Book Title: $JES 102 Jainism I Basic of Jainism Level 1 Book
Author(s): JAINA Education Committee
Publisher: JAINA Education Committee
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Page #1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism I - Basics of Jainism (JAINA Education Series 102 - Level 1) Lord Mahavira attains Kevaljnan JAINA Education Committee Federation of Jaina Associations of North America JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jainism I Basics of Jainism (JES 102) Jaina Education Series 102 - Level 1 First Edition: November 2007 ISBN: 1-59406-001-0 2 This book has no copyright Please use the religious material respectfully and for nonprofit purposes. Published and Distributed by: Federation of Jain Associations in North America We are interested in your comments. Please donate generously towards Jaina Education Activity. Send your contribution to Jaina Education Committee. Use the above address for communication. Printed in India JAINA Education Committee Pravin K. Shah, Chairperson 509 Carriage Woods Circle Raleigh, NC 27607-3969 USA Telephone and Fax - 919-859-4994 Email - Email - Website - JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DEDICATED TO Jain Pathashala Teachers of North America For their continued efforts and commitment in promoting religious awareness, nonviolence, reverence for all life forms, protection of the environment, and a spirit of compassionate interdependence with nature and all living beings. As importantly, for their commitment to the practice of Jainism, consistent with our principles, including vegetarianism and an alcohol/drug free lifestyle. We especially appreciate the efforts of all the Pathashala Teachers in instilling the basic values of Jainism and promoting principles of non-violence and compassion to all youth and adults. Special thanks to all Jain Vegan and alcohol/drug free youth and adults for inspiring us to see the true connection between our beliefs and our choices. A vegan and alcohol/drug free lifestyle stems from a desire to minimize harm to all animals as well as to our own body, mind, and soul. As a result, one avoids the use of all animal products such as milk, cheese, butter, ghee, ice cream, silk, wool, pearls, leather, fur, down, feathers, meat, fish, chicken, eggs and refrains from all types of addictive substances such as alcohol and drugs. JAINISM I BASICS OF JAINISM 3 Page #4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Preface.. Introduction Jain Prayers.. Lesson 1 - Navakar Mantra Lesson 2 - Our Religion... Lesson 3 - My Temple.... Lesson 4 - Rituals at Temple. Lesson 5 Our Spiritual Guru - Lesson 6 - My Family. Lesson 7 - Brave Prince Vardhaman.. Table of Contents Lesson 8 - Going to Pathashala Lesson 9 - Living Beings.. Lesson 10 Five Senses Lesson 11 - Various Kinds of Living Beings. Lesson 12 - Non-Living Things. Lesson 13 Virtues.. Lesson 14 - Vices Lesson 15 Do's.. Lesson 16 Lesson 17 4 - Don'ts. How Not to Get Mad. JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM 6 9 12 18 23 26 30 34 36 38 42 .44 46 47 .50 52 54 59 .60 62 Page #5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ..... 64 Lesson 18 - Four Bhavanas (Thoughts................. Lesson 19 - Compassion of the Elephant ............ .......67 Lesson 20 - Metarya Muni...... Lesson 21 - Vegetarianism....... 74 Lesson 22 - Raj Goes to a Restaurant... ....................... 77 Lesson 23 - Seema Goes Grocery Shopping ........ .........79 Lesson 24 - Sonia and her School Lunch ........ Lesson 25 - Love for Animals......... Lesson 26 - My Environment.. 87 Lesson 27 - Three R's of the Environment ....... .....................89 Lesson 28 - Jain Festivals................ 81 15 ...... 91 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREFACE Preface Jai Jinendra, Jainism is a modern word to describe the ancient spiritual path of non-violence. The term Jain comes from the word 'Jina' which means 'spiritual victor'. It designates a person who is a conqueror of the inner enemies - anger, ego, deceit, greed, fear, attachment, and hatred. The total Jain population is about 6 million in the world, which is less than 1% of the Indian population. In North America, there are an estimated 25,000 Jain families practicing the ancient traditions of this religion. At present there are 63 Jain centers and about 3500 Jain youth regularly attend the Pathashalas. Despite talks of the demise of Jainism due to the spread and acceptance of the Western culture, Jainism still is a widely practiced way of life by Jains of North America. The reason Jainism is still followed by today's youth is not only due to their upbringing, but it is mainly a result of Jain Pathashalas teaching Jain principles and values to our youth throughout North America. It gives today's young generation a chance to understand Jainism on their terms and incorporate it in their lives to the best of their ability. Without Jain literature available JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ so readily, Jainism would not be ingrained in the lives of the youth today. People who believe Jainism has reached its peak are underestimating the youth. In North America the Jain youth and Young Jain Professionals plan conventions for Young Jains of America, are active in their local Jain centers, organize plays, and bring their unique perspectives to the community. The more educated the youth are about Jainism, the more willing they will be to practice it as well as promote it by establishing even more Jain centers and spreading the great message. To make our community even stronger for the youth, education is necessary, especially at an early age. PREFACE This book "Jainism I - The Basics of Jainism" is compiled by a very young and energetic Pathashala teacher Parinda Shah of the Jain Center of Chicago Illinois. She was also a past Pathashala student since she was 13 years of age. She has spent countless hours in compiling this book. Jaina Education Committee sincerely appreciates her contribution, dedication and passion for this book. We would also like to extend special thanks to Dr. Pradip & Darshana Shah, Hemang Srikishan, Shibani Shah, and Alap Shah of Chicago, IL and Rekha Banker of Raleigh NC who contributed in the revising and editing of this book for Parinda Shah. JAINISM I BASICS OF JAINISM 7 Page #8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PREFACE Since Jaina Education Books are always a work in progress, we welcome your comments and suggestions. Your advice will be considered in future editions. Any organization or individual may use the information from this book freely for non-profit purposes. No permission is necessary from the Jaina Education Committee. The pdf file of this book is available at Pravin K. Shah, Chairperson, JAINA Education Committee, Federation of Jain Associations In North America November 13, 2007 8 JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM Page #9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION Introduction When I was young, there weren't any Jain books available in English in USA. The JAINA Education Committee has revolutionized this and brought English books to every household so the language barrier is dissolved. However although most of the books are for kids of ages 10 and up, simple books about Jainism are lacking for kids under that age. I joined Jain Pathashala myself when I was 13, so I was extremely excited to see the Level 3 and 4 books (ages 13 and up), and enjoyed the curriculums derived from them in class. The lesson plans worked out extremely well and the revisions of the books kept getting better and better. As soon as I graduated from Pathashala and became a teacher myself. I realized the lack of books for elementary level children. I originally started out as a teacher of 7 and 8 year olds, and I realized that none of the books applied to them. For the few months I taught them, I used to devise lesson plans for hours. It involved creating handouts, activities, and practically writing chapters that should have been in a book for the children. The children had no books that applied to them. The other books were extraordinary, but the wealth of information they contained did not appeal to the younger kids. The kids first need to learn how to be a good person and the basics of Jainism before they delve into the eight JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #10 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION karmas and the six substances. The students' desire to learn, but lack of comprehensible materials, inspired me to compile and create "Basics of Jainism." Using sources such as "Jain Lessons I and II" by Premchand Uncle as well as an old version of "Basics of Jainism," I started out on my quest to create a book for the kids. I tried to focus more on non-violence and