Book Title: Jain Lesson II
Author(s): JAINA Education Committee
Publisher: Diwakar Prakashan
Catalog link:

Page #1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Jain Education Series-6 JAIN LESSONS-II NAMO ARIHANTĀNAM NAMO SIDDHĀNAM NAMO AYARIYĀNAM NAMO UVAJJHĀYANAM NAMO LOE SAVVASĀHUNAM are Education DURATION OF JAIN ASSOCIATIONS IN NORTH Page #2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ First Edition : 2000 Copies Mumbai, India March 1995 Second Edition : 2000 Copies Mumbai, India May 1997 Publishers : JAINA Education Committee Federation of Jain Associations In North America 4410, 50th Street Lubbock, TX 79414 Phone : (806) 793 8555 Off. (806) 794 4777 Resi. (806) 793 0753 Fax MAHAVIR SEVA TRUST C/o Dr. Mansukhbhai B. Jain B 29-30, Yojana Apartment S.V. Road, Malad (W), Bombay-400 064, INDIA Phone : 8892121 Printed & Designed at: DIWAKAR PRAKASHAN A-7, Awagarh House, Opp. Anina Cinema, M.G. Road, Agra-282 002, INDIA Phone : (0562) 351165, 51789 Available from: JAIN CENTERS AND SOCIETIES OF NORTH AMERICA MEMBERS OF JAINA EDUCATION COMMITTEE, FEDERATION OF JAINA, MAHAVIR SEVA TRUST, MUMBAI-INDIA, AND DIWAKAR PRAKASHAN, AGRA Page #3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ jai jinendra Dear Friends, It is a pleasure for the JAINA Education Committee to be involved in the development of the Curriculum for JAINA Education Program. The idea was perceived through the vision of Sri Sulekh Jain, Past President of JAINA. It was felt that educational material was available to some and that too in a scattered manner, therefore the committee has tried to undertake the task of setting up a standard curriculum for the future. . The invited two Jain Scholars 1) Malukchand Shah, 2) R. K. Jain who contributed their honorary services for this task, spent more than six months reviewing different Pathshala courses conducted in various places in India. With their help and the help of the teachers and youths from various Jain Centers a following basic program was set. JAINA Education Program is divided in four different age groups : 1. Age 3 to 7, (Preschool and Grades 1 and 2), 2. Age 8 to 11, (Grades 3, 4 and 5), 3. Age 12 to 14, (Grades 6, 7 and 8), and 4. Age 15 and up, (Grades 9, 10, 11, 12 and up) This way children's interest is captured at an early age and a greater depth of knowledge is gained with age. The first outline of the curriculum was presented at the first seminar of teachers of JAINA pathshalas at Jain Center of New York in December 1991 to discuss and explore their ideas of this curriculum. After incorporating new ideas into the outline we continued on to the stage of the books. We faced many difficulties collecting material for younger children but finally with the help of various people we managed to compile a set of seven books for the first and second groups. The copies of each of these eight books were sent to more than fifteen Jain Centers for evaluation. The response was so good that we sent a copy of these books to the Presidents of all the Jain Centers. A plan was made to mass produce these books by Summer of '94 but because of cost it was decided that the books should be printed in India and thus delivery was delayed till Summer of '95. www.jaineli Page #4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ SET OF EIGHT BOOKS ARE FOR AGE FROM 3 TO 7 1. COLORING BOOK 3. ALPHABET -PART-I 2. DOT TO DOT BOOK 4. JAIN LESSONS-1 FOR AGE 8 TO 11 5. ALPHABET-PART-II 7. JAIN SKITS 6. JAIN LESSONS-2 8. JAIN STORIES We hope teachers and parents will like these books and if you have any suggestions then please notify us so we may incorporate them in the next edition. This syllabus is, common for all sects of Jains. While preparing we have tried our best to represent all of them. Please. pardon us for any mistake, oversight, understatement or overstatement in any lesson. We would like to thank everyone who has directly or indirectly helped us to achieve this goal and would like to extend special thanks to the following people : Sulekh Jain, R. K. Jain, Malukchand R. Shah, N. L. Jain, Manubhai Doshi, N. Seth, Jackie Purvis, Angie Delgado, Jeremy Chaney, Neela Gada, Bhagwati Gada, Tejal Shah, Komal Shah, Payal Shah, Kishor Shah, Ujvala Shingavi, Santosh Shah, Sweta Shah, Amar Salgia, Palavi Mehta and Amita Desai. If we missed anyone then please forgive us. We would also like to thank Dr. Mansukhbhai B. Jain, the Trusty of Mahavir Seva Trust, Bombay who has taken deep interest in getting these books printed in India. It is my pleasure to announce that Mahavir Seva Trust will print extra 1000 sets to promote Jainism among youth in India. We have borrowed pictures from various books and would like to thank their authors and publishers for that. We would like to thank JAINA who had a confidence in us even though we were sluggish. Last but not the least we would like to thank the donors and Jain Community of North America who inspired us to undertake this task. Lubbock, TX. 1995 COMMITTEE MEMBERS Mrs. PRAMODABEN CHITRABHANU (212) 5346090 YOGENDRA JAIN (617) 237-5997 JAYA NAGDA (301) 540-7708 PRAVIN SHAH (919) 4690956 NARENDRA SHETH (619) 693 8272 SURENDRA SINGHVI (513) 885 7414 PREMCHAND B. GADA (Chairperson) JAINA Education Committee (806) 793 8555, 794 4777 NAVIN DEDHIA (408) 629-1723 SHANTI LAL MOHNOT (412) 325 2058 SANTOSH SHAH (504) 340-4283 UJVALA SHINGAVI (713) 463-0903 URMILABEN TALSANIA (708) 969-8845 Page #5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ TOPICS No. 1 Lesson Page ini mi siwi on oo oo Living and Non-Living Senses Jiva Who Am I? Ajiva The Compassion of Lord Pārshvanāth Spiritual Teachers Jain Prayer Soul Jain Principles Be Gentle and helpful Respect Mahātmā Gāndhi and Truth Brahmin and the Bracelet True Monk The Lion and the herd of Goats Jainism, The Compassionate Religion Going to Pathshala Arihant Lord Māhavira Sage Kapil True Learning Who is Right? Friendliness Questions . 10 o Sã 25. Page #6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ LIST OF PEOPLE AS WELL AS JAIN CENTERS WHO HAVE MADE POSSIBLE TO PRINT EDUCATION BOOKS Shantilal and Rukminiben Kenia, MA Santosh and Bhavnaben Shah, LA Arvind and Ashaben Vora, LA Mahendra and Shobhnaben Patel, TX Jain Center of America, NY Jain Society of Greater Detroit, MI Ashok and Ujwala Shingavi, TX Subodh and Palaviben Mehta, TX Harkishan and Kusum Vasa, CA Anop & Renuka Vora, Rochester, NY Bharat & Kokila Shah, NY Aswin Shah, LA D. C. & Nirmala Mohnot, LA Davendra Mehta, NI Dhanendra C. Shah, MN Dhiraj & Bharti Chheda, LA Dinesh & Jagruti Shah, MO Dipak & Milan Kapadia, MO M. Aman & Teresita Khan, TX Harakh Dedhia, LA Hasmukh Chokeey Indira & Suresh Shah, MO Jain Center of Greater St. Louis Jain Center of Middle Tennessee Jain Society of Central Florida Keshab & Shubhra Gangopadhyay, TX Janak Sheth, LA Kirit & Leena Shah, MO Lalit Mehta, LA Navin Dedhia, CA Malini Parameswaran, TX Nilesh Shah Neerav Reddy, TX Sudhir Mehta, LA Rajendra K. Jain, LA Jain Center of Central Ohio, OH Surendra Patel, TX Varsha and Rajendra Shah, LA Tulsa Jain Sangh, OK Vismay Shah, LA Vikram Sheth, LA Bharat Shah Yashvant Pithadia, TX (If any names have been forgotten then please forgive us) JAINA Education Committee Diwakar Chitrakatha Series Federation of JAINA (USA), Mahavir Seva Trust (Bombay) and Diwakar Prakashan (Agra) are jointly publishing a series of Colorful Chitrakatha books in English based on Jain religious stories, which allow children as well as elders to imbibe the elements of Jainism through reading stories. One book will be published every month. The series of books can definitely go a long way in enriching the new generation with the valuable insight into our religion. Parents are requested to give it a thought. For annual subscription, please contact Federation of JAINA or Mahavir Seva Trust at the addresses mentioned on Cover Page No. 2 or Diwakar Prakashan, A-7, Awagarh House, M. G. Road, Agra-2, (INDIA) Annual Subscription Rates (12 Books) : India 200.00 Other Countries US $ 18.00 Single Copy Rates : India Rs. 20.00 Other Countries US $ 1.50 RS. Page #7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 1 LIVING AND NON-LIVING (JIVA AND AJIVA) (Teacher is putting something on the table) Teacher : Ravi, what is this? Ravi : Sir, that is a baby doll. Page #8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Teacher : Right. Can this doll walk by itself? Ravi : No, it cannot walk by itself, but I can make it look as if it were walking. Teacher : Neela, can this doll see with its eyes? Neela : No, it cannot see with its eyes. Teacher : Ramesh, can it sing? Ramesh : How can it sing when it cannot even talk? Teacher : Well, it has ears so it should be able to hear us, Ramesh : (laughing) Sir, it cannot hear or understand what we are talking about. Teacher : Komal, can it eat since it has mouth? Komal : It cannot eat or drink. Teacher : Chetan, will it cry, if I drop it off the table? Chetan : It will not cry. Teacher : You all gave good answers. Do you all agree that this doll cannot walk, see, eat or listen like us? Children : Yes, we all agree. Teacher : What is the reason for this? What is the difference between the baby doll and us? Ravi, do you know? Ravi : We are real people, while the baby doll is only a toy. Teacher : Ravi, can you tell me what "real people" mean to you? 6 Page #9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Ravi : (scratches his head and does not answer) Teacher : The difference between toys and real people is that those who can see, talk, walk, hear, feel pain, and pleasure are known as living beings (jiva). Those who cannot talk, walk, hear, feel pain, and pleasure, etc. are known as non-living