spiritual progress. In other words, violence towards others is violence to one's own soul because it impedes one's own spiritual progress. Non-violence is the sheer anchor of Jainism. It is also the main contribution of Jainism to humanity. It includes all other vows: truth, non-stealing, chastity and non-attachment. 02. Satya Anuvrata (Limited Vow of Truthfulness): This vow is about refraining from malicious lies, which are uttered with an evil intention and with the knowledge that the statement is false. In this vow, a person avoids all types of lies, including giving false evidence, cheating others, giving false witnesses in or out of court, and forging fake documents. Evading taxes and cheating in business is also a form of falsehood. The secret to earning wealth is honesty and morality. The roots of one's own happiness, peace, mental health, and welfare lie in morality. Falsehood can also be in the form of denial of a fact, the affirmation of that which does not exist, calling a thing something other than what it is, and statements that are destructive to others. On the positive side, it also requires refraining from speaking any truth that may cause suffering to others. If the truth has the potential to harm others or hurt their feelings, it is better to remain silent. A householder should minimize the minor violations to this vow related to self-defense, protection of his family and country, business, and job-related circumstances. He should be fully aware of these Atichärs (violations of the vow) and repent them continuously. Truth should be observed in speech, mind, and actions. One should not utter a lie, ask others to do so, or approve of such activities. Anger, greed, fear, pride, hatred, and jokes are the breeding grounds of untruth. Speaking the truth requires moral courage. Only those who have conquered greed, fear, anger, jealousy, ego, and frivolity can speak the truth. This vow is about more than abstaining from falsehood; it is seeing the world in its real form and adapting to that reality. The vow of truth puts a person in touch with his or her inner strength. 03. Achaurya / Asteya Anuvrata (Limited Vow of Non-stealing): Stealing consists of taking the property of others without their consent or by unjust or immoral methods. This vow prohibits the acquisition of anything that may be unattended or unclaimed. Page 142 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #143 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT CO3 - Jain Lay people: Shrävaks and Shrävikäs The householder should refrain from smuggling, buying or accepting stolen property, using false weights and measures, or substituting inferior items for the originals. Black-marketing, smuggling, evading taxes, changing documents, and plagiarizing are also various forms of theft. One should observe this vow very strictly and should not touch even a worthless thing that does not belong to him or her. When accepting alms or aid, one should not take more than what is needed. To take or to earn more than one's need is also considered theft in Jainism. Using any resource beyond one's needs and misuse of any part of nature is considered a form of theft. The vow of non-stealing insists that one should be very honest in actions, thoughts, and speech. One must not cheat and use illegal means in acquiring worldly things by himself or herself, acquiring such items through others, or by approving such acts committed by others. 04. Brahmacharya Anuvrata (Limited Vow of Celibacy / Chastity): In a spiritual sense, the word Brahmacharya means maintaining equanimity by being free from attachments and aversions. In a practical sense, it means celibacy and avoidance of sensual activities. It is very easy to become privy to basic instincts, but for the sake of one's own health, well-being, and self-control, it is important to remain celibate before marriage. As an adult, one may lead a family life by getting married, earning money, raising children, and fulfilling social obligations. Marriage is devised mainly for providing a sheltered sex life and procreation. Even for the householder, an unrestrained or lustful married life is not encouraged. Though mythology is filled with tales of polygamy, only monogamous relationships are encouraged. Premarital and extramarital relations, indulging in illicit sensual activities, intensifying passions by consuming intoxicating substances like drugs and alcohol, watching provocative movies, reading provocative books and magazines, and listening to provocative songs and conversations are all activities one should avoid. The basic intent of this vow is to conquer passion and to prevent the waste of energy. This vow is meant to impart a sense of serenity to the soul. 05. Aparigraha Anuvrata (Non-possession / Non-attachment): Non-possession is the fifth limited vow. Until a person knows that happiness and peace that come from within, he or she tries to fill his or her emptiness and insecurity with material acquisitions. Jainism believes that the more wealth a person possesses, the more he or she is likely to commit sin to acquire and maintain possessions, and in the long run he or she will be unhappy. Wealth creates attachment, which results in continuous greed, jealousy, selfishness, ego, hatred, and violence. Lord Mahävir has said that desires have no limit. An attachment to worldly objects results in the bondage of karma, so desires should be reduced and consumption levels should be kept within reasonable limits. One must impose a limit on one's needs, acquisitions, and possessions, including land, real estate, goods, valuables, animals, and money. The surplus should be used for the common good. One must also limit every day usage of the number of food items and other articles. The Jain principle of limited possession for householders leads towards equitable distribution of wealth and comforts in society. Generously giving charitable donations and one's own time for community projects are a part of a Jain householder's obligations. This sense of social obligation cultivated from religious teachings has led Jains to establish and maintain innumerable schools; colleges; hospitals; clinics; orphanages; relief and rehabilitation camps for the handicapped, old, sick and disadvantaged; and hospitals for birds and animals. Non-possession and non-attachment are to be observed by speech, mind, and actions. One should not possess excessive amounts of items, ask others to do so, or approve of such activities. Non-possession, like non-violence, affirms the oneness of all living beings and is beneficial to an individual in his/her spiritual growth and to society. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 143 of 398 Page #144 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT CO3 - Jain Lay people: Shrävaks and Shrävikäs Three Guna Vratas (Merit Vows) 06. Dig-Parimäna Vrata (Vow of Limited Area of Activity): This vow limits one's worldly activities to certain areas in all ten directions: north, south, east, west, north-east, north-west, south-east, south-west, upwards and downwards. He or she sets definite boundaries and simply limits the radius of his or her movements to a specific number of miles. By doing this, he or she can at least prevent himself or herself from committing violence in the area beyond the radius they have set for themselves. The main purpose is to reduce transportation and other incidental activities that involve unnecessary violence as well as other avoidable pitfalls. If this vow is observed, there will be a considerable increase in the scope for self-development and spiritual welfare. This is because outside of the limited area of activity, the limited vows become full vows (Mahä-vratas). 07. Bhoga-Upbhoga Vrata (Vow of Limited use of Consumable/Non-consumable items): Generally, sins are committed by using or enjoying consumable (Bhoga) and non-consumable (Upbhoga) objects. Consumable (Bhoga) objects are things that can only be used once, such as food and drink. Non-consumable (Upabhoga) objects are things that can be used several times, such as furniture, clothes, and ornaments. This vow is a self-imposed restriction on the use of consumable material like food and drinks and durable material like clothing, footwear, cosmetics, jewelry, furniture, vehicles, etc. The purpose of this vow is to restrict the indiscriminate use of goods. Any use of an item directly or indirectly involves some degree of violence. We first have to consider whether the purchase we make is necessary and unavoidable and the degree of violence involved with that item. If our purpose can be served by using other material involving a lesser degree of violence, then that should be the choice of item used. On the same grounds, the consumption of food, meat, alcohol, honey, root vegetables, and eating at night are prohibited to decrease violence. By setting a limit by predetermining the number of items to be used, one can develop self-restraint and willpower. One should limit the use of these two types of items according to one's need and capacity by taking this vow. This vow expands upon Aparigraha Anuvrata. This vow also forbids a layman from engaging in certain occupations that involve destruction of plants or other forms of life, cruelty to animals, polluting the environment, wasting natural resources, and selling toxic substances. 08. Anartha-Danda Vrata (Vow of Avoidance of Purposeless Sins/Activities): One must not commit unnecessary or purposeless sins such as the examples below: Thinking, talking, or preaching evil or ill of others. Being inconsiderate. Some examples include walking on grass when a sidewalk or road is available, or leaving the water running while brushing your teeth. Manufacturing or supplying arms for war. Reading or listening to immoral literature. Being careless. Four Shikshä Vratas (Disciplinary Vows) 09. Sämäyika Vrata (Vow of Equanimous State for Limited Duration): This vow involves sitting down peacefully in one place for at least 48 minutes, not allowing passions of attachment and aversion to take place in the mind, and contemplating on the nature of the soul. The householder examines the purity of life he or she has attained, reads religious works showing Page 144 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #145 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C03 - Jain Lay people: Shrävaks and Shrävikäs the path of self-development and spiritual evolution, and concentrates on the supreme, liberated soul. During this period, one should observe equanimity towards all objects, thinking evil of no one, and be at peace with the world. The equanimous state of 48 minutes makes a person realize the importance of a life-long vow to avoid all sinful activities and is a stepping stone to a life of full renunciation. During Sämäyika, one also meditates on the soul and its relationship with karma. This vow may be repeated many times in a day. 10. Desävakäsika Vrata (Vow of Activity of Limited Space): This vow sets a new limit within the limitations already set by Dik Vrata and Bhoga-Upbhoga Vrata. The general life-long limitation of doing business in certain areas and the use of articles are further restricted for particular days and times of the week. This means that one shall not, during a certain period of time, perform any activity or make any business deals, or travel beyond a certain city, street, or house. The objective of this vow is to further refrain from impure activities. 11. Paushadha Vrata (Vow of Ascetic's Life for Limited Duration): The term "Paushadha" means "that which nourishes and fosters the soul or its natural qualities." This vow requires that a person live the life of a monk for a day or longer. During this time, one should retire to a secluded place, renounce all sinful activities, abstain from seeking pleasure from all senses, and observe restraint of body, speech, and mind. A person follows five great vows (Mahä vratas) completely during this time. He or she passes his or her time in spiritual contemplation, performs meditation (Sämäyika), engages in self-study, reads scriptures, and worships the Panch Parmesthi. This vow promotes and nourishes one's religious life and provides training for an ascetic life. 12. Atithi Samvibhäg Vrata (Vow of Charity): This vow encourages the offering of necessities of life: food, medicine, monks and the needy. The offerings should be pure and given with reverence. Donating one's own possessions to monks and others provides inner satisfaction and raises one's consciousness to a higher level. It also saves one from acquiring more sins if he or she would have used the same item for his or her nourishment, comfort, and pleasure. Sanlekhanä Vrata (Peaceful Death) In the final days of life, a householder can attain a peaceful death if he/she truly follows the twelve vows above. Peaceful death is characterized by non-attachment to worldly objects and by a suppression of passions at the time of death. The last thought should be of a calm renunciation of the body, and this thought should be present long before death. Sanlekhanä is a well-ordered, voluntary death, taken while in ultra-pure meditation and in a state of complete awareness. It is not inspired by any passion and involves gradual withdrawal from the consumption of food in such a manner that would never disrupt one's inner peace, state of complete equanimity, or awareness. It allows the very spiritually advanced person to terminate his or her life by certain practices, principally fasting, under specified circumstances and under the supervision of an ascetic. This is sanctioned only when a person strongly feels that he or she is a burden to society and cannot progress further spiritually due to poor health or extreme old age. It generally takes 30 to 120 days to die after taking this vow. The aspirant has no dissatisfaction, no sorrow, no fear, and no dejection; the mind is calm and composed and the heart is filled with the feeling of universal love and compassion. It is also called death with equanimity. Sanlekhanä is thus a spiritual process of renouncing one's passions and body by internal and external austerities. It involves giving up relationships, enmity, and attachment to possessions with a pure mind, forgiving others, and asking for forgiveness. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 145 of 398 Page #146 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C03 - Jain Lay people: Shrävaks and Shrävikäs It should be noted that Sanlekhanä is not a form of suicide or assisted death. It is usually performed by those who have led a very spiritual life and is taken under the presence of a guru. Therefore, there is a fundamental difference between suicide and Sanlekhanä. Suicide is the result of the outburst of passions whereas Sanlekhanä is the result of dispassion. Jainism does not sanction instantaneous termination of one's own life. It is considered suicide and it happens in the highest state of anger or depression. 03 Summary By practicing these twelve vows, a lay person may live a righteous life and advance towards a spiritual state where he works on conquering desires. While earning wealth, supporting his family, and taking up arms to protect himself, his family, and his country against intruders, a layman is taught self-restraint, love and equanimity. By giving up attachments, he/she gradually prepares himself or herself for the life of an ascetic. The practice of limiting the number of things to be kept or enjoyed by oneself eliminates the danger of concentration of wealth and in turn will help to minimize poverty and crime in society. Therefore, limiting the desires of individuals results in an ideal society. Page 146 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #147 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C04 - Bhävanäs (Reflections) C04 - Bhävanäs (Reflections) 01 Introduction Jain religion puts a significant emphasis on the thought process of a human being. A person's behavior and his or her actions are generally the reflection of his or her thought process. So, it is not only the action, but also the intention behind the action is vital in the accumulation of Karma. Therefore, one should be very careful about his or her thoughts, and the subject matter of his or her thoughts. To bring equanimity of thoughts and self-control in life, Jainism recommends reflecting or meditating on the twelve specific aspects of thought process known as Bhavanä (Anupreksha). Bhävanä means reflection or contemplation. They are designed to serve as an aid to spiritual progress leading to the path of renunciation. They are reflections upon the fundamental facts of life. Reflecting on these aspects, one can come closer to seeing life as it really is, without preconceived ideas and delusion. By engaging in these reflections, one can stop the entry of new karmas as well as eradicate old karmas. The following are the twelve main Bhävanäs: 02 Twelve Main Bhävanäs 01 Anitya Bhävanä (Impermanence) All external substances including the body are transitory (Anitya).They are constantly changing and are perishable. But behind this continuous change, there is an unchanging constant entity, the soul. Therefore, we should not have attachment for temporary things, but we should strive to uncover the purity of the eternal soul. The following stanza from Jain scriptures describes this philosophy: "Oh you fool! Why do you unnecessarily worry about your prosperity and beloved family? Oh you fool, know and realize that your life and relatives are as fragile as a drop of water, dangling on top of a blade of grass, constantly shaking in the wind." Thinking about impermanence should not lead one to become lazy. On a positive note, to attain the pure nature of the soul, one should walk on the path of morality. This Bhävanä also helps us to not be troubled in times of adversity, as that too will pass. 02 Asharan Bhävanä (Helplessness) When everything is transient, where can one find protection? Who can one depend on? Human beings experience tremendous agony when disease, old age, and death occur. No worldly things like wealth, family, and fame can provide comfort or take away our pain. Meditating on the second Bhävanä helps us to build inner strength. One can find protection in the four pure entities - Arihanta; who have conquered inner weaknesses, Siddha; the perfect soul, Sädhu; who guides one through the religion, and Dharma, the religion taught by the enlightened. When a person succumbs to old age and death, not a single relative will be able to save him from that death. So, the best thing to do is take refuge in Jin Dharma! This Bhävanä uproots the passion of pride. It also helps one to face the adversities of life in perfect equanimity by being self-dependent. However, the thought of no one being able to help another person should not keep one away from benevolent acts of compassion and friendliness. Meditating on this reflection makes one humble and reminds us that only salvation is ultimate freedom from miseries. 03 Samsär Bhävanä (Cycle of Life and Death) The cycle of life is full of dualities - birth and death, pleasure and pain, happiness and misery, good and bad. Circumstances in life go up and down like a ferris wheel. If one does not identify with these dualities by neither grieving in pain nor being elated in pleasure, and stays unaffected by just being an observer, they can free themselves from the miserable cycle of birth and death. Meditating on this Bhavana gives a purposeful direction to life. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 147 of 398 Page #148 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C04 Bhävanäs (Reflections) 04 Ekatva Bhävanä (Solitariness) Since we have assumed so many forms, we do not see our one and only true self. We focus on the outside and forget our soul, which came in this world alone and will leave alone. Thinking of the solitariness of the soul should not frighten us; instead, it should build our inner strength. "I came in this world alone with my own good or bad karma. Only I am responsible for my actions. I have the opportunity to make the best out of all situations. As long as I am in this world, I cannot live alone. Therefore, I should build a bridge between myself and other living beings that can take me across without being attached. "Oh, you wise one! Think about the inherent property of all things. Is there anything that is one's own in this world? When one understands this deeply in his or her heart, will he or she ever get any kind of pain?" 05 Anyatva Bhāvanā (Otherness of Body) Our body is transitory and is different from the soul. The body is mortal and the soul is immortal. We need to experience the difference between what is self and what is not. We identify ourselves as enjoyers of sensory objects, owners of possessions, or members of racial, cultural or religious groups. By identifying ourselves with temporary things like the body, we become bound. We want to free ourselves from the material world and experience our incomparable selves. By contemplating on this thought, we will avoid becoming a slave of the sense organs and will not be troubled by bodily pains. 06 Ashuchi Bhävanä (Impurity of Body) This body is made up of impure substances and it produces impure substances. It is constantly under the process of deterioration and decay. In spite of that, all our worldly possessions are because of our attachment to our body. That is the root cause of cravings and thereby bondage of karma. Keeping this impure aspect of body in mind can help us lessen our attachment to the body and bodily pleasures. It also destroys pride in our physique, beauty, or race. Even though the body is impure, it should not be neglected or misused. It should be cared for with proper self-control, as it is the primary instrument to carry out virtuous acts leading to liberation. We should not indulge in material objects or things to satisfy the undisciplined cravings of the body. 07 Asrava Bhavana (Influx of Karma) Thinking about the ways karmic matter flows into the soul makes us aware of our weaknesses. The passions, non-vigilance, and unrestrained actions of body, speech, and mind are open doors for karma. Thinking about this Bhävanä brings awareness and alerts us about our shortcomings. "As soon as I hastily try to get rid of whatever little karma by enduring it, these Äsrava enemies fill me up with new karma every single moment. What a misery! How do I fight with these enemies? How will I be liberated from this dreadful cycle of life and death?" 08 Samvar Bhävanä (Stoppage of Karma) Samvar means blocking the influx of karmas. It is a defense against Äsrava. Once we are aware of influx of karma, we can take appropriate actions to stop this influx of karma. This can bring discipline in life, thereby reducing or preventing the influx of karmas. "Oh, you who desire Moksha! With your insights, think about the possible remedies to fight against these Äsrava enemies and put those efforts into action." 09 Nirjarä Bhävanä (Eradication of Karma) Nirjarä means to shed off accumulated karmas. By knowing the 12 types of austerities, thinking about them, and putting them into practice, we can shed our karma. 10 Loka-svabhäva Bhävanä (The Nature of Cosmos) Loka-svabhäva Bhävanä teaches us to contemplate on the constituents of the universe, its nature and the interaction of soul and matter. Thinking about our attachment to ever-changing matter Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 148 of 398 Page #149 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT makes us aware of its futility and our ignorance. Thinking about our trivial place in the vastness of the universe makes us humble and dissolves our pride. 11 Bodhidurlabh Bhävanä (Rarity of Enlightenment) This Bhävanä is about contemplating how difficult it is for souls wandering in the four stages of existence to attain human life and Jin dharma. It is only as a human, and only through following teachings of Tirthankar Bhagawän, that we can attain liberation. In this Bhävanä, we should contemplate that it is a rare thing that we are born as humans and are fortunate to have the benefit of the teachings of Jineshvar Bhagawän. We must use this human life for the betterment of our souls and help others to do the same. The soul, always entangled with passions and natural instincts, needs vigorous effort to overcome weaknesses and to cultivate virtues. Therefore, it is said in the scriptures that: C04 Bhävanäs (Reflections) "After listening, understanding, and comprehending religion, whenever we try to initiate efforts to follow religion, the swarm of inner enemies (attachment, hatred, fatigue, laziness, sleep) are always ready to attack good endeavors and to try to obstruct us." It is also said in Uttarädhyayan Sutra, "In this world four things, are rare to living beings: the human life, listening to religion, faith in religion, and the energy to follow right conduct." 12 Dharma Bhävanä (Religion) True religion is one that helps us achieve the cherished goal of liberation. The religion taught to us by Tirthankar Bhagawän is comprised of non-violence, self-control, and penance. Tirthankars have established a religion which teaches us charity, right conduct, austerity, and spirituality. We should constantly contemplate on the thought that this religion should prevail in our hearts forever. 03 Four Auxiliary Bhävanäs (Compassionate Reflections) The four auxiliary Bhävanäs represent a positive means of supporting the five vows. They help to develop purity of thought and sincerity in the practice of religion. They play a very important role in the day-to-day life of a householder in acquiring tolerance, calmness, and compassion. Moreover, these reflections can be practiced very easily. Adopting these Bhävanäs in daily life can make a person very virtuous. Maitri Bhävanä Pramod Bhävanä Karunä Bhävanä Mädhyastha Bhävanä Contemplation of Friendship Contemplation of Appreciation Contemplation of Compassion Contemplation of Neutrality 1 Maitri Bhävanä (Contemplation of Friendship) Lord Mahävir said, "We must be friends to all living beings." The feeling of friendship brings love and respect to others. Our soul has been in contact with each soul existing in this universe from the infinite cycle of past births. Every living being has a keen desire to live just as we do. Everyone wants to be happy and free of pain just as we want to be. This initiates a feeling of goodwill towards all living beings and in turn leaves no room for harm or deceit. If we contemplate on Maitri Bhävanä, our thoughts, words, and actions will not be harsh, and we will not hurt anybody. On the contrary, we will help and protect every living being. We should think of only the loving and caring experiences of the past, and pardon every soul for their mistakes. Friendliness softens the heart and nourishes the capacity to be tolerant, forgiving, and caring for one another. Friendliness and nonviolence strengthen each other. 2 Pramod Bhavana (Contemplation of Appreciation) Sincere appreciation of good qualities in others is an extremely powerful tool for attaining the same qualities ourselves. In this Bhävanä, we admire the success of others. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 149 of 398 Page #150 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT One of the most destructive forces in our lives is jealousy. However, cultivating the quality of admiration of others can destroy jealousy. As jealousy subsides, negative impulses are turned into positive ones, and in due time, we will be at peace. Praising the virtues of others with joy and respect eliminates one's ego. C04 Bhävanäs (Reflections) Pramod Bhavana can be practiced by showing tremendous respect to all Sädhus / Sädhvis, Shrävaks / Shrävikäs and benevolent people. 3 Karuna Bhävanä (Contemplation of Compassion) The feeling of sympathy and kindness produced in our heart upon witnessing the suffering of other living beings is Karuna (compassion). Compassion for those who are less fortunate fosters a charitable heart. Since we have accepted everyone as a friend, we cannot just stand aside and let them suffer. We should help those who are in distress and those who are weak, sick, and helpless. When we help someone who is poor, sick, or in need of something, we show our compassion by material means. On the other hand, when we help those who are ignorant, have wrong beliefs, and are suffering due to their passions by showing them the true spiritual path, we show spiritual compassion. One can practice Karunä Bhävanä in several different ways. Helping senior citizens, tutoring other students in school and carefully removing an insect from the house into an open area are some ways to practice Karunä Bhävanä. 4 Mädhyastha Bhavana (Contemplation of Neutrality) To have indifference or to stay neutral in any situation is practicing Mädhyastha Bhävanä. In Mädhyastha Bhävanä, one should stay neutral and uninvolved with those who, even after realizing and knowing what is right and wrong, continue to practice bad habits. We can try our best to help, support, or advise them, but some people, out of arrogance, stubbornness, or ignorance, may refuse to take the right path. This may bring disgust and aversion in our mind. Instead of developing hatred or anger towards them, getting disappointed, or getting more involved, we should realize that we have done all that we could and that ultimately changing their ways is up to them. Even though we desire the well-being of such people, we should not let our mind be disturbed by what they are doing. We should simply hope and wish well for them to embrace the right path. By contemplating this Bhävanä, we will not have undue attachment or detachment to a given situation or a person. 04 Summary In summary, we can avoid the influx of bad karmas and live peacefully by developing friendships with all living beings, admiring their success, holding their hands when they are in distress, and leaving them alone at the times when they do not heed to right guidance. Until it becomes the natural way of life to observe these Bhävanäs, we should contemplate on them as many times as possible. Page 150 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #151 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C05 - Leshyäs (State of Mind and Karmic Stains) C05 - Leshyäs (State of Mind and Karmic Stains) 01 Introduction Leshyä means state of mind. Generally most of our actions reflect the state of our mind. Jainism places a great deal of importance on the state of our mind when we act upon anything. The attachment of Karma depends more on the state of mind than action itself. The following story illustrates how the state of our mind reflects upon our activities. Once there were six friends who went on a hiking trip. Along the way, they got lost in a forest. After a while, they got hungry and thirsty and they had no food or water. They searched for food for some time and finally found a fruit tree. As they ran to the tree, the first man said, "Let's cut the tree down and get the fruit." The second one said, "Don't cut the whole tree down, cut off a big branch instead." The third friend said, "Why do we need a big branch? A small branch has enough fruit." The fourth one said, "We do not need to cut the branches, let us just climb up and get all the fruit." The fifth man said, "Why pick so many fruit and waste them? Instead just pick enough fruit to eat." The sixth friend said quietly, "There are plenty of good fruit on the ground, so let's eat those first." This story clearly shows the state of mind of six friends, which led to actions ranging from cutting the entire tree to picking up fruit from the ground. These six levels of thoughts represent six types of Leshyäs. The first friend's state of mind represents Krishna (black) Leshyä. The second friend's state of mind represents Neel (blue) Leshyä. The third friend's state of mind represents Käpot (gray) Leshyä. The fourth friend's state of mind represents Tejo (red) Leshyä. The fifth friend's state of mind represents Padma (yellow) Leshyä. The sixth friend's state of mind represents Shukla (white) Leshyä. Krishna Leshyä is the worst and Shukla Leshyä is the best. Krishna, Neel, and Kapot Leshyäs lead the soul to ruin and the last three lead the soul to spiritual prosperity. We know that our minds wander into different states all the time for better or for worse. Therefore, we should strive for a better state of mind progressively. The story of King Prasannachandra who lived during Lord Mahävir's time illustrates how fast surroundings can affect our mind, our Leshyäs, and our spiritual progress. 02 Classification of Leshyäs Let us understand how a person with different Leshyäs behaves and what the outcomes of such Leshyäs are. 1. Krishna (Black) Leshyä People in this state of mind do not show any compassion or mercy. Everyone is afraid of them as their anger frequently turns into violence. They are always burning with jealousy and they have ill will for everyone. They are full of enmity and malice, and do not believe in spirituality. This state of mind is the worst and most dangerous. If one dies while in this state of mind they will be reborn in hell. 2. Neel (Blue) Leshyä People in this state of mind are proud, arrogant, and lazy. They are not trustworthy and other people avoid their company. They are cheaters, cowards, and hypocrites. These people avoid religious discourses. If one dies while in this state of mind they will be reborn as a one sense living being. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 151 of 398 Page #152 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C05- Leshyäs (State of Mind and Karmic Stains) 3. Käpot (Gray) Leshyä People in this state of mind always remain sad and gloomy. They find faults in others and are vindictive. They boast about themselves, become angry over small matters, and lack mental balance. If one dies while in this state of mind they will be reborn as an insect, a bird, or an animal. 4. Tejo (Red) Leshyä People in this state of mind are very careful about their actions and can discriminate between good and evil. They know the difference between what is right and what is wrong. They are kind, benevolent, religious, and lead a harmonious life. If one dies while in this state of mind, they will be reborn as a human being. 5. Padma (Yellow) Leshyä People in this state of mind are kind, benevolent and forgiving. They observe some austerities and are vigilant in keeping their vows till their last breath. They remain unaffected by joy and sorrow. If one dies while in this Leshyä, they will be reborn in heaven as a celestial being. 6. Shukla (White) Leshyä There are two levels of this Leshyä. The great soul observes the first level of this Leshyä and strictly observe the principles of nonviolence, truth, non-stealing, celibacy, and non-attachment. They are trustworthy and do not have any ill feelings. They remain calm even if someone abuses them. If one dies while in this state of mind, they will be reborn as a human or heavenly being. In the second level of this Leshyä, one has a state of mind where there is no more attachment or hatred and treats everything with equanimity. They do not become happy or sad. Their state of mind is the purest. When one dies in this perfected state of mind, he or she will be liberated from the cycle of life and death. Please refer to the Story of King Prasannachandra in the Story section of the manual. Page 152 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #153 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct Nänammi Dansanammi A Charanammi Tavammi Tahay Viriyammi Ayaranam Ayaro Ea Eso Panchahä Bhanio -- Panchächär Sutra Knowledge, faith, conduct, austerities and vigor constitute the fivefold code of conduct 01 Introduction Religion has two major aspects. One deals with principles and the other with practice. The latter constitutes the observance part of religion. Observance of Jainism can again be divided in two broad categories. One part deals with the observance of code and the other with the observance of restraints. When we talk of the Jain code, we mean the norms of observing the right conduct as laid down by the preceptors of Jainism. Right conduct, however, is only a part of the spiritual code. There are several other aspects, like true knowledge and faith, that form parts of the same code. The ultimate purpose of the right conduct is, after all, to gain liberation, which, in spiritual terms, is known as Moksha. Acharya Umäsväti stated in Tattvärtha-Sutra: 'Samyag-darshan-jnän-chäriträni Mokshamärgah' Samyag Darshan, Samyag Jnän and Samyag Charitra constitute the path of liberation. Samyag means right, correct, rational or proper. Darshan stands for conviction or faith, Jnän for knowledge, and Charitra for conduct. The combination of those three aspects leads to liberation. Since code, in Jain terminology, stands for Achär, these three aspects are termed as Darshanächär, Jnänächär and Chariträchär. They are thus the basic constituents of Jain code. Two subsidiary codes of conduct are those related to the exercise of physical, verbal, and mental abilities (Viryachär), and the ones related to austerities (Tapächär). Although Tapächär and Viryachär are parts of Chariträchär, they are categorized separately as they are very significant to Jainism. Thus, Darshanächär, Jnänächär, Chariträchär, Tapächär, and Viryächär are the fivefold Jain code and together they are known as Panchächär (Panch means five and Achär means conduct) 02 Panchächär (Five Codes of Conduct) Jnänächär Code of Acquiring Right Knowledge Darshanächär Code of Gaining Right Faith Chariträchär Code of Acquiring Right Conduct Tapächär Code of Acquiring Right Austerities Viryächär Code of Exercising Right Vigor or Energy Coda Darshan means faith, but it also denotes belief, conviction, outlook, and attitude and so on. Jnän means knowledge, but it also implies enlightenment. Charitra means conduct and includes practice, behavior, etc. 1 Jnänächär (Code of Conduct Related to Right Knowledge) Käle Vinae Bahumäne Uvahäne Tah Aninhavane Vanjan Attha Tadubhaye Atthaviho Nänmäyäro --- Panchächär Sutra Proper timing, reverence, esteem, required austerities, gratitude and loyalty, reading carefully, grasping meaning and understanding the underlying sense constitute the eightfold code of knowledge. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 153 of 398 Page #154 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct Mati-Jnän, Shruta-Jnän, Avadhi-Jnän, Manah-Paryäva-Jnän and Keval-Jnän are the five categories of the Jnän. Indirect knowledge or Paroksha Jnän: Mati Jnän and Shruta Jnän: Mati means intelligence. The knowledge acquired by using intellect or by exercising the mind is therefore called Mati-inän. Shru means to hear. By implication, it also covers reading, writing, and learning. Therefore, Shruta-Jnäna means the knowledge gained by listening, reading, and studying. These two categories thus deal with knowledge that can be gained by the use of the senses and mind. Since the mind is considered the intangible sense, these categories of knowledge are termed as sensed-based knowledge or Indriyadhin Jnän. Knowledge of different arts and sciences fall within these categories. Since the use of senses does not directly involve the soul, Jainism considers these two categories as indirect knowledge or Paroksha-jnän. This type of knowledge is subject to destruction and does not last forever. Direct Knowledge or Pratyaksha Jnän: The other three categories are not sense-based. They arise by virtue of spiritual development and are called direct knowledge, or Pratyaksha-Jnän. They are extra-sensory (can be experienced without exercising the senses.) Avadhi Jnän: Avadhi-jnän pertains to the knowledge of tangible aspects. The term Avadhi denotes certain limitations. Avadhi-jnän therefore means knowledge of tangible aspects beyond sensory perception, subject to the limitations of time and space. For instance, a person may gain capability to know by extra-sensory perception, what had happened, or what is going to happen during a specified period. Such a period may be of a few hours, a few days, a few years, or even a few lives. On the other hand, a person may gain capability to know what is happening within a specified distance. Avadhi-jnän thus prevails within defined time and space. This capability is not infinite nor everlasting. Manah-Paryäva Jnän: Manah means the mind and Paryaya means the changing state of an object. This category therefore denotes the capability to understand the thinking process and mental attitudes of others. It pertains only to intangible aspects. This capability also is not infinite and its operation is subject to limitations. It consists of two types: Rujumati and Vipulmati. The former can disappear, while the latter stays with the soul until it attains Keval-jnän. Keval Jnän: Keval means only as well as pure. In the former sense, Keval-jnän means exclusive prevalence of knowledge only and nothing else. In the latter sense, it is pure, untainted knowledge. Either of these interpretations enables it to operate without any limitations. The person attaining this knowledge gets infinite capability to know everything, tangible or intangible, and in the past, present and future. This knowledge is therefore termed as true enlightenment. In addition, a person with such knowledge is known as omniscient or Sarvajna. Keval-inän is indestructible. Once keval-jnän is attained, it stays with the soul forever. Page 154 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #155 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct How does one gain knowledge? The soul is indestructible. In its purest form, the soul exhibits inherent qualities of infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite bliss, and infinite energy. However, bonded karma prevents the soul from exhibiting its purest nature. It should be clearly understood that knowledge does not come without effort. Attaining right knowledge is the first and the foremost step in our journey towards liberation. The way to acquire knowledge is by eradicating or suppressing Karma. This can be done by undertaking virtuous Karma and/or by bearing the consequence of operating Karma with equanimity. The karma that prevents the soul from acquiring knowledge is known as knowledge obscuring (Jnänävaraniya) karma. We acquire knowledge-obscuring karma if we do not properly follow the codes of conduct related to knowledge as prescribed by our scriptures. Let us understand this phenomenon by illustrating the case of Mati-jnän (empirical knowledge). Suppose some particular prayer has to be memorized. One person may succeed in memorizing it with little effort, another may have to repeatedly recite it for memorizing it, and someone else may fail to memorize it despite all possible efforts. In the first case, the bondage of obscuring Karma is very loose. In the second case, the bondage is rather tight and needs more efforts or higher countervailing Karma to break the bond. In the third case, the bondage is unbreakable and the consequences of that karma must come to fruition. Everyone should therefore endeavor or undertake such countervailing Karma to break the bondage of the knowledge obscuring Karma. Endeavors to break the bondage of knowledge obscuring karma by self-effort is known as Purushärtha. Whether it succeeds or not depends upon the intensity of the operative Karmas. Purushartha has two aspects, external and internal. Trying to gain Mati-jnän and Shruta-Jnän by developing and exercising physical and mental abilities is external Purushärtha. Trying to gain spiritual development by practicing Nirjarä (eradication of karmas) is internal Purushärtha. Avadhijnän, Manah-Paryäya-Jnän and Keval-jnän automatically emerge by internal Purushärtha. Everyone should therefore devote maximum energy for internal Purushärtha. Jain tradition is particularly concerned with acquiring knowledge (Jnän). For that purpose, it lays down the following code of conduct (ächär): Studying at the proper time Reverence for teachers and proper care for the means of gaining knowledge Esteem for the learned Observance of the required austerities for getting properly equipped for knowledge Utmost loyalty to preceptors Accurate study of the sutras (religious scriptures) • Understanding the proper meanings of sutras • Grasping the underlying meaning, essence, and purpose of sutras One should appropriately select the school and subjects of study, study at the proper time, attend classes regularly, patiently learn and absorb what is being taught, carefully follow instructions, do the required homework, take proper care of books and other study materials, respect teachers, etc. Undertaking research, remaining in touch with the latest developments, taking refresher courses, participating in seminars and workshops for the purpose of more intensive study, etc. constitute more advanced means of Purushärtha. It should be understood that not everyone has the same capacity to absorb what is being taught. The outcomes are therefore bound to be different. However, if one wants to gain knowledge, pursue goals with diligence, and has access to capable teachers and guides, they can surely gain what they might be seeking. In other words, knowledge-obscuring Karma would give way in the face of Purushärtha. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 155 of 398 Page #156 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT By practicing these codes of conduct, one can lessen the load of Jnänävaraniya Karma and thus manifest the inherent knowledge the soul possesses. If these codes of conduct are not observed, not only will our efforts to gain knowledge be futile, but we will bind more Jnänävaraniya karma to the soul and prevent us from gaining knowledge in the future. 2. Darshanächär (Code of conduct related to Right Faith) C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct -- Panchächär Sutra Doubtlessness, absence of expectation, unflinching faith, not being unduly influenced, adoration and encouragement, stabilization, affection, and creating favorable impressions constitute the eightfold code of right faith. Nissankia Nikkankhia Nivvitigichchhä Amoodh-ditthia Uvavooha Thirikarane Vachchhal Pabhävane Attha Darshan means belief, faith, conviction, and realization. These four epithets actually convey an hierarchy. When a person acquires some knowledge, they tend to believe it. Thus, knowledge and belief go hand in hand. Then, one has to gain faith. For instance, we know from books or teachers that the soul is everlasting, and we try to believe that. However, as long as we are not truly convinced, our faith in the everlasting soul is not really there. For gaining conviction, we first have to have faith in the concept and then contemplate and ponder over it. After true conviction, we gain self-realization. Such realization is true Samyag-darshan. Uvavooha Sthirikaran Vatsalya Prabhävanä The code that lays down the method of gaining right faith is known as Darshanächär. The eight aspects of Darshanächär are: Nissankia Nikkankhia Nirvichikitsä Amoodha-drashti Staying above all doubts Absence of expectations Page 156 of 398 Unflinching faith Not to be influenced or swayed by glamorous shows of any faith Adoration and encouragement Stabilizing the faith of others Affection for coreligionists Raising the esteem for the true faith Of these eight aspects, the first one, which denotes the conviction, is of utmost importance. The remaining seven, which are helpful in raising the intensity of conviction, can be considered supplemental. This has been discussed in the chapter "Ratna-trayi Moksha Märg" (three fold path of liberation). These eight aspects are vital to attainment of the right perception or Samyaktva. It is impossible to have proper insight without gaining right perception. 3. Chäriträchär (Code of conduct related to acquiring Right Conduct) The next step in our journey towards liberation is putting in practice what we have learned through true knowledge and the right faith. Living a life in accordance with the right knowledge and right faith is Chäriträchär. Tirthankar Bhagawän has recommended different codes of conduct for Sädhus and Sädhvis and for lay people. Codes of conduct prescribed for Sädhus and Sädhvis are mandatory and absolute. Since lay people have to carry out worldly chores and obligations, they are bound to commit certain mundane sins, which will be in violation of the absolute practice of Chäriträchär. Therefore, Tirthankar Bhagawän has recommended that lay people remain vigilant to the best of their ability at all times in following the codes of Chäriträchär. Chäriträchär prescribed for lay people may be categorized in three broad categories: Observation of 12 vows, observation of five categories of carefulness in daily activities (Samiti), and observation of Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #157 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct three types of restraints (Gupti).The twelve vows apply only to Shrävaks and Shravikäs, and are discussed in chapter C04 of the conduct section. Panihäna-Jogjutto Panchahim Samiehim Tihim Guttihim Esa Charittäyäro Atthaviho Hoi Näyavvo --- Panchächär Sutra Observance of five Samitis and three Guptis with a balanced mind is considered the eightfold code of conduct After gaining conviction, one has to put it into practice. That practice is known as Chäriträchär. The term means right behavior or right conduct. We will first consider here the monastic code of conduct and then the lay people code of conduct. Five Samitis (Carefulness): 1 Iryä Samiti: Whenever one has to make movements, one should remember that there happen to be living beings everywhere. One has to remain vigilant enough to see that he does not step, crush, trample, or otherwise hurt any living being by making movements. Since some minute violence is bound to occur in spite of all precautions, it is advised that after every movement, one should undertake a short Käusagga for atonement of violence inadvertently caused by such movements. 2 Bhäshä Samiti: This meticulously pertains to vocal or oral activities. Even exercising vocal faculty can hurt the minute living beings that pervade the air. This Samiti therefore lays down that every spiritual aspirant should speak slowly and only when necessary. Harsh and unnecessary speech that can cause mental hurt has to be avoided altogether. Moreover, the speech has to be truthful, beneficial, and pleasant. Otherwise, one should observe silence. 3 Eshana Samiti: This meticulously pertains to obtaining food and water, which are essential for survival. The aspirant has to get such food and water by going for alms. He should, however, be careful and vigilant even while accepting such food and water. The offer for alms should not involve any type of force or compulsion on the part of the giver. The food and water being offered should have been made out of acceptable, vegetarian ingredients that involve minimal violence. 4 Ädäna Nikshepa Samiti: This meticulously pertains to taking or placing any objects. Reckless pulling, pushing, lifting, laying, or otherwise mishandling objects can hurt living beings. If one is not careful, such activities can result in avoidable violence. Utmost care and vigilance should therefore be exercised while undertaking such activities. One often comes across the use of the term 'Upayoga' during Jain rituals and performances, which means staying vigilant. 5 Utsarga or Pärishthä-panikä Samiti: This meticulously pertains to disposal of wastes (excretion and urination.) Jainism does not permit reckless behavior even in the case of disposal. It has laid down proper rules of disposal: human excretion should be carried out in a place not habited by living beings. Since latrines and urinals happen to be the breeding grounds for a variety of germs and insects, Jainism forbade their use by the monastic order. Jainism indicates that ascetics should stay outside the city so human waste can be disposed of properly. This Samiti lays down the mode of disposing all wastes in a way that would cause minimal violence and inconvenience to others. Three Guptis (Controlling One's Faculties): The final category of Chäriträchär is the Three Guptis, which is the three types of restraints in daily activities. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 157 of 398 Page #158 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct Monks and nuns are supposed to devote their entire life to spiritual pursuit. Since they have renounced the worldly life, they are not supposed to get involved in any worldly activities. They have to spend their entire time and energy towards spiritual upliftment and compassion towards all living beings and are not expected to use their mental, vocal or physical energy for any worldly gain. Exercising energy solely for that purpose is known as Gupti, which can be translated as total control of one's faculties. 1 Mana Gupti: The first of the Guptis is Mana Gupti, which includes restraints related to control of the mind (control over mental energy).Observing Mana Gupti requires that we have pure thoughts, and engage in meditation and Sämäyika (equanimity) whenever possible. We also do not get mad at others or wish evil on them. 2 Vachan Gupti: The next Gupti is restraints related to control of speech, or Vachan Gupti. Restraints related to speech are similar to those discussed in carefulness in speech. The only difference here is controlling and restraining our speech. 3 Kaya Gupti: The third and final Gupti is restraints related to control of the body, or Kaya Gupti. Kaya Gupti requires that we do not use perfumes or wear flashy clothes and that we take proper care of our health. Ächärya Shri Umäsväti stated in Tattvärtha-sutra: "Samyag-yoga-nigraho Gupti". It means that the right exercise of control is Gupti. One should therefore exercise appropriate discretion in controlling mental, and physical faculties. These three Guptis are known as Tigutti or Trigupti. Ashta Pravachan Mätä: These five Samitis and three Guptis constitute the eightfold monastic code of conduct. In Jain terminology, these eight aspects are collectively known as Ashta Pravachan Mätä. It means that these eight aspects of religious teaching are as beneficial to spiritual aspirants as the lessons mothers teach their children. The observance of the five major vows (restraints) of non-violence, truth, not taking anything without the express permission of the owner, celibacy and non-possessiveness are also implied in this code. Total non-possessiveness is the distinguishing feature of Jain monks. They accept the bare minimum of clothing from followers. They also keep a couple of wooden bowls for accepting food and water. The wooden articles are allowed because they are light in weight and can be easily cleaned with a small amount of water. Similarly, monks can also have spiritual books for study. The greatest disciplinary practice that helps them observe nonviolence is Sämäyika. The term literally means staying in equanimity. The person observing Sämäyika has to stay away from all worldly involvement. That practice should ultimately lead to the fusion of the mind with the true Self by developing detachment towards all external objects. Those who renounce the worldly life are therefore required to take the vow of staying in Sämäyika for the rest of their lives. Jain monks and nuns should not stay for too long at any one place to avoid developing attachment to any particular place or people. However, during the monsoon season, a lot of germs and insects breed in the dirty rainwater and a lot more violence can occur if monks and nuns move from place to place. Therefore, during that period, monks and nuns are required to stay at one place. During the rest of the year, they continue to move barefoot from place to place. Such movements have to be made without using any vehicle, because manufacture, maintenance, and movements of vehicles can also cause a lot of violence. This is no doubt a rigorous code. However, Jain monks and nuns willingly observe the code because they are oriented towards the well-being of the soul. They know that physical comforts or discomforts are transitory and the soul is not affected by such ever-changing situations. They can therefore easily stay unconcerned about their physical well-being. Moreover, they train themselves Page 158 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #159 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct for undergoing the rigors of the monastic code by undertaking fasts and other austerities. Because they follow such rigors, Jain monks and nuns are held in high esteem. The laity considers them as enlightened entities and reveres them as spiritual guides. Recently, we have been witnessing a tendency towards avoiding the rigors of this code. Many monks now make use of light footwear. There are also monks who do not mind the use of vehicles and who stay with their hosts for longer periods of time. Many Jains have now settled in countries outside of India. They need the guidance of monks for ritual performances and other religious activities. They invite monks to their new countries that cannot be reached without the use of vehicles. In western countries, where climatic conditions necessitate adequate protection, the traditional monastic wear of wrapping the body with two pieces of cloth does not work. Nor is it feasible to go from home to home for alms. Realizing these needs, Acharya Tulsi has created a new cadre of male Shamans and female Shamanis. They are well trained in various aspects of Jainism; they learn English and communicate well with the people. Such Shamans and Shamanis renounce worldly life but are permitted to use vehicles and stay with their hosts. The code of conduct for laymen is known as Shrävakächär. Most of the stipulations of the monastic code are applicable to them, but they are modified for the worldly life. For instance, laypersons also should control their mind, speech and body to the extent possible. As householders, they are of course required to undertake various worldly activities. While doing so, they should not lose sight of the right perception. If they happen to transgress the limits of Shrävakächär, they should also repent, just as monks do when they violate their codes of conduct. Shravak Pratikraman Sutra, which is popularly known as Vandittu, lays down the transgressions of right perception as follows. Sankä Kankha Vigichchhä, Pasansa Taha Santhavo kulingisu Sammattassaiäre, Padikkame Desiam Savvam. -Panchächär Sutra If I have indulged, during the day, in any transgressions of Samyaktva, like harboring doubts, expectations, wavering faith, adoration of the wrong faith, or acquaintance with believers in false doctrines, I must repent. Shrävaks should, of course, stay vigilant to avoid hurting any living being. They cannot remain without possessions, but they should lay voluntary limitations on their possessions and desires. In place of major restraints, they have to observe five minor vows called Anu-vratas. Moreover, they should observe three auxiliary restraints and four disciplinary restraints. 4 Tapächär (Code of conduct related to observing Austerities and Penance) Bärasavihammi Vi Tave Sabbhintar-Bähire Kusal-Ditthe Agiläi Anäjivi Näyavvo So Taväyäro -Panchächär Sutra The cause of endless cycles of birth and death for the worldly soul is karmic bondage. This removal of karmic bondage is known as Nirjarä and the ways in which Nirjarä is achieved are collectively known as Tapa or austerity. Jain scriptures have prescribed the specific ways to observe austerities, which is known as Tapächär. This code states that we must observe austerities in an appropriate way, with true faith, and according to our ability. Austerities should never be observed in order to gain worldly pleasures, out of jealousy, or to gain the admiration of others. There are 12 types of external and internal austerities one can follow. Jain tradition lays considerable emphasis on the observance of Tapa. Really speaking, Tapa is a part of Charitra. In view of its special importance to spiritual aspirants, it has been considered as a separate part of the spiritual code, known as Tapächär. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 159 of 398 Page #160 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct The worldly soul has been ignorant about its true nature and has been associated with karmas. Consequently, it has been entangled in an unending cycle of birth, death, and reincarnation. It can, however, be liberated from that cycle by removing its ignorance about its true nature and its Kashaya (anger, greed, ego, and deceit) which can eradicate all of its Karmas. This is known as Nirjarä. It is of two types. Simply bearing the consequences of old Karmas is Akäm Nirjara. Most of the time, the person happens to react to the given situation with more emotion. Such Nirjarä leads to acquisition of new Karmas and cannot lead to liberation. Sakäm Nirjarä does not lead to new Karmas. One of the ways to achieve such Nirjara is to resort to austerities. Sakäm Nirjarä should be performed by remaining neutral, so that one can avoid gaining more karmas. In order to avoid misconception of what austerities are, Jainism has laid down the concept of Tapa in great detail. Austerities have been actually conceived as physical and mental exercises that can be helpful for achieving Nirjarä. The physical exercises are external or Bähya Tapa and mental ones are internal or Abhyantar Tapa. Since internal austerities are concerned with inner aspects, it will be evident that they are meant for spiritual development. External austerities, on the other hand, are useful only to the extent they are helpful in undertaking internal ones. Both these categories of Tapa are divided into six subcategories each. Thus, there are twelve types of Tapa. Bähya Tapa (External Austerities): Anasan-Moonoariya Vitti-Sankhevanam Rasachchäo Käya-Kileso Sanlinaya Ya Bajzo Tavo Hoy -Panchächär Sutra Fasting, eating less, curtailing desires, avoiding tastes, facing physical hardships, and occupying restricted space are the external austerities. 1 Anashan (Fasting): Ashan means to eat and Anashan means not to eat (fasting.) Such fasting is usually known as Upaväs. Upaväs means staying close to the soul. When a person stays tuned to the nature of soul, they may not remember the physical body or other physical needs like hunger. So refraining from food can be a consequence of Upaväs, but is not the essential part of Upavas. Anashan, therefore, is the physical act of refraining from food, and Upavas describes the mental focus on the soul. 2 Unoariä or Unodari (Eating less): This means eating less than what is needed for satisfying appetite or hunger. This austerity has a health consideration as well. Recent research has shown that eating in moderation is good for health and can even increase longevity. It also prepares the body and mind for meditation. 3 Vitti-Sankhevanam or Vritti-sankshepa (Curtailing desires): This means adding further restrictions. Human beings have the tendency to acquire as many things as possible to satisfy current or future needs. However, we all know that possession of many things does not necessarily make one happy. Happiness is a function of mind and can be attained only by contentment. By observing this austerity, one can learn to stay content with minimum requirements. One meaning of this austerity is to restrict the number of food items per. 4 Rasachchäo or Rasatyäg (Avoiding tastes): This means giving up the attachment for tastes. Often, we are too busy trying to fulfill our cravings and lose self-discipline. We become slaves to our hunger and appetites. Ways to practice this austerity include Ayambil Vrata, where one eats only once a day and commits to eating foods that do not contain salt or other spices. Another way to practice this vow is to give up a favorite food. 5 Käya-Kileso or kaya-Klesha (Facing physical hardships): Page 160 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #161 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct This literally means bearing physical affliction. During spiritual pursuit, one comes across many hardships. If one is not accustomed to bear them, one cannot maintain peace of mind. It is therefore necessary that aspirants get used to bearing hardships and physical discomforts. This austerity teaches us to bear physical discomfort with equanimity. 6 Sanlinayä or Sanlinata (Occupying restricted space): This is also referred to as Vivikta-shayyäsan. It means staying in a forlorn place and occupying minimum space. The normal human tendency is to gain the most possible amenities in life. The purpose of this austerity is to curtail that tendency and to practice feeling comfortable within a restricted area. This term can also mean staying tuned or attentive. The purpose of these external austerities is to equip aspirants to face hardships that they may come across during spiritual pursuits. This will help them observe peace and tranquility of mind even in adverse circumstances. Abhyantar Tapa (Internal Austerities): Päyachchhittam Vinao Veyavachcham Tahev Sajzäo Jhänam Ussaggo Vi A Abbhintarao Tavo Hoy -Panchächär Sutra Repentance, modesty, selfless service, study of the self, meditation, and staying beyond physical aspects are the internal austerities. 1 Päyachchhittam or Präyashchitta (Repentance): This means atonement or repentance. We often indulge in wrong and undesirable activities Because of addiction, weakness of mind, pitfalls, or shortsightedness. The spiritual aspirant has to stay constantly aware of all of these indulgences. Whenever one notices anything wrong on his part, one should repent and atone for it. One's sense of remorse should be strong enough to avoid repeating such indulgences. If this austerity is undertaken with sincerity, one can eventually reach the state of perfection. 2 Vinay (Modesty): This means modesty and respect for others. Respect has to be appropriate and may even take the form of worship for deserving entities. This will help the aspirant proceed towards spiritual development. For instance, if one has regard for his preceptor, he would not undertake any activity without seeking guidance from such preceptor. This would automatically keep him away from indulging in any wrong or undesirable activities. He would also want to attain the attributes of those deserving entities and this can lead him towards perfection. 3 Veyävachcham or Vaiyavruttya (Selfless service): This means selfless service. The spiritual aspirant should realize that all living beings have the same type of soul. He should, therefore, feel a sense of amity towards everyone. He would then be willing to serve others without expecting anything in return. Such service can result in elimination of arrogance. 4 Sajzäo or Swadhyay (Study of Self): Literally, this means study of oneself. It takes two forms. One is to become aware of one's own faults and limitations and work towards avoiding them. The other form of Swadhyay is to understand the nature of the true Self. The aspirant learns that the soul is inherently pure, enlightened, flawless, and imbibed with infinite perception, knowledge, power, and bliss. He would strive to manifest those attributes to attain liberation. 5 Jhänam or Dhyana (Meditation): Meditation in Jainism means attentiveness and specifies four types of Dhyana known as Artadhyana, Raudra-dhyana, Dharma-dhyana and Shukla-dhyana. The first two categories are nonvirtuous and do not form part of this austerity. The remaining two are virtuous and are needed for Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 161 of 398 Page #162 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct meditation. Dharma-Dhyana means contemplating about spiritual aspects to get rid of defilements. Shukla-dhyana is one's absorption within the nature of soul. When one attains this state, he is not far away from liberation. 6 Ussaggo or Käyotsarga (Giving up the physical body): Käyotsarga actually denotes giving up all physical, verbal and mental activities and staying absorbed in the true nature of soul. When such absorption is complete and remains uninterrupted, it is called liberation. Thus, from the above descriptions of internal austerities, it is evident that observing such austerities amounts to observing Upaväs. If a person can observe these austerities for an extended period of time, he would have no time to care for physical, sensory, mental, and other worldly aspects. Nirjarä сan thus easily be achieved by such Tapa. Acharya Shri Umäsväti once summarized this by stating: "Tapasä Nirjarä Cha", meaning Nirjarä can be achieved by Tapa. This primarily conveys the observance of internal restraints while resorting to the external ones as a means to become more prepared for internal austerities. 