universal virtues such as kindness and honesty rather than laying concepts out in Jain terms such as the principles, karmas, and substances. By exposing kids to Jain virtues at an early age, we are well on the path to keeping Jainism alive in the Western world. I hope that this book will allow kids to read about our religion on their own without becoming dependent on handouts. Exposure to Jainism at an earlier age is always great because it allows kids to build an excellent foundation and ask questions early on. They don't have to hear how Jainism is a way of life, but they can experience this for themselves. Several people put their time in making this book and their help is greatly appreciated. Without their help, this project could not have been a success. I would like to extend special thanks to the following people who contributed in the revising and editing of this book 10 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #11 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ INTRODUCTION * Pradip & Darshana Shah - Chicago, IL * Hemang Srikishan - Chicago, IL * Shibani Shah - Chicago, IL * Alap Shah - Chicago, IL * Rekha Banker - Raleigh NC As I am just a recent Pathashala graduate and teacher, there are bound to be some errors in this book. Please feel free to provide suggestions for improvement to the Jaina Education Committee. If we have mentioned anything against the teachings of the Tirthankars, we ask for forgiveness. Michchhami Dukkadam. Parinda Shah Pathashala Teacher of the Jain Center of Chicago November 13, 2007 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #12 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN PRAYERS Jain Prayers Namaskar Mahamangal (Mahamantra) namo arihNtaannN| namo arihantanam | namo siddhaannN| namo siddhanam namo aayriyaannN| namo ayariyanam | namo uvjjhaayaannN| namo uvajjhayanam | namo loe svvsaahuunnN| namo loe savvasahunam | eso paMca nmukkaaro| eso pancha namukkaro | svvpaavppnnaasnno| savvapavappanasano | maMgalANaM ca savvesiM Mangalanam cha savvesim paDhamaM havai mNgl|| padhamam havai mangalam || I bow to Arihantas (Tirthankars), the perfected human souls, who have reached enlightenment by overcoming their inner weaknesses, who have attained infinite knowledge, perception, bliss, and power and have shown the path, which brings an end to the cycle of birth, death and suffering. I bow to Siddhas, the liberated souls, who have attained the state of perfection and immortality by eradicating all karma. I bow to Acharyas, who are the head of the Jain congregation and preach the principles of religion and show the path of liberation, which is the unity of Right Faith, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct. JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #13 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ I bow to Upadhyays who are the ascetic teachers. They explain Jain scriptures and show us the importance of a spiritual life over a material life. I bow to all Sadhus and Sadhvis who strictly follow the five great vows of conduct and inspire us to live a simple life. To these five types of great souls, I offer my praise. Such praise will help diminish my negative vibrations and sins. Offering this praise is most auspicious of all benedictions. I bow and seek inspiration from perfected human souls, liberated souls, enlightened ascetic leaders, ascetic teachers, and all monks and nuns in the world who practice non-violence (Ahimsa), truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy, and nonpossessiveness in their conduct, non-absolutistic viewpoint (Anekantavada) in their thinking. Chattari Mangalam cattAri maMgalaM arihaMtA maMgalaM siddhA maMgalaM sAhUmaMgalaM kevalipaNNatto dhammo maMgalaM / cattAri loguttamA, arihaMtA loguttamA siddhA loguttamA, sAhU loguttamA / kevalipaNNatto dhammo loguttamo / JAIN PRAYERS chattari mangalam, arihanta mangalam, siddha mangalam, sahu mangalam, kevalipannatto dhammo mangalam | chattari loguttama, arihanta loguttama, siddha loguttama, sahuu loguttama, kevalipannatto dhammo loguttamo I JAINISM I BASICS OF JAINISM 13 Page #14 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN PRAYERS cattAri saraNaM pavajjAmi arihaMte saraNaM pavajjAmi siddhe saraNaM pavajjAmi, sAhU saraNaM pavajjAmi kevala paNNattaM dhammaM saraNaM pvjjaami|| There are four auspicious entities in the universe. The Arihantas are auspicious. The Siddhas are auspicious. The Sadhus are auspicious. The religion explained by the omniscient is auspicious. chattari saranam pavajjami, arihante saranam pavajjami, siddhe saranam pavajjami, sahu saranam pavaj jami, kevali pannattam dhammam saranam pavajjami || There are four supreme entities in the universe. The Arihantas are supreme. The Siddhas are supreme. The Sadhus are supreme. The religion explained by the omniscient is supreme. I take refuge in the four entities of the universe. I take refuge in the Arihantas. I take refuge in the Siddhas. I take refuge in the Sadhus. I take refuge in the religion explained by the omniscient. 14 darzanaM devadevasya, darzanaM paapnaashnm| darzanaM svargasopAnaM, darzanaM moksssaadhnm|| darshanam devadevasya darshanam papanashanam darshanam svargasopanam darshanam mokshasadhanam || JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM Page #15 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ The sight of the idol of the Lord, the God of all Gods, is the destroyer of all sins. It is a step toward the heavens, and is a means to the liberation of the soul. _maMgalaM bhagavAna vIro, maMgalaM gautama prabhu / maMgalaM sthUlibhadrAdyA, maMgalaM kundukundAryo, jaina dharmostu maMgalaM / / JAIN PRAYERS mangalam bhagavana viro, mangalam gautama prabhu | mangalam sthulibhadradya, mangalam kundakundaryo, jaina dharmostu mangalam || Bhagawan Mahavir is auspicious, Ganadhar Gautam Swami is auspicious; Acharya Sthulibhadra is auspicious; Acharya Kunda-kunda is auspicious; the Jain religion is auspicious. AdimaM pRthivInAtha-mAdimaM niSparigraham / AdimaM tIrthanAthaM ca RSabhasvAminaM stumaH / / adimam prthivinatha-madimam nisparigraham | adimam tirthanatham cha rsabhasvaminam stumah || We adore Lord Rishabhadev who was the first king, who was the first to renounce all his possessions (everything) and who was the first Tirthankar. upasargAH kSayaM yAnti, chidyante vighnvllyH| manaH prasannatAmeti, pUjyamAne jinezvare / / upasargah ksayam yanti, chhidyante vighnavallayah | manah prasannatameti, pujyamane jineshvare || JAINISMI BASICS OF JAINISM 15 Page #16 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN PRAYERS All the troubles disintegrate, the shackles of obstacles break, the mind achieves a blissful state wherever and whenever the Lord Jineshvars are worshipped. 16 zivamastu sarvajagataH, parahitaniratA bhavantu bhUtagaNAH / doSAH prayAMtu nAzaM, sarvatra sukhIbhavatu lokH|| May the entire universe attain bliss; may all beings be oriented to the interest of others; let all faults be eliminated; and may people be happy everywhere. shivamastu sarvajagatah, parahitanirata bhavantu bhutaganah| dosah prayantu nasham, sarvatra sukhibhavatu lokah || khAmemi savvajIve, savve jIvA khamaMtu me| mittI me savva bhUesu, veram majjhaM na kenni|| khamemi savvajive, savve jiva khamantu me | mitti me savva bhuesu, veram majjham na kenai || I forgive all souls; let all souls forgive me. I am on friendly terms with all. I have no animosity towards anybody. JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #17 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ PRAYER OF GODDESS SARASWATI Prayer of Goddess Saraswati (Knowledge) zrI zrutadevI sarasvatI bhagavatI, hamako vara denA, jIvanakI bAMsurImeM devI, zradhdhA svara bhara denA. samyag jJAnakA dIpa jalAkara, manakA timira haTAnA, bhUle na bhaTake mAtA, aisI rAha batAnA. Shri Shrutadevi Saraswati, Bhagawati, Humko Var Dena, Jivan Ki Bansuri-Mai Devi, Shraddha Swara Bhar Dena. Samyag-Jnan-Ka Dip Jalakar Manaka Timir Hatana, Na Bhule Na Bhatake Mata, Aisi Raha Batana. O Goddess Saraswati! Bestow upon us your blessings. May you fill the flute of our life with the song of faith. May you kindle the light of true knowledge and thereby remove ignorance from our minds. O mother! Show us the right path of life, so we may never wander aimlessly; we may never lose sight of our righteous goal. JAINISM I BASICS OF JAINISM 17 Page #18 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAVAKAR MANTRA BOW DOWN TO ARIHANT 18 Lesson 1-Navakar Mantra NAMO ARIHANTANAM Namo Siddhanam I bow down to the Siddhas (To attain liberation) Namo Arihantanam I bow down to the Arihantas (To defeat my inner enemies) BOW DOWN TO SIDDHA JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM NAMO SIDDHANAM Page #19 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAMO UVAJJHYANAM I BOW DOWN TO UPADHYAYA Namo Ayariyanam I bow