objects (ajiva). So now Ravi, can you tell me the difference between the doll and us? Ravi : Yes, since the doll cannot hear, talk, or feel pain and pleasure, it is a non-living thing. While we can talk, see, hear, and feel pain and pleasure, we are living beings. : Very good, Ravi. Now you understand it right. Children, listen carefully, I am going to explain more about living and non-living objects. Anything which has the capacity to know, learn, understand, feel pain and pleasure or has various senses, is known as a living being (jiva). We can learn, know, understand and feel pain and pleasure and have five senses, so we are living beings. Anything which does not have the capacity to know, understand, feel pain and pleasure, or does not have various senses is called non-living thing (ajiva). Therefore, this doll is a non-living thing. Jan Education Intemational Page #10 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Komal, is the bench which you are sitting on living or non-living? Komal: A bench is a non-living thing, because it does not CONT know, understand or feel the pain of my weight. Teacher : Komal is right. Now, what happens when you get an “A” on your test? Komal : I feel happy, because I have feelings. Teacher : Ravi, can you name some examples of non-living objects around us. Ravi : Books, the table, chairs, pens, the clock, and the ruler are all non-living objects. Teacher : Neela, can you name some living beings? Neela : Yes. Dogs, cats, cows, rabbits, parrots, lions, T e lephants, fish, chickens and human beings are all gaun living beings. Jain Education Intemational Page #11 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ jefo Teacher : Children, do you have any questions? Children : No sir, now we understand the difference between living beings and non-living things. Teacher : Before we finish our class, I would like to remind you to be good to each other because everyone feels pain and pleasure. One more thing for homework. I would like everyone to write down the names of twenty living beings and twenty non-living things for our next class. Page #12 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 2 SENSES Teacher : Can anyone hold a piece of ice for a long time? Komal : I can hold it, but not for a long time because my fingers will get cold. Teacher : O.K. is there anyone here who can hold his hands over a fire for a while? Bharati : No way! The fire is too hot and we can get burned! Teacher : Right ! Now can anyone tell me how much a baseball or a tennis ball weighs Mohan : (Holding out both balls) I cannot tell you the exact weight but a baseball is heavier than a tennis ball 10 Jain Education Intemational Page #13 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Teacher : Good. Has anyone ever slept on a bench before? Dinesh : I have ! It is difficult to sleep on it for very long. Teacher : I agree with you. Can anyone tell me how we know how cold the ice is, how hot the fire is, how heavy a baseball is, an how hard a bench is? Ravi : I do. We can feel ice, fire, a baseball, and a bench with our hands. Teacher : Children, remember that this ability to feel is also called a sense. We can feel cold, hot, heavy, dry, wet, smooth, hard, etc., by touching. So, we call it the touch of sense. Through our skin, we can feel different things. The touch is our first sense. Has anyone here ever tasted ice-cream? Jateen : Sir, I am sure all of us have. It tastes sweet. I love ice-cream! Teacher : Can someone tell me what orange juice tastes like? Rakesh : Orange juice is tangy. Page #14 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Teacher : And how did you get that idea? Rakesh : I've tasted orange juice with my tongue, and it tasted that way. Bonny ORANGE JUICE SENT Teacher : Children, with taste sense, we can tell if things are sweet, sour, bitter or spicy etc. So the taste sense is our second sense. The tongue can taste different things. Mina, can you tell us how you decide which perfume to buy? Mina : It is easy. I smell them and of whichever fragrance I like, I buy. Teacher : Listen children, due to smelling sense we can tell whether a smell is pleasant or unpleasant. Our nose helps us decide this. Smell is our third sense. 12 Page #15 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Teacher : Koyal, what is the color of the sky? Koyal : Sir, it is blue. Teacher : Bharati, what is the color of your chain and ring? Bharati : Sir, the chain is golden and the ring is silver. Teacher : Neela, can you tell me how people know the colors of these things? Neela : We can see colors with our eyes. Teacher : You are right. Rememebr due to our visual sense we can see various colors and shapes. So sight is our fourth sense and eyes help us to decide that. (There is a lot of noise outside the window) Ravi : Sir, can we take a break? Teacher : Why? 13 For Private & Personal use only Page #16 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Ravi : All the noise from outside makes it hard to hear you. Teacher : What kind of noises do you hear? Ravi : They are noises from the band, screaming children and cars. MARCURY RESTAURANT S Teacher : How can you tell what these different noises are? Ravi : Sir, with my ears I can make out different noises. Teacher : Right, Ravi. Remember that because of our ears, we amocan hear different noises and can tell where they come from. Hearing is our fifth and last sense. Thus, there are five senses in all. Now you know we feel with our skin, taste with our tongues, smell with our noses, see with our eyes, and hear with our ears. We all have five senses. Page #17 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Earla LE -Eye -Nose Tongue Skin So human beings are the five-sensed living beings. Komal : Sir, do all living beings in the world have all the five senses like us? Teacher : Can anyone answer that? 10 OTVARI (Silence in the class) Teacher : No. Some living beings have five senses like us, while others might have four, three, two, or one sense. Just like us, animals and birds have five senses. Insects may have four, three, or two senses and plants have only one sense. We also say them Panchendriya (Five-sensed) Jiva, Chaturendriya (Four-sensed) Jiva, Triendriya (Three-sensed) Jiva, Dwitendriya (Two-sensed) Jiva and Ekendriya (One-sensed) Jiva. We are very lucky that we have all five senses. So we should be very careful how we use them. 15 Jain Education Interational Page #18 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 3 JIVA (ONE SENSE LIVING BEINGS) I AM AN EARTH BEING. I AM A LIVING BEING. I HAVE ONLY ONE SENSE. THIS SENSE IS TOUCH. | A WATER BEING. I AM A LIVING BEING. I HAVE ONLY ONE SENSE. THIS SENSE IS TOUCH. A FIRE BEING I AM A LIVING BEING. I HAVE ONLY ONE SENSE. THIS SENSE IS TOUCH. AN AIR BEING I AM A LIVING BEING. I HAVE ONLY ONE SENSE. THIS SENSE IS TOUCH. 16 Page #19 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ I AM A PLANT BEING. I AM A LIVING BEING. I HAVE ONLY ONE SENSE. THIS SENSE IS TOUCH. WE ARE VEGETABLE BEINGS. WE ARE LIVING BEINGS. WE HAVE ONLY ONE SENSE. THIS SENSE IS TOUCH. Page #20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ WE ARE TWO-SENSED LIVING BEINGS WE ARE LIVING BEINGS. WE HAVE TWO SENSES. THESE TWO SENSES ARE TOUCH AND TASTE. 18 Page #21 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ WE ARE THREE-SENSED LIVING BEINGS. WE ARE LIVING BEINGS. WE HAVE THREE SENSES. THESE THREE SENSES ARE TOUCH, TASTE AND SMELL. 19 Page #22 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ WE ARE 708 FOUR-SENSED LIVING BEINGS. WE ARE LIVING BEINGS. WE HAVE FOUR SENSES. THESE FOUR SENSES ARE TOUCH, TASTE, SMELL AND VISION. 20 Jain Edacation International Page #23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ WE ARE FIVE-SENSED LIVING BEINGS. WE ARE LIVING BEINGS. WE HAVE ALL FIVE SENSES, TOUCH, TASTE, SMELL, VISION AND HEARING. 21 Jain Education Interational Page #24 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ WE ARE LIVING BEINGS. WE HAVE ALL FIVE SENSES, TOUCH, TASTE, SMELL, VISION, AND HEARING 22 WE ARE FIVE-SENSED LIVING BEINGS. BLACK Page #25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ WE ARE FIVE SENSED LIVING BEINGS WE ARE LIVING BEINGS. WE HAVE ALL FIVE SENSES, TOUCH, TASTE, SMELL, VISION, AND HEARING. 23 Page #26 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 4 WHO AM I? I AM A JIVA. FISH COW I LIVE IN WATER. I LIVE ON THE FARM. I CAN SWIM. I EAT GRASS. I GIVE MILK I HAVE ALL FIVE SENSES TOUCH, TASTE, SMELL, VISION AND HEARING. I HAVE ALL FIVE SENSES TOUCH, TASTE, SMELL, VISION AND HEARING 24 Page #27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ I AM A JIVA. FLOWER I GROW ON A PLANT. I SMELL GOOD. I ONLY HAVE ONE SENSE, TOUCH. MAN I CAN MOVE. I CAN FEEL. I CAN PLAY. I HAVE THE POWER TO LEARN. I LOVE MY NEIGHBORS. I HAVE FIVE SENSES TOUCH, TASTE, SMELL, VISION AND HEARING. 25 Jain Education Interational Page #28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ I AM A JIVA BIRD I FLY. I BUILD A NEST IN TREES I HAVE ALL FIVE SENSES TOUCH, TASTE, SMELL, VISION AND HEARING. 26 Page #29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 5 AJIVA DO I SEE A BOX ON THE TABLE. THE BOX DOES NOT HAVE ANY SENSES. IT DOES NOT HAVE THE POWER TO LEARN. IT CANNOT MOVE BY ITSELF. THE BOX IS CALLED AJIVA. THE CAR, TELEVISON, WATCH, FAN, IRON AND PHOTOFRAME ALL ARE AJIVA. 