5. Viryächär (Code of conduct related to physical and mental ability / Code of exercising Vigor or Energy) The final set of codes of conduct relate to exercising our physical and mental capabilities to the fullest and in the appropriate manner, which is known as Viryachär. We cannot properly observe the preceding four codes of conduct without the appropriate use of our physical, mental, and verbal capabilities. Since our ultimate goal is Nirjarä of karma, Viryachär must lead us to Nirjarä. Laziness, ignorance, negligence, ego, greed, and deceit are the major causes of a behavior contrary to the practice of right Viryachär. Bhagawan Mahävir has said that we must not spend even a single moment being lazy in our journey towards liberation. Instead, we should properly observe codes of conduct regarding knowledge, faith, conduct, and austerities to the fullest and according to our best mental, verbal, and physical capabilities. We should also engage in religious activities as preached by Tirthankar Bhagawan. Anigoohia-Bal-Virio Parakkamai Jo Jahuttamäutto Junjai A Jahäthämam Näyavvo Viriäyäro -Panchächär Sutra When one applies his unrestricted capacity and vigor for practicing the spiritual code, it is known as Viryächär, or the code of exercising vigor. Like Tapächär, Viryachär also is a part of Chariträchär. In view of its importance, however, Jain tradition treats it as a separate part of the spiritual code. For undertaking any activity, one has to exercise energy. This applies to worldly and spiritual aspects. All of us are aware that exercising energy is necessary for gaining anything. However, how many people actually exercise their energy appropriately? While undertaking any activity, most people are overcome by indolence. They are frequently led by the tendency to indulge in lethargy, sluggishness, etc. For instance, a student might be aware that to get a good grade, they need a certain score. However, due to laziness, that student may not put in the required amount of work and not get the grade he has the potential to achieve. Self-motivation and use of one's energy is needed to rise above all obstacles. There is no motivation comparable to self-motivation. If a high degree of self-motivation is required for worldly success, a much higher degree is needed for spiritual purposes. According to the scriptures, the following five causes are the main factors that inhibit the spiritual growth. • Mithyätva or wrong perception • Avirati or absence of restraints • Pramäda or indolence Page 162 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #163 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C06 - Panchächär: Five Codes of Conduct • Kashaya or defilements • Yoga or physical involvement Detailed analysis of these factors would indicate that laxity, laziness and lethargy, which are the principal constituents of indolence, are inherent in these inhibiting factors. Religion emphasizes that the spiritual aspirant should undertake every activity efficiently without indulging in indolence. Five Major types of Vices (Indolence): Vishay Indulgence in sensuous objects like sound, sight, smell, taste and touch Kashäya Anger, Ego or arrogance, deception and greed Vikatha Unnecessary talk pertaining to politics, nation, food, and sensual pleasures Nidrä Excessive sleep or non-alertness Pranay Too much attachment to material objects or people These aspects tend to lead people towards a lethargic path away from the liberation of the soul. Every aspirant is therefore required to avoid all these types of indolence and to practice the spiritual code with vigor and enthusiasm This leads us to an important but controversial issue. Jainism believes in karma and that living beings must bear the consequences of their karma. Is that the same thing as being inactive and just waiting for things to happen? The difference is between Prärabdha and Purushärtha, or destiny vs. endeavor. Let us look at the two in details: Prärabdha, or destiny is usually seen as resulting from Karma, while Purushärtha or endeavor is viewed as the effort to overcome such destiny. Thus, Prärabdha and Purushärtha appear contradict each other. Prärabdha denotes the consequence of our earlier karma, while Purushärtha represents our determination at the present moment. While describing the nature of karma, Jainism does emphasize that undertaking the right kind of Purushärtha can modify the impact of past karma. Thus, our present free will or determination has an edge over the fruits of our past Karma. Viryächär asks us to undertake intensive determination for overcoming the impact of Karma acquired earlier. The implication of the spiritual code thus shows the hollowness of the contention that we are helpless victims of earlier Karmas. Viryachär indicates that all aspects of the spiritual code should be observed with utmost vigor and exercising such vigor is called Purushärtha. 03 Summary In summary, the sole cause of endless cycles of birth and death is the bondage of karma to the soul. For removal of these karmic bondage, Nirjarä is the only way to end these cycles of birth and death and achieve liberation. Proper observation of the codes of conduct is essential. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 163 of 398 Page #164 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C07- Jain Ethics and the Environment C07- Jain Ethics and the Environment 01 Jain Ethics Jainism states that Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and Vegetation, which constitute the five basic elements of our environment, possess life. They possess one sense, which is the sense of touch. Animals and human beings possess all five senses and a mind. The five senses are: touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing. Human beings are also blessed with advanced developed thinking. Therefore, they are responsible for achieving oneness and harmony among all living beings, including the environment, through compassionate living and disciplined behavior. Lord Mahavir's entire life was full of compassion and was an example of how to live in perfect harmony with nature and provide utmost respect for the environment. Lord Mahävir made the following profound statements: "All life is bound together by mutual support and interdependence." This is an ancient Jain scriptural aphorism of Tattvärtha sutra. "One who neglects or disregards the existence of earth, air, fire, water and vegetation, disregards his own existence." • "We harm and kill other lives because of our greed and possessiveness." Since all lives are interconnected, one should realize that if we harm one, we harm all living beings, and greed, possession, and possessiveness are the primary causes of all violence as well as the imbalance in the environment. These ancient statements form the basis of the modern science of ecology. The main theme of Lord Mahävir's teaching: • Ahimsa (Non-violence) is respect for the life of all living beings. • Aparigraha (Non-possession / Non-possessiveness) stems from respect for other lives as well as environment. • Anekäntaväda (Non-one-sidedness/ Open-mindedness) is respect for the views of the other because truth has many sides. 02 Three Cardinal Principles of Conduct Ahimsa (non-violence), Anekäntaväda (multiplicity of views) and Aparigraha (non-possession and nonpossessiveness) are the three cardinal principles of conduct in Jainism. Ahimsa (Compassion / Non-violence) Ahimsa means caring for and sharing with all living beings as well as tending to protecting, and serving them. It entails universal friendliness (Maitri), universal forgiveness (Kshamä), and universal fearlessness (Abhay). The basic tenet of Jainism is "Ahimsa Parmo Dharmah". From an ethical point of view, Dharma means duty. Hence, the tenet indicates that compassion is the supreme duty of an individual. From a religious and philosophical point of view, Dharma means the true nature of a substance. Hence, compassion is the true nature of a human soul. In addition, the Jain dictum "Parasparopagraho Jivänäm" indicates, "Living beings (souls) render service to one another." Hence, the Jain motto is "Live and Help Others to Live." This is called Compassionate Living. Ahimsa is the principle that Jains teach and strive to practice not only towards human beings, but also towards all other living beings, including those in our environment. The scriptures tell us: "Do not injure, abuse, oppress, enslave, insult, torment, torture, or kill any living being including plants, Page 164 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #165 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C07- Jain Ethics and the Environment vegetables. Do not pollute water, air, and earth." The teaching of Ahimsa refers not only to the avoidance of physical acts of violence but also to the avoidance of violence in speech and thoughts. Ahimsa also refers to an active concern and compassion for fellow humans and other living beings. Ancient Jain texts explain that intention to harm or the absence of compassion are what makes actions violent. Ahimsa also has a deeper meaning in the context of one's spiritual advancement. Violence imposed upon others in any form by our body, mind, or speech leads to the bondage of new bad karma, which hinders the soul's spiritual progress. In other words, violence towards others is a violence towards one's own soul because one acquires bad karma, which impedes one's spiritual progress and journey towards liberation Anekäntaväda (Doctrine of Multiplicity of Viewpoints) The concept of universal interdependence underpins the Jain theory of knowledge, known as Anekäntaväda. In this ever-changing universe, an infinite number of viewpoints exist for any situation. These viewpoints depend on the time, place, circumstances, and nature of individuals. Anekäntaväda means acceptance of all viewpoints; which are in accordance with reality, positive in nature, and do not deny any genuine viewpoints. This is also known as non-absolutism. This leads to the doctrine of Syädväda or relativity, which states that the expression of truth is relative to different viewpoints (known as Nayas). What is true from one point of view is open to question from another viewpoint. Absolute truth cannot be grasped from any one particular viewpoint. Absolute truth is the totality of individual (partial) truths from many different viewpoints, even if they seem to contradict each other. However, it takes into account the positive viewpoints of other human beings, other communities, and other nations, leading to interdependent coexistence. Characteristics of Anekäntaväda: • Equanimity towards all • A strong urge to seek the whole truth Belief in many possibilities and acceptance that the truth can consist of seemingly opposing views • Consideration the truth expressed by oneself is a partial truth and accepting truth even if it is expressed by adversaries A deeper understanding of Anekäntaväda and Syädväda provides great insight into the problems of human interactions that cause conflict, grief, envy, and hatred. Similarly, it is highly applicable in understanding social problems and national strife. More importantly, these doctrines also provide ways of resolving global differences and conflicts. Aparigraha (Non-possession) Jain ascetics have no possessions. Similarly, Jainism advocates that lay followers should minimize their desire for accumulation of possessions. This will help one's spiritual progress. Giving charitable donations and one's own time for social and religious projects is a part of a Jain householder's obligations. This sense of social obligation cultivated from religious teachings has led Jains to establish and maintain innumerable schools, colleges, hospitals, clinics, orphanages, relief and rehabilitation camps for the handicapped, old, sick, and the disadvantaged as well as hospitals for ailing birds and animals. Wants should be reduced, desires should be curtailed and consumption levels should be kept within reasonable limits. Using any resource beyond one's needs and misuse of any part of nature is considered a form of theft. The Jain faith also declares that waste and creating pollution are acts of violence. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 165 of 398 Page #166 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C07- Jain Ethics and the Environment Summary • Ahimsa supersedes all concepts, ideologies, rules, customs and practices, whether they are traditional or modern, eastern or western, political or economical, self-centered or social. Non-violence is guarded by truthfulness, non-stealing, chastity and non-possessiveness. Anekäntaväda stops the violence of thought and speech. Anekäntaväda is also called the intelligent expression of Ahimsa. • Aparigraha (non-possession) stems from respect for other lives and the environment. 03 Survival of Life vs Ethical Living It is not possible to sustain human life with absolute non-violence and absolute non possession. To live a life, one needs food, minimal clothes, and shelter. Hence, the destruction of living beings are unfortunately essential for human survival. The goal of Jainism is to live our human life with minimum violence to other living beings and the environment. Principle of Minimum Violence for Human Survival: A living being with all five senses (animals, birds, and fish etc.) feels maximum pain and their destruction involves greater violence. Killing many-sensed beings has greater negative impact on the environment. A living being with one sense (plants, vegetables, water, air, earth etc.) feels minimum pain and its destruction involves minimum violence and produces a minimum negative impact to the environment. Hence, Jainism advocates vegetarianism and is against raising animals for food for ethical, spiritual, and environmental reasons. 04 Ethical Living and Dairy Products Violence in the Dairy Industry All Jains believe in vegetarianism and most Jains are vegetarians. Hence it is of no value to the Jain community at large to discuss cruelty to animals and death inflicted by the meat industry. However, a majority of Jains consume dairy products. Because animals are not directly killed during the milking operation, these Jains justify that their consumption of dairy products is not in violation of the fundamental principle of Ahimsa. This may be true in olden times for the following reasons: For our survival, a cow's milk was essential because crop production was not enough to feed the entire human population. The cows were taken care of as if they were family members, and only excess milk was consumed, after cows had fed their calves. Today, the output of modern agricultural production is such that it can feed the entire world several times over. Also, the dairy industry is commercialized. Dairy cows are treated as milk producing machines. It inflicts terrible cruelty on cows. As there is a huge demand for dairy products, modern dairy industries have to raise animals on a mass scale. Raising large numbers of animals for food creates a significant ethical problem and environmental imbalance because it involves a significantly greater use of natural resources than for the equivalent amount of plant food. The cruelty to animals and the impact on the environment by this industry is unimaginable. The following list summarizes some of the violence (Himsa) inflicted on animals used in the production of dairy products. These problems exist in large factory farms of the U.S. or Europe as well as in the small dairy farms in India (or anywhere else in the world). I speak from experience; have visited several large dairy farms in USA and many small dairy farms in India and observed these practices. Page 166 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #167 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C07- Jain Ethics and the Environment Cows are kept pregnant all the time. They may be subject to artificial insemination and other practices that ensure the maximum production of milk. Approximately 80% of baby calves are sold to the veal or beef industry, where they are slaughtered between the ages of six months to three years in the West. Sometimes, in several village in India, farmers let the male calf die of hunger (I have observed this practice in our holy city of Palitana). Milk cows are sold to slaughterhouses after five to six years of age when their milk production drops more than 30% (this is true in India more than 95% of the time). The life expectancy of a dairy cow is 15 to 20 years. Hormones and antibiotics are fed or injected daily to increase milk yield (except in organic dairy farms). Almost all small dairies in India also use hormones and antibiotics. Since cows are continuously kept pregnant and also fed or injected daily with hormones and antibiotics, they produce about three times more milk than what they would produce normally and naturally (about 80 years ago). In other words, the cow's body has to work 3 times more to produce such a large quantity of milk. In this way, farmers try to meet the growing demand of dairy products without increasing the number of cows. After about five years of this intense stress, the cow's body breaks down and her milk production drops significantly. At this time, she is sent to a slaughterhouse (legally in the western world and in most cases illegally in India.) There are many illegal slaughterhouses in India. I have visited a few of them in Ahmedabad and other places. Less than 1.0% of cows end-up in the cow shelter place known as "Panjarapol" in India. Organic Dairy Farm The organic dairy farm is generally smaller than the huge factory-style farm. It does not use antibiotics, pesticides, and hormones on the cows. There are no additives added into the milk. However, these farms also practice the following: • Keep cows continually pregnant • Sell approximately 80% of calves to the veal or beef industry • Sell cows to slaughterhouses after five or six years Therefore, organic milk is almost as cruel as regular milk. 05 Jainism and the Environment What does Jainism teach about ecology? The ancient Jain scriptural aphorism "Parasparopagraho Jivänäm" (all life is bound together by mutual support and interdependence) forms the basis of the modern day science of ecology. This ancient Jain principle teaches that all of nature is bound together, and says that if one does not care for nature, one does not care for oneself. It is logical that for our own wellbeing, we need to respect our environment and look after it. According to Jainism, living beings are not only plants and animals, but the air, water, and earth also contain living, sentient beings. The environment is, therefore, an enormous living system. Under the principle of non-violence, it is our duty as Jains to protect the environment. Many modern Jains concern themselves primarily with direct forms of Ahimsä, such as not eating meat and not killing small insects. Jainism, however, demands that we also consider indirect forms of Ahimsä. Indirect Ahimsä is sometimes more difficult to incorporate into our daily lives because we often do not immediately see the consequences of our actions, which could be very violent and destructive to the environment. In order to practice indirect Ahimsä, the first step is to become aware of environmental problems and the simple things we can do to help. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 167 of 398 Page #168 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C07- Jain Ethics and the Environment Summary In summary, the teachings of Jainism advocate the following practices in daily life: Respect the lives of others and the environment we live in. Be compassionate and practice non-violence. Minimize harm to all living beings including air, water, earth, fire, and vegetation. Be vegetarian and avoid the use of animal-based products. Practice self-restraint. Reduce needs and wants as much as possible. Use excess for the welfare of the society. Eliminate waste, reuse/ recycle products, share resources, and do not waste the gifts of nature. Jainism in action is an eco-friendly religion which preserves and protects the Earth and environment, respects the lives of animals, birds, fish, and other beings, and promotes the welfare of the society through the application of its primary tenets of Ahimsä and Non-possessiveness. The Three Rs of Recycling 1. REDUCE: When you reduce the amount of garbage you throw away, you are helping the environment. Less garbage means less waste that will have to be disposed of at a landfill or incineration site. That, in turn, produces less pollution. Here's how you can help reduce during your next shopping trip: Look for products that use only enough packaging to ensure quality. Those that have many layers of plastic, foil, or other wrappings for no reason are a waste of resources. Buy the largest size package whenever you can. You usually get more for your money, because you get more product and less packaging. Buy concentrated forms of beverages, soaps, household cleaners, and fabric softeners whenever you can. By adding water yourself, you can save money and reuse containers 2. REUSE: Using products or packages more than once is a great way to reduce the flow of garbage. Here are a few tips for you to follow: Search for products that are designed to be used many times, such as fabric grocery bags, ceramic mugs and rechargeable batteries. Save boxes, bags, tins, jars, and plastic containers. You can usually find innovative ways to reuse these items in your home, garage, or office. Give away any unwanted clothing you may have. Instead of throwing old clothing away, give it to a relative, a friend, or a charity. 3. RECYCLE: Recycling is the collection and re-processing of materials into new, usable products. Right now, paper, glass, steel, aluminum and plastic are the most recycled items in the United States. Most communities choose to have residents' recyclables picked up curb side by their town's sanitation department. Others have instituted voluntary drop-off programs which require residents to take recyclables to a designated recycling center in or near their town Either way, the various materials wind up at a recycling center. At the center, these materials are separated and made available to manufacturers who clean them and make new products out of them. Page 168 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #169 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C07- Jain Ethics and the Environment To further support recycling, all you need to do is purchase products made from your recyclables. By reducing, reusing, and recycling, you will be supporting this environmental process. Environmental Concerns: Climate Change Climate change refers to the gradual warming of the earth's atmosphere due to increased emissions of noxious gases in the air. These gases trap heat on the earth's surface and are expected to increase the earth's average temperature by 8-10 degrees in the next 50-100 years. One of the most serious effects of climate change is rising sea levels. As temperatures increase, water expands, and many polar ice caps could melt. This could result in a critical loss of coastal land; lowlying areas like Florida and Louisiana could become completely flooded, and entire countries like Bangladesh and many small islands could be wiped off the map. The loss of coastal land is especially scary with regards to the exponentially increasing population rates around the world, especially in developing countries like Thailand, India, and Mexico. Land area is shrinking, but the population is growing. Natural resources that are already scarce will face increasing pressure. The potential loss of land caused by global warming will likely worsen the quality of life for millions of people and further endanger the status of our environment. Climate change is also expected to interrupt many natural ecosystems. Plants and animals adjusted to certain types of climates may find it hard to survive in new environments and may subsequently, face extinction. Causes of climate change Climate change is mostly caused by the emission of certain gases (like carbon dioxide), called greenhouse gases, into the atmosphere. The most damaging sources of greenhouse gas emissions are automobiles and fuel-burning power plants. Tropical forests are extremely effective in absorbing carbon dioxide, but as nearly one acre of forestland is cleared every minute, greenhouse gases are collecting in the atmosphere at a rate too fast for the remaining forestland to control. What can we do to control climate change? The United States is the world's biggest contributor of greenhouse gases. On average, an American uses about twice as much "dirty" energy as most Western Europeans and about 50 times more than a person living in India. Although US energy use is, in part, a major political issue, there are many things we can do to help clean up our air and control global warming. The world's 1.3 billion cows annually produce 100 million tons of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, which traps 25 times as much solar heat as carbon dioxide. Vegetarianism will significantly reduce the production of greenhouse gases. Reduce gasoline use. Try to drive as little as possible, using alternative modes of transport like walking, biking, carpooling, and public transport. When you do have to drive, use the cleanest gasoline available. Encourage the use of a small engine, fuel efficient cars, and public transportation when available. Reduce energy use. Use lower watt light bulbs like 20 or 25 watts instead of 80 watt or halogen bulbs. Turn off lights and all electric gadgets when not in use. When shopping for appliances, make sure you ask the salesman to show you the most energy efficient options. Use fans instead of A/C, as fans use only about 1/10 the amount of energy as A/C. Make sure your house is not losing lots of heat through cracks and window leaks. This will not only reduce your monthly electric bill, but will also help keep our air clean and control global warming! Agricultural Problems and Forest Loss The vast majority of the world's population are farmers who produce the food that we eat. Feeding the world's people, however, has become quite a contentious issue over the past 50 years, since many modern agricultural techniques damage the environment. One of the most serious consequences of agricultural production is the loss of forests. The vast majority of commercial farms today are monoculture plantations. This means that one farm grows just one crop. What usually happens is several hundred acres of forestland are cleared for farmland. The land, once rich with thousands of different species of plants and animals, is replaced with rows of corn. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 169 of 398 Page #170 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C07- Jain Ethics and the Environment 06 Summary and Recommendations The Jain Way of Life is very ethical and respects and honors the Earth and the environment. Our scriptures indicate that we need to practice our religion based on time, place, and the environment that we live in. In other words, we should practice our religion by using our wisdom in a way that we do not kill or exploit animals for our survival. A cow is tortured (kept pregnant, fed or injected with hormones and antibiotics) during their milk production cycle and almost all dairy cows are slaughtered after five or six years of their life even though their life expectancy is 15 to 20 years. It seems that the cruelty that exist in milk production is as bad as meat production. From the point of view of environmental degradation, all animal-based products (milk, leather, silk, and wool) cause significant harm to the environment relative to plant-based products. Both Shvetämbar and Digambar sects use milk and milk products in temple rituals. This is an ancient tradition. We should reevaluate the usage of dairy products (ghee for ärati, milk and sweets for puja, etc.) in temple. Our scriptures indicate that no tradition is to be followed blindly. The highest Jain principle of non-violence (hurting or killing of five sensed animals) should not be compromised under any circumstances. Milk and other products represent certain religious symbols in Jain rituals. However, the product we use in the rituals must be of a non-violent source. The intention of our rituals is to inspire us to grow spiritually. The net outcome of the rituals should result in the reduction of our ego, greed, anger, lust, and attachments. Milk and other dairy products, which involve such violence, cannot help us grow spiritually. In our rituals, we should substitute regular milk with simple water, soya bean milk, or almond milk. Vegetable oil should be substituted for ghee which is used in Deevo, and dry nuts can replace various types of sweets. We should serve only vegan (strict vegetarian) meals during any religious function. Please remember that if we consume dairy products for our personal use, we are responsible individually for our actions and the resulting karma or sins. However, if we use dairy products in temples and religious functions, it is as if the entire community commits the sin. For this reason, we do not use root vegetables in religious programs even though more than 95% of Jains of North America consume root vegetables at home. Almost all Jain youth (YJA and YJP youth) of North America accept the fact that extreme cruelty to cows exist in the dairy industry and that the usage of dairy products in religious functions grossly violates our basic principles of Ahimsa. About 15% of Jain youth are vegan. The New York Times reports that, mostly for ethical reasons, more than six million Americans are vegan. 07 Jain Conduct and its Relevance to Modern Times The principles of Jainism, if properly understood in their right perspective and faithfully adhered to have great relevance for modern times. They also advocate a path of minimum violence, minimum accumulation of possessions and nonattachment, and the practice of self-restraint. These principles can bring contentment, inner happiness, and joy in the present life through spiritual development based on freedom from passions and kindness towards all beings. Non-violence (Ahimsa) which strengthens the autonomy of life everywhere, non-absolutism (Anekäntaväda) which strengthens autonomy of thoughts and speech, and non-possessiveness (Aparigraha) which strengthens autonomy of interdependence, are the three realistic principles which strengthen our belief that every living being has a right to existence. These principles translate into three practices: • One should not kill • One should not trample others' thoughts Page 170 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #171 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C07- Jain Ethics and the Environment • One should not trample nature If we truly adopt these three ideas then there will be: • No acts of war • No economic exploitation • No environmental and ecological destruction In summary, to live a proper ethical life and to protect the environment we should: • Establish universal friendship and peace through non-violence • Practice compassionate living by respecting the lives of other beings and the environment we live in • Establish true social equality based on non-acquisitiveness and non-possession Reconcile differences between diverse religious faiths, political parties, and communal and racial factions through the philosophies of pluralism or non-absolutism • Promote ecological conservation through the values of an austere life-style, non-possessiveness, and self-restraint Practice a pure Vegetarian / Vegan lifestyle by avoiding all animal-based foods and products. This includes all dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, ghee, ice-cream, and meat, fish, eggs, honey, leather shoes, fur, silk, and pearls Reduce needs and wants as much as possible and minimize consumption Do not waste the gifts of nature. Reuse and recycle all products and share resources Nature provides enough for our need and not enough for our greed Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 171 of 398 Page #172 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C08 - Application of Nonviolence C08 - Application of Nonviolence 01 Introduction Vegetarianism is has been a principle of health and environmental ethics throughout India for thousands of years. It remains, to this day, a cardinal ethic of Jain thought and practices. Each form of life, even water and trees, possesses consciousness and energy. Nonviolence, (Ahimsa), the primary basis of vegetarianism, has long been central to several religious traditions of India, especially Jainism. More than twenty-five hundred years ago, Lord Mahävir made a simple yet profound statement: "All of life is just like me. I want to live and so do all souls. The instinct of self-preservation is universal. Every living being clings to life and fears death. Each one of us wants to be free from pain. So let me carry out all my activities with great care so that I am not harmful to any living being." The philosophy of nonviolence should be firmly incorporated in our daily life. Non-violence is more than refraining from violence; it is a deep reverence for all life. Jainism defines internal violence as violent thoughts (Bhäva Himsä) and external violence as violence committed by speech or actions (Dravya Himsä). There is a causal relation between internal and external violence. In most instances, external violence is caused by anger, jealousy, or unfulfilled ambitions. In reality, however, the result of such an act of violence, we hurt ourselves the most. Before putting anyone down, judging others, or treating anyone as an inferior being, we must examine ourselves. Before buying or using any product, we must ask, "By my action, am I causing any living being to pay a price in pain? Directly or indirectly, am I destroying any life?" From the moment this awareness becomes a part of our daily lives, a vegetarian way of life becomes a natural outcome of inner understanding. By doing everything we can to minimize violence, we enjoy living with a pure consciousness and a clean conscience. As an added benefit, we are able to live a longer and healthier life. Jain philosophy emphasizes being vigilant in our thoughts, speech, and all activities to minimize the harm we cause to other living beings and to direct our actions and intentions to revere all forms of life. This requires vigilance, awareness of motives, and fearlessness to live in tune with nature's laws. The underlying feeling should be not to arouse fear in any living being, but to demonstrate love and compassion. It is true that just by breathing, using water, walking, and cutting trees, we are destroying living beings, but the underlying emphasis and awareness should always be to minimize the harm we cause to living beings. The more developed the senses of a living being are, the more that living being can feel pain. Since fish, birds, and animals have a well-developed sense of pain, we must refuse to be a cause to their agony and pain. We must not use or exploit animals and other living beings for our selfish pleasures and benefits. All animals cling to life, struggle to survive, and fear pain and death. We must feel for their helplessness in the face of man's gluttony, greed, and callousness. We must do everything we can so that they live unmolested. We must realize that every fruit, leaf, or grain that ends up on our plate had to lose its life in order to give us life. But the sad fact is that without plants, we cannot survive. What Do Vegetarians Eat? The staples of a vegetarian diet are grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds. Protein can easily be obtained through a variety of grains and legumes. Fiber and essential vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates can be obtained from many raw vegetables, and green leafy vegetables are especially rich in iron. Do Vegetarians Eat Dairy and Eggs? Vegetarians who use dairy products are called lacto-vegetarians. Those who do not even use dairy products are called vegans. Nowadays, production and procurement of dairy foods milk, butter, ghee, ice-cream, cheese, etc involve significant cruelty, which vegetarians and vegans should refuse to support. The dairy industry is inherently linked to the meat industry. When female cows stop giving milk or reduce their milk quantity at a certain age, they are sent to the meat industry for slaughtering. If they give birth to a male calf, the calf is raised on an iron-deficient diet to make tender meat known as veal. One should not consume any dairy products in order to avoid cruelty to animals. Page 172 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #173 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C08 - Application of Nonviolence In poultry farms, chickens are considered no better than egg producing machines. They are housed in small congested cages known as chicken havens. Due to shortage of space, they naturally become violent, offensive, obsessed, and quarrelsome. They attack one another in a barbarous manner. To prevent them from fighting and wounding one another, they are de-beaked (to remove the upper beak of a bird to prevent egg eating or attacks on other bird). Due to de-beaking, they are unable to even drink water. A fertilized egg is the prenatal stage of a chicken. To eat fertilized eggs is like consuming a chicken before its birth. Unfertilized eggs are the result of the asexual cycle of chicken and are produced in very unnatural ways. Unfertilized eggs are also animate because they are born out of chicken's body with its blood and cells. These eggs are also produced with cruel treatment of the chickens. No egg, fertilized or unfertilized, is produced without violence. Both are non-vegetarian foods. 02 Animal Cruelty and Ecological Impact Planet Earth is suffering. The escalating loss of species, destruction of ancient rain forests to create pasturelands for livestock, loss of topsoil, and the consequent increase in water impurities and air pollution have all been traced to non-vegetarian foods in the human diet. No single decision that we make as individuals or as a race can have such a dramatic effect on the improvement of our ecology as the decision to not eat non-vegetarian food. Many seeking to save the planet for future generations have made this decision for this reason alone. The choice of a vegetarian/vegan diet is an expression of a sincere consideration for the ecology of the planet as well. In addition, there are billions of starving people who can be fed only if the raising of livestock was stopped. Consider these facts: Slaughtering of Animals in USA Cattle 130,000 slaughtered per day Calves 7, 000 slaughtered per day Hogs 360,000 slaughtered per day Chickens 24,000,000 slaughtered per day 03 Ecological Impact of Non-vegetarianism Water Consumption Livestock (cattle, calves, hogs, and pigs) production accounts for more than half of all the water consumed in USA. To produce 1 lb. of meat, an average of 2500 gallons of water is used as compared to 1 lb. of wheat, which requires 108 gallons of water, 1 lb. of rice, which needs 229 gallons of water, and 1 lb. of potatoes, which requires just 60 gallons of water. It also creates significant amounts of waste and environmental imbalance. The waste released in the environment by the United States meat and dairy industry is about 230,000 pounds per second, polluting our land, air and water systems, as reported by the USDA. Slaughtering animals requires hundreds of millions of gallons of water every day. The waste in these places, estimated at about two billion tons a year, mostly ends up in waterways, polluting water, killing thousands of fish, and creating a human health problem. Thus, we should avoid the consumption of all animal products like meat, poultry, dairy, and seafood. Land Usage A third of the surface of North America is devoted to grazing. Considering the consumption of food by live stock. An average of 40 lbs of vegetation is used to produce 1 lb. of meat. Half of American croplands grow livestock feed for meat and dairy products. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 173 of 398 Page #174 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C08 - Application of Nonviolence 2% of US cropland produces fruits and vegetables, while 64% of US cropland is for producing livestock feed. One acre of prime land can grow 5, 000 lb. cherries, 10,000 lb. green beans, 30,000 lb. carrots, 40,000 lb. potatoes, or 50,000 lb. tomatoes versus only 250 lb. beef. 220 million acres of land in the USA 25 million acres in Brazil, and half the forests in Central America have been de-forested for livestock production. 85% of annual US topsoil loss is directly associated with raising livestock. Cost Comparison The cost of raw materials consumed to produce food from livestock is greater than the value of all oil, gas, and coal consumed in America. Growing grains, vegetables, and fruits uses less than 5% as much raw materials as does meat and dairy production. 2 calories of fossil fuel are used for 1 calorie of protein from soybeans, while 78 calories of fossil fuel are used for 1 calorie of beef. 6.9 kg of grain and soy are used to make 1 kg of boneless trimmed pork. DIET FOR A NEW AMERICA By John Robbins If Americans reduced their meat/dairy intake by just 10%, the savings in grains and soybeans could feed 60 million people per year, which is the total number of people who starve to death worldwide. 04 Abstinence from Drinking Alcoholic Beverages For observing the vow of non-violence (Ahimsa Vrata), it is specifically laid down that a person should renounce drinking alcohol. According to the sacred text of Purushärtha Siddhi Upaya, "alcohol stupefies the mind; one whose mind is stupefied forgets piety; and the person who forgets piety commits violence without hesitation." Again, it is important to understand that drinking liquor leads to the commitment of violence because liquor is the reservoir of many lives which are born in alcohol. Similarly, it is significant that many dishonorable passions like anger, pride, deceit, greed, fear, disgust, ridicule, grief, boredom, and lust arise due to the inhibition of senses while drinking liquor and these passions are nothing but different aspects of violence. From the aspect of Ahimsa, in wine making, a clarifying agent, usually an animal byproduct, is added to make wine clear by removing proteins from it. These clarifying agents are egg white, gelatin from skin and connective tissue of pigs and cows, isinglass from bladder of sturgeon fish, and casein from milk. Some old Mediterranean countries use the blood of mammals for this purpose as well. Ethical reasons: Ächärya Samantabhadra, in the book of codes of conduct of a Shrävak, describes not consuming alcohol as one of the eight qualities of a shrävaks. Other Jain Scriptures also list alcohol consumption as one of the seven addictive vices. Alcohol is a mind altering drug, a depressant that alters mental faculty leading to impaired judgment and memory. Under the influence of alcohol, one indulges in emotions of anger, ego, aggression, lust, etc. One can see that any mind altering substance will lead to carelessness (Pramäda) which in turn lead to influx of inauspicious karmas. According to Jain principles, consumption of alcohol and mind altering substances: Does not allow us to follow the five vows Does not allow us to have full control over the four passions Leads to influx of karmas due to carelessness (Pramada) Involves violence to more than one-sensed beings as it takes a lot more than 48 hours of the fermentation process, and many alcohols contain products from living beings that have more than one sense Page 174 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #175 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C08 - Application of Nonviolence Medical reasons: Alcohol injures every cell it comes in contact with. With every drink of alcohol, one loses brain cells leading to chronic memory loss and possibly Alzheimer's disease. It enhances GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. It weakens glutamine, an excitatory neurotransmitter. The net result is sluggishness or decreased mental faculty and therefore alcohol is classified as a central nervous system depressant. Alcohol causes cirrhosis of liver, esophageal cancer, pancreatitis, malnutrition, accidents, suicides, and many other diseases. One also has trouble with his/her senses, including a feeling of numbness, blurred vision, and trouble with hearing and taste. Social reasons: 8% of the US population suffers from alcohol abuse and/or alcohol dependence. This number does not include social drinkers. The human brain has the power to think, analyze, and speak. Alcohol alters all three. This is the basic cause of alcohol-related social problems including domestic violence, aggressive behavior, anger, violence, sexual abuse and rape, broken families, ruined careers, and binge drinking and its associated problems. 05 Refraining from Consumption of Honey Along with refraining from consumption of alcoholic beverages and meat, refraining from consumption of honey is also very important for following the vow of nonviolence. The use of honey invariably entails the destruction of life of bees. It is also clear that even if a person uses honey obtained without killing honeybees, it still involves violence because living beings are still killed which are spontaneously born within the honey. It is important to note that it takes nearly a million bees to create 1 pound of honey. 06 Conscious Consumer The three fundamental principles of Jainism are Ahimsä (non-violence), Anekantaväda (multiplicity of view-points) and Aparigraha (non-attachment/non-possessiveness). If, in a 3-legged stool, one leg is broken, the stool will fall. The leg we will pay the most attention to and try to fix is the broken one. Ahimsä is one of the main tenets of Jainism and the one that affects all forms of life: those that can speak for themselves-(human beings), and those that cannot (animals and plants.) Followers of Ahimsä make sure that they do not hurt animals or are not involved in the killing of animals for any reason. If one asks a little child, "Where does meat come from?" The answer is often the supermarket. It is easy to explain that meat, fish, lobsters, etc. come directly from killing living beings. It is often difficult, however, to find out where all the ingredients of a product came from or how the product was tested. For example, shampoos do not specify where all the ingredients came from (animal by-products or not). They also do not mention whether they have tested these products on animals like rabbits. Often, shampoo drops are put in their eyes to see if they tear up. Would we use a shampoo like that? Probably not! As educated consumers, we try to understand where these things come from. When someone gives us something, we ask, "What is it? If someone asks us to eat something, askew ask. "What is it?" In the same way, if we are asked to use a product, we should also ask, "Where does it come from?" As Jains, we should make a conscious effort to avoid all forms of animal exploitation, harm, and cruelty. This may include avoidance of all animal-based food products including animal and fish flesh, dairy products, gelatin, and many other foods. This also includes not wearing clothes containing animalderived ingredients like leather, silk, and fur, and avoiding usage of any household products that have been tested on animals like many soaps, shampoos, cosmetics, etc. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 175 of 398 Page #176 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C08 - Application of Nonviolence We Jains are grounded in spiritual values and strive to align our actions with our beliefs. The natural extension of our strong belief in Ahimsä should be taken beyond just foods. Eggs These days, the poultry industry has been marketing eggs as vegetarian food. It claims that since the eggs are unfertilized, they would never hatch into a chick, and hence they have no life. It is true that the eggs produced by the commercial poultry industry are unfertilized. However, they cannot be deemed as cruelty free. By consuming eggs we support an industry that involves a significant amount of cruelty and inhumane treatment of birds. Different birds are used for egg production. Chicks are hatched at hatcheries, raised in pullet barns for about 19 weeks, and then transferred to the "laying hen barn" for their egg production life. The average laying hen produces more than 300 eggs a year. Hens begin egg production at five to six months of age and continue to lay eggs for at least 12 months. Wild birds lay only in the springtime when daylight hours are increasing. To stimulate "laying hens" to lay eggs all year round, bright lighting in the barn is maintained for 14 to 17 hours a day. Small groups of three to five hens are kept in cages. The cages are built at an angle so eggs automatically roll out for collection and are gathered twice a day. They are then packed and refrigerated on the farm, ready for delivery to the grading station. In the U.S., approximately 300 million egg-laying hens are confined in battery cages. These are small wire cages stacked in tiers and lined up in rows in huge warehouses. The USDA recommends giving each hen four inches of 'feeder space', which means the agency would advise packing 3 hens in a cage just 12 inches wide. The birds cannot stretch their wings or legs, and they cannot fulfill normal behavioral patterns or social needs. Constantly rubbing against the wire cages results in severe feather loss and bruises and abrasions. Practically all laying hens have part of their beaks cut off in order to reduce injuries resulting from excessive pecking, (an aberrant behavior which occurs when the confined hens are bored and frustrated). Debeaking is a painful procedure which involves cutting through bone, cartilage, and soft tissue. Once they are debeaked, they have difficulty drinking water. Laying about 300 eggs per year, the bodies of these hens are severely taxed. They suffer from "fatty liver syndrome" when their liver cells, which work overtime to produce the fat and protein for egg yolks, accumulate extra fat. They also suffer from what the industry calls "cage layer fatigue", and many die of "egg bound" when their bodies are too weak to pass another egg. After one year in egg production, the birds are classified as "spent hens" (hens that cannot lay anymore eggs). They are then sent off to slaughterhouses. They usually end up in soups, potpies, or similar low-grade chicken meat products where their bodies can be shredded to hide the bruises from consumers. The hens' brittle, calcium-depleted bones often shatter during handling and/or at the slaughterhouse. For every egg-laying hen confined in a battery cage, there is a male chick that was killed at the hatchery. Because egg-laying chickens have been selected exclusively for maximum egg production, they don't grow fast enough or large enough to be raised profitably for meat. Therefore, male chicks of egg-laying breeds are of no economic value. They are literally discarded on the day they hatch usually by the least expensive and most convenient means available. They may be thrown in trash cans where they are suffocated or crushed under the weight of others. Pearls In the olden days, lustrous and beautiful natural pearls were a symbol of wealth and pride for those who owned them. For those who care about Ahimsä, the pearl is a symbol of pain and suffering. Pearls are a response to an irritation caused by a foreign particle. It naturally occurs when sand or a bit of a shell is accidentally trapped inside the oyster. It is like having a foreign particle in the human eye, causing irritation until it is removed. Generally, the oyster cannot expel the foreign particle. To reduce the pain, it secretes a substance called nacre, which surrounds the particle. After several Page 176 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #177 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT years layers of nacre forms a pearl around the particle, making it less painful. Due to this natural process, pearls were rarely found. C08 - Application of Nonviolence To avoid waiting for natural pearls, humans started searching for young oysters in the deep ocean to make cultured pearls. A short while after the oysters are removed from the sea, an artificial irritant - a nucleus graft - is inserted in them. The nucleated oysters are returned to the sea in specific areas so that they can be retrieved later. Here the oysters feed and grow depositing lustrous layers of nacre around their nuclei to avoid the pain of a foreign particle. After a period of 3 to 4 months, the oysters are ready for harvest. They are brought ashore and opened with sterile instruments. Sometimes the oysters are used several times before they are bruised and can no longer be used. Then they are thrown away. The Oyster There once was an oyster whose story I tell Who found that some sand had got into his shell. It was only a grain, but it gave him great pain. Oysters have feelings even though they're so plain. Now, did he berate the harsh workings of fate that had brought him to such a deplorable state? Did he curse at the government, cry for election And claim that the sea should give him protection? "No, "he said to himself as he lay on a shell "Since I cannot remove it, I shall try to improve it." The years went on, and the small grain of sand that had bothered him so turned into a beautiful pearl, richly aglow. Now the tale has a moral- for isn't it grand what an oyster can do with just a morsel of sand? What couldn't we do if we'd only work on dealing with with some of the things that get under our skin? Silk Most of us use silk material and silk products because they look very elegant and draw attention from others. However, while enjoying different kinds of silk, we may not realize or we may be ignoring what goes on behind the scenes to obtain this material. We Jains, the believers of Ahimsä, should understand how silk is obtained. The life cycle and life history of the silk worm is a very important part of this formula. It starts with the silk moth laying eggs. Each moth lays somewhere between 300 to 600 eggs. Once the eggs are laid, the silk moth usually dies. The eggs are held in cold storage for some time. In the early parts of each spring these eggs are put into incubators. An incubator is a hot chamber, maintained at a certain temperature, suitable for the growth and subsequent hatching of the eggs. After 20 days of incubation, these eggs hatch and tiny silkworms emerge. They are about 1⁄2 inch in the beginning. The worms are kept in very clean trays. These silkworms have very large appetites. They are fed fresh mulberry leaves and these tiny worms grow into fat worms about three inches long and one inch thick. To get these mulberry leaves for the worms the farmers grow them for this specific purpose. These worms look very adorable. The worms are put in baskets filled with mulberry leaves. They eat continuously and grow fat. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 177 of 398 Page #178 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C08 - Application of Nonviolence When they stop growing, they are transferred to different wooden baskets with spiral compartments filled with stems of straws and twigs. Here, the worms have very little space to move. To attach themselves to the twigs, the worms spin a web. While moving around, the worms secrete a gum-like fluid that hardens the silk threads together. After spinning for about 3 days, a cocoon formation is completed around the worm. Now the worms change into a pupa that lives inside the cocoon. They mature until they become moths which can emerge out of the cocoon. If the pupas were allowed to have their natural life, they would grow inside the cocoon to a silk moth in about 3 weeks. However, they are not allowed to reach this stage because when the worms break the cocoon, the silk threads are broken into small fragments. These fragmented threads cannot be used to make silk yarns. To produce 100 grams of elegant silk yarn, about 1, 500 pupas have to be killed. Therefore, we can calculate how many pupas would have to be killed to obtain different silk products for human pleasure- maybe 1,000; 2, 000; 5, 000; 10,000; or more! Some people gather large numbers of cocoons in wooden baskets and put them in boiling water for a certain period of time. Other people put the large baskets of cocoons in heat chambers for some time. Silkworm pupas have to die so humans can wear silk. This is not the end of story of the silk moth. To harvest healthy moths and to preserve high quality of silk threads, the moths have to go through different types of treatments in labs. If we touch a hot pot or stick our finger in hot water, it hurts. We get blisters and need a lot of love and care to make the hurt feel better. Imagine your entire body being put into an oven or in boiling water! We Jains, believers of Ahimsä, have many more choices of what to wear. Clothes only cover our bodies; our inner beauty is of importance and what counts. Are we willing to take responsibility for all the four-sensed beings killed just to wear one outfit? The choice is ours: whether we care or not for the pupas that have to be killed to make silk. The more aware we are of the violence involved and the more we choose to ignore it, the more the karma becomes a part of our soul. We have a choice; the pupas do not! Varakh Varakh is silver foil used for decorating Indian sweets. But to prepare this Varakh some body parts of cattle/ox are used. The process makes use of intestines of cattle or ox that are obtained from the slaughterhouse. This is obtained after killing the cattle/ox for beef. The intestines are pulled out of the animal and handed over to the manufacturers of Varakh. Before handing over the intestines, they are washed in the slaughterhouse to get rid of the blood and mucus in the limited facility that is present in the slaughterhouse. We are not sure how well they are cleaned. Intestines are cut into small pieces and bound together like pages in a notebook. Silver pieces are placed in the middle of these bound intestines, and the whole thing is placed in a leather bag and sealed. Experts, who know how to make Varakh, hammer the bag with wooden sticks until the entire bag flattens out. The silver piece would be flattened into silver foil. This silver foil is separated from the intestine pack and placed between pieces of paper. This is Varakh - ready for use. Even staunch vegetarians, who shy away from eggs, unknowingly consume this as a part of sweets, pän, supäri, and fruits. Idols of Tirthankars are covered with varakh when they are adorned. The silver-topped sweets are even served as prasäd in temples and religious occasions. Some unknowingly consume this because of the additional taste that Varakh supposedly provides. Now the question is "Why the intestines of the cattle/ox? Why not use something else?" The reason behind using the intestines of the cattle/ox for preparing Varakh is because of the elasticity of the intestines. They do not break or tear even after severe pounding. In India, estimates indicate that 2, 75, 000 kilos of "Varakh" are consumed. Can you estimate how many cattle and ox are sacrificed for just a bit of taste? Page 178 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #179 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C08 - Application of Nonviolence 07 Summary Jainism prohibits all kinds of intoxicants and stimulants. Though violence is unavoidable in the sustenance of life, Jainism, by rules of conduct, limits any violence to the bare minimum for the purpose of sustaining life. The rules of conduct never sanction injury, but they restrict it to the lowest possible minimum by taking into account the level of development of the injured living beings. The higher the stage of development of the injured being is, the closer it has approached the state of perfection, and the more sin is committed. Thus, from a practical point of view, the sin of hurting a plant is smaller than that of hurting an animal; the sin of hurting an animal is smaller than that of hurting a human being, etc. From this standpoint, it can be understood why Jainism forbids flesh-eating and, on the other hand, allows consumption of vegetables. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 179 of 398 Page #180 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C09 - Jain Yoga C09 - Jain Yoga 01 Introduction Yoga is defined as a systematic effort to balance and direct various levels of one's own energy for selfperfection. It is also defined as a union of the human individual with the its existence. This does not refer only to the physical body, but the entire being, including intellectual and emotional processes. Yoga is a science that helps man communicate with his body, mind, and soul. Yoga is based on physical, mental, intellectual, moral, and spiritual disciplines. When man has complete control over his physical, mental, and intellectual energies, he can lead a positive life. By practicing yoga regularly, man attains mastery over himself. Yoga lays the foundation for purity in actions, emotions, and intellect. However, many misconceptions exist with regards to the purpose and meaning of yoga among Jain communities. Some think yoga is a part of the Hindu religion, that yoga means sitting in exasperating postures for hours at a time or that yoga only brings peace and happiness. 02 Meaning of Yoga in Jain Tradition The word yoga has been used in Jain philosophy in several different ways. Any activity or intent which helps the soul achieve liberation is called yoga. In other words, any activity which purifies the mind by freeing it from attachment and aversion is called yoga. Purification of the mind creates an awareness of the qualities of the soul and assists it in the destruction of karmas. It consists of practicing the three jewels of Right Conviction, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct, which lead to liberation. This view is propounded by Acharya Haribhadra-suri in Yoga Vimshikä and Acharya Amitagati in Yogasära-Prabrta. In Jain Agam literature, it is said that liberation can be attained by innumerable types of Yogas. Even walking, staying, eating, and earning become yoga if they are done with full awareness of the self and according to guidance shown by Tirthankars or Jinas. Yoga is that which unites. While dealing with the topic of the influx of Karma, Acharya Umäsvämi has said that the activity of the body, speech, and mind, which creates vibration in the soul, is called yoga. Karmic matter flows into the soul through the channel or medium of activity. If such activity is accompanied by auspicious intention, it becomes the cause of merit or punya; if it is accompanied by inauspicious intension, it becomes the cause of demerit or papa. If the activity is pure, then there is no vibration in the soul and hence no bondage The word Yoga is used for Dhyana or Meditation in Jainism. 03 Four Primary Paths to Yoga Indian traditions define that there are four primary paths to yoga which lead the worldly soul to liberation. They are: 1. Bhakti Yoga (Path of Devotion) The path of devotion aims at the enjoyment of supreme Love and Bliss. It focuses on realization of Truth (true reality, true potential) through means of devotion and surrender. Prayers, rituals, and ceremonial processes are its basic approach. Chanting, singing, and repeating Tirthankars' names are also important practices. In the initial stage of spiritual progress, a temple or a similar place is needed to practice Bhakti yoga. Ultimately, Bhakti yoga develops humility within and dissolves ego. This is an excellent form of yoga for emotionally-oriented people. 2. Jnän Yoga (Path of Knowledge) The path of knowledge aims at the realization of the unique and supreme self. Intellectually-oriented people prefer this path because it uses study, thinking, direct inquiry, and contemplation as its practices. This path is typified by spiritual discrimination between what is real (true reality) and what is unreal or illusion (Mithyätva or Mäyä) in the universe. Page 180 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #181 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT The path uses intellect as a means to negate bondage to the material world through inquiry and analysis. The mind itself is used to examine its own nature. This is typified by inquiring through meditation: "Why am I here?" "What is real and unreal?" and "Who am I?" This leads to the ultimate realization of truth. In the initial stage, one requires the guidance of a true teacher or scriptures to practice Jnäna yoga. Both Jainism and Buddhism primarily use this path. 3. Karma Yoga (Path of Action) Karma yoga is the yoga of action and selfless service for the benefit of humanity and all living beings at large. This includes social work, ecology, environmental protection, education, animal protection, and the more. It can be practiced anywhere at any time. The person does not expect any benefits or results from their work. This dissolves one's ego. This is an excellent form of yoga for actionoriented people. C09 - Jain Yoga 4. Ashtanga Yoga (Path of Self Control and Meditation) Ashtanga yoga aims at the liberation and perfection not only of the body, but also of the mental being. It is the science of physical and mental control. Two-and-a-half millennia ago, sage Patanjali in his immortal manuscript, the Yoga Sutra, instituted Ashtanga Yoga. However, archeological evidence and the study of ancient scriptures suggest that yoga was practiced in ancient India as early as 3000 BC. Yoga is a science that helps humans communicate with and gain control over their body, mind, and soul. When they have complete control over their physical, mental, and intellectual energies, they can lead a positive life. By practicing yoga regularly, one attains mastery over him or herself. Sage Patanjali defined the aim of yoga as controlling the Chitta Vrittis (thought processes) to attain the highest union or yoga. The Jain definition of yoga is that it is what connects or leads the soul to liberation. Even though sage Patanjali did not totally adhere to the Jain faith, Jain Ächäryas have sanctioned his Ashtanga Yoga as a spiritual practice that can lead to the path of liberation. The average person may find it difficult to grasp the intricacies of stilling the mind and merging the individual soul with the universal soul (Paramätmä).The communion exists between body and nerves, nerves and mind, mind and intellect, intellect and consciousness. With proper understanding, awareness, and practice, one can realize pure consciousness. A human is a product of intellect, emotions, action, where the seat of intellect is the head, the seat of emotions is the mind, and the seat of actions is the body. By uninterrupted practice and devotion, one can still the body and mind, and realize the pure soul. Yoga lays the foundation for purity in actions, emotions, and intellect. Patanjali has enumerated eight steps of yoga. Yoga is based on principles of morality (Yama and Niyama), physical discipline (Äsana and Pränäyama), mental alertness (Pratyähära and Dhäranä) and spiritual awakening (Dhyana and Samädhi).We have been given a body through which the soul can realize itself, and it is our duty to treat the body with respect. Even though sage Patanjali may not belong to Jain tradition, Jain Ächärya Shri Haribhadra Suri (7th AD) sanctioned his Ashtanga Yoga as a spiritual practice that can lead to the path of liberation. The eight-fold stages of Yoga and meditation of Shri Haribhadra-Suri respectfully acknowledges the great sage Patanjali and his "Yoga Sutra". He wrote four works on yoga (1) Yoga-Vimshikä in Präkrit (2) Yoga-Shataka in Präkrit (3) Yoga-Bindu in Sanskrit and (4) Yogadrashti Samuchchaya in Sanskrit. Both Shri Patanjali and Shri Haribhadra-suri propounded Ashtanga yoga as a path to attain liberation. Eight Steps of Ashtanga Yoga: 1. Yama (Restraints): In the initial stage, a person should restrain from violence, untruthfulness, non-chastity, stealing, and material possessions. Yama encompasses commandments transcending class, creed, time, Page 181 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #182 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C09 - Jain Yoga and circumstances. They are the guidelines for how we interact with the outer world, the social disciplines to guide us in our relationships with others. 1. Ahimsa (Non-violence): Ahimsa or non-violence is the awareness and practice of non-violence in thought, speech and action. It advocates the practices of compassion, love, understanding, and patience. 