down to the Acharyas (To control my desires) Namo Uvajjhayanam I bow to the Upadhyays (To learn and meditate) Namo Loe Savvasahunam I bow down to all Sadhus and Sadhvis (To lead a simple life) JAINISM I BASICS OF JAINISM - NAVAKAR MANTRA 19 Page #20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAVAKAR MANTRA Eso Pancha Namukkaro I bow down to all five supreme beings Savva Pava Ppanasano Which destroy all my sins 20 Mangalanancha Savvesim Amongst all that is holy, Padhamam Havai Mangalam Navakar Mantra is the holiest. By saying the Navakar Mantra, we pay our respects to the Arihantas, Siddhas, Acharyas, Upadhyays, and the Sadhus. Every morning, as soon as I get up, I sit up, close my eyes, and recite Navakar Mantra seven times, to respect and remember the qualities of the five supreme beings (Pancha Paramesthi). I also think that I am Jain and I follow the teachings of Tirthankar Bhagawan. I have the ability to do all the good things I wish to do. I should love everyone and treat everyone nicely. JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #21 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NAVAKAR MANTRA Every night before going to bed, I sit up, close my eyes, and recite Navakar Mantra seven times. I also think about my actions for the day. If I was angry today, I decide not to get angry tomorrow. If I was not helpful to someone today, I decide to be helpful tomorrow. The Navakar Mantra teaches us to show respect. By saying it, the sins of many lives are washed away. We should recite this mantra every morning and at night. We should recite this mantra before study. We should recite it before starting any good work. We should recite it as much as we can. Questions: What is the main prayer in Jainism? Key Words Arihanta Siddha Acharya Upadhyay Sadhu Pancha Paramesthi Whom do we bow down to in the Navakar Mantra? JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #22 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ OUR RELIGION 22 ESSENCE OF JAINISM Non-violence (Ahimsa) Respect for the life of all beings leading to compassionate living and selfless service Non-absolutism (Anekantavad) Respect for the views of others leading to mutual understanding and peaceful co-existence Non-possessiveness ((parigraha) Respect for the environment leading to voluntary limits on desires and ethical living JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM Page #23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ OUR RELIGION Lesson 2- Our Religion Jainism is our religion. We are Jains, the followers of Jina. Jina is someone who is full of good thoughts like truth, love, peace, and compassion. Jina does not have any bad thoughts like anger or greed or pride. Jina is also not affected by the material world or evil. Jina is also called Tirthankar, Arihant, or Bhagawan. The Jain religion is very old. We have twenty four Bhagawan like Adinath, Shantinath, and Parshvanath to name a few. Lord Mahavir is our last Bhagawan. We follow his teachings today. Our Bhagawan said you should treat others as you would wish to be treated. The message of Lord Mahavir is that we should love all living beings and not hurt any living being. We should help others and make each other happy. To understand the pain and unhappiness that others are feeling is kindness. Jainism is based on kindness to all living beings. JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #24 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ OUR RELIGION We say the Navakar Mantra when we wake up and before going to bed at night to worship the qualities of the five supreme beings and work hard to become like them. In the Morning Prayer, we remind ourselves: - To be forgiving and understanding - To be honest and simple - To be nice to everyone - To be thankful for everything we have - To be helpful to all living beings - To be respectful of the environment Questions: Key Words Jina Who is a Jina? Mahavir Bhagawan Kindness Lord Mahavir's What is message? Why do we say Navakar Mantra when we wake up? JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ My TEMPLE Concept of Jina JINA as a spiritual victor over inner enemies Eyes are open Awakened soul Royally adorned JINA as a symbol of freedom Free of all allachments and aversions Eyes partially closed in meditation Enlightened soul Sky clad JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #26 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ MY TEMPLE My temple is called "Derasar" or "Mandir". It is a beautiful and peaceful place to pray. It helps me think about myself. O Lesson 3- My Temple Cl Jains go to Derasar to pray to Tirthankar Bhagawan. Jains also go to an "Upashray" to pray and pay respect to Sadhus and Sadhvis and to study religion. Upashray is a place where Sadhus and Sadhvis stay. Before we go to temple, we bathe, wear clean clothes, and take things for puja with us. The first part of Derasar we see is the Shikhar. When we see the Shikhar, we say "Namo Jinanam." This means that we are bowing down to the Jinas or Tirthankaras. The Shikhar is topped with a Red and White colored flag, 26 JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ My TEMPLE which is called the Dhaja. Red color represents Siddha and White color represents Arihanta or Tirthankara. Before entering the temple, we must take off our shoes. We do not eat, drink, or chew gum in temple. We also do not talk or run around in temple. After removing our shoes, we place Chandan Tilak on our forehead. Putting on Tilak means that we are accepting Bhagawan's teachings. When we enter the temple, we say "Nissihi". This means we will leave thoughts of our daily life behind and only think about prayer, puja, meditation, and Arihanta Bhagawan. We ring the bell (Ghant) after saying Nissihi to express our happiness for Darshan and to spread a joyous and divine sound through the temple and our heart. JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ My TEMPLE Next we see the peaceful idol (Murti) of Tirthankar Bhagawan. An idol is like a mirror, which reflects our ideals. The idol represents Jina, who has reached the highest state of life and tells us that we are capable of adding supreme love and kindness to our lives as well. When we see the idol we should bow down and recite Stutis. Then we go around the idol three times and also bow down three times by touching our head on the floor. Most idols are sitting in the lotus posture. The lotus posture represents purity even in worldly life, just as a lotus grows beautifully in muddy water and shows no effects of the mud. A on special occasions, the idols are decorated with flowers, precious gems, jewelry, and other materials in a process called Angi. This is one more way to express our love and devotion to Arihanta Bhagawan. 28 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Some idols are in the lotus posture with their eyes closed in meditation and are without any decoration. Some idols are also in standing meditative posture. Every idol has a symbol (Lanchhan) on its base. Each and every Tirthankar has a different symbol. This helps us know which Tirthankar the idol represents. A donation box or 'Bhandar" in the temple encourages us to donate without expectations of praise or becoming famous. When we give, we develop a good heart. Key Words Nissihi Derasar Upashray Bhandar Namo Jinanam Angi Lanchhan Dhaja MY TEMPLE Questions: What do we say when we enter Derasar? How can we find out what Tirthankar the idol represents? JAINISM I BASICS OF JAINISM 29 Page #30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS AT TEMPLE Lesson 4-Rituals at Temple When we go to temple, first we do Pranam to the Tirthankar (idol). This is a sign of respect to Bhagawan. We bow to them because they lead us on the right path, so one day we will be just like them. When doing Pranam, we bow our heads down and say prayers like, Stutis. One small stuti to Bhagawan. darshanam devadevasya darshanam papanashanam darshanam svargasopanam darshanam mokshasadhanam || The sight of the idol of the Lord, the God of all gods (Devas), is the destroyer of all sins. It is a step toward the heavens, and is a means to the liberation of the soul. 30 Before doing puja, we bathe and wear clean clothes. We first do Abhisheka, which is bathing the idol with pure water. We do Abhisheka to make our life simple and pure by cleaning our souls and getting rid of our bad qualities. JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM Page #31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Then we go into the puja room and make our own Chandan or sandalwood paste for Puja. You can ask an adult to help you make Chandan. By applying sandalwood to Bhagawan we wish to make our heart peaceful. (2A) 2B We can also place beautiful flowers on Bhagawan while doing puja to make our heart soft as a flower. We