27 Page #30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 6 THE COMPASSION OF LORD PARSHVANATH Once a hermit named Kāmath was performing a sacrificial ritual on the outskirts of a town. He was wearing a single cloth and had ashes rubbed all over his body. The sun was shining and it was very hot. The hermit had also lighted sacrificial fires all around him. The whole town was amazed by the austere performance and people came in big groups to see him. They were bowing down to Kāmath with reverence and he was blessing them. Seeing groups of people going, Prince Pārshvanāth got curious to see what was going on. He went there. He was astonished by the hermit's austerity. Soon, with his extra sensual power, the prince noticed a snake burning in a log of wood. Prince Pārshavanāth felt pity for the hermit who was unknowingly indulging in the gross violence. Prince Pārshavanāth said, "Oh Hermit, what are you doing? Do you realize that there is a snake burning in the fire? This is not a good ritual that you are performing." After hearing these words, the hermit got very angry. He shouted, “Oh naughty child, what do you know about this holy ritual? You are very rude." Prince Pārshavanāth ignored the hermit. He asked his servant to pull out the log and split it open. To everyone's surprise a half burnt snake fell out of the log. The hermit felt ashamed and his face turned pale. The Prince recited the Namokār Mantra to the dying snake. The snake thanked the Prince in his mind and died peacefully under the impact of Namokār Mantra. Due to the snake's serenity while listening to the Namokār Mantra, he was reborn as Dharanendra, the king of heavenly angels. 28 Jain Education Interational Page #31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ All the people left the scene thinking about the undesirable ritual of the hermit. Kāmath felt disgraced and left with anger and hatred towards the prince. Kāmath soon died without repenting for his anger and hatred towards the prince. Since he had some good austerities, he was reborn as the angel in control of rain called Meghkumar. Prince Pārshvanāth became the king of the city Vārānasi. After a few years he renounced his worldly life and became a monk. Once, while he was standing in meditation, the angel Meghkumar saw him. Because of his anger for Pārshvanāth during his previous life, Meghkumar's anger knew no bounds. He decided to take revenge. He created lots of physical torture to monk Pārshvanath. He was in deep meditaiton and was not disturbed. This made Meghkumar furious. He created thunder, lightening and heavy rain. The water began to flood. Its level started to rise. 29 Page #32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ At that time the throne of Dharanendra began to shake. He made use of his heavenly power to see what was happening. He saw monk Pārshvanāth, being harassed by Meghkumar. He came to the earth in the form of a multiheaded snake. He spread his hoods over the monk like an umbrella and protected him from the heavy pouring of the rain. He asked Meghkumar in anger, "Oh, atrocious creature, do you know what are you doing? Why are you acquiring more sins by causing Pārshvanāth to suffer? Now stop this havoc!" The Monk was so deep in meditation that he did not even know what was going on. Meghkumar was frightened by Dharanendra's anger and instantly removed all the water. He asked for forgiveness from Pārshvanāth and then left. Shortly after that incident Pārshvanāth attained omniscience and became the twentythird Tirthankar of the present era. 30 Page #33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 7 SPIRITUAL TEACHERS (JAIN SĀDHUS AND SĀDHVIS-MONKS AND NUNS) Those who teach us are called teachers. Those who teach religion are called the spiritual teachers. Among Jains, they are called Sadhus (monks) or Sadhvis (nuns). To be a Jain Sadhu or Sadhvi, people have to undergo training. During that training they learn about the Jain philosophy, the Jain scriptures and the special code of conduct for monks and nuns. They learn to detach themselves from all their worldly ties. They learn to give up their families, businesses and social aspects. They must also learn to live without any money. Once they get used to this life of detachment, they will decide to become Sadhu or Sadhvi. They should not be and are not under any pressure to make this decision. They have to listen to their self. This decision gives them the inner strength they need to be initiated as a true Sadhu or Sadhvi. Once an Acharya decides to accept them as a Sadhu or Sadhvi, the ceremonial initiation (Diksha) takes place. This is the time when they renounce their worldly life and break their social and economic ties forever. They voluntarily accept five great vows : 1. I will not commit any violence. (Ahimsa) 2. I will not lie. (Satya) 31 Page #34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ROC 32 Page #35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 3. I will not steal. (Asteya) 4. I will not indulge in any sexual activities. (Brahmacharya) 5. I will not have any possessions. (Aparigraha) They observe these vows in nine ways. They are: 1. Physically, 2. Verbally, 3. Mentally Each of these three are further divided into three more ways: 1. By not doing themselves the above five tasks, 2. By not asking anyone else to do the above five tasks, 3. By not encouraging anyone else to do the above five tasks. If monks and nuns get involved in a social-economic life styles, they are defeating the whole purpose of their renunciation. Involvement in worldly affairs would amount to breaking their vows, since they are supposed to be involved in spiritual uplift. Because of their detachment and spiritual uplift, monks and nuns are considered a part of the Panch Parmesthy (the five supreme beings), that we recite in the Namokār Mantra. Monks and nuns no longer consider anyone their fathers or mothers. They interact with them the same way they interact with any other householder. Similarly, they have given up other relationships like a husband, wife, brother, sister, son or daughter. They have also given up all their belongings like money, houses, cars, jewelry or anything else that belongs to them. 33 Page #36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 34 Page #37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ They have given up the comforts of life, and have adopted a very simple life style. Monks who wear only white clothes are called Svetamber Sadhus. Those who have given up all clothes are called Digamber Sādhus. The nuns in both group always wear white clothes. Sadhus and sādhvis walk barefooted and do not travel by car, train, plane or any other type of vehicle. They don't live in one place, they move from place to place to live. However, they do not travel before sunrise, after sunset or while it is raining. For food, sādhus and sādhvis go to different houses accepting very little food from each hosue. They do not accept any food which was made especially only for them. They accept food that was cooked for the householders' consumption. They can not accept any raw green vegetables. Svetamber monks keep a set of wooden bowls to accept food in while Digamber monks eat the food offered to them out of their own hands. Svetamber monks eat twice a day. They only drink boiled water. Except for boiled water, they do not consume anything between meals. They never eat or drink before sunrise or after sunset. Digamber monks eat and drink only once a day and from only one house. Many monks and nuns observe austerities by fasting. Monks do not touch any females and nuns do not touch any males. Those monks and nuns who wear clothes, keep only two or three plain white clothes. Some monks wear a white cloth (Muhapati) covering their mouth, some hold it in their hands, while others do not use a Muhapati at all. Some keep Rajoharan (a small broom made of fine threads) to clean the area around them. Others keep a small broom made of 35 Page #38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ peacock feathers. The feathers used for these brooms were naturally shed by the peacock. They do Pratikraman twice a day, one in the morning and the other in the evening. They perform various austerities. They also teach religious beliefs to householders. They have a great deal of discipline in observing their vows. If a householder offers a sadhu or a sadhvi something which they cannot accept, they calmly explain to the householder that they cannot accept certain things. They are highly respected everywhere. People like us who are ignorant of the real truth and are involved in worldly aspects can get religious advice from these monks and nuns. They explain the message of Lord Mahavira. We should bow down to such monks and nuns to show our reverence. When we bow down, we should kneel so that our lower legs, both hands and head touch the floor, and then we should say “Mathen Vandami” which means, "I am bowing down my head." While bowing down, males should not touch the nuns and females should not touch the monks. We should try to follow the example set by Sadhus and Sadhvis. In conclusion, while renouncing their worldly aspects there are three conditions they must fulfill to attain monkhood or nunhood. They are : 1. Voluntary renunciation of all worldly possessions, social and economic aspects of the life. 2. Voluntary adaptation of the five great vows and their nine fold observance. 3. Wearing only white clothes or not wearing any clothes at all. All nuns wear white clothes. 