2. Satya (Truthfulness): Truthfulness or Satya is to be in harmony with mind, speech, and action according to truth. A truthful person is someone who expresses in his or her speech exactly what he or she thinks and acts accordingly as well. 3. Asteya (Non-stealing): Non-stealing or Asteya signifies that one should not take another's property, thought, speech, and action without his or her approval. Asteya stands against greed and envy. It advocates the qualities of contentment and self-sufficiency in order to progress beyond base cravings. 4. Brahmacharya (Celibacy): Celibacy or Brahmacharya brings humans closer to the soul. This Yama denotes avoiding all sensual pleasures, whether mental, vocal, or physical. 5. Aparigraha (Non-possessiveness): Aparigraha indicates that one does not accumulate worldly objects, when driven by greed and attachment. This state is attained when one remains detached from sensory pleasures of all kinds, and thereby effectively refrains from committing Himsä or violence of any sort. 2. Niyama (Observances - Individual Discipline): In the second stage, a person should develop virtues like cleanliness (external and internal), contentment, austerity, religious study, and self-surrender to the true Self. The Niyama are about self-control. Their practice harnesses the energy generated from the practice of the earlier Yama. 1. Shaucha (Purity): Shaucha implies both external and internal purity. Water purifies the body; truthfulness, the mind; true knowledge, the intellect; and the soul is purified by knowledge and austerity. It advocates the practices of intellectual purity, purity of speech, and of the body. 2. Santosh (Contentment): The second Niyama is that of contentment, which is described as not wanting more than what one has earned by his or her honest labor. This state of mind is about maintaining equanimity through all that life offers. It involves the practice of gratitude and joyfulness. This state of mind does not depend on any external causes. 3. Tapa (Austerity): Austerity, the third Niyama, is described in Yoga philosophy as power to stand thirst and hunger, cold and heat, discomforts of place and postures, silent meditation and ritual fasts. It also maintains that the perfect human is one who practices both mental and physical austerity. 4. Swadhyay (Study of the Self): Swadhyay consists of scriptural studies and introspection. 5. Ishvar Pranidhana (Meditation on the Divine): Ishvar Pranidhäna, the last of the Niyamas, is the dedication of all our actions, performed either by intellect, speech, or body, to God without any expectation of reward. The mortal mind can aspire to realize the Divine through dedication, purification, and concentration of the mind. Page 182 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #183 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C09 - Jain Yoga The Benefits of Practicing Yama and Niyama Yama and Niyama help in managing our energy in a constructive manner, complementing our outer life to our inner development. They help us view ourselves with compassion and awareness. They aid us in respecting the values of this life and in balancing our inner growth with outer restraint. In short, they help us lead a conscious life. Yama and Niyama are not about right and wrong. They are about being honest with the true self. Living according to these principles make it is possible to connect with the Divine and improve the quality of our lives. The first two stages are meant for moral purification. Without these, no spiritual progress is possible. 3. Asana (Physical Exercise): In the third stage, a person should do physical exercise (Hatha yoga) to keep the body healthy and the spinal cord straight in preparation for long periods of meditation. Yogasana is a posture in harmony with one's inner consciousness. It aims at the attainment of a sustained and comfortable sitting posture to facilitate meditation. Asanas also help in balancing and harmonizing the basic structure of the human body, which is why they have a range of therapeutic uses too. Asanas basically perform five functions: conative, cognitive, mental, • intellectual • spiritual Conative action is the voluntary exercise of organs. Since Asanas are the main yogic instrument of balancing the body, they consist of various physical postures, which are designed to release tension, improve flexibility, and maximize the flow of vital energy. The purpose of the Asanas is to create a flow of positive energy so that our concentration is directed within ourselves and the mind is able to perceive the effects of our objective action, the cognitive action. When the former two actions are fused, our mind guides organs to perform the Asanas more correctly. The resulting energy flow and awareness leads to a mental state of pure joy. Physical postures, therefore, end up affecting the various interrelated channels of the mind-body complex. Ultimately, the performance of a perfect Yogasana leads to the intellectual absorption of the mind on a single task (Dharanä), which in turn leads to the fusion of the individual spirit with the Divine Self (Dhyana). Benefits of Yogasana The regular practice of Yogasana has an immense amount of therapeutic value. In addition to various physiological benefits, it positively affects our minds, our energies, and our creative intelligence. Regular practice helps to keep our body fit, controls cholesterol levels, reduces weight, stabilizes blood pressure, and improves heart performance. Greater physical fitness leads to reduction of physical stress and greater vitality. Asanas harmonize our vitality and mental energy flow by clearing any blockages in the subtle body leading to mental equilibrium and tranquility. They make the mind strong, thus enabling our human body to endure pain and unhappiness stoically and with fortitude. In the western world, "Yoga" has lost its true meaning and became a practice only for physical fitness and external happiness. In reality, it is a tool for spiritual development. 4. Pränäyama (Rhythmic Breathing): Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 183 of 398 Page #184 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C09 - Jain Yoga In the fourth stage, a person should regularly practice the control of vital energy through certain breathing techniques. Rhythmic breathing helps concentration of the mind. Sitting still (step 3) and rhythmic breathing (step 4) makes the mind fit for looking inward. Pranayama makes the body fit for concentration and mediation. 'Pränäyama' is a compound term: "Präna" and "Yama" mean the maintenance of Präna (life force) in a healthy way throughout one's life. It is more than just a breathing exercise. Ancient yogis, who understood the essence of Präna, studied it and devised methods and practices to master it. These practices are better known as Pränäyama. Since breath or Präna is basic to life, the practice of Pränäyama helps in harnessing the Präna in and around us, and by deepening and extending it, Pränäyama leads to a state of inner peace. Various techniques of Pränäyama give agility, strength, and flexibility to the body enabling the meditator to control his or her physical needs. It purges the body of all its impurities. They also quiet the mind and the sensory organs, thereby increasing powers of concentration. Various Stages of Pränäyama Inhalation techniques are about regular and controlled inhalation. The techniques involve regulating the entire breathing process and reducing the number of inhalations per minute. Exhalation exercises involve slow and ordered breathing in addition to reducing the number of inhalations and exhalations per minute. The third stage consists of retaining the breath after stopping natural inhalation and exhalation. The last stage of Pränäyama is about converting both exhalation and inhalation into storing the retained breath in various internal organs for various lengths of time. From a spiritual point of view, exhalation is getting rid of superficialities, inhalation is looking inwards, and retention of breath is staying in equanimity. Benefits of Pränäyama The practices of Pränäyama, the correct breathing technique, help us manipulate our energies. Most of us breathe incorrectly, using only half of our lung capacity. Pränäyama reinstates our breathing process, helps us release tension, and develops a relaxed state of mind. It also balances our nervous system and encourages creative thinking. In addition, by increasing the amount of oxygen supplied to our brain, it improves mental clarity, alertness, and physical wellbeing. When practiced along with Yogäsanas, the benefits of Pränäyama are more pronounced. According to Patanjali's Yoga Sutra, Pränäyama enables the mind to acquire the capacity to concentrate on any given object. The manuscript also states that scientific breathing helps unveil true knowledge from the darkness of ignorance. However, it is advised to be aware of all the do's and don'ts of Pränäyama before practicing them. 5. Pratyähara (Detachment of Mind): In the fifth stage, a person should practice detachment of the mind from the five senses: touch, taste, smell, sight, and sound, which provide pleasant or unpleasant feelings. This mental exercise gradually slows the rush of thoughts from within to the surface of the mind. Now the mind has become ready for concentration on one object or on one idea. Pratyähara involves appropriately managing the senses, rather than simply suppressing them. It involves cultivating the senses for increased attention rather than distraction. Pratyähara may be practiced with mantra meditation and visualization techniques. Benefits of Pratyähara It is essential to practice Pratyähara to achieve the last three essential meditative stages of Dhäranä, Dhyäna, and Samädhi. Perfecting this technique of yoga is also essential in freeing yourself from the eternal cycle of rebirths. 6. Dhäranä (Complete Absorption of the Mind on a Single Task): Page 184 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #185 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C09 Jain Yoga In the sixth stage, a person should concentrate the mind either on one external object or one internal idea upon which to meditate. One finds that, in spite of the best of efforts, the mind does not remain glued to a chosen object. The object appears too hazy and there are breaks in concentration. One has to make repeated attempts during Dharana which ultimately lead to emptying or removing all other thoughts. Dhäranä involves developing and extending our powers of concentration. This is done by directing and controlling our attention and mind-fixing skills, such as concentrating on the Chakras (specific space-points in the body) by turning inwards. 7. Dhyana (Meditation): The thought removal process (Dharana) naturally leads to meditation (Dhyäna) in the seventh stage. Meditation is an unbroken flow of thought towards an external object or an internal idea. In Dhyana, the mind attains the ability to sustain its attention without getting distracted. Unlike the other six limbs of yoga, this is not a technique, but rather a state of mind-a delicate state of awareness. This state precedes the final state of Samädhi. When the objective flow of uninterrupted concentration reaches the subjective state, the union of object and subject takes place to transcend to the seventh step, Dhyäna (meditation), at the peak of which is Samädhi. Meditation (Dhyana) is the process of concentration of the mind on a single topic without wandering. Ächärya Umäsväti has classified the four kinds of meditation. Non-virtuous Meditation (two types) If this concentration arises from intense passions like attachment, aversion, hatred, and animosity, then this is not virtuous meditation and it is worthy of rejection. Ärta Dhyana (Painful or Sorrowful Meditation) Raudra Dhyana (Wrathful or Enraged Meditation) Sorrowful and enraged meditations are inauspicious and make the soul wander in the transmigratory state with resultant suffering of innumerable births and deaths. Virtuous Meditation (two types) On the other hand, if it arises from the search for the truth and from absolute detachment towards worldly affairs, it is virtuous meditation. It is the cause of spiritual good and liberation, and worthy of acceptance. Dharma Dhyana (Righteous or Auspicious Meditation) Shukla Dhyana (Spiritual or Pure Meditation) Righteous meditation is of an auspicious type. Spiritual meditation occurs at a very high level of spiritual growth of the soul and it ultimately ends in salvation - nirvana of the soul. 8. Samädhi (Total Absorption or Super Conscious State): To reach Samädhi, peace in body and poise in the mind are prerequisites that are acquired by practicing Äsana and Pränäyama. Through intense practice, meditation turns into Samadhi. In Samadhi a person is unconscious of everything about oneself. Even the object of meditation melts away but the vision of the object occupies the entire mind. The knowledge of the object becomes complete. This represents the goal of existence and what all-living beings are moving towards. It transcends time, space, and causation; the three elements present during ordinary, sensory experience. The mind does not bother with those experiences. The first five steps of the Ashtanga Yoga are only for preparations of the mind for yoga, which is concentration. The last three steps constitute the application of concentration. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 185 of 398 Page #186 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C09 - Jain Yoga It is the ability to become one with the true self and merge into an object of concentration. In this state of mind, the perceiver and the object of perception unite through the very act of perception-a true unity of all thought and action. This is the pinnacle of all yogic endeavors—the ultimate "yoga" or connection between the individual and the universal soul. 04 Yoga Benefits Some apparent benefits of yoga are physical and mental therapy, as well as curative and preventive therapy. According to medical scientists, yoga therapy is successful because of the balance created in the nervous and endocrine systems which directly influences all the other systems and organs of the body. The very essence of yoga lies in attaining mental peace, improved concentration, a relaxed state of living, and harmony in relationships. Regular practice of Asanas, Pränäyama and meditation can help treat diverse ailments such as diabetes, blood pressure, digestive disorders, arthritis, arteriosclerosis, chronic fatigue, asthma, varicose veins, and heart conditions. Laboratory tests have proved the yogi's increased abilities of consciously controlling autonomic or involuntary functions, such as temperature, heartbeat, and blood pressure. The aging process can be slowed down by practicing yoga. By keeping the body clean, flexible and well lubricated, we can significantly reduce the catabolic process of cell deterioration. Practicing yoga can provide chronic pain sufferers with useful tools to actively cope with their pain and counter feelings of helplessness and depression. Studies have also shown that practicing Yoga, results in increased brain activity, which is associated with better cognitive performance. Yogic stretching and breathing exercises have been seen to result in an invigorating effect on both mental and physical energy and improved mood. 05 Yogic Diet It is said that our level of development, mental and spiritual, is reflected in the kind of food we eat, and our stage of consciousness is revealed in the nature of that chosen food. Both Yoga and Ayurveda recommend a Sättvika or a pure vegetarian diet. Such a diet encourages the development of the higher qualities of peace, love, and spiritual awareness. Yoga and Ahimsa The basis of an ideal Sättvika diet is the attitude of ahimsa or nonviolence. A Sättvika or ascetic diet is purely vegetarian, avoiding all methods which involve the killing or harming of animals. In addition, a lot of emphasis is placed on natural foods, which involves foods grown in harmony with nature, on good soils, ripened naturally, and cooked in the right manner and attitude. A diet based on fresh fruits, fresh vegetables with the exception of onions and garlic, whole grains and beans, nuts, plant-based oils, natural sugar, and sweet spices like dry ginger is recommended for the practice of Yoga. Even while practicing a vegetarian diet, hot and extremely spicy food, artificial or processed food, stale and reheated food, artificial beverages, alcohol, tobacco, other stimulants, and overeating should be avoided. Following such a diet helps in the development of Präna or vital energy and spiritual consciousness. 06 Yogic Samkalpa (Oath) For Meditation Yoga cultivates the will or Samkalpa for self-realization, which are spiritually based. They consist of the intention that one will perform various yogic practices in order to grow spiritually. The following are a few simple yogic Samkalpas: Bhakti Yoga or Devotional Samkalpa: "OM! I will perform the following yogic practices as an offering to the Divine Beloved. May all the divine powers bless me in this endeavor!" Jnana Yoga or knowledge Samkalpa: "OM! I will perform the following meditations to gain knowledge of God and the higher Self. May God and the great teachers aid me in this effort!" Karma Yoga or Service Samkalpa: Page 186 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #187 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C09 - Jain Yoga "OM! I will perform the following actions as a service to God and to living beings in order to help alleviate suffering!" 07 Method of Yoga Meditation The following are a few easy tips to remember while practicing Yoga Meditation: ⚫ Sit in a comfortable posture with an erect spine, preferably in a specific yoga posture such as the Padmäsan or the Lotus posture. • Energize the breath through Pränäyama. ⚫ Hold a visualization for a few minutes to clear the sensory field and focus the mind internally. The visualization may relate to peaceful colors, geometric designs (Yantra), natural images, or that of a deity or guru. • Repeat an affirmation or prayer to increase positive thought power. Repeat a mantra such as 'OM' to still the mind. Ideally one should repeat a mantra at least 108 times before the meditation. ⚫ Silently focus on the mind and let it empty itself out. • Depending on one's natural temperament, it would help to try and establish contact with either God or a Higher Consciousness through the natural movement of one's heart. By cultivating attitudes as indicated below, the mind retains its undisturbed calmness. ⚫ Friendliness towards the happy, • Compassion for the unhappy, • Delight in the virtuous, and ⚫ Disregard towards the wicked, Just as the naturally pure crystal assumes shapes and colors of objects placed near it, the Yogi's mind becomes clear and balanced, and attains the state devoid of differentiation between knower, knowable, and knowledge. This culmination of meditation is Samädhi. 08 Summary All four types of Yogas cover the entire spectrum of human personalities. Ashtanga Yoga concentrates on the subtle body, while the other three Yogas, Bhakti-yoga, Jnän-yoga, and Karma yoga, use some part of the mental being, will power, heart, or intellect, as a starting point. The goal is to arrive at the liberating Truth, Beatitude, and Infinity, which is the nature of spiritual life. Love, Knowledge, and Action are the three divine powers in human nature. A person does not need to be searching for God to practice yoga. One only needs to have a desire to free oneself from the bonds that restrict oneself from being truly free. Once these bonds are broken, one realizes the true human potential, the true reality, and the God/Self within. A person can attain total freedom or realize God within using any of the four paths. However, at the final liberating state all paths merge, meaning the ultimate spiritual quality and characteristics of all liberated persons (souls) are the same. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 187 of 398 Page #188 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C10 - Jainism in Action C10 - Jainism in Action 01 Nutrition, Health and Spirituality Currently, the idea that spirituality plays an important role on health has become increasingly popular even among the medical community. Preventive health and wellness research has established a conclusive link between a person's spirituality and their heath. Individuals who prayed and meditated regularly got sick less frequently, recovered faster and were generally healthier and happier than those who used preventative health or wellness principles without a spiritual practice. Spiritual health can help physical health to manifest. The same way, physical health and nutrition can help spirituality to manifest. When you are poorly nourished, your emotions and mood worsen and your energy and brain functioning are significantly reduced. This in turn hinders your spiritual progress. A healthy body leads to a healthy mind, and a healthy mind is essential for spiritual progress. Nutrition and exercise are the most important things for a healthy body. As Jains, we should eat a well-balanced and cruelty-free diet. That is why Jains champion vegetarianism and veganism. Instead of meat and dairy, vegetarians have known for years that foods rich in soy protein offer a good alternative to any animal-based product. Unlike other beans, soy offers a complete protein profile, meaning they contain all the amino acids essential to human nutrition. The USDA now states that a daily diet containing 25 grams of soy protein, which is also low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. People who eat more generous amounts of fruits and vegetables as part of a healthful diet are likely to have reduced risk of chronic diseases, including stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Keeping USDA food groups in mind, the following food groups serve our vegetarian needs and provide a balanced nutritional diet. It is important to understand the food groups and eat the right amounts of each food group - too much of any one item is not healthy. Some Jains also avoid root vegetables as an added austerity. Whole Grains Five or more servings a day This group includes bread, rice, pasta, hot or cold cereal, corn, millet, barley, bulgur, buckwheat, and tortillas. Build each of your meals around a hearty grain dish -- grains are rich in fiber and other complex carbohydrates, as well as protein, B vitamins, and zinc. Serving size: 1/2 cup hot cereal, 1 ounce dry cereal, 1 slice bread Vegetables Three or more servings a day Vegetables are packed with nutrients; they provide vitamin C, beta-carotene, riboflavin, iron, calcium, fiber, and other nutrients. Dark green, leafy vegetables such as broccoli, collards, kale, and turnip greens, chicory, or bok-choy are especially good sources of these nutrients. Dark yellow and orange vegetables such as winter squash and pumpkin provide extra beta-carotene. Include generous portions of a variety of vegetables in your diet. Serving size: 1 cup raw vegetables, 1/2 cup cooked vegetables Fruits Three or more servings a day Fruits are rich in fiber, vitamin C, and beta-carotene. Be sure to include at least one serving each day of fruits that are high in vitamin C -- citrus fruits, melons, and strawberries are all good choices. Choose whole fruit over fruit juices, which do not contain very much fiber. Serving size: One medium piece of fruit, 1/2 cup cooked fruit, 4 ounces juice Page 188 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #189 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C10 - Jainism in Action Protein and Amino Acids Two or more servings a day Legumes -- beans, peas, and lentils -- are all good sources of fiber, protein, iron, calcium, zinc, and B vitamins. This group also includes almonds and nuts, chickpeas, all Indian beans like Mung and Dal, baked and re-fried beans, soymilk, and soy derivatives like Tempeh and textured vegetable protein. Serving size: 1/2 cup cooked beans, 4 ounces tofu or Tempeh, 8 ounces soymilk Vegetable Fats and Oils Use sparingly Sweets and salt are in this food group. Fats and Oils are full of calories and cholesterol. Use them sparingly while cooking. Do not cook at too high temperatures because that will destroy most of the nutrients. Limit the use of spices to avoid acidity. Unbleached flour is best, as it keeps nutrients. If we maintain these food groups and the portions recommended, and add exercise to our daily routine, we will remain healthy. Examples of Jain-friendly items: Breakfast Cheerios, Cocoa Puffs, Frosted Flakes, Rice Krispies, Fruit by the Foot, Kix, Pop Tarts (Several unfrosted varieties), Bisquick powder for pancakes and waffles Snacks Triscuit, Wheat Thins, Soy Crisps, Fritos, Ritz, Snyder's Pretzel Sticks, Famous Amos Sandwich Cookies, Nabisco Teddy Grahams, Baked Goods, Duncan Hines Brownie & Cake Mixes, Jello-O Instant Pudding, Krispy Kreme, Fruit Pies, Little Debbie Cake Donuts, Wonder Bread 02 Yoga, Health and Spirituality The following exercises are a good workout routine for the entire body. Eye Exercises Like any other muscles, the eye muscles need exercise if they are to be healthy and strong. Most of the time we shift our gaze minimally from left to right, like when reading. By moving the eyes in every direction, without turning your head at all, can help strengthen eye muscles, help to prevent eyestrain, and improve eyesight. Breathe normally while you are practicing these exercises. Rolling your eyeballs: Look up; look down (x5). Look far right; look far left (x5). Look top right; look bottom left (x5); look top left; look bottom right (x5). Look up, circle around slowly-clockwise (x5); anti-clockwise (x5). Hold your thumb up about a foot from your face. Then look at your thumb, then at the wall beyond your thumb, then back (x5). Palming: Rub your palms together vigorously until they feel warm. Now cup your hands over your closed eyes, without pressing too hard. The heat and the darkness will soothe and relax your eyes Tadasan (Palm Tree Pose) Steps Stand erect, feet together, hands folded in front. Keep spine and neck straight and abdomen in normal contour. Focus eyes on a point in front. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 189 of 398 Page #190 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT Inhaling (2 seconds), raise both arms and both heels simultaneously. Arms are stretched and close to or touching the ears. Palms should be facing inwards. C10 Jainism in Action Reach your maximum stretch position and maintain this for a few seconds, retaining the breath (4 seconds) While exhaling, bring arms and heels down simultaneously (2 seconds) and Repeat Benefits of Tadäsan Stretches entire body Rhythmic breathing helps expansion of lungs, develops respiratory muscles, improves capacity of lungs and its blood circulation Strengthens abdominal muscles Increases height up to a certain age Causes vertical stretching of the spine Increases neuro-muscular coordination Trikonäsan (Triangle Pose) Steps Stand with your feet about 3-4 feet apart. Point your left foot to the left, and your right foot slightly to the left. Stretch your arms out at shoulder level and bring the left arm straight up, against your left ear. Now inhale. As you exhale, bend to the right and lean slightly forward to bypass your ribs. Slide your right hand down your right leg and hold on to the lowest part of your body that you can reach. Look out at your left hand. Take several full breaths in this position before releasing it. Repeat, bending to the left. Benefits of Trikonäsan It stretches and develops the muscles of the spine. This pose tones the muscles of the feet and the ankles, and it makes the hips and thighs more elastic. It tones and stimulates the nerves situated in the lumbar area of the spine. It reestablishes the mobility of the thorax. It reestablishes the breathing balance and ventilates the two lungs. Padmäsan (Lotus Posture) Steps Sit down on a mat, legs fully stretched out. Fold the right leg and place it on the opposite thigh. Try to make the folded knee touch the mat. If necessary, press it down with the hands. Now, fold the left leg and keep it on the opposite thigh and make the knee touch the mat. Keep the spine erect, throw your chest forward, keep your head and neck straight, and draw the abdomen in. Close your eyes or fix them on an object. Spread the left hand with its back touching the two heels, the palm turned upward. Do the same with your right hand. Time: 10 minutes with normal breathing Page 190 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #191 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C10 - Jainism in Action Benefits of Padmasan Padmäsan is a better meditative posture than any other Äsana. It helps tone the thighs and your lower parts become more flexible. It cures pains in the joints, especially the ankles and knees. Mind becomes relaxed; concentration increases. Tension and frustration are reduced. Padmasan cures constipation and indigestion. Vajräsan (Thunderbolt Pose) Steps Sit kneeling Shape toes to join at the back, heels apart. Place buttocks in cavity and keep thighs together. Adjust hands on respective thighs, keep the spine erect, keep head and neck straight, and draw abdomen in contour. Close your eyes and practice normal breathing. Mentally go through what you did the previous day (reflect) and do not stop to analyze. Time: 10 minutes Benefits of Vajräsan Corrects posture Better flexibility of ankle and feet because they are stretched. Leg and thigh muscles are enhanced and any pain associated with those body parts will be reduced. Lends to mental conditioning and emotional control Preparation for meditation Improves concentration and memory Develops awareness and results in introspection Supta Vajräsan (Supine Thunderbolt Pose) Steps Sit in the same position as Vajräsan. Rest hands on your thighs. Holding your toes, lower your elbows till they touch the floor. Lower your whole body to the floor. Retain this position for a minute. Come back up to the Vajräsan position. Benefits of Supta Vajräsan This Äsana acts on the feet, in the sense that the pain in the area is diminished if you stay in this pose for 10-15 minutes. The practice of this Äsana leads to the stretching of the ligaments and tendons, which will maintain their elasticity. It has an outstanding effect on blood circulation. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 191 of 398 Page #192 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C10 Jainism in Action Shashakäsan (Rabbit Pose) Steps Sit in the same position as Vajräsan. Rest hands on your thighs. While inhaling, raise your hands over your head. While exhaling, bend forward, touching your hands and your forehead to the floor. Retain this position for a minute. Come back up to the Vajräsan position. Benefits of Shashakäsan This posture reduces high blood pressure. It calms anger and maintains peace. It strengthens the muscles of the legs, thighs, and spine. Bhujangäsan (Cobra Pose) Steps Lie on your stomach, arms kept at your sides with palms down, legs fully stretched out with toes pointing outwards, and chin touching the ground. Inhaling slowly, raise the head, truck, chest and abdomen till the navel portion is about to leave the ground. The upper part of the body from the waist is only to be lifted up in the manner of a cobra head. Retain breathing when you have raised your trunk. Exhaling slowly, come back to the original position, relaxing completely. Benefits of Bhujangäsan Helps in keeping dorsal spine elastic and flexible. Reduces pain attached to the ribs, spinal cord. Stretches the abdominal muscles. Helps in considerable reduction of abdominal muscles. Helps in eliminating constipation and relieves indigestion and intestinal gas. This Äsana eliminates the feelings of uncertainty and inferiority, and generates a tonic, spiritual, confident, and loving attitude. Dhanuräsan (Bow Pose) Steps Lie down on your front, head down. Inhale and bend your knees up, then reach back with your hands and clasp hold of your ankles. Exhale. While inhaling, raise your head and chest and, simultaneously, pull your ankles up, lifting the knees and thighs off the floor. Arch backwards and look up. Take three deep breaths in this yoga pose, then exhale and release it. The Rocking Bow- Come into the Bow, then rock forward as you exhale, backward as you inhale. (Don't use your head to rock) Repeat up to ten times, then relax. Benefits of Dhanuräsan This prevents the premature calcification of the vertebral joints and it acts on the ligaments, muscles, and nervous centers placed along the spine. The blood flow in the digestive system becomes substantially better. Page 192 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #193 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C10 - Jainism in Action It reduces anxiety. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 193 of 398 Page #194 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C11- Living Values C11- Living Values 01 Introduction We have been learning about the four passions (Kashaya) for as long as we can remember. Mahävir Bhagawan became a Tirthankar because of his ability to overcome these passions. Gautam-swami was liberated when he removed his passions. We all have these passions, and at times, it seems impossible not to get angry or be proud of our achievements. It can take lifetimes and it requires extensive spiritual effort to get rid of these passions. It is an extremely demanding path and the individual has to be dedicated and prepared to avoid activities like cheating, stealing, or hurting others by mind, speech, or body. Although we have learned about the four passions, we have not yet learned about the keys to overcoming these passions, better known as the four virtues. The four virtues should be incorporated in our lives as much as possible, and only then can we begin to free ourselves from the passions. “Destroy anger through calmness/forgiveness; overcome ego by modesty/humility; discard deceit by straightforwardness/honesty, and defeat greed by contentment." -Dasa-Vaikälika 8-38 02 Anger/Forgiveness (Kshama) Anger (Krodha) is one of our most common weaknesses (Kashaya). We feel angry when we do not get what we want or when we are hurt because of what someone said or did. It is easy to get angry at someone that you think has wronged you, but to forgive that person is another story. Alexander Pope once said, "To err is human; to forgive, divine." Can anger be eliminated? Anger can be difficult to eliminate. However, its expression can be controlled. Everyone makes mistakes, but only those with courage, control, and strength can forgive those mistakes. A moment of anger can ruin lifetimes of friendships and relationships; however, a word of forgiveness can save it all. An adult is speeding on the expressway and yelling at the person in front of them for being too slow. A police officer stops the adult for speeding. What will the adult do? Will they get angry at the police and scream at him? Or, even though they are upset at being caught speeding, will they speak very politely and respectfully? A person who was angry earlier can become very polite as soon as they face a situation in which they need to be calm. As a child, you may complain about another child who takes away your toy or pencil and you may fight with that child. But if you are called to the Principal's office, would you get angry and fight with the child there, or would you talk politely to the Principal? According to Jain philosophy, the way to eliminate anger is by replacing it with "forgiveness". We usually consider forgiveness as something that the person who has wronged us must ask of us. However, it is something that should happen internally whether or not the other person asks for forgiveness. It is a gift to yourself, and it is not something you are doing for someone. Forgiveness dares you to let your anger subside and allow yourself to be a better and bigger person. A teacher once told each of her students to bring a clear plastic bag and a sack of apples to school. For every person they refused to forgive in their life's experiences they had to choose an apple, write the name of the person and date on it, and put it back in the plastic bag. Some of their bags became quite heavy within a few days. Then they were asked to carry this bag with them everywhere for one week. They had to put it beside their bed at night, on the seat next to them in the car, next to their desk at school. They even had to take it with them to their friends' houses. The hassle of lugging this sack everywhere with them made it clear what weight they were carrying. They had to pay attention to it all the time and not forget it by leaving it in embarrassing places. Naturally, within a couple of weeks the apples became rotten and it turned into a nasty, smelly slime. This, in turn, made them unpleasant company. It did not take long for each of the students to figure out that getting rid of the apples was much more important than carrying them around. Page 194 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #195 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C11- Living Values This is a great metaphor for the price we pay for keeping our anger and pain. By forgiving someone, we are putting the Tirthankars' message into action and we are advancing our souls on the path to liberation. We need to forgive in order to reduce our passions and follow the footsteps of the Tirthankars. Recommended reading from Jain Story Section - Chandkaushik 03 Ego (Pride)/Humility (Vinay) According to Jain philosophy, Ego (Mäna) has no place in our lives. Pride makes every great achievement useless, in that no one appreciates a proud person. Only someone that is humble and modest is liked and has his/her achievements recognized. People lose respect for you when you are constantly discussing yourself. Only by showing interest in others, and less in yourself, can you maintain successful relationships. Pride is what keeps us from realizing our true souls, which keeps us from attaining Moksha. A Buddhist monk once said, "Enlightenment can come only after humility - the wisdom of realizing one's own ignorance, insignificance and lowliness, without which one cannot see the truth." Our scriptures say that without humility, the right knowledge, the right faith, and the right conduct cannot be obtained. Only through humility can we realize our true achievements on the path to liberation. Humility is easily achieved if one stays away from the following eight types of Ego: Pride of Knowledge Pride of Worship Pride of Family Pride of Race Pride of Power Pride of Excellent Attainment Pride of Austerity Pride of Body If we give up these eight types of pride, we can live a life of humility that will be reflected in everything we do. We become considerate of others, and we speak only looking out for the well-being of others, rather than with a hidden agenda of our own. Without the virtue of humility, the path to liberation seems long and faraway. Unity, peace, and prosperity increase when we show humility towards all life forms. Popular sayings like "Pride comes before a fall", "One who bows is liked by all", show that ego and pride are vices appreciated by no one. In contrast, humility is welcomed everywhere as a great virtue. Just as trees rich in fruits hang low to provide fruit to the passerby and monsoon clouds full of water come down towards earth as rain, we should develop a natural tendency for benevolence. Whatever great work we may accomplish will be undone if we are full of ego and pride about our achievements. Recommended reading from Jain Story Section - Bahubali 04 Deceit/Honesty (Straightforwardness) Straightforwardness (Honesty) is one of the fundamental qualities of the soul. However, when we get carried away by the lure of money and luxuries or ignorance, we began to follow the path of deceitful conduct, rather than the path to liberation. Just because no one can read our thoughts, it does not mean we can lie to others and cheat them for our own well-being. Once we create a world of lies and cheating, it is almost impossible to come out of it. There are always stories circulating of people in high-paying positions that cheat the government on their taxes. Once they are caught, they lose everything, and are often imprisoned. If they were just honest from the beginning, they would be enjoying more than ever; however, their deceit brings them to misery. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 195 of 398 Page #196 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C11- Living Values Some people lie, cheat or steal to get away from difficult situations or people. When people do that and are caught they feel ashamed. If they are not caught they are always scared of being found out and they feel guilty. Straightforwardness (honesty) entails being frank with others and having a high moral code. By being honest, not only do you eradicate your karma, but your life becomes natural, worry-free, and peaceful. You become more successful in all your endeavors because people trust you. Being honest is being truthful in thoughts, words and deeds. You have to have good thoughts, to say what you think and to do what you say. When truthful thoughts, words and deeds become one, a person's character becomes strong and unshakable. To live a life of truth: We should make sure our thoughts are good. Always have good and happy thoughts. Forgive the faults of others and remember that no one is perfect, including us. Give other persons the benefit of doubt. Say what you think. Never think one thing and say something else. Nevertheless, while speaking the truth always remember to say it in a polite manner without hurting anyone. Prefer to remain quiet if your speech, though honest, may hurt others. Do what you say. Keep your word. Keep your promises. If you say you will do something, even if it is a small thing, you should do it. You should be the same in your thoughts and your actions. If you are transparent like that you will be happy and at peace. A person who speaks the truth is trusted and loved by others. Everyone likes to be friends with a truthful person. However, a person who lies gradually loses all his friends because nobody likes or trusts a person who tells things that are not true. Not only are they unsuccessful in their lives, they also attract karma to their souls. This karma inhibits them from attaining liberation. Truth is simple. When we lie, we have to worry about covering up one lie with another. Honesty and truthfulness give us strength and peace, while deceit creates weakness and fear. The first set of values to crumble under the pressures and demands of life are honesty and truthfulness. When we lay a strong foundation for inner growth, we can withstand the temptations and compromises surrounding us. Truth is a means to inner strength, peace and the trust and love of others. Only through the virtue of straightforwardness (honesty) can you purify your mind, speech, and body. Recommended reading from Jain Stories - King Hansa 05 Greed/Contentment (Santosh) Greed (Lobha) is the cause of many of our problems. Greed is a key player in the lives of most living beings. We are never satisfied with what we have, and when we get more, our desires only multiply. Greed is known as the most difficult passions to remove, or the father of all sins. It is the root of the other passions; because of greed we are deceitful, angry, and egotistical. Living beings are greedy for wealth, material possessions, fame, beauty, and several other things. As a result of greed, people can never be truly happy- they always want more. Greed destroys relationships because when you are acting on account of greed, you do not realize what is important to you, and you resort to deceit, violence, and anger to get what you want. Greed has no bounds and it is impossible to be happy when you are greedy. Just as fire is not quenched by the fuel and the ocean by thousands of rivers, similarly no living being is satisfied even with all the wealth of all the three worlds. -Bhagavati Ärädhanä, 1143 Being free of greed signifies that you are content. Just because you are content does not mean that you should not acquire basic necessities or make honest efforts to earn, but you should limit your possessions. It means being happy even when you do not have everything. Even if you have more than Page 196 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #197 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C11- Living Values you need, you should donate and help others through your wealth and possessions. Only when you practice the virtue of contentment can you travel far on the path to liberation. No matter how many materialistic things you possess you will always find somebody with more money, a bigger house, a better car, etc. Pursuit of worldly gains is futile because ultimately it leaves you with greater dissatisfaction. Once the desire to acquire what so-and-so has arises within you that burning desire can never be fulfilled as there is always going to be someone who has more than you. Contentment signifies a state of complete satisfaction and it is another fundamental of the soul. Contentment is remaining satisfied with what one has while being subjected to various longings and temptations in day-to-day life. In order to move on the path of attaining liberation, we should be happy and thankful for what we have, and not wish for more than we need. Recommended reading from Jain Stories Section - Puniä Shrävak 06 Compassion We should feel compassion (Karunä) upon witnessing the miseries of all living beings. When we see animals and people suffering from pain and misery, we should try to help them in whatever way we can. We can help the suffering of others in many different ways. We should provide food to those who are hungry, give money for their basic necessities, heal their mental anguish with soft calming words, and give medicine to help their physical suffering. We can help others by being compassionate. The greatest form of compassion (Karunä) reveals itself when one is willing to help all living beings irrespective of who they are and without any reservation. If we lack compassion we indulge in various acts that lead to bad karma. When this bad Karma matures, we suffer from mental, physical and emotional ailments: diseases, insults and cruelty. The degree of compassion depends upon a person's progress on the path of spiritual development. We have several incidences where great people have sacrificed the most valued things in their lives to alleviate the suffering and pain of the smallest living beings. There is an incident from the life of Swami Dayanand Saraswati. One day, he was walking from Banäras to Dädäpur. It was a rainy day and the roads were flooded. One bullock-cart loaded with grass was stuck in the mud. With every effort made to pull the cart out of the mud it was sinking deeper and deeper. Swami's heart filled with compassion when he saw the suffering of the bulls. He took hold of the cart, freed the bulls, and pulled the cart out of the mud. Compassion is to respect all forms of life including animals, birds, insects and nature. Respect and regard for all forms of life is possible only if we truly believe that all life forms are equal. Recommended Reading from Jain Stories Section - Meghakumar 07 Friendship Sand and Stone Two friends were walking through the desert. During the journey, they had an argument and one friend slapped the other on the face. The one who got slapped was hurt but without saying anything he wrote in the sand: Today my best friend slapped me in the face. They kept on walking until they found an oasis where they decided to take a bath. The one who had been slapped got stuck in the swamp and started drowning; but his friend saved him. After he recovered from the near drowning he wrote on a stone: Today my best friend saved my life. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 197 of 398 Page #198 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C11- Living Values The friend, who had slapped and saved his best friend, asked him, "After I hurt you, you wrote in the sand. And now you write on a stone. Why?" The other friend replied: "When someone hurts us we should write it down in sand where the winds of forgiveness can erase it away. But when someone does something good for us, we must engrave it in stone where no wind can ever erase it. Learn to write your hurts in the sand and to carve your blessings in stone. -Unknown "Much of the vitality in a friendship lies in the honoring of differences, not simply in the enjoyment of similarities." -James L. Fredricks "You can make more friends by becoming interested in other people than you can by trying to get other people interested in you." -Dale Carnegie "You can hardly make a friend in a year, but you can easily offend one in a minute." -Chinese Proverb Friendship makes life easier and richer. It has been proven that people who are social and have a lot of friends live longer and are healthier and happier than people who do not have friends.08 The Power of Holding Hands By Rabbi Harold Kushner I was sitting on a beach one summer day watching two children, a boy and a girl, playing in the sand. They were hard at work by the water's edge, building an elaborate sand castle, with gates, towers, moats and internal passages. Just when they had nearly finished their project, a big wave came along and knocked it down, reducing it to a heap of wet sand. I expected the children to burst into tears, devastated by what had happened to all their hard work. But they surprised me. Instead, they ran up the shore away from the water, laughing and holding hands, and sat down to build another castle. I realized they had taught me an important lesson. All the things in our lives, all the complicated structures we spent so much time and energy creating, are built on sand. Only our relationships to other people endure. Sooner or later, a wave will come along and knock down what we have worked so hard to build up. When that happens, only the person who has somebody's hand to hold will be able to laugh. Your joys are doubled and your sorrows halved in the presence of friends and loved ones. Both the children could either cry about the broken castle or they could laugh about it and start all over again. In the long run, it does not matter what you have or what you get. It matters what you give. 08 The Power of Determination The little country schoolhouse was heated by an old-fashioned, pot-bellied coal stove. A little boy had the job of coming to school early each day to start the fire and warm the room before his teacher and classmates arrived. One morning, they arrived to find the schoolhouse engulfed in flames. They dragged the unconscious little boy out of the flaming building, more dead than alive. He had major burns over the lower half of his body and was taken to a nearby county hospital. From his bed the dreadfully burned, semi-conscious little boy faintly heard the doctor talking to his mother. The doctor told his mother that her son would surely die - which was for the best, really, because the terrible fire had devastated the lower half of his body. But the brave boy didn't want to die. He made up his mind that he would survive. Somehow, to the amazement of the physician, he did survive. When the mortal danger was past, he again heard the doctor and his mother speaking quietly. The mother was told that since the fire had destroyed so much flesh in the lower part of his body, it would almost be better if he had died, since he was doomed to be a lifetime cripple with no use at all of his lower limbs. Page 198 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #199 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT C11- Living Values Once more the brave boy made up his mind. He would not be a cripple. He would walk. But unfortunately from the waist down, he had no motor ability. His thin legs just dangled there, all but lifeless. Ultimately, he was released from the hospital. Every day his mother would massage his little legs, but there was no feeling, no control, nothing. Yet his determination to walk was as strong as ever. When he wasn't in bed, he was confined to a wheelchair. One sunny day, his mother wheeled him out into the yard to get some fresh air. This day, instead of sitting there, he threw himself from the chair. He pulled himself across the grass, dragging his legs behind him. He worked his way to the white picket fence bordering their lot. With great effort, he raised himself up on the fence. Then, stake by stake, he began dragging himself along the fence, convinced that he would walk. He started to do this every day until he wore a smooth path all around the yard beside the fence. There was nothing he wanted more than to develop life in those legs. Ultimately, through his daily massages, his iron persistence, and his resolute determination, he did develop the ability to stand up, then to walk slowly, then to walk completely by himself, and then to run. He began to walk to school and then run to school, to run for the sheer joy of running. Later in college, he made the track team. Still later, in Madison Square Garden, this young man who was not expected to survive, who would surely never walk, who could never hope to run...this determined young man, Dr. Glenn Cunningham, ran the world's fastest mile! Recommended reading from Jain Stories - The Two Frogs 09 Self Reliance A man found the cocoon of a butterfly. One day, a small opening appeared. He sat and watched the butterfly for several hours as it struggled to force its body through that little hole. Then it seemed to stop making any progress. It appeared as if it had gotten as far as it could, and it could go no further. Therefore, the man decided to help the butterfly. He took a pair of scissors and snipped off the remaining bit of the cocoon. The butterfly then emerged easily. However, it had a swollen body and small, shriveled wings. The man continued to watch the butterfly because he expected that, at any moment, the wings would enlarge and expand to be able to support the body, which would contract in time. Neither happened In fact, the butterfly spent the rest of its life crawling around with a swollen body and shriveled wings. It was never able to fly. What the man in his kindness and haste did not understand, was that the restricting cocoon and the struggle required for the butterfly to get through the tiny opening were nature's way of forcing fluid from the body of the butterfly into its wings. By doing so, it would be ready to fly once it achieved its freedom from the cocoon. Sometimes struggles are exactly what we need in our lives. If we were allowed to go through our lives without any obstacles, it would cripple us. We would not be as strong as what we could have been. We would never fly. I asked for Strength........... And I got Difficulties to make me strong. I asked for Wisdom..... And I got Problems to solve. I asked for Prosperity........... And I got Brain and Brawn to work. I asked for Courage.......... And I got Danger to overcome. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 199 of 398 Page #200 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ CONDUCT I asked for Love....... And I got Troubled people to help. I asked for Favors......... And I got Opportunities. I received Nothing that I wanted..... I received everything that I needed. Very often we want someone to help us and do things for us. However, it is equally important to learn to do things for ourselves. As in the above story, if the butterfly had been allowed to be self-reliant and had come out of the cocoon by himself, he would have become a very pretty butterfly, admired by all. When there was intervention, with the thought of helping, he was in fact hurt by it and lost far more than he gained. Just as gold is more pliable when it is heated, we get more self-sufficient and better as we go through life's difficulties and work out a solution for ourselves. We need to keep our standards high and rise up to them instead of lowering our standards to make life easier and more comfortable. Page 200 of 398 C11- Living Values Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #201 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS RITUALS DO1 - Jain Symbols DO2-Emblems, Dreams, Puja Rituals DO3 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) D04 - Importance of Proper Performance of a Ritual D05 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) D06 - Paryushan and Das Lakshana Parva DO7 - Jain Festivals (Parvas) and Celebrations D08 - Jain Temples & Pilgrimage Places DO9 - Yakshas and Yakshinis Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 201 of 398 Page #202 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D01 - Jain Symbols D01 - Jain Symbols Symbols through their shape, meaning and implication play an important role in religion. They are the outward manifestation of the deeper ideology. They provide a glimpse into the religious culture and practice that comes from its basic principles. They can provide easier understanding of the religious philosophy. The effect produced by the symbol is more intense than the impression made by ordinary language. With symbols, relatively difficult spiritual meaning becomes understandable even to the ordinary mind. 01 Jai Jinendra - Greeting Jai Jinendra literally means, "May the religion established by the Jina prevail in our hearts". As we greet others we say, "Jai Jinendra" because we see an image of a Jina, destroyer of all inner enemies, in them. Recognizing this, we bow down with respect to their Soul. Every Soul is capable of becoming a Jina, the destroyer of inner enemies; anger, greed, ego, and deceit. Jina is also known as Arihanta or Tirthankar. We consider them as Jain Gods. 02 Michchhami Dukkadam - Greeting Michchhami Dukkadam is another greeting which requests forgiveness usually spoken after performing the annual forgiveness and repentance day ritual known as Samvatsari Pratikraman. Ideally, the forgiveness should be requested as soon as one realizes his/her mistake. 03 Jinälaya - Jain Temple (Deräsar or Mandir) A Jinälaya, Deräsar, or Mandir is a place of worship where a person experiences immense peace and serenity. The images of Tirthankars and the temple's environment promote introspection and bring home the feeling that God resides within one's own heart. Therefore, each person can follow a path of purification of the inner self devoid of anger, greed, ego, deceit, and attachment from their lives. 04 Om The symbol common to all religions in India is "Om". In Hindu philosophy, it consists of three letters, viz. A, U, and M. When these three letters are joined together, by the rules of euphony it is sounded OM. It expresses the creative, the preservative, and the destructive principles. When the letter A is pronounced, the breath comes out from the throat, which signifies creation. The letter U keeps the breath in the mouth for a time and, therefore, is the symbol of the preservative principle. The letter M stops the breath for a time and lets it out through a different channel, the nostrils, and symbolizes destruction and regeneration. Om means completeness. It is a symbolic word meaning infinite, the perfect, and the eternal. The very sound is complete, representing the wholeness of all things. Upon attaining absolute knowledge or omniscience, the body of the Arihanta emanates Om (called the Divine Sound - Divya Dhwani). It is an involuntary, spontaneous, and melodious sound that all humans, animals, and heavenly beings can understand as a sermon, in their own language. Om sounds like Aum, which is the seat of the five benedictions (salutations of supreme beings) and is made up of five sounds and letters: a, a, a, u, and m: The first letter "a" represents Arihanta (a living human being in the highest perfected state who has realized the true nature of the soul and reality and has conquered passions). The second "a" represents Ashariri (Siddha, a liberated soul who does not have a physical body. While the Arihant is living, acting as spiritual master, this is a liberated soul after human existence.) The third letter "a" represents Acharya (an ascetic who is head of the Jain congregation). The fourth letter "u" represents Upadhyay (an ascetic teacher). The fifth letter "m" represents Muni (Sädhus or Sädhvis who practice Jain principles). Page 202 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #203 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D01 - Jain Symbols The Om represents a salutation to the five revered personalities in the Jain religion. Om is a shortened form of the Namokar Mantra. 05 Hrim The word Hrim is a seed mantra. It is called Hrimkär mantra. It is a mystical symbol representing the invisible sound, infinity, and divine energy of the 24 Tirthankars. While meditating on Hrim, one can experience the sublimating energy of Tirthankars. 06 Arhum The word ARHUM is a mantra representing all vowel and consonant sounds used in the Sanskrit alphabet. The first vowel in the Sanskrit alphabet is "a" and the last consonant is "h." Therefore, while meditating on this mantra, one focuses on the silent sound of the universe. 07 Swastika The Swastika is considered an auspicious and a pious symbol. The red arms of the swastika represent the four possible states (gatis) of rebirth: human, heaven, hell, and animal. These four states are represented clockwise starting from the upper left corner on the Swastika. Our aim should be liberation from these four states of rebirth. The swastika also reminds us that we should become pillars of the four folds Jain Sangh. This means that first we should strive to be a true Shrävaks or Shrävikäs, and when we overcome our social attachments, we should renounce worldly life and follow the path of a Sädhu or Sadhvi to be liberated. The four arms are also representative of Däna (charity), Sheel (virtue), Tapa (austerities), and Bhäva (noble thoughts) The three green dots above the swastika represent the three jewels of Jainism - Samyak Darshan, Samyak Jnän and Samyak Charitra. This represents the Jain path of liberation. At the very top there is a small yellow crescent called Siddhashilä, a place for liberated souls. The yellow dot above the crescent represents a Siddha or a liberated soul. In order to achieve this stage, a soul must destroy all attached karmas. Every living being should strive for this state of Liberation or Moksha. 08 Tilak People belonging to different religious sects make different marks called Tilak, on their foreheads representing different beliefs. They are made with some kind of fragrant paste. The Jains use sandal wood paste mixed with saffron. It is made in the center just between the two eyebrows, either in round or in an almond shape. According to physiology, this is a center of nerves, a plexus, which is a source of decision-making power, inner sight. When we go through a course of moral and spiritual discipline, we see many things through this center, which we cannot see by the ordinary vision. When we make that sign we mean it is through the tenets of the Tirthankars we are going to live our life. We want to acquire that power by the aid of which we can have right knowledge. 09 Universal Jain Symbol This universal Jain symbol is a combination of various symbols, each having a deeper meaning. It was adopted during the 2500 Nirvana celebration of Lord Mahävir. The outline of the symbol is defined as the Universe or Loka. The lower part of the symbol represents the seven hells (Näraki). The middle part of the universe contains the Earth and the planets (Manushyaloka). The upper part contains the heavenly abodes (Devaloka) of all the celestial beings and the abode of the Siddhas (Siddha-shilä). Jains believe that this universe was neither created by anyone, nor can it be destroyed by anyone. It is static and will remain at the same location in the vast empty space of the entire existence. The Swastika is explained on the previous page. The raised hand means 'stop'. The word in the center of the wheel is "Ahimsä," meaning non-violence. These two symbols remind us to stop for a minute and think twice before starting any activity. This gives us a chance to analyze our activities to be sure that they will not hurt anyone by thoughts, words and deeds. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 203 of 398 Page #204 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D01 - Jain Symbols The wheel in the hand shows that if we are not careful and ignore these warnings, then just as the wheel goes around, we will repeatedly go through the cycle of birth and death. The text underneath the symbol, "Parasparopagraho Jivanam" translates to "Living Beings (souls) Render Service to One Another". 10 Federation of Jaina Logo The Federation of Jain Associations in North America (JAINA) has adopted this symbol. The Swastika from the main Jain symbol has been replaced by the Aum or Om symbol. In the western world, the Swastika is not viewed as a pious symbol. 11 Ärti The Ärti has 5 lamps. The flame is lit on a cotton wick soaked in oil. The Ärti is waved in a circular motion in front of a Tirthankar idol at the end of a ritual ceremony and also at night before the temple closes. The darkness symbolizes negativity, fear, and ignorance, whereas the light symbolizes divinity. The light of the Arti dispels darkness, signifying the overcoming of negativity through virtue, fear through courage, and ignorance through knowledge. The 5 lamps symbolize: • Panch Parmesthi (Arihanta, Siddha, Acharya, Upadhyay, Sädhu) • Five types of jnäns or knowledge - (Matijnän, Shrutjnän, Avadhijnän, Manah Paryävinän, Kevaljnän) • Five great vows (Ahimsä, Non-stealing, Truthfulness, Celibacy, Non-possession) 12 Mangal Deevo Mangal deevo has a single wick lamp that is lit and waved in a circular motion right after the Arti. The flame is lit on a cotton wick soaked in oil. When the wick is lit, it illuminates the face of the Jina. In this manner, we wish that it would illuminate our hearts with truth and compassion. The single lamp is also a symbol of kevaljnän (infinite knowledge) and liberated soul 13 Ashta Mangal The belief in auspicious objects is very old in Indian culture. It is believed that they bring good luck and happiness in the families and houses. They are usually hung on threshold of a house. The Ashta Mangal or eight auspicious objects are known to Jain worship from ancient times. The tradition is to depict these eight unique objects with rice grains in front of the idol of a tirthankar. At present you may find them in the temple, engraved on a wooden or a metal slab. They are; 1. Swastika It symbolizes four destinies; a) human beings, b) heavenly beings, c) hellish beings and d) tiryancha (includes rest of the living beings). The root of Swastika is SU+US; SU means benefic and US means existence; so it also represents glory, prosperity, progress and success. 2. Shrivatsa It is a beautiful mark on Jina's chest as it were the highest knowledge manifested from the heart of the Jina. It symbolizes the endless cycle of re-birth. 3. Nandävarta This is a big Swastika with nine corners. It indicates treasure of nine kinds of material, physical, mental and spiritual wealth. 4. Vardhamanak Vardhaman means to increase. Vardhamänak symbolizes increase in wealth, health and most importantly spiritual progress. Page 204 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #205 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D01 - Jain Symbols 5. Kalash It symbolizes all spiritual wealth. It symbolizes completeness of knowledge. Its mouth represents eternity, the throat - losing old mode and the base represents occupying new mode. 6. Bhadrasan It is also called Sinhäsan, meaning throne. It is auspicious because it is sanctified by the feet of Lord Jina. 7. Minyugal It symbolizes beings rescued from the ocean of misery of earthly existence. 8. Darpan It symbolizes true self. True self is our own soul. 14 Mäna Stambha The pillar which stands before Digambar temple is called Mäna Stambha, that which brings an end to pride. It typically includes at its apex a four-faced Jina in Samovasaran. The story is when Indrabhuti Gautam, proud of his knowledge, went to debate Bhagwan Mahävir, at the mere sight of the pillar in front of the Samovasaran his pride and vanity disappeared. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 205 of 398 Page #206 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D02 - Emblems, Dreams, Puja Rituals D02 - Emblems, Dreams, Puja Rituals 01 Länchhans (Emblems Or Symbols) As all Tirthankars have attained the supreme spiritual stage, their idols (murti) represent the utmost qualities and virtues of a Tirthankar. Tirthankar's idol is a mere representation of their virtues and not a representation of their physical bodies. Therefore, all idols are carved in the same fashion. However, the only identifying feature of a given idol is the symbol, which is engraved at the base of the idol that distinguishes one from the other Tirthankars. When a Tirthankar is born, he or she has a particular mark on their right thigh. This birthmark is in the form of a speck called Länchhan emblem (symbol). This symbol can be found on the base of the idol to identify that Tirthankar. For example, an idol of Bhagawan Mahavir Swämi will have a symbol of a lion engraved at the base of the idol, while an idol of Pärshva-näth will have a symbol of a snake. Some differences exist between the symbols of Digambar and Shvetämbar sects and are defined on the below table. Temples of the Digambar sect have the idols of Tirthankars in their natural unadorned form with their eyes semi-closed in meditation. It represents the Tirthankar (Jina) as a liberated soul (free from attachment and aversion). Temples of the Shvetämbar sect have the idols adorned in a very elegant manner. The eyes vividly communicate peace and loving compassion. Positive vibrations emanate from the adorned energy centers. Shvetämbar idols are often times vividly decorated with colorful golden and silver threads called Ängi. It represents the Tirthankar as a spiritual king and sovereign victor of all the inner enemies and five senses. Sometimes the color of the idol is different. This color is associated with the physical body of a Tirthankar (see Tirthankar symbol and color table in this section). 02 Tirthankars Time rolls along in eternal cycles of rise and decline. Utsarpini is a "rising" era in, which human morale and natural conditions improve over time. At the end of Utsarpini, begins Avasarpini, a "declining" era of the same length, in, which human morale and virtues deteriorate. Each era consists of six sub divisions called Äräs. During the 3rd and 4th Äräs of every rising and declining era of each cycle, twenty-four souls become Tirthankars in our region known as Bharat Kshetra. They are the humans like us who rise to the highest divine level. They had gradually purified their soul in prior lives after achieving Samyag Darshan, right faith and had acquired a special karma called Tirthankar Näm Karma. The Tirthankar Näm Karma is acquired by performing one or more of the 20 specific austerities along with an intense desire to lead all living beings to the path of liberation. Tirthankar Näm Karma matures in the final life and leads the person to become a Tirthankar after taking Dikshä and observing austerities to destroy all Ghäti destructive karmas. After attaining omniscience Keval-jnän), Tirthankar organizes the Jain religion to suit the changing times. They reinstate the fourfold order of Sädhus (monks), Sädhvis (nuns), Shrävaks (male householders), and Shrävikäs (female householders) of Jain religion. Arihantas, Jinas, Kevalis, and Vitarägi are synonyms for Tirthankars. Arihanta means "destroyer of inner enemies," Jin means "victor of inner enemies," and Vitarägi means "one who does not have attachment or hatred towards anyone or anything." This means that they are absolutely detached from worldly aspects. Upon becoming Tirthankars they spend their remaining life in meditation and preaching all living beings to the path of liberation. Number of Tirthankars It was stated earlier that Tirthankars are born only in 3rd and 4th Äräs in our region called Bharat Kshetra of Jambu Dvip. Since we are in the 5th Ärä now, no Tirthankar exist in our region. In the 3rd and 4th Äräs of current Avasarpini cycle, the twenty-four Tirthankars were born in our region. Generally, when we state that there are twenty-four Tirthankars, we specifically mean that there were twenty-four Tirthankars in the 3rd and 4th Ärä of the current Avasarpini time cycle. Page 206 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #207 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO2-Emblems, Dreams, Puja Rituals According to Jainism, there are 15 regions in the universe where the possibility of Tirthankars exist. Out of these, 10 regions - 5 Bharat and 5 Airävat are such that the human behavior and natural conditions continuously changes and Tirthankars appear only during 3rd and 4th Äräs. The other five regions 5 Mahä-videha are such that the conditions are always conducive to have Tirthankar. At present, there exist four Tirthankars in each Mahä-videha Kshetra regions. Thus, there are a total of 20 Tirthankars preaching Jainism in Mahä-videha regions at present times. Shri Simandhar Swami is one of the 20 Tirthankars. In many Jain temples, an idol of Shri Simandhar Swami is installed which represents and reminds us that at present there are living Tirthankars preaching Jainism in the other part of the universe. This is also important since a soul can transmigrate and take a human birth in one of the Mahä-videha regions now and progress to reach liberation even though it is not possible to attain liberation in the present time in our region Bharat Kshetra. Past and Future Tirthankars There were twenty-four Tirthankars Chovisi in our region in the past Utsarpini half cycle of time. There will also be twenty-four Tirthankars in the next Utsarpini half cycle. The names of both past and future Tirthankars are clearly mentioned in our scriptures. There have been infinite such Chovisis in our Bharat Kshetra as well as Airävat Kshetra. In reality, there have been infinite number of Tirthankars in the past and there will be infinite numbers of Tirthankars in the future. Tirthankar Stutis There are many Stutis praising the qualities of Tirthankars in Jain literature. Following is the list of some popular Stutis. Logassa Ujjoyagare (Chatur Vinshati Stava) Sutra - This sutra is recited to offer obeisance to twenty-four Tirthankars. It consists of names of each Tirthankar and their qualities. Namutthunam (Shakra Stava) Sutra - This sutra is said to be composed by Indra, the Heavenly God in the praise of Arihantas (present and past). In this stuti, only their virtues are stated without any specific names of Tirthankars. Bhaktamar Stotra - This is most popular Stotra composed by Acharya Mänatunga Suri in praise of Tirthankar Rishabhdev. Änandghana Chovisi - Jain monk Shri Anandghanji who was a great poet has composed 24 Stutis one stuti for each Tirthankar) in praise of twenty-four Tirthankars. Tirthankars, Symbols, And Color No. Name Shvetämbar Digambar Symbol Color Symbol Rushabhadev or Adinath Bull Bull Gold Ajitnäth Elephant Elephant Gold Sambhavnath Horse Horse Gold Abhinandan Swami Monkey Monkey Gold Sumatinäth Curlew Bird *Red goose Gold (Chakvä) Padmaprabha Swami Red Lotus Red Lotus Supärshvanath Swastika Swastika Gold/Green* Chandraprabha Swami Crescent Moon Crescent Moon White Suvidhinäth or Crocodile Crocodile White Pushpadanta 10 Shitalnäth Shrivatsa *Kalpa-vruksha Gold 11 Shreyansnäth Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Gold 12 Väsupujya Swami Buffalo Buffalo Red Red Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 207 of 398 Page #208 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO2-Emblems, Dreams, Puja Rituals 13 Pig-Boar *Hawk Vajra Gold Gold 14 Gold Deer Vimalnäth Pig-Boar Anantnäth Eagle Dharmanath Vajra Shäntinäth Deer 17 Kunthunath Goat 18 Aranäth Nandävarta 19 Mallinäth Pot 20 Munisuvrat Swami Tortoise 21 Naminäth Blue Lotus Neminäth Conch Shell 23 Pärshvanath Snake 24 Mahävirswämi Lion *Different from Shvetämbar tradition Tirthankars, Parents, and Important Places No. Name Father Mother Goat *Fish Kumbha Tortoise Blue Lotus Conch Shell Snake Gold Gold Gold Blue/Gold* Black Gold Black Blue/Green* Gold Lion Birth Place Dikshä Place Ayodhya Nirvana Place Maru Devi Ashtapad Vijaya Senä Siddhartha Ayodhya Shrävasti Ayodhya Ayodhya Shrävasti Ayodhya Sametshikhar Sametshikhar Sametshikhar ya Mangalä Ayodhya Susimä Kaushämbi Prithvi Devi Väränasi Lakshmana Chandrapuri Rämä Räni käkandi Ayodhya Sametshikhar Kaushämbi Sametshikhar Väränasi Sametshikhar Chandrapuri Sametshikhar Käkandi Sametshikhar 11 Rushabhadev or Näbhi Adinath Ajitnäth Jitshatru Sambhavnath Jitäri Abhinandan Samvar Swami Sumatinäth Megharath Padmaprabha- Shridhar Supärshvanath Pratishtha Chandraprabha Mahäsen Suvidhinäth/ Sugriva Pushpadanta Shitalnäth Dradharath Shreyansnäth Vishnu Väsupujya- Vasupujya Swami Vimalnäth Krutavarma Anantnäth Simhasen Dharmnäth Bhänu Shäntinäth Vishvasen Kunthunath Surasen Aranäth Sudarshan Mallinäth Kumbha Munisuvrat- Sumitra Naminath Vijay Neminäth Samudravijay Nandä Räni Vishnu Devi Jaya Devi Bhadrilpur Simhapuri Champäpuri Bhadrilpur Sametshikhar Simhapur Sametshikhar Champäpuri Champäpuri 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Shyämä Suyasha Suvrata Achira Shree Räni Devi Räni Prabhävati Padmavati Viprä Shivä Devi Kämpilyapur Kämpilyapur Sametshikhar Ayodhya Ayodhya Sametshikhar Ratnapur Ratnapur Sametshikhar Hastinapur Hastinapur Sametshikhar Hastinapur Hastinapur Sametshikhar Hastinapur Hastinapur Sametshikhar Mithilä Mithilä Sametshikhar Räjgruhi Räjgruhi Sametshikhar Mithilä Mithilä Sametshikhar Suryapur/ Dwärkä Girnar Sauripur Väränasi Väränasi Sametshikhar Kshatriya- Kshatriya- Päväpuri kund kund 23 24 Pärshvanäth Mahävirswämi Ashvasen Siddhartha Vämä Devi Trishala Page 208 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #209 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO2-Emblems, Dreams, Puja Rituals Important Information About Tirthankars Tirthankar Rushabhadev's mother was Märudevi Mätä and according to Shvetämbar tradition, she was the first person to attain liberation in this era. Tirthankar Rushabhadev had 100 sons. The name of his eldest son was Bharat (first Chakravarti king) after whom our native nation Bharat (India) is named. One of Bharat's sons, Marichi, ultimately reincarnated as Tirthankar Mahävir, the last Tirthankar of this era. Tirthankar Rushabhadev's second son was Bahubali, and according to Digambar tradition, he was the first person to attain liberation in this era. Shvetämbar tradition believes that Tirthankar Mallinath was a female while Digambar tradition believes that Mallinäth was a male. According to Shvetämbar tradition, Tirthankars Mallinäth and Neminäth were the only two Tirthankars who did not get married. According to Digambar tradition, Väsupujya-swämi, Pärshvanath, and Mahävirswämi also did not get married. Lord Ram (an incarnation of Lord Vishnu in Hindu Mythology) is believed to be a contemporary of Tirthankar Munisuvrat-swami. Tirthankar Neminäth is believed to be a cousin of Lord Krishna, (another incarnation of Lord Vishnu). Prince Nemi (Tirthankar Neminäth) was engaged to Princess Räjul. On the day of the wedding, upon hearing the cries of the birds and animals that were going to be slaughtered for the wedding feast, Prince Nemi renounced his worldly life and became a monk. Princess Räjul followed him and became a nun. Tirthankar Pärshvanath was born in 877 BC. He lived for 100 years and attained Nirvana in 777 BC, 250 years before the birth of Tirthankar Mahävir. Tirthankar Mahävirswami was born in 599 BC and attained Nirvana (Moksha) in 527 BC. He was named Prince Vardhaman at birth. He attained Nirväna on the day of Diwali. He is the last of the 24 Tirthankars of this time cycle. Each of the 23 Tirthankars (except Neminäth) were born and took Diksha in the same place. *Digambar tradition indicates that women cannot become Tirthankar or be liberated because they need to cover their body with cloths after the renunciation (after becoming nuns). Hence, they cannot follow the fifth Mahävrata of Non-possession fully. For liberation, it is essential that all five Mahävrats be followed fully. Shvetämbar tradition interprets the fifth Mahävrata of Non-possessiveness indicating that monks and nuns may wear very simple minimum cloths needed to properly function their daily activities in the society e.g. Gochari - (Going to laypeople home for food). However, they should not have any attachments to their cloths. 03 Dreams of A Tirthankar's Mother Introduction Jainism does not restrict the right of attaining perfection to any one individual. Anyone can aspire to the highest state if one has the will to follow path of righteousness. Once the lamp of righteousness is kindled one may pass through many births with spiritual ups and downs but the march of progress is assured. Bhagawan Mahävir's soul before becoming liberated was just like us wandering in the lifecycle birth after birth. Before innumerable years, Bhagawan Mahävir's soul in the life as Nayasär, a woodcutter, attained selfrealization (Samyaktva). Then during 25th life as Nandan Muni, with intense penance and deep desire to guide every living being towards liberation, He attained Tirthankar-Näm-karma. After passing the next life as a heavenly being His soul attained its final destination and was born as Prince Vardhamän to Queen Trishala and King Siddhartha during his 27th and final birth It is a well-established convention that mother of a would-be Tirthankar witnesses auspicious dreams. (14 according to the Shvetämbar tradition/16 according to the digambar tradition) Tirthankar Mahavir's soul was an angel in the tenth heaven before being born as Prince Vardhaman. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 209 of 398 Page #210 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO2-Emblems, Dreams, Puja Rituals At the appropriate time, as the soul of Bhagawan Mahävir entered the womb of mother Trishalä, that night, Queen Trishalä was fortunate to visualize fourteen illustrious, beautiful, lucky, and auspicious, dreams. After witnessing these dreams, Trishalä felt exhilarated and with a heart incorporated with happiness, she rose from her couch and went to her husband. Calm and composed, joining the palms of her hands, she laid the folded hands on her head and narrated the dreams to him. After hearing about these auspicious dreams, King Siddhartha gathered several scholars to analyze the significance of these dreams. The fourteen dreams (sixteen dreams per Digambar tradition) that the mothers of all Tirthankars see at the time of conception are explained in brief below and the order shown below is the usual sequence, while there have been exceptions in few cases. For example, Lord Mahavir's mother saw the dream of Lion first, while the Lord Rishabdev's mother saw the dream of Bull first followed by other dreams in that order. 01. Elephant (Gajwar) It was big, tall and impetuous with four tusks. It was an auspicious elephant, and was endowed with all desirable marks of excellence. It was an enormous elephant possessing all lucky marks, with strong thighs and four mighty tusks who was whiter than an empty great cloud, a heap of pearls, and even an ocean of milk. The exceptional elephant had the capability to utter a fine deep sound like that of thunder from a large rain-cloud. This dream indicated that she would give birth to a child with exceptionally high character. The four tusks signified that he would guide the spiritual chariot with its four components: monks (Sädhus), nuns (Sädhvis), laymen (Shrävaks), and laywomen (Shrävikäs). 02. Bull (Vrushabh) The bull was tame, noble, grand, and shining as bright as an illuminating glory of light and was whiter than the petals of a white lotus. The bull also possessed a majestic and beautiful hump and was covered by fine, bright and soft hair on its body. The bull had a unique structure with several good qualities. Its body was firm, muscular, and well proportioned, its horn were large and sharply pointed and its teeth equal and shining. This dream indicated that her son would be highly religious and be a great spiritual teacher to all. He would help cultivate the religion. 03. Lion (Sinh) The lion was magnificent, handsome and playful, whiter than a heap of pearls. It had lovely forearms and a large well-rounded head. Its mouth was adorned with well-set teeth and with lovely lips that were soft and tender as a lotus. This beautiful lion had sharp and glowing eyes like lightening, broad and large thighs, full shoulders, and was adorned with mane of the finest quality of soft white hair. Its protruding tongue, well-poised claws, and long flapping tail truly brought out the beauty of the lion. The Queen saw this lion descending towards her from the sky and entering her mouth. This dream indicated that her son would be as powerful and strong as the lion. He would be fearless, almighty, and capable of ruling the world. 04. Goddess of Wealth (Lakshmi Devi) Goddess Lakshmi is the goddess of wealth, prosperity, and power. On the top of Mount Himavat, she was seated on a lotus in the lotus lake, anointed with the water from the strong and large trunks of the guardian elephants. Her face resembled a full moon, and her body was adorned with ornaments made of pearls, emeralds, and jewels which were subservient to the loveliness of her face. She wore a garland of gold and a pair of earrings hung over her shoulders with dazzling beauty. Her lovely eyes were large and pure like water lily. Goddess Lakshmi, a symbol of wealth, prosperity, and power looked dazzling sitting gracefully amidst the lotus lake This dream indicated that her son would enjoy great wealth and splendor. He would be a Tirthankar, the supreme benefactor of all. Page 210 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #211 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D02 - Emblems, Dreams, Puja Rituals 05. Garland (Pushpa Mälä) A pair of beautiful garlands charmingly interwoven with fresh flowers was descending from the sky. They smelled of mixed fragrances of different flowers. It was white through embellishments of many colorful flowers of all seasons. The whole universe was filled with their sweet and delightful fragrance. This dream indicated that the fragrance of her son's teachings and messages of compassion and love will spread throughout the universe, and he would be respected by all 06. Full Moon (Chandra) It was a very auspicious sight. It was a full moon as white as a silver cup, resembling the surface of a well-polished mirror. It made the lilies bloom fully and raised the water of the ocean. The moon was at its full glory. It was as bright as a star. It adorned the night dispelling compact darkness of the wilderness and delighting heart and eyes. This dream indicated that the child would have a great physical structure and be pleasing to all living beings of the universe. He would help lessen the suffering of all living beings. He would bring peace to the world. 07. Sun (Surya) The sun was large, red like the Ashoka tree, the adorner of the lotus flowers, the illustrious leader of the troop of planets, the destroyer of night, who disperses evil-doers that thrive at night, who always circles round Mount Meru, whose thousand rays obscure the luster of other lights. The sun was shining to destroy the darkness. It was as radiant as the flames of the forest fire. This dream indicated that her son would have supreme knowledge and would dispel the darkness of delusions. The teachings would destroy anger, greed, ego, lust, and pride from the lives of all living beings. 08. Flag (Dhwaj) A beautiful, large flag was flying on a golden pole. It seemed as if it would pierce the brilliant celestial sphere. The flag fluttered softly and auspiciously in the gentle breeze and attracted everyone's attention. This dream indicated that her son would carry the banner of the religion. He would reinstate the religious order throughout the universe. 09. Vase (Kumbha) It was a golden vase filled with pure water, marked with many auspicious signs, magnificent, beautiful and stood on lotus shaped foot. It was made up of fine gold and was the abode of happy fortune. It was decorated with a garland of fragrant flowers and excellent jewels, which further illuminated its brightness and brilliant beauty. This dream indicated that her son would be perfect in all virtues and would be full of compassion for all living beings. He would be a supreme religious personality. 10. Lotus Lake (Padma Sarovar) It was a vast lotus lake and comprised of thousands of floating lotuses and water lilies that were blooming with the touch of the rays of the morning sun and attracting the swarms of bees with its sweet fragrance. The lake was abounded with aquatic animals and pairs of swans, cranes, ducks and many other birds resorted to its water. On the leaves of its lotuses water-drops sparkled like thousands of shining pearls. This dream indicated that her son would be beyond worldly attachment. He would help liberate living beings, tangled in the cycle of birth and death. 11. Ocean (Sägar) It was a milky ocean white like the mass of moon beams with its water rising in all for directions, and raged with ever-changing and, moving, excessively high waves. It presented a splendid and Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 211 of 398 Page #212 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO2-Emblems, Dreams, Puja Rituals pleasant spectacle as it rushed to and from the shore with its wind-raised, and changeable billows, its tossing waves, and its rolling, splendid, transparent breakers. From it issued camphor-white foam under the lashing tails of great porpoises, fishes, whales, and other monsters of the deep. Its agitated waters were in great uproar, occasioned by the vortex produces by the vehemence and force of the great rivers. This dream indicated that her son would have a serene and pleasant personality. He would achieve infinite perception and knowledge, and will be capable of escaping the worldly life and cycles of birth, death, and misery. He will ultimately reach his highest potential, which is liberation (Moksha) 12. Celestial Plane (Vimän) It was a celestial plane which resounded celestial music and had pleasant vibe and a spiritual aroma of incense. It shone like the morning sun and had dazzling beauty. Its thousand and eight excellent columns inlaid with the best gold and heaps of jewels diffused a brilliant light like a heavenly lamp. The plane was decorated with divine garlands and curtains with glittering pearls There the musicians performed their concerts, and the din of the drums, imitating the sound of big and large rain-clouds, penetrated the whole inhabited world. This dream indicated that all the celestial beings in heaven would respect, honor, and salute her son's spiritual teachings. 13. Heap of Jewels (Ratna Räshi) It was an enormous heap of various jewels quite precious and special. This heap of jewel had its base rested on the level of earth and illuminated so powerful and bright that the jewel's radiance traveled as far as the sphere of the sky, resembling Mt Meru. This dream indicated that her son would have infinite virtues and wisdom and he would attain the supreme spirit. 14. Smokeless Fire (Nirdhuma Agni) A smokeless fire was a unique dream due to the idea that it is a fire that burns with great intensity, but with no smoke. The fire in vehement motion was crackling from extremely beautiful burning flames. The mass of its flames, which rose one above the other, seemed to interpenetrate each other. This dream indicated that her son would reform and restore the religious order. He would remove blind faith and orthodox rituals. Furthermore, he would burn or destroy his karmas and attain salvation. 15. Pair of Fish (Minayugal) This dream indicated that her son would be extremely handsome. 16. Lofty Throne (Simhäsan) This dream indicated that her son would have a very high spiritual status. To summarize the indication of all these dreams is that the child to be born would be very strong, courageous, and filled with virtues. He would be very religious and would become a great king or a spiritual leader. He would reform and restore the religious order and guide all the creatures of the universe to attain salvation. He would also be liberated. 04 Ashta Prakäri Pujä/Ashta Dravya Puja Jains perform many types of Puja for various religious and social ceremonies, with each Puja symbolizing different aspects of the religion. One should understand the meaning and purpose, and reflect upon the proper aspects while performing the Puja rituals. In Jain Pujä, we do not offer material to Tirthankars (God) with the desire of getting something in return. The material used is a symbolic representation to acquire virtues and a reflection to improve our self spiritually. Page 212 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #213 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS Dravya Pujä and Bhäva Pujä Obeisance, worship, and devotion to God are done with different types of materials and with spiritual reflection. Use of these materials and recitation of religious sutras constitutes Dravya Pujä, whereas reflection on a Tirthankar's qualities constitutes Bhäva Pujä. The sutras sung while performing Dravya pujä provide the seed thoughts for Bhäva Pujä. The full benefit to the soul occurs through Bhäva Pujä. "Ashta" means "eight," "Prakäri" means "types," and "Dravya" means "material." Eight types of materials are used in various Jain Pujäs. List of Materials Used In Pujäs Jal (Water), Chandan (Sandalwood), Pushpa (Flower), Dhoop (Incense), Deepak (Lamp), Akshat (White Rice), Naivedya (Sweet), and Fal (fruits). In both sects, pujäs are performed with the same eight materials. It is called Ashta Prakäri Pujä by Shvetämbars and Ashta Dravya Pujä by Digambars. In some Digambar sub-sects, flowers and fruits are omitted and cloves, pieces of coconut, and colored rice are used in their place. Ashta Prakäri Pujä of Shvetämbar Tradition The first three pujäs are called Anga Pujä. They are done by bathing (Abhisheka) the idol, offering Chandan (sandalwood) paste, and Pushpa (flowers). In these pujäs, the devotee physically touches the idol. Hence the devotee is required to cover the mouth first and then touch the idol for pujä. The remaining five pujäs are known as Agra Pujä. They are done in front of the idols using Dhoop (incense), Deepak (lamp), Akshat (rice), Naivedya (sweets), and Fal (fruits). The idol is not touched in these pujäs, so there is no need to cover the mouth. Both male and female members can perform these eight pujäs. Ashta Dravya Pujä of Digambar Tradition In the Digambar tradition, Jal pujä is done by bathing (Abhisheka) the idol. This is the only pujä in which the idol is physically touched. Only male members perform this pujä. The mouth is not covered, unlike Shvetämbar tradition. The remaining seven pujäs are done in front of the idols. Both male and female members of the sect can perform these pujäs. Digambars do these Pujäs in a different order. The attached table explains the order of Shvetämbar and Digambar Pujä. Summary This chart shows the eight items and their significance for various Shvetämbar and Digambar pujä. S* D* Offering Jal (Water) Alternate Offering Same Significance Purity 1 1 2 2 3 D02 - Emblems, Dreams, Puja Rituals 4 4 7 5 6 Chandan (Sandalwood) Pushpa (Flower) Dhoop (Insence) Deepak (Lamp) Same Yellow coconut (saffron colored) Knowledge/Tranquility Yellow Rice (saffron Good Conduct colored rice) Same Life of a monk Pure consciousness Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Benefit Give up desires, anxieties disappointments, and sorrows. Give up passion of anger Give up passion of deceit Stopping the cycle of birth and death. Removing the darkness of ignorance from the inner self Page 213 of 398 Page #214 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS 6 3 7 5 8 8 All Akshat (White Rice) Naivedya (Sweet) Fal (Fruits) Arghya Pujä Same White coconut Dry Fruits Arghya Pujä (Ashika) (Mixture of all eight substances) D02 - Emblems, Dreams, Puja Rituals Pure Soul Attain supreme Soul (digambar) Detachment to tasty food (Shvetambar) Moksha (Salvation) Eternal state of absolute perception, absolute knowledge and absolute bliss Page 214 of 398 Give up passion of pride In the Digambar tradition, cloves or sandalwood dust representing Dhoop, is offered to destroy all the eight karmas. *Arghya / Äshikä puja is performed only in the Digambar tradition 05 Special Pujas Give up the passion of greed Simple daily Pujäs or special occasion pujäs involve offering of the same eight materials in both traditions. Examples of special Pujäs are: Attain Moksha (Salvation) 1. Snätra Pujä: It symbolizes bathing of the new Tirthankars by devas and devies over Mountain Meru. It is always performed prior to any pujä, Pujan, on birthday celebrations, during opening of new business, and housewarmings etc. 2. Pancha Kalyanak Pujä: This pujä commemorates the five great events of the Tirthankar's life. Basically in this pujä, Pandit Virvijayji has praised Lord Shankheswar Parsvanath. This puja is performed during any good event. Five Kalyanks are Conception, Birth, Renunciation, Omniscience, and Moksha. Other Shvetämber Pujäs: Västu Pujä, Navpad Pujä, Bärvrata Pujä, Sattarbhedi Pujä Other Digambar Pujäs: Digambar Parva Pujas, Das Lakshan Pujä, Solahkaran Pujä, Nirvänkhetra Pujä 3. Antaräy Karma Pujä: There are eight pujäs, very much like daily Ashta Prakari Pujä. In these pujäs, how different persons created the Antaräy Karmas and how they were able to remove those obstacles after performing these pujäs is mentioned. 4. Navvänu (99) Prakari Pujä: This puja is performed to praise the greatness of Siddhächal Mahätirtha, the place where our first Tirthankar Lord Rishabhdev visited '99 Purva' times. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 06 Pujan Pujan is a lengthy ritual that almost lasts a whole day and is performed by very learned persons and involves many people in ceremony. Those are done occasionally like during new temple opening ceremony, after someone's special penance like Varsitap etc. Examples are: Siddhachakra Pujan, Bhaktamar Pujan, Shäntisnätra Pujan, Rishimandal Stotra Pujan Page #215 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO3 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) DO3 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) 01 Introduction Idol worship is known to mankind for many centuries. It is an integral part of worship for many religions and in particular the Eastern religions. It is a prominent feature of the path of devotion. Devotion is that state of mind when all the energies of the mind and all the organs of knowledge and action are directed to the Supreme Being. Worship or prayer is meaningful only when it is an integral part of mind, thought, and action. It is very desirable that the worship is spontaneous and flowing from the heart but for many people organized or formal worship is necessary and beneficial. One can pray at anytime, anywhere. But a special sacred place, set aside just for worship, is the temple. In Indian language it is called Mandir, and particularly in Jain tradition it is called Deräsar. The Jain temple is perhaps most accurately viewed as replica of the Samavasaran. The layman comes near as though he were actually approaching the place where a living Jina sits, bathed in omniscient glory, preaching to Sangh. The Jina idol image itself is being used as a tangible aid to visualization of such a sacred being, thereby one can hope to awaken his soul. Looking at Tirthankar's idol in a meditative posture with calm and serene face reminds us of His attributes of compassion and detachment. The image of Jina is seen as merely an ideal, a state attainable by all embodied souls. Looking at the pure state of the Tirthankar reminds us to think about our inner pure state and to strive to achieve the same. Going to the temple regularly can bring awareness in our thought and action. Because it is a sacred place, there are special rules one should follow while in the temple. 02 Recommendations Here are the recommendations to be taken in respect of worship. 01. Bathe prior to performing pujä. Do not wear leather or silk clothes and pearls during puja and other religious rituals. Silk is made by killing millions of silk worms. Pearls are derived by killing oysters. Wear clean (recently washed) clothing and do not eat or use restroom after putting on the clean clothes. Shoes must be removed outside of the temple. 02. You must respect the idols of Tirthankar Bhagwan as though they were alive. Marks of Chandan from the idols should be cleaned by gently using a wet cloth. To clean the idols thoroughly you may use a soft brush. In case, the idol has to be carried from one place to another; it should be carried in reverence by holding it upright with the support of both hands beneath it. 03. Use only clean water without adding milk in Jal (Abhisheka) pujä. However if one desires to symbolize Kshira Samudra water (white color water), one may grind some almonds to mix with the water. 04. Do not use dairy products (milk, ghee, sweets made from dairy products) in puja. The highest cruelty to cows and calves exist on modern dairy farms and associated industries. Use vegetable oil instead of ghee for Deevo. 05. To minimize the violence, the flowers selected should have naturally fallen down (a clean sheet be laid under the plant the night before), and should not be plucked from plants for this purpose. The buds of the flowers should not be removed. When making a garland of the flowers, a needle should not be used for stringing them together, and they should not be washed. 06. Do not use silver or gold foil (varakh) for idol decoration. Production of Varakh mostly involves use of cow intestines. There are many other cruelty-free products available in Jain temple supply stores that can be used to decorate the idols. The flowers, the decorations, and the sandalwood paste should be kept on a clean plate and should not be allowed to fall to the ground. In case they do fall, they should not be used in Pujä. 07. Cover your nose and mouth with the handkerchief while preparing the sandalwood paste and also during Jal, Chandan, and Pushpa pujä. The handkerchief should be folded four times such that it has eight layers. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 215 of 398 Page #216 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO3 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) 08. While reciting Chaitya-vandan, you do not disturb the concentration and devotion of others and you should not engage in any other activities, including forming the swastika from rice. 09. When you leave the temple, you should not turn your back towards the idols of Arihantas. Rather, you should walk backwards a few steps first and then leave. If the production of the pujä materials involves violence to mobile living beings (two to five sensed living beings), then Jain scriptures prohibit all use of such materials. 03 Shvetämbar Tradition Pujä Upon first sight of the idol of Tirthankar Bhagawan you should bow down with folded hands and recite, 'Namo Jinänam (bow down to Tirthankar Bhagawan) Upon entering Derasar, you should ring the bell softly and then perform ten specific rituals called Dasha-trik as described in detail below. Dasha-trik (Ten Rituals of the Temple) 01 Nissihi Renunciation 02 Pradakshinä Circumambulation - going around the Jin's idol 03 Pranam Salutation 04 Pujä Worship 05 Avasthä-chintan Contemplation upon the various states of a Tirthankar Dishätyäg Concentration only on Jin's idol Pramärjana Cleaning the floor before sitting down Älambana Mental support 09 Mudras Postures for meditation 10 Pranidhana Meditation 1. Nissihi (Renunciation): Nissihi means renunciation (giving up). It is said three times in the temple: The first Nissihi is said while entering the temple to discard all the thoughts relating to worldly affairs (Samsar). Having entered the temple, it is the duty of the laypeople to make sure temple management is running smoothly. One may help to clean the temple. After having taken care of such duties, the second Nissihi is said while entering the actual area of the Jin idol sanctum (Gabhäro); to keep aside thinking of such things as the cleaning of the temple and its management. The third Nissihi is said right after finishing worship with the physical substances (Dravya-puja) and at the beginning of the internal devotional worship (Bhävapujä/ Chaitya-vandan) to renounce even our own self for the duration of Chaitya Vandan. 2. Pradakshinä (Circumambulation): You circumambulate (go around in a circle) the Jin idols three times, from the left to the right, keeping the Jin idols on your right side. The circumambulations remind you that there are three remedies to overcome attachment and hatred and to attain liberation: Samyag Darshan Right Faith Samyag Jnän Right Knowledge Samyag Charitra Right Conduct Page 216 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #217 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D03 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) For eternity, we have been revolving in the cycle of birth and death. When we obtain these three jewels of our faith in the teachings of the Jin, obtaining knowledge about the self as experienced and explained by the Jin, and instill these teachings into our behavior, our liberation becomes a certainty. We reflect upon these lines as we circumambulate around the idols. 3. Pranam (Salutation): We bow down to the idols of Tirthankars three times. The first salutation is offered either when you see the Shikhar, or when you see the idols of the Tirthankars (usually at the time of entering temple), by placing the folded hands over the slightly bent forehead and saying Namo Jinänam. This is called Anjali Baddha Pranäm. The second salutation is done with folded hands and bowed body as you enter the sanctum (Gabhäro - place of idols). This is called Ardhävanat Pranäm. The third salutation is done while touching the ground with five body parts (2 knees, 2 hands, and the forehead) before performing Chaitya-vandan / Bhävapujä (internal devotional worshipping). This is called Panchänga-pranipät Pranäm or Khamäsamanu. 4. Pujä (Worship): Tirthankar Bhagawan's Pujä is done with different types of materials and with spiritual reflection. The worship is offered in three different ways: The first worship is called Anga-pujä. This is done by anointing the different parts of an idol of Arihanta with water, sandalwood paste, and a flower. The second worship is called Agra-pujä, which is done by placing incense, a lamp, rice, fruit, and sweets in front of idols. The first and second worships together make Ashta-prakäri Pujä (worship using eight various materials). Collectively, these two Pujäs are called Dravya-puja (physical worship). Use of these materials and recitation of religious sutras constitutes Dravya Pujä, whereas reflection on a Tirthankar's qualities constitutes the third worship called Bhäva Pujä. The third worship is Bhävapujä and is done by performing Chaitya-vandan. The sutras sung while performing Dravya Pujä provide the seed thoughts for Bhäva Pujä. The associated outside activities are simply to strengthen internal devotional thought process. The full benefit to the soul occurs through Bhäva Pujä. Pujä Materials The materials (flowers, water, lamp, fruits) used in pujä involve some violence to one-sense living beings. Hence, Jain ascetics who live totally nonviolent lives and do not possess any material items that they can use in pujä. So they do not perform any Dravya pujä. They engage in spiritual reflection and only do Bhäva Pujä. However, the Dravya puja is meant for laypeople. Commonly, laypeople spend most of their time in fulfillment of social obligations, personal enjoyment, accumulation of wealth and power, and gaining better social status. Pujäs and other temple related rituals help laypeople to move from their routine social life to a spiritual life. In the initial stage of spiritual development, a person needs religious symbols such as a Tirthankar idol to pray, and offering of pujä materials. Hence minimum violence to one-sensed living being is accepted for the laypeople for their spiritual progress. However, one should use proper wisdom to limit the quantity and usage of flowers, water, fire (Deepak, Dhoop), fruits, and sweets in pujä rituals and also in daily life to minimize the violence to one-sensed living beings. With regards to offering flowers, it is suggested that a clean sheet be laid under the (flower) plant the night before and only naturally fallen flowers be used in pujä offering. This method minimizes the violence and limits the quantity of flowers used in pujä. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 217 of 398 Page #218 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D03 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) If the production of the pujä materials involves violence to mobile living beings (two to five-sensed living beings), then Jain scriptures prohibit all use of such materials even by Jain laypeople. Jainism is a rational religion. The scriptures provide the fundamental principles of truth. The implementation of such principles varies with respect to time, place, and circumstances. We need to evaluate our past tradition based on the current environment in which we live. Ashta Prakäri Pujä (Eightfold worship): "Ashta" means "eight," "Prakäri" means "types," and "Dravya" means "material." Thus the Ashtaprakäri Pujä is done by offering eight different types of substances during worship. All substance represents various devotional thoughts of a devotee. Internal devotional worship is reflected within. In Jain Pujä, we do not offer material to Tirthankars with the desire of getting something in return. The material used is a symbolic representation to acquire virtues and a reflection to improve our self spiritually. One should reflect on such aspects while performing the Pujä rituals. There are different types of Pujä being performed for various religious and social ceremonies. This pujä is performed daily and is included in all other Pujä. The following eight materials are used in performing Pujä. 1. Jal (Water) Pujä: My soul, a Kalash made of knowledge, I fill, with the water of equanimity. And as I bathe the Arihanta, My karmas are washed away. My soul is a Kalash (a small pitcher used to bath the idol) of knowledge, which is full of equanimity representing water. As I bathe the idol of Arihanta, I pray that let the impurities of my Karma wash away from my soul. Water also symbolizes the ocean. Every living being continuously travels through the ocean of birth, life, and death. This Pujä reminds us that one should live life as pure as water with honesty, truthfulness, love, and compassion towards all living beings. This way, one will be able to cross life's ocean and attain liberation. 2. Chandan (Sandal-wood) Puja: He whose face beams of the tranquility within The one whose very nature is tranquil To that Arihanta I worship To make my soul tranquil. To attain tranquility in our soul we worship the idol of Arihanta with the sandalwood paste because Arihanta is the supreme example of tranquility and his face is also tranquil. Page 218 of 398 Chandan symbolizes tranquility (calmness) in our soul. Chandan mixed with water is offered to subside the suffering of the world. During this Pujä one should reflect on Samyag Jnän. Samyag Jnän means proper understanding of reality that includes Soul, Karma, and their relationship. Jainism believes that the Path of Knowledge is the main path to attain liberation. Recitation Mantra Namo Arihantänarm Namo Siddhänam Namo Äyariyänam Namo Uvajjhäyänam Namo Loe Savvasähünam Places of Pujä 1. Right Toe, Left Toe*: 2. Right Knee, Left Knee: 3. Right center of Arm, Left Arm: 4. Right Shoulder, Left Shoulder: 5. Top of Head (center): Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #219 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D03 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) 6. Center of Forehead: 7. Center of Throat: 8. Center of Chest: 9. Navel: Eso Pancha Namukkäro Savvapävappanäsano Mangalä Nam Cha Savve Sim Padhamam Havai Mangalam Notes Right and Left sides mentioned here are of the idol or Murti and not of the person doing puja Right Toe is on the opposite side the Right Knee, Arm and Shoulder of the idol Do not put Chandan on the palm or any other body parts of the idol Use the ring finger of the right hand for chandan puja. The finger nail should not touch the idol. Significance of Nav-anga Pujä Toes Oh! Arihanta, you traveled great distances by foot to preach to the ignorant souls and to show them the right path of life. I therefore worship your feet. I wish for that kind of strength so that I can also bring righteousness for others and myself. Knees With the help of these knees you stood motionless in meditation for days and achieved omniscience. By worshipping your knees I also wish to find the strength to meditate. Forearm Even though you had all the amenities and riches, you gave away everything with these hands, to realize your true self and to show the right path to mankind. All living beings were safe at your hands, as you promised them safety. By worshipping your hand, I wish I do not get attached to material wealth, and I promise nonviolence towards all living beings. Shoulders Even though you possessed the strength, you never misused it and never had pride. Your strength also carried the burden of saving others. Likewise, I wish never become proud and I am able to carry responsibilities. Head Bhagawän, you were always absorbed in self-realization and in the betterment of all living beings. I wish to have the ability to think about wellbeing of others. Siddha-shila is located on the top of the universe. By worshipping the head, I wish to reach Siddha-shilä. Forehead Because of Tirthankar Näm-karma, all three worlds pray to you. You are the crown jewel of three worlds. You were able to endure pleasure and pain equally. Worshipping your forehead will bring good qualities to me. Neck With your soothing and sweet speech, you touched so many lives and helped them realize their own selves. Let my speech work for the good of others. Heart Oh! Vitaraga Bhagawän! your heart is full of amity, compassion, and mercy. Likewise, I wish my heart be full of these virtues. Navel The navel is the center for concentration of the mind during meditation. I wish to attain the highest form of meditation to realize the self, as you did. I wish for that strength by worshipping this navel of yours 3. Pushpa (Flower) Pujä: Perfumed, a flower in full bloom I hold; For this Pujä, which destroys the misery of birth. Just as a bee hovers around the flower; Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 219 of 398 Page #220 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D03 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) To be around you always, I ask that Samyaktva be imprinted upon me. By offering fragrant and unbroken flowers to Arihanta we reflect upon to live our life like flower. Pushpa symbolizes conduct. Our conduct should be like a flower, which provides fragrance and beauty to all living beings without discrimination. 4. Dhoop (Incense) Pujä: Meditation illuminates the dense darkness, Just as I offer the incense before the beautiful eyes of the Jin; Driving away the bad smell of wrong faith, The innate nature of the soul emerges By placing incense (Dhoop) on the left side of the idol, we initiate the upward meditation to destroy the bad odor of Mithyätva (false faith) and manifest our pure soul. Just as the fragrant smoke of the incense goes upwards, we should begin our ever progressive spiritual journey leading to the top of the universe, the Siddha-shilä. Just as the incense removes the bad odor, we should remove false faith (Mithyätva). Dhoop also symbolizes an ascetic life. While burning itself, Dhoop provides fragrance to others. Similarly, true monks and nuns spend their entire life selflessly for the benefit of all living beings. This Pujä reminds us to thrive for an ascetic life, which ultimately leads to liberation. 5. Deepak (Lamp) Pujä: Like a lamp, help us distinguish between good and bad To avoid sorrow in this world and One day, my internal lamp of knowledge will Illuminate the entire universe The flame of a lamp (Deepak) represents a Pure Consciousness, or a Soul without any bondage, a Liberated Soul. When we light the lamp in the right manner, our miseries get destroyed. As a result, we get the knowledge in the form of Keval-jnän, which illuminates the whole universe. Deepak symbolizes the light of knowledge. Deepak pujä is offered on the right side of the idol to destroy the darkness of ignorance and false beliefs. The ultimate goal of every living being is to be liberated from karma. To be liberated from Karma, one needs to be free from all vices such as anger, greed, ego, deceit, attachment, hatred and lust. By doing this Pujä one should strive to follow the five great vows: Non-violence, Truthfulness, Non-stealing, Chastity and Nonpossession. Ultimately proper conduct coupled with right faith and knowledge will lead to liberation. 6. Akshat (Rice) Puja: Pure unbroken Akshat I hold And draw this large Nandävarta In the presence of my lord, I wish all my worldliness Will destroy indefinitely By offering pure and unbroken rice grains in the form of Nandävarta, we meditate in front of Arihanta, keeping all our worldly attachments away. The rice grain without the husk, called Akshat, is a kind of grain that does not germinate. One cannot grow rice plants by seeding this type of rice. It symbolizes the last birth. By doing this Page 220 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #221 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO3 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) Pujä one should strive to live life in such a way that at the end of this life one will be liberated and not born again. 7. Naivedya (Sweet) Pujä: Many a times I have gone hungry O Pure One! Without a trace of desire, Do satiate me eternally. In the course of the cycle of birth and death, I have remained hungry many times but that was transitory. O! Arihanta! give me the permanent state where there is no desire of food. Naivedya symbolizes tasty foods. By doing this Pujä, one should strive to reduce or eliminate the attachment to tasty food. Healthy food is essential for survival; however, one should not live to eat tasty foods. The ultimate aim in one's life is to attain a state where no food is essential for one's existence, and that is the life of a liberated Soul, who resides in Moksha forever in ultimate bliss. 8. Fal (Fruit) Pujä: Just as Indra and other Devas Out of their extreme love for you, I bring along "fruits' to worship. Upon meeting you, o Supreme soul, I renounce worldly aspirations and desire only Moksha as the fruit of all my actions. For the Puja of Arihanta, the Supreme Being, heavenly gods bring fruits with devotion and ask for the Moksha, the ultimate fruit. Fruit is a symbol of Moksha or Liberation. If we live our life without any attachment to worldly affairs, continue to perform our duty without any expectation of rewards, truly follow an ascetic life, and have love and compassion towards all living beings, we will attain the fruit of Moksha or Liberation. This last Pujä symbolizes the ultimate achievement of our life. The main purpose of Puja is that by reciting the virtues of the Tirthankar we remind ourselves that we also have the same virtues, and that by taking the path of the Tirthankars we can also achieve Nirvana. 5. Avasthä Chintan (Contemplating On The Different States of Arihanta): After completing the external worship, you must carry out this contemplation. The male should stand on the right side of the idol of Arihanta (that is the left side while facing the idol) while the female should stand on the left side (that is the right side while facing the idol). Now you should contemplate on the three different states that Arihantas went through. They are Pindastha Avasthä ordinary embodied souls Padastha Avasthä omniscient embodied souls Rupätita Avasthä liberated souls Pindastha Avasthä: In Pindastha Avasthä you contemplate on Arihanta's: 1. Janmävasthä (as a child): Oh Lord, during your third previous life, you attained Tirthankar Näm Karma due to compassion and intense desire for spiritual upliftment of all living beings. When you were born, all of 56 female angels of directions and 64 Indras celebrated birth rituals to you. It was your greatness and humbleness that even at such an occasion, you did not feel proud of what was happening around you. Your loftiness is blessed. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 221 of 398 Page #222 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D03 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) 2. Rajyävasthä (as a prince): Oh Lord, you were a Prince. You had princely power and grandeur, and yet you were neither attached to them nor felt hatred about them. You were like a Yogi who is detached. Glory to your renunciation. 3. Shraman-ävasthä (as a Sädhu): Oh heroic Lord, you renounced worldly power and luxury without any hesitation and became a Sädhu. You carried out heroic endeavors for the attainment of spiritual elevation, bearing the most bitter obstacles and calamities. At times you carried out incomparable and arduous spiritual austerities and penance. You stood for days absorbed in deep meditation. By doing so, you destroyed all the Ghäti Karmas. Glory to your austerity. Glory to your bravery. Glory to your tolerance. Padastha Avasthä: For Padastha Avasthä, you contemplate on the state of life as a Tirthankar. Oh Tirthankar, you have 34 Atishaya (unique characteristics). Oh Tirthankar, you established a Tirtha, the four-fold Jain Sangh. Oh Tirthankar, you explained the noble doctrines of Jiva Tattva (living substance) and Ajiva Tattva (Non-living substance) of the universe. You showed the path of salvation comprised of the right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct. You expounded the immortal philosophical doctrines like Anekäntaväda (multiplicity view points), Syädväda, and Naya. Rupätita Avasthä: Here, you contemplate on the pure form of Jin. Oh, Paramätmä (supreme being)! You have totally destroyed all your Karma, and you have become bodiless, pure, awakened, liberated, and perfect. Having attained this state, you possess infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite bliss, and infinite energy. You possess countless virtues. Your state is absolutely free from impurities, distortion, and agitation. In this state, death, disease, distress, or poverty, and all other adversities do not exist. 6. Dishätyäg (Concentrate Only On Jin's Idol): Now you should prepare for the Bhävapujä (internal worship), known as Chaitya-vandan. You should not be distracted by anything. Your eyes and mind should concentrate on the idol and you should not look in any other direction like up, down, sideways, or behind. 7. Pramärjana (Cleaning The Ground Before Sitting Down): Before sitting down for Chaitya-vandan you should clean the ground three times with your upper cloth, so that no small insect may be hurt by you sitting there. 8. Älambana (Support): Having sat down, you must keep three supports in your mind: (1) the idol of the Lord, (2) the sutras you recite, and (3) their meanings. Now, your should concentrate only on these three things. 9. Mudrä (Posture): Various specific postures described in scriptures are very much necessary to attain sublime concentration during Chaitya-vandan. Yoga Mudra: During Chaitya-vandan and the recital of the sutras, you must sit upright with both palms together and the fingers of one hand in the spaces between the fingers of the other hand, with the elbows to the sides of your stomach. Muktä-shukti Mudra: Page 222 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #223 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO3 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) You must keep your hands in the posture of an oyster shell, with both hands together so that there is a space between the two palms where the fingers meet. This posture is used at the time of recitation of the sutras Jävanti Cheyi Ayam, Jävanti Kevi Sähu, and Jai Viyaraya. Jin Mudrä: At the time of Käyotsarga, you stand up in such a way that there is a distance of 4 inches between your two feet at the toes in the front while the distance between two heels must be less than four inches. Your hands should be hanging down. Your eyes should be fixed on the tip of your nose. Jin stood in Käyotsarga with this posture. 10. Pranidhäna (Remain Meditative): You should engage your mind, speech and bodily senses in Chaitya-vandan. By the correct bodily postures and senses focused on the Bhäva Pujä, by correct pronunciation of sutras, and by focusing your mind on Chaitya-vandan and not letting it wander, you have accomplished the final procedure of Pranidhäna. Members of some Jain sects e.g. Sthänakaväsi and Teräpanthi do not worship in a temple. 04 Digambar Tradition Pujä Every idol-worshipping religion attaches great significance to Pujä of the idol and corresponding rituals. A person feels gratified and experiences great joy upon catching a glimpse of the idol, which he/she adores the most. Six Daily Essentials for Jain Householders as per Digamber Tradition: Dev Pujä Worship of Supreme Soul Guru Upasti Respecting Guru Swadhyay Study of Scriptures Saiyam Discipline Penance Däna Charity Dev Puja Тар Dev Puja is the foremost of the essentials for Jains. Puja is usually done in the presence of an idol and with some offerings (Dravya Pujä), but it can also be done in the absence of an idol and with no material offerings (Bhäv Puja). Puja is usually performed in the temple before an idol of an Arihanta, but it can also be performed at home with or without an idol. Before visiting the temple, a person must take a bath and put on washed clothes, which are usually kept in the temple for this purpose. While going to temple, utmost care should be observed that no living beings are harmed due to one's carelessness. Before entering the temple one must wash his hands and feet. As he enters the temple hall, he should ring the bells slowly to wake your inner powers. As one enters into the temple, one should chant: Nissihi, Nissihi, Nissihi Om Jai Jai Jai Namostu, Namostu, Namostu One then recites the Namokar Mantra three times and bows before the idol. He then walks around the vedi or alter in a clockwise direction three times. He then sits in front of the image and, using rice grains, forms a swastika representing four destinies, three dots above it representing a means to escape them and a crescent moon on the top representing ultimate abode of the liberate souls. By forming these symbols prior to actual worship one shows that this Pujä has as its ultimate purpose the attainment of liberation. He then enters the Gabhäro for Pujä. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 223 of 398 Page #224 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D03 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) List of Digambar Pujä Rituals Abhisheka or Prakshäl (Anointing the Idol and then wiping the idol clean - Prakshalan) Pujä Prärambh Ahavänan and Sthäpana Main Pujä with eight dravyas Jaimälä Shänti Path Visarjan Ärti 1. Abhisheka Bathing the idol is called Abhisheka and is usually done with pure water. On certain occasions, people perform the Panchämrit Abhisheka, which consists of five substances (dravyas): water, milk, curd, sandal water, and ghee. However, seeing the way in which milk is obtained these days, one should not use milk and its products in Pujä. The main purpose of the Abhisheka is to purify our soul and mind. It also serves the purpose of keeping the idol clean. Various prayers praising the virtues of Arihanta are recited during this pujä. It reminds us of Indra's immense joy as he was bathing the newborn Tirthankar on Mount Meru. We pray to God to remove all evil thoughts, desires, passions and worldly attachments so that what remains of us will be pure self. After bathing, the idol is dried with clean cloth. This is called Prakshalan. At this time one recites the prayer "Prabhu Patit Päwan". 2. Pujä - Prärambh In this ritual, one recites the Swasti Mangal Stotra. 3. Ahavänan and Sthäpana In this ritual, one does the invocation and enshrinement of the Dev (deity) whose puja needs to be done. 4. Main Pujä The main pujä is done with eight substances (Ashta_dravya). In some digambar sub-sects lamp, flowers, and fruits are replaced with pieces of coconut, colored rice and cloves. 1. Jal Pujä: In this pujä, pure water is offered to rid oneself of the cycle of birth, aging, and death (Janma Jarä Mrutyu Vinäshanäya). Every living being continuously travels through the miseries of birth, life, and death. The Jal reminds us to live our life as pure as water; this way one will be able to attain Moksha. 2. Chandan Pujä: In this pujä, sandal wood powder or saffron mixed in water is offered to subside the suffering of the world (Samsär Täp Vinäshanäya). The very nature of Chandan (sandal) is to overcome our miseries thru knowledge of our religion. 3. Akshat Pujä: In this pujä, white washed rice without husk (called Akshat) is offered which symbolizes the end of the birth, life, and death cycle (Akshaya Pada präptaye) just as white rice cannot be planted for rice plant (cannot be germinated). Page 224 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #225 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D03 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) 4. Pushpa Pujä: In this pujä, flower or saffron colored rice is offered. Flower symbolizes passion and sensual pleasure. offering the flower means abandoning all passions, which are the root cause for the accumulation of Karma (Käma_väsanä Vinäshanaya). 5. Naivedya Pujä: Naivedya symbolizes tasty food. In this puja, small white pieces of coconut representing tasty food are offered. It signifies the desire of the person doing puja to be able to reduce or eliminate desire of food (Kshudhä rog Vinäshanaya). The ultimate aim of one's life is to avoid the need for any food at all by attaining nirvana. 6. Deepak Pujä: In this pujä, lamp (diyä or deepak) is offered to destroy the darkness of ignorance and false beliefs (Mohändhakär Vinäshanaya). Most of the time saffron colored pieces of coconuts are used to represent lamp. 7. Dhoop Puja: In this pujä, cloves or sandalwood dust representing Dhoop is offered to destroy all the eight Karma (Ashtakarma Vinäshanaya). 8. Fal Pujä: In this pujä, shelled almonds or coconut representing fruits are offered. Fruit symbolizes nirvana or Moksha, which is the ultimate goal of every living beings in the universe (Moksha Phal Präptaye). Arghya Pujä Arghya puja is performed at the end of the Pujä with the mixture of all eight pujä substances (dravyas) for attaining everlasting Siddha-pada (Anarghya Pad Präptaye). It is also called Ashikä puja. The Ashikä is a small plate with a holder that is used to place the cloves or Pushpa (yellow rice) during invocation. Nine full cloves or nine unbroken rice grains are taken in the left palm. Each time the Mantra for Sthapana. Ahawanan, and Sannidhikaran are chanted, three Pushpa or cloves, with the head pointing forward are held between the right ring finger and the thumb and are placed on the Ashikä. 5. Jayamala (Adoration) In this ritual, one recites the virtues of the Tirthankar Bhagawan. In Jayamala, the garland of victory, one repeats the names of all twenty-four Tirthankar, sits in silence for a few moments, and then chants the Namaskär litany. While reciting his virtues, one is also reminded that our soul possesses similar virtues and is capable of attaining Moksha by getting rid of Karma. 6. Shanti Path Essentially wishing peace and happiness for all the living being by reciting peace prayer (Shanti Path). 7. Visarjan This ritual concludes the puja. Here one prays to all of the celestials beings present during the puja to return to their respective places and asking for their forgiveness for any mistakes or negligence committed during the Pujä. 8. Ärti Ärti of Pancha Paramesthi or Tirthankar is recited with waving of lamp to end the pujä. Following the Arti, one reads scripture (Swadhyay) and does meditation. Swadhyay is also built into the Pujä; carefully reciting the Pujä can lead to better understanding of the concepts of Jain philosophy. Although Pujäs are usually directed to Tirthankars, regular worshiping of the Jain scriptures (Dev Shastra Guru Samuchchaya Pujä) is also part of the daily pujä. Also certain types of Pujäs are associated with special occasion or festivals, which helps to strengthen our belief in our religion. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 225 of 398 Page #226 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D03 - Going to the Temple (Shvetämbar & Digambar Tradition) List of various Pujäs performed in Digambar Traditions Pancha Kalyänak Pujä, which adores the five Kalyanaks of Tirthankars Pancha Paramesthi (Arihanta, Siddha, Acharya, Upadhyay, and Sädhu) Puja Jin Dharma, Jin Ägam, Jin Chaitya and Jin Chaityälaya Pujä Nav Devtä Pujä, a prayer to the nine religious leaders Das Laxan Pujä, which adores the ten great virtues of ascetics Ratna_traya Pujä, which adores the path of liberation Deeväli Pujä, which celebrates the Nirvana Kalyanak of Lord Mahävir Sohläkaran Pujä Dhoop_dashmi Pujä Rakshabandhan Pujä The whole purpose of puja is that by reciting the virtues of the Tirthankar, we also remind ourselves that these same virtues are also possessed by us and that by taking the path of the Tirthankars, we can also achieve the liberation. Page 226 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #227 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D04 - Importance of Proper Performance of a Ritual D04 - Importance of Proper Performance of a Ritual As per Jain literature, sutras are to be recited in certain physical postures along with proper reflection in order to obtain spiritual benefit from a particular ritual. Both physical postures and internal reflection are the various forms of Yoga. In general, Yoga is defined as that which connects with the soul or leads to absolute emancipation or liberation. Jain rituals are practiced using two forms of Yoga namely; Kriya Yoga and Jnäna Yoga. 01 Kriya Yoga During the ritual, we recite sutras and perform activities in certain physical posture known as Kriya Yoga. It is of two kinds: 1. Asana Yoga (Physical Posture) The proper physical postures nurture and strengthen the different thoughts and feelings in our pursuit for liberation. 2. Varna Yoga (Pronunciation of Sutra) The proper pronunciation of the phrases and words which lend strength and fortify the feelings and thoughts will help in achieving absolute liberation. Äsana Yoga and Varna Yoga together express the positive energy and vibrations of a soul (Atma) in the external form. They become the source of the destruction of Karma and the generation of virtuous qualities. These two states of physical postures are also known as Käya Yoga. 02 Jnän Yoga The knowledge about the ritual along with the proper internal reflection during its performance is called Jnäna Yoga. It instills the feelings and thoughts as per the meaning of the ritual and absorbs it in the consciousness. Jnäna yoga is of three forms: Artha Yoga, Anälambana Yoga and Nirälambana Yoga. These are, in fact, the three states of activities of mind (Mano Yoga). 1. Artha Yoga (Meaning) To absorb the meaning of the phrases properly in the consciousness while pronouncing them. 2. Analambana Yoga (Feelings) Generating thoughts and feelings based solely on the phrases and their meaning. For example: - When offering salutations; to utter the word "Namo" combined with the salutation posture and to deeply feel the thought of complete surrender to the teachings of Tirthankars with the "help" of the word and its meaning. 3. Niralambana Yoga (Pure Meditation) To elevate the mental conscious condition of Älambana yoga to a point where even the external awareness of the word and its meaning merges with the consciousness, thereby no external reliance remains. All these five Yogic forms of Kriya Yoga and Jnäna Yoga together, are critical to the proper performance and execution of a religious ritual. These lead to the purification of the soul and manifest its unlimited powers. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 227 of 398 Page #228 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO5 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) D05 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) 01 Introduction Jainism is a very practical religion, which helps us in every day affairs of life. Jainism has to be practiced and lived. Jain ethics is meant for all men and women in every walk of life. Contemplation of the soul is the main part of Jainism. Contemplation of the soul includes thinking, analyzing, and meditating as a part of the right conduct. The rituals are interwoven in the daily life of a pious Jain. Going to the temple, listening to the Guru, practicing vows, giving alms to Sädhus, performing Sämäyika for equanimity, performing Pratikraman for introspection, practicing nonviolence, carrying out charitable acts, living an honest life and many similar acts constitute the daily rituals of a Jain. Jainism believes that from time immemorial, every soul is full of impurities. The soul, in its pure form, has infinite perception, infinite knowledge, infinite vigor, and infinite bliss. These attributes are not realized by a worldly soul because it is smeared with karmas. The karmas are mainly due to Mithyätva (Ignorance) and four Passions / Kashäyas (anger, ego, deceit, and greed). Tirthankars have expounded on many ways to free us from these four Kashäyas to attain Moksha. One of the ways is a daily practice of six Avashyakas (essentials). Practicing six essential rites with true faith helps us progress spiritually. These six essential rites are to be practiced daily and regularly by all Jains. These practices free the human mind from negative thoughts of attachment and hatred and enhance the soul's spiritual progress, ultimately leading to liberation. Ancient Jain literature defines six such activities. Jainism advocates the performance of six essential daily observances by its followers. Both Digambar and Shvetämbar traditions have six essentials but there exist some differences. 02 Six Essential Observances of Shvetämbar tradition Sämäyika To remain calm and undisturbed in a state of equanimity and with oath of non violence for 48 minutes. Chauvisattho To pray and appreciate the qualities of the twenty-four Tirthankars. Vandan Devotion and service to Guru Maharaj (ascetics). Pratikraman To repent, reproach, and reflect upon past wrong thoughts, words and deeds. Käyotsarga Non-attachments to the body (standing or sitting motionless and meditating for a set period of time). Pratyakhyan or Taking religious vows renouncing certain activities and certain foods for a set Pachchakhana period of time to discipline one's self. Each Ävashyak ritual includes many original Sutras written in Ardha-Mägadhi and Sanskrit languages. These Sutras consist of many hymns in praise of the Tirthankars and many verses of repentance, confession, and requests for forgiveness. 1. Sämäyika - State of Equanimity To remain in the state of equanimity without attachment and hatred and to treat all living beings equal to one's self is called Sämäyika. Sämäyika is the process that enhances the quality of equanimity. It helps to take one closer to the soul and to acquire a stable mind and temperament. Equanimity is the act of remaining calm and tranquil. It implies neutrality of mind and temper. It is essential for the practice of nonviolence and removal of Mithyätva and Kashayas, which ultimately removes all Karma. This ritual is performed to develop equal regard towards all living beings, equanimity towards pleasure and pain, and to be free from attachment and aversion. Page 228 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #229 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO5 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) During Sämäyika, a devotee renounces worldly activities, fully controls his or her mind, speech and bodily activities, and lives the life of an ascetic. It is important to remain calm, meditate, read scriptures, or perform pratikraman ritual and request for forgiveness for one's sins. One should reflect on the following attributes of the soul: Equanimity towards all beings Self-control with pure aspirations Abandonment of all thoughts tainted by desire and aversion. During Sämäyika, one should not think about material happiness, family, friends, and relationships, all of which are not true reflections of the soul, instead one should meditate on the Sutra called: "NÄ-HAM" - I am not that To reinforce identification with the soul, which has the qualities of perfect knowledge, vision, bliss, and power, meditate on the Sutra "SO-HAM" - I am that By meditating on the true nature of the soul, bad karmäs (sins) are eradicated. Therefore, it is recommended that all Jains perform Sämäyika as often as possible and at any time of the day. No one has attained Moksha and no one will attain Moksha without the practice of Sämäyika. Sämäyika is the true conduct. Sämäyika is the essence of Tirthankar's teachings. One has to practice Sämäyika to attain the right perception, the right knowledge and the right conduct. Jain monks and nuns take the vow to remain in Sämäyika for their entire lives at the time of taking Dikshä and thus remain in the state of equanimity, throughout their lives. When a layperson practices Sämäyika, he spends his time as a Sädhu. Laypersons should try to do at least one Sämäyika every day. Great detail on the subject of Sämäyika is in the Jain canonical books. Types of Sämäyika: There are two types of Sämäyika: Partial Complete Complete Sämäyika relates to monks and nuns because they practice equanimity at all times. The partial Sämäyika is for lay people (Shrävaks and Shrävikäs) so that they can learn to gradually detach themselves from all external objects. The minimum duration for the partial Sämäyika is 48 minutes. Thirty Two (32) Faults to be avoided during Sämäyika: Jain scriptures describe 32 faults of Mind, Speech, and Body to be avoided during Sämäyika. Ten Faults of Mind To perform Sämäyika without respect to its goals or procedures To perform Sämäyika for prestige To perform Sämäyika out of greed To perform Sämäyika for vanity To perform Sämäyika out of fear To perform Sämäyika for material rewards and power To perform Sämäyika with doubts To perform Sämäyika with anger Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 229 of 398 Page #230 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS To perform Sämäyika with impertinence, without respect to Tirthankar (Dev), Teacher (Guru), and Religion (Dharma) D05 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) To perform Sämäyika under pressure from others or without conviction Ten Faults of Speech To use offensive speech To speak without thinking To speak or sing such songs that arouse uncontrollable emotions To use condensed sutras for convenience or to save time To use quarrelsome language To gossip To use mocking language To use hasty speech without clarity To use irrational speech To use unclear and ambiguous speech Twelve Faults of the Body To sit with one leg over the other To sit with unsteady posture To sit with wavering eyesight To digress or to deviate from Sämäyika for domestic or other work To lean against something To stretch the body, hands, and legs without reason To stretch the body lazily or to sleep To make sounds by stretching fingers of hands and feet (cracking knuckles) To remove dirt from the body To sit with one's hand on the head or forehead in a sorrowful posture or to walk without carefully sweeping the floor To sleep or to remain idle To cause oneself to be served by others without a reason Sutras Recited During Sämäyika Avashyak: Jain Prayer to Great Souls Benedictory Verse Guru Sthäpanä Forgiveness Verse of Sämäyika Introspection and Käyotsarga Vow of Sämäyika Concluding Vows of Sämäyika Page 230 of 398 Namaskär Mahämangal Sutra Chattäri Mangalam Sutra Panchindiya Sutra Iryä Vahiyae Sutra Tassa Uttari and Annattha Sutra Karemi Bhante Sutra Sämäiya-vaya-jutto Sutra Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #231 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO5 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) 2. Chauvisattho-Devotional Prayer to Tirthankars Chauvisattho means praying and appreciating the attributes of the 24 Tirthankars. This is the reverential worship of the twenty-four Tirthankars to reflect on their qualities, such as freedom from attachment and aversion (Vitaragatva). By striving to attain these qualities, we can control our passions. By reciting Logassa Sutra, we offer obeisance to the 24 Tirthankar Bhagawan, and therefore it is known as Chaturvimshati-Stava. By reciting Logassa Sutra with true faith, we strive to attain the qualities of Tirthankar and thus, purify our beliefs and attain right faith. Those who possess Right Faith will ultimately attain Moksha. Types of Devotional Prayer: The devotional prayer is also of two types: External (Dravya) Internal (Bhäva) To express one's devotion by worshipping Tirthankars' idols with purifying substances like rice and flowers constitutes external praise (dravya stuti), while to devotionally praise their inherent qualities is internal praise (bhäva stuti). During Pratikraman, this is accomplished through the recitation of the following Sutras. Sutras Recited During Chauvisattho / Chaturvimshati Stava Avashyak: Worshiping of 24 Tirthankars by names Logassa Sutra Saluting Qualities and virtues of Tirthankars Namutthunam Sutra Devotional Prayer to Tirthankars Jaya Viyaräya Sutra Salutes the Teachings (Ägam Scriptures) of Pukkhara-var-di Sutra Tirthankars Bows to all Siddhas along with Lord Mahävir Siddhänam Buddhänam Sutra and the Tirtha places where the Tirthankars have attained Nirvana These prayers inspire an individual to practice these ideals in his/her own life. 3. Vandana - Respecting Ascetics Vandana means respecting and saluting. In the absence of a Tirthankar, our true spiritual teachers are Jain Acharyas, Upadhyäys, and Sädhus, who show us the path to liberation. Acharyas, Upadhyäys, and Sädhus are true practitioners of the path to liberation. Hence, Vandana means paying respect to all ascetics including Acharyas, Upadhyäys, and all other Sädhus and Sadhvis. By paying respect to them, we subdue our ego, control our passions, and develop humility (Vinay). This process helps us advance spiritually. Types of Vandana There are three types of Vandanä defined in Jain literature. If we meet an ascetic on the road or any other places, we can just bow our head by saying 'Matthaena Vandämi' or 'Vandämi Namamsämi', which means 'I bow to you'. If we visit ascetics in their Upäshray (temporary residence), then we should inquire about their wellbeing and request forgiveness for any impoliteness towards them. Pratikraman ritual should be done in the presence of an ascetic. During the traditional Pratikraman ritual, one recites Suguru Vandana sutra, which is a complete Vandana of an ascetic. For English Pratikraman, we have chosen the second type of Vandana, because this will be most useful when any English speaking Jain visits an ascetic in an Upäshray. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 231 of 398 Page #232 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO5 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) Sutras Recited During Vandana Ävashyak Bowing to Ascetics Ichchhami Khamäsamano Sutra Bowing to Ascetics Tikhutto Sutra Wellness of Guru Icchakära sutra Ascetics Forgiveness Sutra Abbhutthio Sutra 4. Pratikraman - Repentance and Confession of Sins Pratikraman is the most important Ävashyaka (essential ritual). "Prati" means "back" and "kraman" means "to go". It means to go back, to reflect and review, to confess and atone, asking for forgiveness from others for one's own faults of mind, body, and speech in one's daily activities, and forgiving faults of others and extending friendship to all. It means reviewing our daily activities and concentrating on refraining from the sins committed during the day. Pratikraman is like a mirror where we see ourselves internally, the way it is. Therefore, Pratikraman involves repentance and sincere confession for past sinful deeds and thoughts as well as the forgiveness of others' faults. This process of self-discipline provides protection from present sinful acts, and prevents future sinful acts through renunciation. It helps to stop the influx of karma that obscures the true nature of the soul. We can shed karma by practicing penance in 12 different ways - six external ways and six internal ways. External penance detaches us from the external world like pleasures of five senses and the mind and body and prepares us for our spiritual journey. Internal penance helps realize the true nature of the soul. We cannot begin our spiritual journey without examining our faults, atoning for our faults by asking for forgiveness, and resolving not to commit them in future. This is the essence of Pratikraman Types of Pratikraman: Jain monks and nuns must perform this ritual in accordance with tradition. Devoted Jain lay people staunchly observe this ritual while others practice it as often as possible. It is recommended that Pratikraman be done twice a day, once in the morning known as Räi Pratikraman and once in the evening known as Devasi Pratikraman. The morning Pratikraman is for the atonement of minor violations of vows incurred during the night and the evening Pratikraman is for the minor violation of vows of the day. There is a special Pratikraman for every fortnight (Pakkhi), every four months (Chaumäsi), and yearly (Samvatsari) Pratikraman if not possible to perform the daily Pratikramans. The annual Pratikraman that all Jains should strive to observe is called Samvatsari Pratikraman. The Samvatsari Pratikraman is performed on the last day of Paryushan and is followed by forgiveness, i.e. asking forgiveness for our wrongdoings to all living beings and forgiving others for their faults. It generates feelings of friendliness and love towards all. Pratikraman (self-analysis) can make our lives happy and peaceful as well as build a harmonious society. Dravya and Bhäva Pratikraman The Jain ethics system outlines 5 great vows to be practiced by monks and nuns who have totally renounced worldly life. However for lay people, it outlines 12 vows of limited nature (Anuvratas) that are less intense than those followed by monks and nuns. Jainism defines that everyone should strive to adopt these vows according to one's individual capacity and circumstances. The ultimate goal is to accept them as full vows. In order to effectively avoid sinful activities, one should abandon wrong belief (Mithyätva), an unrestrained lifestyle (Avirati), unawareness, laziness, or lethargy (Pramäda), passions (Kashaya) and inauspicious activities of body, speech, and mind (Aprashasta Yoga). Page 232 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #233 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D05 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) To accept right faith or conviction, achieve self-restraint, become spiritually vigilant, cultivate good qualities like compassion and nonviolence, and attain the true nature of soul after giving up worldly activities is the essence of Pratikraman. In other words, it means returning to and reaffirming the path of nonviolence, truthfulness, and non-attachment. During Pratikraman, a lay person reflects on these vows and repents and requests for forgiveness for minor violations (known as Atichär) that may have been committed knowingly or unknowingly. Contemplation on each of these vows takes place so that we are more aware of such circumstances and can avoid such minor violations of vows in the future. If Pratikraman is performed only to confess past sinful acts and with an open declaration not to commit them in future, but the individual readily commits sinful activities, then this type of recitation of the ritual is called Dravya or external Pratikraman. Dravya Pratikraman is not useful; on the contrary, it is harmful. It deceives one's own self and is meant simply to deceive others. If after the performance of Pratikraman ritual, an individual minimizes or eliminates sinful activities in real life, then the Pratikraman is called Bhäva or internal Pratikraman, which is very useful for purification of the soul. Eligibility to do Pratikraman: Jain literature clearly indicates that the Pratikraman ritual is meant for repenting and requesting forgiveness for "one's past minor violations of the vows that may have occurred knowingly or unknowingly". As previously mentioned, monks and nuns are to follow the 5 great vows and for lay people, there are 12 vows of limited nature. Hence the Pratikraman ritual is meant for monks, nuns and only those lay people who follow these vows. The logic is that if one does not practice the vows, then the question of repenting and forgiveness of minor violations of the vows does not arise. Many Jain lay people do not practice the 12 vows. Therefore, after understanding the purpose and meaning of our great ritual, every Jain should strive to adopt the 12 vows of lay people according to their capacity and circumstances. They should review them before Samvatsari Pratikraman and improve their limits every year in such a way that ultimately they will be able to fully practice the vows and live an ascetic life. Inclusion of Six Ävashyaks in the Ancient Pratikraman Ävashyak: During the last few centuries, review of Jain literature indicates that the word "Pratikraman" is used as a common noun for all six essential acts (six Ävashyakas). This is also meaningful because during the course of time, the Pratikraman ritual has been expanded and enhanced to include the Sutras of all other Avashyakas. This way laypeople can easily complete all six daily Avashyak rituals within 48 minutes. Among all six essentials, the Pratikraman ritual is the most important one. It covers the other five essentials during the performance of its rites as follows: Before Pratikraman begins, we must take a vow of Sämäyika. During Pratikraman, by reciting Logassa and Namutthunam Sutras, we bow down to and offer obeisance to the 24 Tirthankars and their attributes. By reciting Panchindiya and Khamäsaman Sutras, we bow down to the ascetics and their attributes. Thus, Pratikraman includes Chauvisattho and Dev-Vandan essentials. Pratikraman is done while sitting or standing in a meditative posture, which is Käyotsarga. During Pratikraman, we are also required to take Pachchakkhän appropriate to our capacity - a Pratyakhyana essential. The Pratikraman ritual includes many Sutras. The original sutras are written in Ardha-Magadhi language of the common people during Bhagawan Mahävir's time and Sanskrit languages, which consist of many hymns in praise of Lords and many verses of repentance and confession. Sutras Recited During Pratikraman Ävashyak: General Repentance of all Sins Samvatsaria (Devasia) Padikkamane Thäum? Sutra Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 233 of 398 Page #234 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO5 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) Repentance of Sins to all Living Beings of Säta Läkha Sutra the Universe Atonement of Eighteen Sins 18 Päpasthänak Sutra Atichär for minor violations of Lay people's Contemporary Text Vows Universal Forgiveness to All Living Beings Khämemi Savva Jive Sutra Spiritual Meaning of the Items Used in Sämäyika & Pratikraman: Charavalo: Charavalo is made by attaching hundreds of soft white strings of yarn to a wooden stick. Its wooden handle is 24 fingers long. Its white strings are 8 fingers long, to remind us that we are entrapped in the worldly existence journey of misery because of the eight main karma. If we must move during Sämäyika or Pratikraman, we should use Charavalo to gently clean the floor and clear the space of even the tiniest living beings. Spiritually, the Charavalo symbolizes nonviolence and the importance of cleansing our souls of all karma particles. The Charavalo and Muhapatti both constantly remind us that we are in Sämäyika and we must exercise equanimity during Sämäyika. Katäsanu: It is also known as Äsana. Katäsanu means the piece of mat on which one sits. It should be of white wool. It insulates the body from losing the energy that is generated due to the practice of Sämäyika. It protects subtle mobile living beings underneath. The white color promotes peace and enhances the spiritual environment. Muhapatti: The Muhapatti is about 10 to 12-inch square piece of white cloth, folded in half, then folded about one inch from the closed side, and then it is folded laterally. Muhapatti is used to cover the mouth while reciting Sämäyika Sutras, reminding us to be careful about what we say, and to refrain from lying and saying provocative useless things. . It prevents insentient and warm breath that is coming out of the mouth from mixing with sentient and cold air of the outside thus is an act of nonviolence. In addition, Muhapatti reminds us to restrain our speech, to speak only when necessary, and to be humble and courteous. Finally, Muhapatti also keeps our spit from falling on religious objects and books. In some Jain traditions, they tie the Muhapatti around their mouth. Sthäpanächärya: It is difficult to progress spiritually without proper guidance from the Right Guru. If, however, a Guru Mahäräj is not present during Pratikraman or Sämäyika, we establish the Guru's seat by placing a religious book that contains Navakär Mahämantra and Panchindiya Sutra along with a Navakärväli on a Säpada (bookstand). We sit facing East or North in front of the Guru's seat. This enables us to maintain discipline during Sämäyika and develop humility. 5. Käyotsarga - Meditation in a Yoga Posture Käyä means body and Utsarga means moving away or rising above. Hence, Käyotsarga means rising above bodily activities to focus on the inner self, thus developing non-attachment towards our body while in meditation (Käyotsarga). Most of our misery and unhappiness stems from our attachment to our bodies. The process of Käusagga, also known as Käyotsarga, involves making the body and mind as steady as possible so that we can concentrate and experience the feeling that our soul is separate from our body. To perform Käyotsarga in its true form, it is necessary to give up all passions. Attachment to one's body must be renounced in order to attain virtuous meditation (Dharma Dhyana) and pure meditation (Shukla Dhyana). During Pratikraman ritual, this is accomplished by meditation upon Namaskär Sutra Käusagga or Logassa Sutra after repentance and confession of sins. Page 234 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #235 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS Sutras Recited During Käyotsarga Avashyaka: Introspection and Käyotsarga Arihanta-cheiyänam, Annattha, and Namaskär Sutra 6. Pratyäkhyäna or Pachchakhäna - Taking Religious Vows Pratyäkhyän or Pachchakkhän refers to the abandonment of things harmful to the soul and acceptance of things beneficial to the soul. Taking Pachchakkhän is taking vows appropriate to our capabilities, disengaging from worldly objects, and engaging in the process of purification. When we take Pachchakkhän, we renounce certain activities for a pre-determined period of time to discipline ourselves. The Shrävaks take partial vows and ascetics take the great vows. Thus, taking religious vows (self-control, renunciation of sinful activities, or doing pious activities) is called pratyäkhyäna. Types of Pratyäkhyäna: There are two types of Pratyäkhyän: External (Dravya) Internal (Bhäva) D05 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) Renunciation of external things like food, shelter and other possessions is Dravya pratyäkhyäna. Renunciation of internal impure states of the soul such as ignorance, anger, greed, ego, deceit, nonrestraint, attachment and aversion are known as Bhäva or true Pratyäkhyäna. One cannot attain true Bhäva Pratyäkhyäna without performing complete Dravya Pratyäkhyäna. For instance, one can begin by renouncing delicious food and other luxuries and live a simple life. The true performance of Bhäva pratyäkhyäna (true renunciation) leads to stoppage of new karma (Samvara), which gives rise to ultimate equanimity (Sambhäva), and the attainment of liberation. Hence the religious vows foster spiritual advancement through self-control. 03 Six Essential Observances of Digambar Tradition Digambar developed a list of practices quite similar to this canonical tradition but moved towards a great emphasis upon the popular aspect of ritual. These practices therefore constitute the fundamental modes of religious expression for the Jain laity. Devapujä Guru-upästi Swadhyay Sanyam Tapa Dän To pray and appreciate the qualities of the twenty-four Tirthankars Devotion and service to Guru Maharaj (ascetics) Studying of Scriptures Self-restraint - To carry out the householder's vows (Anuvrata) with complete selfdiscipline Penance or Austerities which include Pratikraman, Pratyäkhyän, and Käyotsarga Charity - giving alms to mendicants and needy. 1. Devapujä - Worship of Supreme Soul Reverential recalling and devotionally praising the supreme soul and its spiritual qualities is Pujä. This is the best way to remove the internal defilement, to purify thoughts, to cultivate good mental states and to rouse and develop spiritual powers. Bhäva-pujä (internal worship) consists in meditation on the supreme soul and internal efforts for being one with it. The external formal ritual that assists Bhäva-pujä is Dravya-pujä (external worship). "Non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, continence, non-greed, devotion to and service of the elders, austerity and knowledge are the auspicious pure flowers. We offer these flowers to the supreme soul by cultivating these good qualities. Offering of these flowers is "Shuddha-pujä (pure worship)." Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 235 of 398 Page #236 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D05 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) The object of Dravya-pujä is a symbol or an image of the supreme soul, whereas the object of Bhäva-pujä is the supreme soul itself. Dravya-pujä is limited to a specific period of time within which it is completed. On the other hand, Bhäva-pujä has no limitations of space and time. When a man vigilantly observes in his worldly dealings non-violence, truthfulness, honesty, etc., he is to be regarded as performing Bhävpujä, rather Shuddha-pujä. Thus, Bhäva-pujä inspires man to build up good character and to live an honest and just life; it ennobles and elevates his life. Devapujä means: To Remove the Internal Defilement To Purify Thoughts To Cultivate Good Mental States and To Develop Spiritual Powers To Build Up Good Character and To Live an Honest and Just Life 2. Guru-upästi - Venerating and Serving the Elders Guru means an elder. It also includes mother, father, teachers of art and sciences, family elders, those advanced in learning and good conduct, and saints who preach religion. Venerating and serving them is guru-upästi. By our reverence and service, we should win their hearts, secure the knowledge and culture from them that ennoble our life. Mother and father are the foremost gurus. Scriptures command us to worship them first. Guru-upästi means Service to: Mother and Father Teachers of Art and Sciences, Family Elders Those Advanced In Learning and Good Conduct Saints Who Preach Religion 3. Swadhyay Study of the Spiritually Elevating Works The term 'Swädhyäy' is the compound of two words, viz., ('Sva' means self) and ('Adhyaya' means study). It means study of one's own self, that is, one's own life. Reading, listening to and reflecting on the life-elevating teachings is useful in keeping the mind healthy. They inspire man to look into the innermost recesses of the self. As a result of it, man's journey on the path of progress and enlightenment becomes easy. Swädhyay means: Study of One's Own Self, One's Own Life. Reading, Listening, and Reflecting On the Life-Spiritual Teachings To look into the innermost recesses of the Self 4. Sanyam Restraint and Discipline Sanyam means control over sense organs, control over mind, control over speech and thoughts, control over desire-anger-greed. Noble ideal is one of the conditions that make a man self-controlled and self-disciplined. For the practice of restraint and discipline, proper environment is also required. In short, true regard for restraint, noble ideal, devotion to virtuous conduct and proper environment all together make possible the practice of restraint and disciple. Sanyam means: Control Over Sense Organs, Mind, Speech and Thoughts Control Over Desire, Anger, and Greed Helps in Practicing Meditation Controlling Sense-Organs, Purifying Mind, Turning Inward Page 236 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #237 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO5 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) Attaining Spiritual Peace Reflecting On Good Thoughts Acquiring and Imparting Knowledge and Learning 5. Tapa - Austerity The importance of the external austerities like fasting (Upavas) etc. depends on the noble purpose behind their observance as also on the purity of mental state. If a man gives up all the botheration of food with the purpose of practicing yoga or meditation, controlling sense-organs, purifying mind, turning inward, attaining spiritual peace, reflecting on good thoughts, studying soul-ennobling works of performing any other good activity, then fasting is a spiritually beneficial austerity. Remaining constantly engaged in acquiring and imparting knowledge and learning, the saintly persons have composed spiritually elevating works; their devoted efforts to acquire knowledge, constant study of the praiseworthy philosophical and religious works, and the painstaking task of writing virtuous works, all this is one of the highest forms of austerity. To undertake a great good work, to execute it, and while doing all these, to forget hunger, thirst, bodily pains, and to get completely engrossed in the task is also a form of austerity. Thus, all attempts to purify soul and pure zeal for rendering service to others come under the category of austerity. Not only that, but to do the allotted work honestly is also a case of austerity. Devotion to one's duty is also a form of austerity. Fast of a right measure observed properly is beneficial to bodily health. It cultivates endurance. The word 'Upaväs' is derived from the verbal root 'Vas' meaning to be' or 'to exist' with the prefix 'Upa' meaning 'near'. Thus, it means an act of being near one's own soul, that is, an act of being in the pure state of one's soul. In short, the external austerities are to be practiced for achieving the following auspicious purposes - for preventing diseases, for cultivating power of endurance so that in future one can face hardships with equanimity, for serving others, for getting time for learning, study, teaching, reading, writing, thinking for purifying mind, so on and so forth. Tapa means: To Get Completely Engrossed In A Noble Task Is Austerity. Rendering Service to Others Is Austerity. To Do The Allotted Work Honestly Is Austerity 6. Däna - Donation Donation means offering one's possession acquired through legitimate means. Greed is overcome by donation. There is no place for pride in donation. Donation should be offered to the deserving and worthy persons at the proper place and time. Having renounced all possessions, to devote oneself completely to the service of other is the acme of donation. A man who has renounced all his possessions remains engrossed in the works beneficent to both himself and others, is satisfied with the bare necessities of life, entertains no desire to accumulate anything, and employs all his energies in achieving the noble, takes the least from the society and offers the most to it. When he continuously offers the benefits of his spiritual experiences to the masses out of pure affection, then his donation of services is highly superior to the donation of uncountable wealth by the richest of the rich. Mahävir and other saints who renounced all their possessions are such donors as are greatly superior to those rich men of the world who offered their uncountable wealth in donation. Just as offering money to the deserving is donation, so also showing the good and righteous path to someone through one's speech, giving virtuous advice to others, doing good to others through one's speech are also forms of donation. Thus, we can perform the duty of donation in various ways. Donation of that thing which is needed most at a particular time is great at that time. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 237 of 398 Page #238 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D05 - Six Ävashyakas (Six Essentials and Daily Observances) While treading the path of righteousness and morality and leading a diligent life, to impart pure and useful knowledge to students, to disseminate noble and virtuous ideas among the people, or to exhort others to devote their lives to good activities is superior to the donation of money. Therefore, donation of knowledge is highly superior to that of money. Service is also the best form of donation. Four Objectives of Donation: To atone for the sins like unjust earning, etc. committed in the past To employ in good activities the excess wealth saved after using it for one's comforts To accomplish the philanthropic activities like constructing and maintaining educational institutions, hospitals, religious places, etc. To serve righteous persons, saints, the learned, etc. In the Bhagawati Sutra, Gautam Swami asked Bhagawän Mahävir Swami a question: "How many ways are there to God?" Bhagawan's answer was: "There are as many ways as there are atoms in the universe, but the best and shortest is Service." In the Sutra, Bhagawän Mahävir Swami also explains: "One who serves the sick and the miserable serves me through the Right Faith; and one who serves me through the Right Faith does service to the sick and the miserable." Donation means: No place for greed or pride in donation To devote oneself completely to the service of other is the acme of donation To show the good and righteous path to someone To impart pure and useful knowledge Donation of knowledge is highly superior to that of money Service is also the best form of donation The six essentials of Digambar tradition are also adopted by Shvetämbar tradition as daily activities for laymen and laywomen. Furthermore, some Jains observe certain practices that involve special rituals, dietary restrictions, and fasting to develop self-control and detachment from worldly matters. Page 238 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #239 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS 01 Paryushan Paryushan is the most important festival in Jainism. It is observed during the month of August and/or September. The Shvetämbar sect observes it for 8 days while the Digambar sect observes it for 10 days where it is known as Das Lakshana Parva. During these eight or ten days, the entire Jain community becomes engrossed in spiritual and religious activities. Literally, Paryushan means "coming together from all directions". This symbolizes growth and transformation. The word "Paryushan" has several meanings: Pari + Ushan = all kinds + to burn to burn (shed) all types of karmas. Our scriptures have prescribed twelve different types of austerities (tap) such as fasting, to reduce our Kashayas and thereby eliminate our karmas. D06 Paryushan and Das Lakshana Parva D06- Paryushan and Das Lakshana Parva Another meaning of "Ushan" is to stay closer. We stay closer to our own soul (remember the qualities of our true soul) by doing Swädhyay (self-study), meditation, and austerities during Paryushana. Pari + Upashamanä = Upashamanä means to suppress, mainly our passions (Kashayas - anger, ego, deceit and greed) from all sources. The purpose of life according to Jain teachings is to realize oneself, as well as to experience wholeness, peace, compassion, and reverence for all life. Therefore, the real purpose of Paryushan is to purify our soul by observing and correcting our own faults, asking for forgiveness for the mistakes we have committed, and taking vows to minimize our faults. During Paryushan we should strive to minimize our worldly affairs so that we can concentrate on the qualities of our true self. Paryushan is a period of repentance and confession for the undesirable acts of the previous year, also to practice austerities that help minimize our passions and vices, which shed accumulated karma. Austerity, the control of one's desire for material pleasures, is a part of spiritual training. During this period, some people fast for the entire period of eight or ten days, while others fast for shorter periods, although the Jain scriptures recommend a minimum three day fast. However, it is considered obligatory to fast on the last day of Paryushan. Fasting usually involves complete abstinence from food or drink, but during the daytime, drinking of water that has been boiled and cooled in the morning is permissible. If one cannot fast for the whole day, eating only one meal also counts as limited fasting. 2 3 4 There are regular ceremonies in the temple and meditation halls during this time. During the first three days of Paryushan the Sädhus and Sädhvis deliver sermons related to the five activities that lay people (Shrävaks and Shrävikäs) are required to do during Paryushan. Five Essential Activities of Paryushan 1 Amäri Pravartan 5 Sädharmik Vätsalya Attham Tapa Chaitya Paripäti Leading a non-violent life, working towards a non-violent world, and supporting animal welfare activities Respecting fellow human beings and supporting humanitarian activities Observing fasts for the last three days of Paryushan Visiting different Jain temples, Jain libraries, Upäshrays, and supporting other charitable and religious organizations Kshamäpanä In the Shvetämbar tradition, 'Kalpa Sutra', a Jain scripture written by Ächärya Bhadrabähu in 350 BC is read to the congregation from the fourth through the last day of Paryushan. The Kalpa Sutra describes the life of Bhagawan Mahavir and other Tirthankars, the conduct of lay people, and life of Ächäryas. Repenting our sins, forgiving others and requesting forgiveness from others On the fifth day, the auspicious dreams of Bhagawan Mahavir's mother (Trishalä) are celebrated at a special ceremony. The final day of Paryushan, known as Samvatsari, the day of repentance of our past Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 239 of 398 Page #240 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS sins and forgiveness to others, is the most important day of Paryushan.. After 7 days of penance and preparation of the soul, Shvetämbars do Pratikraman. They ask for and give forgiveness to all - family, friends and all living beings. 02 Das Lakshana Parva Digambar Jains, on the other hand, start with forgiveness on the first day and then celebrate an additional 9 days. The Digambar tradition calls this festival Das Lakshana Parva and observes it for 10 days. Each day is dedicated to one virtue. They discuss 10 virtues that are inherent qualities of the soul. These virtues are applicable to all. In addition, they also read one chapter of the Tattvärtha Sutra, which covers all aspects of Jain religion. Religious Virtues 1. Kshamä 2. Märdava Ärjava Shaucha 3. 4. Satya Samyam Tapa Tyag 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Akinchanya 10. Brahmacharya D06- Paryushan and Das Lakshana Parva Forgiveness Humility Straightforwardness Contentment - absence of greed Truth Restraint of all senses Austerities Charity Non-possessiveness Chastity or Celibacy 01. Kshamä - Forgiveness and Forbearance Forgiveness means not to allow anger to arise and in case it does, then to render it ineffective through the internal power. Forbearance means forgiveness. It is the nature of the pure soul to have forbearance. By taking the shelter of the forgiveness, one cultivates nature of the soul, which is free of anger. The mundane soul has anger within him since time infinite and as a result the true nature of forgiveness has not been cultivated. Revenge is the worst form of anger. When one reacts to the unfavorable situation right away, then it is known as anger. But at that time if he waits and keeps the matter to his mind then the state of mind turns in to revengeful nature. In anger, one reacts right away but in revengeful nature, one keeps to him and plans for revenge in the future. Revengeful nature is much more dangerous than the anger. Anger is like fire and it produces burn right away but when one keeps anger within and plans for revenge then he keeps on burning from within all the time. Omniscient lord does not have any types of anger at all. Enlightened monk has absence of first three types of anger. Enlightened house holder with partial vow conduct has absence of first two types of anger. Enlightened house holder with vow less conduct has absence of first type of anger. Person on 1st spiritual development stage at wrong belief stage has anger of all the types. Five ways of cultivating Forbearance Consider whether or not the cause of anger lies in oneself Consider the harm that follows from an angry mood Consider the childish nature of the offender concerned Consider the whole affair to be a consequence of one's own past Karma Page 240 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #241 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS Consider the merits of forgiveness forbearance This soul's root cause of anger is the belief that his happiness or unhappiness depends on someone else or the material things. He forgets that the happiness or unhappiness occurs because of him only. One looks within his own pure soul and experiences its true nature and stays within his right faith, then it is known as supreme forbearance. 02. Märdava - Humility The softness of heart and humble polite feelings towards all living beings humility and external conduct is called Märdava. One gets pride passion due to the association of things or people and he feels dejected when there is dissociation. In both these things, there is no softness of modesty. Failure is the mother of anger and the success is the mother of pride passion. Pride should be differentiated from self-respect, which is not arrogance. D06- Paryushan and Das Lakshana Parva For the cultivation of this quality, one should not feel egoistical because of his superiority pertaining to race, family, beauty, prosperity, intellect, knowledge, achievement, and exertion. Jainism believes that all the souls are equal whether he is a human being or maybe he is in the lowest form of life Nigod. If every soul is same then there is no reason for one to believe that he is either important or superior. This way there is no reason for one to have pride passion. Shrimad Räjchandra said that if there was no pride passion then the human beings can have liberation instantly. 03. Ärjava - Straightforwardness The purity of mental makeup - unity of thought, speech, and action is called Ärjava or straightforwardness. Person with the straightforwardness attribute lives his life in a simple way. Whatever he has in his mind, he has the same in his speech. Person with the deceitful nature thinks something and speaks something else and acts all together differently. Strong person takes anger as a mean of achieving his goal. With anger, he likes to show his strength and suppress others and gets his work done. Weak person takes the help of deceit to achieve his goal. For the cultivation of quality of straightforwardness, one should cease to be deceitful. 04. Shaucha - Contenment Lack of greed is contentment. Greed is a desire to possess and is the one of the root causes of all sins. It is as dangerous as anger for the spiritual welfare of a person. It is the strongest vice and the last one to be conquered, persisting almost to the end of the spiritual path of purification. With eradication of greed, the soul is practically passionless. Contentment is the highest and purest of all the virtues. 05. Satya Truthfulness Truthfulness means saying what is beneficial and refraining from harsh words, back biting, derogatory language, etc. Hiding of truth for saving some one's life is excusable. To speak the truth one has to know the truth. Speech is the modification of the matter particles while the truth is the virtue of the pure soul. Partial vow of truthfulness, complete vow of truthfulness, restriction of speech and control of spoken words are four levels described in the scripture. All these four things have relationship with the speech. Anuvrata Partial vow of truthfulness means not to indulge in gross lies Mahä vrata Complete vow of truthfulness means only to speak truth and not to tell even a subtle lie. Bhäshä Samiti Vachan Gupti Restriction of speech means to speak only if it is absolutely necessary and to speak with sweetness and not to use harshness, and not to exaggerate the truth Control of spoken words means not to speak at all Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 241 of 398 Page #242 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D06- Paryushan and Das Lakshana Parva 06. Sanyam - Self-restraint Self-restraint means disciplining mind, speech and body so as not to injure any living beings and exercising carefulness. Therefore, Self-restraint is of two types, restraining from inflicting injury to all the living beings and detachment from sensual objects. In self-restraint, one takes away his attentive consciousness Upayoga from other objects and concentrates within himself. This is absolute definition of self-restraint. Other definition of selfrestraint is to accept five great vows, to control all passions like anger etc., to control the activities of mind, speech and body and to conquer the objects of five senses. Complete self-restraint is possible only in human life. There is no self-restraint in heavenly or infernal life. In five-sensed animal life, there can be partial self-restraint. One may argue that the senses are the reason that one obtains happiness but actually, control over the desires of sensual pleasures is the key of real happiness, as we all know that desires are endless. In fact, the soul's inherent nature is to be happy all the time. The pure inherent nature is independent of outside things like the senses. True happiness comes from within. The happiness comes from other transient in nature and are not real one but perceived one. Self-restraint is the increase of passionless state after obtaining the right faith. 07. Tapa Penance The basic presents of penance are to control attachments and aversions. One stabilizes in his own pure state and gives up all the attachment and aversion, it is known as austerity. Control of desires are also known as austerity. There are six external austerities and six internal austerities that are practiced to eradicate Karma. 08. Tyäg - Renunciation Renunciation of a possessive attitude for the necessities of life is called Tyäg. There are four types of charities described in the scriptures charity of food, knowledge, medicine and saving life of a being. Charity is the training for real renunciation of attachments and aversions (Vitaräga). When one has attained the self-realization then he has no attachment of any internal or external substance's possessions. This is known as renunciation. He has no attachment and infatuation towards outside material substances like house, wife, kids, and wealth. He also does not have any internal possessions of any attachment or aversion. His soul is pure and devoid of any of these possessions. 09. Äkinchanya - Detachment This attribute describes one to have the feeling of detachment with the thing one possesses. Not resorting to the attitude of ownership in relation to anything whatsoever is called Äkinchanya or absence of ownership. It refers to both internal and external possessions. External possessions are wealth, house, etc. Internal possessions are attachment, aversion and desire. To lack in internal possessions is the ultimate virtue. One who has given up internal possessions has definitely given up the external possessions too. May be it is somewhat easy to give up external possessions but one may still keep the internal possessions towards that. For example, One has donated a lot to the society and still keeps on telling everybody, how much he donated. That means he physically gave up the substance but still has not given up the desire towards that substance. 10. Brahmacharya - Celibacy Celibacy means continence to be observed by residing with a teacher, to observe the vows, to learn the scriptures and to erode the passions. We should consider this attribute three different ways: From social point of view: The common social definition, control of sexual desires and conduct well known to all. For a householder, limited celibacy is preached with the concept of one partner only. From absolute point of view: It means to stay in the true nature of the soul. Once Right Faith is achieved, one can experience the nature of the pure soul. When one has Right Conduct and he is Page 242 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #243 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D06 - Paryushan and Das Lakshana Parva engrossed in his true nature of the soul then he automatically gives up the objects of the five senses. He is still having five senses and mind but he has separated himself from the objects of these five senses. From the empirical point of view: control of five senses is known as celibacy. 03 Forgiveness Day The last day of Paryushan (Samvatsari) and the first day of the Das Lakshana Parva (Kshamä) are the day of forgiveness, and the most important day for all Jains. As people, we ignore our own faults and magnify the faults of others. We know when we make a mistake but our pride makes it difficult to admit them. Paryushan teaches to have humility to say 'Michchhämi Dukkadam', and ask for forgiveness for our faults. At the same time, truly forgive others who have hurt us in any way. Why do we need to forgive others? It is not because they need our forgiveness. It is because we need to release ourselves from the rage, hostility and resentment we carry within us when we don't forgive. Forgiveness not only makes us whole once again, it energizes us and makes our world more beautiful than ever. Forgiveness keeps human relationships and friendships, smooth and comfortable. Many situations may cause unhappy feelings towards others, such as: Disagreements Misunderstanding When other people do not agree with our way of thinking, WE do not like them. When we do not understand somebody's intention, WE get angry with him or her. When we want more than the other person can give, WE get disappointed. Wrong Expectations Hurt feelings knowingly or unknowingly All of us have an ego and when someone humiliates or insults us, WE get upset. Jealousy Jealousy creates hate and WE lose our thinking ability. If for whatever reason we cannot forget and forgive, both sides lose out. However, our ego prevents us from seeing and doing something about it. "When we forgive we become one with the light of our soul. Without forgiveness, we are like a lamp whose inner flame cannot penetrate the fine particles of soot that smear the outer chimney. When we wash away the subtle grains of anger, resentment and hatred with forgiveness; then the radiant soul within shines forth its rays of joy." - Gurudev Shri Chitrabhanu By meditating and purifying ourselves during these eight days of Paryushan or ten days of Das Lakshana, we come to realize ourselves. We call the Festival of Paryushan, the Festival of the Soul; when we forgive, we become one with the light of our soul. On the last day those who have observed rigorous fasting are honored, especially to encourage others to follow their example. Listening to the Kalpa Sutra, Tattvärtha Sutra, or some other scripture, taking positive steps to ensure the welfare of all living beings, developing the feeling of brotherhood towards fellow human beings and forgiveness for all living beings, doing penance, visiting neighboring temples, libraries, and Upäshrays are all important activities during this time. After performing Samvatsari Pratikraman or Das lakshana celebration, Jains request forgiveness from all living beings in person, via telephone, or via mail. On This Auspicious Occasion of KSHAMAVANI We Beg Forgiveness, For Our Intentional and Unintentional, Wrongdoings Michchhä mi Dukkadam Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 243 of 398 Page #244 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D07 - Jain Festivals (Parvas) and Celebrations D07 - Jain Festivals (Parvas) and Celebrations Jainism has a rich tradition of festivals and rituals. Traditionally, festivals are a time for celebration, jubilation, enjoyment, and entertainment. But the Jain festivals and rituals emphasize the spiritual aspects of Jainism. They are meant for renunciation, austerities, study of the scriptures, recitation of holy hymns, meditation, and expression of devotion for the Tirthankars. Celebration of festivals and practice of rituals revitalize and strengthen our beliefs in Jainism. The Jain festivals are known as Parvas. The word "Parva" means auspicious day. Every year, our festivals fall on different dates according to the Christian Calendar, because we follow a Lunar calendar, known as Panchaang. Since the moon takes 29.5 days to go through its phases, a lunar year is 29.5 12 = 354 days. We add a month every 2-3 years to our lunar calendar so that we do not drift too far away from the Christian Calendar. 01 Kalyanaks - Auspicious Events Jains celebrate five major events (Pancha Kalyänak) of the life of a Tirthankar. The five major events in the life of a Tirthankar are called Kalyanaks (Auspicious Events). They are: 1. Chyavana or Garbha Kalyanak (Conception Event) This is the event when a Tirthankar's soul leaves its previous body, and is conceived in the mother's womb on earth. After Tirthankar's soul is conceived, the mother witnesses fourteen dreams according to Shvetämbar texts and sixteen according to Digambar texts. A Tirthankar's soul, while even in mother's womb, possesses three types of knowledge, namely Mati Jnän (sensory knowledge), Shruta Jnän (scriptural knowledge), and Avadhi Jnän (clairvoyance). 2. Janma Kalyänak (Birth Event) This is the event when the Tirthankar is born. When a Tirthankar is born, Indra Dev (king of Heaven) and other heavenly gods, due to their utter respect and devotion to the Tirthankar, come down to the earth. They then take the newly born Tirthankar to the summit of Mt. Meru for anointing and bathing ceremony and celebrate the birth of a Tirthankar (Janma Abhisheka ceremony). 3. Dikshä or Tapa Kalyanak (Initiation Event) This is the event when the Tirthankar gives up all his/her worldly possessions and family relationships and becomes a monk/nun. He initiates himself into the ascetic order. One year before the time of renunciation, a group of celestial angels comes to pay homage to the future Tirthankar. They request him/her to renounce the world and reestablish religious order for the benefit of all living beings. When a Tirthankar renounces the worldly life, he attains Manah-paryäva Jnän (telepathy), the fourth type of the knowledge. 4. Keval-jnän Kalyanak (Omniscience Event) This is the event when a Tirthankar attains omniscience when he completely eradicates four kinds of defiling Karmas, known as Ghäti Karma by the practice of severe discipline, penance and meditation, and attains Keval-jnän. Upon becoming a Tirthankar, the Indra Dev (supreme Heavenly God) creates eight Pratihärya for the Tirthankar and a Samavasaran (three layered tall structure) from where He delivers the sermon. This is the most important event for the entire Jain Sangh as the Tirthankar reestablishes Jain order (Sangh) and preaches the Jain path of purification and liberation. Sermons are attended by Devas, ascetics, laity and animals 5. Nirvana Kalyanak (Nirväna Event) This is the event when a Tirthankar's soul is forever liberated from this worldly physical existence (cycle of birth and death) and becomes a Siddha. Just prior to Nirvana, the Tirthankar's soul destroys the remaining four Aghäti Karmas completely, and attains salvation, the state of eternal bliss. Page 244 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #245 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO7 - Jain Festivals (Parvas) and Celebrations The holy regions where Tirthankars Kalyanaks took place are now pilgrimage places. Tirthankars are supreme human beings and our faultless human models in whom we take spiritual refuge. 02 Paryushan Mahä Parva This is the holiest festival of the year and is an eight day period of fasting, complex rituals, review of Jain principles, and prayers for forgiveness from all living beings. The festival falls around August-September. Paryushan Parva is a time to reflect and repent for our undesirable activities of previous year. It is a period to observe austerities to shed accumulated karma. Observing austerities helps control our desires for material pleasures, which make it an important element of spiritual training. Paryushan Parva consists of eight days per Shvetämbar tradition and ten days per Digambar tradition. It starts on twelfth or thirteenth day of the dark half of the month Shrävan and ends on the fourth day of the bright half of the month of Bhädarvo per Hindu calendar. Paryushan usually falls during the month of August or September. The month of Shrävan is in the monsoon season. Jain monks and nuns do not stay at one place more than a few days during non-rainy season. Monsoon showers and torrential rains, however make it impossible for the monks to travel across the country. This coupled with the principle of Ahimsa or nonviolence, make it difficult for them not to trample upon and hurt insects and other forms of life that are abundant in the monsoon. According to Jain scriptures, the last day of Paryushan Parva known as Samvatsari should be celebrated on 50 th day of the monsoon season. Monks and nuns must settle during this time and remain at that place for the remaining monsoon season of next 70 days. During Paryushan, most temples hold regular ceremonies in their prayer rooms and meditation halls. During the first three days of Paryushan, Sädhus and Sadhvis deliver sermons related to the five essential activities that Shrävaks and Shrävikäs are required to do during Paryushan. These five essential activities are: Amäri Pravartan: Leading a non-violent life and working towards a non-violent world; Sädharmik Vätsalya: Respecting fellow beings who follow the Jain philosophy Attham Tapa: Fasting for three consecutive days Chaitya Paripäti: Going in groups to different Jain temples for Darshan; and Kshamäpana: Doing the Pratikraman asking for forgiveness. On the fourth day of Paryushan, a ceremonious reverence is given to the Kalpa Sutra. The Kalpa Sutra is a holy scripture that includes a detailed account of Bhagawan Mahävir's life. The Kalpa Sutra is read to the congregation from the fourth through the last day of Paryushan. On the fifth day, the auspicious dreams of Bhagawan Mahävir's mother Trishala are celebrated in a special ceremony. Kalpa Sutra Traditionally most revered scripture for Shvetämbar is Kalpa-sutra, taken from the eighth chapter of the Anga-bähya Agam Dashä-shruta Skandha and is read during fourth to eighth day of Paryushan. Kalpa means an activity, which enhances religious knowledge, conduct and self-control. Kalpa-sutra describes rules for monastic life during rainy season, biography of Tirthankars, and a lineage of successors to the Ganadhars. Acharya Bhadrabähu composed these three chapters in ArdhaMagadhi language, collectively called Kalpa-sutra in 3rd century B.C. and it has 1216 verses. It was written (penned down) for the first time on palm-leaf during Vallabhipur Agam Literature Conference (recension) in 454 A.D. Traditionally it was recited only among Sädhus during Paryushan. However, the Kalpa-sutra has been recited in public for over 1500 years, ever since Devardhi-gani recited it to King Dhruvsen of Vallabhi to relieve the king's grief over the death of his son. In 1879, a German scholar named Herman Jacobi translated and printed the Kalpa-sutra for the first time. It has a very detailed and lively description of Bhagawan Mahävir's life as well as narration of His previous 27 lives. Poetic depiction of the dreams of mother Trishalä, celebration of the birth of Tirthankar Mahavir, few incidents of His childhood, procession for Dikshä, the account of the calamities endured by Him during the monastic life, and the elucidation of Keval-jnän and Nirvana creates a live picture in listener's mind and builds an atmosphere of reverence. Lives of Tirthankar Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 245 of 398 Page #246 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO7 - Jain Festivals (Parvas) and Celebrations Rishabhdev, Neminäth, and Pärshvanath are also narrated in detail. On Samvatsari day, entire scripture is read with great reverence. Samvatsari - The Day of Forgiveness The final day of Paryushan, known as Samvatsari, is the most important day of Paryushan. On this day, Jains ask for forgiveness from family, friends, enemies, and anyone else with whom they have had problems and/or hard feelings for hurting them in any way, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the year. Jain scriptures advise that, forgiving all and not harboring ill will towards anyone, is a definite step forward in the spiritual journey towards liberation. Accordingly, the annual Samvatsari Pratikraman is the most important day in Jain tradition. Asking for forgiveness is difficult, as it requires humility Vinay - (absence of ego) and suppression of anger. Therefore, our great Acharyas have said, "Kshamä Virasya Bhushanam, Kshamäväni Michchhä Mi Dukkadam". To ask for forgiveness is a great quality of the brave ones. If I have committed any mistakes, I ask for your forgiveness. Khamemi Savva Jive, Savve Jivä Khamantu Me Mitti Me Savva Bhuesu, Veram Majjha na Kenai. I forgive all the living beings of the universe, May all the living beings forgive me for my faults. I do not have any animosity towards anybody, and I have friendship for all living beings 03 Das Lakshana Parva Shvetämbars observe eight days of Paryushan, while Digambars celebrate a ten-day of Das-Lakshana Parva, which begins on the last day of Shvetämbar Paryushan. The Digambar tradition celebrates the ten best characteristics of the soul. These cardinal virtues are the inherent qualities of a soul. They are various forms of right conduct. The practice of observing these virtues is not limited to only one particular religion or tradition. They belong to the universal faith. The results of observance of these virtues are equally beneficial to all mankind and not only to a follower of the Jain faith only. Das-Lakshana Parva or Yati-dharma (Supreme Dharma): Kshama (forbearance), Märdava (humility), Ärjava (straightforwardness), Shaucha (absence of greed, purity of mind), Satya (truthfulness), Sanyam (self-restraint), Tapa (penance), Tyag (renunciation), Äkinchanya (absence of a feeling of ownership), and Brahmacharya (celibacy) Some traditions read the Tattvärtha Sutra, an ancient Jain scripture that covers the entire Jain philosophy, to the congregation. The scripture has 10 chapters and one chapter is read every day. These ten virtues are pure passionless modes of the conduct attribute of the soul. Word 'supreme prefixed to each one denotes that there is inevitable existence of the Right Belief and the Right Knowledge (Samyag Darshan and Samyag Jnän). These pure virtues are always associated with enlightened soul and are not present in the ignorant soul with wrong belief. Page 246 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #247 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO7 - Jain Festivals (Parvas) and Celebrations In fact, the right belief and the right knowledge are the basis for the spiritual progress for the living being. Ten attributes or the virtues are the part of the conduct attribute, when the soul obtains enlightenment. Therefore, right belief and right knowledge are the roots for the tree of right conduct to grow. These Ten Commandments or attributes are the name of the natural dispositions originated in the presence of right belief and right knowledge and there is absence of wrong belief and passions. 04 Mahavir Janma Kalyänak (Mahävir Jayanti) Mahävir Jayanti is also another important Jain festival. The Jain community observes the birth anniversary of Lord Mahävir with great devotion. Mahävir Jayanti falls on the 13th day of the bright half of the month of Chaitra (March-April according to the Christian calendar). He was born to King Siddhartha and Queen Trishala in 599 B.C. in the city of Kshatriya Kunda in Lachhavad district. It is a day to remember and worship Bhagawan Mahävir and all other Tirthankars. Unlike most Indian festivals, Mahavir Jayanti, in keeping with the austere nature of Jainism, is celebrated with great sincerity and devotion. For the Jains, quiet celebrations, visits to temples, prayers and worship mark the birth anniversary of the Mahävir. Visiting various pilgrimage places is also a vital part of the celebration. Special prayers are also offered at the Jain temples. People attend sermons to learn the teachings of Lord Mahävir. This day reminds us the supreme compassion of Bhagawan Mahävir and the path to liberation he has preached. Temples are decorated to express devotion and joy for the occasion of Bhagawan's birthday. At many temples elaborate worship rituals and the rite of Abhisheka are carried out quite enthusiastically. Some communities even celebrate this day by carrying out grand processions with the idol of Bhagawan Mahävir in an elegant chariot. It is also an educational and fun experience for Jain youth to celebrate this day by expressing Bhagawan Mahävir's message through cultural activities like speeches, plays, songs, and dances related to Bhagawan Mahävir's life. The Murtipujak Jains visit temples and worship the statue of Lord Mahävir; the Non-murtipujak Jains emphasize the internalization of the faith. The event holds special significance in the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan because the ancient Jain shrines at Girnar, Delwädä, and Palitana are situated in these states. Mahävir Jayanti is also celebrated at Päväpuri in Bihar state where Lord Mahävir attained nirvana. 05 Diwali Diwali is a festival of celebrations in India and among Indians all over the world. It is an occasion for happiness and togetherness. This is an occasion where everyone, irrespective of his or her religious and economic background, celebrates Diwäli. It teaches us to uphold the true values of life, to destroy ignorance that prevents humanity, and to drive away darkness that engulfs the light of knowledge. The word 'Diwali' comes from the Sanskrit word, 'Deepävali'. 'Deep' means light and Ävali' means a row, i.e. A row of lights. Diwali is celebrated on New Moon Day, the last day of the year in the month of Ashwin or Aso. People show their happiness by lighting earthen lamps, and decorating their houses with rangoli, and inviting family and friends for a feast. In Jainism, the lighting of lamps is symbolic of lighting the lamp within us. Just as a light brightens everything around it, our presence should brighten people around us. We should be of help to others and bring peace and happiness to them and to ourselves. For Jains, Diwali marks the anniversary of the attainment of Moksha by Mahävir-swämi in 527 BC. The festival falls on the last day of the month of Ashwin, the end of the year in the Indian calendar. But the celebration starts in the early morning of the previous day as Lord Mahävir commenced his last sermon final discourse known as Uttaradhyayan, which lasted until the night of Diwali. At midnight, his soul left his body and attained liberation, Moksha. Eighteen kings of northern India were present in his audience at the time of His final sermon. They decided that the light of their master's knowledge should be kept alive symbolically by lighting of lamps. Hence it is called Deepävali or Diwali. (Deep means a lamp and Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 247 of 398 Page #248 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO7 - Jain Festivals (Parvas) and Celebrations ävail means series or multiple). But the light of Lord Mahävir's knowledge cannot be kept alive by just lighting the lamps. That is an external approach. Realistically, we should light up our internal lamps - awaken our inner vision by practicing the path preached by Lord Mahävir. As a traditional Diwali lamp needs a clay bowl, oil, and cotton wick. The inner lamp needs the Right Faith, Right Knowledge, Right Conduct, and Right Tapa (austerity). External lamps need oxygen while internal lamp needs self-effort. The resolution to adopt the practice of good conduct is the way to celebrate the Diwali. Some people fast for two days as Lord Mahävir did. Some people recite "Shri Mahävir Swami Sarvajnäya Namah" on every bead of the rosary (108 beads in one rosary) followed by rosaries of reciting "Shri Mahävir Swami Pärangatäya Namah" on each bead. In brief, Diwali is for enhancing the spiritual wealth. From a social aspect, it is celebrated in traditional Indian fashion by greeting and offering sweets to family, friends and neighbors. Jain businessmen would close their accounts for the year and perform a simple Puja for the new account books. Diwali is celebrated for five days; each day has its own significance and myth. Dhanteras Dhan means wealth and Teras is the thirteenth day of Ashwin or Aso. The first day of Diwali is Dhanteras. Torans of Aso Pälav, mango leaves and marigolds are hung on doorways. Rangoli are drawn with different colored powders to welcome Guests. Käli Chaudas The day after Dhanteras is known as Käli Chaudas. They chant mantras at night to please the demons. Diwali Diwali is the day when Bhagawan Mahävir, the twenty-fourth Tirthankar, attained Nirvana. Diwali is a celebration of lights. Just as a lamp needs cotton and oil to keep going your internal light needs rational intuition, rational knowledge, and rational conduct. Oil lamps are arranged in and around the house. Because of these flickering lamps the festival acquired the name of Deepävali or Diwali. New Year Gautam-swami was very much attached to Mahävir-swämi. So after Mahävir-swämi's Nirvana on Diwali he became very sad. By thinking deeply about non-attachment, he got over his sadness and attained Keval-jnän on the following day which is New Year. Bhäi Beej Like Gautam-swämi, Mahävir-swämi's brother, Nandivardhan, was very sad. Sudarshana, their sister, invited him to her house and comforted him. Traditionally on this day, the sister invites the brother to her house to express love and respect. 