do not pluck flowers because that I will hurt the plant. We should use flowers that have fallen on the ground on their own, on a clean cloth. We only do puja on Bhagawan's nine Angas (parts of the body) in the order shown on the picture to the side. The nine Angs are; toes, knees, center of arms, shoulders, top of head, forehead, throat, center of chest, and navel JAINISM I BASICS OF JAINISM RITUALS AT TEMPLE 31 Page #32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RITUALS AT TEMPLE We now do Dhoop (incense) puja. Just as the incense removes the bad odor, we should remove false faith. Deepak (lamp) puja is the next puja that we do and it means that we want to gain right knowledge. After finishing puja, we can sit with our parents and make a Sathiya or swastika out of rice grains. Rice grain does not grow again if planted in the ground. Therefore the Sathiya made with rice grains represents that we do not want to go through the cycles of life and death again. On the Sathiya, we can place fruits, and money. By putting money we learn not to be attached to our belongings. Before the temple closes for the day and also after some special puja, Arati and Mangal Divo are performed. Arati consists of singing "Jay Jay Arati" and lighting five divo (lamps with cotton wicks soaked in 32 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ oil). The five divo represent the Pancha Paramesthi which are Arihanta, Siddha, Acharya, Upadhyayas and All Sadhus and Sadhvis. great honor. Mangal Divo consists of singing "Divo Re Divo" and lighting one divo, which represents knowledge and also liberation. It also expresses blessings for everyone. Doing Arati and Mangal divo is a Key Words Stuti Sathiya Chandan Abhisheka Pranam Dhoop Deepak Arati Mangal Divo RITUALS AT TEMPLE Questions: What do we say in front of Bhagawan? What do we do before the temple closes every night? JAINISMI BASICS OF JAINISM Why do we use rice grains to make a Sathiya? 33 Page #34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ OUR SPIRITUAL GURU Our spiritual Gurus are different from our regular school teachers in many ways. Some people give up all worldly pleasures and become a Sadhu or Sadhvi because they want to follow a higher spiritual or religious life. This means they have given up wearing fashionable clothes, going to movies, watching TV, sleeping on soft beds, and going out to eat ice cream and pizza. They do not even travel in cars or planes. They walk barefoot everywhere. They do not earn money because they live on alms. Lesson 5 Our Spiritual Guru * They do not have any ties to their family, friends, or money. They go from house to house to collect alms (food) and accept very simple food from people who happily offer them food. They fast a lot. They travel from town to town and teach us religion. During rainy season they stay in a place called Upashray. They study religious books most of the day and have devoted their lives to religion. 34 JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM Page #35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Most monks wear only simple cotton white clothes and have a Muhapatti (white cloth to cover their mouth) in their hands or tied over their mouth. Some monks do not wear any clothes at all. They all live a very simple life. Questions: How are our monks different from us and our school teachers? What do we say when we see a monk? The lady monks are called "Sadhvis" and the male monks are called "Sadhus". When we see Sadhus or Sadhvis, we should bow our heads down to show our respect and say, "Matthen Vandami," or "Vandami Namamswami". OUR SPIRITUAL GURU Key Words Guru Simplicity Upashray Muhapatti Matthen Vandami Vandami Namamswami JAINISMI BASICS OF JAINISM 35 Page #36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ MY FAMILY Lesson 6 - My Family I say "Jai Jinendra" to my parents, brothers, and sisters Jai Jinendra when I first see them in the morning to respect them. I bow down to my parents and grandparents for their blessings and love. I also say "Jai Jinendra" to everyone in the family before I go to sleep. My parents taught me to pray and meditate. I say my prayers every morning and night remembering the good qualities of the Tirthankars. I want to be just like Mahavir Bhagawan and the other Tirthankars. My parents taught me a lot about Jain religion. They told me to respect all living beings. I am kind to animals and plants because they are full of life just like me. I do not hurt or kill them. I eat only vegetarian foods and do not eat meat, seafood or eggs. I try not to eat dairy products as much as possible too. My mom and dad cook yummy vegetarian meals every day. My parents make sure 36 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ MY FAMILY that the clothes and other things they buy do not have any animal products such as silk or wool in them. My family donates food, clothes, and money to the people who do not have enough food to eat, enough clothes to wear or enough money to buy medicine and other necessary things. We also help out in our community as much as possible. 6 Foog DANK Fodo 10 My grandparents live with me too. I respect them and love talking to them. They tell me stories about when they were little. They also teach me how to read and write Indian languages like Hindi and Gujarati. I learn all about India from my grandparents. They told me that people in India live differently than here. After I am done with my school lessons, I help my parents with some housework. Questions: What do we say to each other as a greeting or when we wake Key Words Jai Jinendra Tirthankar Meditation Charity Community up? Why do we eat vegetarian food? JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BRAVE PRINCE VARDHAMAN Lesson 7 - Brave Prince Vardhaman One afternoon, Prince Vardhaman was playing a game of "catch and ride" with his friends. The person who won would get to ride on the back of the loser. A new kid joined their game. This kid was easy to catch, and he lost every time. Almost every child got to ride on his back. Prince Vardhaman also caught the new child, so he also rode on his back. JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BRAVE PRINCE VARDHAMAN (A few minutes later) While Vardhaman was on his back, the child started to grow bigger and bigger, and taller and taller. At first, Vardhaman's friends watched this with curiosity. Later when the child's face began to turn weird, the children got scared and started to run away. Some children climbed up a tree, while others ran to tell their parents. During all this, Vardhaman remained calm and brave. The monster kept growing taller. So Vardhaman hit the monster in the head with his fist. The monster tried to throw Vardhaman off his back to avoid the pain, but he could not. JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ BRAVE PRINCE VARDHAMAN Finally the monster asked for forgiveness. Vardhaman forgave the monster. In reality the monster was a heavenly god who had come down in disguise to test prince Vardhaman's bravery. The monster named the child "Mahavir", which means the strong and brave one. Since then, Prince Vardhaman was called Mahavir. Questions: Why was 24th Tirthankar was named "Mahavir"? 40 JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM Page #41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Bhagwan Mahavir I pray to you my Bhagwan Mahavir, HO A prince you were, Your name was Vardhaman. Your mother was a queen, Her name was Trishla, One day you gave up everything And became a Jina. Oh Bhagwan Mahavir You taught us to be kind and good, Sharing and truthful, And so many things so wonderful. My, Bhagwan Mahavir. JAINISMI BASICS OF JAINISM BRAVE PRINCE VARDHAMAN 41 Page #42 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GOING TO PATHASHALA Lesson 8 - Going to Pathashala Pathashala is my religious class where I learn all about the Jain religion. I love going to Pathashala. I learn all about the Tirthankars, Derasar, and play fun games. I also watch videos and sing songs. Through Pathashala, I learn how to become a better person. I learn that we should not hurt anyone, not get mad at anyone, steal, or show off in class. I should also always tell the truth and share what I have. I learn to love other living beings including animals, birds, bugs, and plants. I respect my Pathashala teachers because they give me so much knowledge about the Jain religion. They help me to become a better person. JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #43 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ GOING TO PATHASHALA I also respect temple property. I keep my desk and floor clean. I pick up everything off my floor when I leave. I do not write on my desk or throw my papers anywhere. I respect the books and handle them carefully. I also am careful not to step