36 Page #39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 8 JAIN PRAYER Teacher : Today we are going to talk about a jain Prayer. You are familiar with the various prayers for various occasions. Among all of them the “Namokār Mantra" is the most popular prayer. "NAMOKĀR MANTRA” is the prayer that shows our respect for those souls who are liberated as well as to those who are on the path to be liberated. Can any of you recite the Namokār Mantra? Sejal : Yes, I can say the Namokār Mantra. My mother taught me. Namo Arihantānam Namo Siddhānam Namo Āyariyānam Namo Uvajjhāyānam Namo Loe Savva Sāhunam Eso Panch Namokkāro Savva-Pavppanāsano Manglānancha Savvesim Padhamam Havai Mangalam. Teacher : Sejal, this is very good. You said it without any mistake. Do you know the meaning of it ? Sejal : No sir. Kanu : Can we recite Namokār Mantra together ? 37 Page #40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Teacher : O.K., let's do that. Then I will tell you the meaning of it. Namo Arihantānam Namo Siddhānam Namo Āyariyānam Namo Uvajjhāyānam Namo Loe Savva Sāhunam Eso Panch Namokkāro Savva-Pāvappanāsano Manglanancha Savvesim Padhamam Havai Mangalam. Teacher : Now, I am going to tell you the meaning of the Namokār Mantra. Namo Arihantānam I bow down to Arihant Bhagwān. Namo Siddhānam I bow down to Siddha Bhagwān. Namo Āyariyānam I bow down to Acharya. Namo Uvajjhāyānam I bow down to Upādhyāy. Namo Loe Savva Sāhunam I bow down to all the monks and nuns. Eso Panch Namokkāro These five salutations Savva-Pāvappanāsano Are the Destroyers of all sins. Manglānancha Savvesim Among all auspicious prayers, Padhamam Havai Mangalam This one (Namokār Mantra) is the best. Teacher : Arihantas, Siddhas, Acharyās, Upādhyāyas and Sadhus and Sadhvis are the models in Jainism. We should try to be like them. Everyday in the morning and before we go to bed, we should pray to them by paying respect to their achievements. We will also say this prayer before each class. 38 Page #41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 9 SOUL I AM A SOUL. I LIVE IN A BODY. I AM INVISIBLE. I HAVE INFINITE POWER. THE BODY AND I ARE TWO SEPARATE THINGS. THE BODY CAN NOT SEE, THINK, OR FEEL WITHOUT ME. 39 Page #42 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 10 JAIN PRINCIPLES JAIN PRINCIPLES WERE PREACHED BY THE TIRTHANKARAS. LORD MAHĀVIRA IS THE TWENTY-FOURTH TIRTHANKARA. HE ATTAINED KEVALJNAN THROUGH RIGHT KNOWLEDGE, RIGHT FAITH AND RIGHT CONDUCT. HE WAS THE LAST TIRTHANKARA TO PREACH THE JAIN PRINCIPLES. HE TAUGHT US THAT ALL LIVING BEINGS HAVE A SOUL AND ALL SOULS ARE EQUAL. ALL SOULS ARE INDEPENDENT. ANY SOUL CAN ATTAIN SALVATION. 40 Page #43 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ WE SHOULD PRACTISE NON-VIOLENCE (AHIMSA) WHICH IS THE MAIN PRINCIPLE. WE SHOULD LOVE ALL LIVING BEINGS, PLANTS, BUGS, BIRDS, FISH, ANIMALS, CELESTIAL, INFERNAL AND HUMAN BEINGS. WE SHOULD ALWAYS TELL THE TRUTH. WE SHOULD NOT TAKE THINGS THAT DON'T BELONG TO US. WE SHOULD BE CONTENT AND LIMIT OUR NEEDS, DESIRES AND POSSESSIONS. WE SHOULD SHARE AND CARE. WE SHOULD ALWAYS HELP OTHERS. WE SHOULD ADMIRE THE VIRTUOUS. The same principles were taught by previous twenty three Tirthankars. Thus Jain principles are time tested. We must follow them carefully. Page #44 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 11 BE GENTLE AND HELPFUL I will be kind and gentle to all animals, birds, bugs etc. I will avoid walking on grass. I will look at plants and flowers, but will not pick them. While I am walking, I will try not to step on any bugs. I will play with other children. I will not fight with them. and I will not hit anybody. I will put my toys and games back in place, when I have done playing. I will be nice to my brothers and sisters, and I will respect them. I will help my parents. I will help my grandparents and other elders. I will speak the truth. I will close the tap after use. I will put off the fan, when not used. I will help my parents now and when they will be become old. 42 Page #45 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 12 RESPECT Shila : Sir, I read in a book that. "Respect (Vinay) is complementary to knowledge". Can you please explain that to me? Teacher : That is a very good question. It is important for everybody, to learn to respect others. You cannot retain knowledge, if you do not respect your parents, teachers and religious books etc. Respect is expressed in several different ways. For example, worshipping the Tirthankars, bowing down to monks and elders, taking good care of your books, paying attention in class, listening to your parents, being polite to everybody and having good manners are all examples of respect. Respect destroys the ego, brings forth good thinking, results in the use of polite language and showing kindness towards other living beings. All these factors help in elevating the soul. Ravi : Sir, can you tell us how to show respect to elders? Teacher : Anybody who is older than you is an elder to you. Parents, teachers, uncles and aunts are your elders. You should greet them with “Jai Jinendra," "Hello," or "Hi" whenever you see them. You 43 Page #46 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ should offer them a seat when they visit you. It is always polite to offer them a glass of water or juice. Listen carefully to your elders without interruption and answer politely. Ravi : Sir, are there any other types of elders? Teacher : Yes, those people who have more knowledge are also called elders. They may be our teachers. Those who teach and practise ethical values are also our elders. All the monks and nuns are our elders. They may not be very older in age, but they are at a higher spiritual level. So we should respect them. Ravi : Can you tell us more about how to show respect towards elders? Teacher : When elders leave, walk them to the door. Do not laugh or giggle at them. Do not interrupt them when they are talking. Do not argue with them. Do not make fun of them. Never say bad things about elders. You know, respectful children are praised by people everywhere. And when they become elders, they also receive respect from elders. 44 Page #47 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 13 MAHATMA GANDHI AND TRUTH You have heard the name of Mahatma Gandhi. For India he is the father of the Nation just as George Washington is the father of America. As a mark of respect for him, we call him Gandhiji. His Father's name was Karamchand Gandhi and mother's name was Putlibai. He was born at Porbandar, in the state of Gujarat. His mother was very religious. Gandhiji too was very religious. It once so happened that a group of people came to perform a drama in Porbandar. It was about the ancient King Harishchandra who was very truthful. Gandhiji saw how much Harishchandra had to suffer to be truthful. This had a lasting effect on Gandhiji. He decided that he would also always tell the truth. Soon truth became his way of life. He 45 Page #48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ made up his mind that even if the truth led him to trouble, he would never give it up. One day, his father gave him a book about Shravan Kumar who was extremely devoted to his parents. Gandhiji quickly finished the book. He saw a picture in which Shravan Kumar was carrying his parents on his shoulders, since both of them were blind and wanted to go to all the holy places. Gandhiji decided that he would also take care of his parents. When his father went to the temple, he took Gandhiji with him. When Jain monks visited their house, they discussed religious matter and Gandhiji attentively listened. Leaders of other religions also visited them and they discussed their religions. Gandhiji was influenced by different religions in his life. Gandhiji was also vegetarian. When he decided to go to Europe to study law, his mother told him, "My son, since you are going abroad, make sure that you never drink alcohol, eat meat or indulge in gambling." Gandhiji gave his promise to his mother to abide by her wish and took a vow in the presence of a Jain monk that he would never drink alcohol, eat meat or resort to gambling. Gandhiji used to say, “If someone is kind and generous to us, we should return that favor; but we should be kind and generous even to those who do not possess those qualities." Mahatma Gandhi was virtuous and will always be remembered for that. 46 Page #49 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 14 BRAHMIN AND THE BRACELET Greediness is the desire to get more. Since desires are unending, greedy people desire to gain more and more. Temptation and greediness are evil tendencies and should be avoided. This is a story about a greedy Brahmin. Once upon a time, there lived a very old lion. He did not have enough strength to get food. He therefore decided to play a trick with the help of a golden bracelet. He thought that if he offered the golden bracelet, he could easily tempt some greedy person to get it and then he could eat him. While he was thinking about it, he saw a Brahmin passing by. The Brahmin was very poor and was wandering to get food for his family. The lion called the Brahmin, "Revered Brahmin, come here. I have done so many evil things in my life. It is not possible to count how many animals I have killed. Now, I want to get rid of all those sins by offering this golden bracelet to some deserving person. And who else could deserve it more than you?" The Brahmin soon became greedy for the bracelet. However, he was skeptical about the real intentions of the lion. He said "You have been killing animals and people all your life. How can I trust you?" The lion said with apparent pain, "Revered Brahmin, I am old now. It is true that I committed many sins when I was 47 Page #50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ young, but now I am repenting for that and want to give charity. You are a holy Brahmin, so I have decided to give this bracelet to you. Go and take a bath in the lake and then come back for the bracelet. The Brahmin could no longer resist the temptation. He went to the lake, but it was full of mud. As soon as the Brahmin went in, he got stuck in the mud. The lion saw this and went to the lake. He bit the greedy Brahmin's neck. The Brahmin started to scream, but there was no one there to help him. Because of his greed, the Brahmin lost his life. If he would have overcome his temptation, he would not have lost his life. Unfortunately when people get greedy, they lose good judgment. We must be careful not to get carried away by greed. This can be done by limiting our possessions and desires. 