06 New Year Lord Mahävir's chief disciple, Indrabhuti Gautam, had not been able to overcome his attachment to his master and that prevented him from achieving Keval-jnän. The barrier was only broken after a period of grief over his master's Nirvana. He at last managed to achieve the highest degree of non-attachment, which enabled him to attain the stage of omniscience, the full enlightenment, in the early morning of the first day of the New Year. The Jains begin the New Year with a prayer of Guru Gautam Swami; and listen with devotion to the nine Stotras (Navasmaran) and the auspicious Räs (epochal poem) of Gautam Swami. Some people fast for three days including New Year's Day. The real wish should be "may the whole year be filled with realistic Dharma, intellectual serenity and equanimity". 07 Bhäibeej (Festival for brother) King Nandivardhan, the brother of Bhagawan Mahävir was in great sorrow due to the Nirvana of Mahävir. On the day after New Year's Day, his sister Sudarshanä invited him to her house and comforted him.. This day is observed as Bhai Beej. This festival is like Raksha Bandhan. On the day of Rakshä Page 248 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #249 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO7 - Jain Festivals (Parvas) and Celebrations Bandhan, the sister goes to the brother and ties the Raksha (a sacred thread) wishing him long and happy life; but on this day, the sister invites her brother to her house to show her respect and love for him. 08 Jnän Panchami (Holy day for worshipping knowledge) Jnän Panchami is celebrated on the 5th day of bright half of Kärtik, the first month of the Indian calendar year. This day is designated for the worship of pure knowledge. All religions believe in gaining knowledge, while Jain religion stresses it importance because knowledge is an innate quality of soul. Through right knowledge only, one can follow the right path. On this day, the scriptures, which impart knowledge to the people, are worshipped with devotion by offering Väskshep (sandalwood powder). Jain scriptures are displayed in various religious places. People visit such places and worship these sacred scriptures on this day to seek blessings for the strength to be able to learn continuously. Swadhyay, meditation, and Pratikraman are also carried out on this day. Moreover, the books preserved in the religious libraries are cleaned and refurbished as may be necessary. To pay respect to educational material, notebooks, pens, pencils etc. are offered during Pujä. Efforts are concentrated towards removing jnänävarniya karma. The following song is sung on this day: Samkit Shraddhävantane, Upanue Jnän Prakash, Pranamu Pad Gaj Tehanä, Bhäva Dhari Ulläs. The Jap Pad of 'Aum Rhim Namo Nanassa on rosary bead is performed on the day. As a result, the knowledge obstructing Karmas are destroyed. In past, Vardatt and Gunamanjari had done something against it. So, they had to face the results of their sins. 09 Dev Diwäli or Kartaki Poonam It is the 15th day of the first month - Kartik in the Gujarati calendar, which marks the end of Chaturmäs. After the four months of rainy season (Chäturmäs), Sadhus start vihär and the pilgrimage of Shatrunjay reopens. Thousands of Jains from all over the world go for Tirtha-yatra to Shatrunjay, Mount Girnär in Gujarat, and other Tirtha places where special celebrations are held. Lamps are lit under the moonlit sky and families celebrate the end of the Diwali fortnight. It is said that the meaning of the Shatrunjay is winning over enemies. The pilgrimage of Shatrunjaya is performed to win over the Karma-enemy. So it is said thatEach step on the pious place Shatrunjaya can remove or Destroy Karmas of previous births. Even those who had got Omniscience knowledge can't describe the importance of Shatrunjay. 10 Navpad Oli Twice a year, falling in March/April (Chaitra) and September/October (Ashwin), the nine-day Oli period of semi-fasting called Ayambil is observed by taking only one meal a day of very plain food without any spices, salt, milk, oil, butter, fruits or vegetables. It is observed by meditating upon Navpad comprising of Pancha Paramesthi, Jnan, Darshan, Charitra, and Tapa. The importance of Navpad is preached by the sermons given during these days. King Shripal and Mayanä-sundari were ardent devotees of Navpad. With thorough understanding of the theory of Karma, both exerted their efforts in worshipping Navpad. In doing so, they destroyed bad karma, improved their condition, and ultimately attained liberation. 11 Maun Agiyäras This is the most pious day of the year. It marks the highest number of pious occasions (total 150) such as Birth, Enlightenment, and Nirvana Kalyanaks of several Tirthankars. It falls on the eleventh day of the bright half of the month of Mägashara during November December. A day of complete silence and fasting are observed and meditation is directed towards the Tirthankars whose various Kalyanaks (auspicious life events) fall on this day. Many people live the life of an ascetic by staying at Upäshray (temporary residence of ascetics) on that day. In Bharat Kshetra, it's the anniversary day of Diksha Kalyanak of the 18th Tirthankar - Bhagawan Arnath, Keval-jnän Kalyanak for the 21s' Tirthankar Bhagawan Neminäth and Birth, Diksha and Keval-Jnän Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 249 of 398 Page #250 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D07 - Jain Festivals (Parvas) and Celebrations Kalyänak for the 19th Tirthankar Bhagawän Mallinäth. Any religious activities performed on this day is more fruitful than any other day. One Fast done on this day gives fruits of 150 fasts. 12 Posh Dashami This day is celebrated as the birthday of 23rd Tithankar Lord Pärshvanath. On the 9th, 10th, 11th days of Margshirsh month (usually falls in December), hundreds and thousands of Jain men and women perform the austerity of Attham, 3 continuous days of Upavas and by means of recitation and meditation they try to achieve divine welfare. A grand fair takes place in Shankeshwar, which is a sacred place for Jains. Thousands of Jains gather there and perform the austerity of "Attham". The observer can also do Ekasanas (taking lunch once in a day) of Sugared Water, Khir and full lunch for three days. 13 Varsitap This yearlong austerity (Tapa) consists of fasting every other day followed by only one or two meal on the next day. This yearlong austerity signifies the event in the life of our first Tirthankar Ädinäth, who did not get Gochari (alms) for one year after his initiation (Dikshä). The Pärnä ceremony for Varsitapa is observed in India with large celebration at Hastinapur where Shreyänskumär, great grandson of Bhagwan Ädinäth offered Him sugarcane juice to break his fast. 14 Akshaya Tritiya - Varsitap Pärnä This marks the fast breaking day of a yearlong fast by the first Tirthankar Lord Rishabhdev. Jains who have been fasting on an alternate day for a year break their fast by drinking fresh sugar cane juice. This festival is celebrated on Vaishäkha Sud 3 (third day of the month of Vaishakha). The first TirthankarBhagawän Rishabhdev got Charitra i.e. left the worldly pleasures after 83 Lakha Purva years of home-life. It is said that Karma has no effect of any brave people or even of Indra. Lord Rishabhdev went to many houses to get the proper food (Gochari) for him, but no one could understand his desire of food. The people were ready to give elephants, horses, jewelry or even brides to him. But they did not offer any food. In the previous birth, Lord Rishhabhdev had tied a net on the face of a cow and he did the sin of starving the cow, so the previous Karma was the cause of this incident. At the end, Shreyans Kumar gave him the juice of sugarcane and Rishabhdev broke his fast. This day is known as Akshaya Tritiya from that time. 15 Fägun Sud Teras This day falls on the thirteenth day of the month of Fälgun (usually in the beginning of March). The circumambulation of 6 Gäus (1 Gäu means 3.2 Kms.) at Shatrunjay Mountains is done on this day. 16 Twelve Tithis Twelve tithis in each month are 2nd, 5th, 8th, 11th, 14th and 15th days of each half-moon cycle. Most jains observe five days, shukla 5th, two 8th, and two 14th days. Jain shastras indicate that the Ayushyabandh for next life takes place on one of these days and one's physical and spiritual activities are significantly contributory. 17 Chaumäsi Chaudas Three Shukla Chaudas in month of Kärtak, Fälgun and Ashädh are celebrated as Chaumäsi chaudas. 18 Mastaka Abhisheka The Head Anointing Ceremony Perhaps the most famous example of Pujä performed on a grand scale in Jainism is the Mastaka Abhisheka (head anointing) ceremony held every twelfth year in Shravanbelgola. This honors the spiritual hero Bähubali, who is represented by a colossal fifty-seven foot image carved from rock nearly a thousand years ago. Thousands of Jains of both traditions come to pay homage during the several weeks during which the celebration goes on; Bähubali thus receives the kind of adoration otherwise Page 250 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #251 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS DO7 - Jain Festivals (Parvas) and Celebrations reserved exclusively for Tirthankars. The image depicts Bahubali as standing erect, free of clothing and immersed in deepest meditation. For the period of the Mastaka Abhisheka, temporary scaffolding is built behind the huge statue, thus the faithful can anoint Bahubali in the proper manner, by pouring various sacred substances such as purified water and sandalwood paste over the statue from above. Participating in these festivities is said to bring great merit and perhaps to make possible the experience of Samyag Darshan (Right faith) itself. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 251 of 398 Page #252 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D08 - Jain Temples & Pilgrimage Places D08 - Jain Temples & Pilgrimage Places A Jain temple is a place of worship where a person experiences immense peace and serenity. It is a beautiful, quiet and peaceful place to reflect upon our true nature and soul. It promotes introspection, and brings home the feeling that God/Soul resides within one's self. Therefore, each person can follow a path of purification of the inner self, devoid of anger, ego, deceit, and greed. More than 80% of Jains of both the Shvetämbar and Digambar traditions believe in worshiping Tirthankar images in temples. Primarily two types of Tirthankar images exist in the Jain temples. The images with semi-closed eyes are adopted by the Digambar tradition whereas the images with open eyes are adopted by the Shvetämbar tradition. 01 Digambar and Shvetämbar Images Digambars keep the images in their natural undecorated form. Shvetämbars decorate the Tirthankar's images luxuriously. This symbolizes that Tirthankars were kings, had much royal wealth, yet did not find happiness in such material possessions. They renounced all their wealth for the benefit of society and took vows of complete non possession. An image (murti) of a Tirthankar either sitting in Padmasan posture or standing straight, illustrates the form of deepest meditation. The face and eyes shower the devotee with compassion and inspire calmness within. The image represents the qualities of a Tirthankar but not the physical body. Hence the images of all Tirthankars are similar. Usually an image is carved from marble or cast from metal. Both Digambar and Shvetämbar Jain temples are famous for their unique intricate art and elaborate architecture. Each Tirthankar has a unique emblem or symbol (Länchhan) that distinguishes the specific Tirthankar image from the images of other Tirthankars. This symbol is found on the base of each image. Before entering the temple one must take off their shoes. One should not eat, drink or chew anything in the temple, nor should one run-around, shout, talk to others, or socialize in the temple. When one enters the temple one should say 'Nissihi', meaning to leave behind'. This means that by mind, speech and action we are leaving all our worldly relations outside the temple, which in turn implies leaving our vices (Kashäyas) namely anger, ego, deceit and greed. A donation box in a temple promotes anonymous giving. 02 Few Recommendations regarding Offerings at the Temple The following statements by any means do not disrespect the ancient offerings during rituals since cows, calves and all animal lives were treated compassionately without interference in their life cycle. The principle of nonviolence should not be compromised during the offerings of the religious rituals. We need to practice the religion based on Time, Place, and Circumstances we are surrounded by. One should not use milk and sweets for puja and Ghee for divo or lamp as almost all modern dairy products are obtained by torturing and exploiting cows and other animals. The milk producing cows are kept pregnant all the time during their fertile life and are slaughtered after their milk yield drops by 30% which is around 5 years of age while their life expectancy is 15 years. In pujä, one should use pure water instead of water mixed with milk, use dry fruits instead of sweets, and use Castor oil instead of Ghee. About 100 years ago all Jain temples used castor oil for divo. Also one should not use silver foil (Varakh) for decoration images as Varakh is manufactured using the intestine of a cow. One should not wear pearls, silk, fur and leather as they are obtained by killing oysters, worms and animals. 03 Jain Pilgrimage Places (Jain Tirths) The pilgrimage to sacred places is a part of the tradition for practically every religion in the world. The hardships of the journey discipline the body and the company of fellow pilgrims strengthens the religious Page 252 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #253 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D08 - Jain Temples & Pilgrimage Places faith. It is inspiring and uplifting to pray and worship at the place where the great religious leaders and saints once stood. The soul receives merit while the mind receives peace. India is a land of spirituality and devotion. Jain shrines in India speak of an integral association with the lives and activities of the Jain Tirthankars, who spread the message of Ahimsa, Anekantaväda, and Aparigraha. Some of the holy places where the enlightened ones were born, took Dikshä, and achieved liberation (Moksha) are of special importance. The places touched and traveled by these Tirthankars became famous as sacred places; therefore, idols of Tirthankars were installed there. The religious atmosphere of these sacred places inspires feelings of reverence. Devotional sentiments permeate throughout and bring inner happiness and peace, which leads to upliftment of the soul. It is a well-known fact that the art and architecture of a country are reflective of its religious devotion as well as economic prosperity, without which elaborately carved temples could not have been built. Every phase of Indian history, art, and architecture found supporters in rich merchants and princes who spent lavishly on the commemoration of their religious leaders and beliefs. Tirtha places have attracted millions of people. India holds immense appeal for devotees to see great Jain architecture, to know and understand the teachings of the great Tirthankars who, through hard penance, showed the course to salvation to humanity and freedom from the cycle of rebirth through Jainism. Tirtha places tell immortal stories of Tirthankars and other saintly beings. Idols, murals, and inscriptions in temples convey the message of Tirthankars. 01. Shri Palitana Tirtha Mulanäyak: Nearly 7 feet tall, white-colored idol of Bhagawan Ädinäth in the Padmäsan posture. Tirtha: It is on Mt. Shatrunjay near the bank of the river Shatrunjay, in the state of Gujarat. There are about 900 temples on Mt. Shatrunjay, each rivaling the other for beauty and magnificence, presenting an awe-inspiring spectacle to devotees and visitors. The multitude of temples made of splendid marble, with their spires aiming the skies, present a spectacle unmatched for its scale and magnitude. The peak is a 2 miles and 2 furlongs long climb of over 3745 steps from the foot of the hill. While climbing up early in the morning, you can see river Shetrunjee at a distance gleaming in the beautiful sunrise. Palitana Tirtha displays a combination of human enterprise, architectural skills, generosity, and religious devotion. Every devout Jain aspires to climb to the top of the mountain at least once in his or her lifetime, because of its sanctity. History: Shatrunjay is known as the eternal Tirtha. It is an ancient Jain place of pilgrimage as it was here that the chief follower of Tirthankar Rishabhdev (Pundarika) attained Nirvana. Although most temples are modern, they have been restored many times, dating back to prehistoric times. Historically, the present temple was constructed in the 12th century during the reign of King Kumärpäl. Unfortunately, Shatrunjay suffered much destruction during the Muslim conquests in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but the rebuilding took place after 1500. From the late seventeenth century, Shatrunjay has become more and more important. On a certain day (Fagun Sud teras) every year, nearly 20,000 pilgrims undertake a twelve-mile round trip Yatra. The pilgrimage to Shatrunjay generates great merit. Works of art and Sculpture: The main temple is a splendid, two storied, imposing structure with highly impressive elevation supported by 72 pillars and with artistic balconies on its sides. Besides the main temple complex, there are 8 temple complexes on the hill. All of them together are known as Nav-tunk. One of the temple has its steeple visible from a distance of 20 miles. All these complexes are built at different time by different people and hence are popularly known by their names. There are about more than 10,000 idols of Tirthankars installed in all these large and small temples. 02. Shri Sankheshvar Tirtha Mulnäyak:Nearly 6 feet tall, white-colored idol of Bhagawan Sankheshvar Pärshvanath in the Padmäsan posture. Tirtha:It is in the center of the village in the state of Gujarat Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 253 of 398 Page #254 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D08 - Jain Temples & Pilgrimage Places History: As mentioned in ancient scriptures, Ashädhi Shrävak's devotion to Bhagawän Pärshvanäth gave rise to this temple. Inspired by his great faith, the idol of Sankheshvar Pärshvanäth has been worshipped since ancient times. The temple was built and rebuilt on several occasions. Major renovation was done by Sajjan Shah in the 11th century and by Vastupäl and Tejpäl in the middle of the 13th century. In the 14th century, the army of Allauddin Khilaji caused severe damage to the temple, but the main idol was saved by the Sangh. Since 1760,this vast and beautiful temple has 52 idols and a passage for going around the idols. Even if volumes of books are written, they cannot fully describe the miracles of this temple. For instance, it is said that the wounded men of Lord Krishna's army arrived at Sankheshvar Tirtha after a battle. Then they used the holy water (Abhisheka) from the Tirtha to cleanse their wounds, and upon contact with the water, their wounds were immediately healed. Worshipped for thousands of years, this idol specially attracts the faithful worshippers making this Tirtha of immense significance. Even today, the worshippers experience the miracles of this magnificent idol. The idols of Dharanendra, Shri Padmavati Devi, Pärshva Yaksha, and Shri Chakreshwari-Devi are said to protect the Tirtha, to remove the obstacles of the worshippers, and to fulfill their wishes. On the auspicious day of Bhagawän Pärshvanäth Janma Kalyänak (birth event) and on the Diwäli, thousands of pilgrims come here to observe a two-day long fast. Works of art and Sculpture: Comparable to a God's residence, this ancient, majestic, and delightful temple surrounded by 52 small temples looks very beautiful. 03. Shri Tärangä Tirtha Mulnäyak: Nearly 9 feet tall, white colored idol of Bhagawän Ajitnäth. Tirtha: It is on the Täranga hill in the state of Gujarat. History: Under the inspiration and instructions of Shri Hemchandra Ächärya, this temple was built in the year 1165 AD under the reign of King Kumärpäl. In the past, many Sädhus have attained Nirvana while meditating on the nearby hills. Works of art and Sculpture: This temple is 50 feet long, 100 feet wide and 142 feet high. Along with the vast open square, the well-curved, eye-catching summit of the four-storied temple made of yellow stone looks stunning. This temple is famous for its tall steeple. Since the wood used in building this temple was of the Tagar (veleriana hardwickii) wood, it is fire-extinguishing; when set to fire, it does not catch fire, but oozes out water. This is truly amazing. 04. Shri Abu Delwädä Tirtha Mulnäyak: 5 feet tall, white colored idol of Bhagawän Ädinäth in the Padmäsan posture. Tirtha: The Jain Delwädä temples of India are located near Mount Abu in the state of Rajasthan. History: Bharat Chakravarti built the temple and installed four idols facing all four directions. This ancient Tirtha is also mentioned in the Bruhad Kalpasutra composed by Bhadrabähu-swämi. Many ancient Ächäryas had visited this Tirtha in the past. The present temple called Vimal Vasahi, was built in the eleventh century by Vimal Shah in honor of Bhagawän Ädinäth. By appeasing Ambikä Devi, he had recovered the 2500 years old idol of Bhagawän Ädinäth. The generous brothers, Vastupäl and Tejpäl in honor of Lord Neminäth built another temple, Lunaga Vasahi in 1230 AD. The splendid temple was built under the supervision of Anupamä-devi, the wife of Tejpäl. The main idol of Mulnayak Bhagawän Neminäth is majestic. Works of art and Sculpture: The sculptures and art of these temples are famous all over the world for their stunning carving in the white marble. The ceiling, domes, gates, pillars, arches, and walls of the Vimal Vasahi temple are excellent specimens of minute carving skill. The Rang Mandap is a grand hall supported by 12 decorated pillars and nicely carved arches with a breathtaking central dome. On the pillars are carved female figurines playing musical instruments and 16 Vidhyä-devis (the goddesses of knowledge) - each one holding her own symbol. The Navchowki is a collection of nine rectangular ceilings, each one containing beautiful carvings of different designs supported on ornate pillars. The ceiling features engraved designs of lotus-buds, petals, flowers, and scenes from Jain Page 254 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #255 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D08 - Jain Temples & Pilgrimage Places and Hindu mythology. There are 59 small temples in the passage around the temple. It took 1500 artisans and 1200 laborers a span of fourteen years to build this extraordinary monument. In the Lunaga Vasahi temple, delicate carvings in the Deräni-Jethäni niches (recesses in the wall) are exceptional examples of art. The carving of the white marble is so delicate that it is almost translucent. It is said that the sculptors were paid in gold according to the weight of marble dust removed. The main hall or Rang Mandap features a central dome, from which hangs a big ornamental pendent featuring elaborate carving. Arranged in a circular band are 72 figures of Tirthankars in sitting posture and just below are 360 small figures of Jain monks in another circular band. The richly carved corridors, pillars, arches, and 'mandaps' of the temple are simply amazing. The Navchowki here features some of the most magnificent and delicate marble stone cutting work of the temple. Each of the nine ceilings here seems to exceed the other in beauty and grace. The Hasthishälä or elephant cell features 10 beautiful marble elephants neatly polished and realistically modeled. 05. Shri Ranakpur Tirtha Mulnayak: Nearly 6 feet tall, white -colored idol of Bhagawan Adinath in the Padmasan posture Tirtha: Ratnapuri, tucked away in a remote valley in the midst of natural beauty, is in the state of Rajasthan. History: Renowned for marvelously carved Jain temples in amber stone, Ranakpur is one of the holiest places for the Jains and exceptional in its beauty. The Ranakpur Jain temple was built during the reign of Ränä Kumbha in the 15th century. Dharna Shah, a Jain businessman, had a dream to build a temple like a heavenly residence named Nalinigulm. With the permission and help of the king, this three-story temple was built at the cost of 150 million rupees in those days. Works of art and Sculpture: From artistic and cultural viewpoints, the whole temple with its enormous 48, 000 sq. ft. span is beautiful, splendid, matchless, and outstanding among many wonders of the world. The inner sanctum of the temple has four idols of Bhagawan Adinath facing all four directions with four entrances to the temple. There are four subsidiary shrines, and twenty-four pillared halls and domes supported by over four hundred columns. The total number of columns is 1, 444; all of which are carved intricately with no two columns being alike. The intricately decorated 40 feet high pillars and the arches hanging like pearl-strings create a feeling of awe among the visitors. The pillars are arranged, so deftly that from any spot in the temple, you get an uninterrupted view of the idol. The carved stone in the ceiling of the main dome is pulled low at the center like a chandelier. How the weight of stones is kept hanging unsupported, remains an unsolved mystery. The sculptors have carved life-stories out of the vast storehouse of Jain scriptures. Some of the eye-catching illustrations are a stone slab with an intricate carving of thousand hooded entangled snakes sheltering Bhagawan Pärshvanath, and a mountain with thousand peaks. There are 84 small and large temples surrounding the main temple. In the assembly hall, there are two big bells weighing 108 kg., whose sound echoes as far as three miles. Each bell has a high and low pitch complementing each other and producing the sound of 'OM' resonating in your navel for one minute. The idols of Bhagawan Mahävir Swami and Rishabhdev, polished with precious stones, shine like glass even after six hundred years. 06. Shri Shravanbelgola Tirtha Mulnäyak: Nearly 57 feet tall, idol of Bhagawan Bahubali in the Käyotsarga posture made of light brown colored granite. Tirtha: It is on Vindhyagiri hill near the village of Shravanbelgola in the state of Karnataka. History: Sri Gommateswar, also known as Bahubali, was the son of the legendary first Tirthankar. This Tirtha was created in 981 AD under inspiration of the mother of Chamundaräy, the advisor of King Gangaras. Shravanbelgola means 'the monk on the top of the hill' and hermits, mystics, and ascetics have journeyed and lived there since at least the third century BC. In the mid-tenth century Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 255 of 398 Page #256 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D08 - Jain Temples & Pilgrimage Places AD, temples began to be built and the site grew to be one of the most important pilgrimage sites of the Jain religion. The chief festival of Shravanbelgola is the Maha Mastaka Abhisheka, or the 'Head Anointing Ceremony'. During this incredible event, over half a million devotees make a pilgrimage here. A scaffold is built around the statue. The ceremonial Abhisheka is performed with chanting of holy mantras and pouring pots of water mixed with sandalwood, flowers, and precious herbs over the idol's head. While flowing downward over the body, these offerings are believed to acquire a powerful charge of spiritual energy. They are collected at the feet and distributed to the devotees who believe that the gift will assist their quest for enlightenment. The festival is performed only once every 12 to 14 years during periods of rare astrological significance. Works of art and Sculpture: Carved out of only one stone, the colossal statue of Bahubali towers in majestic splendor and is visible even from a distance of 20 km. Starkly simple, the beautifully chiseled features of the statue expresses serenity. Its contemplative mood is an outstanding example of Indian sculptor. His perfect lips turned out at the corners with a hint of a smile, appear like viewing the world with detachment. 07. Shri Ayodhyä Tirtha Mulnayak: 1 foot tall, copper-colored idol of Bhagawan Ajitnäth in the Padmäsan posture Shvetämbar tradition Mulnäyak: 30 feet tall, white colored idol of Bhagawan Adinath in Käyotsarga position Digambar tradition History: Adinath was the first King of this place. The Chyavana, birth, and Dikshä Kalyanaks of Bhagawan Adinath were also celebrated here. The Chyavana, birth, dikshä, and Keval-jnän Kalyanaks of Ajitnäth, Abhinandan Swami, Bhagawan Sumatinäth, and Bhagawan Anantnäth were celebrated here as well making this Tirtha especially auspicious. Bharat Chakravarti made this place his capitol and the country was named Bharat after him. Besides, this is the birthplace of Bahubali, Brähmi, Sundari, King Dasharath, Shri Räma, Achalbhrätä the ninth Ganadhar of Mahävir Swami, and many other pious people. . Many religious kings, their advisors, and great men performed numerous religious activities here and added to the glory of not only the Jain religion, but also to the glory of India. 08. Shri Hastinapur Tirtha Mulnayak: 3 feet tall, golden idol of Bhagawan Shäntinäth in the Padmasan posture Shvetämbar tradition Mulnäyak: White colored idol of Shäntinäth Bhagawan Digambar Temple) Tirtha: It is in the town of Hastinapur in the state of Uttar Pradesh. History. Here, Shreyans, the great-grandson of Bhagawan Adinath offered sugar-cane juice to Bhagawan Adinath to end his year-long fast (Varsitapa). In memory of that auspicious event, every year, many pilgrims come here to celebrate their Varsitapa penance. All the four Kalyanaks other than Nirvana of Bhagawan Shäntinäth, Kunthunäth, and Aranäth were celebrated here. This was the land of construction of Samavasaran of Bhagawan Mallinäth. This was the capital of the Kaurav and the Pandvas in the times of the Mahabharata. According to the Digambar tradition, the great tradition of Rakshabandhan or Shrävani Poonam started here. According to Jain history, many Tirthankars, Chakravartis, omniscient souls, ascetics, Shrävaks and Shrävikäs are associated with this ancient land. The Agams and other Jain works contain many references to Hastinapur. Works of art and Sculpture: Many ancient idols, coins, and stone inscriptions are found here during excavations. The ancient idols in these temples are really spectacular and awe-inspiring. 09. Shri Samet Shikhar Tirtha Mulnäyak: Nearly 3 feet tall, black-colored idol of Bhagawan Pärshvanath in the Padmasan posture Tirtha: It is on the Samet Shikhar Hill near Madhuvan in the state of Bihar. Page 256 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #257 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D08 - Jain Temples & Pilgrimage Places History: Twenty Tirthankars out of the current twenty-four Tirthankars attained Nirvana on this holy land. Since it is the land of penance and of nirvana of many Tirthankars and Sädhus, every particle of this land is great, holy, and precious. It is said that a touch of this land purifies the human birth. A pilgrimage to this sacred place removes trouble, adds to religious merits (Punya), and destroys bad karma of devotees. As it is mentioned in the Jain literature and history, the temples and foot-idols on this mountain have been renovated many times. Recently around 1766 A.D. Sheth Khushaldas of Murshidabad observed penance of three days and with the grace of Goddess Padmavati, he had a very auspicious dream. He saw the exact locations of the nirvanas of the Tirthankars, and hence built small temples of foot-idols accordingly in these pious sites. As recently as 1934 AD, with the inspiration of Acharya Sägaränand Suri, the Tirtha was renovated for the 23rd time. Works of art and Sculpture: As the name suggests, Madhuvan, is really a beautiful forest. At the foot of this hill, there is a temple of Bhomiyädev, which features an impressive hill-shaped idol. The sight of the idol makes one's journey fulfilling. The ascent on the hill begins from a little distance beyond the Bhomiyädev temple. There is an ascent of six miles to the hill, then another six miles to go around the hills, and finally, a descent of six miles, totaling a journey of 18 miles. There are 31 significant tunks (summits) on the great mountain of Samet Shikhar. Each tunk is devoted to a separate foot-idol including the Tirthankars, the eternal Jinas, and some Ganadhars. All the tunks on Samet Shikhar can be seen from Gautam Swami's tunk, which is the first tunk. The Jalmandir tunk is where the Mulnayak of Shamaliya Pärshvanath is installed. The Tirthankar Bhagawan is seen only in this Jal -mandir, whereas the other Tunks hold only foot idols. The final tunk is the tunk of Bhagawan Pärshvanath. This is the highest tunk on the highest hill. There are foot-idols of Bhagawan on the stone-slab where he attained the final liberation. The scene on the hill is serene, beautiful, and suitable for meditation. From the hill, the scene of the temples of Madhuvan looks like a divine city. Every temple has a distinct and elegant building style. The natural beauty of the hill is charming beyond description. With full devotion, pilgrims come to the great Tirtha of Samet Shikhar, the land of nirvana of many Tirthankars, who are free from attachment and aversion. 10. Shri Päväpuri Tirtha Mulnäyak: Nearly 7 inches long, black-colored foot-idol of Mahävir Swami. Tirtha: It is in the center of the lake outside the village of Päväpuri in the state of Bihar. History: This Tirtha is the place of the last monsoon stay of Mahävir Swami. Many kings and rich merchants came to hear the sermons of Bhagawan Mahävir. Bhagawan Mahävir preached and initiated many people by removing their doubts. After giving his final sermons for 48 hours, Bhagawan attained Nirvana on this land causing this land to hold special significance. On that Nirvana day fifteenth day of the dark half of the month of Ashwin in the absence of Bhagawan, the lamp of knowledge, people lighted innumerable lamps. In memory of that day, the whole city shines brightly with the light of thousands of lamps on Diwali day even now. Nandivardhan, the elder brother of Bhagawan built a small temple and installed the foot-idols of Bhagawan at the place of his last sermons. It is said that from the funeral place of Bhagawan, groups of gods and multitudes of men took away the ashes of Bhagawan's body and those who could not get the ashes, took away the earth mixed with ashes forming a deep pit. This pit became the temple known today as Jalmandir. In front of the Samavasaran in this temple, there are idols of Mulnayak Mahävir Swami, Gautam Swami, and Sudharma-swami. Since this is the land of nirvana of the last Tirthankar Bhagawan Mahävir, every particle of this land deserves to be worshipped. Works of art and Sculpture: The construction of this Jal Mandir amidst a lake full of lotuses is beyond description. The ancient idols in Shvetämbar and Digambar temples are also very spectacular. It is a place of great scenic beauty, particularly when the lotus flowers bloom in the large lake. The gleaming Jal Mandir, reflected in the lotus-strewn waters, is a splendid sight. 11. Shri Girnär Tirtha Mulnäyak: Nearly 5 feet black marble idol of Bhagawan Neminäth in Shvetämbar temple. Mulnäyak: Black colored idol of Bhagawan Neminäth in Digambar temple. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 257 of 398 Page #258 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D08 - Jain Temples & Pilgrimage Places Tirtha: Mount Girnär is located on the northern fringe of the Gir forest in Saurashtra. History: Mount Girnär is a pious place due to the dikshä, keval-inän and Moksha Kalyänak of 22nd Tirthankar Shri Neminäth Bhagawän. Young prince Nemikumär became disheartened with the cruel customs of his time when he saw hundreds of fenced-in animals condemned to be slaughtered as food for the guests at his wedding. Sensing his involvement in these unjust things, he renounced all his belongings, became a monk and went to Mt. Girnär in search of ways to relieve misery of all living beings. Following the footsteps of Neminäth, the bride to-be Räjul or Räjimati also renounced and after long penance, attained Keval-Jnän here. Many other sages have attained nirvana here. So, since ancient times many temples have been built here. References about Girnär in the first Agam Achäränga sutra, suggest antiquity of this Tirtha. Several Jain literature also mention periodic remodeling of these temples. Works of art and sculpture: Mount Girnär is a gigantic five peaked rock formation of volcanic origin rising to a height of 1, 117 meters above sea level. Five peaks crowned by sixteen beautifully sculptured temples form one of the most impressively situated group of Jain temples in India. The first Tunk (peak), 4, 400 steps from the base of the hill consist of black granite temple of Bhagawan Neminäth built in 1128 AD. It has exquisite carvings on its pillars, and is decorated outside with unusual colored mosaic. The second Tunk has Goddess Ambikä temple. Third and fourth Tunk has Foot-idols of Muni Shämb Kumar and Pradhyuman Kumar who attained Nirvana here. The fifth Tunk, which has 10,000 steps from the base, has foot-idol of Bhagawan Neminäth. Some other pious places to visit are a cave of Räjul, temple of Rathanemi, younger brother of Neminäth, and Sahasävan. Paying homage to both the Shvetämbar and Digambar temples amidst the lush greenery of the mountain must be done at least once in a life time. 04 Summary The architecture, sculptures, and carvings of the Jain temple are splendid. They are majestic and thousands in number. They are noteworthy for their cleanliness and sacred atmosphere. The focus is on the image of the Tirthankar, in a seated or standing position, in deep meditation, with a tranquil and solemn expression. The Shvetämbars frequently adorn the image with the jewels, but a Digambar shrine it is left unadorned. One should undertake a pilgrimage to various Jain Tirthas in India in order to derive a feeling of peace and contentment in his or her lifetime. Page 258 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #259 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D09 Yakshas and Yakshinis Jains pay their respect and worship idols of Jinas for three reasons: He has liberated Himself and attained Moksha He expounded the path of Liberation To get an inspiration to become like Him D09 Yakshas and Yakshinis The only goal of Jainism is to free ourselves from worldly sufferings and attain liberation. Jin is a liberated soul, free of its material body and resides at the top of the universe, called Siddha_loka. The images of Jinas are intended to serve as a reminder to the faithful of the possibility of liberation. They serve as role models for Jain lay people in, guiding their ethical code of living; and for the aspirant, Jin provides inspiration and a reminder that spiritual liberation is an attainable goal. As a detached soul, free from this world, the Jin is incapable of responding to a devotee's prayers or requests. This inability to intervene and, to respond to the prayers and offerings from the faithful, sets Jin images apart from all Hindu and most Buddhist deities, who can be called upon to help a devotee by different rituals. In addition to images of Jinas, we notice images of Yakshas and Yakshinis (deities) in many Jain temples. These deities are neither eternal nor divine, and they themselves are the worshippers of the Jina and, true devotees of Jina. In addition, these Yakshas and Yakshinis are full of passions and are wandering through the cycle of birth and death just like us. Yakshas are males and Yakshinis are females. They are also called Shäsan_devtäs (male ones) and Shäsan_devis (female ones). They are guardian angel deities. They are heavenly beings of the Vyantar group who have supernatural powers including the ability to change their forms and sizes. These Yakshas and Yakshinis were either appointed by Indra (king of heavenly gods) or were themselves associated with Tirthankars in their previous lives. Even though, Tirthankars do not require or ask for any protection, these Yakshas and Yakshinis due to their devotion for Tirthankars took upon themselves to protect them and Jain religion whenever it becomes necessary. Also, the Shäsan_devtäs and Shäsan_devis have attained 4th Gunasthanak and are bound to attain Moksha in a few lives and we therefore salute them as they are already on the path to liberation. The earlier scriptures like the Sthänänga Sutra, Uttarädhyayan_Sutra, Bhagavati_Sutra, Tattvärtha_sutra, Antagadadasäo_sutra, and Pauma_chariya have frequent references to Yakshas and Yakshinis. Many Jains pay their respect to these Yakshas and Yakshinis because they provided protection to the Tirthankars and to the existence of Jain religion. These are the reasons they are found around the images of Jinas. Their individual images are also found in many Jain temples. Yaksha is usually found on the right side of the Jin idol while Yakshini on the left side. In Jain temples, they are never situated at a higher locations in relation to images of the Jinas. These are benevolent Yakshas and Yakshinis. There are also malicious Yakshas and Yakshinis who caused sufferings to Tirthankars and troubles to Jains and existence of Jain religion. For example, Yaksha Sulpäni troubled Lord Mahävir in his mediation and inflicted many sufferings. There are similar stories in, which malicious Yakshas troubled others as well. We Jains do not pay our respects or worship Yakshas and Yakshinis for the material gains, favor and freedom from danger, illness and disease. We pay our respect to them because of their service to Tirthankars and Jain religion. Asking for materialistic gains from them will be quite opposite to the teachings of the Jinas. The following provides a brief description of commonly found Yakshas and Yakshinis in Jain temples: 01 Chakreshwari Devi She is the dedicated attendant deity of lord Ädi Näth (Rishabhdev). She is also known as Apratichakrä. The color of this goddess is golden. Her vehicle is an eagle. She has eight arms. In her four right hands she holds the blessing Mudrä (posture), arrow, rope and wheel. In her four left hands she holds the rein, the bow, the protective weapon of Indra, and the wheel. 02 Ambikä Devi She is the dedicated deity of Lord Neminäth, the 22nd Tirthankar. She is also known as Ambai Amba and Ämra Kushmändini. Her color is golden and the lion is her vehicle. She has four arms. In her one Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 259 of 398 Page #260 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS D09 - Yakshas and Yakshinis right hands she carries a mango in one hand and in the other a branch of a mango tree. In one left hand she carries a rein and in the other she has her two sons. 03 Padmävati Devi She is the dedicated deity of Lord Pärshvanath, the 23Tirthankar. Her color is golden and her vehicle is a snake with a cock's head. She has four arms. Her two right hands hold a lotus and a rosary and two left hands hold a fruit and a rein. 04 Saraswati Devi Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge, is considered to be the source of all learning. Her divine energy is the source of spiritual light, eradicator of all ignorance and promoter of all knowledge. She is respected and adored by all faiths, worldly people and saints. She has four arms, one hand holding a book, one holding a rosary and two hands holding a musical instrument Veenä. Her seat is a lotus and the peacock is her vehicle representing equanimity in prosperity. In some books it is mentioned that the swan is her vehicle. 05 Lakshmi Devi Goddess Lakshmi represents wealth. The people worship her as the goddess of wealth, power, money etc. In her upper two hands, she holds a lotus with an elephant, in the lower right hand a rosary and in the lower left hand a pot. 06 Manibhadra Dev Shri Manibhadra is originally a Yaksha, worshipped by Indian masses since very olden times. His introduction to Jain worship is only a later adaptation. It is an image of a six_armed Yaksha with an elephant as his vehicle. 07 Ghantäkarna Vir This deity is worshipped for protection and for driving away evil influence created by the malicious Yakshas and Yakshinis. His arrow indicates penetration of evil forces. The bow gives forceful momentum to the arrow. His symbol is the bell that resounds to create auspicious sounds in the atmosphere. Sometimes people who are not aware of the facts call him Ghantäkarna Mahävir by mistake. That creates confusion between Lord Mahävir and Ghantäkarna Vir. He is not connected to Lord Mahävir in any way. 08 Näkodä Bhairava This is the deity of Bhairava. This deity is usually found near the entrance of the temple. People from far and near visit the shrine and make offerings to the deity upon fulfillment of their material desires. It is a positive force around the temple. 09 Bhomiyäji This deity is in the shape of a mountain. It is the natural positive energy of the mountain Sametshikhar. This energy inspires and guides believers and the pilgrims in completing their pilgrimage of Sametshikhar peacefully. Page 260 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #261 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects E02 - Jain Scriptures and Literature E03 - Jain Heroes Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 261 of 398 Page #262 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects 01 Introduction It is difficult to cover the history of Jain religion within the scope of this section, but we will attempt to briefly outline the salient features. Indian culture consists of two main trends: Brahmanic and Shramanic. The Vedic traditions come under the Brahmanic trend. The Shramanic trend covers the Jain, Buddhist, and similar ascetic traditions. The Brahmanic schools accept the authority of the Vedas and Vedic literature. The Jains and Buddhists have their own canons and accept their authors. Jainism is an ancient independent religion. However, it is wrong to say that Bhagawan Mahävir founded Jainism. Jainism is an eternal religion; it has always existed, it exists now, and it will always exist in the future. Jainism has been flourishing in India from time immemorial. In comparison with the small population of Jains, their contributions to various aspects of Indian culture are great. Jains are found all over India and all over the world; they are known everywhere for strict observance of their religious practices in their daily lives. Legendary Antiquity of Jainism Jainism is an eternal religion. Therefore, there is a prehistoric time of Jainism and a historic time of Jainism. Jainism is revealed in every cyclic period of the universe, and this constitutes the prehistoric time of Jainism. In addition, there is recorded history of Jainism since about 3000-3500 BC. 02 Prehistoric Period According to Jain scriptures, there were an infinite number of time cycles in the past (no beginning) and there will be more time cycles in future. Each time cycle is divided into two equal half cycles, namely Utsarpini (ascending) Käl (time) and Avasarpini (descending) Käl. Each cycle is again divided into six divisions known as Aräs (spokes of a wheel). The Äräs of Avasarpini are reversed relative to those in Utsarpini. There are 24 Tirthankars in each half cycle. Kevalis known as Tirthankars teach religious philosophy through sermons, which leads human beings across the ocean of sorrow and misery. Tirthankars are the personages who delineate the path of final liberation or emancipation of all living beings from a succession of births and deaths. The tradition of Tirthankars in the present age begins with Shri Rishabhadev, the first Tirthankar, and ends with Shri Mahävir swami, the twenty-fourth Tirthankar. Naturally, there is a continuous link among these twenty-four Tirthankars, though they flourished in different periods of history in India. This link, therefore, means that the religion first preached by Shri Rishabhadev in the remote past was preached in succession by the remaining 23 Tirthankars for the benefit of living beings and revival of spirituality at the time of each Tirthankar. There is evidence that there were people who were worshipping Rishabhadev before Vedic period. It has been recorded that King Kharavela of Kalinga, in his second invasion of Magadha in 161 B.C., brought back varioius treasures from Magadha. In these treasures there was an idol known as Agra-Jina, of the first Jina (Rishabhadev), which had been carried away from Kalinga three centuries earlier by King Nanda 1. This means that in the fifth century B.C. Rishabhadev was worshipped and his idol was highly valued by his followers. Other archaeological evidence from the Indus Valley Civilization of the Bronze Age in India also lend support to the antiquity of the Jain tradition and suggest the prevalence of the practice of the worship of Rishabhadev, the first Tirthankar, along with the worship of other deities. Many relics from the Indus Valley excavations suggest the prevalence of the Jain religion in that ancient period (3500 to 3000 B.C.). It is observed that in the Indus Valley civilization, there is a great preponderance of pottery figures of female deities over those of male deities and the figures of male deities are shown naked. We find that the figures of six male deities in nude form are engraved on one seal and that each figure is shown naked and standing erect in a contemplative mood with both hands kept close to the body. Since Page 262 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #263 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects this Käyotsarga (way of practicing penance, as in a standing posture) is peculiar only to Jains and the figures are of naked ascetics, it can be postulated that these figures represent the Jain Tirthankars. Again, the figures of male deities in contemplative mood and in sitting posture engraved on the seals are believed to resemble the figures of Jain Tirthankars, because these male deities are depicted as having one face only, while the figures of male deities of Hindu tradition are generally depicted as having three faces or three eyes and a trident or some type of weapon. Furthermore, there are some motifs on the seals found in Mohen-Jo-Daro identical to those found in the ancient Jain art of Mathura. As Mahävir was the last Tirthankar, most historians previously considered Mahävir-swämi the founder of the Jain religion. Based on the evidence found above, it has become clear that this is a misconception. Now, historians have accepted the fact that Mahävir-swämi did not found the Jain religion, but he preached, revived, and organized the religion, which had been in existence from the past (Anädi Käl). At present, we are in the fifth Ärä, Dusham, of the Avasarpini half cycle, of which nearly 2500 years have passed. The fifth Arä began three years and three and a half months after the Nirvana of Bhagawan Mahävir in 527 B.C. Bhagawan Rishabhadev, the first Tirthankar, lived in the later part of the third Ärä, and the remaining 23 Tirthankars lived during the fourth Arä. 03 Historical Period - Jain Tradition and Archeological Evidence Neminäth as a Historical Figure Neminäth or Aristanemi, who preceded Bhagawan Pärshvanäth, was a cousin of Krishna. He was a son of Samudravijay and grandson of Andhakavrshi of Sauryapura. Krishna had negotiated the wedding of Neminäth with Räjimati, the daughter of Ugrasen of Dvärkä. Neminäth attained emancipation on the summit of Mount Raivata (Girnar). There is a mention of Neminäth in several Vedic canonical books; the king named Nebuchadnazzar is said to have visited a temple of Neminäth in the tenth century B.C. There seems to be little doubt about Neminäth as a historical figure but there is some difficulty in fixing his date. Historicity of Pärshvanath The historicity of Bhagawän Pärshvanäth has been unanimously accepted. He was the son of King Ashvasen and Queen Vämä of Väränasi and preceded Bhagawan Mahävir by 250 years. At the age of 30,he renounced the world and became an ascetic. He then practiced austerities for 83 days. On the 84" day, he obtained omniscience. Thereafter, Bhagawan Pärshvanath preached his doctrines for 70 years. At the age of 100, he attained liberation on the summit of Mount Samet Shikhar (Pärshvanath Hills). The four vows preached by Bhagawan Pärshvanath were: not to kill, not to lie, not to steal, and not to have any possessions. The vow of celibacy was implicitly included in the last vow. However, in the 250 years that elapsed between the Nirvana of Pärshvanath and the preaching of Bhagawan Mahävir, the situation changed and in light of the situation of his time Bhagawan Mahävir added the fifth vow of celibacy to the existing four vows. There were followers of Bhagawan Pärshvanath headed by Keshi Ganadhar at the time of Bhagawan Mahävir. It is a historical fact that Keshi Ganadhar and Ganadhar Gautam, chief disciple of Bhagawan Mahävir, met and discussed the differences. After a satisfactory explanation by Ganadhar Gautam, Keshi Ganadhar and the monks, and nuns of the Bhagawan Pärshvanath tradition accepted the leadership of Bhagawan Mahävir and they were reinitiated. It should be noted that the monks and nuns who followed the tradition of Bhagawan Pärshvanath were wearing clothes (by shvetämbar tradition/belief). Bhagawan Mahävir Bhagawan Mahävir was the 24th and the last Tirthankar. According to the tradition of the Shvetämbar Jains, the Nirvana of Bhagawan Mahävir took place 470 years before the beginning of the Vikram Era. The tradition of the Digambar Jains maintains that Bhagawan Mahävir attained Nirvana 605 years before the beginning of the Saka Era. By either mode of calculation, the date Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 263 of 398 Page #264 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects comes to 527 B.C. Since the Bhagawan attained emancipation at the age of 72, his birth must have been around 599 B.C. This makes Bhagawan Mahävir a slightly elder contemporary of Buddha who probably lived about 567-487 B.C. Bhagawan Mahävir was the head of a community of 14, 000 monks, 36, 000 nuns, 159, 000 male lay votaries (Shrävaks) and 318, 000 female lay votaries (Shrävikäs). The four groups designated as monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen constitute the four-fold order (Tirtha or Sangha) of Jainism. Of the 11 principal disciples (Ganadhars) of Bhagawan Mahävir, only two, Gautam Swami and Sudharmä Swami, survived him. 20 years after the Nirvana of Bhagawan Mahävir, Sudharmä Swami also attained emancipation. He was the last of the 11 Ganadhars to attain Moksha. Jambu Swami, the last omniscient, was his disciple. He attained salvation 64 years after the Nirvana of Bhagawan Mahävir. There were both types of monks; Sachelaka (with clothes), and Achelak (without clothes), in the order of Bhagawan Mahävir. Both types of these groups were present together up to several centuries after Nirvana of Bhagawan Mahävir. Jain Tradition and Buddhism Bhagawan Mahävir was the senior contemporary of Gautam Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. In Buddhist books, Bhagawan Mahävir is always described as Niggantha Nätaputta (Nirgrantha Jnätaputra), i.e., the naked ascetic of the Jnätru clan. Furthermore, in the Buddhist literature, Jainism is referred to as an ancient religion. There are ample references in Buddhist books to the Jain naked ascetics, to the worship of Arhats in Jain Chaityas or temples, and to the Chaturyäma-dharma (i.e. fourfold religion) of the 23' Tirthankar Pärshvanath. Moreover, the Buddhist literature refers to the Jain tradition of Tirthankars and specifically mentions the names of Jain Tirthankars like Rishabhadev, Padmaprabha, Chandraprabha, Pushpadanta, Vimalnäth, Dharmanath and Neminäth. The Buddhist book, Manorathapurani mentions the names of many householder men and women as followers of the Pärshvanath tradition and among them is the name of Vappa, the uncle of Gautam Buddha. In fact, it is mentioned in the Buddhist literature that Gautam Buddha himself practiced penance according to the Jain way before he propounded his new religion Jain Tradition and Hinduism The Jain tradition of 24 Tirthankars seems to have been accepted by the Hindus as well as the Buddhists as it has been described in their ancient scriptures. The Hindus, indeed, never disputed the fact that Jainism was revealed by Rishabhadev and placed his time almost at what they conceived to be the commencement of the world. They gave the same parentage (father Näbhiräyä and mother Marudevi) of Rishabhadev as the Jains do and they also agree that after the name of Rishabhadev's eldest son, Bharat, this country is known as Bharat-varsha. In the Rig Veda, there are clear references to Rishabhadev, the first Tirthankar, and to Aristanemi, the twenty-second Tirthankar. The Yajur Veda also mentions the names of three Tirthankars, Rishabhadev, Ajitnäth, and Aristanemi. Further, the Atharva Veda specifically mentions the sect of Vratya, means the observer of Vratas or vows, as distinguished from the Hindus at those times. Similarly, in the Atharva Veda, the term Mahä Vratya occurs and it is postulated that this term refers to Rishabhadev, who could be considered as the great leader of the Vratyas. 04 Keval-inäni, Shruta-kevalishruta-kevali and Das-purvi Acharyas The Keval-inänis are those who have eradicated the four destructive karma and attained perfect knowledge. Shruta-Kevalis are those who know all of the 14 Purvas and 12 Anga-pravishtha Agams. Das-purvi Acharyas are those who know the first ten Purvas and 11 Anga-pravishtha Ägams. Through the special powers of Shruta-kevalishruta-kevalis (memorization by listening), the sermons given by Tirthankars are passed on to the following generations. The following provides the list of Keval-inäni, Shruta-Kevali and Das-purvi Ächäryas after the Nirvana of Bhagawan Mahävir: Page 264 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #265 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS Keval-jnäni Ächäryas Shvetämbar Tradition Name Sudharmä-swämi 20 Jambu-swämi 44 Shruta-kevali Acharyas Shvetämbar Tradition Name Prabhav Sayyam-bhava Yashobhadra Sambhutivijay Bhadrabähu Years as Ächäryas Das-purvi Acharyas Name Ärya Sthulibhadra Arya Mahagiri Ärya Suhastin Gunasundar-suri Ärya Kälak Skandilacharya (Samdilya) Years as Ächäryas 11 23 50 8 14 Shvetämbar Tradition Years as Ächäryas 4 8 4 4 5 45 30 46 44 41 38 Revati-mitra-suri 36 Ärya Dharma 24 Bhadragupta-suri 39 Shrigupta-suri 15 Vajraswami 36 Digambar Tradition Name Gautam-swämi Sudharmä-swämi Jambu-swämi Digambar Tradition Name Vishnu Nandimitra Aparajit Govardhan Bhadrabähu E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects Digambar Tradition Name Visakh Ächärya Prosthil Kshatriya Jaysen Nagasen Siddhärtha Dhritisen Buddhilinga Deva Dharmasen Years as Acharyas 12 12 38 Years as Ächäryas 14 16 22 19 29 Years as Ächäryas 10 19 17 21 18 17 18 20 14 16 According to the Shvetämbars, the series of the Das-purvis (knowledgeable with of 11 Angas and ten Purvas only) completely ended with the death of Ächärya Vajra. His death occurred in 114 Vikram Samvat (584 years after Bhagawan Mahavir's Nirvana). However, according to the Digambar, Dharmasen was the last of the Das-purvis, 345 years after Bhagawan Mahavir's Nirvana. After Ächärya Vajra, there flourished Ächärya Rakshita, who had knowledge of nine and a half Purva and remained Yug-pradhän for 13 years. Keeping in view that disciples might have differently developed faculties of intelligences, understanding, and retention, he made four classifications of the Ägams, based Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 265 of 398 Page #266 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects on the four viewpoints of exposition (Anuyoga). Until his time, each and every Agam Sutra work was expounded from all four viewpoints of exposition. 05 Jain Sects and their brief History: Lord Mahävir attracted people from all walks of life: rich and poor, kings and commoners, men and women, princes and priests, touchable and untouchables. Lord Mahävir proclaimed that both men and women are equal as far as the spiritual advancement is concerned. Many women followed Lord Mahävir's path and renounced the world in search of ultimate truth and happiness. The most significant contribution of Jainism in the social field was the establishment of social equality among the four classes that existed in the society: Brähman, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shudra, including untouchables prevalent in the society. Lord Mahävir organized his followers into a four-fold order, namely Sädhus (monks), Sadhvis (nuns), Shrävaks (laymen), and Shrävikäs (laywomen). This order is known as Jain Chaturvidha Sangh. Monks and nuns do not stay at one place for more than 30 days, except for four months during the rainy season. They travel on bare feet and do not use any transportation. Male monks do not touch any female and vice a versa. They do not eat or drink after sunset. Nearly 600 years after the Nirvana of Tirthankar Bhagawan Mahavir, Jains were divided into two groups, Shvetämbar and Digambar. The Digambar monks are naked while the Shvetämbar monks wear white clothes. The process of the split started in the third century B.C. The famous Jain Acharya, Shruta-kevali Bhadrabahu, predicted a long and severe famine in the kingdom of Magadha (in modern Bihar). With a view to avoid the terrible effects of famine, Bhadrabähu, along with a group of 12,000 monks, migrated from Patliputra, the capital of Magadha, to Shravanbelgola (in modern Karnataka State) in South India. Chandragupta Maurya (322-298 B.C.), who was then the Emperor of Magadha and was very much devoted to Acharya Bhadrabahu, abdicated his throne in favor of his son Bindusär, joined Bhadrabahu's entourage as a monk, and stayed with Bhadrabahu at Shravanbelgola. Chandragupta, the devout ascetic disciple of Bhadrabahu, lived for 12 years after the death of his Guru Bhadrabähu, in about 297 B.C. After practicing penance according to the strict Jain rite of Sanlekhanä, Chandragupta died on the same hill at Shravanbelgola. This Bhadrabähu-Chandragupta tradition is strongly supported by a large number of reliable epigraphic and literary evidences including both Shvetämbar and Digambar traditions. When the ascetics of Bhadrabahu Sangha returned to Patliputra sometimes after the end of a 12-year period of famine, to their utter surprise, they noticed two significant changes that had taken place during their absence under the leadership of Acharya Sthulibhadra: During the famine time the rule of nudity was relaxed and the ascetics were allowed to wear a piece of white cloth (known as Ardhaphalaka) so that they can stay in the town for their Gochary (food) for their survival. In the past the rule of nudity was possible because monks stayed in jungle and they received their Gochary at the outskirt of the nearby villages. The memorized version of sacred books (no written book existed) that were accepted at the council of Patliputra in their absence, they found some inconsistencies with the versions they had memorized. As a result, the group of returned monks did not accept these differences and proclaimed themselves as true followers of Jain conducts. Eventually, about 600 years after the Nirvana of Bhagawan Mahävir, Jain religion was split up into two distinct sects: the Digambar (sky-clad or naked) and the Shvetämbar (whiteclad). However, when it comes to the philosophy of Jainism, there is essentially no difference between these two major traditions. Both sects believe in non-violence, theory of karma, non possession, and the theory of multiplicity of points of view. Differences are only marked in the rituals only. Therefore, in spite of the differences, members of both sects practice a Jain way of life with five minor vows of house holder and control over four passions with mind, speech, and body, maintaining a unity in diversity. Page 266 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #267 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects Differences between Digambars and Shvetämbars: The Digambars believe that no original canonical texts exist now. They believe that all of the currently existing texts were written after last Shruta-Kevali Bhadrabähu's time and, therefore, are incomplete. The Shvetämbars still preserve a good number of what they believe are original scriptures. According to the Digambars, the omniscient do not take any food from the mouth (known as Kavalahär). They get their food (or ahär varganä) from the atmosphere (known as äkash varganä) which keep them functioning till their life span (Ayu karma) is completed. As they destroy four Ghäti karma, they achieve Anant Virya (infinite energy) and their Audärika Sharira changes into Param (supreme) Audärika Sharira (devoid of bacterial decay or deteriorate) therefore, they do not have Ashätä-vedniya karma of hunger. The Shvetämbars do not accept this concept. The Shvetämbar monks wear white clothes; however, the Digambar full monks of Nirgrantha type are naked, while other lower categories of monks Brahmacharies at some level (Ellakas & Sullakas) wear white or orange cloths. The Digambars believe that there can be no salvation without giving up all your possessions including clothes, as it represents the ultimate non possessiveness. Since women cannot go without clothes, they are said to be incapable of salvation. Digambars therefore believe that all 24 Tirthankaras were male while Shvetämbars believe that the 19th Tirthankar Mallinäth was female and the remaining 23 Tirthankars were male. The Shvetämbars hold that nakedness is not essential to attain liberation. Hence, women are also capable of salvation. (Note - However, this is a moot point in this fifth Ärä of the regressive time cycle, as no one, man or woman, can attain Moksha during this Ārä from this Bharat Kshetra). The Digambars hold that Bhagawan Mahävir did not get married. According to the Shvetämbars, Bhagawan Mahävir was married to Yashoda and had a daughter Priyadarshana before is renunciation of worldly life. The murtipujak Digambars do not decorate the idols of Tirthankars, while the murtipujak Shvetämbars decorate them with various adornments. In Shvetämbar tradition, the Tirthankar's idol represents him in the life of a king, who has conquered all his internal enemies. Tirthankar is not an ordinary king but a king of the spirit. He is royal not because of his birth or social status but for his accomplishment of being Vitaräga. In the Digambar tradition, Tirthankar's idol represents Him after Omniscience (Keval-jnän), a Vitaraga, free from all attachments. Jain doctrine has been remarkably stable over the centuries, without any serious changes, and therefore can be said to be time tested. This stability is largely due to Umäsväti's Tattvärtha-sutra, written in the first century. This work was written before the divisions between the Shvetämbars and Digambars became final, and thus is accepted by both branches of Jainism. Shvetämbar Sub Sects In 1451 a layman, Lonkäshah of Ahmedabad could not believe that excesses of the Yatis (in-chage of Swetabar Jain temples) could have religious sanction. However, scriptures were not accessible to householders at the time. The profession of Lonkäshah was to make copies of the Jain scriptures for monks. Equipped with this knowledge, Lonkäshah came out with a heavy hand against temples and temple rituals (Chaityaväsis). Based on the knowledge of the original Jain Agams, he also disputed idol worship as being against original Jain tenets. This was the preamble for setting up the Sthänakaväsi tradition, which came into existence as non-idol worshippers in 1474 under their first Muni, Bhanaji-muni. Sthänakaväsis sect introduced strict codes of conduct for their monks in contrast to the monks that were going to the temples (Chaityas). The Shvetämbar tradition was thus divided into two sub-sects; however, this division was helpful in dealing a deathblow to the evils of Yatis. Later a group separated from the Sthänakaväsi tradition and identified themselves as Teräpanthi. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 267 of 398 Page #268 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects Murtipujak Murtipujak Shvetämbars are the worshippers of idols. They offer flowers, fruits, sandalwood, etc. to their idols and adorn them with rich clothes and jeweled ornaments. Their ascetics cover their mouths with a piece of cloth (Muhapatti) while speaking; at other times, they keep the cloth in their hands. They stay in specially reserved buildings known as Upäshrays. The ascetics collect food in their bowls from the Shravaks' houses (called Gochari) and eat wherever they are staying at the Upäshray. Though the Murtipujak Shvetämbars are concentrated mostly in Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Gujarat, they are also found scattered all over India. Sthänakaväsi The Sthänakaväsi arose as reformers, curtailing the excesses of renegade monks or "yatis" by creating a sect of non-idol worshippers under the leadership of Lonkäshah (explained in more detail below). The ascetics of the Sthänakaväsi cover their mouths with a piece of cloth (Muhapatti) all the time. Sthanakaväsi adherents accept the authenticity of 32 of 45 Agam scriptures of the Shvetämbar Murtipujaks. The Sthänakaväsis are also mainly located in Gujarat, Punjab, Hariyana, and Rajasthan. Teräpanthi The Teräpanthi sub sect is derived from the Sthänakaväsi sect and was founded by Swami Bhikkanaji Maharaj. He was formerly a Sthänakaväsi monk and had been initiated by his Guru, Acharya Raghunatha. However, Swami Bhikkanaji had differences with his Guru on several aspects of religious practices of Sthänakaväsi ascetics and when these took a serious turn, he founded the Teräpantha sect in 1760 A.D. The Teräpanthi sect, like the Sthänakaväsi from which it separated in the eighteenth century, does not worship images or idols. Notably, members of this sect consider mercy and charity work the social duty of laypeople (Laukik Dharma). However, the proper way (religious way) to consider mercy and charity work is to give to the people who are practicing vows (Virati). The Teräpanthis are very organized under the complete direction of one Achärya. In 1936, this position was passed to the 21-year-old Acharya Tulsi, who was to transform the Teräpanthi. He traveled to almost every part of India. He showed particular concern for education, putting emphasis on study, research, and writing by Teräpanthi monks and by nuns as well. The Jain Vishwa Bhärati, recognized by the Government of India as a university centered around the Jain philosophy, emerged from his work. Additionally, in 1949, Acharya Tulsi initiated the Anu-vrata movement for moral upliftment, creating an honest, nonviolent, non-exploitative society. Some of its members are non-Jains. In 1980,he introduced another innovation with the initiation of the first of a new order of Saman and Samani. Whilst dedicated to the life of nuns and monks, they are excluded from the prohibitions on traveling in vehicles and on eating at lay peoples' home (alone and in an isolated place) as well as from certain rules incumbent on the full-fledged mendicant. After Achärya Tulsi, Acharya Mahaprajnaji has held this position since 2003. Digambar Sub Sects In recent centuries, Digambars also experienced a significant revival during the late sixteenth century. The Digambar sect has been divided into the following major sub-sects: Bisapantha, Teräpantha, and Taranapantha or Samaiyapantha. They experienced a significant revival through a famous poet and scholar named Banarasidäs. He was born in a Shvetämbar family and was an easy going youth; however, he happened to read Samaysär and was very much impressed. He then wrote Samaysär-Nätak, a dramatic version of Samaysär. As a devout scholar of the works of Kunda-Kundächärya, he revolted against the lax behavior of Bhattäraks (temple head person of Digambar temple) because he felt their ritualistic practices were excessive and involved a high degree of Himsä in offering flowers, fruits and sweets in temple rituals. He called for abolishment of such offerings such as flowers, fruits, sweets etc from daily rituals in the temples. Page 268 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #269 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects Banarasidäs influence was further felt through Pundit Todarmal of Jaipur. His doctrinal pursuits emphasized Nishchaya Naya (absolute) aspects of Kunda-Kundächärya writings. This doctrine greatly revitalized the Digambar tradition and allowed the sect to move forward during a period of difficult changes. Following this period of change, even within the Digambar tradition, sects known as Teräpanthis and Bisapanthas came about. Their beliefs and practices vary from one region to the other. Bisapantha The followers of Bisapantha support the Dharma-gurus, that is, religious authorities known as Bhattarak, who are not monks but are the heads of Jain Mathas. Jain Mathas are religious monasteries responsible for collecting and preserving Jain Ägams and looking after the financial affairs of groups of temples. As Digambar monks lived outside the cities until at least the 5th century, there was the need to create the Mathas and to have Bhattaraks. Now, there are only two or three Mathas and very few Bhattäraks left. The Bisapanthas worship the idols of Tirthankars and deities; they use fresh fruits and flowers in their temples. Teräpantha Teräpantha arose in North India in the year 1627 A.D as a revolt against the domination and conduct of the Bhattarak, as they had started to act like Monks, rather than the religious authorities controlling the Mathas of the Digambar Jains. As a result, in this sub sect the Bhattarak are not followed to the same extent. In their temples, the Teräpanthis install the idols of Tirthankars, but during the worship they do not use fresh fruits or flowers. Täranapantha The sub sect Taranapantha is known after its founder Tarana-Swami or Tarana-Tarana-Swami (1448-1515 A.D.). This sub sect worships sacred books rather than idols. They follow Digambar traditional texts and Digambar monks. This small group was historically limited to a very small section of Madhya Pradesh; now, it is slowly disappearing and has associated at certain places with Kanji swami tradition. 06 Survival of Jainism in Difficult Times After 12th century, there was significant impact of Vedic and Muslim religions on all non-Vedic religions such as Buddhism, Jainism, and others. Even as a minority, Jains continued their existence and practice during this difficult time. The main reason for this survival is the interdependency between Jain monks and Jain householders. Jain monks put significant emphasis on the practice of "Shrävakächär" (Code of conduct for Jain householders). Based on the needs of Jain householders, they augmented the practical aspect of Jainism by including rites and rituals without compromising the essence of Jainism. There are more than 40 canonical books just on "Shrävakächär". Essentially, Jain monks assign a significant importance to Jain householders. In addition, Jains were financially well off. They helped the rulers as well as the nonJain community. The emphasis on rites and rituals was added in the 5th century, when Jains were attracted to practicing Hinduism by rites and rituals because they were easier to practice. Many Jains accepted Hinduism at this time. Jain monks added more rites and rituals to stop the outflow of Jains to Hinduism. In the 12th and 13th centuries, it became difficult to protect Jain temples, Jain Idols, Jain properties, and Jain canonical books. The Jain community therefore made some adjustments. They made some monks full time administrators of the Jain Sangha, known as Chaityaväsi Yati in the Shvetämbar tradition and Bhattarak in the Digambar tradition. This structure did help to protect the literature and temples. However, as time passed, it was realized that there was too much power given to the Chaityaväsi Yati and Bhattarak. The real purpose of Jain monks is to practice and guide others to the Jain path of liberation. Many Jain householders became aware of Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 269 of 398 Page #270 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects the situation and they were able to eliminate the Chaityaväsi Yati tradition and curtailed the power of Bhattarak traditions. Today though some Mathas few Bhattäraks have been survived. 07 Jainism in Various Regions of India Jainism in East India In the Shishunäg dynasty (642-413 B.C.), Bimbisär or Shrenik and Ajätashatru or kunika were the two important kings who extended their full support to Jainism. Both Bimbisär and his son Ajätashatru were the relatives of Bhagawan Mahävir. Ajätashatru was followed by the Nanda dynasty (413-322 B.C.). King Nanda I led a conquering expedition into Kalinga and brought an idol of the first Jain Tirthankar, Bhagawan Rishabhadev. The Nanda dynasty was followed by the Maurya dynasty. Its founder, emperor Chandragupta Maurya (322-298 B.C.), abdicated the throne and joined the Jain migration to the South led by Acharya Bhadrabahu. Before his conversion to Buddhism, emperor Ashok (273-236 B.C.), the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, embraced Jainism. Emperor Ashok was responsible for introducing Jainism into Kashmir. Emperor Samprati, the grandson and successor of Ashok, is regarded as a strong Jain for his eminent patronage and efforts in spreading Jainism in east India. Like Magadha, the kingdom of Kalinga or Orissa had been a Jain stronghold from the very beginning. Jainism made its way to south India through Kalinga. In the second century B.C. Kalinga was the center of a powerful empire ruled over by Kharavela, who was one of the greatest royal patrons of the Jain faith. Jainism also had its influence in Bengal. Even now, Jain relics, inscriptions, and idols are found in different parts of Bengal. Even the name "Vardhamän" is given to one district in Bengal. The influence of Jainism on the customs, manners, and religions of Bengal is very much visible even at present. Jainism in South India Jainism entered into Karnataka and south India during the days of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya when Bhadrabahu, the distinguished leader of Jains at the time and the last of the Jain saints known as Shruta-kevalishruta-kevalis, led the migration of the Jain Sangha to the South after predicting twelve years of famine in north India. Thus, it is stated that Jain history in the South commences from the third century B.C. According to all Jain authors, the Nirvana of Acharya Bhadrabahu took place in 297 B.C. at Shravan-Belgola. Bhadrabähu was in fact the rejuvenator of Jainism in south India. Some historians believe that Jainism had reached south India long before Shruta-kevali Bhadrabähu. In any case, Jainism prevailed in south India in the third century B.C, continued as a popular faith for more than 1000 years, and still has significant following there. It is significant to note that up to the 14th century A.D. Jainism played an important role in the overall history of south India. A few monarchs of the Kadamba rulers of Banaväsi (from the third to the sixth century AD.) were devout Jains, who were responsible for the gradual progress of the Jain religion in Karnataka. Eventually Jainism became a popular religion in the Kadamba Empire. The Ganga Rulers (350 to 999 A.D.) of Talakada in Karnataka patronized the Jain religion to a great extent and naturally, practically all Ganga monarchs championed the cause of Jainism. Chalukya rulers of Badami in Karnataka (500 to 757 A.D.) and Rästrakutas of Malakhed in Karnataka (757 to 973 A.D) were pro-Jain. From the 10th to the 12th century A.D. the Western Chalukya rulers of Kalyän in Karnataka preferred to show the same liberal attitude to Jainism as the attitude that the Kadambas, the Gangas, and the Rästrakutas had shown. The Hoyasala rulers, during their reign from 1006 to 1345 A.D. over the kingdom of Halebid in Karnataka, strongly extended their support to Jainism. In addition to these major dynasties and their rulers, the Kalachuri rulers (from 1156 to 1183 A.D.) of Kalyan were Jains and, naturally, in their time Jainism was the state religion. There were several minor rulers who also professed and promoted Jainism. There are also traces of Jain prevalence in Andhra and Tamilnadu. Page 270 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #271 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects The whole of south India consisting of Deccan, Karnataka, Andhra, and Tamilnadu was a great stronghold of Jains, especially Digambar Jains, for more than 1000 years. Apart from the provincial capitals, Shravanbelgola in Karnataka was the center of their activities and it occupies the same position up to the present day. Jainism, however, began to decline in south India from the 12th century due to the growing importance of Srivaisnavism and Virasaivism. Jain monks were opposed, brutalized, and even killed in southern India during clashes with Hindus. Jainism in West India Jainism had very close relations with the rulers in the state of Gujarat. That state is where we find the largest concentration of Jains at present. On Mount Girnar in the Junagadh district, Bhagawan Neminäth, the 22nd Tirthankar, attained salvation. In the council of Jain ascetics held at Vallabhi 980 years after Bhagawan Mahävir's Nirvana, the Jain canon was for the first time written down. Just as south India is the stronghold of Digambar Jains, similarly, West India is the center of activities of Shvetämbar Jains. Regarding the migration of Jains to these parts of India, it is thought that the migrations must have taken place by 300 B.C. from eastern India. During this time, Jains were gradually losing their position in the kingdom of Magadha, and they had begun their migration towards the western part of India, where they have retained their settlements to the present day. Jainism flourished in Gujarat during the days of the Rästrakuta monarchs, many of whom were devout Jains, and received a further spur at the hands of the venerable Jain ruler Vanaraja of the Chavada family. Around 1100 A.D., Jainism gained a great ascendancy when the Chalukya king Siddharaj and his successor Kumärpäl openly recognized Jainism and encouraged the literary and temple building activities of the Jains. During the days of Vaghelas in the 13th century A.D., Jainism received patronage through the hands of Vastupäl and Tejpal, the two famous Jain ministers of the time. They were responsible for constructing the beautiful temple cities at Shatrunjay, Girnar, and Abu. Thereafter, even though Jainism did not receive royal patronage as before, the numerical and financial strength of Jains gave their religion a continued place of honor, which is acknowledged even to this day. As in Gujarat, the Jain religion also flourished in the region of Maharashtra from ancient times. In it, ancient Jain cave temples are found in Ellorä (Dist. Aurangabad), Ter (Dist. Osmanabad), Anjaneri (Dist. Näshik), and many other places in the interior areas. Renowned and influential Jain saints like Acharya Samantabhadra, Virsen, Jinsen, and Somadeva were intimately connected with Maharashtra and had composed their sacred works and literary masterpieces in this region. From the third century A.D., the powerful ruling dynasties like the Sätavahanas of Paithan, Chalukyas of Kalyan, Rästrakutas of Malakhed, Yädavas of Devagiri, and Silaharas of Kolhapur and Konkan extended their royal patronage, in a large measure, to Jainism. As a result, we find that the Jains and the Jain religion had a prestigious position in Maharashtra during the ancient and medieval periods. Jainism in North India By 300 B.C., the migration of Jains began from eastern India to different parts of the country. One of their branches was firmly established in North India from the middle of the second century B.C and was settled in the Mathura region. It was in Mathura that the second Vächana (Recension) writing of Agams took place around 265 A.D. under the guidance of Skandilächärya. It is clear that Mathura was a stronghold of Jains for nearly 1000 years up to 500 A.D. Another center of Jain activities in the North was Ujjayini, the capital of Maurya Emperor Samprati. There are several references to Ujjayini in Jain literature and the city has played an important role in the history of the Jain religion. During the Muslim period, Jainism could not get the royal and popular support it used to receive, but it succeeded in holding its own without much trouble. During this period, the largest number of Jain Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 271 of 398 Page #272 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects temples were either destroyed or converted in to Mosques. Jains had to hide the hand written scriptures and even temples. One such Jain temple was recently discovered from under a mound of dirt in the state of Gujarat in 2002. This temple was said to have been built in 800 A.D. Jains did secure some concessions for their holy places and practices from liberal minded Mughal emperors like Akbar the Great and Jahangir. It is recorded that Emperor Akbar was very favorably inclined towards the Jain religion. In the year 1583 A.D., he prohibited animal slaughter during Paryushan, making it a capital offense throughout his vast empire. However, this tolerant policy of the Great Mughal was initially revoked by his successor Jahangir. A deputation of the Jains that visited Jahangir in 1610 A.D. was able to secure a new imperial ruling under which the slaughter of animals was again prohibited during the days of the Paryushan. During the Mughal period, however, the Jain population particularly increased in the native states of Rajputana, where Jains came to occupy many important offices as generals and ministers. Jainism and the Modern Age According to the Government of India's 2001 Census Bureau: India's Total 2001 Population: 1,028, 610,328 Jain: 4, 225, 053 (0.4%) Of the total Jain population of 4, 225, 053 in India, the largest numbers of Jains (1, 301, 843) are in Maharashtra. Next to Maharashtra, the population of Jains in other states is Rajasthan (650,493), Gujarat (525, 303), Madhya Pradesha (545, 446), Karnatak (412, 659), Uttar Pradesha (207, 111), and Delhi (155, 122). It should be noted that most of the Jains in Maharashtra are in Mumbai and most them are of Gujarati origin. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Jain scholarship, education, and writings have become popular and been made available to educated masses in many foreign languages. Jains have become much more conscious of the wider public need of such knowledge. Without seeking to count heads of converts like many religions, Jains have become concerned with spreading knowledge of the Jain religion and encouraging adherence to its principles. In addition, for the first time in Jain history, Jainism has spread to Africa, Europe, and North America, where Jain communities have settled and flourished. Educational institutions have been endowed, and publishing of religious material has been supported. Particular Jain institutions, such as the refuges for sick animals, are maintained. Generosity to Jain causes, by people of all income groups, is a major Jain characteristic, but generosity is not confined to Jain causes alone. Let us now discuss a few examples of the prominent people who have been particularly concerned with the promotion of Jain faith and principles over the past century. In 1893, a "World Parliament of Religions" was held in the United States and the organizer sought a Jain representative. The invitation went to Acharya Atmärämji. As a monk it was not possible for him to travel, so the task of being the Achärya's representative and the first Jain to explain his religion to a major overseas gathering fell to Shri Virchand Gandhi, Honorary Secretary of the Jain Association of India. His lectures in the U.S.A. earned him a silver medal from the Parliament of Religions for his scholarly oratory. He continued his lectures in England, in all giving 535 lectures in the USA and England. One of his students was Herbert Warren, who became secretary of the Jain Literature Society, founded with Virchand Gandhi's help. Herbert Warren wrote many books on Jainism explaining the subject in a simple way. Virchand Gandhi died at a very young age of thirtyseven. A landmark for international awareness of Jainism was the 1884 publication of the first two volumes of Jain Sutras, translated into English by Hermann Jacobi. In 1915, an English writer, Mrs. Sinclair Stevenson, published a book "The Heart of Jainism," a sympathetic book but colored by a strong Christian missionary outlook. In 1925, Helmuth Von Glasenapp wrote a book "Jainism An Indian Religion of Salvation" in German and this book has now been translated into English. At a more Page 272 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #273 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E01 - History of Jain Traditions and Sects popular level, knowledge of Jainism and the Jains is very slowly filtering into the Western consciousness. Within the Jain community, there is a desire to make the principles of Jainism known to a wider world. 08 Jain Contributions to Indian Culture Jains have made remarkable contributions to Indian culture in the areas of languages and literature, arts and architecture (temples, temple cities, cave temples, Stups, Mäna-Sthambhas, towers, Sculptures, and paintings), philosophy (multiplicity of views-Anekantaväda), ethical codes, business, political progress, religious, social and educational equality to women, and urging of self-reliance. Their greatest contribution is an emphasis on non-violence to the smallest level, including mental and verbal nonviolence. Jains also have always been known for their honesty. There is no doubt that now, in the 219 century, Jainism is in a healthy state. Jainism continues to spread beyond the bounds of India and the ideas it carries can change the world by making it an everlasting peaceful place to live. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 273 of 398 Page #274 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E02 Jain Scriptures and Literature E02 Jain Scriptures and Literature 01 Jain Scriptures or Agam Literature Jain scriptures are known as Jain Agam literature. Jains do not have one text as a scripture but they recognized many texts as their scripture. Different sects recognized different number of scriptures. The Ägam Sutras teach the eternal truth about conduct, equanimity, universal affection, friendship, the eternal truths on thinking, namely, the principle of relativity, and the principle of pluralisms (Anekäntaväda). It also teaches many spiritual things including great reverence for all forms of life, soul, Karma, universe, strict codes of asceticism, rules for householders, compassion, nonviolence, and nonpossessiveness. After attaining Keval-jnän at the age of 42, Bhagawan Mahavir delivered sermons to the common people in local language called Ardha-Mägadhi Präkrit for next 30 years. The essence of these sermons was compiled orally into many texts (known as Sutras) by His immediate disciples called Ganadhars. These Sutras are divided into 12 main texts known as 12 Ang Agam Sutras or 12 Anga-pravishtha Ägams or Dvädashängi (main canons). The 12th Ang Agam Sutra (text) is known as Drashtiväda. It is believed that this Ang Agam was compiled first but it was the most difficult to learn and hence monks learned this sutra at the end. This Agam consist of 14 Purvas, life of all Tirthankars, description of other creeds that existed, how to acquire special power such as walking on the water or flying in the air. All Jain sects believe that this Agam got lost (no one remember it) in earlier time from 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD. In addition to the twelve Anga-pravishtha Sutras composed by the Ganadhars, other canonical literature (Anga-bähya Ägams) composed on the basis of these 12 Angas, by Shruta-kevali Acharyas (Sthavirs or elder monks) in an easier format for the understanding are also included as part of the Jain Ägams. The Jain Ägams consist of 12 Anga Pravishtha Ägams (includes 14 Purvas) and Anga-bähya Ägams (34 for Shvetämbar Murtipujak, 21 for Shvetämbar Sthänakaväsi and Teräpanthi, and 14 for Digambar) of different traditions. Historically Ganadhars passed on the Ägam Sutras orally to their disciples who memorized and passed on to the next generations thereafter. This tradition of passing the knowledge from the memory in its total form lasted for about 160 years until Bhadrabähu Swami. After Bhadrabähu Swami the mental ability of Ächäryas gradually declined and they could not remember the entire Ägam-sutras. However as per Shvetämbar tradition, around 400 AD (800 years after Bhagawan Mahavir Nirvana) the memorized Ägam-sutras were written down. At that time no one remembered 14 Purvas and 12th AngaÄgams. The remaining 11 Anga Ägams were partially remembered. As per Digambars tradition, the written Shvetämbar Ägam-sutras contain many errors and they did not accept them as original teaching of Bhagawan Mahavir. Hence they considered that all original Ägamsutras are lost with time. For some time after Bhagawan Mahavir's Nirvana, the Jain Shramans did not pen their Ägams in book form, but preserved them by memorization. They considered that possessing books would constitute violation of the vow of nonattachment and non-possession. Then came the time, when they totally changed their attitude towards the possession of books because there was a fear of the destruction of the Jain Agams. Whatever wealth of the Ägam, which was still extant at that time, remained protected and preserved. Page 274 of 398 Consistent with Shvetämbar Murtipujak beliefs, there are three Ägam temples, which have 45 Ägams engraved either on walls or on copper plates. They are in Palitana, Surat and Shankheswar. There are several places (Jnän-mandirs) like Ahmedabad, Patan, Surat, Khambhat, Jesalmer, Pindvada, Mehsana, Ratalam, Ahor, Tharad, Guda, and Surendranagar where all Ägams are available. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #275 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E02 - Jain Scriptures and Literature 02 Vächana (Recensions - Critical revision of Agam) In order to preserve Jain scriptures and other Jain literature, Jain Ächäryas in the past had three major conferences known as three recensions of the Jain literature. Whenever the Acharyas realized that the Shrutas of oral tradition were waning and that there was disorderliness into it, they had recensions and established order in it. No documentation occurred during the first recension but during the second and third conferences, most of the scriptures, commentaries, and other works were documented. Recension Place Time 01 Patliputra Recension @320 BC Mathura and Vallabhi Recensions @380 AD 03 Vallabhi Recension @520 AD 02 First Vächanä in Patliputra (First Recension): About 160 years after the Lord's nirvana, when Bhadrabähu-swami was the head of the religious order and the Nanda dynasty was ruling over Magadha region; Patliputra, the capital city, became the center of learning and knowledge. At that time, there occurred twelve years of famine (around 350 BC). During that period of shortage and scarcity, it was hard for Jain monks to observe the code of conduct of religion. Bhadrabähu-swämi therefore decided to migrate to the south along with many followers. Under such circumstances they could not preserve the entire canonical literature. After the famine, a convention was called at Patliputra under the leadership of Acharya Sthulibhadra. The Jain monks asked one another what they could recollect, thus collecting eleven of the twelve Angas. However, they found that nobody recollected the entire Drashtiväda, the twelfth Anga. At that time, Acharya Bhadrabahu alone possessed the knowledge of the Drashtiväda, but he had chosen a yogic path of a special sort and was in Nepal. Therefore, the Jain community requested Acharya Sthulibhadra and many other monks to go to Bhadrabähu to learn the text of the Drashtiväda from him. The Drashtiväda, being the twelfth Anga Agam book, contained fourteen Purva-sutras. Of those monks, Sthulibhadra alone was successful in acquiring the knowledge of it. However, after acquiring the knowledge of ten Purvas, he misused the miraculous power earned through this. When Bhadrabahu came to know this, he stopped giving lessons to Sthulibhadra. After beseeching by Sthulibhadra and the Sangha, Bhadrabahu agreed to teach him only the text of remaining four Purvas, but forbid Sthulibhadra to teach these four Purvas to others. As a consequence of this, there existed the knowledge of 14 Purvas up to Sthulibhadra. After his death, the Order possessed the knowledge of eleven Angas and only ten Purvas. Sthulibhadra's death occurred 215 years after Bhagawan Mahävir's Nirvana. In short, of the twelve Angas (Anga-pravishtha) composed by the Ganadhars, eleven Angas bereft of the four Purvas were recovered by the Order assembled at the first council of the Agams. The version so prepared was not found acceptable to most of those who had migrated to the south. They considered the version unauthentic and contended that the original Agams had gotten lost. This was the first major schism among the followers of Lord Mahävir. Second Vächanä in Vallabhipur and Mathura (Second Recension): Even after the Patliputra convention, the Agams remained unwritten and continued to be passed on orally from preceptor to pupil. Memorizing must have taken its own toll. Moreover with the fall of the Mauryan dynasty in 150 B.C., Patliputra ceased to be the main center of Jainism, because the Mitra dynasty that took over was not favorably inclined to it. There was therefore a large-scale migration of Jain monks and laymen towards Udaygiri Near present Bhuvaneshwar in the southeast and towards Mathura in the west. All these factors contributed once again to variations in the version of Agam Sutras. After a twelve-year-long famine about 830 years after Bhagawan Mahävir's Nirvana, the monks assembled in Mathura under the leadership of Arya Skandil collected and arranged the Kälik Shruta on the basis of what they could recall and recite. Since this Vächana was done in Mathura, it is called Mathuri Vächanä.. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 275 of 398 Page #276 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS Synchronous with the council at Mathura, Ächärya Nägärjun convened a council of monks at Vallabhi (Saurashtra) and tried to collect and arrange the Ägams. Then they were written down and the recension was prepared after having corrected lengthy portions according to the context. The Vächanäis called the Nägärjun Vächanä as well. Third Vächanä in Vallabhipur (Third Recension): 150 years after the councils presided over by Skandil and Nägärjun at Mathura and Vallabhi respectively, a council of monks presided over by Kshamä-shraman Devardhi-gani was held at Vallabhi (Saurashtra). It was decided to document all available Prakirna Sutras, and preserve the Anga and other Sutras that were documented in the two former councils. In addition, the council was to bring uniformity in the Sutras as far as possible by resolving the differences in Sutras. Of course, the most important differences were documented in Churnis and Tikäs. This task was accomplished 980 years after Bhagawan Mahavir's Nirvana. After that event, the text of most of the Ägam works available at present was finalized to the present time. 03 Classification of Jain Ägams E02 Jain Scriptures and Literature Both the Shvetämbars and the Digambars unanimously agree on the point that the Purva works have become extinct. However, there are several works which refer to the Purvas. The Shatakhand-ägam and the Kashaya-präbhruta have been composed by the Digambar Ächäryas on the basis of the Purva works. Many literatures recognized as Ägams by the Shvetämbars also have their source in the Purvas. At the present time the following 45 Ägams are available that are acceptable to Shvetämbar Murtipujak tradition. Classification of Shvetämbar Agams 11 Angas (the 12th Anga Ägam one is lost long back), 12 Upangas Agam, 04 Mool Sutras Ägam, 06 Chheda Sutras Ägam, 10 Prakirna Ägam and 02 Chulikäs Ägam. Classification of Digambar Agams In the absence of authentic Ägam Sutras, Digambars practice the Jain religion by following the literature written by the great Ächäryas from 100 to 1000 AD. It includes: Shatakhand Ägam (First Main text) Kashaya Pähuda (Second Main text) Four Anuyogas (Prathmanuyoga, Charananuyoga, Ganitanuyoga or Karananuyoga, and Dravyanuyoga) Note Four Anuyogas consist of more than 20 texts; such as Samaysär, Panchästikäya, and Pravachansär of Ächärya Kunda-Kunda, Tattvärtha Sutra of Umäsvämi, Padma-Purän, Ädi-Purän, Mulächär, and Gommatsär. 04 Purvas There were fourteen Purvas and they were huge. As explained before that these 14 Purvas are the part of 12th Ang Agam called Drashtiväda. The First Purva is written with a volume of the ink equivalent to the size of one elephant. The Second one was two times larger, and the third one was two times larger than second one and so on. Here is the list and its subject matter: No. Name of Purva Page 276 of 398 Subject matter Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #277 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E02 - Jain Scriptures and Literature 01 02 Utpäd Purva: Agräyaniya Purva: 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 Virya-praväd Purva: Astinästi-praväd Purva Jnän-praväd Purva Satya-praväd Purva Ätma-praväd Purva Karma-praväd Purva Pratyakhyan-praväd Purva Vidyä-praväd Purva Kalyan-praväd Purva Pränaväy Purva Kriya-vishal Purva Loka-bindusär Purva Living (Jiva), non-living (Ajiva), and its modes (Paryaya) Nine realities (Navatattva), six substances (Shad Dravya), etc. Relating to energy of soul, non-living, etc. Multiplicity of views (Anekäntaväda), Sapta-bhangi, etc. Five types of Knowledge and three types of ignorance, etc. Truth, Restraint, Silence (Maun), Speech, etc. Analysis of soul from different angles (Naya) Karma, its bondage, its nature, fruition, balance, etc. Giving up (Pachchakhän), restraint, detachment, etc. Expertise (Vidya), exceptional abilities, practice, etc. Spiritual alertness (Apramäda) and laziness (Pramäda) Ten types of life substances (Präna), life span, etc. Art, 64 arts of women, 84 arts of men, etc. Three parts of universe, mathematics, etc. 05 Anga-pravishtha Ägams: There is no difference of opinion among the Jain sects on the point that the basic source of the entire Jain literature is a group of twelve Anga works composed by the Ganadhars. The Digambars maintain that within a period of time after the Nirvana of Tirthankar Mahävir, the Agams preached by him have not been remembered in their entirety by Jain Shramans. However, the Shvetämbars tried to preserve the Agams and having compiled them, they found many things which have come down from ancient Acharyas through oral tradition included in the Jain Agams. Jain Sects Total Anga Number of Anga- Number of Angapravishtha Agams pravishtha Agams pravishtha Agams Lost Survived Digambar 12 Shvetämbar Murtipujak 12 Shvetämbar Sthänakaväsi 12 Shvetämbar Teräpanthi I 12 Subject Matters of Anga-pravishtha Agams: Ächäränga Sutra (Äyäränga): This Ägam describes the conduct and behavior of ascetic life. It also describes the penance of Bhagawan Mahävir. This is the oldest Agam from a linguistic point of view. Sutra-krutänga Sutra (Suyagadänga-sutta): This Agam describes nonviolence, Jain metaphysics, and the refutation of other religious theories such as Kriyä Väda, Akriya-väda, Ajnänväda, and Vinaya-väda. Sthänänga Sutra (Thänänga-sutta): This Agam defines and catalogues the main substances of Jain metaphysics. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 277 of 398 Page #278 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E02 - Jain Scriptures and Literature Samaväyänga Sutra: This Agam defines and catalogues the main substances of the Jain religion from a different perspective than the Sthänänga Sutra. Vyakhya-prajnapti or Bhagavati Sutra (Viyäha-pannatti): This Agam explains the subtle knowledge of soul, matter, and other related subjects. Thirty-six thousand (36000) questions and answers are presented in discussion form. It is the largest of the eleven Anga-pravishtha Agams. Jnätä-dharma-kathänga Sutra (Näyä-dhamma-kahä-sutta): This Agam explains Jain principles through examples and stories. This text is very useful in understanding the mode of Bhagawan Mahävir's religious preaching. Upasaka-dashänga Sutra (Uväsagadasäo): This Ägam explains the code of conduct of the ten lay followers (Shrävaks) of Bhagawan Mahävir. This Agam is very useful for understanding the code and conduct of lay followers (Shrävak Dharma) in the Jain religion. Antakrit-dashänga Sutra (Antagadadasäo): This Agam tells the stories of ten significant monks attaining liberation (Moksha) by destroying their karma. Anuttaraupa-pätika-dashänga Sutra (Anuttarova-väiya-dasäo): This Ägam contains the stories of an additional ten sacred monks who attained the topmost heaven, known as Anuttara heaven. Prashna-vyäkarana Sutra (Panhä-vägaranäim): This Ägam describes the five great vows (Maha-vratas) and the five worst sins defined in the Jain religion. Vipäk Sutra (Viväga-suyam): This Agam explains the results of good and bad karma through several stories. Drashtiväda Sutra: The twelfth Anga-pravishtha Agam, Drashtivada, is considered lost by all Jain Sects. The description of Drashtiväda found in the other Jain Sutras, indicates that this Anga-pravishtha Agam was the largest of all Agam Sutras. It was classified in five parts, (1) Parikarma (2) Sutra (3) Purvagata (4) Pratham Anuyoga and (5) Chulikä. The third part, Purvagata contained 14 Purvas. They contained the Jain religion's endless treasure trove of knowledge on every subject. 06 Anga-bähya ägams: In addition to the twelve Anga works composed by the Ganadhars, other canonical literature (Angabähya) which was composed by Sthavirs or elder monks are also included as part of the Jain Agams. Such Sthavirs are of two types, Shruta-kevalis (one who comprehends the entire Shruta-14 Purvas) and Das-purvis (one who has acquired knowledge of the ten Purvas). Shruta-kevalis are especially well versed in the meaning and essence of the Agams. Anga-bähya Agams of Different Sects The Digambars have accepted 14 texts, the Shvetämbars 34 texts, and the Sthanakaväsis 21 texts as Anga-bähya Agams. Jain Sects Total Anga-bähya Agams Number of Anga-bähya bähya Agams Lost Agams Survived Digambar 14 14 Page 278 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #279 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E02 - Jain Scriptures and Literature Shvetämbar Murtipujak Shvetämbar Sthanakaväsi Shvetämbar Teräpanthi 21 The Digambars have accepted 14 text of Anga-bähya Agams. However they believe that all Angabähya Agams were also gradually lost starting about two hundred years after Bhagawan Mahävir's Nirvana. Hence, in their opinion, the complete Jain Agam literature was lost within a few hundred years of Bhagawan Mahavir's Nirvana. Per Shvetämbar tradition, Anga-bähya Agams are Upanga-sutras, Chheda-sutras, Mool-sutras, Chulikä-sutras, and Prakirna-sutras. Sub-classification of Anga-bähya Ägams of Shvetämbar Sects Following is the list of number of Anga-bähya Agams recognized as authentic scriptures by different Jain Shvetämbar Sects: Category of Anga-bähya Agams Shvetämbar Sthänakaväsi and Murtipujak Teräpanthi Upanga Agams Chheda-sutra Agams Mool-sutra Ägams Chulikä-sutra Ägams Prakirna-sutra Ägams None Total Anga-bähya Agams 21 Upanga Agam sutras: The scriptures created in relation to Anga-pravishtha Agams are called Upanga Ägams. They provide further explanation of the Anga-pravishtha Agams. Aupapätika Sutra (Ovaväiyam): This Agam describes the splendid procession (view) of King Konika when he visited Bhagawan Mahävir. It also explains how a person can attain heaven in the next life. Räja-prashniya Sutra (Räyä-pasena-ijja): This Agam describes the story of Monk Keshi. Monk Keshi was the Ganadhar of Bhagawan Pärshvanath. He removed the doubts of King Pradeshi regarding the existence and attributes of the soul. Monk Keshi made the king a follower of the Jain religion. After his death, the king was born in heaven as a Deva. He appeared from heaven to shower Bhagawan Mahävir with unprecedented pomp and splendor. The thirty-two dramas (plays) described in this Agam throw light upon the ancient dramatic art of India. Jiväbhigama Sutra: This Agam describes the universe and the subtle description of all living beings (souls) of the universe. It gives very important information to the scholars of biology and botany. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 279 of 398 Page #280 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E02 - Jain Scriptures and Literature Prajnäpanä Sutra (Pannavanä): This Agam describes the form and attributes of souls from a different perspective. Surya-prajnapti Sutra (Suriya-pannatti): This Agam describes the Sun, the planets, and the associated mathematics regarding their motion. Chandra-prajnapti Sutra: This Agam describes the Moon, the planets, and the associated mathematics regarding their motion. Both of these Upangas, the Chandra Prajnapti and Surya-prajnapti, are very important in understanding the astrology of olden times. Jambudvipa-prajnapti Sutra: This Agam provides a description of Jambudvipa. Jambudvipa is a big island located in the center of the middle world, as explained in Jain geography. The Agam also provides information on ancient kings. Nirayarvali Sutra: This Agam describes the story of ten brother princes. All ten princes fought with King Chetak of Vaishali, their half-brother, in cooperation with king Konika. In the end, all ten princes went to hell after dying in war. Kalpä-vatansikä Sutra (Kappävadamsiäo): This Agam describes the story of King Konika's children. They did not fight with King Chetak in the war. They renounced the world and became monks. After their death, they went to heaven. Pushpikä Sutra (Puspiäo): This Agam describes the previous lives of certain Devas (angels) who worshiped Bhagawan Mahävir. Pushpa-chulikä Sutra: This Ägam describes stories similar to those in the Pushpikä. Vrashnidashä Sutra (Vanhidasäo): This Agam explains how Bhagawan Neminäth convinced ten kings in the Vrashni region to follow the Jain religion. Chheda-sutras: The subject matter described in the Chheda-sutras is for ascetics and not for lay people. It provides the rule of conduct, punishment, and repentance for ascetics. It also explains how they can repent for their sins and mistakes. Nishitha Sutra (Nisiha): This Agam explains the procedure of repentance (Prayashchitta) in the form of punishment for the monks and nuns who have violated the rules of ascetics. Brahat-kalpa Sutra: This Agam explains which of the ten kinds of repentance (Präyashchittas) is appropriate for a particular wrongdoing done by monks and nuns. It also defines the acceptable conduct of monks and nuns. Vyavahär Sutra*: This Ägam describes the system of confession for monks and nuns who fall from proper conduct. It explains the qualifications of the listening monk or nun and with what sort of feeling the confession should be made. It also explains what sort of repentance (Präyashchitta) the monk should perform. There are several other indications of the limits of ascetic life. Page 280 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #281 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E02 - Jain Scriptures and Literature Dashä-shruta-skandha Sutra (Ächäradashä): There are ten chapters in this Sutra. It contains information relating to 20 places of Asamadhi, 21 major faults bringing weakness in conduct, 33 Ashätanäs of Guru, 8 Sampadäs of Acharyas and their kinds, 10 places of Chitta Samadhi, 11 Pratimäs of layperson, 12 Pratimäs of ascetics (monks and nuns), Kalpa-Sutra (recited during the Paryushan), 30 places of bondage of Mohaniya Karma and 9 Nidänas (Niyane). Pancha-kalpa Sutra *: This sutra explains the daily rituals the monks and nuns have to perform. Only scattered chapters of this Agam are now available. However, the commentaries (Bhäsya and Churni) written about this Agam by some elder monks are available. Mahä-nishitha Sutra: This Agam explains the process of confession and repentance (Präyashchitta) for monks and nuns. It explains the magnitude of pain one has to suffer if he or she breaks the fourth vow (celibacy). It also describes and explains the conduct of good and bad monks. Mool-sutras: The scriptures, which are essential for monks and nuns to study in the early stages of their ascetic life, are called Mool-sutras. Ävashyaka Sutra: The daily rituals or essentials, which are necessary to perform during the day and night for the purification of the soul, are called Avashyaka. A description of the six essentials (Avashyaka) is explained in this Agam. The six essentials are Sämäyika, Chaturvimshati-stava, Vandana, Pratikraman, Käyotsarga, and Pratyakhyana. Dasha-vaikälika Sutra: This Agam briefly describes and explains the conduct of ascetic life. Uttaradhyayan Sutra: This Agam has the same place in Jain literature as the Dhammapada in Buddhism and the Gitä in the Hindu religion. It contains preaching regarding religious principles and practices and many stories, dialogues, and examples based on such principles and practices. Ogha-niryukti or Pinda-niryukti Sutra*: This Ägam explains certain rules and procedures for monks with respect to traveling, staying, and accepting food and other necessities from lay people. Chulikä-sutras: The scriptures, which enhance or decorate the meaning of Anga-pravishtha Agams are known as Chulikä-sutras or sometimes known as Chulikä. Nandisutra: This Agam contains an elaborate description of Tirthankars, Ganadhars, and five types of Knowledge (Jnän): Mati, Shruta, Avadhi, Manah-paryava, and Keval-jnän. Anuyoga-dvära Sutra: This Agam provides the description of many rights regarding the mode of preaching. Prakirna-sutras: The scriptures, which describe independent or miscellaneous subjects of the Jain religion, are known as Prakirna-sutra. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 281 of 398 Page #282 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS Chatuh-sharana*: This Ägam contains prayers to the four benevolent beings: a) Arihanta - God in the form of a perfect human being, b) Siddha - God in the form of pure consciousness, c) Sädhu - Ascetics and d) Dharma - Religion. Ätur-pratyäkhyäna (Äura-pachchakkhäna)": This Ägam describes the types of vows a wise person should take during various states of illness and how at the time of the death he should beg the pardon of all living beings in the universe. Bhakta-parijnä (Bhatta-parinnä)*: This Ägam describes the process of fasting and how one should reflect at the time of death. Sanstäraka (Santhäraga)": This Ägam describes the process of dying by one's own desire and its glory. E02 Jain Scriptures and Literature Tandulavaitälika*: This Ägam describes the state of pregnancy and provides knowledge about the human body. Chandra-vedhyaka": This Ägam describes the method of concentrated meditation (Dhyana) that one should observe through the description of Rädhävedha. Devendra-stava*: This Ägam describes the names, positions, and residences of Devas (angels) that live in heaven. It also provides a description of the moon, sun, planets, and stars. Ganita-vidyä": This Ägam describes palmistry and how it is used to predict the future (Nimitta). Mahā-pratyäkhyāna": This Ägam explains how to completely give up the worst sins and how to repent for these sins. Virastava*: This Ägam is considered lost. However, it appears from literature referencing this Ägam that it contained prayers of Bhagawan Mahavir. *Note: the Sthänakaväsi and Teräpanthi Jain sects do not recognize 13 Anga-bähya Ägams. 07 Digambars Anga-bähya Ägams Though the Digambars contend that Sthavirs composed fourteen Anga-bähya Ägams different from the twelve Anga Ägams, they also believe that those Anga-bähya Ägams too have become extinct. The titles of these fourteen Anga-bähya Ägams are: 1 Sämäyika Descriptions about equanimity 2 3 4 5 6 Page 282 of 398 Chaturvimshati-Stava Name of 24 Tirthankars, Kalyänaks, special powers (Atishaya), ways of their worship as a group. Ways to worship one Tirthankar in their temple etc. Description of seven types of Pratikraman. Description of five appropriateness of Vinaya. Ways to worship Arihantas, Siddhas, Ächäryas, and Sädhus. Vandanä Pratikraman Vainayiks Kritikarma Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #283 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Desävakäsika Uttaradhyayan Kalpa-Vyavahär Kalpakalpik Mahäkalpik Pundarik Mahä-Pundarik 14 Nisithik E02 Jain Scriptures and Literature Ways to offer Ähär or Gochari to Monks. Ways to deal with calamities, and to tolerate 24 Parishahas by Monks. Ways for repentance by Monks on inappropriate conduct. Appropriate and inappropriateness in reference to subject, area, time and thoughts (Bhäva), in the conduct of Monks Activity of Monks in relation to time and powers of body (Samvahanan) of a Monk Reasons for achieving four types of celestial realm. Reasons for becoming Indra or Prati-Indra, with special reference to penance etc. Ägam that contains various types of repentances. Commentaries on the Agams: The commentaries on the Ägams have been written in Präkrit and Sanskrit. Those written in Präkrit are known as Niryukti, Bhäsya, and Churni. Niryuktis and Bhäsyas are composed in verses while Churnis are in prose. Bhadrabähu II composed all the present Niryuktis. He flourished in the fifth or sixth century V.S (Vikram Samvat). In his Niryuktis, he conducted philosophical discussions in an attractive style. He laid the firm foundation of the Jain philosophy by writing on the subjects of Pramäna, Naya, and Nikshepa. One should study the Bhäsyas if one wants to have a complete picture of the full discussion on any particular subject that had been carried on till the date of their composition. Among the authors of the Bhäsyas, Samghadäs-gani and Jinabhadra are the most famous. They belong to the seventh century. The Churnis that are available to us belong to the seventh or the eighth century. Among the authors of the Churnis, Jindäs Mahattar is famous. The oldest Sanskrit commentaries on the Ägams are those written by Ächärya Haribhadra. He has been assigned to the periods between 757 V.S and 857 V.S. Haribhadra had mainly given the Sanskrit version of the Präkrit Churnis. After Haribhadra, Shilänk-suri wrote Sanskrit commentaries in the tenth century. After Shilänk-suri, Santya-ächärya wrote the famous Sanskrit Brahat-tikä commentary on the Uttaradhyayan.. After him, the well-known commentator Abhaydev, who lived from 1072 to 1134 V.S., wrote Sanskrit commentaries on nine Angas. Here, we should mention the name of Maladhäri Hemchandra who was also a Sanskrit commentator. He was a scholar of the twelfth century. However, among the authors of Sanskrit commentaries on the Ägams, Malayagiri holds the supreme position. He was a contemporary of Ächärya Hemchandra. Other scholars ten started writing Bälävabodha commentaries in contemporary Apabhramsha, which is an old Gujarati language. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 283 of 398 Page #284 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS Dharmasimha Muni of the 18th century rejects the interpretation given in the old commentaries and gives his own interpretation. However, his interpretation fits in well with the tenets of his own sect (Loka Gachchha), which had arisen in opposition to idol worship. 08 Digambar Recognized Literature The Digambar sect believes that there were 26 Ägam-sutras (12 Anga-pravishtha Ägams + 14 Angabähya Agams). However, they were gradually forgotten, starting from one hundred fifty years after Bhagawan Mahavir's Nirvana. Hence, Digambars do not recognize the existing Ägam-sutras (which are recognized by the Shvetämbar sects) as authentic scriptures. In the absence of authentic scriptures, Digambars follow two main texts, three commentaries on the main texts, and four Anuyogas, consisting of more than 20 texts, as the basis for their religious philosophy and practices. These scriptures were written by great Ächäryas (scholars) from 100 to 1000 AD. They have used the original Ägam Sutras as the basis for their work. Shatakhand Agam The Shatakhand Ägam is also known as Mahä-kamma-payadi Pähuda or Mahä-karma Prakriti Präbhrut. Two Ächäryas, Pushpadanta and Bhutabali, wrote it around 160 AD. The second Purva Ägam, named Agräyaniya, was used as the basis for this text. The text contains six volumes. Ächärya Virsen wrote two commentary texts, Dhavalä-tikä on the first five volumes and Mahä Dhavalä-tikä on the sixth volume of this scripture, around 780 AD. Kashaya-pähuda or Kashāya-präbhruta Ächärya Gunadhara wrote the Kashäya-pähuda. The fifth Purva Ägam, Jnän-praväd, was used as a basis for this scripture. Ächärya Virsen and his disciple, Jinsen, wrote a commentary text known as Jay Dhavalä-tikä around 780 AD. List of Digambar texts List of Digambar texts as they are used in absence of Original Scriptures: Title Shatakhand-ägam or Mahäkamma-payadi Pähuda or Mahä-karma Prakriti Präbhrut Kashaya-pähuda or Kashayapräbhruta Dhavalä-tikä Mahä-dhavalä-tikä Jayadhavalä-tikä Description Original Sutra Page 284 of 398 E02 Jain Scriptures and Literature Original Sutra Commentary on Shatakhand Ägam Vol. 1 to 5 Commentary on Shatakhand Ägam Vol. 6 Commentary on Kashayapähuda Author Ravisen Date 650 AD Author[s] Ächärya Pushpadanta and Bhutabali Ächärya Gunadhara Virsen Virsen Virsen and Jinsen Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Date 160 AD Four Anuyogas 1. Pratham Anuyoga / Dharma-kathä Anuyoga (Religious Stories): This Anuyoga consists of the following texts, which contain religious stories, art, literature, history, poetry, and like literature. Title Padma Purän 780 AD 780 A.D. 780 A.D. Page #285 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E02 - Jain Scriptures and Literature Title Harivamsa Purän Jinsen 11 783 AD Ädi Purän Jinsen 11 783 AD Uttar Purän Gunabhadra 879 AD 2. Charan Anuyoga (Conduct): This Anuyoga consists of the following texts, which contain principles of observances, conduct, behavior, and like literature. Author Date Mulächär Vattaura 600 A.D. Trivarnächär Vattaura 600 A.D. Ratna-karanda Shrävakächär Samantabhadra 600 A.D. 3. Karan Anuyoga / Ganita Anuyoga (Mathematics): This Anuyoga expounded the texts, which had mathematical viewpoints. It consists of the following texts, which contain geography, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, and like literature. Title Author Date Surya-prajnapti Unknown Chandra-prajnapti Unknown Jayadhavalä-tikä Virsen/Jinsen 780 AD Gommatsär Nemichandra Siddhänt 1000 AD 4. Dravya Anuyoga (Philosophy): This Anuyoga consists of the following texts, which contain philosophical doctrines, theories, metaphysics, Tattva-inän, and like literature. Author Date Niyamasär Kunda-Kunda 100 AD Panchästikäya Kunda-Kunda 100 AD Pravachansär Kunda-Kunda 100 AD Samaysär Kunda-Kunda 100 AD Tattvärtha-Sutra Umäsväti 200 AD Commentary on Tattvärtha-Sutra Samantabhadra 600 AD Commentary on Tattvärtha-Sutra Pujyapäd 700 AD Commentary on Tattvärtha-Sutra Akalank 750 AD Commentary on Tattvärtha-Sutra Vidyanand 800 AD Äpta-mimämsä Samantabhadra 600 AD Commentary on Äpta-mimämsä Akalank 750 AD Commentary on Äpta-mimämsä Vidyanand 800 AD 09 Non-ägam Literature Jains have tens of thousands of books which are not considered part of the Jain Agams. These nonägam literary works consist of commentary and explanation of Agam literature and independent works compiled by ascetics and scholars. They are written in many languages such as Präkrit, Title Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 285 of 398 Page #286 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E02 Jain Scriptures and Literature Sanskrit, Apabhramsha (old Gujarati), Old Marathi, Rajasthani, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannad, Tamil, German, and English. Examples of a few Digambar non-ägam books are already discussed in the "Digambar Literature section. Some examples of a few Shvetämbar non-ägam books are: Shri Tattvärtha Sutra, Shri Sanmati-tarka, Shri Pramäna-naya, Shri Syädväda-ratnäkar, Shri Vishesh-ävashyak-mahäbhäshya, Shri Tattvälokälankär, Shri Kamma-payadi, Shri Dharma-parikshä, Shri Dharma Sangrahani, Shri Yogadrashti-samuchchaya, Shri Yoga-shästra, Shri Yogabindu, Shri Anekänta-Jayapatäkä, Shri Shästra-värtä-samuchchaya, Shri Jnänsär, Shri Ädhyätma-sär, Shri Ädhyätma-ätma-parikshä, Shri Anyayoga-vyavachchhedikä, Shri Shänt-sudhäras, etc. 10 Some Sacred Books All Jain sects unanimously consider Shri Tattvärtha-Sutra as the main Jain textbook today. In this section, we will give glimpses of Shri Tattvärtha-Sutra, Shri Uttarädhyayan Sutra (Shvetämbar scripture), and Shri Samaysär (Digambar sacred book). These are the three main textbooks used today. Uttarädhyayan-Sutra (Ägam Literature) Uttarädhyayan-Sutra is one of the most important scriptural texts and is the third Mool Ägam-sutra. Traditionally, it is said to contain the last sermons of Bhagawän Mahävir. Many scholars presume that the current text seems to be a composite work of various dates. However, it is one of the earliest texts equivalent to the primary texts. This text has various ways of narrating the Jain principles. They have been illustrated through parables, anecdotes, episodes and historical stories. It contains 36 chapters; nearly a third of them have historical stories and episodes. Some early chapters contain parables and different concepts of Jainism. The variety of methods applied in the text makes the book highly illustrative and interesting. There are many short and long commentaries on this text written since the ninth century AD. Its first English translation was published as early as in 1895; the text is now available with translations into many languages: German, English, Hindi, Gujarati, etc. With the help of these translations, any person can read, understand, and estimate the value of the book. Let us now turn to the summary of the content of this important text. The book tells us that human life is rare and difficult to attain. However, it is human life itself which leads us to ultimate happiness. Hence, it is necessary to make the best use of the human life. One must try to enrich it with the highest values and enlightenment. It disposes people towards the ascetic life, which is a life of better internal happiness. The text tells us that there are four things which are rare: Human life Sermons of the Jinas Right or rational vision Right conduct of restraints One must realize that Mahavir was the highest among the ascetics of his days. He had many followers with proper faith and understanding. He inspired many people to his path as a means of permanent outer and inner happiness. He also stressed the life of an ascetic, the path of detachment, where one would have to face 22 types of difficulties. One would have to bear many hardships of a physical and mental nature to transform oneself as a true ascetic. Uttarädhyayan Sutra teaches us many points of ascetic life through the stories of Kapila, Nami, Mrugaputra, Sanjay, Rathanemi, Jay-ghosha, Vijay-ghosha, and many more. They suggest that ascetic life accrues from previous good Karma. One must think and act well all the time. A chapter tells us the story of an ascetic who is not given the due regard by high caste people. Later on, his sermons yield him credit. Mahävir says that asceticism can be cultivated without any restrictions of the caste and creed. This is the basis of universality of the Jain religion. The text mentions that carelessness and indolence is not good. Too much attachment or indulgence is also bad. The ambitions and desires of the men are limitless, causing dissatisfaction and leading Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 286 of 398 Page #287 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E02 Jain Scriptures and Literature to an unhappy life. One should cultivate the good qualities and get away from bad actions and thoughts A good number of chapters describe the basic tenets of the Jain system. The practice of these tenets is the method of inner and outer purification. The Karma theory is the essence of the Jain system. The practice of equanimity (Sämäyika) and meditation have also been described. The theory of Leshyä (state of mind and karmic stains) is explained as one of the most important psychological principles that reflect one's thought process. Jainism is an action oriented religion. However, the sutra states that action bears results only when performed with meticulous care without lapses or omissions. The last chapter gives details about the living and the non-living world. It deals with physics, chemistry, botany, and zoology. Nonviolence has been described in chapters dealing with the different qualities and vows of the ascetics. Kalpa-sutra (Agam Literature) Traditionally, the most revered scripture for Shvetämbars is the Kalpa-sutra, read from the fourth to the eighth day of Paryushan. Kalpa means an activity which enhances religious knowledge, conduct, and self-control. This scripture, which gives rules for monastic life during rainy season, was originally the eighth chapter of the Anga-bähya Ägam Dashä-shruta Skandha. The chapter has in fact been made into a separate book, to which are appended both a collective biography of the Tirthankars and a lineage of successors to the Ganadhars. Ächärya Bhadrabähu composed these three chapters (1216 verses) in Ardha-Mägadhi language, collectively called Kalpa-sutra, in the 3rd century B.C. In 454 A. D., for the first time it was penned down on palm-leaves (Tädpatris) during Vallabhipur recension. Historically, it was recited only among Sädhus during Paryushan. However, the Kalpa-sutra has been recited in public for over 1500 years, ever since Devardhi-gani chanted it before King Dhruvsen of Vallabhi to relieve the king's grief over the death of his son. In 1879, a German scholar named Herman Jacobi translated and printed the Kalpa-sutra for the first time. The Kalpa-sutra has a detailed and lively description of Bhagawan Mahavir's life, as well as narration of His previous 27 lives. The poetic depiction of the dreams of mother Trishalä, celebration of the birth of Tirthankar Mahävir, a few incidents of His childhood, procession for Dikshä, the calamities endured by Him during the monastic life, and Keval-jnän and Nirvana creates a vivid image in the listener's mind. The lives of Tirthankar Rishabhadev, Neminäth, and Pärshvanäth are also narrated in detail. On Samvatsari day, the entire scripture is read with great reverence. Shri Samaysär (Non-ägam Literature) Ächärya Shri Kunda-Kunda Swämi wrote Shri Samaysär around 100 AD. About 800 years later, in the 10th century, Shri Amrita Chandra Ächärya wrote a critique on Samaysär called Ätmakhyäti. Shri Jaysen and Amratchandra Ächäryas also wrote critiques in Sanskrit. In this century, Shri Känjiswämi gave a detailed analysis on Samaysär in a lecture series in Gujarati, which is an easily understandable language for many laypeople. Samaysär has been translated into many languages including Sanskrit, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannad, English, etc. This text mainly explains the Jain philosophical doctrine of the soul. It explains all the 9 reals (Tattvas) from an absolute point of view. The text states that the soul's bondage is not due to Karma but to one's own weaknesses in selfeffort (Purushärtha). Liberation of a soul will occur once he makes his own efforts; the scriptures and the enlightened preceptors are only there to guide the soul in the right direction. Shri Kunda-Kunda Swämi said that from time immortal the soul has forgotten himself and his own true nature. He showed the uniqueness of soul from other substances and their modes, stressing the importance of right faith. The text maintains that right faith is the first step towards salvation. The vows, penance, worship, prayer, etc. of right conduct will follow right faith. It stresses that one must forgo wrong belief first to start religious progress. From an absolute point of view, the soul is pure, but from the practical point of view, Karmas are attached to the soul by principal cause auxiliary cause relationship. The main attribute of the soul is knowledge, which can be experienced by any living being, and has been given great importance in this book. This book has 415 aphorisms divided into 9 chapters. They are as follows: Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 287 of 398 Page #288 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E02 - Jain Scriptures and Literature Living and non-living Agent and his action Good deeds and bad deeds Inflow of Karma Stoppage of Karma Shedding of Karma Bondage Liberation Total and pure knowledge If one can understand this text, which is mainly written from an absolute point of view, then his understanding of soul's true nature will widen. He will thereafter believe that ultimately the good deeds and bad deeds both are to be given up to obtain right faith and ultimately salvation. The ultimate goal is the purification of the soul to its own innate form. To achieve this goal, one has to use instruments of right conduct such as penance, vows, prayers, etc., which are not to be considered as total fulfillment. Ächärya Kunda-Kunda Not much is been known about his life. He was born in a small village named Korari in the District of Guntoor in Andhra Pradesha, India. He renounced the world and became a monk at the age of 11, and after 33 years of meditation and penance, at the age of 44, he was bestowed the honor of Acharya. He wrote in Mägadhi and Präkrit languages. He lived to the age of 95, and transferred his Ächärya status to his disciple Umäsvämi (Digambar tradition). Ächärya Jaysen wrote in his commentary of Samaysar that through his spiritual powers, he traveled through his Audärika-Sharira to Videha-Kshetra and listened to the sermons of Simandhar swami to enlighten his knowledge. Tattvärtha Sutra (Non-ägam Literature) Most of the original sacred literature of the Jains is written in the Ardha-Mägadhi language. This was the public language in those days. However, eventually times changed and Sanskrit became the royal and elite language. The Jain scholars also started writing their religious and other texts in Sanskrit. Tattvärtha Sutra is the first such Jain text in terse aphoristic form. It has two more names: Tattvärtha Adhigama sutra (manual for knowledge of true nature of things or realities) and Moksha Shästra (tenets of salvation). However, it is popularly known as the Tattvärtha Sutra. The name Tattvärtha Sutra consists of three Sanskrit words: Tattva (true nature), Artha (things or realities) and sutra (aphorisms of few words). It may, therefore, be called "Aphoristic Text on the true nature of realities," matching the content of the text. There is no definite information about when this text was composed. However, it is agreed that it must have been composed during the age of elegant aphorisms. The early Christian centuries have almost every philosophical or religious system in the east putting their tenets in short and sweet form. Brahm-Sutra, Yoga-Sutra, Vaisheshika-Sutra, Nyaya-Sutra etc., represent aphoristic texts of different systems. Tattvärtha Sutra represents the aphoristic text of the Jain system. It must have been composed during 200-400 AD. Acharya Shri Umäsväti's or Umasvämi's creation of the Tattvärtha Sutra is is the most complete assembly of Jain scriptures accepted by all the sects. Not much is known about the details of his life. He was born in a Brahmin family in the village Nayogradhika. His father was Swati and his mother was Vatti. He renounced the world under Acharya Ghoshnandi (Shvetämbar tradition) or Acharya Kund Kunda (Digambar tradition). According to the inscriptions found by the archeologists, he is said to be from either the early second century AD or late first century AD. Page 288 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #289 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E02 - Jain Scriptures and Literature He is said to have been very learned in various Hindu, Vedic, and Buddhist philosophies along with having extensive knowledge of geography, astronomy, philosophy of soul and life, etc. Historians called him the most knowledgeable person in the language of Sanskrit. Jain scholars recognized him to be the first one to write in Sanskrit. There is a story about the origin of Tattvärtha sutra: There was a learned scholar of the scriptures named Siddhaya. He once wrote on a piece of paper "faith, knowledge and conduct is the path to Moksha" and left his house for some reason. By chance that day, Acharya Shri Umäsväti took Ahär (alms) at his house and happened to see that written statement by the scholar Siddhaya and added the word "right" in the beginning of his statement to read "right faith, knowledge, conduct is the path to Moksha". When Siddhaya returned home he asked his mother who wrote this word before his sentence. After learning about Umäsväti from his mother, he went to the Acharya and asked about Moksha and ways to attain it. The answers to his questions were the basis for creation of Tattvärtha Sutra. This text contains 344 or 357 aphorisms, separated into ten chapters of uneven length. The text's content related all major theoretical and practical aspects of the Jain system for the first time. It is a small text but describes all of the fundamental aspects of Jainism Both spiritual and scientific Jain principles have been described in this text. It mentions that the object of a successful life is to attain ultimate, permanent inner happiness or salvation. This goal cannot be reached until we follow a threefold coordinated path of right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct. The path cannot be followed until we have the right knowledge about the realities of the world. The right knowledge could be obtained either by self-intuition or through listening, reading, and analyzing the scriptures with the help of the enlightened souls and spiritual teachers. The criteria could be satisfied only when one critically evaluates our information through different organs of knowledge and viewpoints. This is the same process we apply even today to get useful knowledge. The text not only describes the methods of obtaining knowledge about the outer world, but it also describes how to attain knowledge about the inner world. This requires purification of the body, the mind, and speech through austerities and meditation. The text also gives the details of seven types of verbal and nonverbal viewpoints and the theory of manifold predications. These are the basics for obtaining right knowledge. With the right knowledge comes the right faith. With right faith and right knowledge to start with, the right conduct follows. Umäsväti must be given credit for arranging these elements in a proper order with respect to the process involved and the principles of human psychology. The earlier literature shows numerical and ordinal variations. Umäsväti systematized the Jain system with a logical sequence. There are infinite numbers of living beings in this universe and every living being wants to be happy. However, everyone's approach to attain happiness is not the same. The majority depend on material things to be happy. They try to satisfy their desires by external means. This type is a temporary happiness which is followed by unhappiness and more desires. Self-efforts (Purushärtha) are used to earn (Artha) to satisfy the desires. Our great Achäryas have labeled these types of living beings as less developed. Then, there are those who depend on spiritual approaches (internal means) to be happy. These approaches are self-dependent and involve self-efforts to practice dharma to attain everlasting happiness (Moksha). These living beings are called more developed living beings Therefore, the subject of this canonical book is everlasting happiness (Moksha) and in the first Sutra (aphorism) of the first chapter - three essential components to attain everlasting happiness (Moksha) are introduced. The first verse of the first chapter is सम्यग्दर्शनज्ञानचारित्राणिमोक्षमार्गः drcalett (1-1) Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 289 of 398 Page #290 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS "Samyag-darshan-jnän-chäriträni Moksha Märgah". This is Jainism in a nutshell. It means that right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct collectively are the path to liberation (Moksha). The next three verses mention the seven elements. The rest of the first chapter deals with the process of cognition and details about different types of knowledge. The details about right conduct are included in chapters eight and nine. The second, third and fourth chapters deal with the soul (Jiva). The second chapter deals with the soul (Jiva). The third chapter deals with descriptions of hell, hellish beings, human beings, animals, and Jain geography. The fourth chapter deals with heaven and heavenly beings. The fifth chapter deals with the non-soul (Ajiva). The sixth, seventh and eighth chapters deal with the various types of karma and their manifestations, as well as the inflow and bondage of karma (Bandha and Äsrava). The ninth chapter describes the stoppage and shedding off the karma (Samvar and Nirjarä). The tenth chapter is about the complete liberation of the soul or Moksha. Saman Suttam (Non-ägam Literature) The book Saman Suttam is a brief compilation of the essential principles of the Jain religion and philosophy. It was created in 1974 during the 2500th Nirvana anniversary of Lord Mahavir. The compilation is based on from various Shvetämbar Jain Ägams, Digambar literature (Shästras), and some ancient texts. It contains 756 Sutras or verses, in four main parts and 44 sub-sections. Its contents are meant to give the reader a general acquaintance with the doctrines of the Jain religion, its code of ethics and the process of gradual spiritual advancement of life, in a traditional but devotional manner. E02 Jain Scriptures and Literature 11 Summary The Jain literature, which was compiled by Ganadhars and Shruta-kevalis, is known as Ägam literature. These texts are the Holy Scriptures of the Jain religion. The Jain Ägams consisted of 1) 14 Purvas, 2) 12 Anga-pravishtha Ägams and 3) Anga-bähya Ägams (34 for Shvetämbar Murtipujak, 21 for Shvetämbar Sthänakaväsi and 14 for Digambar). All sects agree that the 14 Purvas and Drashtiväda, the 12th Anga-pravishtha Ägam, are extinct. Digambars believe that all Jain Ägams are extinct, whereas the Shvetämbar sects accept the existing Jain Ägams as authentic teachings of Bhagawän Mahävir. However, Shvetämbar Murtipujaks believe that there are 34 Anga-bähya Ägams existing while Shvetämbar Sthänakaväsis believe that there are 21 Anga-bahya Agams existing. The composition of the scriptures has a specific purpose of showing the listener the path of everlasting happiness and liberation. The Ägam Sutras teach eternal truth about conduct, equanimity, universal affection, and friendship, and the eternal truths on thinking, namely, the principles of relativity and nonone-sidedness. It also teaches many spiritual attributes including great reverence for all forms of life, soul, Karma, universe, strict codes of asceticism, rules for householders, compassion, nonviolence, and non-possessiveness. 