on paper or waste paper because paper represents knowledge too. I come to Pathashala on time because I am really excited to learn new things about Jain religion. I do not want to come in to class late and disturb everyone. Here, I also make new friends. Everyone should come to Pathashala slass! Questions: What do we learn about in Pathashala slass? Key Words Pathashala Derasar Knowledge Why do we come to Pathashala? JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #44 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LIVING BEINGS Lesson 9-Living Beings I am a living being. I breathe, I eat, and I drink. I see and I hear. I feel happy and I feel sad. My nature is to know and feel. There are two kinds of living beings. The first kind of living beings is the enlightened beings. Arihantas (Tirthankars or Jinas) and Siddhas are enlightened beings. They are happy or blissful forever. Arihantas are human beings and after their death they will attain Moksha (liberation). Siddhas have attained Moksha. They are pure souls. They do not go through the cycle of birth and death. Arihantas 44 I am capable of attaining Moksha (liberation). Siddhas JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM Page #45 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LIVING BEINGS The second kind of living beings is the worldly beings such as humans, animals, birds, and plants. They have a body with one to five sense organs. They go through birth and death. They feel happy and sad. I respect all life forms. Key Words Moksha Arihanta Siddha Questions: What are the two types of living beings? Who is capable of attaining Moksha (liberation)? JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #46 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 10 - Five Senses There are five sense organs that help living beings know the world. Some living beings have one, while some beings have all five senses. We have five sense organs. TASTE I taste sweet, sour, and bitter with my tongue. 46 TOUCH I feel warmth and cold with my skin. ()) SIGHT I see colors and pictures with my eyes. SMELL I smell with my nose. HEAR I hear sounds with my ears. FIVE SENSES JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM Page #47 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ VARIOUS KINDS OF LIVING BEINGS Lesson 11 - Various kinds of Living Beings ONE SENSED LIVING BEINGS Some living beings have only one sense. This sense is touch. Beings that are earth-bodied, water-bodied, fire-bodied, air-bodied, and plants have one sense. They also cannot move on their own. Earth bodied beings They have bodies made of earth: Soil, sand, gems, gold, silver, and more Water bodied beings They have bodies made of water: Snow flakes, ice, dew, rain and more Fire bodied beings They have bodies made of fire: Candle flame, cooking stove flame, forest fire, lightening and more Air bodied beings They have bodies made of air: wind and more Plant bodied beings They have bodies made of vegetation: trees, roots, plants, leaves, fruits, grass, flowers and more JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ VARIOUS KINDS OF LIVING BEINGS TWO SENSED LIVING BEINGS They have two senses. These senses are touch and taste. Beings like worms and shells have two senses. Since water, plants, and earth all have life, we should not waste them. We should not walk on grass, use more water than we need, and we should save our earth. We should also not play with fire or pollute the air. 48 FOUR SENSED LIVING BEINGS They have four senses. These senses are touch, taste, smell, and sight. Butterflies and bees have four senses. THREE SENSED LIVING BEINGS They have three senses. These senses are touch, taste, and smell. Ants and snails. have three senses. Qual FIVE SENSED LIVING BEINGS They have five senses. These senses are touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing. Humans, heavenly beings, hellish beings, animals, and birds have five senses. JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM Page #49 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ VARIOUS KINDS OF LIVING BEINGS TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE How many senses do the beings below have? M JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ NON-LIVING THINGS Lesson 12 - Non-Living Things Non-living things do not have feelings. They do not have sense organs. I see a box on the table. The box does not have any senses. It does not have the ability to learn. It cannot move by itself. The box is a non-living thing. C I see a teddy bear on my bed. It looks real, Q but it cannot see, touch, taste hear or smell anything. It cannot learn or move. I love my teddy bear, but the teddy bear is a nonliving thing. EBA I see a sweater hanging in my closet. It is warm and fuzzy. It cannot breathe, see or move. My sweater is a nonliving thing. 50 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #51 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ I see a car in my driveway. It is shiny, nice, and red. It takes me from place to place, but it cannot move on its own. It cannot see, think, or learn. The car is a non-living thing. Just because the box, the teddy bear, the sweater, and the car are non-living, that does not mean I should not take care of them. I treat these things with respect and do not harm them in any way purposefully. JAINISMI BASICS OF JAINISM NON-LIVING THINGS 51 Page #52 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ VIRTUES Compassion I will practice compassion in all my actions. I will love all beings which include humans, animals, bugs, and plants. If I want a pet, I will get a dog, a cat, or a bird from an animal shelter. I will feed my pet only vegetarian food. I will take good care of my pet for its entire life. Honesty Lesson 13 - Virtues 52 Friendship I will be friends with everyone. I will love and care for everyone. I will not fight or argue with anyone; instead, I will support everyone. I will always try to tell the truth, even if I will get into trouble by telling the truth. I will not cheat anyone. If I find something that does not belong to me, I will give it to its rightful owner. JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Humility I will not be too proud of anything I do. It is okay to be happy for my accomplishments, but I will not put anyone down. I will appreciate what others do and I will not be a "show-off". ** SORRY Contentment I will be happy with everything I have. I will not bother my parents for more toys and games. Instead I will appreciate that they gave me such great things in life and I will try to give to those who do not have as much as me. Forgiveness If someone hurts me on purpose or by mistake, I will forgive them because having anger towards someone is not good for me. I will only have feelings of love and compassion towards all. VIRTUES Generosity I will give food, water, and shelter to all those in need. I will give food to birds and other animals. I will help elderly and disabled people in every way I can. I will share my toys with everyone. JAINISMI BASICS OF JAINISM 53 Page #54 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ VICES Lesson 14 - Vices Thinking of hurting others is injury by mind. Mind Physically hurting others is injury by body. Body HURTING OTHERS Hurting others by calling them names and using bad words is injury by speech. Speech We should not hurt others by mind, body, or speech. Instead we should love and be friends with all. 54 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #55 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Thinking of lying to others is lying by mind. Mind LYING Telling a lie is lying by speech. Speech We should not lie or cheat anyone by mind, body, or speech. Instead we should always speak the truth. JAINISM I BASICS OF JAINISM VICES Cheating on a test is lying by bodily action. Body 55 Page #56 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ VICES Thinking of stealing another's property is stealing by mind. Mind 56 STEALING To say something that someone else wrote as your own is stealing by speech. Speech To take something that does not belong to us is stealing by bodily actiony. Body We should not take someone else's belongings or ideas without their permission. Instead we should only use that which is ours. JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM Page #57 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Wanting too much food, money, or praise is possessiveness by mind. Mind POSSESSIVENESS VICES Collecting more things than you need and deserve is possessiveness by body. Body Speaking to collect more food, praise, or objects than you deserve is possessiveness by speech. Speech We should not desire or collect more than we need or deserve. We should share our belongings with all. JAINISMI BASICS OF JAINISM 