43 Page #51 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (Lesson 15 TRUE MONKS Once upon a time, there lived a king. One day, he decided to offer gold coins to monks. He called one of his ministers and gave him a bag of gold coins. The king told him to give the coins to all the monks in the town The minister searched for monks all day, but he could not find a single monk to give the coins to. He gave the bag of coins back to the king. The minister very politely told the king that the he could not find a monk to give the coins to. The king became very angry and said, "What is this nonsense! You could not find a single monk, in such a big city !" The minister admired the king for his good intention and said that real monks did not accept the gold coins. The others who did want to accept the coins, were not true monks, because true monks do not take money. He added that the king would not want to give gold coins to greedy people, who wear the clothes of monks but do not observe the religious principles. After listening to the explanation of the minister, the king became calm and started thinking. He realized that his minister was right and gave him one hundred gold coins as a reward. True monks don't have or keep any wealth. Jain monks and nuns don't keep or ask for money for any reason. They don't ask anyone to collect and keep money for them either. They have given up all the concerns about their future needs and do not need any money. They may encourage you to give charities out of compasssion, but they don't get involved in its management. 49 Page #52 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 16 THE LION AND THE HERD OF GOATS Once upon a time, a shepherd found a newly born lion's cub. He took it home, fed it with goat's milk, and bred it with his herd of goats. Consequently, though it was a lion, it always moved, ate and drank like a goat. The cub thought he was a goat. One day, the cub went to the forest with the goats. In the forest, a new lion appeared who roared as usual. All the goats got scared and began to run away. The cub also began to run. The lion of the forest saw the cub and said, “Hello brother, goats flee when I roar, but why do you run away? You are like me, a lion." The cub who was brought up with the goats said, “You are lying. I am not a lion. I am a goat. I am afraid of you and I want to run away." The lion realized that the cub had stayed with the goats and thought he was a goat. The lion said, "Friend, am I wrong? If my gigantic body makes you think that way, then you are mistaken. Your face is also round like mine. It is not long like a goat's. Your waist is as slender as my waist, and your feet have paws not hoofs like those of a goat. Look at your beautiful tail! The goat has a very tiny, ugly tail. You possess a mane on your neck. The goat does not.The goat and the lion are two entirely different animals. Cast aside your false impression and roar like me. Then you will be sure that you are a lion and not a goat." 50 Page #53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ These words clarified the cub's doubt. He roared and began to think of himself as a lion. He started living the life of a lion. Like the cub we have been wrongly staying in tune with our physical self. We should remember that the physical body does not constitute our true "Self." We are the soul with infinite capacity. We should develop and manifest our capabilities with this idea in mind. To achieve such developments, we should try to stay away from the worldly attachments. (Grr WA 51 Page #54 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 17. V JAINISM, THE COMPASSIONATE RELIGION How do you feel when someone hurts you? Do you like it? Of course, you don't. Now, think about how others feel if we hurt them. Do they feel good? Natuarlly, they will feel bad. Lord Mahavira said you should not say or do anything to others that you would not like to have done to you. Everybody in this world wants to be happy. No one likes to be hurt. The message of Lord Mahavira is that we should love everybody and should not hurt anybody. We should try to help others and make them happy. To understand the pain and unhappiness that others are experiencing is compassion. The same is true about nonviolence (Ahimsa). Compassion is one of the main pillars of the Jain Religion, and that is why Jainism is sometimes called a compassionate religion. Ahimsa has been given the greatest importance in Jainism. Lord Mahavira became Arihant by adopting supreme compassion in his life. His compassion seems to have reached climax during his encounter with the poisonous snake Chandkaushik. He was tortured by many and even then not only he forgave them but he felt compassionate towards them. Compassionate people are rewarded by acquiring other virtues. Jainism is based on compassion to all the living beings. Jainism emphasizes observance of verbal and mental compassion also. We should be compassionate and friendly towards all and should have no enmity for any one. 52 Page #55 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ lesson 18 GOING TO PATHSHALA Ami : Shila, most of the other Jain centers have religious classes once a week, but your center has it twice a week and you never miss it. Do you really like learning? Or do you just go for the fun and food! : I don't care about the food. I really like the religious classes. Shila Ami Shila : What's so great about it? : Everything. It tells me how to be a better person. I learn how to gain true happiness. Ami : What do they teach you there? Shila : Quite a lot ! They teach us how to share things with others, how to be kind to others, how to respect our parents and teachers more, how to control our temper, how to stay happy and content, and many more things that help us with our life. Ami : You don't have to ruin your whole weekend to learn all that ! They teach that stuff in school. Shila : They teach grammar, math, science, history, and social studies in school. They don't have time to teach us the morals that we learn in our Jain classes. 53 Page #56 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Ami Shila Ami Shila : I think you are right. They must be teaching you good lessons there. Because the other day when Manisha blamed you for something you did not do, you didn't get mad at her. You didn't even tell your mom about it. When I told Manisha's mom about that, she blamed Manisha and was really proud of you. I bet you learned how to control your temper in Jain school! : You are right! Our Jain teachers are so wonderful, you should come there and see for yourself. : I shall go home and ask my mom right now. Oh, wait a minute! I forgot to ask you whether there were any rules that I should know? : There are some rules that we must follow. Many of them are the same rules we follow in school. But some others rules are used only in Jain Pathshalas. The general rules are : Go to class every Sunday or whatever other day is fixed by the center. Be at the Pathshala on time. Wear clean and simple clothes. Take your books to the class. Do not chew gum or eat candy in the class. Take off your shoes before entering the center. Say “Jai-Jinendra" to the teachers and to other students. Be nice to everyone in the class. Do not quarrel or scream during the class. 54 Page #57 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Be polite to everybody and do not use any bad language. Do not show off in the class. Pay attention during the class. Keep your books in their proper place and do not throw them around. Do not wear any leather products. Do not wear silk material. Participate in the discussion. If the teachers give you homework, finish it before the next class. Tell your friends to come to the Pathshala. : I can follow these rules easily. I'll see you at the next Pathshala class. : I'll be glad to see you there. “Jai Jinendra." : "Jai Jinendra." Ami Shila Ami ( Jai Jinendra 55 Page #58 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 19 ARIHANT Rita : Sir, many of my friends in school talk about God. Jesus is their God, Krishna is another God. Can you tell me something about our God? Teacher : Many religions say, "God created the world. He maintains it. He controls it. He is very kind. He forgives us for our sins. He knows everything. He makes us happy." Rita : Does Jainism say the same thing about God? Teacher : No, Jains have a differnet concept of God. It is not God, but godhood that can be attained by every soul. He/she who attains it, is omnipotent. He knows everything about all the past, present and future at the same time. He is free from the four major Karmas. We call these great souls Arihantas. There have been many Arihantas. In present time cycle, there were twenty-four of them who set up the religious order afresh to help us cross the cycles of birth and death. They also re-established the order of the Jain-Tirth formed of Sadhus, Sadhvis, male and female house-holders and that is why they are also called Tirthankaras. The Jains worship them. Rita : Did they create the universe? . 