12 Names of Jain Ägam Literature Sanskrit Name 1 Utpäd-Purva 2 Agrayaniya-Purva 3 Virya-praväd-Purva 00 Purva01 00 Purva02 00 Purva03 Page 290 of 398 Präkrit Name Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Other Name Page #291 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS 00 Purva04 00 Purva05 00 Purva06 00 Purva07 00 Purva08 00 Purva09 00 Purva10 00 Purva11 00 Purva12 00 Purva13 00 Purva14 Loka-bindusär-Purva 01 Anga-ägams: 1 Achäränga-Sutra 01 Anga-ägams: 2 01 Anga-ägams: 3 01 Anga-ägams: 4 01 Anga-ägams: 5 01 Anga-ägams: 5 01 Anga-ägams: 6 02 Upängaägams: 02 Upängaägams: 4 5 Jnan-praväd-Purva 6 Satya-praväd-Purva 7 Atma-pravád-Purva 8 Karma-pravád-Purva 9 Pratyäkhyan-pravād-Purva 10 Vidya-praväd-Purva 11 Kalyan-pravad-Purva 12 Pranavay-Purva 13 Kriyä-vishal-Purva A 01 Anga-ägams: 7 01 Anga-agams: 8 01 Anga-ägams: 9 01 Anga-ägams: 10 01 Anga-agams: 11 01 Anga-ägams: 12 1 14 Astinästi-praväd-Purva 02 Upänga- 3 ägams: Sutra-krutänga Sthänänga-Sutra Samaväyänga-Sutra Bhagavati-Sutra Vyakhya-prajnapti Jnätä-dharma-kathänga Upasaka-dashanga Antakrit-dashänga Anuttaraopa-pätikadashanga Prashna-vyäkarana 2 Raja-prashniya 02 Upanga- 6 ägams: Vipaka-Sutra Drashtiväda Aupapatika Jivabhigama 02 Upänga- 4 Prajnapana ägams: 02 Upänga- 5 Surya-prajnapti ägams: Chandra-prajnapti Vidyänuväd-Purva Kalyänuväd-Purva Triloka-bindusär-Purva Ayäränga-sutta Suyagadänga-sutta Thänänga-sutta Samaväo Bhagaval-sutta Viyäha-pannatti Näyä-dhamma-kahä- Nayasuya sutta E02 Jain Scriptures and Literature Uvasaga-dasanga-sutta Uväsagadasão Antagadadasão Anuttarova-väiya-dasão Panha-vägaranam Viväga-suyam Ditthiväya Ovavȧlyam Rayǎ-pasena-ijja Jivȧjivabhigama Pannavanä Sura-pannatti Chanda-pannatti Vakkha-pannatti Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Panhävägaranäim Räyappaseniyam Panaivaylo Suriya-pannatti Page 291 of 398 Page #292 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS 02 Upängaagams: 02 Upängaagams: 02 Upängaägams: 02 Upängaägams: 02 Upängaagams: 02 Upänga- 10 ägams: 03 Chhedasutras 03 Chhedasutras 7 03 Chhedasutras 8 9 03 Chheda- 2 sutras 03 Chheda- 3 sutras 05 Chulikäsutras: 11 1 Pushpa-chulikä 12 Vrashnidashä Page 292 of 398 4 Jambudvipa-prajnapti Nirayärvali Kalpä-vatansikä Pushpikä 06 Prakirna- 3 ägams: Nishitha Brahat-kalpa Vyavahära 03 Chheda- 6 Mahä-nishitha sutras Dashä-shruta-skandha 5 Pancha-kalpa 04 Mool-sutras: 1 Avashyaka-Sutra 04 Mool-sutras: 2 04 Mool-sutras: 3 04 Mool-sutras: 4 04 Mool-sutras: 4 1 05 Chulikäsutras: 2 Anuyoga-dvära 06 Prakirna- 1 Chatuh-sharana ägams: Dasha-vaikälika-Sutra Uttaradhyayan-Sutra Ogha-niryukti Pinda-niryukti Nandisutra 06 Prakirna- 2 Atur-pratyäkhyäna ägams: Bhakta-parijnä 06 Prakirna- 4 ägams: 006 Prakirna- 5 Tandulavaitälika Sanstäraka Jambuddiva-pannatti Nirayävaliyänam Kappävadamsiäo Pupphiao Pupphachulião Vanhidasäo Nisiha Buhat-kappo Vavahära Ächäradashä E02 Jain Scriptures and Literature Panchakappa Mahänisiha Avassaya Dasaveyaliya Uttarajjhayana Ohanijutti Pindani jutti Nandisuyam Anuogaddära Chausarana Äura-pachchakkhäna Bhatta-parinnä Santhäraga Tandulaveyȧliya Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Kappavadinsiana m Kappa Dasäsuyakkhandh a Jiyakappa Page #293 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E02 - Jain Scriptures and Literature 6 Chandra-vedhyaka Chandävijjhaya 7 Devendra-stava Devindatthaya ägams: 06 Prakirna- ägams: 06 Prakirna- ägams: 06 Prakirna- ägams: 06 Prakirna- ägams: 06 Prakirna ägams: 8 Ganita-vidya Ganivijä 9 Mahä-pratyakhyana Mahä-pachchakkhana 10 Virastava Viratthava Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 293 of 398 Page #294 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E03 Jain Heroes E03 Jain Heroes 01 Great Acharyas of Digambar and Shvetämbar Traditions Great writings by Ächärya Kunda-Kunda, which is about 2000 years old, are revered by all Digambars as well as by many other Jains. - The Shatakhand Ägam by Ächärya Pushpadanta and Bhutabali is one of the most ancient (50-80AD) scriptures accepted by Digambars. The Tattvärtha-Sutra by Umäsväti or Umäsvämi is accepted by both major traditions, Shvetämbar and Digambar. Ächärya Siddhasen Diwäkar lived during the time of King Vikramaditya and wrote about many aspects of Jainism. His Sanmati-Tarka is considered a masterly book and is enthusiastically studied by scholars even at present. Sarvärtha Siddhi of Pujyapäd-swämi, in the 5th or 6th century, and Kashäya-Pähuda of Ächärya Gunadhara are some of the major works written after the compilations of the Ägams, along with the Shad-darshan Samuchchaya and the Yoga Drashti Samuchchaya of Ächärya Haribhadra-Suri, in the 8th century. By that time, idol worship was firmly established and many temples were set up. This situation necessitated the help of well-versed people for consecrating the idols and for performing various rituals. In the Shvetämbar sect, this led to the rise of renegade monks known as Yatis. They used to stay in the temples and therefore came to be known as Chaityaväsis. They lived in affluence and availed themselves of all the comforts of life. Haribhadra-suri was the first to criticize their excesses. However, the evil continued long after that. Noteworthy works after this period are the Mahä-Purän of Digambar Ächärya Jinsen (770-850) and the Trishashti (63) Shaläkä Purusha of Hemchandra-ächärya (1088-1173). Both these works are voluminous and deal with the lives of Tirthankars and other illustrious personalities. During this time period, serious effort was made to curtail the excesses of Yatis in the 11th century by Vardhamänsuri. This effort was continued by his successors Jineshwar-suri and Jindatta-suri. The latter, popularly known as Dada Gurudev, founded the Kharatar Gachchha (Purer Sect) in about 1150. The excesses of the Yatis, however, seemed to have survived even that onslaught. Hirvijay-suri was the well-known Ächärya of the 16th century. He seems to have impressed even Mugal emperor Akbar, who issued a proclamation forbidding animal slaughter on certain days. The next two well-known personages are Yogi Änandghanji and Upädhyay Yashovijayaji. The real name of the former was Läbhänandji, but since he remained absorbed in the nature of the soul, he is popularly known as Änandghanji. He wrote many thought provoking Padas; the best known is his Änandghanji Chovisi that contains devotional songs in admiration of all 24 Tirthankars. Upadhyay Yashovijayaji was also a prolific writer. He wrote about almost every aspect of Jainism in Sanskrit, Präkrit, and old Gujarati. 02 Shrimad Räjchandra Page 294 of 398 Shrimad Räjchandra (1867-1901 A.D.), born to a Hindu father and a Jain mother, was extraordinary from his early life. At the age of seven, he remembered his past life (Jäti-smaran Jnän) and described his experience as a proof of reincarnation. He also believed that his deep understanding and detachment was because of his knowledge of last life. He had been writing poetry since the age of eight; at the age of 16 he wrote "Moksha-Mälä" describing the Jain way as the true way and as the path of detachment. At the age of 19, he displayed his ability to remember and answer 100 questions in an order called "Shatavdhän" at Faramji Kavasji Institute in Bombay. At the age of 22 he married Zabakben and had four children. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #295 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN HISTORY LITERATURE and SECTS E03 - Jain Heroes He wrote some eight hundred letters which chronicle his spiritual development. A collection of these letters is the one sacred text known as "Vachanamrut" to the followers of Shrimad Räjchandra. He also wrote many small books like Bhavana-bodh, Sukh-sambandhi-vichar, and Namiräja. For him, the spiritual goal was the experience of the self, and once this was achieved, then so was the spiritual deliverance. In 1896, in one night he wrote a short verse (142 stanzas) treatise on his view of Jainism to his friend Sobhagbhai. This Ätmasiddhi-shästra, 'Attainment of the Soul, 'defined six principles central to true religion: The soul exists, the soul is eternal, the soul is the doer of its actions, the soul is the experiencer of its actions, the state of liberation exists, and the means of gaining liberation exists. He emphasized that he did not belong to any Gachchha or sect, but only to his soul. According to him, the nineteenth century decline of Jainism was due to excessive sectarianism and temple rituals. However, later in his short life, Shrimad Räjchandra accepted that idol worship is an aid to spiritual growth. Many Jains see Shrimad Räjchandra as a great saint. His spiritual influence on Gandhi, and consequently on India and the world, through the dissemination of Ahimsa (non-violence) and other Jain principles, is incalculable. Unfortunately, he lived a very short life, but his work survives and is changing lives of many, through religious centers established by his followers. 03 Känji-Swami Shri Kanji Swami (1889-1980 A.D.), a Shvetämbar Sthänakaväsi by birth, was initiated at a very early age as a Sthänakaväsi monk. At the age of 30, he studied "Samay-sär". He gave discourses on "Samay-sär" and largely succeeded in popularizing the old sacred texts of the great Digambar Jain saint Acharya Kunda-Kunda of South India. He remained as a very renowned Sthänakaväsi monk till the age of 45, and then he decided to become a Digambar Shrävak. His greatest achievement is the revolution, to stimulate every householder for their ability to study most difficult of the Jain canons, especially the educated masses. He is given credit for Pancha Kalyanaks (initiation ceremony of Tirthankar Murti) of about 95 temples. While interpreting Acharya Kunda-Kunda's writings, Kanji Swami explained the practical and absolute point of views to ordinary householders and gave more prominence to Nishchaya Naya (from Soul's point), the absolute point of view, than to Vyavahär Naya, the practical point of view. The movement he started in 1934, stressing inward thought rather than external ritual, attracted followers who hold him in great reverence. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 295 of 398 Page #296 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story - Tirthankars F01 Story – Tirthankars 01 - Bhagwan Mahävir 02 - Bhagwan Pärshvanath 03 - Bhagwan Neminäth 04 - Bhagwan Mallinäth 05 - Bhagwan Adinath Page 296 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #297 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story Tirthankars 01 Bhagwan Mahävir 01 Bhagwan Mahävir Previous Lives The lives of Bhagawan Mahavir are counted from his life as Nayasär, when he attained self-realization (Samyaktva). The significant lives are Nayasär (life no.1), Marichi (life no. 3), Vishvabhuti (life no. 16), Triprushtha Väsudev (life no. 18), Priyamitra Chakravarti (life no. 23) and Nandan Muni (life no. 25). In the life of Nandan Muni, he attained Tirthankar Näm-karma. At the end of that life he was born as a Deva. In the third life after Nandan Muni, he was born as Vardhamän Mahävir. Birth and Childhood About 2600 years ago, religion in India took a very ugly turn. The management of the original four classes of society, Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras, had deteriorated. Brahmins were learned people and considered themselves to be very superior. The fate of Shudras, or untouchables, was terrible. They were required to serve the other castes, forever performing the most degrading tasks. They were not allowed to engage in other professions. The importance of sacrifice as a symbol of giving up and renouncing had been misconstrued and it had taken on a very violent form. Animal sacrifices were performed regularly. People believed that these sacrifices would please the Gods and, in return, their wishes would be fulfilled. Under such social and religious conditions, Mahävir was born. It is believed that all Tirthankars are born in the Kshatriya (warrior) royal family because it provides an environment that helps the Tirthankar understand that there is no permanent happiness in material comfort. Queen Trishalä, like the mother of any other Tirthankar, saw 14 (by Shvetambar tradition) objects in her dreams: lion, elephant, bull, Lakshmi, garland, full moon, sun, flag, vase, lotus lake, ocean, celestial plane, heap of jewels, and smokeless fire. According to Digambar tradition, she also saw a pair of fish and a lofty throne. When her husband, King Siddhärtha, asked the dream interpreters and scholars the meaning of the dreams, they proclaimed that Queen Trishalä would give birth to a Tirthankar. While in the womb, Bhagwan Mahavir had once been very still so as not to disturb or provide any pain to his mother. Not feeling any movement, Queen Trishalä was very worried that something was wrong with the baby in the womb. Realizing how worried his mother was on his behalf, he decided not to take the religious vow of renunciation and leave his family as long his parents were alive. Mahävir was born in the month of Chaitra on the 13th day of the waxing (increasing in size) cycle of the moon in 599 B.C. as per the Indian calendar. This day falls in the month of April and is celebrated as Mahavir Janma Kalyanak day. Bhagawan Mahavir had an older brother named Nandivardhan and a sister named Sudarshanä. Soon after his birth, Indra (king of heavenly gods) took the baby Tirthankar to Mount Meru and performed the birth ceremony (Janma Abhisheka) with great rejoicing and celebration. After that he returned the baby to mother Trishalä's bedside. There was great rejoicing in the country. Since the moment the Tirthankar's soul had been conceived, there was continued enhancement in the glory, wealth, health and fame of the kingdom, and respect and goodwill for the family. This is the reason the baby was named Vardhamän, which means everincreasing prosperity. There are numerous incidences of courage and forgiveness throughout Vardhamän's life as a child and an adult. One day prince Vardhamän, a young boy of eight, was playing with his friends on the outskirts of the city. At that very moment, Indra, the king of heaven, started praising the courage and fearlessness of prince Vardhamän. Another heavenly god challenged the statement, believing that fear is present in all humans. He decided to test Vardhamän's courage. He assumed the form of a frightening cobra and slithered near the children. All of the boys started screaming, but Mahävir stood there calmly and fearlessly. He gently caught the cobra with his hands and placed it in the grass on the side. The god, who had failed to frighten prince Vardhamän in the form of a cobra, decided to test his bravery once more. Assuming the form of an ordinary child, he joined the group of children and suggested racing to a target tree. The winner was to piggyback ride on one of the losers and return to the base. The Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 297 of 398 Page #298 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story - Tirthankars 01 - Bhagwan Mahävir heavenly god lost the game to prince Vardhaman and offered to carry him on his shoulders. However, as soon as he had the prince on his shoulders, the god assumed a gigantic form. Without any fear, Prince Vardhaman gave a mighty blow on his shoulder with clenched fists. The god could not withstand the blow and, assuming his original form, bowed to the prince and returned to heaven. Indra and all the other heavenly gods hailed the victory of prince Vardhamän and exclaimed that he was "Mahävir", meaning "The Great Hero." When Vardhaman was nine years old, his parents thought that it was time to impart formal education upon him. They wanted him to learn martial arts befitting of a Kshatriya prince, so they decided to send him to school. When Vardhaman went to school he offered his respects to the teacher just like an ordinary child. However, after teaching the first lesson, the teacher realized Vardhaman was more knowledgeable than he was. After this, Vardhamän's schooling ended and he returned to the palace. Renunciation Preparation for Renunciation As a youth, Prince Vardhamän lived a very simple and disciplined life. Although he wanted to renounce the world in search of eternal happiness, he had already decided not to leave the family while his parents were alive when in his mother's womb. At the age of 28, his parents passed away and he was now ready to take Dikshä. So, he requested permission from his older brother, Nandivardhan. Realizing that his younger brother was not an ordinary person, Nandivardhan requested him to postpone his decision for two years, as he was still grieving for their parents' death. Prince Vardhamän led a very simple life for one year. When he had exactly one more year of a householder's life left, he began donating all of his belongings and wealth to the needy and to those that came to him. Every day he would donate many gold coins, jewels, precious stones, and clothes. This unique and unprecedented charity impressed upon the minds of the people that "Charity is a double blessing - it blesses those who give and as well those who receive". At the end of the year marked by generosity, Prince Vardhaman had attained perfect "Aparigrahatva", freedom from attachments and possessions. He was now fully prepared for the life of a monk. His elder brother made elaborate preparations for the initiation and the country was filled with great excitement. Indra and other heavenly gods participated in the ceremony. Gold and silver pitchers were filled with water from various holy places. The prince was bathed with the holy waters, anointed with perfumed pastes, dressed in royal garments, and decked with precious ornaments. At an auspicious moment on the tenth day of the dark half of the month of Märgashirsh, Prince Vardhamän left the palace forever in a palanquin carried by Indra and the other gods. Renunciation After alighting from the palanquin, Prince Vardhaman removed all of his garments and ornaments and handed them over to Indra. He stood under an Ashok tree and took the solemn vow of renunciation in the presence of thousands of people. He then plucked all the hair on his head in four handfuls and the hair on his chin and lips in one handful, known as Panchamusthi loch. After solemnly reciting the words, "I bow down to all the liberated souls", Mahavir accepted life-long renunciation. He took the five great vows of non-violence, truth, non-stealing, celibacy, and non-possession in order to avoid accumulating new karma and to annihilate past karmas. Right after initiation (Dikshä), Mahävir acquired the "ManahParyaya Jnän", knowledge that allowed him to perceive the feelings and thoughts of all living beings. Rejecting Indra's Protection Bhagawan Mahävir, an embodiment of perfect renunciation, detachment, and Ahimsä, once reached the outskirts of a village named Kurmäragräm. He motionlessly stood under a tree absorbed in deep meditation and observed the vow of silence. A cowherd approached Mahävir and asked him to look after his bullocks while he visited the village, to which Mahävir made no response. On his return, the cowherd found that the bullocks were missing. He asked Bhagawan Mahavir about them but received no reply as Mahävir was still observing the vow of silence. The cowherd searched for his Page 298 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #299 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story - Tirthankars 01 - Bhagwan Mahävir bullocks throughout the night, but failed to locate them. In the morning he returned to the same spot and found the bullocks seated by the side of the standing saint. Thinking that Bhagawan Mahävir was a thief in disguise, he became furious and rushed towards Mahävir, intending to thrash him with his whip. However, Indra himself appeared and explained to him that the saint is not an ordinary wandering mendicant, but prince Vardhamän, son of king Siddhartha, who had recently accepted initiation. Indra asked Mahävir if he could provide protection for future incidents like this. Mahävir replied in all humility that an ascetic on a spiritual path reaches his goal of purity with the help of his own practice, courage, and discipline. It is without the help of heavenly gods or humans that one should shed all of his karma to attain liberation. On hearing this, Indra bowed with reverence and departed. Afflictions by Sulpäni When the wandering Bhagawan Mahävir came to a village called Asthikagräm, he wanted to spend the night in the temple dedicated to a demon (Yaksha) called Sulpäni. The villagers warned him that the wicked Yaksha would torture to death any traveler who were to spend the night in the shrine, but Mahävir was not swayed and insisted on staying there overnight. The Yaksha became enraged and furious, thinking that this was a challenge to his powers. He therefore tried to frighten Bhagawan Mahävir by assuming various forms of a ghost, an elephant, a cobra, and a lion, but did not succeed. He then tried piercing his eyes, ears, nose, head, nails, and back. Even this extreme agony failed to pierce the serenity of Bhagawän's composure. At this failure, Sulpäni was drained of all his demonic energy, and a divine spiritual light illuminated him. Slowly his anger subsided, fear dissolved, and a feeling of goodwill took over. He touched Mahavir's feet and humbly begged Mahavir's pardon. Chandkaushik Leaving Asthikagram, Mahävir proceeded in the direction of Shvetämbikä town. The trail to this town passed through a dense and desolate forest. When some shepherds saw Mahävir entering the forest, they warned him about the black cobra with a venomous gaze living on the trail. The cobra's hissing and gaze were known to burn plants and trees and cause flying birds and standing humans to drop dead. As a result, no one crossed the forest where the cobra lived. By his divine knowledge, Bhagawan Mahävir knew of the situation. In order to enlighten the cobra with his universal love, he entered the forest and stood motionless in meditation near the place where the cobra resided. The proud king-cobra rushed out of its hole, hissing and gazing at Bhagawan Mahävir. However, Mahävir stood motionless and unperturbed. This made Chandkaushik even angrier and he blew poisonous venom towards Lord Mahävir three times. The venom neither affected Lord Mahävir nor disturbed his meditation. Blind with rage, the cobra sank his fangs into Mahävir's toe and injected of all his venom, but instead of blood, a milk-like substance started flowing from his toe. Bhagawan Mahävir cast a gentle glance of compassion and said, "Oh Chandkaushik, be enlightened and attain peace of mind. Do not inject the venom of anger in your life." When the cobra met Mahävir's gaze, he felt as if a wave of peace and tranquility had engulfed his inner self. The cobra started contemplating and visualized his past lives (Jätismaran jnän) and realized that he had suffered excruciating pain and degradation due to extreme anger and acute attachment during his previous two births. He was full of repentance. He vowed not to look at anyone for the rest of his life, nor eat or drink anything. He decided to lie still and atone for all his sins committed during the last three births and improve his future. Chandkaushik peacefully retreated to his hole with his head inside while a portion of his body remained outside the hole. After a while, when the people heard that Chandkaushik was no longer harmful to anyone, they came to see him out of curiosity. They saw him lying quietly, and some started worshipping him by offering milk and food, while others were still furious because he had killed their loved ones. They threw stones and beat him with wooden sticks. The blood, milk, and food attracted ants, but Chandkaushik willingly suffered the biting and beating and remained at peace with no trace of anger. He died after a few days. The self-restraint and control of his feelings destroyed many of his bad karmas. Therefore, at the end of his life, he was born in heaven. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 299 of 398 Page #300 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story - Tirthankars 01 Bhagwan Mahävir Chandanbälä During the twelfth year after initiation, Bhagawan Mahavir entered the city of Kaushambi after a long penance. He had decided to accept alms only after satisfying the following unspoken conditions: he would accept an urad preparation from the corner of a winnowing basket given by a person with one leg on the threshold and the other outside. She had to be a princess turned into a slave with a shaven head and legs bound by chains. She must be a chaste woman performing the penance of Attam (three days of fasting) and should serve him with tears in her eyes. Five months and twentyfive days elapsed, but no donor fulfilled these conditions. One day, he came upon Chandanbälä, a princess sold as a slave, shackled and shaved by the jealous wife of a rich merchant. She fulfilled all the conditions so Bhagawän Mahävir accepted the alms. The full Chandanbala story can be found later into the Story Section. The Last Calamity: Nails in His Ears Once, in his thirteenth year of contemplation, on the outskirts of the village Chammani, Bhagwän Mahävir was standing while absorbed in deep meditation. A cowherd left his oxen near him and asked him to keep an eye on them. When he returned, he did not find the cattle and so he inquired about the missing cattle. When he received no reply to his persistent queries, he became furious and plugged hard grass pegs in the ears of Bhagawän Mahävir. Mahävir bore all of the pain patiently. From there, Bhagawan Mahavir went to Pävä. While going for alms, he entered the house of a rich merchant named Siddhärtha, who was sitting in the company of an eminent physician named Kharak. The physician immediately realized from the facial expression of Bhagawän Mahävir that he was suffering from some acute pain. With great difficulty Mahavir was persuaded to undergo an operation. He was made to sit in a basin filled with oil, given a massage and then the pegs were removed by means of medicated pincers. The pain was so excruciating that even Bhagawän Mahävir cried out in agony. Afterwards, as the doctor dressed the wound, Mahävir continued to remain calmly and quietly in deep meditation. The full Last Calamity story can be found later in the Story Section. Keval-jnän and Nirvana Mahävir-swämi practiced severe austerities and deep meditation for a period of twelve and a half years. During this period, he resided in parks, forests, and deserted places and observed fasts lasting from a single day up to six months. Having beared all of the obstacles and tortures patiently and bravely, he had now reached the highest stage of meditation. He reached the village Jambhikä and stayed on the banks of the river Rujuvälukä. At that time, he was observing a fast of two days. In order to annihilate the lingering remnants of the destructive karma, Bhagawan Mahavir sat down in the "cow-milking" posture. His mind was absorbed in the highest type of meditation, and by destroying all his ghäti karmas completely, he attained absolute knowledge on the tenth day of the bright half of the month of Vaisakha. He became omniscient, comprehending and visualizing everything in the whole universe. Free from all ghäti karma, he became an Arihanta. The thrones of Indra and the other heavenly gods trembled the moment Bhagawän Mahävir attained omniscience. Immediately, hosts of gods thronged there to celebrate the fourth Kalyänak, or auspicious occasion. They constructed a divine assembly hall known as a samavasaran for Bhagawan Mahavir's first sermon. He delivered the first sermon at night when only the gods were present. Then, Bhagawan Mahavir traveled to Päväpuri and stayed in the garden named Mahäsen. Here, the gods constructed another samavasaran hall. Sitting under the Ashok tree, Mahävir delivered a sermon in the Ardha-Mägadhi language. Eleven Learned Brahmins Initiated as Ganadhars Bhagawän Mahävir, endowed with many Atishaya or distinguished attributes, delivered a soul-stirring and heartfelt sermon in the assembly of gods, human beings, and animals. Even though a great sacrifice was in progress simultaneously in another part of the city, huge crowds were seen going in the opposite direction towards the samavasaran. Indrabhuti of Gautam Gotra, the chief priest at the Page 300 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #301 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story - Tirthankars 01 - Bhagwan Mahävir sacrifice, inquired where they were going and was told about Bhagawan Mahävir's samavasaran. Upon hearing that it was attracting more people, his vanity was hurt and he decided to put to test the so-called omniscience of the saint. Therefore, he decided to visit the samavasaran accompanied by his disciples. Mahävir called him by his name and, without being asked, resolved his doubts about the soul, upon which Gautam along with his 500 disciples accepted monk hood. Hearing this, the remaining ten learned scholars at the sacrifice came to the samavasaran and, upon having their secret doubts resolved, accepted initiation with 4400 disciples. In this way, Mahävir established the four-fold Sangh and preached the path to liberation. Eleven learned Brahmins became his principle disciples, known as Ganadhars. Bhagawan Mahävir's Last Sermon at Päväpuri and Liberation During the thirty years of his life as a Tirthankar, Bhagawan Mahävir preached his gospel of Ahimsä to millions of people and initiated thousands of disciples into monkhood. At the age of seventy-two, he came to Päväpuri to spend his final monsoon season, in the year 527 BC. In the month of Ashwin he observed a two-day fast, taking neither food nor water. Sitting in the lotus posture on a golden lotus, he delivered his last and longest sermon which lasted for forty-eight hours before the four-fold Sangh. (This sermon was later compiled in the Jain scriptures and is known as Uttaradhyayan Sutra.) In the early morning of the new-moon night, Bhagawan Mahavir's remaining four types of nondestructive karma were destroyed. And thus, with all the eight karma completely annihilated, his soul soared high, reached the pinnacle of Loka and went to the permanent abode of Siddhas, never to return again. And thus Bhagawan Mahävir achieved the highest goal: liberation. Funeral Rites performed by Heavenly Gods and Human Beings At the time of Bhagawan Mahävir's nirvana, all the eighteen rulers of the various states were present. When the light of his knowledge was extinguished from the world, they lighted numerous earthen lamps, beginning the tradition of the Festival of Lights known as Deepävali or Diwali. Upon Bhagawan Mahävir's achieving the fifth Kalyänak, Indra and the other gods flew down to earth to celebrate. They bathed his body with holy waters, applied sandal paste, dressed the body in rich garments and adorned it with a crown and other ornaments. He was carried in a palanquin; millions joined the procession to pay their last homage. There was solemn music accompanied on musical instruments. The palanquin was placed on a pyre of fragrant sandalwood; after the final prayers were offered, the fire was lit. Later, perfumed water was sprinkled to extinguish the fire and the gods carried the molars and the bones to heaven. Teachings Bhagawan Mahävir's sermons were compiled orally by his immediate disciples in the form of sutras in 12 books. These books are called Anga Agam Sutras. Later, several learned Acharyas (Shruta Kevali monks) compiled many more books to further explain the Anga Agam Sutras. All these books are called gams or Agam Sutras and are considered as the scriptures of Jain religion. These Agam Sutras were passed on orally to future generations of ascetics, although over the course of time, some of the Agam Sutras were lost. Approximately one thousand years later, the memorized Agam Sutras were organized and recorded on tädpatris (palm leaves used as paper to preserve records for future references). Moral: In each incident of difficulty, we see the conquest of Mahävir's soul and mind over his physical pain and suffering. His meditation and penance purified his soul. It helped him to separate himself from perishable and mortal worldly things, and concentrate on the liberation of his immortal soul. Highlights: Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 301 of 398 Page #302 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story Tirthankars · • • Previous lives: Nayasär (birth no.1, attainment of Samyaktva), Marichi (birth no. 3), Vishvabhuti (birth no. 16), Triprushtha Väsudev (birth no. 18), Priyamitra Chakravarti (birth no. 23) and Nandan Muni (birth no. 25, attainment of Tirthankar Näm-karma, three lives before birth as Mahävir). 01 Bhagwan Mahävir Born to King Siddhärtha and Queen Trishalä, who saw 14 or 16 dreams, in 599 BC Brother Nandivardhan, sister Sudarshana Incidents of courage and meditation: Cobra in childhood, cowherd, demon Sulpäni, Chandkaushik, nails in the ears Important associated names: Chandanbälä, 11 Ganadhars (Gautam Swami) Teachings: Agam Sutras (12 Anga) Achievement of nirvana at Päväpuri; Diwali Page 302 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #303 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story Tirthankars 02 Bhagwän Pärshvanäth - 02 - Bhagwan Pärshvanäth About 3000 years ago, King Ashvasen was ruling over the Kingdom of Väränasi, also known as Banäras, situated on the banks of the holy River Gangä. He was a benevolent and a popular ruler and lived peacefully with his queen, Vämädevi. On the 10th day of the dark half of the month of Märgashirsh (which usually falls in December), Queen Vämädevi gave birth to a son. In memory of observing a passing snake during her pregnancy, her newborn son was named Pärshva-kumär, because in the Sanskrit language 'Pärshva' means "nearby or in the vicinity". Pärshva grew up in the midst of wealth and happiness and became a very attractive young man known for his courtesy, bravery, and valor. Many kings were eager to have their daughters marry him, and eventually Prince Pärshva-kumär was married to Prabhävati, a princess from a neighboring kingdom. The wedding ceremony was performed with much splendor and Pärshva-kumär enjoyed a blissful married life with Prabhävati. In the vicinity, there lived a mendicant named Kamath. During his childhood he had lost his parents and was raised as an orphan. Disgusted with his miserable life he became a mendicant. As a mendicant, he had no material possessions and lived on the charity of others. He practiced severe penance and performed rituals called Panchägni (five fires). When he came to Väränasi to perform the ritual, many people were impressed by his penance and therefore worshipped him. When Pärshva-kumär heard about Kamath's ritual, he realized the violence towards living beings involved in a fire. He came to Kamath and tried to dissuade him from lighting the sacrificial fire. Kamath denied that any life could be endangered by his ritual. However, by extra-sensory perception, Pärshva-kumär sensed a snake trapped inside one of the burning logs. He asked his men to remove the log and carefully chop it open. To everyone's surprise, a half-burnt snake came out of the burning piece of wood. The snake was so badly burnt that he could not be saved. Pärshva-kumär recited the Namaskär-mantra for the benefit of the dying snake. After death, the snake was reborn as Dharanendra, the king of gods of the Nag kumärs (gods or angels that look like snakes) in heaven. At this event, instead of feeling remorse or pity for the snake, Kamath was very annoyed by the interference of Pärshva-kumär. Since he was powerless at that time, Kamath resolved to seek revenge. He began observing an even more severe penance and, at the end of his life, he was reborn in heaven as Meghamäli, the god of rain. Observing the miseries that living beings had to experience in their worldly lives, Pärshva-kumär developed a high degree of detachment towards worldly possessions and relationships. At the age of 30, he renounced all his possessions and family and became a monk. Eventually, he was known as Pärshvanäth. He spent most of his time meditating in search of the ultimate truth. Once, while Pärshvanäth was in meditation, Meghamäli saw him from heaven. He recalled how Pärshvakumar had interfered in his fire ritual in his earlier life and saw his chance for revenge. Using his supernatural powers, he brought forth all kinds of fierce animals such as elephants, lions, leopards, and snakes to attack monk Pärshvanäth. However, Pärshvanäth, immersed in deep meditation, remained peaceful and untouched. Meghamäli tried a new tactic and brought forth heavy rains. The rainwater touched the feet of Pärshvanäth and started accumulating. The water rose up to his knees, then to his waist, and in no time it reached his neck, but Pärshvanäth remained focused in meditation. Dharanendra noticed the situation and realized that Pärshvanäth, his benefactor from his last life, was going to drown in the rising floodwater. Immediately, Dharanendra descended and created a lotus-form with his tail so that Pärshvanäth would float on the water (it also said that Dharanendra placed a quick growing lotus flower below Pärshvanäth's feet to make him float on the water). He then spread his fangs over the head and sides of Pärshvanäth in order to protect him from the pouring rain. Dharanendra then severely reprimanded Meghamäli for his wretched actions and asked him to stop the rain. All of Meghamäli's efforts to harass Pärshvanäth had been in vain. He was disappointed, but then realized that he was unnecessarily creating trouble for the merciful Lord. He withdrew all his supernatural powers and fell at Pärshvanäth's feet with a sense of deep remorse, sincerely begging the Lord to forgive him for his evil acts. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 303 of 398 Page #304 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story - Tirthankars 02 - Bhagwän Pärshvanath During that period of distress, Pärshvanath had been deep in meditation. He had not been aware of Meghamäli's attacks or Dharanendra's protection. Pärshvanath had developed perfect equanimity, so he did not have any special affection for Dharanendra for the protection he had extended or hatred for Meghamäli for the distress he had caused. He continued developing a higher purity of consciousness after this, ultimately attaining omniscience on the 84th day of his renunciation (the 4th day of the dark half of the month of Falgun, usually falling in April). After attaining omniscience, Pärshvanath began preaching the true religion. He reinstated the Tirtha or religious four-fold order and became the 23rd Tirthankar of the Jain religion. He had ten Ganadhars, or principal disciples, and eventually his parents and his wife, Prabhävati, renounced the world and became his disciples as well. Thereafter, he lived long enough to spread the true religion before attaining nirvana at the age of 100 at Sametshikhar, a hill in the state of Bihar and a famous Jain pilgrimage site. Moral: Pärshva-kumär demonstrated a very keen sense of nonviolence and detachment from all material possessions and from relationships with people. These are the qualities essential for attaining self-realization. He showed us that one should be detached and impartial regardless of whether a person is our well-wisher or enemy. We may not always know and understand the reason why a person behaves in a strange way towards us; it may be because of our karmas from a past life. Highlights: Parshvanath's parents: Ashvasen and Vämädevi Wife: Prabhävati Mendicant performing fire ritual: Kamath (reborn as Meghamäli, god of rain) Snake found in log; reborn as Dharanendra, god/king of Nag kumärs Page 304 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #305 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story Tirthankars 03 - Bhagwän Neminäth 03- Bhagwan Neminäth A long time ago, the Yädava clan settled on the banks of the River Yamuna in India. The major centers of the Yädava community were Mathurä and Sauripura, located in the present-day state of Uttar Pradesh. When the Yädava king Samudravijay ruled over Sauripura with his wife, Shivädevi, they had a son, Lord Neminäth, and named him Nemkumär. Because his mother dreamt of a series of black jewels, called Arista when he was in her womb, he is also known as Aristanemi. King Väsudev, the younger brother of King Samudravijay, was the king of Mathurä. He had two queens; Queen Rohini, who had a son named Balräm (Padma), and Queen Devaki, who had a son named Shri Krishna. Both Balräm and Shri Krishna were the ninth Baldev and Väsudev as per Jain tradition. Shri Krishna is also the incarnation of Lord Vishnu (God) in Hindu religion. During this time, hunting was a favored sport and gambling was considered a respectable activity. Religious ceremonies included animal sacrifice, and the non-vegetarian diet was very popular. Meanwhile, the whole area of central India had been disturbed due to the prevailing conspiracies among various kingdoms. King Kamsa and the oppressive king Jaräsangh of Magadha, a Prativäsudev by the Jain tradition, instigated the worst problems. In order to protect the people, various kings of the Yädava clan, including Samudravijay, Väsudev, Ugrasen, and Shri Krishna, migrated from Mathurä and Sauripura to the West Coast of Gujarat, India. Shri Krishna constructed the large and beautiful town of Dvärkä on the seacoast near the Raivatak (Girnar) Mountain. Its grand architecture and strong fortification made it heavenly, beautiful, and unconquerable. Ugrasen became the king of Junagadh, situated on the other side of the foothills of Mount Girnar. By his wife Dhärini, he had a daughter named Räjimati or Räjul. She was a beautiful and graceful young girl and many princes were eager to marry her. However, when she came to know of Nemkumär, she became captivated and desired to marry him. King Ugrasen sent a request to Nemkumar of engagement to Räjul. After considerable effort, friends and family persuaded Nemkumar to become engaged to Räjul. Everyone was happy, thinking that Nem and Räjul would make an ideal couple. The two were engaged and an auspicious day was fixed for their wedding ceremony. For King Ugrasen, the wedding of his beloved daughter was a once-in-a-lifetime occasion and so he made elaborate wedding arrangements. On the wedding day, Nemkumar mounted his chariot, specially decorated for the wedding, and a large number of people joined to witness the gorgeous wedding ceremony. However, as the procession was approaching its destination, Nemkumär heard the sobbing sounds of animals. Moreover, on the side of the road, he saw large fenced areas and cages full of wailing animals and birds. Filled with sympathy and compassion, Nemkumar asked the charioteer why those animals and birds were being kept in bondage. The charioteer informed him that the wailing sound was coming from the birds and animals that were to be slaughtered for the wedding dinner. Upon hearing this, Nemkumar could not bear the idea of violence being caused on the account of his wedding. He asked the charioteer to free all the animals and birds and started thinking about how to prevent such violence. "Can there be a way of life that would extend peace and security to every living being?" he asked himself. As he thought deep into the matter, it was clear to him that he should explore a way of life that promoted the well-being of all. He realized that after marriage, he might get too involved in worldly life and it would be hard for him to embark upon such an exploration. Since the present seemed like the right time for him to explore the truth that would lead to the happiness of every living being, he decided not to get married. Everyone on the bridegroom's side was taken aback by his decision. His friends and close relatives tried to dissuade him, but he calmly explained that his mission was to explore freedom from misery for all living beings. He further explained, "As these animals were prisoners in their cages, we all are prisoners in the cages of karma which are much stronger than these fences. The feeling of joy is evident in the animals released from the cages. Happiness is in freedom, not in bondage. I want to find the path to breaking this bondage of karma and embrace eternal bliss. Please do not stop me." Then, he asked the charioteer to turn back. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 305 of 398 Page #306 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story - Tirthankars After returning to his kingdom, Nemkumar spent a year donating all his belongings to the poor and the needy. At the end of the year, he left his royal palace and went to the nearby Raivata garden. Under an Ashok tree, he took off all his ornaments and royal dress and pulled out five fistfuls of hair, becoming an ascetic along with one thousand others. Shri Krishna, deeply touched, blessed his cousin and wished him success in his mission. Monk Nemkumär first went to Mount Girnar and entered intense meditation. As he stood motionless, trying to find the cause of all unhappiness, he realized that ignorance of the true nature of the Self led to wrong perception, and consequent wrong actions resulted in all sorts of misery and pain. He therefore dwelled deep on the Self. 03 Bhagwän Neminäth After spending fifty-four days in deep spiritual meditation at Mount Girnar, Neminäth destroyed all his Ghäti karmas, which were obscuring the true nature and power of the soul. He attained Keval-jnän and became an omniscient. He established the four-fold religious order (Chaturvidha Sangh or Tirth) and became the twenty-second Tirthankar of the Jain religion. Thereafter, he lived a long life preaching the path of liberation to the common people. Back at the time when Neminäth was deciding to renounce his worldly life, Räjul was being adorned by her girlfriends. She was eagerly waiting for the arrival of Nemkumar as the bridegroom when they heard the news that he had turned back. No one could understand his decision. Räjul was in utter grief. Her friends tried to console her in that hour of crisis. Some of them started cursing Nemkumär for putting their beloved friend in such a miserable condition, while others advised her to forget the unpredictable Nemkumar and look for another suitable match. However, in her heart, Räjul had accepted Nemkumär as her husband and she could not even think of any other person taking his place. She did not like anyone cursing Nemkumar or speaking poorly of him. She also had some spiritual orientation. When she came to know of the reason for his renouncement, she was able to overcome her grief. She realized that Nemkumar had left for a commendable purpose. Appreciating his mission, she thought that the best path for her was to follow his footsteps. She absorbed herself in religious practices. When Räjul heard that Neminäth had become an omniscient she went to the Samavasaran along with many of her friends and took Dikshä. She absorbed herself in meditation and penance and spent the rest of her life as the head of the order of the nuns. In the end, after destroying all her karmas, she attained liberation. Moral: Compassion towards animals is the hallmark of Bhagawän Neminäth's life story. Witnessing the killing and torture of animals on his account ignited his passion to search for a path that freed all from misery. Princess Räjul's story shows that she did not reproach him for his actions but followed him on his search for truth. One should never reproach another for right actions. Highlights: • Neminath's parents: Samudravijay and Shivadevi Alternate names: Aristanemi • Birthplace: Sauripura Witnessed cruelty to animals for his wedding and did not get married; decided to search for a path leading to freedom from misery Princess Rajul took Diksha after him Page 306 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #307 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story Tirthankars 04 - Bhagwän Mallinäth 04- Bhagwan Mallinäth A long time ago, King Mahäbal ruled over the city of Veetshoka in the Mahävideha region of Jambudweep. King Mahäbal had six very close childhood friends. The seven of them were so close that they did everything together. None of them would do anything without seeking the advice of the others. One day, a well-known Ächärya named Dharmaghosh-suri came to Veetshoka. King Mahäbal and his friends went to listen to his sermon and were very impressed. Mahäbal realized that extreme misery and pain exists in living a worldly life, so he decided to renounce worldly life. Upon sharing his intentions with his friends, they agreed to do the same. His friends also renounced their worldly lives along with him. King Mahäbal and his six friends became monks and disciples of Dharmaghosh-suri. As monks, these seven friends observed austerities and restraints together. Unbeknown to his friends however, Mahäbal sought more than just freedom from the pains of worldly life. He had an intense desire to free every living being from suffering and to guide them all towards liberation. To achieve his objective, Mahäbal secretly observed longer austerities. Because of this intense penance and strong motivation, Mahäbal acquired Tirthankar-Näm-Karma. At the same time, because of this secrecy, he acquired the karma that he would be born as a female in the future according to Shvetambar tradition. All seven friends continued to observe increasingly difficult austerities throughout their lives. At the end of their lives, they all attained a heavenly abode. After completing their heavenly life spans, Mahäbal and his six friends were born as human beings in different places. During this time King Kumbha was ruling over the city of Mithilä, India. He had a queen named Prabhävati. While she was pregnant, she saw 14 (16 by the Digambar tradition) pious dreams indicating the arrival of a Tirthankar soul. Since Mahäbal had earned the Tirthankar-Näm-Karma and a female gender, his soul descended into the womb of Prabhävati and was born as Princess Malli. (The Digambar tradition believes that Tirthankar Mallinäth was male and rejects the acquisition of female gender Karma). A few years later, Queen Prabhävati had a son named Malladin. The six friends of Mahäbal were reborn as princes in different kingdoms. They eventually became powerful kings of the cities of Hastinäpur, Ayodhyä, Champä, Käshi, Kämpilypur, and Shrävasti. All of these cities were located in the present states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. King Kumbha and Queen Prabhävati lovingly raised their children Malli and Malladin. Princess Malli was exceedingly charming and beautiful and grew up to be a very attractive girl. Malladin respected his elder sister. King Kumbha wanted to give them the best education and therefore entrusted their training to highly respected teachers who taught them all the required arts and crafts. Princess Malli mastered all the fine arts and became a talented and accomplished princess. Malladin learned all the martial arts and became a bold and brave youth. At one point, King Kumbha decided to establish an art gallery in Mithilä. A marvelous building was constructed for this purpose and all of the well-known artists were invited to make their artistic contribution to the gallery. One artist from Hastinäpur possessed a special power to prepare an accurate portrait of anyone by merely seeing one part of his or her body. He once happened to see the toe of princess Malli and from that, he drew an accurate portrait of princess Malli on the wall. Even the smallest details were accurately portrayed. It was so lifelike that when prince Malladin came to see the gallery and looked at the portrait, he felt as if his sister were standing there and actually folded his hands as a token of respect When he realized that it was merely a portrait, he was puzzled as to how the artist had obtained such minute details of his sister's body. He was told of the special power and the talent that the artist possessed. Although he recognized the rarity of this accomplishment, the prince also foresaw the dangers of such a talent. He therefore wanted to prevent the use of that special power. The artist was asked to abandon his art in return for a suitable reward. The artist refused and insisted upon his freedom of artistic expression. In order to prevent the misuse of the artist's talents, the prince ordered that the thumb of the artist be cut off; the artist decided immediately to take revenge. The angry artist returned to Hastinäpur without one thumb. He found another artist who could draw a portrait of princess Malli according to his instructions. In time he prepared an even more attractive portrait of Malli and presented it to the king of Hastinäpur (who was Malli's close friend in a previous life). The Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 307 of 398 Page #308 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story - Tirthankars 04 - Bhagwan Mallinäth king was very impressed by the portrait, fell in love with Malli, and decided to make princess Malli his wife. He sent a marriage proposal to King Kumbha of Mithilä. In the same manner the kings of Ayodhyä, Champä, Käshi, Kämpilypur and Shrävasti also learned of the exceptional beauty of princess Malli and sent marriage proposals. After considering these proposals, King Kumbha did not find any of them suitable for Malli and rejected them all. This angered the six kings, who decided to conquer the city of Mithilä together in order to get princess Malli. King Kumbha faced them with all his might but he could not withstand the combined strength of the invading forces. He retreated back to his kingdom and closed the gates of the city. The invading forces then laid siege on Mithilä, but the city would not be able to withstand the siege for long. When princess Malli came to know of the situation, she contemplated on the issue. Gifted with an enlightened mind, she realized that the root cause of the problem lay in her earlier life. She recalled her life as King Mahäbal and realized that due to their deep affection for her in their previous lives, all six of the kings even now desired to be near her. Malli decided that since she was the cause of the problem, she herself should find a solution. She requested her father not to worry and to leave everything to her. Upon remembering that the palace had a hall with six doors, Malli came up with a plan. Behind each door she arranged beautifully furnished rooms. The doors of the hall were fitted with a fine screen through which people sitting in the rooms could look into but not see what was happening in the other five rooms. Malli commissioned a statue of herself so lifelike that anyone looking at the statue would believe that it was the princess herself. The statue was hollow with a hole at the top which could be covered tightly. The statue was placed in the middle of the hall and a maidservant was asked to put a morsel of food twice a day within its cavity and then close its top immediately. Then, Malli requested her father to send invitations to all six kings to come to the hall to meet her. The plan was to invite them to the hall in the evening and have them wait in the room assigned to them. At the appropriate time, all of the kings came and occupied their respective rooms. As they glanced through the screen, they immediately noticed the beautiful statue of Malli. Each of them thought it was Princess Malli herself and anxiously waited to go inside. They also noticed that Malli was far more beautiful than they had expected and fell even more deeply in love with her. As they were waiting, princess Malli entered the hall through a secret tunnel and, standing behind the statue, opened the top of the cavity. The food that had been put in the statue had rotted and emitted a foul odor. The smell was so obnoxious that the kings had to cover their nose. Thereupon the real Malli presented herself and asked why they could not stand the smell of the person whom they loved so much. They admitted that they could not bear the foul odor. Malli then explained that the food she ate was the same food in the statue. The food in her body did not stink because her soul prevented the rotting. However, when her soul would leave the body, her body too would start to decay. It is the nature of the body to degenerate, decay, and disintegrate. Malli asked the kings, "What is the purpose of being attached to a body when it is destined to rot eventually? Is it not worthwhile to pursue something that will last forever?" As the kings stood there in amazement, she explained that in their past lives they were seven very close friends who had done everything together. Upon hearing this, the kings recalled their past lives and what they had renounced. The seven of them now felt an acute sense of detachment for the short-lived worldly life. They all decided to renounce the world in order to enhance the spiritual pursuit that they had left undone in the earlier life. Very elaborate arrangements were made for the renunciation ceremony of Princess Malli. She gave up everything and adopted self-initiation at a place known as Sahasrämravan. She destroyed all of her destructive Karma (Ghäti Karmas that affect the nature and quality of the soul) in a very short time and attained keval-inän (omniscience) on the very same day, becoming the 19th Tirthankar of the Jain religion. Thereafter she traveled throughout the country for a long time to show the path of liberation to others. Ultimately, she attained liberation on Mount Sametshikhar. The Shvetämbar tradition believes that Tirthankar Mallinäth was a female and the other 23 Tirthankars were male. Idols of Tirthankars represent the qualities of the Arihantas and not their physical body. Page 308 of 398 Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page #309 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story Tirthankars 04 - Bhagwän Mallinäth Hence, the physical appearance of the idols of all the Tirthankars is the same without any indication of male or female gender. Moral: This body is a mere vessel that holds the soul. Upon death, the soul simply moves to another body unless one attains liberation from the cycle of birth and death. One needs to realize that this veil of skin and flesh is mortal. Physical beauty is deceptive and temporary. Princess Malli made this point through the statue and the rotten food. The importance of our human life is that it is a means of attaining liberation from the cycle of birth and death. One needs to rise above the physical aspects of life and use this life to progress spiritually so that the soul can attain liberation. Highlights: Last life King Mahäbal, with 6 close friends Born to King Kumbha and Queen Prabhävati; brother Malladin Six friends reborn as kings who desired to marry her; showed them temporal quality of worldly life through statue with food inside. Compendium of Jainism - 2015 Page 309 of 398 Page #310 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ F01 Story - Tirthankars 05 - Bhagwan Adinath 05 - Bhagwan Adinath Time is infinite. The Jain time cycle has no beginning or end. It continuously migrates from periods of progress to periods of decline. According to Jain tradition, a period of progress, known as an Utsarpini or an ascending order, is marked with all-around improvements, including longer lifespan, greater prosperity, and overall happiness. On the other hand, a period of decline, known as an Avasarpini or a descending order, is marked with all-around deterioration and decline such as a shorter life span and general gloom. These two periods together make one time cycle. Each Utsarpini and Avasarpini is divided into six eras called Äräs, meaning the spokes of a wheel. We are currently in the fifth Arä of the Avasarpini period. It is also known as Dusham or Dukham (Unhappy) Ärä. Hindu tradition calls it Kaliyuga. Until the end of the third Ärä of the current Avasarpini, people lead a natural and simple life. The population was small and Nature provided all the necessities for human beings; trees provided shelter and enough leaves and bark for covering their bodies. With the help of the branches, they could erect huts for protection from rain and extreme weather. When they felt hungry, they could pick their food from the trees and bushes. There was enough flowing water for cleaning their bodies and quenching their thirst. As such, there was no struggle for existence or rivalry for survival, and people spent their lives in peace. The people lived in tribes, each of which had a leader known as a Kulkar or king. Towards the end of the third Ärä, there lived a Kulkar named Näbhiräyä who peacefully managed his community. In due cou