57 Page #58 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ VICES 58 I Must Never Lie Once I told a lie, It was in July. My parents were very sad, I felt very bad. So now I never lie, Never, not even in July! JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM (65) Page #59 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Do's Lesson 25 - Do's * Say the Navakar Mantra daily. * Go to Derasar regularly. * Respect and bow down to your parents, teachers, and elders. Be kind to other people as well as to animals, plants, and insects * Be honest and truthful with yourself and others. * Be forgiving towards others. * Be polite. Always say "Please" and "Thank you". Have the courage to accept your own mistakes and say "sorry". * Share your toys and books with 2 everyone. * Help others in every way you can. Always look for good in others. Go to Pathashala on a regular basis and learn how Jainism can help you become a better person. JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ DON'TS Lesson 16 - Don'ts * Do not hurt anyone. * Do not hurt or kill animals or insects. * Do not lie, cheat, or steal. * Do not use bad words or be disrespectful. * Do not get angry. Do not shout or scream at anyone. * Do not fight with anyone. * Do not spread rumors or talk about people behind their back. * Do not blame others when things don't go your way. * Do not be greedy. Be thankful for what you have. * Do not take anything without permission. * Do not be afraid to ask questions to your teachers or elders. 60 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #61 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (26) Munni Learns To Speak Nicely Munni was a little girl, She was very, very rude, If you met her,She'd put you in a bad mood! No one ever spoke to her, She was very sad, Then her mother told her, "Child you make us feel bad! You are rude, You put us in a bad mood." So Munni tried very hard, And began speaking very nicely, She became very POLITE, Now she has friends so many, They all like our little Munni! art svog antal gebl arlins JAINISM I BASICS OF JAINISM - Do's 61 Page #62 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ How NOT TO GET MAD Lesson 12 - How Not to Get Mad What makes you angry? Many things make you angry. You may get angry when something doesn't go your way. Maybe you get mad at yourself when you don't understand your homework or you lose a game. Kids who tease you or call you names can make you angry. Also your parents may make you angry if you think one of their rules is unfair What happens when you are angry? You start to scream at people around you, even people you like or love. You might lose your temper and break something or hurt someone. Anger destroys friendships. It also causes you to get bad karma and bad health too. What to do if I get angry? Don't lose control if you get angry. Instead of getting mad when your sister takes your favorite toy, kindly ask her to share it with you. You can also: Say Navakar Mantra Take deep breaths Count to 10 * Think good thoughts JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Getting angry can only make things worse, so control your anger! Read and enjoy this poem Tic NGER I Will Not Get Angry Questions: What are some ways to control your anger? Why is anger bad for us? How NOT TO GET MAD Anger, anger, go away I have no more rude words to say. Anger, anger go away I want to be happy today!" JAINISM I BASICS OF JAINISM - 63 Page #64 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ FOUR BHAVANAS Maitri Bhavana (Friendship) Lesson 18-Four Bhavanas (Thoughts) 64 Pramod Bhavana (Appreciation) Pramod Bhavana is the thought of appreciating others. We should appreciate the success of our friends. If someone is able to do things better than we do, we should try to learn from them. We should not be jealous of others: instead, we should admire them. Maitri Bhavana is the thought of friendship. Mahavir Bhagawan said, "We must be a friend to all living beings." The feeling of friendship brings love and respect to others. If we think about friendship, our thoughts, words, and actions will be kind, and we will not hurt anybody. JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM On Nice Job! Page #65 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Karuna Bhavana (Compassion) Karuna Bhavana is the thought of compassion. We should be compassionate towards animals and insects and not hurt them. If someone is less fortunate than us, we should not look down upon them; instead we should help as much as we can. We should also be compassionate towards sick and needy people. Being vegetarian and giving to charity are some of the many ways we can be compassionate. Madhyastha Bhavana (Neutrality) Madhyastha Bhavana is the thought of staying neutral or uninvolved. For instance when you are trying to explain to a classmate why you are vegetarian, but he or she still continues to call you names, you Rather than should stay uninvolved. arguing or fighting with your classmate and getting Pap (bad karma), just leave him or her alone. There is no need to get upset and get Pap, so it is better to just walk away. FOUR BHAVANAS JAINISMI BASICS OF JAINISM 65 Page #66 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ FOUR BHAVANAS We should always think of these four Bhavanas and try to apply them in our lives as much as possible. Jain Conduct in day-to-day living 66 Just-Impartial with all Hearts of Kindness. Amiable - Cordial to all Inclusive - Seeking views of all Non-violent Questions: If your friend gets an "A" on her test and "B", what should you do? Respect for all Why is it important to learn about these Bhavanas? you received a JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #67 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Once a big wild fire broke out in the forest. Lesson 19-Compassion of the Elephant To save themselves, all the animals including the elephant ran to a safe area. Soon, the area got crowded animals. very with COMPASSION OF THE ELEPHANT Once upon a time, there lived an elephant in a forest among many other animals. JAINISM I BASICS OF JAINISM 67 Page #68 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ COMPASSION OF THE ELEPHANT The elephant raised his leg to scratch his foot. A rabbit quickly jumped into this space. When the elephant went to put his foot down, he felt something. He noticed the rabbit sitting there. To avoid crushing and hurting the rabbit, he held his leg up. The fire lasted for three days. Throughout the three days the elephant kept his leg up. When the fire stopped, all the animals and the rabbit left. The elephant felt happy that he saved the rabbit's life. Then the elephant tried to put down his foot, but he could not because his leg had become stiff. Instead, he fell down and died after some time. 68 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #69 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ COMPASSION OF THE ELEPHANT As a result of his compassion and kindness, the elephant was born as Prince Meghakumar in its next life. Meghakumar became a disciple of Lord Mahavir and attained liberation. Questions: Whose life did the elephant save? Who did the elephant become in his next life? JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #70 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ METARYA MUNI Lesson 20 - Metarya Muni Metarya Muni was a follower of Lord Mahavir. Once, on a very hot day, Metarya Muni went out for alms from house to house. Like all monks, he was traveling barefoot and with a shaven head. He came to the house of a goldsmith. The goldsmith was well known in the city for his artwork. When Metarya came to the house, the goldsmith was making barley shaped grains of gold for jewelry. When he saw the monk at his door, he was very happy. He welcomed Metarya for alms. JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #71 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ METARYA MUNI While the goldsmith went to the kitchen to get food, a bird flew in and swallowed the gold grains, thinking that the grains were food. Then Metarya muni saw the bird fly to a tree. The goldsmith came out and offered the monk food okay for him to eat. After accepting the food, the monk left. When the goldsmith went back to his work, he saw that the gold grains were missing. He looked everywhere but could not find them. He thought he might have put them away, so he once again checked everywhere but he still could not find them. Then he started wondering if the monk might have taken them. He thought the monk might not be a true monk, but actually a thief pretending to be a monk. JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #72 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ METARYA MUNI He ran after the monk and brought him back to his home. He asked