56 Page #59 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Teacher : No, the world is a natural phenomena. It is eternal which means that it was here from the beginning of time and will be here forever. Rita : Sir, what are some different names for them and who were they? Teacher : In Jainism they are called Tirthankars, Jinas, Vitrag, or Arihantas. They lead us to the spiritual path and ultimately to liberation. Before renouncing their worldly life, some of them were kings or princes, while others were ordinary people. In Jainism we believe that every human, as well as any other living being has the potential to become perfect and omnipotent. But not all living beings may have this potential capability in this life. Rita : Can we say then, that Lord Mahavira is a “Jain God”? Teacher : Yes, Lord Mahavira is a “Jain God". There were twenty-three such “Gods" before him in this time cycle. However, they are really not called "Gods" in the sense of their being the creator of the world. We call them Tirthankaras or Arihantas. Rita : Oh! Now I can tell my friends that Arihantas or Tirthankaras are our Gods. Will you tell us more about Lord Arihantas? Teacher : Sure. You know that every name has a meaning. Kumud means "lotus", and Ravi means "sun." Similarly the word Arihant is made up of two words. They are "Ari" and "Hant." Ari means 57 Page #60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ “enemy" and Hant means "destroyer". So Arihant literally means "destroyer of enemies." Payal : But, sir, the other day you said that Jains do not hurt anyone. Then how can our Lord Arihanta be a destroyer? I do not understand that. Teacher : Payal, you are right. As a Jain, we are not supposed to hurt or destroy anyone. An Arihant's enemies were not animals, bugs or people like you and me Arihantas did not have any enemies outside but they were from within. Amar : The enemies within!!! Teacher : Sometimes we get mad at friends, brothers or sisters for very small matters. Sometimes we hide our toys when our friends come over to our house. We also cry at the mall when our parents don't let us buy toys. Some kids show off in their class and act as if they know everything. These tendencies may look good to us at that time and we may consider ourselves smart, but those thoughts are evil tendencies and sooner or later, they are going to get us in trouble. These tendencies are our wrong desires. They are not good. Since they stay within us. They are our inner enemies. Shila, does this make sense to you? Can our desires be our enemies? Shila : Yes Sir, now it makes sense. I remember the other day when I got mad at my best friend. She stopped talking to me. A few days later, when I really 58 Page #61 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ needed her help to study for a test, she did not help me and I got a “B” in the test. Now I realize how getting mad caused me to get a “B”. Teacher : Sunil, have you experienced this kind of trouble? Sunil : Yes, one day my sister and I were by ourselves at home. My sister got hungry and wanted to order pizza. She did not have enough money and I would not share any of my money with her. So she had to stay hungry. A few weeks later, our parents dropped us off at the Mall to go shopping. While we were at a clothing store, I noticed a nice jacket that I wanted to buy. I checked the price and I saw that I did not have enough money. I asked my sister, if she would let me borrow some money. She said "No" and reminded me about when she wanted to order pizza. I told myself, if I would have shared the money and not been so miserly, she would have given me money to buy that jacket. Later she said, "Don't feel bad. I am not going to be like you, but remember that it is good to share." Now I know that sharing is a very good idea. Teacher : Does anyone else want to say anything? Hina : Yes sir, now I realize what our inner enemies are. We should control our anger. We should not be greedy. We should not insult anyone. We should not deceive anyone. In other words, we should control our desires. Teacher : Yes, we should have total control on our desires, so that no matter what happens, we don't get mad, greedy or arrogant. Page #62 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Arihantas did not destroy people, animals, birds or bugs, but they destroyed their inner enemies like anger, greed, ego and deception (AGED). Ashish : Now I know who the Arihantas are. They destroyed their inner enemies, but I still do not understand why we call them Gods? Teacher : Now, we are coming to the rest of the story. Once a person becomes an Arihanta, he/she knows everything and can perceive everything in the universe. He knows what is happening now, what will happen in the future and what has happened in the past at the same time. There is nothing that he does not know. He teaches us that we should be free from our inner desires. When we die, we are reborn as something else. When a Lord Arihanta dies, he/she becomes a Lord Siddha and is never born again. He is liberated from the worldly cycle of birth and death forever. That is why Lord Arihantas are called Gods. Ashish : I still have one question. When we go to the temple, our parents tell us to pray to the Gods. What are we supposed to pray to them? Teacher : When we pray, our prayers admire the Jinas for being free from their inner desires. Our prayers should not wish for rewards, but should remind us how to live a good Jain life. We also pray to them for being our models. We must try to follow their footsteps in order to achieve the supreme goal of liberation. 60 Page #63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 20 LORD MAHAVIRA Lord Mahavira is the twenty-fourth Tirthankar. He was born in 599 B.C. at Kshatriyakund which was a part of the well known Vaishāli republic. His father's name was King Idhārtha and his mother's name was Queen Trishalā. They were very religious people and were followers of Lord Pārshvanath. Queen Trishalā had fourteen dreams (some believe sixteen dreams) when she conceived Lord Mahavira. While she was pregnant, the prosperity of King Siddhārtha grew. The parents attributed their success to the baby. So when the baby was born, he was named Vardhaman, which means continuously increasing. 61 Page #64 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ He was very bold and while playing he once saved his friends from a snake. Another time, a heavenly angel joined them in the disguise of a young boy. According to the rules of the game, Vardhaman had a chance to ride on the boy's back. While he was riding, the boy turned into a monster in order to scare him. Vardhaman, however overcame the monster. The heavenly angel then appeared in his true form. He praised Vardhaman for his boldness and called him "Mahavira" meaning very brave. Though Mahavira was born with worldly comforts and luxuries, they never attracted him. He lived a simple life. So when his parents died, he decided to be a monk. He asked for permission from his brother. His brother was still mourning the loss of their parents. He therefore requested Mahavira to wait for a couple of years before leaving. Mahavira waited for two years, during which he led a totally detached life. After realizing this, his brother gave him permission to become a monk. Mahavira was thirty years old when he gave up his worldly life and all worldly activites. He spent most of his time in austerity and in meditation. He suffered a great deal of physical pain and torture from various sources. Among them, the most severe was the biting by the highly poisonous snake Chandakaushilk. Lord Mahavira remained calm and peaceful in the midst of these torturous events. He never lost his serenity and never developed hatred for anyone. He magnanimously forgave all of them. He led such a highly austere life for twelve and a half years. At the age of forty-two he attained omniscence, Kevaljnan. He became Jina, the twenty-fourth Tirthankar of the present era. As omniscient he knew everything of the past, present and future. 62 Page #65 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ As the last Tirthankar, he revived the religious order (Tirth) consisting of monks, nuns, Shravaks and Shravikas. This order is known as the Jain Sangh. His first Disciple, called Ganadhar, was Gautamswami. He was a well known Brahmin scholar of the time. Lord Mahavira had eleven Ganadhars. Those Ganadhars compiled twelve scriptures based on what Lord Mahavira taught. These scriptures are called Āgamas which were passed verbally from preceptor to pupil for a long time. They were put into writing about 890 years after the death of Mahavira. During the time of Lord Pārshvanāth there were four great vows followed by monks and nuns. Realizing the status of mind of current and future Sadhu and sadhvis, Lord Mahavira added one more vow to them. The five vows are : 1. Non-violence (Ahimsa) 2. Truth (Satya) 3. Non-stealing (Asteya) 4. Chastity (Brahmacharya, added by Mahavira) 5. Non-possession (Aparigraha). During his times violent sacrificial rituals were conducted by people in the name of religion. The teachings of Lord Mahavira opened their eyes and they also adopted the principle of non-violence. His sermons encouraged to build a happy and harmonious society. After offering guidance to public for thirty years, Lord Mahavira attained Nirvān in 527 B.C., at the age of seventytwo. Nirvāna means that he attained liberation and became a Siddha who no longer has to undergo the cycle of birth and death. 63 Page #66 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (Lesson 21 SAGE KAPIL In Kaushambi there was a royal priest named Kashyap Shastri. He had a son who was named Kapil. Kapil grew up in luxury and did not care for studying. Consequently when his father died, the priesthood was passed on to another Brahmin. Kapil's mother was sad to see this happen. She thought, “If only my son would have studied, he would have become the royal priest.” Tears rolled down her eyes. When Kapil saw that, he asked, “Mother, why are you crying? What is wrong?" The mother sighed and said, “My son, I regret that you did not become the royal priest. If you would have studied well, you would have succeeded your father's position.” These words moved Kapil. He made up his mind to get a good education. He went to a friend of his father in the city of Shrāvasti. His name was Indradatta Upādhyāya. Indradatta was known all over the country as a highly learned man and many students came to him to learn. He was glad that Kapil wanted to study and he started teaching him. According to the practice of that time Kapil had to get his food by asking for alms. That took too much of his time and affected his studying. Indradatta therefore requested a wealthy man of the town to arrange his food. The man arranged for Kapil's food at the place of a young Brahmin widow, named Manorama. 64 Page #67 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Kapil now started taking his food at Manorama's place. Now he could devote enough time for his education. But the relationship of the two slowly developed into intimacy. With the passage of time Manorama became pregnant. She started worrying about how to meet the expenses of delivery and how to maintain the baby. Kapil knew that the king gave two gold coins to the person who first bestows benedictions on him every morning. He decided to go to the palace early in the morning to get the gold. The next day Kapil reached the palace in the morning, but some other Brahmin had already reached the palace. The next day too Kapil was late. He tried for eight days, but every time he was late. Kapil became displeased with himself. He decided to sleep in the garden so that he could be the first at the palace. Soon he noticed the moon in the horizon. He mistakenly took it as sunrise and started running towards the palace. A policeman, who was patrolling the street, saw Kapil running towards the palace. He suspected him to be a thief and arrested him. Kapil tried to explain his position to the security guard but he simply said, “You may tell your story to his Majesty in the morning." In the morning Kapil was brought to the royal court. He was trembling, because he had never been in the court before. The king noticed the fear in his face and thought he could not be a thief. The king asked him, “Who are you? What were you doing at midnight? Kapil humbly replied, "Your Majesty, I am a brahmin and I was running to get to the palace to confer blessings upon you." The king asked, “Why so early ?" Kapil said, “Your Majesty, I have been trying to confer my blessings upon you for the last eight days to earn two gold 65 Page #68 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ coins and I was always late. So last night, I got up very early in order to be the first one. But that did not work, and here I am before you as a culprit." The king said, “You have suffered so much for just two gold coins. Oh Brahmin, I am pleased with your honesty and permit you to ask for anything that you want and I shall grant it." Kapil asked for sometime to think. The king gave some time to think. He left to go to the garden to think. Now Kapil started thinking, “I Should ask for ten golden coins instead of two. But how long will that last? I should ask for fifty coins. But that won't be enough for later expenses." He continued to think of more and more amount until he reached to ten million coins. He thought even that would not be enough for maintaining prosperity for his whole life. He then thought of asking for half of the kingdom and ultimately the entire kingdom. Suddenly he thought, “The king has been kind enough to give me whatever I want. Why should I make him miserable? That is not fair. If I ask for half of the kingdom, I will be his rival. Why should I annoy the person who wants to help me? Should I then ask for ten million golden coins? What is the use of that much money? Too much money brings troubles. I will ask for ten thousand coins." But his conscience did not permit him even to ask for ten thousand. "Shall I ask for one thousand coins? A hundred? A fifty? A twenty-five?" He decided not to ask for anything more than what he had gone for that was only two gold coins. But Kapil still kept on thinking, "It is desire that makes one unhappy. It also leads to greediness which is the root of all sins. In order to get rid of it, I should ask for nothing. 66 Page #69 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Look, where my desire had led me! Forgetting that I came here to become a learned man, I have been drawn into a situation losing morality and becoming a beggar. Let me stay content. I will not ask for anything." Kapil went back to the palace. The king asked, “Oh. Brahmin, what have you decided?" Kapil replied, “Your majesty, I do not want anything from you." The king got surprised. He asked, “What?" Kapil replied, “Your Lordship, desire is the root of all evils. The more one gets, the more greedy he becomes." The king said, “Revered Brahmin, I do not understand what you mean." Kapil said, “Oh King, now I do not need anything. Contentment is the supreme wealth and I am happy with that." With these words Kapil left with the sense of complete detachment and he renounced worldly life. YANG Page #70 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 22 TRUE LEARNING A long time ago, there was a dormitory of Maharshi Satyik at the base of a hill. A few students lived there. It was not a big building, but many small huts. The students learned general knowledge and religious knowledge. They gave importance to moral values. They lived on milk and whatever they grew in the farm. They were not dependent on anyone but themselves. One day, King Vikram, his queen and some servants were passing by this area. They stopped at the riverbank near the dormitory. After a while, when they sat down to eat, some students from this dormitory were passing by. The king saw them and offered them food. The students with respect said, "We cannot take anything." The king was very pleased with them for not showing any temptation. After sometime, the king, queen and everybody left for their city. After a while, some students were passing through there again. They noticed a shiny golden necklace. They brought it to their teacher and asked him, "What should we do with the necklace?" The teacher calmly said, "Hang it on the nail outside. Whoever it belongs to can take it from there." They put the necklace on the nail and everybody went back to his activities. Meanwhile, on the way home the queen noticed that her necklace was missing. She was afraid that she may have lost it while they were resting at the river. She told the king, and the king went back to the river to look for it. He also got . 68 Page #71 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ worried because he could not find the valuable necklace. He went to the dormitory to ask them. The teacher saw the king coming and he received him with kind words. The king asked him, “Have any of your students seen the queen's golden necklace?" The teacher said, "If we find anything that does not belong to us, then we put it on the nail outside. So go and look over there." The king went to the nail and found the necklace hanging there. He started thinking to himself, "These people do not have much, yet they live like if they have everything." He realized that these people were living a simple and peaceful life, while he had everything but no peace in his life. He was living a life of temptations, while these people were content with what they had. t. 1 h ulle wa TFF w yk Heldelse VVV Mew - who has a val l . Had TolliveWhale Via W A NA , Wilhed Page #72 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 23 WHO IS RIGHT ? How many times have we come across situations where we argue among ourselves and hurt others. Have you ever thought that someone else can be right?. If we try to understand what someone else is saying many of our problems can be resolved. Anil asked his sister, Rita, to get him a coke at dinner. Rita only gave him half a glass as a joke. Anil was very mad and threw a fit saying the glass was half empty. The word empty annoyed Rita and she screamed back, “No, the glass is half fuli." Soon they started fighting.Anil and Rita told their parents why they were screaming. Their mother said, “Both of you are right. Anil is looking at the empty aspect and Rita is looking at its filled aspect." They were both happy when they realized that they were both right. If we accept the fact that someone else can be right, we can avoid many quarrels. Lord Mahavira said that everything can be seen from seven different aspects and there is truth in every aspect. Lord Mahavira's thinking is called Anekāntvād or multiplicity of view points. When we accept this style of thinking, we become tolerant of other views and our life is much happier. This lets different people with different ideologies live together with respect for one another. So the next time your friend says something which you do not agree with, then instead of telling him "You do n anything," give him a chance to tell his side of the story. You may be surprised and think, “He is right too!" 70 Page #73 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ (Lesson 24 FRIENDLINESS (MAITRI BHAVANA) Father : Ramesh, do you like your friends? Ramesh : Daddy everybody likes his friends. Father : Why? Ramesh : Because, all friends love one another. If my friends know that I need help, they will help me. Daddy would you tell me how I can make more friends? Father : Son, you like those who help you and love you. Similarly other kids are looking for help and love. When you meet kids in your school or in the neighborhood, you should be nice to them. You should help them. Then, they will become your friends. It is not always necessary that you have to help someone so that he will be your friend. Even if you praise the good work that they have done, you can also make new friends. You should not badmouth anyone and you should not be jealous of anyone. You should always wish goodness for everyone. If you see a kid in your neighbourhood who is sad or depressed, you should comfort him and offer him your help. If your classmate is doing bad in school, you should help him bring his grades up. These are some of the things that will help you make more friends. But you have to be careful when you make friends. Ramesh : Daddy, what should I be careful about? 