the monk if he had taken the grains of gold. The monk said, "No, I have not taken them." So, the goldsmith asked him, "Who has taken them?" The monk thought that if he told the goldsmith about the bird, he would kill the bird. So he kept quiet. The goldsmith thought that since he didn't reply, the monk must have been hiding the gold grains. He got angry and started hitting the monk. The monk still kept quiet. The goldsmith became very angry and decided to teach the monk a lesson. He made him stand under hot sun and tightly tied a wet leather band around his head. As the leather band became dry, it squeezed the monk's head very hard. 72 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #73 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ The goldsmith thought that the monk would speak, when he could no longer bear the pain. But he did not realize that this monk was a real monk who was willing to give up his life, to save the life of a bird. The monk suffered severe pain, but did not change his mind about telling the goldsmith what had happened. He didn't get angry with the goldsmith either. He remained calm by thinking, "This body is only temporary, so why should I worry about it?" He was truly happy that the bird's life was saved. METARYA MUNI Due to his good thoughts, the monk attained omniscience, Keval-jnan. At the very moment, the pressure of the leather band became so intense that he died. His soul was liberated from the cycle of birth and death forever. While the goldsmith was waiting, a woodcutter dropped a bundle of wood. The noise scared the bird and it threw out the grains. The goldsmith could not believe that and felt terrible for doubting the monk. He ran to the monk to let him go, but it was too late. JAINISMI BASICS OF JAINISM 73 Page #74 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ VEGETARIANISM Lesson 21-Vegetarianism I'm Jain and like all Jains, I am vegetarian because we respect all life forms. There are some people who are not Jain, but are also vegetarian out of their love for animals and the environment. I do not want to eat anything that causes too much pain to other life forms. Hi! I'm Veggie Vikram and I'm going to tell you all about vegetarianism We obviously need food to live, so we cannot practice complete nonviolence, but we try to stop as much violence as we can. 74 I do not eat meat, chicken, fish, eggs and other animal products. I also try to minimize violence to plants by not wasting any food. I plant trees and protect my environment. JAINISM I-BASICS OF JAINISM Page #75 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ VEGETARIANISM Some vegetarian Jains and non-Jains also do not eat dairy products such as milk, cheese, ice cream, and butter because dairy products come from a cow and cause lots of pain to the cows. Also cows' milk is not given to their calves. These very compassionate people are called vegans (strictly vegetarian - do not use any animal products at all). Vegetable Fats and Oils Sweets and Salt Eat Sparingly Soy Milk, Tofu, and Fortified Alternatives Eat Moderately Legumes, Nuts, Beans, and Soy Products Fat Moderately OFU Vegetable Group Eat Generously Fruit Group Fat Generously Whole Grain Bread, Cereal, Pasta, and Rice Group Ear Liberally JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #76 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ VEGETARIANISM Some Jains also do not eat root vegetables such as onions, garlic, beets, carrots, potatoes etc. Jainism believes that Root vegetables have more life in them than other one-sensed organisms (other plants). Your friends ask you: Why are you vegetarian? You can say: Animals have life too and I do not want to kill them. Animals are my friends and I do not eat my friends. Animals should not be slaughtered for our taste. More over raising animals for meat pollutes the air and water on our earth. It also wastes water and grains. Your friends ask: Don't you need meat to stay healthy? You can say: No. I get enough protein and nutrients from vegetarian food. Actually you can stay healthy by eating vegetarian food. Veggie Vikram says you should invite your friends over for dinner sometime and show them how vegetarian food is so yummy!! Make sure you invite Veggie Vikram with your friends too. Questions: Why are we vegetarian? Who are vegans? Why don't some Jains eat underground vegetables? 76 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #77 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RAJ GOES TO RESTAURANT Lesson 22 - Raj Goes to a Restaurant Raj: Let's go to that new restaurant down the street from me! Anil: But they only sell hamburgers. Can we get vegetarian food there? Raj: I think so. (They go to the restaurant down the street. Anil and Raj look at the menu. Roger, the waiter, comes to take their order.) Roger: Hi. Welcome to the Hamburger Place. Would you like something to drink? Anil: I'll have a glass of water please. Raj: I'll have a glass of lemonade. Thank you. Roger: Okay, great! Are you guys ready to order? Anil: (Pointing to the menu) Is this a veggie burger or a hamburger? JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #78 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ RAJ GOES TO RESTAURANT Roger: That burger has meat in it, but we can make a veggie burger if you like one. Roger: (With surprise) why don't you want a burger with meat in it? Anil: We are Jains, and Jains do not eat meat. Raj: As Jains, we respect all life forms. We believe the life of an animal is equal to our own life. Anil: Just as we don't like to get hurt or killed; animals, birds, and fish don't like to get hurt or killed either. Roger: Oh! That is interesting. It makes sense. I will get the vegetarian burgers for you. (While getting the veggie burger, Roger admired their love and care for other lifeforms. Anil and Ramesh were happy and satisfied.) Jains are very careful of what they eat. They make sure foods do not contain any meat products, lard, seafood, chicken broth, gelatin, or eggs in it. 18 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #79 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SEEMA GOES GROCERY SHOPPING Lesson 23 - Seema Goes Grocery Shopping Mother: Seema, let's go to the grocery store. Seema: All right mom. I love grocery shopping! (Seema and her mother go to the grocery store. They pick up vegetables, cookies, fruit, and soymilk.) Seema: Mom, can I get some apple pie? (Without waiting for an answer, she ran to the bakery and brought the apple pie) Mother: Seema, did you check the ingredients? Seema: No, I did not. Should I? Mother: Remember, we learned the other day that some pies creams have eggs in them. As Jains we don't eat any food that contains eggs, animal fats like lard, animal shortening, rennet, gelatin or glycerin. Seema: Oh yes, I forgot. Let me check the ingredients. (Checking the ingredients) Sorry, mom, it contains eggs. Let me put it back. Can I get another brand of apple pie? JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #80 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SEEMA GOES GROCERY SHOPPING Mother: Yes, Seema, but always be sure to read the ingredients. Seema: Yes, mom, I promise I will be more careful. Mom, does this mean that I should check the ingredients of bread, cookies, candies, canned foods and frozen foods also? Mother: Yes, Seema. We should always check the ingredients of each food item that we buy. (Seema was happy that she learned something that would help her become a better Jain.) 80 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #81 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 24-Sonia and her School Lunch Setting: In the school cafeteria Megan: Sonia, what did you bring for lunch today? Sonia: Let me see what my mom packed for me! (Opening her lunch bag) I have a chutney sandwich with lettuce and tomatoes, some pretzels, applesauce, and some juice. What do you have Megan? Megan: I have a ham sandwich. Why don't you ever have meat sandwiches? Yesterday, you had a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. 6 SONIA AND HER SCHOOL LUNCH 1910 Sonia: I am a vegetarian, so I do not ever eat any meat, seafood or eggs. Megan: Wow! I could never do that! Why are you a vegetarian? Sonia: I am a Jain and all Jains are vegetarians. We believe that all animals are our friends and they have JAINISMI BASICS OF JAINISM 81 Page #82 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SONIA AND HER SCHOOL LUNCH feelings too. So we should not eat our friends and hurt them. Megan: That's really cool! I wish I could be vegetarian too. I don't want to hurt the animals either. Sonia: Would you like to try my chutney sandwich? Megan: Okay! (Sonia gives her a piece) Megan: This is so yummy! I love it! I didn't know vegetarian food tasted so good. Sonia: You should come over for dinner sometime and have my mom's vegetarian cooking. Megan: Really? I'd love to! Will she make some chutney for me too? Sonia: Of course! I'll tell her to! 82 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #83 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LOVE FOR ANIMALS Lesson 25 - Love for Animals Prince Nemkumar was the son of King Samudra Vijay. He was engaged to princess Rajul. Princess Rajul was the daughter of King Ugrasen. 50 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #84 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LOVE FOR ANIMALS SVVV On the day of their marriage, Prince Nemkumar traveled to princess Rajul's palace in a decorated chariot. He heard the screaming of many animals and birds. Prince Nemkumar asked his charioteer (driver) about the noise. The charioteer told the prince that these animals and birds would be killed for his wedding dinner. A 84 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #85 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Prince Nemkumar freed all the animals and birds from the cages. He did not marry princess Rajul and left. JAINISM I BASICS OF JAINISM - LOVE FOR ANIMALS This answer made prince Nemkumar very sad. He said, "The animals and birds are hurt when they are killed. Killing animals and birds for food is not necessary. It is violence." 85 Page #86 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LOVE FOR ANIMALS Many people at the wedding realized the message of Prince Nemkumar and stopped eating meat. Questions: Why didn't Nemkumar marry Rajul? What did Nemkumar do instead of getting married? 86 Prince Nemkumar gave up his worldly life and became a monk. He went to the forest for peace and meditation. JAINISM I BASICS OF JAINISM - Page #87 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ MY ENVIRONMENT Lesson 26 - My Environment My environment is the world around me. It includes the houses, the street, the buildings, my favorite park, and even lakes. sy I take care of my environment. I plant trees and do not walk on grass. CE I save water by turning off the water when I am brushing my teeth and I do not take long showers. I turn the light off when I do not need it. Wooo 1 KI I recycle paper, boxes, cans, and glass bottles By recycling. I save my environment. I reuse bags from the grocery store and recycle them when I am done using them. JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #88 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ MY ENVIRONMENT I give away my clothes that no longer fit me. I also give away my toys and games that I do not play with anymore. I also do not make my parents buy more things for me when I do not need them. I ride my bike and walk safely as much as I can instead of asking my parents to drive me because cars pollute my environment. My religion teaches me to use water, paper, and other things only when I need to, which will help protect my environment, and I love my environment. Questions: What are some ways you can save your environment? What can you do instead of asking your parents to drive you to your friend's house down the street? 88 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #89 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THREE R'S OF THE ENVIRONMENT Lesson 27 - Three R's of the Environment Reduce - To use fewer things Reducing the amount of waste you produce is the best way to help the environment. * Buy products that don't have too much packaging * Use less paper Carpool with friends to reduce pollution or take the bus or ride a bike * Save energy by turning off lights that you are not using * Follows the Jain principle of non-possessiveness Reuse - To fully make use of things Instead of throwing things away, try to find ways to use them again! * Take lunch in plastic containers instead of plastic bags * Use old containers to make art projects * Donate clothes instead of throwing them away. JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #90 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ THREE R'S OF THE ENVIRONMENT Recycle - To make used items useful again Instead of throwing things away, let them be made into something else! * Recycle paper, plastic, cans, glass Recycle instead of throwing them in trash * Buy recycled products Recycling Facts * Recycling 1 ton of paper saves 17 trees and 7,000 gallons of water * Recycling one aluminum can saves enough electricity to run a TV for 3 hours * Recycling one glass bottle or jar saves enough electricity to light a 100-watt bulb for four hours Recycling one ton of plastic saves the equivalent of 1,000-2,000 gallons of gasoline More than 30 million trees are cut down to produce a year's supply of newspapers WITOLI Questions: What are the 3 R's of the environment? Key Words Reduce Reuse Recycle Is it better to reduce or recycle? Why? 90 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #91 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN FESTIVALS Lesson 28 - Jain Festivals Mahavir Janma Kalyanak (Mahavir Jayanti) We all enjoy celebrating our birthday. We can celebrate our Bhagawan's birthday, too. Bhagawan Mahavir swami's birthday comes in March or April. On this day we decorate the temple. We carry Bhagawan's idol in a chariot in a big procession with band music and dancing. We do Puja in the Derasar. Some times children participate in the plays acting out the story of life of Bhagawan Mahavir. Janma Kalyanak Mahavir Jayanti JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #92 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN FESTIVALS Paryushan Paryushan is an annual festival of 8 days where we focus on doing lots of religious activities. During Paryushan we try not to hurt any living beings as much as possible. We also practice self-control as much as possible by fasting or giving up something we really like such as watching television, playing video games, eating chocolate. Everyday we go to the temple, pray, and read religious books. On one of the 8 days (or on the fifth day of Paryushan) we view the fourteen beautiful dreams of Mother Trishala. The last day of Paryushan is all about forgiveness. On the last day, we say "Michchha mi Dukkadam" to all of our friends and family. Michchha mi Dukkadam means "I am asking for forgiveness for anything I may have done to hurt you, and I forgive you too." It is very important to say "Michchha mi Dukkadam" to everyone. Das Lakshana Parva Das Lakshana Parva is an annual festival of 10 days that is celebrated after Paryushan. In India some Jain sects celebrate Paryushan while other Jain sects celebrate Das Lakshana Parva. In North America every Jain center celebrates both the festivals. During Das Lakshana Parva festival, we focus on an important virtue everyday. It starts with forgiveness followed by nine other virtues like truth, self-control, not being greedy, and being humble. 92 JAINISMI - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #93 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN FESTIVALS tIrthaMkarakI mAtAko svapnadarzana. (trizalAko siMha malevAko pabha aura kI gaja) SO nA tIrthaMkara para mAmAne % mApanAra mAnA trizalAne jene laI nISa 2nAM janma stha mArUno 1:tIrthakara paramAtmAke janma denevAlI mAtA trizalA dvArA dekhe hue tIrthakarake janmasUcaka 4 mahAsvapna Fourteen symbok die das regarding Titankar's birth by Mother Trishat the Titankar Parama mother JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #94 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN FESTIVALS Diwali Another festival we celebrate is Diwali or the 'festival of lights'. We celebrate this festival because this is when Mahavir Bhagawan attained liberation. Some people celebrate Diwali by playing with fireworks, but we, as Jains, do not, because fireworks kill insects and other bugs in the air. On Diwali we celebrate Mahavir Bhagawan's nirvana and participate in puja and other activities at temple. Mahavir Nirvan (Liberation) JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #95 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN FESTIVALS New Year The day following Diwali is the Jain New Year. On this day, we go to friends and families' house and wish everyone "Happy New Year." On this day, Gautam-swami, Mahavir Bhagawan's first disciple, attained keval-jnan or omniscience. Gautamswami's Kevaljnan (Absolute Knowledge) JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM Page #96 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ JAIN FESTIVALS 35 : parisaha-upasargone samabhAvathI sahana karavApUrvaka, saMyama ane tapanI uyasAdhanAthI mAsa 52masamAdhimAM layalIna bhagavAna 35 : parisaha-upasagoM ko samabhAva se sahana karane ke sAtha saMyama aura tapa kI umra sAdhanA se prApta paramasamAdhi meM layalIna bhagavAn 35 : Bhagavan Mahavira deeply absorbed in the highest type of meditation 96 JAINISM I - BASICS OF JAINISM