71 Page #74 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Father : You should be careful about selecting your friends. For example, you do not want to have a friendship with people who use drugs, who are bullies or who are arrogant. We should not hate these people, but we should not be friends with them either. We should stay away from people who have bad habits. Ramesh : Can you tell me what a good friend is? Father : A good friend helps his friends in need. He loves and admires his friends. He appreciates the good work done by his friends and whenever he gets a chance he praises them. A good friend keeps his friends away from bad activites. He only supports things which are beneficial to others. A good friend does not keep secrets from his friends. A good friend forgives others for their mistakes. He wishes good for everybody. So make sure that you are such a friend and stay in the company of good friends. Raemsh : Yes, father. I will try to be a good friend to everyone. A3 III .. MODE Wine NV2. W lih MA 72 Page #75 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ ( QUESTIONS Lesson 1 1. What does Jiva mean? 2. What does Ajiva mean? 3. Can you name five examples of Jiva? 4. Can you name five examples of Ajiva? Circle whether the following sentences are true or false. A bench can talk. True / False A lion cannot breathe. True / False An ajiva has no senses. True / False A doll can eat by itself: True / False A ball can feel pain. True / False A man can learn. True / False All Jivas have five senses True / False Tell whether the following are Jiva or Ajiva : Bench Doll Fish Dog Ball Chicken Cat Chair Parrot Books Clock Lion Lesson 2 1. What does a sense mean? 2. How many senses are there? 3. Can you name all the senses? 4. What is the least number of senses a Jiva can have? 73 Page #76 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 5. What is the greatest number of senses a Jiva can have? 6. How many senses do Ajiva have? Match the followings : Ekendriya Three senses Beindriya Five senses Teindriya One sense Chaurindriya Four senses Panchendriya Two senses Lesson 3 1. What sense do one-sensed living beings have? 2. Give some examples of one-sensed living beings. 3. What senses do two-sensed living beings have? 4. Give some examples of two-sensed living beings. 5. What senses do three-sensed living beings have? 6. Give some examples of three-sensed living beings. 7. What senses do four-sensed living beings have? 8. Give some examples of four-sensed living beings. 9. What senses do five-sensed living beings have? 10. Give some examples of five-sensed living beings. 11. What are the different groups of five-sensed living beings? Lesson 4 1. How many senses does a fish have? 2. How many senses does a cow have? 3. How many senses does a flower have? 4. How many senses does a butterfly have? 74 Page #77 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 5. How many senses does a snail have? 6. How many senses does a shell have? Lesson 5 1. Is the box Jiva or Ajiva? 2. How many senses does the box have? 3. What are the things which the box cannot do? 4. Can you give five more examples of Ajivas? Lesson 6 1. What was Kāmath doing? 2. Why did Prince Pārshvanāth ask his servant to pull out the log from the fire? 3. Why did the snake become a heavenly angel in the next life? 4. Why did Meghkumar pour heavy rain on Pārshvanāth? 5. What did Dharanendra do? Why? 6. What did Meghkumar do to the monk before he left? Lesson 7 1. Who are our spiritual teachers? 2. To become a monk or a nun what do you have to do? 3. When they renounce their worldly lives, what do they give up? 4. Name the five vows they take. 5. Are monks and nuns spiritual leaders or are they social workers? 6. What kind of water do they drink? 7. How many times do they eat in one day? 8. Do they eat at night? 9. How do they get their food? 10. Do they accept raw green vegetables? 11. Do monks and nuns touch people of opposite sex? 75 Page #78 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 8 1. What is the most popular Jain prayer? 2. Can you recite that prayer? 3. Can you give the meaning of the prayer? 4. Who are the five role models in Jainism? Lesson 9 1. Where does a soul live ? 2. Is the soul visible? 3. What kind of power does a soul have? 4. Are the body and the soul the same? 5. Can a body see, think or feel without a soul? Lesson 10 1. Who taught the Jain principles? 2. Who was Lord Mahavira? 3. How did Lord Mahavira attain perfect knowledge? 4. What did he teach us about the soul? 5. What is the main principle of Jainism? 6. How does Jainism teach us to live with others? Lesson 11 Circle true or false as a Jain, for the following sentences. 1) I will hurt animals, birds and bugs. 2) I will walk on grass. 3) I will put my things in place. 4) I will not help my grandfather. 5) I will not fight with others. True / False True / False True / False True / False True / False 76 Page #79 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 12 1. What does Vinay mean? 2. What happens when we pay respect to elders? 3. What are some different ways we show respect? 4. Who should we show our respect to? 5. How do we greet friends, teachers or elders? 6. Can you give a few examples of showing disrespect? Lesson 13 1. Who was Mahatma Gandhi? 2. What drama had a big impact on his life? 3. What did he decide after seeing the drama? 4. What types of visitors used to visit his house? 5. What promise did Gandhiji give to his mother before he went to Europe? Lesson 14 1. What leads us to sinful activity? 2. How did the lion trap the Brahmin? 3. What happened to the Brahmin? 4. What is the moral of the story? Lesson 15 1. What did the king intend to do with the gold coins? 2. Why did the king get angry? 77 Page #80 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 3. What did the minister say about the monks? 4. Do Jain monks and nuns ask for money? Lesson 16 1. Why was the cub raised by the shepherd? 2. What happened to the cub when the lion roared? 3. What did the lion tell the cub? 4. How does this story affect our lives? Lesson 17 1. Do you like suffering? 2. What did Lord Mahavira teach us? 3. What is one of the main pillars of Jainism? 4. What did Lord Mahavira do when Chandkaushik bit him? What resolution about compassion should we make today? Lesson 18 1. How often are the Pathshala classes at your Jain center? 2. Do you go to the Pathshala? 3. Can you write about what you learned at your last class? 4. Would you tell your friends to come to the classes? 5. What are some things you can do at the Pathshala? 6. What are some things you cannot do in class? Lesson 19 1. Do Jains believe in God? 2. What do other religions say about their Gods? 78 Page #81 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ 3. Do Jains believe God is the creator of the universe? 4. What are some different names for Jain Gods? 5. What does Arihanta mean? 6. What are our inner enemies? 7. Can anyone be an Arihanta? 8. Who is a Lord Siddha? Lesson 20 1. Who was Lord Mahavira? 2. What were his parents names? 3. How old was he when he became a monk? 4. For how many years did he perform austerity and meditation? 5. How old was he when he became a Tirthankar? 6. What are the four different parts of the Jain Sangh? 7. How old was Mahavira when he attained Nirvāna? 8. How many years ago did Mahavira attain Nirvāna? Lesson 21 1. Who was Kapil? 2. What happened to him while he was studying? 3. Why did the policeman arrest him? 4. What did he tell the king? 5. Why did Kapil not ask for anything? 6. What is the supreme wealth? 79 Page #82 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ Lesson 22 1. What were the students learning at the dormitory? 2. What did the students do when the king offered them food? 3. Why didn't the students hide the necklace? 4. What did the king think about his life compared to the life of the students? Lesson 23 1. Why did Anil and Rita fight? 2. What did Anil and Rita's mother tell them? 3. What does Anekāntvād mean? 4. How does Anekāntvād help us? Lesson 24 1. What does friendship mean? 2. What are some of the things that you can do to make friends? 3. What kind of friends do you not want to have? 4. What are the qualities of a good friend? 80 Page #83 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ im MAKRO Entreprenoncom w ang dan ingwin L ng A WNIN NOW JUD EX INLY h . PCSO AR, ! N.. .. UW TET KI Telelos SEWEK li 03 are ac Page #84 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ________________ KNOWLEDGE TRUTH JIV CHARACTER FAITH Jain Education Interational